WorldWideScience

Sample records for asymptomatic oral carriage

  1. Oral Candida spp carriage and periodontal diseases in HIV-infected patients in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Alan Grupioni; Ribeiro, Ana Elisa Rodrigues Alves; Nakao, Cristiano; Motta, Ana Carolina Fragoso; Antonio, Luana Grupioni Lourenço; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Komesu, Marilena Chinali

    2017-06-01

    The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease. Candida spp carriage and classification were performed in oral rinse samples. Viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+L) counts were performed in blood samples from HIV-infected patients. No differences in Candida spp prevalence related to HIV status or periodontal condition were detected. However, Candida spp carriage was increased in periodontally affected HIV-infected patients when compared to periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients (p= 0.04). Periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients presented Candida spp carriage in similar levels as healthy or periodontally affected non-HIV-infected patients. Candida spp carriage was correlated with CD4+L counting in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that periodontal disease is associated with increased Candida spp carriage in HIV-infected patients and may be a predisposing factor to clinical manifestations of candidiasis.

  2. Candida species in patients with oral dysesthesia: a comparison of carriage among oral disease states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Camile S; Amos, Kate; Leeson, Rachel; Porter, Stephen

    2018-01-02

    Oral dysesthesia (burning mouth syndrome) is characterised by a burning-like sensation of the oral mucosa. The aetiology of this disorder is still unknown, however associations with oral fungal carriage have been proposed and applied clinically. The aim of the this study was to compare oral Candida carriage in patients with oral dysesthesia with Candida carriage in patients with other commonly diagnosed oral diseases to clarify the relationship between Candida and oral dysesthesia. 441 patients in total including 79 patients diagnosed with oral dysesthesia were included in this study. A retrospective analysis of mycological investigations undertaken in patients with clinically diagnosed oral dysesthesia compared with other oral conditions was undertaken. Oral carriage of Candida was found in 63.3% (50 of 79) of patients with oral dysesthesia. The frequency of carriage, and oral load of Candida were not significantly increased in patients with oral dysesthesia relative to the other conditions assessed. Patients with clinical signs of fungal infection or xerostomia presented with increased carriage of Candida. There is no association between oral dysesthesia and the presence or load of oral Candida. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Low frequency of asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in an acute care geriatric hospital: prospective cohort study in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pires

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Clostridium difficile (TCD in nosocomial cross-transmission remains debatable. Moreover, its relevance in the elderly has been sparsely studied. Objectives To assess asymptomatic TCD carriage in an acute care geriatric population. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study at the 296-bed geriatric hospital of the Geneva University Hospitals. We consecutively recruited all patients admitted to two 15-bed acute-care wards. Patients with C. difficile infection (CDI or diarrhoea at admission were excluded. First bowel movement after admission and every two weeks thereafter were sampled. C. difficile toxin B gene was identified using real-time polymerase chain-reaction (BD MAXTMCdiff. Asymptomatic TCD carriage was defined by the presence of the C. difficile toxin B gene without diarrhoea. Results A total of 102 patients were admitted between March and June 2015. Two patients were excluded. Among the 100 patients included in the study, 63 were hospitalized and 1 had CDI in the previous year, and 36 were exposed to systemic antibiotics within 90 days prior to admission. Overall, 199 stool samples were collected (median 2 per patient, IQR 1-3. Asymptomatic TCD carriage was identified in two patients (2 %. Conclusions We found a low prevalence of asymptomatic TCD carriage in a geriatric population frequently exposed to antibiotics and healthcare. Our findings suggest that asymptomatic TCD carriage might contribute only marginally to nosocomial TCD cross-transmission in our and similar healthcare settings.

  4. Murine Vaginal Colonization Model for Investigating Asymptomatic Mucosal Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael E.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    While many virulence factors promoting Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease have been described, specific streptococcal factors and host properties influencing asymptomatic mucosal carriage remain uncertain. To address the need for a refined model of prolonged S. pyogenes asymptomatic mucosal colonization, we have adapted a preestrogenized murine vaginal colonization model for S. pyogenes. In this model, derivatives of strains HSC5, SF370, JRS4, NZ131, and MEW123 established a reproducible, asymptomatic colonization of the vaginal mucosa over a period of typically 3 to 4 weeks' duration at a relatively high colonization efficiency. Prior treatment with estradiol prolonged streptococcal colonization and was associated with reduced inflammation in the colonized vaginal epithelium as well as a decreased leukocyte presence in vaginal fluid compared to the levels of inflammation and leukocyte presence in non-estradiol-treated control mice. The utility of our model for investigating S. pyogenes factors contributing to mucosal carriage was verified, as a mutant with a mutation in the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) demonstrated significant impairment in vaginal colonization. An assessment of in vivo transcriptional activity in the CcpA− strain for several known CcpA-regulated genes identified significantly elevated transcription of lactate oxidase (lctO) correlating with excessive generation of hydrogen peroxide to self-lethal levels. Deletion of lctO did not impair colonization, but deletion of lctO in a CcpA− strain prolonged carriage, exceeding even that of the wild-type strain. Thus, while LctO is not essential for vaginal colonization, its dysregulation is deleterious, highlighting the critical role of CcpA in promoting mucosal colonization. The vaginal colonization model should prove effective for future analyses of S. pyogenes mucosal colonization. PMID:23460515

  5. Substantial asymptomatic submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage during dry season in low transmission areas in Senegal: Implications for malaria control and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Makhtar; Thiam, Laty Gaye; Sane, Rokhaya; Diagne, Nafissatou; Talla, Cheikh; Doucoure, Souleymane; Faye, Joseph; Diop, Fode; Badiane, Abdoulaye; Diouf, Babacar; Camara, Diogop; Diene-Sarr, Fatoumata; Sokhna, Cheikh; Richard, Vincent; Toure-Balde, Aissatou

    2017-01-01

    In the progress towards malaria elimination, the accurate diagnosis of low-density asymptomatic infections is critical. Low-density asymptomatic submicroscopic malaria infections may act as silent reservoirs that maintain low-level residual malaria transmission in the community. Light microscopy, the gold standard in malaria diagnosis lacks the sensitivity to detect low-level parasitaemia. In this study, the presence and prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage were investigated to estimate the parasites reservoir among asymptomatic individuals living in low transmission areas in Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal during the dry season. A total of 2,037 blood samples were collected during cross-sectional surveys prior the malaria transmission season in July 2013 (N = 612), June 2014 (N = 723) and June 2015 (N = 702) from asymptomatic individuals living in Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal. Samples were used to determine the prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage by real time PCR (qPCR) in comparison to microscopy considered as gold standard. The prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage was 3.75% (23/612), 12.44% (90/723) and 6.41% (45/702) in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. No Plasmodium carriage was detected by microscopy in 2013 while microscopy-based prevalence of Plasmodium carriage accounted for only 0.27% (2/723) and 0.14% (1/702) in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for the majority of submicroscopic infections and represented 86.95% (20/23), 81.11% (73/90) and 95.55 (43/45) of infections in 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively. Low-density submicroscopic asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage is common in the study areas during the dry season indicating that traditional measures are insufficient to assess the scale of parasite reservoir when transmission reaches very low level. Control and elimination strategies may wish to consider using molecular methods to identify parasites carriers to guide Mass screening and Treatment

  6. Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage rate post-fecal microbiota transplant is low: a prospective clinical and stool assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, J R; Allegretti, A S; Phelps, E; Xu, H; Kassam, Z; Fischer, M

    2017-11-11

    We aimed to assess the asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage rates following fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). All patients who underwent FMT for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) via colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy between June 2013 and April 2015 and had a minimum of 8-week follow-up post FMT at two tertiary care referral centres were included in the study. Patients were prospectively followed both clinically and with stool assessments for 8 weeks post FMT. Assessments occurred at 1 week and 4 weeks post FMT to assess for failure. Failure was defined as presence of diarrhoeal symptoms and a positive CDI stool test by polymerase chain reaction for toxin gene (PCR) at any time point during the 8-week follow-up period. CDI stool testing using PCR was performed at weeks 1 and 4 post FMT in asymptomatic patients as well. 167 patients were included. Twenty-eight patients (16.7% (28/167)) were FMT failures throughout the 8-week period. At week 1, seven patients had already failed the FMT. Of the remaining 160 patients, 144 were asymptomatic, and among these, 141 were negative for C. difficile toxin gene by PCR. This resulted in an asymptomatic carriage rate of 2.1% (3/144). At week 4, 143 patients had not yet failed FMT. Of these patients 129 patients were asymptomatic and among those, 125 were negative by PCR, resulting in an asymptomatic carriage rate of 3% (3/129). Asymptomatic carriage after FMT is rare. This suggests that testing for cure after FMT in asymptomatic patients is not necessary. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral carriage of yeasts and coliforms in stroke sufferers: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H W; McMillan, A S; McGrath, C; Li, L S W; Samaranayake, L P

    2008-01-01

    To investigate prospectively the qualitative and quantitative changes in oral carriage of yeasts and coliforms in southern Chinese people suffering from stroke. In 56 elderly people suffering from stroke in a rehabilitation unit of a general medical hospital in Hong Kong, oral microbiological sampling using a combined imprint culture, oral rinse approach and clinical assessment was made during the acute stroke phase, on hospital discharge and 6 months later. The oral carriage of yeasts increased significantly during acute stroke (Pcoliform carriage did not. A reduction in oral carriage of yeasts was found on hospital discharge and 6 months later and in coliforms at the 6-month assessment (Pcoliform respectively. Stroke-related difficulty in tooth brushing and denture wearing were associated with higher oral yeast carriage (Pcoliforms in people suffering from stroke is noteworthy by care providers as K. pneumoniae may cause aspiration pneumonia.

  8. Asymptomatic and Submicroscopic Carriage of Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Household and Community Members of Clinical Cases in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Nuin, Nor Afizah; Betson, Martha; Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Anstey, Nicholas M; Yeo, Tsin W; Cox, Jonathan; Ying, Lau Tiek; Drakeley, Chris J

    2016-03-01

    Although asymptomatic carriage of human malaria species has been widely reported, the extent of asymptomatic, submicroscopic Plasmodium knowlesi parasitemia is unknown. In this study, samples were obtained from individuals residing in households or villages of symptomatic malaria cases with the aim of detecting submicroscopic P. knowlesi in this population. Four published molecular assays were used to confirm the presence of P. knowlesi. Latent class analysis revealed that the estimated proportion of asymptomatic individuals was 6.9% (95% confidence interval, 5.6%-8.4%). This study confirms the presence of a substantial number of asymptomatic monoinfections across all age groups; further work is needed to estimate prevalence in the wider community. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Asymptomatic carriage of Clostridium difficile in an Irish continuing care institution for the elderly: prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J; Murphy, C; Twomey, C; Paul Ross, R; Rea, M C; MacSharry, J; Sheil, B; Shanahan, F

    2010-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is an increasing cause of nosocomial diarrhoea and colitis. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic C. difficile carriage in a continuing care institution for the elderly. Stool samples were collected from 100 asymptomatic patients, whose median age was 83 years. Samples were tested for C. difficile using traditional culturing methods, 16s rDNA and 16s-23s intergenic spacer (IGS) rDNA sequencing, and analysed for toxin production and toxin genes. The prevalence of C. difficile carriage was 10/100 (10%) following culture and 16s and IGS sequencing. An additional seven isolates, initially identified as C. difficile, were subsequently identified by IGS rDNA sequencing as C. sordellii of the 10% that tested positive for C. difficile, seven tested positive for toxin A and B. A significant number of C. difficile carriers had recent antibiotic exposure compared with non-carriers, P = 0.046. The prevalence of asymptomatic C. difficile carriage in this institution was 10%, 7% of which were toxin positive. This study underscores the importance of increased vigilance for C. difficile using microbial and molecular methodology and identifies patients at increased risk following antibiotic administration.

  10. [Fecal carriage of third-generation cephalosporins-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in asymptomatic young adults: evolution between 1999 and 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, F; Mérens, A; Delaune, D; Soler, C; Cavallo, J-D

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the fecal carriage of third generation cephalosporins resistant Enterobacteriaceae in nonhospitalized asymptomatic young adults. A total of 517 normal fecal samples were spread onto plates agar containing cefotaxime. Isolated strains were identified and studied with agar disk diffusion antibiogram, minimal inhibition concentration in liquid medium and phenotypic and molecular study. Data were compared with a previous study realised in the same conditions in 1999. In 2009, the prevalence of cefotaxime resistant enterobacteria was 4.2%. Of these 22 Enterobacteriaceae, 11 harboured overexpressed cephalosporinase and 11 produced extended-spectrum-betalactamase (ESBL). Among ESBL, six E. coli produced CTX-M from group 1 (n=6), group 2 (n=1), group 9 (n=2), one E. coli produced SHV-12 and one Klebsiella pneumoniae produced CTX-M from group 1. All ESBL were multiresistant. In 1999, all the CTX resistant isolates recovered produced a cephalosporinase and no ESBL was found. This study highlights the increasing prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-producing enterobacteria in asymptomatic young patients in the community (0% in 1999 versus 2.1% in 2009; P<0.001). E. Coli with CTX-M from group 1 was the most frequent ESBL identified, while fecal carriage of Enterobacteteriaceae overproducing cephalosporinase was similar (2.1%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Rare emergence of symptoms during long-term asymptomatic Escherichia coli 83972 carriage without an altered virulence factor repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köves, Béla; Salvador, Ellaine; Grönberg-Hernández, Jenny; Zdziarski, Jaroslaw; Wullt, Björn; Svanborg, Catharina; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2014-02-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria established by intravesical inoculation of Escherichia coli 83972 is protective in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. In this randomized, controlled crossover study a total of 3 symptomatic urinary tract infection episodes developed in 2 patients while they carried E. coli 83972. We examined whether virulence reacquisition by symptom isolates may account for the switch from asymptomatic bacteriuria to symptomatic urinary tract infection. We used E. coli 83972 re-isolates from 2 patients in a prospective study and from another 2 in whom symptoms developed after study completion. We phylogenetically classified the re-isolates, and identified the genomic restriction patterns and gene expression profiles as well as virulence gene structure and phenotypes. In vivo virulence was examined in the murine urinary tract infection model. The fim, pap, foc, hlyA, fyuA, iuc, iroN, kpsMT K5 and malX genotypes of the symptomatic re-isolates remained unchanged. Bacterial gene expression profiles of flagellated symptomatic re-isolates were unique to each host, providing no evidence of common deregulation. Symptomatic isolates did not differ in virulence from the wild-type strain, as defined in the murine urinary tract infection model by persistence, symptoms or innate immune activation. The switch from asymptomatic E. coli 83972 carriage to symptomatic urinary tract infection was not explained by reversion to a functional virulence gene repertoire. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Faecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in asymptomatic nursery children in Lower Saxony (Germany), 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, M; Dreesman, J; Rettenbacher-Riefler, S; Mertens, E

    2016-09-09

    Children may be at higher risk for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria because of higher usage of antimicrobials. They also have higher rates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections than other population groups. Some infections, particularly in children, are asymptomatic, but still lead to the excretion of large numbers of bacteria and viruses that may cause clinical disease in other individuals. That is one reason why, in Lower Saxony as in other German federal states - asymptomatic carriers of STEC are excluded from nurseries and schools until three consecutive stool samples test negative in order to prevent secondary cases. The prevalence of children who are asymptomatic STEC carriers is unknown. But if it is high, this measure would have substantial socioeconomic effects on families. Infections with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are an increasing problem for public health, especially for hospitals. However, there are no reliable estimates of the prevalence of asymptomatic ESBL-E carriers in Lower Saxony, as there is no mandatory requirement to report these carriers. In order to discuss the exclusion policies for children attending nurseries and ascertain a baseline of ESBL-E carriers, we conducted a cross-sectional study. The aim was to determine the prevalence of ESBL-E and STEC and identify risk factors for carriage in nursery children without diarrhoea (asymptomatic) aged 0-6 years in four selected districts in Northern Germany. During April-September 2014, we collected stool specimens with the support of voluntarily participating nurseries. We tested for STEC by PCR and for ESBL-E on chromogenic agar. Questionnaires answered by parents contained data on eating and drinking habits, outdoor activities, prior antibiotic treatment and animal contact for each participating child. We compared the epidemiological characteristics of ESBL-E carriers vs. non-carriers by using univariable analysis (P

  13. Detection of asymptomatic oropharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes using two diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vasco

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Finding the bacterium S. pyogenes among asymptomatic medical students is a warning sign of a potential infection. The comparison of the diagnostic methods for detection showed that the findings validate the use of the culture over Strep-A, if estimating the presence of carriers of said agent is desired.

  14. Association of oral yeast carriage with specific host factors and altered mouth sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Chika; Kuriyama, Tomoari; Williams, David W; Karasawa, Tadahiro; Inoue, Katsumi; Nakagawa, Kiyomasa; Yamamoto, Etsuhide

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if there was a significant association between the presence of altered mouth and taste sensations with oral carriage of yeasts and to assess the factors that influence the yeast carriage. The oral and dental status including unstimulated (USFR) and stimulated (SSFR) whole salivary flow rates of a total of 509 subjects was recorded. Saliva specimens were collected for microbiologic examination. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify any factors that were significantly associated with the prevalence of oral yeasts. Old age, clinical signs of oral dryness, denture wearing, and a reduction in USFR increased the prevalence of yeasts, whereas patient gender, levels of dentition, the sensation of dry or burning mouth, taste disorders, and SSFR were not associated with increased prevalence of oral yeasts. An increased prevalence of oral yeasts was not found to relate to changes in mouth sensation alone. Other factors, most notably patient age, the wearing of dentures, clinical signs of oral dryness, and salivary flow rate under rest conditions, were, however, found to be closely associated with oral yeast carriage.

  15. The relationship between mucosal immunity, nasopharyngeal carriage, asymptomatic transmission and the resurgence of Bordetella pertussis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gill

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of whooping cough in the US has been rising slowly since the 1970s, but the pace of this has accelerated sharply since acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the earlier whole cell vaccines in the late 1990s. A similar trend occurred in many other countries, including the UK, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and Spain, following the switch to acellular vaccines. The key question is why. Two leading theories (short duration of protective immunologic persistence and evolutionary shifts in the pathogen to evade the vaccine explain some but not all of these shifts, suggesting that other factors may also be important. In this synthesis, we argue that sterilizing mucosal immunity that blocks or abbreviates the duration of nasopharyngeal carriage of Bordetella pertussis and impedes person-to-person transmission (including between asymptomatically infected individuals is a critical factor in this dynamic. Moreover, we argue that the ability to induce such mucosal immunity is fundamentally what distinguishes whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines and may be pivotal to understanding much of the resurgence of this disease in many countries that adopted acellular vaccines. Additionally, we offer the hypothesis that observed herd effects generated by acellular vaccines may reflect a modification of disease presentation leading to reduced potential for transmission by those already infected, as opposed to inducing resistance to infection among those who have been exposed.

  16. Influence of nail biting and finger sucking habits on the oral carriage of Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz G Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral habits like thumb sucking and nail biting are pernicious habits that act as an adaptive function in obtaining pleasure and subduing anxiety. These habits may also act as carriers of numerous microorganisms into the oral cavity, of which, Enterobacteriaceae members are transient pathogens, which might result in debilitating systemic conditions. Aim: To study the oral carriage of Enterobacteriaceae in children having habit of nail biting and thumb sucking. And to study the association of the organism with the individual′s respective plaque indices. Subjects and Methods: Totally, 40 chronic nail biters, 40 chronic thumb suckers, and 20 controls (no habit (8-15 years old were enrolled in the study. Appropriate history and their plaque indices recorded. Sterile containers were used to collect the salivary samples and later cultured on Agar plates. Biochemical tests categorized the organisms into subspecies. Statistical Analysis Used: ANNOVA, Student′s t-test. Results: Presence of a nail biting habit indicated a higher plaque index, which in turn showed a higher carriage of Enterobacteria spps, predominantly Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Oral surgical intervention in individuals with pernicious oral habits need to be counseled and educated on the possible complications, which might otherwise provide an environment that disseminates these microorganisms resulting in a broad range of local and systemic infections.

  17. Alcohol and tobacco consumption affect the oral carriage of Candida albicans and mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, C C; Makda, K; Dilmahomed, Z; González, R; Luzi, A; Jovani-Sancho, M Del M; Veses, V

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a relationship between the consumption of alcohol and tobacco and oral colonization by mutans streptococci and Candida species. Subjects were recruited from the University Dental Clinic of CEU Cardenal Herrera University (Moncada, Valencia). Information on alcohol and tobacco consumption was obtained by questionnaire. Individual stimulated saliva samples from 105 patients were obtained and selective media was used to isolate and quantify mutans streptococci and Candida spp. colony forming units per millilitre of saliva (CFU ml(-1) ). Samples were stratified by duration and quantity of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Alcohol consumption statistically significantly decreased oral carriage of mutans streptococci, whereas there was no effect on Candida albicans colonization levels. Tobacco users were found to harbour elevated levels of C. albicans; however, there was no observed effect on bacterial colonization by mutans streptococci. The carriage of other species investigated, such as Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis and lactobacilli, do not show a response to the consumption of the stimulants analysed. Microbial colonization of the oral cavity changes in a species-specific manner in response to dietary and social habits such as drinking alcohol and smoking. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of alcohol and tobacco consumption on key species of the oral microflora. Our results show species-specific changes in two major opportunistic pathogens, such as Candida albicans and mutans streptococci, whereas other members of oral microflora are not affected by the consumption of the stimulants studied. We believe this original paper will contribute to raise awareness among the dental community towards a more personalized oral health assessment, taking in consideration alcohol and tobacco consumption in the prevention of specific oral and systemic pathologies. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Does asymptomatic carriage of FV Leiden and FII prothrombin mutations in heterozygous configuration pose an increased risk of thrombembolic complications in the course of pregnancy, labor and puerperium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrinkova, Blanka; Binder, Tomas; Hadacova, Ivana; Hrachovinova, Ingrid; Salaj, Peter; Hruda, Martin

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the course of pregnancy and puerperium in asymptomatic carriers of FV Leiden and FII prothrombin mutation in heterozygous configuration in terms of risk of thrombembolic disease (TED) and late pregnancy complications. To evaluate whether global prophylactic LMWH administration during pregnancy benefits these women. We monitored the incidence of thrombembolic events and severe late pregnancy complications in 473 asymptomatic carriers of FV Leiden and FII prothrombin mutation in heterozygous configuration. In 253 women, preventive LMWH application was introduced already during pregnancy. In 220 women, the application of LMWH was commenced as late as on the delivery day. In both groups application of LMWH continued during the puerperium. The incidence of TED in the whole group of carriers of thrombophylic mutations accounted for 0.19%. The incidence of severe late pregnancy complications was low - 2.5% compared with general population of pregnant women (6.4%). No direct causal relationship was established between asymptomatic carriage of Leiden and prothrombin mutation in heterozygous configuration and the occurrence of severe late pregnancy complications. There was no benefit from general LMWH prophylaxis started as early as pregnancy in these women and thus we consider it unnecessary.

  19. Presence of highly oncogenic human papillomavirus in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Ana Paula; Gatto de Almeida, Flávia; Bonin, Camila Mareti; Martins Prata, Thiago Theodoro; Sobrinho Ávilla, Leandro; Junqueira Padovani, Cacilda Tezelli; Teixeira Ferreira, Alda Maria; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Tozetti,Inês Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify highly oncogenic forms of human papillomavirus in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic men. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed samples of exfoliated cells from the oral cavity of 559 asymptomatic men. DNA-human papillomavirus was detected using the consensus primers PGMY09/11; viral genotyping was performed using type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: DNA-human papillomavirus was detected in 1.3% of the s...

  20. Comparison of oral Candida species prevalence and carriage among gutka-chewers and betel-quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Hussain, Mudassir; Adnan, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Javed, Fawad

    2017-03-01

    To compare prevalence and carriage of Candida species among gutka-chewers and betel-quid-chewers. The cross-sectional case-control study was conducted between January and December, 2015 at the Oral Surgery department of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and the Dental department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised oral yeast samples of gutka-chewers, betel-quid-chewers, and non-chewers. A standardised questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and oral hygiene maintenance information. Oral Candida strains were collected, cultured and identified using standard techniques and yeast identification system. In all groups, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was determined. Lesions on the tongue and oral mucosa were clinically investigated and numbers of missing teeth were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the total 185 samples, 50(27%) were from gutka-chewers, 50(27%)betel-quid-chewers, and 85(46%) non-chewers. Oral Candida carriage was comparable among betel-quid-chewers (18 [36%])and gutka-chewers (20 [40%]), but it was significantly higher than the non-chewers (11 [12.9%]) (p0.05). Prevalence and carriage of Candida species were comparable between betel-quid-chewers and gutka-chewers compared to non-chewers.

  1. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satish Kumar; S Padmashree; Rema Jayalekshmi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage...

  2. Meningococcal Neonatal Purulent Conjunctivitis/Sepsis and Asymptomatic Carriage of N. meningitidis in Mother’s Vagina and Both Parents’ Nasopharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Chacon-Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal conjunctivitis is usually associated with vagina’s infection by Chlamydia sp., N. gonorrhoeae, and/or other bacteria during delivery. Meningococcal neonatal conjunctivitis is an extremely rare disease. We report a case of neonatal meningococcal sepsis/conjunctivitis and asymptomatic carriage of N. meningitidis from both parents (vagina and nasopharynx. As part of our active surveillance for meningococcal disease at the Tijuana General Hospital (TGH, Mexico, we identified a 3-day-old newborn with meningococcal conjunctivitis and sepsis. The patient had a one-day history of conjunctivitis and poor feeding. Clinical examination confirmed profuse purulent conjunctival discharge, as well as clinical signs and laboratory findings suggestive of bacteraemia. Gram stain from conjunctival exudate revealed intracellular Gram negative diplococci; we presumed the baby had gonorrheal conjunctivitis; however, serogroup Y, N. meningitidis was isolated both from conjunctival exudate and blood. Additionally, isolation of serogroup Y, N. meningitidis was obtained from mother’s vagina and both parents’ nasopharynx. The baby was treated with 7 days of IV ceftriaxone and discharged with no sequelae.

  3. Salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type II diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashikumar, Radhika; Kannan, Ranganathan

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to detect salivary glucose levels in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and salivary candidal carriage, and to determine if salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool to monitor glycemic control in diabetics. A total of 150 adults, 100 with type 2 diabetes and 50 without diabetes (control subjects), aged 40-60 years, participated in the study. Diabetic status was determined by estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Both unstimulated and stimulated saliva were collected and investigated for glucose levels and colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida. Salivary glucose levels were measured using the glucose-oxidase method. Salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in diabetics than nondiabetics. There was a significant positive correlation between salivary and plasma glucose levels. Candidal CFUs were significantly higher in diabetic subjects and showed a significant positive correlation with salivary (unstimulated and stimulated) glucose levels. These results show that salivary glucose concentration is a potentially useful noninvasive tool to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. Increased salivary glucose is associated with increased prevalence of oral Candida in these subjects. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral Candida Carriage and Morphotype Differentiation in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and without Diabetes in the Indian Sub-Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomathinayagam Venkatesan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the oral Candida carriage and morphotype differentiation of Candida species in chronic periodontitis patients, with and without diabetes mellitus. This cross sectional study included 30 subjects in the age range of 40–60 years, who were divided into two groups: 15 chronic periodontitis only (CP patients, and 15 chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes (CPD. Clinical measurements included plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, probing depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL, and fasting blood sugar level (FBS. The unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected for fungal analysis. Candida carriage was analyzed by measuring colony forming units (CFU following the culture of samples. Qualitative morphotype differentiation of Candida species from yeast to hyphal form was analyzed using Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining. There was no statistically significant difference between CP and CPD groups for the periodontal parameters. However, a significantly higher Candida species CFU count was found in CPD (0.33 ± 0.23 as compared to CP (0.05 ± 0.04 group. This pilot study suggests that the occurrence of Candida species is higher in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes as compared to patients with chronic periodontitis alone.

  5. [Candida carriage in the oral mucosa of a student population: adhesiveness of the strains and predisposing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, M; González, M I; Levin, B; Cuesta, A; Iovanniti, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish oral carriage of Candida and possible factors associated to their virulence in young adults and their relation with local and general situations considered as predisposing factors. Samples were obtained from dorsum tongue in 70 students attending the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Buenos Aires) average age: 23, all in healthy oral conditions. Of these, 21.42% were Candida positive. These samples were seeded in CHROMagar. Candida identification was completed in milk agar and Fungichrom 1. The following species were identified: 11 Candida albicans (C.a), 2 Candida parapsilosis (C.p) and 1 Candida glabrata (C.g). In one case, 2 species (C.a and C.g) were isolated in the same sample. Virulence was determined as adherence capacity by biofilm or in vitro plaque formation and hydrophobicity. Different host factors were analyzed statistically to establish their importance as predisposing factors to allow Candida colonization. Adherence of C.a. was found to be similar in all C.a. strains, whereas significant differences were found between C.a. and C.p. and between C.a. and C.g. Only the antiseptic mouthrinse and the diet were significant among the considered factors.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and the oral cavity: an overlooked source of carriage and infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, M G; Smith, A J; Akram, A N; Jackson, M; Robertson, D; Edwards, G

    2015-01-01

    The role of intraoral Staphylococcus aureus in disease and cross-infection sources is controversial. We present a 10-year retrospective analysis of laboratory data reporting isolation of S aureus from oral and perioral clinical specimens. A review of laboratory records for specimens where S aureus was isolated were collated and analyzed from January 1998-December 2007 at the Oral Microbiology Laboratory, Glasgow Dental Hospital. There were 11,312 specimens submitted to the laboratory over the study time period. S aureus was isolated from 1,986 specimens (18%). Of these, 1,782 (90%) were methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA), and 204 (10%) were methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). The most common specimen type from which MSSA was isolated was an oral rinse, whereas for MRSA this was a tongue swab. Most of the MRSA isolates were EMRSA-15 or EMRSA-16 lineage. These findings suggest that S aureus continues to be a frequent isolate in the oral cavity and perioral region. The oral cavity should be considered a source of S aureus in terms of cross-infection and dissemination to other body sites. The role of S aureus in the pathogenesis of certain oral diseases should also be considered as part of a differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Isha; Moger, Ganapathi; Kumar, N Anil

    2015-01-01

    Ozone is highly valued for various therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic, and immunostimulating for more than a century in the medical profession. Ozone therapy is now gaining a strong foothold in dentistry. Ozone has bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal properties. Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate and compare the ability of ozonated water and topical clotrimazole in reducing the Candidal species colony-forming unit (CFU) count in oral candidiasis. The study included 40 candidiasis patients of either sex aged between 18 and 60 years attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The patients were randomly assigned to either topical ozone therapy or topical clotrimazole groups. Salivary Candidal CFU counts were assessed during and after the treatments. There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction) was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction). 14 patients (70%) with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30%) whereas only 8 patients (40%) out of 13 (65%) in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  8. A comparative study of oral candidal species carriage in patients with type1 and type2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Mangesh P; Puranik, Rudrayya S; Vanaki, Shrinivas S; Puranik, Surekha R; Shetty, Pushparaja; Shenoy, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Context: Diabetes mellitus can have profound effects upon the oral tissues especially in patients with poor glycemic control being prone to severe and/or recurrent infections particularly candidiasis. The main aim was to study the association between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus and candidal carriage. Materials and Methods: The study design comprised of previously diagnosed 30 patients each with type 1 diabetes mellitus (Group A) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Group B) and 30 age-, sex- and dental status-matched healthy non-diabetic individuals as controls (Group C). The saliva samples were collected and inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and chromogenic agar culture medium. Candidal colony forming units per ml (CFU/ml) values were determined. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by χ2 test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman's rank correlation and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Data analysis showed statistically significant higher positive candidal growth in Group A and Group B when compared to Group C. The CFU/ml values were significantly higher in Groups A and B as compared with Group C. Significant positive correlation of CFU/ml with fasting blood sugar level and HbA1c% in both Groups A and B was seen. Oral signs and symptoms observed in diabetics were dry mouth, burning sensation, fissuring and atrophic changes of tongue and erythematous areas, which positively correlated with candidal load. Conclusion: The glycemic control status of the diabetic patients may directly influence candidal colonization. The quantitative and biochemical characterization allows better insight into the study of association of diabetes mellitus and candida. PMID:25364182

  9. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management.

  10. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Padmashree, S; Jayalekshmi, Rema

    2014-07-01

    To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. THE STUDY POPULATION CONSISTED OF THREE GROUPS: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management.

  11. Oral Candidal Carriage in Subjects with Pure Vegetarian and Mixed Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Raj, A Thirumal; Sanketh, D S; Sarode, Sachin; Sarode, Gargi

    2017-07-01

    Candida albicans being a part of the normal oral microbial flora is one of the most commonly isolated species from the oral cavity. Recent studies have shown a steady rise in the number of non C. albicans species, which are relatively resistant to common antifungal agents and are being recognized as potential pathogens. It is vital to ascertain the predisposing factors leading to such a shift in the oral candidal flora. To estimate the prevalence of candidal species among vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Clinical data including age, gender, and diet preference of 238 participants were noted. Participants with a history of systemic disorders, oral prosthesis, salivary gland disorders and habits such as smoking, alcoholism, and tobacco usage were excluded from the study. The participants were asked to gargle a 10 ml solution of phosphate buffered saline for one minute before depositing the same in a sterile container. The samples were cultured using Hicrome agar media. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software) version 10.5 and differences between individual groups were tested by Chi-square test. Among 238 samples, 127 (53.3%) samples were positive for Candida . The candidal prevalence in vegetarians (68.5%) was higher than non-vegetarians (40.7%). C. albicans was the most common species to be isolated in both vegetarians (35.1%) and non-vegetarians (39.2%). Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis showed a higher prevalence in vegetarians (30.5% and 10.1%, respectively) in comparison to non-vegetarians (8.4% and 2.3%, respectively). Candida krusei was isolated only from vegetarians (4.6%). Results indicate that diet plays a major role in oral candidal prevalence and species specificity which in turn may predispose the vegetarians toward these pathogenic organisms.

  12. The Oral Carriage of Candida in Oral Cancer Patients of Indian Origin Undergoing Radiotherapy and/or Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manish; Shah, Raksha; Chandolia, Betina; Mathur, Ayush; Chauhan, Yashwant; Chawda, Jyoti; Mosby, Siddarth; Bhagalia, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer is a challenging disease in Indian subcontinent because of increased use of tobacco and associated products. Although surgery is the main treatment modality, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) are employed in inaccessible cases. Both RT & CT will result in painful and debilitating adverse effects in oral cavity e.g., mucositis, ulceration, dysgeusia, xerostomia and opportunistic infections. One of the most common opportunistic infection is caused by fungus Candida. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of oral colonization of Candida species with differentiation between carrier and infective state of the organism. We also investigate the effect of treatment modality (RT and CT) on the incidence of Candida, in oral cancer patients, undergoing RT and/or CT, in order to prevent and treat the Candida infection in a better way. It was a cross-sectional case-control study; done in Gujarat, India. Fifty patients of oral cancer undergoing RT, CT alone or combined were investigated and compared with the healthy controls. The samples were collected from mid-dorsum of tongue by using imprint culture technique. The samples were inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium and the organisms were identified by wet mount, germ tube test, chlamydospore formation and sugar fermentation tests. There was significant increase in oral Candida colonization from 20% in healthy controls to 70% in oral cancer patients undergoing RT and/or CT (p = 0.001, < 0.05). A significant increase in infective state of Candida (71.4%) was noted (p = 0.001, < 0.05) with predominance of non-albicans species of Candida, chiefly C. tropicalis (42.8%). RT and CT leads to increased oral colonization and infection by Candida with a shift towards growth of non-albicans species. As the pattern of candidal species infection is changing, such studies are important for better diagnosis and treatment planning to gain good control over the disease.

  13. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction. 14 patients (70% with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30% whereas only 8 patients (40% out of 13 (65% in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  14. Oral reading fluency analysis in patients with Alzheimer disease and asymptomatic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; García-Sevilla, J; Carro, J; Arana, J M

    2013-01-01

    Many studies highlight that an impaired ability to communicate is one of the key clinical features of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study temporal organisation of speech in an oral reading task in patients with AD and in matched healthy controls using a semi-automatic method, and evaluate that method's ability to discriminate between the 2 groups. A test with an oral reading task was administered to 70 subjects, comprising 35 AD patients and 35 controls. Before speech samples were recorded, participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. There were no differences between groups with regard to age, sex, or educational level. All of the study variables showed impairment in the AD group. According to the results, AD patients' oral reading was marked by reduced speech and articulation rates, low effectiveness of phonation time, and increases in the number and proportion of pauses. Signal processing algorithms applied to reading fluency recordings were shown to be capable of differentiating between AD patients and controls with an accuracy of 80% (specificity 74.2%, sensitivity 77.1%) based on speech rate. Analysis of oral reading fluency may be useful as a tool for the objective study and quantification of speech deficits in AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Salivary lactoferrin in HIV-infected children: correlation with Candida albicans carriage, oral manifestations, HIV infection and its antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais Pinto; Simões, Ana Clara Duarte Correa; Soares, Rosangela Maria de Araújo; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Castro, Gloria Fernanda Barbosa de Araújo

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of lactoferrin in the saliva of HIV infected and healthy children and analyze the associations between lactoferrin levels, Candida sp. colonization, oral manifestations and medical data. Also, the antifungal ability of lactoferrin to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans isolated from saliva of these children was investigated in vitro. Saliva was collected from 70 HIV-infected and 50 healthy children, followed by oral manifestation assessments. The salivary lactoferrin was quantified using an ELISA Kit. The salivary samples were cultured and the Candida spp. colonies counted and then identified by sugar assimilation and fermentation. The antifungal activity of lactoferrin was analyzed in vitro with 10 isolates of C. albicans from each group. The HIV infected children (mean age 9.8 ± 2.8) had higher lactoferrin levels (median 6.13 μg/ml (3.58-7.89)) and were colonized three times more by Candida sp. than the control group (mean age 9.4 ± 2.4) (median 5.74 μg/ml (3.12-6.86)) (p=0.003). Statistical associations were found considering the salivary lactoferrin levels and Candida sp. and oral manifestations between the groups. No associations between lactoferrin concentrations and oral manifestations, immunosuppression, presence of AIDS and use of HAART were observed in the HIV group. The percentage of dead C. albicans due to lactoferrin was inversely proportional to C. albicans cell density for both groups (plactoferrin and it was associated with Candida sp. colonization but no association with medical data was found. Also, both groups showed similar lactoferrin antifungal activity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Carriage of sub-microscopic sexual and asexual Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. Background: We investigated the prevalence of sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections and gameto- cyte carriage in asymptomatic individuals in Navrongo in northern Ghana, an area of seasonal malaria transmission. Design: A cross sectional study of 209 randomly selected participants of all ...

  17. Helicobacter pylori carriage among adult Nigerian subjects without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:H.Pylori bacteria has a world wide distribution. It is implicated in the aetiology of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Population screening may have significant clinical import. Objective: To determine the frequency of H.pylori carriage and associated social demographic factors in asymptomatic patients and ...

  18. Carriage of sub-microscopic sexual and asexual Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carriage of sub-microscopic sexual and asexual Plasmodium falciparum stages in the dry season at Navrongo, Ghana. ... infections and therefore the need for active case detection surveillance to eliminate "asymptomatic reservoir" parasites and consequently break the transmission of the disease in Ghana. Funding: Bill ...

  19. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Yezli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal disease is a serious public health threat, especially during mass gatherings such as Hajj and Umrah which provide optimal conditions for disease transmission. The disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis and transmitted mainly via asymptomatic carriers. A review of the literature on asymptomatic N. meningitidis carriage among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims and their household contacts was performed. Carriage studies reported carriage rates to be higher in Hajj pilgrims compared to Umrah pilgrims and that these events promote acquisition of carriage among pilgrims. With some outliers, most studies found carriage rates among pilgrims to be comparable to those in populations under non-epidemic settings. However, these results should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the limitations within the studies identified. A wide variety of N. meningitidis serogroups appear to be circulating among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims, with serogroups W135 and B being most prominent. Current Hajj and Umrah meningococcal disease preventative measures do not necessarily prevent carriage and transmission, which may result in local and international outbreaks among susceptible populations. Monitoring carriage states of visitors and local inhabitants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as well as the implementation of preventive measures that impact carriage, are warranted to reduce the risk of Hajj and Umrah-related meningococcal disease outbreaks.

  20. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezli, Saber; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A

    2016-06-01

    Meningococcal disease is a serious public health threat, especially during mass gatherings such as Hajj and Umrah which provide optimal conditions for disease transmission. The disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis and transmitted mainly via asymptomatic carriers. A review of the literature on asymptomatic N. meningitidis carriage among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims and their household contacts was performed. Carriage studies reported carriage rates to be higher in Hajj pilgrims compared to Umrah pilgrims and that these events promote acquisition of carriage among pilgrims. With some outliers, most studies found carriage rates among pilgrims to be comparable to those in populations under non-epidemic settings. However, these results should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the limitations within the studies identified. A wide variety of N. meningitidis serogroups appear to be circulating among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims, with serogroups W135 and B being most prominent. Current Hajj and Umrah meningococcal disease preventative measures do not necessarily prevent carriage and transmission, which may result in local and international outbreaks among susceptible populations. Monitoring carriage states of visitors and local inhabitants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as well as the implementation of preventive measures that impact carriage, are warranted to reduce the risk of Hajj and Umrah-related meningococcal disease outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Asymptomatic colonization of upper respiratory tract by potential bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Rupak; Sujatha, S; Parija, S C; Bhat, B V

    2010-07-01

    To screen for asymptomatic respiratory carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and Group A Streptococcus (GAS) in children attending JIPMER, correlate carriage rate with different socio-demographic factors and to detect antimicrobial resistance among the isolates. Throat swabs were collected from both in patients and out patients (1 organism. Antibiotic resistance was highest in S. pneumoniae with 66.7% of strains resistant to penicillin. MDR strains were also encountered. Erythromycin resistance was observed in both H. influenzae (28.4%) and GAS (22%). No statistically significant association was found between the carriage rate of these organisms and different socio-demographic factors. S. pneumoniae carriage rate was comparatively higher in the Community and its antimicrobial resistance is an issue to address.

  2. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Carriage State among Elderly Nursing Home Residents in Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Jallad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae can cause severe infections, but they are also isolated from the stool of asymptomatic subjects. Faecal carriage of such organism is poorly understood. Methods. First phase of the study was cross-sectional with prevalence and epidemiology of ESBL faecal carriage in two nursing homes in Beirut: 57 residents in the first (NH1 and 151 residents in the second (NH2. In second phase, faecal swabs from cohort of NH1 residents were examined for carriage at six-week intervals over three-month period. Residents’ charts were reviewed to assess carriage risk factors. Results. Over 3 consecutive samplings at NH1, 81% of residents were at least one-time carriers with 50% at the first round, 60.4% at the second, and 74.5% at the last one. At NH2, 68.2% of residents were carriers. Constipation (in NH1 and antibiotic intake (in NH2 were significantly associated with higher ESBL faecal carriage while the length of stay at the nursing home (in NH2 was associated with less carriage. Conclusion. Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is high among nursing home patients in Beirut. The rate of carriage changes rapidly and significantly over time either with multiple factors playing a possible role like outbreak spreading, antibiotic, and health care system exposure.

  3. Asymptomatic dystrophinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Florence (Italy); Hoffman, E.P.; Hoop, R.C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-31

    A 4-year-old girl was referred for evaluation for a mild but persistent serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation detected incidentally during routine blood screening for a skin infection. Serum creatine kinase activity was found to be increased. Immuno-histochemical study for dystrophin in her muscle biopsy showed results consistent with a carrier state for muscular dystrophy. Molecular work-up showed the proposita to be a carrier of a deletion mutation of exon 48 of the dystrophin gene. Four male relatives also had the deletion mutation, yet showed no clinical symptoms of muscular dystrophy (age range 8-58 yrs). Linkage analysis of the dystrophin gene in the family showed a spontaneous change of an STR45 allele, which could be due to either an intragenic double recombination event, or CA repeat length mutation leading to identical size alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an asymptomatic dystrophinopathy in multiple males of advanced age. Based on molecular findings, this family would be given a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. This diagnosis implies the development of clinical symptoms, even though this family is clearly asymptomatic. This report underscores the caution which must be exercised when giving presymptomatic diagnoses based on molecular studies. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chong Seng; Yin, Chow Suet; Bakar, Afra Abu; Sakewi, Zamberi; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Jamal, Farida; Othman, Norlijah

    2006-12-01

    Data on the carriage rate and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus strains prevalent in the community are not available for many developing countries including Malaysia. To estimate the extent of community S. aureus transmission, in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization in a population of healthy adults was determined. Factors associated with S. aureus nasal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the isolates were also analyzed. A cross-sectional study involving 346 adults was conducted. Nasal swabs were examined for the presence of S. aureus. Epidemiological information concerning risk factors for nasal carriage was also obtained. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. MRSA strains isolated were further subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 23.4%. The findings also revealed that ex-smokers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-6.32, p=0.033) and oral contraceptive users (95% CI 1.12-21.67, p=0.035) were more likely to harbor S. aureus. One person was colonized with MRSA, which was different from the hospital strain. MRSA nasal colonization was found to be low outside of the health care environment. Smokers and oral contraceptive users have high nasal carrier rates.

  5. Pulmonary Performance In Asymptomatic Young Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary Performance In Asymptomatic Young Nigerian Population Following The Administration Of Ascorbic Acid And Salbutamol. ... Ascorbic acid was given orally at a dose of 1.50 mg /kg body weight; and salbutamol at a dose of 70 μg/kg body weight, orally. Measurements ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njps.v19i1.32635.

  6. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Asymptomatic Malaria: Bridging the Gap Between Annual Malaria Resurgences in a Sahelian Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Drissa; Travassos, Mark A; Tolo, Youssouf; Laurens, Matthew B; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Traore, Karim; Sissoko, Mody; Niangaly, Amadou; Diarra, Issa; Daou, Modibo; Guindo, Boureima; Rebaudet, Stanislas; Kouriba, Bourema; Dessay, Nadine; Piarroux, Renaud; Plowe, Christopher V; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Thera, Mahamadou A; Gaudart, Jean

    2017-12-01

    In areas of seasonal malaria transmission, the incidence rate of malaria infection is presumed to be near zero at the end of the dry season. Asymptomatic individuals may constitute a major parasite reservoir during this time. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of clinical malaria and asymptomatic parasitemia over time in a Malian town to highlight these malaria transmission dynamics. For a cohort of 300 rural children followed over 2009-2014, periodicity and phase shift between malaria and rainfall were determined by spectral analysis. Spatial risk clusters of clinical episodes or carriage were identified. A nested-case-control study was conducted to assess the parasite carriage factors. Malaria infection persisted over the entire year with seasonal peaks. High transmission periods began 2-3 months after the rains began. A cluster with a low risk of clinical malaria in the town center persisted in high and low transmission periods. Throughout 2009-2014, cluster locations did not vary from year to year. Asymptomatic and gametocyte carriage were persistent, even during low transmission periods. For high transmission periods, the ratio of asymptomatic to clinical cases was approximately 0.5, but was five times higher during low transmission periods. Clinical episodes at previous high transmission periods were a protective factor for asymptomatic carriage, but carrying parasites without symptoms at a previous high transmission period was a risk factor for asymptomatic carriage. Stable malaria transmission was associated with sustained asymptomatic carriage during dry seasons. Control strategies should target persistent low-level parasitemia clusters to interrupt transmission.

  7. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  8. A reservoir of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in asymptomatic hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G Perron

    Full Text Available The population genetics of pathogenic bacteria has been intensively studied in order to understand the spread of disease and the evolution of virulence and drug resistance. However, much less attention has been paid to bacterial carriage populations, which inhabit hosts without producing disease. Since new virulent strains that cause disease can be recruited from the carriage population of bacteria, our understanding of infectious disease is seriously incomplete without knowledge on the population structure of pathogenic bacteria living in an asymptomatic host. We report the first extensive survey of the abundance and diversity of a human pathogen in asymptomatic animal hosts. We have found that asymptomatic swine from livestock productions frequently carry populations of Salmonella enterica with a broad range of drug-resistant strains and genetic diversity greatly exceeding that previously described. This study shows how agricultural practice and human intervention may lead and influence the evolution of a hidden reservoir of pathogens, with important implications for human health.

  9. Short-term oral treatment with the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan does not improve coronary vasomotor function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Tarnow, Lise

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously found that acute intravenous infusion of an ACE inhibitor normalized the reduced coronary vasomotor function in type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to extend this investigation to an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) administered orally in normoten...... with an ARB did not normalize coronary vasomotor function in type 2 diabetes patients without cardiovascular disease.......BACKGROUND: We have previously found that acute intravenous infusion of an ACE inhibitor normalized the reduced coronary vasomotor function in type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to extend this investigation to an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) administered orally...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Surgical personnel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common causes of both community and hospital acquired bacterial infection. There is strong correlation between S aureus nasal carriage and disease progress. Nasal carriage is high among health care workers. Inappropriate usage of antibiotic may

  11. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for invasive S. aureus infections in various population including children. The extent of S. aureus carriage in Sierra Leonean children is largely unknown. To determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of nasal S.

  12. 46 CFR 154.702 - Refrigerated carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigerated carriage. 154.702 Section 154.702 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.702 Refrigerated carriage. (a) Each refrigeration system must: (1...

  13. Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Shonni J.; Walker, Marcella D.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical profile of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) as it is seen in the United States and most Western countries has evolved significantly over the past half century. The introduction of the multichannel serum autoanalyzer in the 1970s led to the recognition of a cohort of individuals with asymptomatic hypercalcemia, in whom evaluation led to the diagnosis of PHPT. The term “asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism” was introduced to describe patients who lack obvious signs and symptoms referable to either excess calcium or parathyroid hormone. Although it was expected that asymptomatic patients would eventually develop classical symptoms of PHPT, observational data suggest that most patients do not evolve over time to become overtly symptomatic. In most parts of the world, the asymptomatic phenotype of PHPT has replaced classical PHPT. This report is a selective review of data on asymptomatic PHPT: its demographic features, presentation and natural history, as well as biochemical, skeletal, neuromuscular, psychological, and cardiovascular manifestations. In addition, we will summarize available information on treatment indications and options for those with asymptomatic disease. PMID:23374736

  14. A cluster randomised controlled trial in primary dental care based intervention to improve professional performance on routine oral examinations and the management of asymptomatic impacted third molars: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grol Richard PTM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine oral examination (ROE refers to periodic monitoring of the general and oral health status of patients. In most developed Western countries a decreasing prevalence of oral diseases underpins the need for a more individualised approach in assigning individualised recall intervals for regular attendees instead of systematic fixed intervals. From a quality-of-care perspective, the effectiveness of the widespread prophylactic removal of mandibular impacted asymptomatic third molars (MIM in adolescents and adults is also questionable. Data on the effectiveness of appropriate interventions to tackle such problems, and for promoting continuing professional development in oral health care are rare. Methods/design This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial with groups of GDPs as the unit of randomisation. The aim is to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of small group quality improvement on professional decision-making of general dental practitioners (GDPs in daily practice. Six peer groups ('IQual-groups' shall be randomised either to the intervention arm I or arm II. Groups of GDPs allocated to either of these arms act as each other's control group. An IQual peer group consists of eight to ten GDPs who meet in monthly structured sessions scheduled for discussion on practice-related topics. GDPs in both trial arms receive recently developed evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG on ROE or MIM. The implementation strategy consists of one interactive IQual group meeting of two to three hours. In addition, both groups of GDPs receive feedback on personal and group characteristics, and are invited to make use of web-based patient risk vignettes for further individual training on risk assessment policy. Reminders (flow charts will be sent by mail several weeks after the meeting. The main outcome measure for the ROE intervention arm is the use and appropriateness of individualised risk assessment in

  15. Quantity of Candida Colonies in Saliva: 
A Diagnostic Evaluation for Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei Ru; Hua, Hong; Liu, Xiao Song

    To investigate the relationship between the quantity of Candida colonies in saliva and oral candidiasis (OC), as well as to identify the threshold for distinguishing oral candidiasis from healthy carriage. A diagnostic test was conducted in 197 patients with different oral problems. The diagnosis of OC was established based on clinical features. Whole saliva samples from the subjects were cultured for Candida species. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used in this study. OC patients had significantly more Candida colony-forming units per millilitre saliva (795 cfu/ml) than asymptomatic carriers (40 cfu/ml; P Candida colonies differed. The number of Candida colonies in pseudomembranous type was significantly higher than that in the erythematous type (P Candida albicans was the predominant species of Candida. The cut-off point with the best fit for OC diagnosis was calculated to be 266 cfu/ml. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.720 and 0.825, respectively. Analysis of the ROC curve indicated that Candida colonies had a high diagnostic value for OC, as demonstrated by the area under the curve (AUC = 0.873). Based on this study, the value of 270 cfu/ml was considered a threshold for distinguishing OC from carriage.

  16. Community faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in French children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgy, André; Cohen, Robert; Levy, Corinne; Bidet, Philippe; Courroux, Céline; Benani, Mohamed; Thollot, Franck; Bingen, Edouard

    2012-11-21

    The increasing incidence of community acquired infection due to Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) -Producing Enterobacteriaceae represent a great concern because there are few therapeutic alternatives. The fecal flora of children in the community can represent a reservoir for ESBLs genes which are located on highly transmissible plasmids and the spread of these genes among bacterial pathogens is concerning. Because intestinal carriage is a key factor in the epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, the study of the prevalence of these resistant bacteria and risk factors in young children is of particular interest. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of community-acquired faecal carriage of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in children aged from 6 to 24 months, by means of rectal swabbing in community pediatric practices. Child's lifestyle and risk factors for carriage of resistant bacteria were noted. Among the 411 children enrolled, 4.6% carried ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 were the predominant ESBLs. The 18 E. coli isolates were genetically heterogeneous. Recent third-generation oral-cephalosporin exposure was associated with a higher risk of ESBL carriage (AOR=3.52, 95% CI[1.06-11.66], p=0.04). The carriage rate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriacae in young children in the French community setting is noteworthy, underlining the importance of this population as a reservoir. Exposure to third-generation oral cephalosporins was associated with a significant risk of ESBL carriage in our study. Because of the significant public health implications including the treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections, the spread of organisms producing ESBLs in the community merits close monitoring with enhanced efforts for surveillance.

  17. Community faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in french children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgy André

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing incidence of community acquired infection due to Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL -Producing Enterobacteriaceae represent a great concern because there are few therapeutic alternatives. The fecal flora of children in the community can represent a reservoir for ESBLs genes which are located on highly transmissible plasmids and the spread of these genes among bacterial pathogens is concerning. Because intestinal carriage is a key factor in the epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, the study of the prevalence of these resistant bacteria and risk factors in young children is of particular interest. Methods We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of community-acquired faecal carriage of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in children aged from 6 to 24 months, by means of rectal swabbing in community pediatric practices. Child’s lifestyle and risk factors for carriage of resistant bacteria were noted. Results Among the 411 children enrolled, 4.6% carried ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 were the predominant ESBLs. The 18 E. coli isolates were genetically heterogeneous. Recent third-generation oral-cephalosporin exposure was associated with a higher risk of ESBL carriage (AOR=3.52, 95% CI[1.06-11.66], p=0.04. Conclusions The carriage rate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriacae in young children in the French community setting is noteworthy, underlining the importance of this population as a reservoir. Exposure to third-generation oral cephalosporins was associated with a significant risk of ESBL carriage in our study. Because of the significant public health implications including the treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections, the spread of organisms producing ESBLs in the community merits close monitoring with enhanced efforts for surveillance.

  18. Asymptomatic inhaled foreign body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Muhammad U.; Asghar, Asif; Tareen, Irum; Azhar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    It is very rare to have a big foreign body in the lungs without any complications or symptoms for 2 years. A 14-year-old male with episodes of minor hemoptysis for 4 weeks had a history of inhalation of a bullet 2 years earlier. He had asymptomatic for lung complications for 2 years. The bullet was removed by right thoracotomy and non-anatomical wedge stapled resection, and he followed an uneventful recovery. An aspirated foreign body although big can remain asymptomatic for a long time, especially if it has migrated to the periphery. PMID:27652366

  19. Asymptomatic ocular sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Azevedo de Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease. It commonly affects the skin, lungs, kidneys, and central nervous system. In the eyes it primarily affects the uveal tract, conjunctiva, lacrimal glands and optic nerve. Here in we describe the case of a patient with systemic sarcoidosis and asymptomatic eye inflammation.

  20. oral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    association between oral candidosis and. AIDS; the first documented patient with. AIDS had oral candidosis.3 A sub- stantial amount of data now emphasise its high prevalence in HIV-infected individuals. The manifestations of candidal infection in HIV-infected persons are restricted to superficial mucosal lesions of varying ...

  1. [Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. A severity factor of erysipelas?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, P; Risse, L; Mounier, M; Bonnetblanc, J M

    1996-01-01

    Occasional superinfection or co-infection with Staphylococcus aureus led us to search for S. aureus carriage prospectively in patients with non-necrotizing bacterial dermophypodermitis, in particular erysipelas. This prospective study included immunocompetent patients with bacterial dermophypodermitis without signs of toxicity or local manifestations suggesting necrotizing fasciitis. Bacteriology tests included: 1) direct immunofluorescence for streptococcus (groups A, C, G) on skin biopsies taken on day 0, 2) samples from the nasal orifices, the intergluteal fold, and potential skin portals for bacteriology culture, and 3) assay of antistreptolysine O and antistreptodornase B on day 0 and 15. The study group included 42 patients (23 females, 19 males, mean age 64 +/- 3.5 yr). In 39 cases (93%) bacterial dermohypodermitis was located on the lower limb with a potential skin portal in 36 cases (86%). Sample culture, direct immunofluorescence or serology findings demonstrated presence of streptococci in 33 cases (79%). Nasal, intergluteal or potential portal were identified in 19 patients (45%) including 16 with demonstrated presence of streptococci. The rate of cure after oral pristinamycin did not vary significantly between carriers (79%) an non-carriers (91%) of Staphylococcus aureus. Drainage of a localized abscess was successful in 5 of 6 patients after initial failure of antibiotic treatment; 4 of them were carriers of S. aureus. This prospective study demonstrated that cutaneous-mucosal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is frequent in patients with non-necrotizing dermohypodermitis. This carriage is not a factor of over-morbidity as shown in this group of infections largely dominated by erysipelas.

  2. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Wettenschwiler

    Full Text Available Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports. It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001 predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low

  3. Carriage of Neisseria Species in Communities with Different Rates of Meningococcal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Le Saux

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A single clone, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (C:2a:P1.2, was isolated from seven patients during a cluster of cases of meningococcal disease in Ontario in 1989. To determine whether the clone was present in asymptomatic individuals in the same population, pharyngeal swabs were taken from 7% (644 of 9125 of residents who were vaccinated during the outbreak. Rates of isolation of Neisseria species were also compared to those in two other geographical areas which did not have an elevated incidence of meningococcal disease. The rate of carriage of N meningitidis in the asymptomatic individuals sampled was between 1.9% and 5.4%. The clone isolated from patients was not present among the carrier strains as determined by sero- and subtyping and electrophoretic analysis of metabolic enzymes. Age greater than six years was the only factor associated with colonization with N meningitidis.

  4. 47 CFR 101.1403 - Broadcast carriage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast carriage requirements. 101.1403... GHz Band § 101.1403 Broadcast carriage requirements. MVDDS licensees are not required to provide all... must-carry rules, nor the local signal carriage requirements of the Rural Local Broadcast Signal Act...

  5. 47 CFR 76.56 - Signal carriage obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of this section require that, after the broadcast television transition from analog to digital... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.56 Signal carriage obligations. (a) Carriage of qualified noncommercial educational stations. A cable television...

  6. 46 CFR 126.170 - Carriage of offshore workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of offshore workers. 126.170 Section 126.170... CERTIFICATION General § 126.170 Carriage of offshore workers. (a) Offshore workers may be carried aboard an OSV in compliance with this subchapter. The maximum number of offshore workers authorized for carriage...

  7. Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae in Cape Town children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duration of hospitalisation or outpatient therapy in the patients with tuberculosis did not influence carriage rates. We conclude that carriage of H. influenzae in normal children is similar to that reported from other countries and that carriage, particularly of type b, in children hospitalised with tuberculosis was of significance ...

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in the Gaza strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50% of children and 30/376 (8% of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%. Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by 70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region.

  9. Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Nuno A; Conceição, Teresa; Miragaia, Maria

    2014-01-01

    . A total of 54 patients (80%) were colonized with staphylococci that included nine different species identified by internal transcribed spacer PCR (ITS-PCR) and 16S RNA sequencing. The highest rates of colonization were found for S. epidermidis (58%) and S. aureus (39%). Methicillin resistance was present......%). Carriage of multiple species was detected in 20 patients (30%), 16 of whom were colonized with both S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In two cases, simultaneous carriage of different methicillin resistant species was detected. However, the strains carried different SCCmec types. Additional studies in the same...

  10. Throat Carriage Rate and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes In Rural Children in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Gastón; Sparo, Mónica; Baldaccini, Beatriz; Pourcel, Gisela; Lissarrague, Sabina; García Allende, Leonardo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) in children living in a rural community and to investigate the association between episodes of acute pharyngitis and carrier status. Throat swabs were collected from September to November 2013 among children 5-13 years of age from a rural community (Maria Ignacia-Vela, Argentina). The phenotypic characterization of isolates was performed by conventional tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed for penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and clindamycin (disk diffusion). The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for penicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The carriage of β-hemolytic streptococci was detected in 18.1% of participants, with Streptococcus pyogenes in 18 participants followed by S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis in 5. The highest proportion of GAS was found in 8 to 10-year-old children. No significant association between the number of episodes of acute pharyngitis suffered in the last year and the carrier state was detected (p>0.05). Tetracycline resistance (55.5%) and macrolide-resistant phenotypes (11.1%) were observed. Resistance to penicillin, cefotaxime, or chloramphenicol was not expressed in any streptococcal isolate. The present study demonstrated significant throat carriage of GAS and the presence of group C streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Argentinian rural population. These results point out the need for continuous surveillance of GAS and non-GAS carriage as well as of antimicrobial resistance in highly susceptible populations, such as school-aged rural children. An extended surveillance program including school-aged children from different cities should be considered to estimate the prevalence of GAS carriage in Argentina.

  11. [An asymptomatic chronic hypokalaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Marie-Pierre; Cheminel, Valérie; Crevon, Lionel; Dubourg, Laurence; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Mounier, Chantal; Prevosto, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic patient presenting a severe chronic renal hypokalaemia. Once being sure of no diuretics use, two hypothesis can be mentioned for a normotensive patient presenting an hypokalaemia associated with a metabolic alcalosis: Bartter syndrome or Gitelman syndrome. The highlighting of low magnesaemia and hypocalciuria strongly concentrates the diagnosis on Gitelman syndrome. First, this has been strengthened by the results of renal function tests and later it has confirmed by molecular diagnosis with the identification of a known homozygous mutation on SLC12A3 gene. In the patient family, the same chromosomal abnormality has been found in the young sister. For these two patients the treatment ordered is an antikaliuretic diuretic, magnesium and potassium supplements. This case shows the difficulty to diagnose Gitelman syndrome: it is frequently mistaken for Bartter syndrome. The main differences between these two syndromes are magnesaemia and calciuria. Furthemore , patients with Gitelman syndrome are often asymptomatic, this explains why prevalence of this illness is probably underestimated.

  12. Carriage rates, circulating serotypes and antibiotic resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and disease development are poorly understood in Yei. Availability of affordable antibiotics over the counter, lack of laboratory infrastructure and high rates of penicillin resistance have the potential to aggravate rates of childhood ...

  13. Carriage of multidrug resistant Enterococcus faecium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carriage of multidrug resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis among apparently healthy humans. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file ...

  14. Nasal Carriage of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  15. Nasal carriage of Meticillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gemeda

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of. Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  16. Characterization of Carriage Isolates of Neisseria meningitides in the Adolescents and Young Adults Population of Bogota (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jaime; Hidalgo, Melissa; Duarte, Carolina; Sanabria, Olga; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Ibarz-Pavon, Ana Belén

    2015-01-01

    Meningococcal carriage studies are important to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of meningococcal disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of meningococcal carriage and the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of isolates collected from a sample of students in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. A total of 1459 oropharyngeal samples were collected from students aged 15-21 years attending secondary schools and universities. Swabs were plated on a Thayer Martin agar and N. meningitidis was identified by standard microbiology methods and PCR. The overall carriage prevalence was 6.85%. Carriage was associated with cohabitation with smokers, and oral sex practices. Non-groupable and serogroup Y isolates were the most common capsule types found. Isolates presented a high genetic diversity, and circulation of the hypervirulent clonal complexes ST-23, ST-32 and ST-41/44 were detected. The meningococcal carriage rate was lower than those reported in Europe and Africa, but higher than in other Latin American countries. Our data also revealed antigenic and genetic diversity of the isolates and the circulation of strains belonging to clonal complexes commonly associated with meningococcal disease.

  17. Characterization of Carriage Isolates of Neisseria meningitidis in the Adolescents and Young Adults Population of Bogota (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jaime; Hidalgo, Melissa; Duarte, Carolina; Sanabria, Olga; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Ibarz-Pavon, Ana Belén

    2015-01-01

    Background Meningococcal carriage studies are important to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of meningococcal disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of meningococcal carriage and the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of isolates collected from a sample of students in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and Methods A total of 1459 oropharyngeal samples were collected from students aged 15–21 years attending secondary schools and universities. Swabs were plated on a Thayer Martin agar and N. meningitidis was identified by standard microbiology methods and PCR. Results The overall carriage prevalence was 6.85%. Carriage was associated with cohabitation with smokers, and oral sex practices. Non-groupable and serogroup Y isolates were the most common capsule types found. Isolates presented a high genetic diversity, and circulation of the hypervirulent clonal complexes ST-23, ST-32 and ST-41/44 were detected. Conclusion The meningococcal carriage rate was lower than those reported in Europe and Africa, but higher than in other Latin American countries. Our data also revealed antigenic and genetic diversity of the isolates and the circulation of strains belonging to clonal complexes commonly associated with meningococcal disease. PMID:26322796

  18. Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the ...

  19. [Gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Haiti (2010-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P; Brasseur, P; Cicéron, M; Existe, A; Lemoine, F; Boncy, J

    2015-02-01

    A survey conducted from May 2010 to October 2013 in five from ten departments of Haiti among 5,342 persons aged from 1 to 107 years showed a gametocytic rate = 3.2%. However, it varies greatly from one Department to another, ranging from 0.5% in Grande Anse Department to 5.9% in Southeast Department. Malaria is present in Haiti in heterogeneous coastal foci. Gametocytes occur at all ages, but two times most often in male under 20 years. Entomological studies in Haiti are needed to better characterize the relationships between man and the vector Anopheles albimanus, adapting the fight more effectively.

  20. Self-reported load carriage injuries of military soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin Marc; Coyle, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Pope, Rodney

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational load carriage constitutes a significant source of injury to military soldiers. An online survey was sent to soldiers serving in specific Australian Army Corps known to experience the greatest occupational exposure to load carriage. Of the 338 respondents, 34% sustained at least one load carriage injury. Fifty-two per cent of those injured during initial training reported sustaining an additional load carriage injury. The majority of injuries (61%) were to the lower limbs with bones and joints the most frequently injured body structures (39%). Endurance marching (continuous marching as part of a physical training session) was the activity accounting for most (38%) injuries. Occupational load carriage is associated with military soldier injuries and, once injured, soldiers are at a high risk of future load carriage injury. The bodily sites and nature of self-reported injuries in this study are akin to those of formally reported injuries and those of other militaries.

  1. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency and Plasmodium falciparum parasites in asymptomatic school children living in southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Linda Eva; Opong, Akua; Ayanful-Torgby, Ruth; Abankwa, Joana; Acquah, Festus K

    2016-07-26

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked genetic disorder that results in impaired enzyme activity. Although G6PD deficiency is globally distributed it is more prevalent in malaria-endemic countries. Several mutations have been identified in the G6PD gene, which alter enzyme activity. The G6PD genotype predominantly found in sub-Saharan Africa is the G6PDB (G6PD376A) with (G6PD376G) and G6PDA- (G6PD376G/202A, G6PD376G/542T, G6PD376G/680T and G6PD376G/968C) occurring at lower frequencies. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum carriage in children living in southern Ghana and determine whether G6PD deficiency influences asymptomatic carriage of P. falciparum parasites. Blood samples were obtained once a month from 170 healthy Ghanaian school children aged between 5 and 12 years from Basic schools in two communities Obom and Abura with similar rainfall patterns and malaria peak seasons. G6PD enzyme activity was assessed using the qualitative G6PD RDT kit (AccessBIO). G6PD genotyping and asymptomatic parasite carriage was determined by PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of DNA extracted from dried blood spots. The only sub-Saharan G6PD A- allele detected was the A376G/G202A found in 12.4 % (21/170), of the children and distributed as 4.1 % (7/170) A-, 1.8 % (3/170) A-/A- homozygous deficient males and females and 6.5 % (11/170) A/A- and B/A- heterozygous deficient females. Phenotypically, 10.6 % (15/142) of the children were G6PD deficient. The asymptomatic carriage of P. falciparum by PCR was 50, 29.4, 38.2 and 38.8 % over the months of February through May 2015, respectively, and 28.8, 22.4, 25.9 and 5.9 % by microscopy during the same periods. G6PD deficiency was significantly associated with a lowered risk of PCR-estimated asymptomatic P. falciparum carriage in children during the off peak malaria season in Southern Ghana.

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  3. Ocularhaemodynamics parameters of asymptomatic HAART ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Vmax of blood flow in central retinal artery (CRA) of asymptomatic HAART - experienced HIV infected children was 12.2cm/s while that of seronegative children was 13.4 cm/s. The PI and RI of blood flow in CRA of asymptomatic HAARTexperienced HIV-infected children were 0.8 and 0.5 respectively while those of ...

  4. Carriage ofHaernophilus influenzae in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall and type b specific carriage rates in normal children (N =107) were 45,8% and 4,7% respectively. The yield following nasopharyngeal culture was twice that following throat culture. (P < 0,001). Children hospitalised with tuberculo- sis (N =62) had significantly greater carriage rates, 66,1% and 37,1% respectively ...

  5. 47 CFR 76.62 - Manner of carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided in § 76.64. (b) Each digital television broadcast signal carried shall be carried without material... material. (h) If a digital television broadcast signal is carried in accordance with § 76.62(b) and either... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.62 Manner of carriage. (a) Cable...

  6. 47 CFR 76.66 - Satellite broadcast signal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... digital signals of each television broadcast station that is located in a local market in Alaska or Hawaii... reasonable digital compression techniques in the carriage of local television stations. (2) Satellite... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.66 Satellite...

  7. Streptococcal throat carriage in a population of nursery and primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a major cause of mortality in man. Regular disease surveillance can be achieved through evaluation of throat carriage. Objectives: To evaluate GAS throat carriage amongst nursery and primary schools pupils in Benin City, Nigeria. Method: This cross sectional study was carried ...

  8. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2008-10-30

    Oct 30, 2008 ... Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) exerts immunomodulatory effects in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We investigated the frequency of nasal S. aureus carriage in patients with perennial ...

  9. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus by members of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospitalized persons at the University of Port-Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, showed that carriage was influenced primarily by age (p=0.0344). Carriage was found to be 50% among primary school pupils, ages 5 to 11 years and 29.4% among ...

  10. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert; Koo, Hyun; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4. A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (pseverity (pchildren were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries-free children). Among 18 child-mother pairs, >60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child

  11. Detection of Candida spp. in the vagina of a cohort of nulliparous pregnant women by culture and molecular methods: Is there an association between maternal vaginal and infant oral colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew S; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Donath, Susan M; Bennett, Catherine M; Amir, Lisa H

    2016-04-01

    Most studies describing vaginal Candida spp. in pregnancy focus on symptomatic vaginitis, rather than asymptomatic colonisation, and solely utilise microbiological culture. The extent to which asymptomatic vaginal carriage may represent a reservoir for infant oral colonisation has been highly debated. This study formed part of the Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission Longitudinal Evaluation (CASTLE) study, in Melbourne, Australia, from 2009 to 2011 and used culture and molecular methods to examine vaginal swabs collected late in the third trimester of pregnancy for Candida spp. Oral swabs from infants were also examined using culture methods. Overall, 80 of 356 (22%) women were positive for Candida spp; the majority being Candida albicans (83%). Candida glabrata and other Candida spp. were also identified, but in much lower numbers. Molecular analysis identified numerous positive samples not detected by culture, including 13 cases of C. albicans. In addition, some positive samples only recorded to genus level by culture were accurately identified as either C. albicans or C. glabrata following molecular analyses. Eighteen infants recorded positive Candida spp. cultures, predominantly C. albicans. However, there were only four (25%) mother/infant dyads where C. albicans was detected. This study provides valuable data on asymptomatic colonisation rates of Candida spp. within an asymptomatic population of women late in pregnancy. The utilisation of molecular methods improved the rate of detection and provided a more accurate means for identification of non-albicans Candida spp. The low mother/infant colonisation rate suggests that non-maternal sources are likely involved in determining infant oral colonisation status. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  13. Assessment of Candidal carriage in patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Lamichhane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally acknowledged that patients with diabetes mellitus are more susceptible to fungal infections, particularly with Candida albicans. Oral infection by Candida can result in a number of clinical lesions, including median rhomboid glossitis (central papillary atrophy, denture stomatitis, squamous cell carcinoma, Radiation therapy, immunocompromised status, etc. Different studies have shown that patients with diabetes mellitus have increased frequency of oral candidal carriage and increased risk of candidiasis, which is related to poor metabolic control, neutrophil dysfunction, reduced salivary flow, high glucose concentration in blood and saliva and in medications.Materials and Methods: Subjects of both the groups were given 10 ml of sterile normal saline and asked to rinse the mouth for one minute. The subjects were then asked to return the oral rinse in a sterile clean, broad-mouthed container which was capped, labelled and taken to the laboratory. The samples were then inoculated onto the culture medium (Sabouraud’s dextrose agar with Chloramphenicol with minimal delay (within 6-8 hours of collection of oral rinse. Candidal colonies were counted and compared with non-diabetics.Results: Statistically significant increase in colony forming units (p=0.0324 were obtainedin patients with diabetes mellitus.Conclusion: The results indicate significant increase in colonization and carriage of candida in the oral cavity among diabetics when compared with non-diabetics. However, further research using larger samples is required which may lend credibility to the suggestion of increased candidal CFUs in diabetics serving as a surrogate marker of serum glucose levels.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2015 Vol. 5, 733-738

  14. Nasal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy preschool children in Ujjain, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Megha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that community acquired S. aureus infections are spreading among healthy children. Nasal colonization with S. aureus plays pivotal role in the increasing prevalence of resistant community acquired S. aureus infections worldwide. A regular surveillance system is important in ensuring quality of patient care. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of and the factors associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern among healthy children in Ujjain, India. Methods A prospective study was done in paediatric outpatient clinics of R.D. Gardi medical college Ujjain, India. Healthy children from 1 month to 59 months of age were included. Information on previously known risk factors for nasal colonization was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Swabs from anterior nares were collected and transported in Amies transport media with charcoal and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method according to performance standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Results Of the 1,562 children from 1-month up-to five years of age included in the study 98 children tested positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus. The prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus was 6.3% (95% CI 5.1-7.5 out of which 16.3% (95% CI 8.9-23.8 were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. The factors associated with nasal carriage were "child attending preschool" (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.25-8.03; P = 0.007 or "school" (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.27-7.18; P P = 0.03. The sensitivity pattern of isolated S. aureus showed resistance to commonly used oral antibiotics while resistance to glycopeptides was not noted. Conclusions We found a relatively low rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus in children below five years when compared to children of older age groups in India. Yet, prevalence of MRSA was relatively high.

  15. Nasal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy preschool children in Ujjain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that community acquired S. aureus infections are spreading among healthy children. Nasal colonization with S. aureus plays pivotal role in the increasing prevalence of resistant community acquired S. aureus infections worldwide. A regular surveillance system is important in ensuring quality of patient care. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of and the factors associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern among healthy children in Ujjain, India. Methods A prospective study was done in paediatric outpatient clinics of R.D. Gardi medical college Ujjain, India. Healthy children from 1 month to 59 months of age were included. Information on previously known risk factors for nasal colonization was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Swabs from anterior nares were collected and transported in Amies transport media with charcoal and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method according to performance standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Results Of the 1,562 children from 1-month up-to five years of age included in the study 98 children tested positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus. The prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus was 6.3% (95% CI 5.1-7.5) out of which 16.3% (95% CI 8.9-23.8) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The factors associated with nasal carriage were "child attending preschool" (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.25-8.03; P = 0.007) or "school" (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.27-7.18; P < 0.001) and "family size more than 10 members" (OR 2.76 95% CI 1.06-7.15; P = 0.03). The sensitivity pattern of isolated S. aureus showed resistance to commonly used oral antibiotics while resistance to glycopeptides was not noted. Conclusions We found a relatively low rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus in children below five years when compared to children of older age groups in

  16. Prevalence and pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the cultured organism (89%) were sensitive to Nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women at the UPTH is high. The most prevalent organism was Klebsiella. Keywords: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, Prevalence, Pattern, Klebsiella, Nitrofurantion, Morbidity ...

  17. Association of sub-microscopic malaria parasite carriage with transmission intensity in north-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjurano Alphaxard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In malaria endemic areas, individuals are frequently asymptomatic and may be undetected by conventional microscopy or newer, rapid diagnostic tests. Molecular techniques allow a more accurate assessment of this asymptomatic parasite burden, the extent of which is important for malaria control. This study examines the relative prevalence of sub-microscopic level parasite carriage and clonal complexity of infections (multiplicity of infection over a range of endemicities in a region of north-eastern Tanzania where altitude is an established proxy of malaria transmission. The PCR prevalence was then compared against other measures of transmission intensity collected in the same area. Methods This study used 1,121 blood samples collected from a previously conducted cross-sectional malario-metric survey during the short rainy season in 2001 from 13 villages (three at 1,200 m in altitude above sea level. Samples were analysed by PCR for carriage of parasites and multiplicity of infection. These data were compared with other measures of transmission intensity collected from the same area. Results Parasite prevalence was 34.7% by PCR and 13.6% by microscopy; a 2.5-fold difference in line with other recent observations. This fold difference was relatively consistent at the different altitude bands despite a marked decrease in parasite prevalence with altitude: vs 28.6, 600-1,200 m 35.5 vs 9.9, > 1,200 m 15.8 vs 5.9. The difference between parasite prevalence by PCR was 3.2 in individuals aged between 15 and 45 years (34.5 vs 10.9 compared with 2.5 in those aged 1-5 (34.0 vs 13.5 though this was not statistically significant. Multiplicity of infection (MOI ranged from 1.2 to 3.7 and was positively associated with parasite prevalence assessed by both PCR and microscopy. There was no association of MOI and age. Village level PCR parasite prevalence was strongly correlated with altitude, sero-conversion rate and predicted entomological

  18. Asymptomatic schwannoma of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of an asymptomatic right atrial mass detected on a screening ECHO. Pre-operative imaging and intraoperative frozen section suggested an atrial myxoma, but the extracardiac nature of the mass and its adherence to the right superior pulmonary vein and interatrial septum were inconsistent with this. Detailed histological assessment confirmed the diagnosis of atrial schwannoma. Limited case reports have shown complete resection is curative.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Idrissa Diawara; Khadija Bekhti; Driss Elhabchi; Rachid Saile; Naima Elmdaghri; Mohammed Timinouni; Mohamed Elazhari

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes. Patients and Methods Nasal swab specim...

  20. Traditional Posterior Load Carriage: Ergonomic Assessment and Intervention Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Muslim, Khoirul

    2013-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among manual material handling (MMH) workers. However, limited investigations have been undertaken among one large group of workers using a particular MMH method called traditional posterior load carriage (PLC). Such load carriage is typically done without the use of an assistive device (e.g., backpack) in developing countries, and involves exposure to known risk factors for MSS such as heavy loads, non-neutral postures, and high ...

  1. Molecular dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Hajj pilgrims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, P O; Gautret, P; Haddar, C H; Benkouiten, S; Gagnaire, J; Belhouchat, K; Grattard, F; Charrel, R; Pozzetto, B; Drali, T; Lucht, F; Brouqui, P; Memish, Z A; Berthelot, P; Botelho-Nevers, E

    2015-07-01

    During the 2012 Hajj season, the risk of acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in a cohort of French pilgrims was 22.8%, and was statistically associated with the acquisition of viral respiratory pathogens (p 0.03). The carriage of S. aureus belonging to the emerging clonal complex 398 significantly increased following the pilgrimage (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...... to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...

  3. Dried Saliva Spots: A Robust Method for Detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Krone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The earliest studies in the late 19th century on Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae carriage used saliva as the primary specimen. However, interest in saliva declined after the sensitive mouse inoculation method was replaced by conventional culture, which made isolation of pneumococci from the highly polymicrobial oral cavity virtually impossible. Here, we tested the feasibility of using dried saliva spots (DSS for studies on pneumococcal carriage. Saliva samples from children and pneumococcus-spiked saliva samples from healthy adults were applied to paper, dried, and stored, with and without desiccant, at temperatures ranging from −20 to 37 °C for up to 35 days. DNA extracted from DSS was tested with quantitative-PCR (qPCR specifically for S. pneumoniae. When processed immediately after drying, the quantity of pneumococcal DNA detected in spiked DSS from adults matched the levels in freshly spiked raw saliva. Furthermore, pneumococcal DNA was stable in DSS stored with desiccant for up to one month over a broad range of temperatures. There were no differences in the results when spiking saliva with varied pneumococcal strains. The collection of saliva can be a particularly useful in surveillance studies conducted in remote settings, as it does not require trained personnel, and DSS are resilient to various transportation conditions.

  4. MRSA carriage in healthcare personnel in contact with farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, M W H; Tiemersma, E; Kluytmans, J; Bogaers, D; Leenders, A C A P; Jansen, M W H; Berkhout, J; Ruijters, E; Haverkate, D; Isken, M; Voss, A

    2008-10-01

    In The Netherlands it has been shown that people in contact with pigs have a higher risk of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage than the general population. Isolates of closely related spa types, corresponding to multilocus sequence type (MLST) ST398, were found in pig farmers, pig veterinarians and pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether contact with pigs and veal calves or other livestock is a risk factor for MRSA carriage in Dutch healthcare workers (HCWs). HCWs at four general hospitals and one university hospital were asked to fill in questionnaires covering contact with animals and to take MRSA cultures of their throat and nares. Cultures of HCWs in contact with livestock were processed with samples from HCWs with no contact with livestock as controls. Seventy-seven of 1721 HCWs (4.4%) reported direct or indirect contact with pigs and/or veal calves and 145 reported contact with other livestock animals. The MRSA carriage rate in the group in contact with pigs and veal calves was 1.7% and in the control group was 0.15%. No carriers were found among HCWs in contact with other livestock. An estimated 3% of hospital staff working in Dutch hospitals serving rural populations belong to a high risk group for MRSA carriage according to the Dutch guidelines. Although MRSA carriage in HCWs in contact with livestock is 10-fold higher than in other HCWs, the difference is not statistically significant.

  5. Healthcare Workers’ Hand Microbiome May Mediate Carriage of Hospital Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rosenthal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One function of skin microbiota is to resist colonization and infection by external microorganisms. We sought to detect whether the structure of the hand microbiota of 34 healthcare workers (HCW in a surgical intensive care unit mediates or modifies the relationship between demographic and behavioral factors and potential pathogen carriage on hands after accounting for pathogen exposure. We used a taxonomic screen (16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial community, and qPCR to detect presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and Candida albicans on their dominant hands. Hands were sampled weekly over a 3-week period. Age, hand hygiene, and work shift were significantly associated with potential pathogen carriage and the associations were pathogen dependent. Additionally, the overall hand microbiota structure was associated with the carriage of potential pathogens. Hand microbiota community structure may act as a biomarker of pathogen carriage, and modifying that structure may potentially limit pathogen carriage among HCW.

  6. Screening Adolescents in the Emergency Department for Weapon Carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resko, Stella M.; Harrison, Stephanie Roahen; Zimmerman, Marc; Stanley, Rachel; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence and correlates of past year weapon involvement among adolescents seeking care in an inner-city ED. Methods This cross-sectional study administered a computerized survey to all eligible adolescents (age 14–18), seven days a week seeking care in the ED over an 18 month period in an inner-city Level 1 ED. Validated measures were administered including measures of demographics, sexual activity, substance use, injury, violent behavior and weapon carriage/use. Results Adolescents (N=2069, 86% response rate) completed the computerized survey. 55% were female; 56.5% were African American. In the past year, 20% of adolescents reported knife/razor carriage, 7% reported gun carriage, and 6% pulled a knife/gun on someone; zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models were used to identify correlates of the occurrence and past year frequency of these weapon variables. Although gun carriage was more frequent among males, females were as likely to carry a knife or pull a weapon in the past year. Conclusions One fifth of all adolescent’s seeking care in this inner city ED have carried a weapon. Understanding weapon carriage among teens seeking ED care is a critical first step to future ED based injury prevention initiatives. PMID:20370746

  7. Optical carriage for laser-induced fluorescence in a magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Paris, P. J.; Skiff, F.; Good, T. N.; Tran, M. Q.

    1988-10-01

    An ``optical carriage'' has been developed to improve plasma access for LIF diagnostics. Laser light inducing the fluorescence is transported through an optical fiber to the carriage. A telescope fixed on the carriage collects the plasma fluorescence light and sends it through a fiber bundle to an external PMT. The whole carriage is mounted on rails and can be scanned along and across the magnetic field.

  8. Experimental human pneumococcal carriage models for vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniela M; Jambo, Kondwani C; Gordon, Stephen B

    2011-09-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have had unprecedented success in controlling vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease. As serotype replacement and the complexity of designing vaccines to multiple capsular polysaccharides ultimately pose a threat to these vaccines, the development of alternative protein vaccines is important. Protein vaccines offer the promise of extended serotype coverage, reduced cost, and improved protection against otitis media and pneumococcal pneumonia. As placebo-controlled trials are not currently ethically justifiable, human pneumococcal challenge models using prevention of carriage as a test endpoint offer an attractive link between preclinical studies and clinical efficacy trials. Experimental human pneumococcal carriage studies offer a means of describing mechanisms of protection against carriage and a clinical tool to choose between vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soldier occupational load carriage: a narrative review of associated injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin Marc; Pope, Rodney; Johnston, Venerina; Coyle, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This narrative review examines injuries sustained by soldiers undertaking occupational load carriage tasks. Military soldiers are required to carry increasingly heavier occupational loads. These loads have been found to increase the physiological cost to the soldier and alter their gait mechanics. Aggregated research findings suggest that the lower limbs are the most frequent anatomical site of injury associated with load carriage. While foot blisters are common, other prevalent lower limb injuries include stress fractures, knee and foot pain, and neuropathies, like digitalgia and meralgia. Shoulder neuropathies (brachial plexus palsy) and lower back injuries are not uncommon. Soldier occupational load carriage has the potential to cause injuries that impact on force generation and force sustainment. Through understanding the nature of these injuries targeted interventions, like improved physical conditioning and support to specialised organisations, can be employed.

  10. Epidemiological Study Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Among Nursery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bateriuria in preschool children of different age and sex groups and to isolate the organisms responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. A total of 475 children from 17 nurseries in Ahvaz city, Iran ...

  11. [Oral viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among food handlers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food handlers have been recognized to play a major role in the transmission of food borne diseases; contributing significantly to the global incidence and burden of the diseases. This study therefore, assesses the nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus among food handlers and restaurant workers in Ekpoma, Edo State, ...

  13. 47 CFR 76.1506 - Carriage of television broadcast signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of television broadcast signals. 76.1506 Section 76.1506 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO... television broadcast signals. (a) The provisions of Subpart D shall apply to open video systems in accordance...

  14. Ethiopian Law of International Carriage by Air: An Overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia's aviation history goes back to the late 1920s. And, carriage of goods and passengers by air dates at least as far back as the 1940s – the decade which witnessed the establishment of Ethiopian Air Lines Corporation (now Ethiopian Airlines). Despite Ethiopia's relative success in commercial aviation, domestic ...

  15. The health impact of schoolbag carriage: A systematic review (2007 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (v) examine the biomechanics of pelvic alignment when carrying heavy schoolbags, (vi) understand the effectiveness of back care and strengthening intervention programmes in order to reduce pain and deviant posture, and (vii) take global research regarding schoolbag carriage on health and well-being into account.

  16. A study of the intestinal carriage of antibiotic resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The gastrointestinal tract has been recognized as a major ecological site for Staphylococcus aureus where it can reach neighboring sites and cause mild or serious infections. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of intestinal carriage of S. aureus in children aged 3 years and below in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and the ...

  17. Carriage of multidrug-resistant bacteria among pediatric patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miniar Tfifha

    2017-12-25

    Dec 25, 2017 ... To cite this article: Miniar Tfifha, Asma Ferjani, Manel Mallouli, Nesrine Mlika, Saoussen Abroug &. Jalel Boukadida (2018) Carriage of multidrug-resistant bacteria among pediatric patients before and during their hospitalization in a tertiary pediatric unit in Tunisia, Libyan Journal of Medicine, 13:1,. 1419047 ...

  18. 76 FR 60675 - Revision of the Commission's Program Carriage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... rules pertaining to carriage of video programming vendors by multichannel video programming distributors... promoting competition and diversity in the video programming and video distribution markets. In this.... Federal Communications Commission's Web site: http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/ecfs/ . Follow the instructions for...

  19. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus on armpits of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of carriage of Staphylococcus aureus on armpits and factors affecting it was carried out on 50 students from Community Secondary School, Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt and 50 University of Port Harcourt students. Samples were inoculated onto mannitol salt agar plates and coagulate positive S. aureus isolates were ...

  20. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  2. Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infection in Tierralta, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucunubá, Zulma Milena; Guerra, Angela Patricia; Rahirant, Sonia Judith; Rivera, Jorge Alonso; Cortés, Liliana Jazmín; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2008-11-01

    With the aim of determining the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infection by thick smear and PCR and its association with demographic and epidemiological characteristics in the village of Nuevo Tay, Tierralta, Córdoba, Colombia, a cross-sectional population study was carried out, using random probabilistic sampling. Venous blood samples were taken from 212 people on day 0 for thick smear and PCR. Clinical follow-up and thick smears were carried out on days 14 and 28. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. infection was 17.9% (38/212; 95% CI: 12.5-23.3%) and the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodiumspp. infection was 14.6% (31/212; 95% CI: 9.6-19.6%). Plasmodium vivax was found more frequently (20/31; 64.5%) than Plasmodium falciparum (9/31; 29%) and mixed infections (2/31; 6.5%). A significantly higher prevalence of asymptomatic infection was found in men (19.30%) than in women (9.18%) (prevalence ratio: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.01-4.34%; p = 0.02). People who developed symptoms had a significantly higher parasitemia on day 0 than those who remained asymptomatic, of 1,881.5 +/- 3,759 versus 79 +/- 106.9 (p = 0.008). PCR detected 50% more infections than the thick smears. The presence of asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infection highlights the importance of carrying out active searches amongst asymptomatic populations residing in endemic areas.

  3. Nasopharyngeal carriage, antibiogram & serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy under five children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Ravi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Information related to nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy children is scanty in India. This prospective study was undertaken to determine the presence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization, assess serogroups/types (SGT and drug resistance of S. pneumoniae in children below five years of age. Methods: A total of 109 male and 81 female children in the age group of three months to five years belonging to different socio-economic classes were enrolled. They were recruited across all age groups from those attending paediatric OPD of a tertiary care and research centre for immunization program. Fifty three isolates identified as pneumococci were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion and E-Test methods. Serotyping was performed by detection of the quelling reaction with specific antiserum. Result: The pneumococcal carriage rate in the study population was 27.9 per cent. The isolation rate was associated with age being higher (49.2% in smaller children (3-12 months and among male (62.2%. The most prevalent SGTs were 19 followed by 10, 14 and 7; 21 per cent of isolates belonging to serotype 10 (n=7 were 11 (n=4 were not covered in any of the conjugate vaccines currently available in Indian market. Resistance to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin was observed in 91 per cent (n=48, 36 per cent (n=19, 17 per cent (n=9 and 9 per cent (n=5 isolates, respectively. All the penicillin resistant isolates were found to be intermediately resistant by E-Test. Multidrug resistance was observed in 19 per cent (n=10 isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: High level of antibiotic resistance was present in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children below age five. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with the prevailing SGTs would help to reduce the pool of antibiotic resistant pneumococci. Continued surveillance of serotypes and tracking

  4. Genetic characterization of Shigella spp. isolated from diarrhoeal and asymptomatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Santanu; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Nataro, James P; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Shigella spp. isolated from diarrhoeal and asymptomatic children aged up to 5 years were analysed in this study. In total, 91 and 17 isolates were identified from diarrhoeal (case) and asymptomatic (control) children, respectively. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, the presence of integrons, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), virulence-associated genes and Shigella pathogenicity island (SH-PAI). The majority of the Shigella spp. from cases (68.1%) and controls (82.3%) were found to be resistant to fluoroquinolones. Integron carriage was detected more in cases (76.9%) than in controls (35.5%). Atypical class 1 integron was detected exclusively in Shigella flexneri from cases but not from the controls. PMQR genes such as aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS1 were detected in 82.4 and 14.3% of the isolates from cases and in 53 and 17.6% in controls, respectively. Shigella isolates from cases as well as from controls were positive for the invasive plasmid antigen H-encoding gene ipaH. The other virulence genes such as virF, sat, setA, setB, sen and ial were detected in Shigella isolates in 80.2, 49.4, 27.4, 27.4, 80.2 and 79.1% of cases and in 64.7, 52.9, 17.6, 17.6, 64.7 and 64.7% of controls, respectively. The entire SH-PAI was detected in S. flexneri serotype 2a from cases and controls. In an isolate from a control child, the SH-PAI was truncated. Integrons, PMQR and virulence-encoding genes were detected more frequently in cases than in controls. In diarrhoea endemic areas, asymptomatic carriers may play a crucial role in the transmission of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. with all the putative virulence genes. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. [Xanthoma disseminatum with asymptomatic multisystem involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoun, M; Hali, F; Marnissi, F; Lazaar, S; Benchikhi, H

    2015-04-01

    Xanthogranulomas belong to non-Langerhans histiocytosis of the second group in the Histiocyte Society classification. They comprise a heterogeneous group of rare entities frequently involving cutaneous tropism. Xanthoma disseminatum belongs to this group of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. We report a case of xanthoma disseminatum (XD) in which localized skin and mucous impairment revealed multisystem involvement. A 28-year-old man presented with a two-year history of progressive yellow-orange and infiltrated xanthomatous papulonodular lesions of the face. Lesions of the oral mucosa and genital region were seen, with no functional repercussions. No ophthalmic or other complications were found. Histopathology showed a dense histiocytic infiltrate within the dermis with Touton giant cells, foamy multinucleated giant cells and inflammatory cells, without necrobiosis. Histiocytes were positive for CD68 but negative for CD1a. Gastric and lung involvement was seen and was confirmed at histology. Bone scintigraphy showed suspicious left ulnar hyperfixation suggesting bone involvement. No monoclonal gammopathy or diabetes insipidus was seen. Our patient was treated with corticosteroids 1mg/kg/day and thalidomide 100 mg/day. The outcome was marked by regression and exfiltration of the cutaneous lesions from the second week of treatment, with subsidence continuing at 3 months. This case involves a very rare form of xanthoma disseminatum. The localized facial skin lesions revealed multifocal non-Langerhans histiocytosis that was in fact asymptomatic. The diagnosis of XD was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical criteria. Xanthoma disseminatum is a non-Langerhans histiocytic proliferation first described by Montgomery in 1938. This rare entity is characterized by skin and mucous membrane xanthomatosis in which the facial involvement is common, together with diabetes insipidus and normal lipid metabolism. The prognosis is determined by the presence of mucosal

  6. Moving in extreme environments:extreme loading; carriage versus distance

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Samuel J. E.; Helge, Jørn W.; Schütz, Uwe H W; Goldman, Ralph F.; Cotter, James D

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of extreme loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses extreme duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme met...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, Idrissa; Bekhti, Khadija; Elhabchi, Driss; Saile, Rachid; Elmdaghri, Naima; Timinouni, Mohammed; Elazhari, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from 143 hemodialyzed outpatients and 32 medical staff from January to June 2012. Each participant completed a short questionnaire. Nasal carriage of S. aureus was demographically related (age, gender, hemodialysis duration), comorbidity (diabetes, malignancy) and exposure to health care (dialysis staff, hospitalization). PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) were used on all the isolates in the research of twelve staphylococcal enterotoxins genes. Also the PCR was used to investigate on the three factors epidermal cell differentiation inhibitors; three exfoliatin toxins; two leukotoxins; the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and the hemolysin beta genes. Nasal screening revealed 38.16%, 50% and 18.75% S. aureus carries in chronic, acute hemodialysis patients and medical staff, respectively. Only young participants were likely to be S. aureus carries (p = 0.002). But there were no gender differences between the isolate carriers and non-carriers or some comorbidity factors such as viral hepatitis B and C, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections, diabetes, chronic smoking, recent hospitalization or antibiotic therapy. Out of all isolates, only one (1.61%) was methicillin-resistant and Twenty-one (33.87%) had at least two virulence toxin genes. Knowledge and monitoring of antibiotic resistance profile and virulence of S. aureus carriage are essential in the treatment of infections generated by this pathogen, as well as in the control of clonal dissemination and prevent the spread of S. aureus resistance.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus carriage in selected kindergartens in Klang Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N A; Ramli, S; Amin, N N Z; Sulaiman, W S W; Isahak, I; Jamaluddin, T Z M T; Salleh, N M

    2016-04-01

    Nasal colonisation of S. aureus in healthy children was 18% to 30%. One to three percent of them were colonised by Methicillin-resistant Staphlycoccus aureus (MRSA). Although MRSA infection has become increasingly reported, population-based S. aureus and MRSA colonisation estimates are lacking. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus carriage among children. Nasal samples for S. aureus culture were obtained from 250 children from three kindergartens in the Klang Valley, after consent was obtained from the children and their parents. Swabs were transported in Stuart medium, and inoculated on mannitol-salt agar within four hours of collection. Identification and disk diffusion test were done according to guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction was done on MRSA isolates for the presence of mecA and lukS/FPV genes. Overall prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage were 19.2% (48/250) and 1.6% (4/250) respectively. mecA gene was present in all isolates, 50% isolates carried Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) gene. Sccmec type I was found in 2 isolates and the remaining isolates has Sccmec type V. The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage were similar to other studies. However, risk of contracting severe infection might be higher due to presence of PVL gene in half of the MRSA isolates.

  9. Clinical Appearance of Oral Candida Infection and Therapeutic Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali; Anil, Sukumaran

    2015-01-01

    Candida species present both as commensals and opportunistic pathogens of the oral cavity. For decades, it has enthralled the clinicians to investigate its pathogenicity and to improvise newer therapeutic regimens based on the updated molecular research. Candida is readily isolated from the oral cavity, but simple carriage does not predictably result in development of an infection. Whether it remains as a commensal, or transmutes into a pathogen, is usually determined by pre-existing or assoc...

  10. Attempt to modify klebsiella carriage in ankylosing spondylitic patients by diet: correlation of klebsiella carriage with disease activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Shinebaum, R; Neumann, V; Hopkins, R; Cooke, E M; Wright, V

    1984-01-01

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis were asked to follow a 'klebsiella exclusion diet' for 5 months of a 10-month study. The same percentage of faecal samples were positive for klebsiella whether the patients were on or off the experimental diet. The diet also failed to influence variability of klebsiella serotypes. We found no correlation between acquisition of klebsiella and deterioration of disease symptoms, as recorded by the patients. Furthermore, carriage of klebsiella did not correlat...

  11. Beta-lactamase production by Kingella kingae in Israel is clonal and common in carriage organisms but rare among invasive strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagupsky, P; Slonim, A; Amit, U; Porat, N; Dagan, R

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of β-lactamase and the genomic clonality of a large collection of Kingella kingae isolates from Israeli patients with a variety of invasive infections and asymptomatic pharyngeal carriers. β-lactamase production was studied by the nitrocefin method and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of penicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were determined by the epsilon (Etest) method. The genotypic clonality of isolates was investigated by pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE). β-lactamase was found in 2 of 190 (1.1 %) invasive isolates and in 66 of 429 (15.4 %) randomly chosen carriage organisms (p invasive organisms and 56 among carriage isolates). β-lactamase production was found to be limited to four distinct PFGE clones, which were common among carriage strains but rare among invasive strains, and all organisms in the collection belonging to these four clones expressed β-lactamase. The penicillin MIC of β-lactamase-producing isolates ranged between 0.094 and 2 mcg/mL (MIC50: 0.25 mcg/mL; MIC90: 1.5 mcg/mL) and that of amoxicillin-clavulanate between 0.064 and 0.47 mcg/mL (MIC50: 0.125 mcg/mL; MIC90: 0.125 mcg/mL). The penicillin MIC of β-lactamase non-producing isolates ranged between invasive potential of most colonizing clones results in infrequent detection of the enzyme in isolates from patients with clinical infections. The exceptional presence of β-lactamase among invasive organisms correlates with the favorable response of K. kingae infections to the administration of β-lactamase-susceptible antibiotics.

  12. Candida Carriage Rate and Growth Characteristics of Saliva in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Case‒Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Balan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of this study was to establish a relationship between salivary glucose levels and Candidacarriage rate in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and assess the growth characteristics and acid production of Candidain glucose-supplemented saliva. Materials and methods. A total of 90 subjects, 30 with controlled type 2 diabetes, 30 with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and 30 without diabetes (control subjects, aged 30‒60 years, participated in the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected and investigated for glucose levels (GOD-POD method, colony-forming units (CFU of Candida and salivary pH, using Indikrom paper strips. Analysis of statistical significance of salivary glucose and PH levels was carried out using post hoc Tukey HSD test. Correlation of Candida carriage rate with salivary glucose and salivary PH in the study groups and control group was made using Pearson’s correlation. Results. Candida CFUs were significantly higher in diabetic subjects, with a significant and positive correlation with salivary glucose levels. There was a negative correlation between salivary PH levels and Candida carriage rate. Conclusion. Increased salivary glucose was associated with increased prevalence of oral Candida in diabetic subjects. The growth of Candida in saliva was accompanied by a rapid decline in PH, which in turn favored their growth.

  13. Oral candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infected individuals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Katiraee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most frequent fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to appraise prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis and to determine factors associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral yeast colonization among Iranian HIV patients."n"nMethods: The patients were composed 150 Iranian HIV positive individuals referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV & Aids (IRCHA, Imam Khomeini Hospital complex in Tehran, Iran. Oral samples were obtained and cultured on mycological media. TCD4 lymphocyte count/percentage was measured and patients were categorized. Patients evaluated for some risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral candida colonization."n"nResults: Fifty nine percent of patients were presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and the carriage rate of yeasts was 116 (77.2%. The most frequent isolated candida species were Candida albicans (102 50.2% and Candida glabrata (45 22%. Thrush in 57(38%, perleche in 30(20% and erythematous lesions in 7(4.7% of patients were observed. Significant differences in TCD4 count (p=0.01, gender (p=0.02, antifungal therapy (p=0.001, smoking (p=0.02, and intravenous drug use (p=0.03, between asymptomatic and

  14. Risk factors associated with carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae fecal carriage: A case-control study in a Spanish tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madueño, Ana; González García, Jonathan; Ramos, Maria José; Pedroso, Yanet; Díaz, Zaida; Oteo, Jesus; Lecuona, María

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is an important reservoir for transmission that may precede infection. This prospective, observational, case-control study was designed to identify risk factors for carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPKP) fecal carriage. This study included 87 cases and 200 controls. Multivariate analysis identified length of stay (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.03; P = .03), previous hospitalization (OR, 5.89; 95% CI, 1.73-20.68; P = .01), antibiotic use (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.65-0.62; P = .01), and corticosteroid use (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.74; P = .007) as independent risk factors for CPKP rectal carriage. Length of hospital stay, previous hospitalization, corticosteroid use, and antimicrobial exposure are important risk factors for CPKP rectal colonization. Adherence to infection control practices and directed surveillance programs appear to be critical components for CPKP control programs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of ...

  16. Asymptomatic carotid arterial stenosis - population based screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in the general population is discussed in many countries because of the benefits of carotid endarterectomy in the three trials. Many factors influence the cost-effectiveness of screening. These factors are the prevalence of carotid stenosis, the

  17. Microbial aetiology and sensitivity of asymptomatic bacteriuria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Twenty nine (13.3%) of the samples had significant bacterial growth and E.coli was the commonest isolate (51.2%). There was a high level (20- 62%) of anti-bacterial resistance to the commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among ante-natal mothers in Mulago. E. Coli that is ...

  18. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Genital Infection among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the isolates except Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to ampicillin. These results show a high rate of asymptomatic genital tract infections among pregnant women in Benin City, which have implications for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. (Afr J Reprod Health 2002; 6[3]: 93-97) Résumé Prévalence de ...

  19. Detecting asymptomatic coronary artery disease using routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... ECG-monitored exercise testing has been proposed as a relatively inexpensive and effective means of screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients presenting for peripheral vascular surgery. Despite the fact that exercise thallium scintigraphy is also dependent on the patient's ability.

  20. Detecting asymptomatic coronary artery disease using routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ECG-monitored exercise testing has been proposed as a relatively inexpensive and effective means of screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients presenting for peripheral vascular surgery. Despite the fact that exercise thallium scintigraphy is also dependent on the patient's ability to exercise, using this ...

  1. pulmonary performance in asymptomatic young nigerian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    1. PULMONARY PERFORMANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC YOUNG NIGERIAN. POPULATION FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF ASCORBIC. ACID AND SALBUTAMOL. S. O. ODEH1, I. E. AGABA2, A. M. SABO 1, and R. A. ODANAOGUN 1. 1 Department of Human Physiology, 2 Department of Medicine and Radiology,.

  2. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia amongst asymptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical analysis was done using IBM-SPSS Windows version 20. Results: The mean age of study participants was 26.7 ± 5.1 years and the age range was 17- 42 years. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia was 49.6%. Nulliparity and anaemia (PCV <30%) were associated with increased prevalence of ...

  3. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in pregnant women attending antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for levofloxacin (83.6%), followed by nalidixic acid (64.2%) and nitrofurantoin (62.7%). The pathogens were least susceptible to co-trimoxazole (8.3%), ampilcillin (8.8%) and amoxicillin (10.4%) Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteria among the pregnant ...

  4. Tetanus toxoid antibody level in asymptomatic Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate if the presence of asymptomatic malaria parasiteamia in pregnant women will compromise their ability to respond to full dose of tetanus toxoid immunization during their antenatal clinic visits. Hence, 90 apparently healthy pregnant women who had completed the tetanus toxoid ...

  5. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective ...

  6. Asymptomatic body packers should be treated conservatively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glovinski, Peter V; Lauritsen, Morten L; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Body packing takes advantage of the human storage capacity within the alimentary tract. Body packing is used for the smuggling of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, hashish and ecstasy. Most body packers are asymptomatic. However, packets may rupture or obstruct the alimentary tract...

  7. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in HIV Positive Nigerian Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in HIV positive children and to identify the causative organisms. We studied 155 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected children aged 10 months to 17 years attending the Paediatric HIV clinics of the University of Benin Teaching ...

  8. Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria in pregnancy has contributed significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality in our environment. Aim: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, and parasite density of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia among unbooked paturients at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki. Subjects and ...

  9. asymptomatic bacteriuria in hiv positive nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FinePrint

    children with sickle cell anemia in steady state, overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in children aged 2 ... continued depletion of CD4 cells. This immune deficient state predisposes to a wide variety of infections, ... DNA PCR in the children younger than. 18months and by serology for children older than 18 months.

  10. Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effective use of insecticide treated nets and intermittent prophylaxis therapy for malaria during pregnancy. KEY WORDS: Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia, Nigeria, prevalence, unbooked paturients. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a parasitic disease of humans especially in the sub‑Saharan Africa, where about 90% of deaths ...

  11. The impact of habitual school bag carriage on the health of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of habitual school bag carriage on the health of pubescent scholars. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The carriage of heavy school bags is a suspected aetiological factor of the daily physical stress of school pupils which negatively impacts on the health of their vertebral column.

  12. The Effects of Load Carriage and Muscle Fatigue on Lower-Extremity Joint Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Frame, Jeff; Ozimek, Elicia; Leib, Daniel; Dugan, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel are commonly afflicted by lower-extremity overuse injuries. Load carriage and muscular fatigue are major stressors during military basic training. Purpose: To examine effects of load carriage and muscular fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics during walking. Method: Eighteen men performed the following tasks: unloaded…

  13. Acquisition of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in pilgrims during the 2012 Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkouiten, Samir; Gautret, Philippe; Belhouchat, Khadidja; Drali, Tassadit; Salez, Nicolas; Memish, Ziad A; Al Masri, Malak; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Brouqui, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the nasal carriage of some respiratory bacterial pathogens that are responsible for infections associated with person-to-person transmission, we conducted a cohort survey of pilgrims departing to Mecca for the 2012 Hajj season. In this report, we demonstrate the acquisition of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasal carriage in returning Hajj pilgrims.

  14. Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in healthy Dutch children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaert, D.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Boelens, H.; Sluijter, M.; Luijendijk, A.; Rumke, H.C.; Koppen, S.; Belkum, A. van; Groot, R. de; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and determinants of nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in 3200 healthy children aged 1-19 years. The incidence of meningococcal carriage was, on average, 1.5%. Peak incidences were seen at age 1 year and after age 15 years. The independent determinants

  15. Effect of Load Carriage on Upper Limb Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Amir; Katz, Inbar; Haker, Tal; Zeilig, Gabi; Defrin, Ruth; Epstein, Yoram; Gefen, Amit

    2017-05-01

    Carrying heavy backpacks are often associated with shoulder discomfort or pain, loss of sensorimotor functions, and brachial plexus injuries that might hamper performance. On the basis of previous research, the cause of these symptoms could be tissue deformations of the brachial plexus and the subclavian artery caused by the shoulder straps. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the upper extremity hemodynamic and neural function and to assess how they are associated with brachial plexus tissue deformation during heavy load carriage. Ten young healthy adults carried for 45 min a backpack load (40% of their body weight) while standing freely, followed by 15 min of recovery (unloaded). Index-finger microvascular flow and sensorimotor function were measured before and after carrying the load, and after recovery. The following sensorimotor functions were measured: light touch thresholds by the index finger and little finger, forearm thermal sensation thresholds, and gross motor function. In addition, marksmanship accuracy, as an indication for fine motor function, was tested. Load carriage resulted in an average decrease of ~40% in microvascular flow and a significant decrement in light touch sensation (P < 0.05), but not in thermal sensation and gross motor functions. An increase in the light touch threshold was highly correlated with a reduced index-finger microvascular blood flow (r = 0.79, P = 0.007). These physiological effects were associated with a functional 34% decrement in the accuracy of target acquisition. Heavy load carriage resulted in impaired light touch sensitivity and fine motor function, which were associated with reduced finger microvascular blood flow.

  16. Oral amelanotic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adisa, A O; Olawole, W O; Sigbeku, O F

    2012-06-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment.

  17. Effects of military load carriage on kinematics of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Deepti; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2010-06-01

    Manual load carriage is a universal activity and an inevitable part of the daily schedule of a soldier. Indian Infantry soldiers carry loads on the waist, back, shoulders and in the hands for a marching order. There is no reported study on the effects of load on gait in this population. It is important to evaluate their kinematic responses to existing load carriage operations and to provide guidelines towards the future design of heavy military backpacks (BPs) for optimising soldiers' performance. Kinematic changes of gait parameters in healthy male infantry soldiers whilst carrying no load (NL) and military loads of 4.2-17.5 kg (6.5-27.2% body weight) were investigated. All comparisons were conducted at a self-selected speed. Soldier characteristics were: mean (SD) age 23.3 (2.6) years; height 172.0 (3.8) cm; weight 64.3 (7.4) kg. Walk trials were collected using a 3-D Motion Analysis System. Results were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett post hoc test. There were increases in step length, stride length, cadence and midstance with the addition of a load compared to NL. These findings were resultant of an adaptive phenomenon within the individual to counterbalance load effect along with changes in speed. Ankle and hip ranges of motion (ROM) were significant. The ankle was more dorsiflexed, the knee and hip were more flexed during foot strike and helped in absorption of the load. The trunk showed more forward leaning with the addition of a load to adjust the centre of mass of the body and BP system back to the NL condition. Significant increases in ankle and hip ROM and trunk forward inclination (> or =10 degrees ) with lighter loads, such as a BP (10.7 kg), BP with rifle (14.9 kg) and BP with a light machine gun (17.5 kg), may cause joint injuries. It is concluded that the existing BP needs design improvisation specifically for use in low intensity conflict environments. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The present study evaluates spatial, temporal and angular

  18. The empty carriage: lessons in leadership from Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Marge

    2011-01-01

    Florence Nightingale made a profound statement about leadership when she returned from the Crimean War without the fanfare offered to her. Promoters paraded her empty carriage around the city of Southampton England to applaud her accomplishments in the war. Her absence signaled a new leadership, one of quiet determination, humility, and political strategy to improve quality of life. The lessons to be learned for today's nurse leaders revolve around mindfulness, clarity of purpose, reverence for human life, collaborative partnerships, co-evolution, engagement, keeping up with a world in motion, and making meaning.

  19. Mitigated-force carriage for high magnetic field environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Ludtka, Gail M.; Wilgen, John B.; Murphy, Bart L.

    2015-05-19

    A carriage for high magnetic field environments includes a plurality of work-piece separators disposed in an operable relationship with a work-piece processing magnet having a magnetic field strength of at least 1 Tesla for supporting and separating a plurality of work-pieces by a preselected, essentially equal spacing, so that, as a first work-piece is inserted into the magnetic field, a second work-piece is simultaneously withdrawn from the magnetic field, so that an attractive magnetic force imparted on the first work-piece offsets a resistive magnetic force imparted on the second work-piece.

  20. Oral leukoplakia and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Arnaud F; Farwell, D Gregory

    Oral leukoplakia is defined as a white oral lesion not related to another disease process. These lesions are largely asymptomatic, and the clinical relevance of oral leukoplakia is primarily tied to its association with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Timely workup and effective management of these lesions can reduce the risk of malignant transformation and promote early diagnosis of invasive tumors. A biopsy should be performed promptly of any persistent or suspicious leukoplakia with subsequent management dictated by histologic findings. Benign lesions can be observed or treated with topical therapy, and dysplastic lesions should be excised. Some risk of malignant transformation remains even after treatment, and close follow-up is required. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy that can result from malignant conversion of oral leukoplakia or occur de novo. These tumors are primarily treated with surgical resection and adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation as dictated by histopathologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of the Hajj on pneumococcal carriage and the effect of various pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Sophie; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A; Yezli, Saber; Gautret, Philippe

    2017-08-07

    The Islamic Hajj pilgrimage is the largest annual mass gathering in the world. The overcrowding of people promotes the acquisition, spread and transmission of respiratory pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is estimated that about 33% of pilgrims are at risk of invasive pneumococcal disease. We conducted a methodological review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-Analysis guidelines. The objective was to summarize the available data regarding the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage among Hajj pilgrims and about carriage acquisition and circulation of S. pneumoniae among pilgrims before and after participating in the Hajj according to their vaccination status. Five articles met eligibility criteria for pneumococcal carriage and impact of pneumococcal vaccination on carriage. All five studies showed a significant increase in nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci following the pilgrimage, with acquisition rates ranging from 18% to 36%. Serotypes 3, 19F and 34 are the most common. A significant increase in at least one antibiotic and multiple antibiotic non-susceptible strains was observed following participation in the Hajj. A lower prevalence was found in pilgrims treated with antibiotics, those who used a hand sanitizer, or those who washed their hands more frequently than usual. An increased carriage of pneumococcal serotypes included in pneumococcal vaccines (10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10), 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) was observed following participation in the Hajj. To date, no study has shown a significant reduction in pneumococcal carriage among pilgrims after vaccination with PPV23 or PCVs. In fact, no significant difference was currently observed in the prevalence ratio of pneumococcal carriage between vaccinated and unvaccinated pilgrims. The studies analyzed in this review showed an increased carriage of

  2. Role of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashimav Deb Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the role of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in patients suffering from chronic urticaria. Method: All total 82 patients were included for this study. Study group comprised 57 patients with chronic urticaria and the control group comprised 25 healthy volunteers. Nasal swab specimens were taken from all the 82 patients for bacterial culture and antimicrobial sensitivity. Patients with chronic urticaria who had positive growth for S. aureus were treated with sensitive antimicrobial agent. Nasal swab specimens were taken again from all the patients who received antimicrobial therapy to ensure complete eradication of S. aureus. All patients were followed up for a period of 6 weeks after the treatment. Urticarial activity was measured with the help of urticarial activity score. Results: S. aureus was detected in swab specimens from the nasal cavity in 32 patients in the study group and 7 patients in the control group. In the study group, after the antimicrobial treatment, 9 patients (28.12% had complete recovery from urticaria during the follow-up period; 4 patients (12.5% showed partial recovery from urticaria while the remaining patients (59.37% continued to suffer from urticaria. Conclusion: This study showed that nasal carriage of S. aureus can act as an etiological factor in chronic urticaria.

  3. Extraction of Asymptomatic Tooth With And Without Antibiotic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Agrawal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of asymptomatic tooth constitutes a large proportion of maxillofacial surgery procedure and antibiotics are indiscriminately prescribed before and after tooth extraction in Bangladesh. Objectives: This cross sectional study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative antibiotic therapy in reducing postoperative morbidity in two groups following extraction of asymptomatic tooth. Methods: A total of 112 patients, 54 Female and 58 Male, aged 16 to 35 years comprised the study materials. Diagnosis was made by accurate history, clinical examination and radiographs. Clinical examination was done to assess the presence or absence of local infection, pain, swelling and mucosal coverage whereas Orthopantomogram (OPG and Intraoral Periapical (IOPA radiographs were taken to assess the angulations, position and bony coverage. Tooth extraction was performed with buccal guttering technique after adequate elevation and reflection of full thickness mucoperiosteal flap. The Control Group was given Cap. Amoxicillin 500mg, orally daily for 5 days postoperatively. The Study Group was not given antibiotics. Pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated preoperatively and on 2nd, 7th and 14th postoperative day. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 for windows and was compiled and test of significance was done using Chi square (x² test and unpaired‘t’ test. Results: Statistical analysis of the data indicated that pain and swelling was significantly reduced and significant maximum mouth opening was achieved, when preoperative and postoperative results were compared, in both the groups P > 0.05, statistically not significant. Conclusion: There were no significant differences among the groups in the incidence of postoperative morbidity (pain, swelling and trismus.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v5i1.10996 BSMMU J 2012; 5(1:24-28

  4. [Asymptomatic classical hereditary xanthinuria type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, Renata; Nir, Vered; Kassem, Eiass; Klein-Kremer, Adi

    2012-06-01

    We report on a girl who was diagnosed with classical hereditary xanthinuria due to an incidental finding of extremely low Levels of uric acid in the blood. The girl is compLetely asymptomatic. Hereditary xanthinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disease that usually causes early urolithiasis but may cause rheumatoid arthritis-like disease and even be associated with defects in the formation of bone, hair and teeth. In Israel it has mostly been described in patients of Bedouin origin. Throughout the world, only about 150 cases have been described; about two thirds of these patients were asymptomatic. Since the clinical presentation and age of symptom appearance are diverse, the case raises questions as to the required follow-up of these patients and as to whether a low oxalate diet should be initiated.

  5. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces

    OpenAIRE

    Tamg?ney, G?ltekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious prion diseases 1 ? scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 ? are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5?8 , the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in ...

  6. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces

    OpenAIRE

    Tamgüney, G; Miller, MW; Wolfe, LL; Sirochman, TM; Glidden, DV; Palmer, C; Lemus, A; Dearmond, SJ; Prusiner, SB

    2009-01-01

    Infectious prion diseasesĝ€"scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer familyĝ€" are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces...

  7. Asymptomatic atlantoaxial subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Nazarinia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic cervical spine subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis patients by plain radiographs and its relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, disease activity measures and medications. 100 rheumatoid arthritis patients (18 male and 82 female were selected randomly, according to the American college of Rheumatology Criteria, who were under follow up in the rheumatology clinic. A complete history was taken, and physical examination has been done with focus on the cervical spine to determine their demographic data, disease duration, age of disease onset, drug history, swollen and tender joint counts, and ESR, Hb, CRP, RF levels. The disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis was measured using the disease activity score 28. Radiographs of the cervical spine included lateral views taken in flexion, extension, neutral position of the neck and anterioposterior and odontoid projection view. Asymptomatic cervical spine subluxation was found in 17 of the 100 patients (17%. The prevalence of, anterior atlantoaxial subluxation, atlantoaxial impaction and subaxial subluxation was 10(10%, 5(5% and 6(6%, respectively. Posterior subluxation was not detected. The only characteristic that showed meaningful relationship with cervical spine subluxation was CRP (P=0.036. Our results showed that patients with RA, who have cervical spine subluxation cannot be distinguished on the basis of symptoms. Cervical spine involvement is common and may be asymptomatic, indicating routine cervical spine imaging is needed in patients with RA.

  8. Profiles of enteropathogens in asymptomatic children from indigenous communities of Mérida, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Judith; González, Fanny; Díaz, Tulia; Peña-Guillén, Jesús; Araque, María

    2011-04-26

    In Latin America, gastrointestinal infections represent one of the main causes of death among indigenous groups, with a mortality rate three times greater than in the general population. In this study, the carrier state of enteropathogens and the epidemiological risk factor in asymptomatic children from indigenous communities of Mérida, Venezuela, were determined. Fifty-eight healthy children, 5 years of age and under, were clinically and epidemiologically evaluated. Fecal samples were tested for a range of classic enteropathogens. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST) were performed by dilution methods. Of the specimens studied, there were 34 (58.6%) positive samples, and a single enteropathogen was detected in 22 (64.6%) of these. Associations of two and three enteropathogens were observed in 10 (29.3%) and two (5.8%) cases, respectively. Blastocystis hominis (16; 47.0%) and Salmonella spp. (15; 43.9%) were the most frequently detected enteropathogens. Carriage of enteropathogens was most frequent in children older than two years. The variety of food in the daily diet was the risk factor strongly associated with the presence of parasites and/or enteric bacteria (p = 0.024 indigenous communities; this result is statistically related to the consumption of food. These findings stress the need of continuous epidemiological surveillance in vulnerable populations, as an important step to prevent the morbidity and mortality due to gastrointestinal infections.

  9. Molecular Detection of the Carriage Rate of Four Intestinal Protozoa with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Possible Overdiagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efunshile, Michael A; Ngwu, Bethrand A F; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L; Sahar, Sumrin; König, Brigitte; Stensvold, Christen R

    2015-08-01

    Diarrhea remains the second largest killer of children worldwide, and Nigeria ranks number two on the list of global deaths attributable to diarrhea. Meanwhile, prevalence studies on potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers using molecular detection methods remain scarce in sub-Saharan countries. To overcome sensitivity issues related to microscopic detection and identification of cysts in stool concentrates, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze genomic DNAs extracted from stool samples from 199 healthy school children for Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, and Cryptosporidium. Questionnaires were administered for epidemiological data collection. E. histolytica was not detected in any of the samples, whereas Giardia (37.2%), E. dispar (18.6%), and Cryptosporidium (1%) were found. Most of the children sourced their drinking water from community wells (91%), while the majority disposed of feces in the bush (81.9%). Our study is the first to use real-time PCR to evaluate the epidemiology of E. histolytica, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium in Nigeria where previous studies using traditional diagnostic techniques have suggested higher and lower carriage rates of E. histolytica and Giardia, respectively. It is also the first study to accurately identify the prevalence of common potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers in sub-Saharan Africa. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. A Contribution to Recognising Carrier's Liability in International Carriage by Air and Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Kaštela

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the provisions of the part of MontrealConvention which refers to the air carriers' liability regardingdamage to passengers and luggage, with the intention of indicatingthe possible influence of this Convention on the equal liabilityin maritime carriage, settled by the recent changes of theAthens Convention on the carriage of passengers and their luggageby sea. The provisions of these documents are comparedregarding the basic principles of the carrier's liability and theamount of liability for the damage, showing both some similaritiesand some differences in the carriage of passengers by air, i.e.by sea.

  11. Oral Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... care. NIDCR > Image Gallery > Oral Health > Oral Herpes Oral Herpes Main Content Title: Oral Herpes Description: Herpes ( ...

  12. Oral Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... care. NIDCR > Image Gallery > Oral Health > Oral Warts Oral Warts Main Content Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts ...

  13. External store carriage loads prediction at transonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Bruce S.

    1988-01-01

    A computational method for prediction of external store carriage loads at transonic speeds is described. The geometric flexibility required for treatment of isolated and underwing, pylon-mounted stores is achieved by computing solutions on a five-level embedded grid arrangement. A completely automated grid generation procedure facilitates applications. Store modeling capability consists of bodies of revolution with multiple fore and aft fins. A body-conforming grid improves the accuracy of the computed store body flow field. A nonlinear finite difference relaxation scheme, developed specifically for modified transonic small disturbance flow equations, enhances numerical stability and accuracy. As a result, more accurate treatment of low aspect ratio, highly swept and tapered wing planforms is possible. A limited supersonic freestream capability is also provided. Pressure, load distribution, force and moment correlations show good agreement for several test cases.

  14. Method to predict external store carriage loads at transonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Bruce S.

    1989-01-01

    A computational method for prediction of external store carriage loads at transonic speeds is described. The geometric flexibility required for treatment of isolated and underwing, pylon mounted stores is achieved by computing solutions on a five level embedded grid arrangement. A completely automated grid generation procedure facilitates applications. Store modeling capability consists of bodies of revolution with multiple fore and aft fins. A body conforming grid improves the accuracy of the computed store body flow field. A nonlinear finite difference relaxation scheme, developed specifically for modified transonic small disturbance flow equations, enhances numerical stability and accuracy. As a result, more accurate treatment of low aspect ratio, highly swept and tapered wing planforms is possible. A limited supersonic freestream capability is also provided. Pressure, load distribution, force and moment correlation show good agreement for several test cases.

  15. Aspects of Legal Translation in Contracts of Carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Nădrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes several aspects of the maritime law vocabulary, in order to overcome theproblem of maritime inaccuracies in translation and to contribute to the better understanding andtranslation of texts and legislations within this field. The first section of this article deals withseveral key terms and issues in the field of legal translation and maritime language and highlightsthe fact that maritime language represents a functional variety of register. The second sectionpresents the corpus analyzed within this paper in order to reveal the language variation in the twolanguages (i.e. Romanian and English and to assess their lexical density. The third section isfocused on corpus analysis, highlighting the language variation in the English and Romaniantranslation of the chosen texts from the field of contracts of carriage in maritime law.

  16. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  17. Asymptomatic Central Pontine Myelinolysis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Omar Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM is an acquired demyelinating lesion of the basis pontis that typically occurs after rapid correction of hyponatremia. There are only a few reported cases of patients without symptoms that have demonstrated CPM on imaging. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 26-year-old Hispanic male with history of alcohol abuse who was transferred to our medical center for acute onset diffuse abdominal pain. During his work up, a computed tomography scan demonstrated a large pancreatic mass. He underwent an endoscopic guided biopsy which demonstrated a rare and aggressive natural killer T cell lymphoma. His laboratory values were consistent with hyponatremia, which the medical team gently corrected. An MRI was performed for staging purposes which revealed findings consistent with CPM. A full neurological exam demonstrated no deficits. Materials and Methods: We conducted a PubMed search using the following keywords: asymptomatic, central, pontine, and myelinolysis in order to find other case reports of asymptomatic CPM. Results: Of the 29 results, only 6 previous case reports with English language abstracts of asymptomatic CPM were present since 1995. Conclusion: Despite slow correction of hyponatremia, CPM can be an important consequence, especially in patients with chronic alcoholism. Although this patient did not demonstrate any neurological deficits, the fact that there were changes seen on MRI should caution physicians in aggressively treating hyponatremia. Furthermore, if there is a decision to treat, then fluid restriction and reversal of precipitating factors (i.e. diuretics should be used initially, unless there is concern for hypovolemia.

  18. The asymptomatic teenager with an abnormal electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder R

    2014-02-01

    Use of medications for attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder and preparticipation sports physical examination has led to an increase in number of electrocardiograms (ECG) performed during adolescence. Interpreting ECGs in children and young adults must take into account the evolutionary changes with age and the benign variants, which are usually not associated with heart disease. It is crucial for primary-care providers to recognize the changes on ECG associated with heart disease and risk of sudden death. In this article, the significance, sensitivity, specificity, and the diagnostic workup of these findings in the asymptomatic teenager are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic pattern and genotypic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy pre-school children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumental, S; Deplano, A; Jourdain, S; De Mendonça, R; Hallin, M; Nonhoff, C; Rottiers, S; Vergison, A; Denis, O

    2013-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study were to assess the S. aureus temporal carriage pattern among a healthy community of pre-school children, with concomitant description of genotype diversity, toxin-encoding genes and antibiotic resistance...

  20. Gametocyte carriage in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria following treatment with artemisinin combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Salim; Achan, Jane; Adam, Ishag

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gametocytes are responsible for transmission of malaria from human to mosquito. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) reduces post-treatment gametocyte carriage, dependent upon host, parasite and pharmacodynamic factors. The gametocytocidal properties of antimalarial drugs are importa...

  1. GM risk assessment: Pollen carriage from Brassica napus to B. rapa varies widely between pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    Ronca, S; Allainguillaume, J.; Ford, C.; Warren, J; Wilkinson, M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing insect pollen carriage between closely related plant species is especially challenging where source species possess morphologically identical pollen and share many pollinators in common. Here, we use an SNP-based assay using the plant DNA barcoding locus matK to characterize pollen carriage between cultivated Brassica napus and wild Brassica rapa in three sites across southern England. The assay differentiated B. napus and B. rapa pollen carried by honey bees (Apis melifera), b...

  2. PNEUMOCOCCAL CARRIAGE RATE IN CHILDREN AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS IN AN URBAN S ET UP

    OpenAIRE

    Nandan; Jagadeesh; Anjana

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: S.pneumoniae is the major cause of morbidity and mor tality in India and abroad and carriage is the key to invasiv e disease. Carriage (20-60%) and invasive disease are more prevalent in children and in the el derly. Increased case fatality is due to the emergence of Penicillin and Multidrug Resistant S.pn eumoniae worldwide. Penicillin has been the drug of choice for treatment of pneumococcal inf ections but the increasing number of re...

  3. Variable performance of models for predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in European surgical wards

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Andie S; Pan, Angelo; Harbarth, Stephan; Patroni, Andrea; Chalfine, Annie; Daikos, George L; Garilli, Silvia; Mart?nez, Jos? Antonio; Cooper, Ben S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Predictive models to identify unknown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage on admission may optimise targeted MRSA screening and efficient use of resources. However, common approaches to model selection can result in overconfident estimates and poor predictive performance. We aimed to compare the performance of various models to predict previously unknown MRSA carriage on admission to surgical wards. METHODS: The study analysed data collected during a prospe...

  4. Coronary risk variables in young asymptomatic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S B; Dwivedi, S; Prabhu, K M; Singh, G; Kumar, N; Lal, M K

    2005-09-01

    Smoking plays a dominant role in premature atherosclerosis particularly among males in South Asian countries. It initiates and promotes atherosclerosis by altering cardiac haemodynamics, causing dyslipidaemia and producing oxidative damage. Not much information is available from our country. We therefore undertook this study to see the effect of smoking on electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, lipids, apolipoprotein B level and free radical activity in young asymptomatic male smokers. The study included 100 consecutive male subjects (50 smokers and 50 non smokers) aged 30-40 yr. Smoking profile, detailed cardiovascular assessment including ECG and lipid profile were evaluated in each subject. Of the 50 smokers, 22 (44%) had grade I hypertension as against 5 of 50 non smokers. Sinus tachycardia (10%) and P-pulmonale (8%) were the only notable ECG abnormalities. Dyslipidaemia was detected in 92 per cent smokers and 48 per cent non smokers (Plevels were significantly higher (Psmokers compared to non smokers. LDL-cholesterol was > or =135 mg/dl in 94 per cent dyslipidaemic smokers. However, no significant difference was found in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Smokers had significantly higher serum malondialdehyde levels (Pnon smokers. Our data indicate that young asymptomatic male smokers tend to have hypertension, dyslipidaemia and increased production of free oxygen radicals, perhaps by attenuation of oxidative stress by cigarette smoking. This makes them prone for premature coronary artery disease. However, the findings need to be confirmed on a larger sample.

  5. Relationship and susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus infection diabetic foot ulcers with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Aza Bahadeen

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of diabetic foot infection with the patient's endogenous flora as the principal source. Nasal carriage of S. aureus has been identified as an important risk factor for the acquisition of diabetic foot infections. The study assessment the associations of S. aureus with methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolation from diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage of the same patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Diagnosis of S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus were carried out by using standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles were determent by breakpoint dilution method. Out of 222 S. aureus isolation, 139 (62.61%) were isolated from the diabetic foot and 83 (37.39%) from the nasal carriage. Seventy one (30.87%) of the patients were S. aureus infection diabetic foot with nasal carriage. Among diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage patients, 40.85% of S. aureus were considered as methicillin resistant S. aureus. Rifampicin (96.40%) and Levofloxacin (91.44%) were active against S. aureus. Patients at strong risk for methicillin resistant S. aureus nasal carriage and subsequent diabetic foot infection with high resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral health-related quality of life of patients with oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, or oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, Julia; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Moergel, Maximilian; Daubländer, Monika

    2014-08-01

    To compare oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral leukoplakia (OL), or oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Seventy-three patients with OLP, 44 with OL, and 37 with OSCC participated in this prospective study. The German version of the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-G 14) was used to measure OHRQoL. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of clinical forms, age, gender, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits were evaluated. No association to cumulative OHIP-14 score (P = .086) among the 3 groups was found. However, patients with OLP showed a higher "physical pain" score and a lower "social disability" score (P = .026) than patients with OSCC, followed by patients with OL. Women with OLP had a lower OHRQoL than men. After differentiation of clinical forms of OLP (symptomatic vs asymptomatic), an impact on these patients' OHRQoL in the dimensions "physical pain" and "physical disability" was found. Patients with OLP or OSCC and high OHIP-G 14 scores reported physical pain, which emphasizes the need for physical therapy. For improved OHRQoL, patients with symptomatic forms of OLP would gain more from a treatment compared with those with asymptomatic forms. In contrast, patients with asymptomatic OLP or OL and thus with a minimal impact on their OHRQoL might be at risk of delayed consultation, diagnosis, and treatment of their condition. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage by respiratory pathogens among Greenlandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navne, Johan Emdal; Koch, Anders; Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2010, Greenland introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar 13®- PCV-13) in the childhood immunisation program. The authors aimed to evaluate the impact of PCV-13 on nasopharyngeal carriage of bacteria frequently associated with respiratory infections in children....... Overall carriage rate of S. pneumoniae remained unchanged from 2011 to 2013 (51% and 56%, p=0.13), but significant serotype shifts were observed among both vaccinated and unvaccinated children with marked reductions in carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci, counterbalanced by increasing carriage of non-vaccine...... types. Carriage rate of S. aureus decreased significantly among vaccinated children whereas that of M. catarrhalis increased. CONCLUSION: PCV-13 introduction in Greenland is associated with significant changes in nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage. Continued surveillance is warranted to clarify whether...

  8. NASAL AND HAND CARRIAGE OF BACTERIA IN DIFFERENT GROUPS OF PERSONS IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathi Gangulv

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available 275 persons of different categories were studiedfor nasal and hand carnage of different pathogenic bacteria. Overall carriage rate was 54.5%. Doc­tors and paramedical staff had higher bacterial carriage rate in comparison to other groups. Though Staphylococcus aureus iwu the commonest or­ganism isolated from both nose and skin, earners of Escherichia coli. Pseudomonas and Klebsiella group ofgramnegative bacilli was also observed. Nasal carrier were commonest than dermal carriage

  9. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dogs--a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windahl Ulrika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius strains (MRSP are reported with increasing frequency in bacterial cultures from dogs. The objectives of this study were to determine whether MRSP could be found in dogs several months after a clinically apparent infection and whether the length of carriage varied depending on systemic antimicrobial treatment, diagnosis at time of the first positive MRSP culture and the presence of skin disease or wounds. Thirty-one dogs previously diagnosed with a clinical infection were sampled repeatedly for a minimum of eight months or, with the exception of two dogs, until two consecutive negative results were obtained. Five specified locations were sampled, and the results were evaluated to determine future recommendations concerning sample strategies when screening for MRSP carriage. Information was collected from medical records and questionnaires to evaluate factors that may influence length of carriage. Results The overall median length of MRSP carriage was 11 months (48 weeks. The presence of wounds and signs of dermatitis did not influence length of carriage. Systemic treatment for three weeks or longer with antimicrobial agents to which the bacterium was resistant was associated with prolonged carriage compared to dogs treated for a shorter period of time. Three of five dogs treated with an antimicrobial to which their MRSP-isolates were susceptible (tetracycline were found to still be MRSP-positive when sampled after the end of treatment. Wound samples had the highest positive MRSP yield (81% for the positive sample sites, compared to less than 70% for each of the other four sample sites. Cultures from the nostrils were less likely to detect MRSP carriage relative to the pharynx, perineum, wounds and the corner of the mouth. Conclusions Dogs can carry MRSP for more than a year after a clinically apparent infection. Systemic antimicrobial treatment of infections with antimicrobial agents

  10. Acquisition of meningococcal serogroup W-135 carriage in Turkish Hajj pilgrims who had received the quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, M; Celik, M; Demir, E T; Gurbuz, V; Aycan, A E; Unal, S

    2013-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease is a recognized public health problem worldwide, with a dynamic and changeable epidemiology. In Turkey, the second most common pathogenic meningococcal serogroup (after serogroup B) is W-135, including an epidemic in 2005, which has been strongly associated with Hajj pilgrims and their close contacts. In two studies conducted in 2010, we assessed meningococcal carriage in intending Turkish pilgrims to the Hajj when they attended to receive a plain polysaccharide vaccine against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y and, upon their return, to determine the acquisition of meningococcal carriage by the pilgrims themselves and subsequently their household contacts. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from pilgrims before the Hajj and upon their return. Swabs were then obtained from 39 household contacts of pilgrims who were shown to have acquired carriage during the Hajj. Of the 472 pilgrims before the Hajj, 63 (13%) were positive for meningococcal carriage, of which 52 cases (83%) were serogroup W-135. In the 296 pilgrims tested after the Hajj, 81 (27%) were positive for meningococcal carriage, including 74 (91%) with W-135. In 11 family members of pilgrims who acquired W-135 carriage at the Hajj, 10 (91%) had acquired carriage of serogroup W-135. This study illustrates the acquisition of meningococcal carriage, predominantly of serogroup W-135 by pilgrims attending the Hajj, and the transmission of this carriage to their family members on their return, explaining the source of W-135 meningococcal disease in Turkey.

  11. Current management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Serrano-Rodríguez, L

    2015-05-01

    Asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is a common problem in daily clinical practice, and its management is still the subject of controversy. In contrast to symptomatic carotid disease, the main studies on surgical treatment of patients with ACS have shown only a modest benefit in the primary prevention of stroke. In addition, current medical treatment has drastically decreased the risk of stroke in patients with ACS. Selecting patients amenable to endovascular treatment and determining how and when to conduct the ultrasound follow-up of these patients are issues that still need resolving. This article analyzes two new studies underway that provide evidence for better management of ACS in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  12. Recurrent Parotid Carcinosarcoma in an Asymptomatic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mansour MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the case of a 52-year-old male with a history of parotid carcinosarcoma with initial diagnosis being 18 months prior. Initial treatment included a combination of gamma knife surgery coupled with high dosage chemotherapy and X-ray radiation therapy. At the time of follow-up, the patient presented with no complaints and had a nearly normal physical exam with the exception of some facial nerve weakness on the same side as the initial surgery. Despite being asymptomatic, the patient had a significant progression of disease that was manifested with intracranial lesions, multiple pathologic fractures, and a dramatic increase in overall tumor burden. Ultimately, the patient decided to pursue comfort measures only and succumbed to the disease peacefully soon thereafter.

  13. [Asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis: a reopened debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Stefano; Sadaba, Rafael; de la Cruz, Elena

    2014-05-06

    Aortic stenosis is a complex disease. About 2-7% of the population over 65 years of age is affected by its degenerative form. In patients with severe aortic stenosis presenting with symptoms or left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF)debate. Recent published data show that about one third of these patients present with low left ventricle stroke volume, which may affect survival. For this reason, and considering that aortic valve replacement is in most cases a low risk procedure, early surgery in this subgroup is a strategy that deserves to be taken into account. In this review we report on these recent findings, which allow understanding why patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis should not be considered and treated as a homogenous population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral Biology, Oral Pathology, and Oral Treatments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nammour, Samir; Zeinoun, Toni; Yoshida, Kenji; Brugnera Junior, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    ..., and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Oral biology, oral pathology, and oral treatments are interesting fields in dentistry. The rapid evolution of technologies ...

  15. [Oral manifestations of Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C X W; de Boer, N K H; Brand, H S

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are predominant in Crohn's disease. Oral manifestations may also occur. The prevalence of oral manifestations varies between 0.5% and 37%. The manifestations may coincide with or precede gastrointestinal symptoms, and can be subdivided into specific and non-specific lesions. In most patients, lesions are asymptomatic but some patients experience serious discomfort. Oral manifestations can be classified as specific lesions, such as diffuse lip and buccal swelling and cobblestones, and non-specific lesions, such as aphthous ulcers, pyostomatitis vegetans, caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. In many patients, these oral symptoms do not cause pain or discomfort and do not require treatment. For patients who do experience discomfort, pain caused by aphthous ulcers, for example, can be relieved with a lidocaine solution or a 0.1% dexamethasone gel, and corticosteroids can be used to treat pain caused by ulceration or cobblestoning. It is advisable in complex cases to consult the patient's gastroenterologist.

  16. Surgery for small asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Giovanni; Powell, Janet T; Martinez, Melissa Ashley-Marie; Ballard, David J

    2015-02-08

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an abnormal ballooning of the major abdominal artery. Some AAAs present as emergencies and require surgery; others remain asymptomatic. Treatment of asymptomatic AAAs depends on many factors, but an important one is the size of the aneurysm, as risk of rupture increases with aneurysm size. Large asymptomatic AAAs (greater than 5.5 cm in diameter) are usually repaired surgically; very small AAAs (less than 4.0 cm diameter) are monitored with ultrasonography. Debate continues over the appropriate roles of immediate repair and surveillance with repair on subsequent enlargement in people presenting with asymptomatic AAAs of 4.0 cm to 5.5 cm diameter. This is the third update of the review first published in 1999. To compare mortality, quality of life, and cost effectiveness of immediate surgical repair versus routine ultrasound surveillance in people with asymptomatic AAAs between 4.0 cm and 5.5 cm in diameter. For this update, the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (February 2014) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1). We checked reference lists of relevant articles for additional studies. Randomised controlled trials in which men and women with asymptomatic AAAs of diameter 4.0 cm to 5.5 cm were randomly allocated to immediate repair or imaging-based surveillance at least every six months. Outcomes had to include mortality or survival. Three members of the review team independently extracted the data, which were cross-checked by other team members. Risk ratios (RR) (endovascular aneurysm repair only), hazard ratios (HR) (open repair only), and 95% confidence intervals based on Mantel-Haenszel Chi(2) statistic were estimated at one and six years (open repair only) following randomisation. We included all relevant published studies in this review. For this update, four trials with a combined total of 3314 participants

  17. A rare case of asymptomatic bilateral submandibular gland sialolithiasis: a giant, fistulized calculus on the right and multiple calculi on the left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Hatice; Kaptan, Zeynep Kizilkaya; Uzunkulaoglu, Hakki; Dogan, Sedat

    2010-10-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of the submandibular gland; sialoliths account for at least 80% of all salivary duct calculi. We present a rare case of asymptomatic bilateral submandibular gland sialoliths. On the right, the patient had a giant (35 × 35 mm) sialolith that had fistulized into the oral cavity. In the left submandibular gland, he had 30 differently sized sialoliths.

  18. Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallowfield Joanne L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1, carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1 Placebo (flavoured water [PLA], (2 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086. During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1 recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1 recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091 and 48 h (P = 0.177, respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions.

  19. Point surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus carriage among medical staff in Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Tz; Udo, E E; Grover, S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among doctors and nurses in Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kuwait, following the detection of 3 cases of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A total of 260 nasal and throat swabs were obtained from 19 doctors and 111 nurses and cultured for the carriage of S. aureus. Forty-three S. aureus were identified based on their growth characteristics on mannitol-salt agar, catalase and tube coagulase and DNA hydrolysis. The isolates were tested for susceptibility to antibacterial agents and typed by phage typing; plasmid analysis and pulsed-field electrophoresis were carried out to determine their relatedness. Of the 19 doctors, 4 (21%) had nasal carriage while only 1 of them had a throat carriage. Sixteen (14.4%) nurses carried S. aureus in their noses and 20 (18%) in their throats. The combined nasal carriage rate for both doctors and nurses was 15.8%, and combined throat carriage was 16.6%. None of them carried MRSA. The isolates were resistant to penicillin G (90%), tetracycline (23.3%), erythromycin (9.3%) and cadmium (100%). Typing of the isolates showed a variety of phage types, plasmid and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. None of the doctors or nurses carried MRSA. Typing of the methicillin-susceptible strains that they carried demonstrated that the S. aureus were different, indicating an absence of a dominant clone capable of spreading. It is important to maintain a low carriage of S. aureus among health-care workers. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Dynamic pattern and genotypic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumental, S; Deplano, A; Jourdain, S; De Mendonça, R; Hallin, M; Nonhoff, C; Rottiers, S; Vergison, A; Denis, O

    2013-07-01

    It is common wisdom that persistent carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is more frequent in young children than in adults. The objectives of this study were to assess the S. aureus temporal carriage pattern among a healthy community of pre-school children, with concomitant description of genotype diversity, toxin-encoding genes and antibiotic resistance. Among 333 children 3-6 years of age, S. aureus nasopharyngeal carriage was assessed over one school year by culture of three sequential nasopharyngeal aspirates. Identification, methicillin resistance and toxin production profile were determined by PCR. Genotyping was performed by spa sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Out of 830 samples collected, 286 (34%) yielded S. aureus from 185 carriers (55%). Based on consecutive genotype analysis, only 40/268 (15%) children could be classified as persistent carriers, and the remaining 118 (44%) showed intermittent carriage. spa typing revealed 82 types clustered into 13 spa clonal complexes (CCs). Fourteen strains isolated from 11 (3%) children were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), half of these strains belonged to the commonly hospital-associated spa t008-ST8-SCCmec IV. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were genotypically more diverse. Toxic shock syndrome toxin and egc1/2 complexes were highly prevalent (24%). Contrastingly, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) was carried only by three MSSA strains (0.6% of children). Exfoliative toxins were detected in 10 (3.5%) MSSA strains, of which 5 were related to the impetigo clone CC121. Although S. aureus nasopharyngeal carriage was high among healthy pre-school children, persistent carriage seems to be less frequent than previously reported. The prevalence of MRSA carriage was 3%, but was not associated with PVL.

  1. Surgical removal versus retention for the management of asymptomatic impacted wisdom teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettes, Theodorus Dirk G; Ghaeminia, Hossein; Nienhuijs, Marloes E L; Perry, John; van der Sanden, Wil J M; Plasschaert, Alphons

    2012-06-13

    The prophylactic removal of asymptomatic impacted wisdom teeth is defined as the (surgical) removal of wisdom teeth in the absence of local disease. Impacted wisdom teeth may be associated with pathological changes, such as inflammation of the gums around the tooth, root resorption, gum and alveolar bone disease, damage to the adjacent teeth and the development of cysts and tumours. Other reasons to justify prophylactic removal have been to prevent late incisor crowding. When surgical removal is carried out in older patients, following the development of symptoms, the risk of postoperative complications, pain and discomfort increases. Nevertheless, in most developed countries prophylactic removal of trouble-free wisdom teeth, either impacted or fully erupted, has long been considered as 'appropriate care' and is a very common procedure. There is a need to determine whether there is evidence to support this practice. To evaluate the effects of prophylactic removal of asymptomatic impacted wisdom teeth in adolescents and adults compared with the retention (conservative management) of these wisdom teeth. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 30 March 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 30 March 2012), and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 30 March 2012). There were no restrictions on language or date of publication. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on adolescents and adults comparing the effect of prophylactic removal of asymptomatic impacted wisdom teeth with no-treatment (retention). Six review authors screened the results of the search and assessed whether trials met the inclusion criteria for the review. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were conducted in duplicate and independently by six review authors. Where information was unclear, authors of studies were contacted for additional information

  2. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Al-Humaidi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients. Perfusion abnormalities on myocardial perfusion SPECT images were associated with disease duration, insulin use, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Asymptomatic diabetic patients might be candidates with CAD abnormalities that can be studied using myocardial perfusion SPECT.

  3. Asymptomatic proteinuria in children in Calabar | Etuk | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The urine samples of pupils from 4 Primary schools in Calabar were studied for asymptomatic proteinuria. The aim was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria in children in calabar. For each pupil, two urine samples were tested for proteinuria using the dipstick. The first urine sample was collected at ...

  4. Unholy Screening for Detection of Asymptomatic Haematwria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ikimalo FE, Elm FU, Nkanginieme KEO, Ikinialo J. Urinary Screening for Detection of. Asymptomatic Haematurla and Pmteinuria in Children in Urban and Periurbaa Schools in Port Harcourt. Nfgeriarrjomalaf Paediatriam 30:1. In order to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic haematuria and proteinuria, a survey was ...

  5. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The global increase in the prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes has brought asymptomatic bacteriuria, one of its complications to the fore. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, identify the bacterial pathogens and their ...

  6. Asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease in South African schoolchildren

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adulthood with good health and no impact on their schooling. The study team also recognised the controversies that exist around: (i) the method of screening for asymptomatic RHD; (ii) the borderline disease entity; and (iii) the prognostic impact of asymptomatic. RHD. [8] The WHF criteria, which represent the only evidence- ...

  7. Prevalence and association of asymptomatic prostatitis with urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The link between prostatitis and urinary tract infections (UTIs) has been acknowledged but documented incidences of asymptomatic prostatitis remains a course for concern. This study therefore, assesses the prevalence and association of asymptomatic prostatitis with urinary tract infections among apparently healthy men in ...

  8. Prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation in asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders; Gerdts, Eva; Boman, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency and prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation (AF) in asymptomatic mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis (AS) has not been well described. METHODS: Clinical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography were obtained in asymptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate A...

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in osogbo with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common clinical entity in pregnancy but the prevalence due to S. saprophyticus, an established uro-pathogen in sexually active women, remained largely unknown in Nigeria. The prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria due to S. saprophyticus was therefore determined among 431 ...

  10. Human rhinovirus infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of rhinovirus asymptomatic infections in the transmission among close contacts subjects is unknown. We tested health care workers, a pair of one child and a family member and immunocompromised patients (n =191. HRV were detected on 22.9% symptomatic and 3.6% asymptomatic cases suggesting lower transmission among contacts.

  11. Ultrasound study of the asymptomatic shoulder in patients with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To document the incidence of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears in patients with a confirmed symptomatic tear in the opposite shoulder, and to identify ultrasound findings that may distinguish symptomatic from asymptomatic tears. Design. When patients are referred for an ultrasound examination for the confirmation ...

  12. An Appraisal of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnancy-The Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Obstetric care aims at reducing maternal (and perinatal) mortality and morbidity making the identification and management of related risk factors, such as asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy of paramount importance. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the booking ...

  13. Alpha-Fetoprotein in Asymptomatic Hepatitis B Virus Infected Subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high in sub-Saharan Africa. A great number of the infected individuals are asymptomatic and are commonly diagnosed by chance. Alpha-fetoprotein and liver function tests were evaluated in asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive subjects to ascertain ...

  14. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy is associated with obstetric complications including preeclampsia, pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight and prematurity. Determining the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women locally is needed to justify routine screening for ASB in ...

  15. Influence of urbanisation on asymptomatic malaria in school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of urbanisation on asymptomatic malaria in school children in Molyko, South Western Cameroon. ... Objective: To determine the impact of urbanisation on the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in. Molyko ... Results: There was a significant association between axillary temperature and malaria parasitaemia

  16. MRI in clinically asymptomatic neuropathic leprosy feet: a baseline study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Slim, E. J.; Akkerman, E. M.; Faber, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the clinically asymptomatic neuropathic feet of leprosy patients. Since in the literature no MRI data are available concerning the asymptomatic neuropathic foot in leprosy, the interpretation of MRI examinations in

  17. Inspiratory muscle training improves exercise capacity with thoracic load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Ren-Jay; Chapman, Robert F; Gruber, Allison H; Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2018-02-01

    Thoracic load carriage (LC) exercise impairs exercise performance compared to unloaded exercise, partially due to impaired respiratory mechanics. We investigated the effects of LC on exercise and diaphragmatic fatigue in a constant-load exercise task; and whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improved exercise capacity and diaphragmatic fatigue with LC. Twelve recreationally active males completed three separate running trials to exhaustion (T lim ) at a fixed speed eliciting 70% of their V˙O 2max . The first two trials were completed either unloaded (UL) or while carrying a 10 kg backpack (LC). Subjects then completed 6 weeks of either true IMT or placebo-IMT. Posttraining, subjects completed an additional LC trial identical to the pretraining LC trial. Exercise metabolic and ventilatory measures were recorded. Diaphragm fatigue was assessed as the difference between preexercise and postexercise twitch diaphragmatic pressure (P di, tw ), assessed by bilateral stimulation of the phrenic nerve with esophageal balloon-tipped catheters measuring intrathoracic pressures. T lim was significantly shorter (P  0.05). Minute ventilation and breathing mechanics were unchanged post-IMT (P > 0.05). Six weeks of flow-resistive IMT improved exercise capacity, but did not mitigate diaphragmatic fatigue following submaximal, constant-load running to volitional exhaustion with LC. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. School bag carriage and pain in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckree, T; Silal, S P; Lin, J

    2004-01-07

    In South Africa (SA), anecdotal evidence for the incidence of shoulder, back and neck pain in school children is alarming but no scientific studies have confirmed this impression. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between pain and school bag carriage in scholars in Durban, SA. A study was carried out at four different schools in the Verulam and Chatsworth Regions in Kwa-Zulu Natal, SA. Schools were selected by convenience. One hundred and seventy six scholars between the ages of 11 and 14 years correctly filled out a questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended questions. Each child also had his/her body and bag weight measured. In this study, most of the scholars experienced shoulder and a combination of shoulder and other bodily pain. The majority of the children carried backpacks over two shoulders. The type of bag carried was significantly related to pain experienced (0.00). A significantly larger number of female scholars experienced pain. The shoulder and other bodily pain experienced by the sample of scholars are strongly related to the type of bag and the gender of the children. More in-depth studies into identifying risk factors for bodily pains in school children are indicated.

  19. Shoulder skin and muscle hemodynamics during backpack carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Clifford P; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of loaded backpacks on shoulder muscle oxygenation, skin blood flow, and pain. We hypothesized that backpack load carriage is associated with lower shoulder muscle oxygenation and skin microvascular flow. Near-infrared spectroscopy quantified shoulder tissue oxygenation and laser Doppler flow measured skin microvascular flow. Eight adult volunteers donned a standard backpack without added load, 5 kg load, and 10 kg load for 5 min while standing. An 8 min rest period before each backpack donning condition ensured that all measured parameters returned to baseline. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA and significance set at p shoulder muscle oxygenation by 22 ± 23% as compared to the empty backpack control condition (p = 0.023). In addition, a 10 kg backpack load reduced skin microvascular flow by 82 ± 22%, as compared to the empty backpack control condition (p = 0.024). Perceived pain was significantly higher when wearing the 10 kg backpack (level 4 on a 10-maximal pain scale) as compared to the empty backpack (0, 0-no pain) (p shoulder muscle oxygenation and skin microvascular flow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Asymptomatic Moyamoya Disease: Literature Review and Ongoing AMORE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KURODA, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of a non-invasive magnetic resonance examination has increased the opportunity to identify asymptomatic patients with moyamoya disease who have experienced no cerebrovascular events. However, their clinical features, prognosis, and treatment strategy are still unclear because of small number of subjects and short follow-up periods. Therefore, we have designed Asymptomatic Moyamoya Registry (AMORE) study in Japan. The objectives of this nation-wide, multi-center prospective study are to clarify long-term prognosis of asymptomatic patients with moyamoya disease and to determine the risk factors that cause ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in them. In this article, we review the published data on asymptomatic moyamoya disease and report the on-going multi-center prospective cohort study, AMORE study. We would like to emphasize the importance to determine the clinical features, prognosis, and treatment strategies of asymptomatic moyamoya disease in very near future. PMID:25739434

  1. Asymptomatic moyamoya disease: literature review and ongoing AMORE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of a non-invasive magnetic resonance examination has increased the opportunity to identify asymptomatic patients with moyamoya disease who have experienced no cerebrovascular events. However, their clinical features, prognosis, and treatment strategy are still unclear because of small number of subjects and short follow-up periods. Therefore, we have designed Asymptomatic Moyamoya Registry (AMORE) study in Japan. The objectives of this nation-wide, multi-center prospective study are to clarify long-term prognosis of asymptomatic patients with moyamoya disease and to determine the risk factors that cause ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in them. In this article, we review the published data on asymptomatic moyamoya disease and report the on-going multi-center prospective cohort study, AMORE study. We would like to emphasize the importance to determine the clinical features, prognosis, and treatment strategies of asymptomatic moyamoya disease in very near future.

  2. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  3. Oral microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fåk, Frida; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bergström, Göran

    2015-01-01

    to increase the systemic inflammatory level of the host, which may in turn influence plaque composition and rupture. We previously showed that bacteria from the oral cavity and the gut could be found in atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS: To elucidate whether the oral microbiota composition differed between......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent evidence suggests that the microbiota may be considered as an environmental factor that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Periodontal disease has been associated with cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and inflammation in the periodontium is suggested...... patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis we performed pyrosequencing of the oral microbiota of 92 individuals including patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis and control individuals without carotid plaques or previous stroke or myocardial infarction. RESULTS...

  4. Clinician-related factors behind the decision to extract an asymptomatic lower third molar. A cross-sectional study based on Spanish and Portuguese dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, D; Pereira-Silva, D; Figueiredo, R; Gay-Escoda, C; Valmaseda-Castellón, E

    2017-09-01

    Scientific literature estimates that around 18 to 40 % of asymptomatic third molars are extracted. The aims of the present study were to determine the indications for extraction of asymptomatic lower third molars in a sample of Spanish and Portuguese dentists, and to relate these indications to the clinicians' training and professional experience. A survey consisting of 15 cases of asymptomatic lower third molars was emailed to Portuguese and Spanish dentists. The clinicians were asked to assess the level of difficulty of the extractions and to make a reasoned recommendation based on the panoramic radiographs, gender and age of the patients. 381 clinicians filled in the questionnaires. Most of the professionals had over 13 years of clinical experience. The number of Spanish clinicians with postgraduate degrees in Oral Surgery was significantly higher. On average, 42% of respondents recommended extraction of asymptomatic third molars. The indication for extraction was significantly higher among Portuguese dentists. Clinical experience was negatively correlated with the perceived extraction difficulty (pPortuguese dentists were more in favour of removing asymptomatic lower third molars than the Spanish dentists, although the latter had a higher proportion of professionals with postgraduate studies in Oral Surgery.

  5. Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Streptococcus Pneumoniae among Pediatric Outpatients at Gondar University Hospital, North West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abate Assefa

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: The S. pneumoniae carriage rate was higher among younger children. High antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae against erythromycin, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole was observed. Being in the young age group and living with younger children are risk factors for pneumococcal carriage.

  6. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances...

  7. Nasal And Hand Carriage Of Bacteria In Different Groups Of Persons In A Teaching Hospital In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ganguly

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the level of bacterial car­riage in different groups of hospital staff?Objective: To study nasal and hand carriage of bacteria in different groups of persons in a teaching hospital.Study Design: Prospective study.Setting: Surgical wards of J.N. Medical College Hospi­tal, A.M.U., Aligarh.Participants: Randomly selected persons from differ­ent groups of hospital staff (doctors, nurses, ward and OT assistants, visitors of patients, patients and medi­cal students.Sample Size: 275 persons.Study Variables: Nasal and hand carriage of S. aureus and gram negative bacilli.Outcome Variables: Percentage of hospital staff show­ing bacterial carriage in their nose or on their hands.Statistical Analysis: By tests of significance.Result: Overall bacterial carriage rate in different cat­egories of hospital staff was found to be 54.5%. Doc­tors and paramedical staff had higher bacterial carriage rate as compared to other groups. Though Staphylo­coccus aureus was the commonest organism isolated from both nose and skin, carriage of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella group of gram-negative bacilli was also observed. Nasal carriage was com­moner than dermal carriage.Conclusion: Doctors and paramedical staff in hospital should adopt appropriate preventive measures to avoid transmitting pathogenic bacteria from their nose and skin to their patients.

  8. 14 CFR 125.39 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana...

  9. 14 CFR 91.19 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana, and...

  10. 14 CFR 121.15 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If a...

  11. 14 CFR 135.41 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or...

  12. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Glidden, David V; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2009-09-24

    Infectious prion diseases-scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family-are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral inoculation of irradiated deer faeces into transgenic mice overexpressing cervid prion protein (PrP) revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 faecal samples collected from five deer at 7-11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer faeces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the end of the disease, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in faeces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in a brain. Prolonged faecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds, as well as prion transmission among other susceptible cervids.

  13. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious prion diseases 1 – scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 – are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5–8, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their feces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of irradiated deer feces into transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing cervid PrP revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 fecal samples collected from 5 deer at 7–11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer feces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the disease terminus, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in feces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in brain tissue. Prolonged fecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds 3,4,9, as well as prion transmission between susceptible deer species. PMID:19741608

  14. Kinetic changes in gait during low magnitude military load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Deepti; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Pramanik, Anilendu; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2013-01-01

    Indian infantry soldiers carry smaller magnitudes of loads for operational requirements. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) and impulse responses of 10 healthy male Indian infantry soldiers were collected while they walked carrying operational loads between 4.2 and 17.5 kg (6.5-27.2% of mean body weight (BW)) and a control condition of no external load (NL). The GRF and impulse components were normalised for BW, and data for each load condition were compared with NL in each side applying one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. Right foot data were compared with corresponding left foot GRF data for all load conditions and NL. There were significant increases in vertical and anteroposterior GRFs with increase in load. Left and right feet GRF data in corresponding load conditions were significantly different in anteroposterior plane. No significant change was observed in the temporal components of support phase of gait. Changes in impulse parameter were observed in the anteroposterior and vertical planes while carrying load greater than 23 and 16.6% of BW for the right foot and left foot, respectively. Result indicates that smaller magnitudes of loads produced kinetic changes proportional to system weight, similar to heavier loads with the possibility of increased injury risk. Observed smaller asymmetric changes in gait may be considered as postural adjustment due to load. Unique physical characteristics of Indian soldiers and the probable design shortcomings of the existing backpack might have caused significant changes in GRF and peak impulse during smaller load carriage.

  15. Carrier’s liability under the international conventions for the carriage of goods by sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anežka GROBARČÍKOVÁ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, there is no international convention for the carriage of goods in general. Each mode of transport counts on one or several international conventions that specifically regulate the provision of international transport by sea, rail, road or air. Thus, multimodal freight transport are characterised by a patchwork of different legal regimes that represents a huge challenge for the growth of multimodal transport industry. The paper aims to analyse the latest, but still not in force Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea (the Rotterdam rules that should provide global solution for multimodal carrier liability. Comparison of the carrier’s liability in the former conventions relating to the international carriage of goods by sea and other rules are also discussed.

  16. Carriage burden, multiple colonization and antibiotic pressure promote emergence of resistant vaccine escape pneumococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick K; Lipsitch, Marc; Hanage, William P

    2015-06-05

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines target the limited subset of the more than 90 known serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae responsible for the greatest burden of pneumococcal disease and antibiotic resistance. Following the introduction of these vaccines, serotypes not targeted were able to expand and resistance became more common within these types. Here we use a stochastic dynamic model of pediatric pneumococcal carriage to evaluate potential influences on the emergence of new resistant lineages following the introduction of a vaccine targeting more common resistant types. Antibiotic pressure was the strongest driver, with no emergence at low levels and universal emergence at high levels. At intermediate levels of antibiotic pressure, higher carriage burden and a greater degree of dual carriage promoted emergence. This may have implications for current plans to introduce childhood pneumococcal vaccination in several high-burden countries.

  17. Detection and clinical relevance of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Paul O; Gagnaire, Julie; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth; Grattard, Florence; Carricajo, Anne; Lucht, Frédéric; Pozzetto, Bruno; Berthelot, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a well-defined risk factor of infection with this bacterium. The increased risk of S. aureus infection in nasal carriers is supported by the fact that the strains isolated from both colonization and infection sites are indistinguishable in most of the cases. Persistent nasal carriage seems to be associated with an increased risk of infection and this status could be defined now in clinical routine by using one or two quantitative nasal samples. There is evidence for supporting the detection of nasal carriage of S. aureus in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and in those undergoing hemodialysis in order to implement decolonization measures. More studies are needed to determine which carriers have the highest risk of infection and why decolonization strategies failed to reduce S. aureus infection in some other groups of patients.

  18. [Nasopharyngeal Hib Carriage Among Healthy Children Attending Daycare Centers in Yokohama After One Year of a Publicly Funded Vaccine Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ayako; Sumita, Hiroko; Minohara, Yutaka; Fujita, Shinji; Yazaki, Shigeyoshi; Kitamura, Miyoshi; Kawai, Shigehiko; Kamata, Kazumi; Oota, Yoshimi; Yamada, Mikiko; Matsumoto, Yuko; Takeyasu, Nobuaki

    2015-01-01

    Yokohama city started a regular, free vaccine program for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) from February of 2011. This study was completed to verify the effectiveness of the vaccine on the nasopharyngeal Hib carriage among healthy children attending daycare centers in the Isogo area. The research was conducted during the late spring (Jun--Jul) and fall (Oct-Nov) of 2012. There was a significant decrease in the Hib carriage rate (spring 8.8%, fall 1.6%). During this period there was no increase in the Hib vaccine coverage. The Hib carriage rate of each daycare center was 0-18.4% in spring and 0-4.9% in fall. There was no significant relationship between the rate of non immunized children and that of Hib carriage. This improvement in nasopharyngeal Hib carriage shows the impact of community immunity.

  19. Low prevalence of Kingella kingae carriage in children aged 6-48 months in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ameneh; Rivers, Braden Rl; Outhred, Alexander C; Kesson, Alison M

    2017-02-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of oropharyngeal carriage of Kingella kingae in healthy Australian pre-school children. Screening for carriage of K. kingae as well as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and K. kingae was undertaken using a single bacterial throat swab taken from well children aged 6 months to 4 years. Standard laboratory procedures were used for culture and identification of organisms. One hundred children were enrolled between October and December 2014 at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Median age was 24.0 months (range 6.1-48.8 months); 52 children were male and 36 attended day-care facilities. Forty-one children had siblings aged less than 5 years and 67 children had siblings of any age. K. kingae oropharyngeal carriage was not detected in any of the children. Rates of carriage of other organisms were: 30% S. aureus, 21% H. influenzae, 2% S. pneumoniae and 2% S. pyogenes. Thirty-eight children were colonised with Kingella denitrificans. Our results suggest that prevalence of K. kingae carriage in pre-school children in Sydney is very low and support local and national guidelines that recommend flucloxacillin as empiric first-line therapy for children with osteoarticular infections. Studies conducted over the winter months and in other Australian centres could help answer outstanding questions regarding differences in carriage rates of K. kingae in children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in a college student athlete population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackham, Daniel M; Ray, Shaunta' M; Franks, Andrea S; Bielak, Kenneth M; Pinn, Tanika M

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) nasal carriage, risk factors for nasal carriage, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in college student athletes. Cross-sectional study. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal samples and data collection forms were obtained at athletic team training rooms at 2 colleges. : The study population included 277 college student athletes older than 18 years. A nasal swab was obtained from each athlete after completion of a data collection form. Variables collected on the data collection form included age, sex, race/ethnicity, athletic team, recent health care exposure(s), history of CA-MRSA exposure, recent antibiotic treatment(s), sharing towels, razors or soap, nose picking, and on-campus or off-campus living. Prevalence of CA-MRSA nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility patterns was analyzed. Risk factors for nasal carriage were also evaluated. Five positive CA-MRSA nasal carriers (4 men and 1 woman) were identified of 277 sampled; a prevalence of 1.8%. Two institutions were involved in the study. Institution 1 had 4 positive CA-MRSA nasal carriers of 124 sampled (3.2%). Institution 2 had 1 positive CA-MRSA nasal carrier of 153 sampled (0.65%). No risk factors were found to be significantly associated with positive CA-MRSA nasal carriage. The prevalence of CA-MRSA nasal carriage in college student athletes in East Tennessee (1.8%) seems similar to what has been reported in the general population (1.5%).

  1. Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage and novel bacterial population structure among children in urban Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E J; Lewis, J; John, T; Hoe, J C; Yu, L; Dongol, S; Kelly, D F; Griffiths, D T; Shah, A; Limbu, B; Pradhan, R; Mawas, F; Shrestha, S; Thorson, S; Werno, A M; Murdoch, D R; Adhikari, N; Pollard, A J

    2011-04-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a major cause of invasive bacterial infection in children that can be prevented by a vaccine, but there is still uncertainty about its relative importance in Asia. This study investigated the age-specific prevalence of Hib carriage and its molecular epidemiology in carriage and disease in Nepal. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from children in Kathmandu, Nepal, from 3 different settings: a hospital outpatient department (OPD), schools, and children's homes. Hib was isolated using Hib antiserum agar plates, and serotyping was performed with latex agglutination. Hib isolates from children with invasive disease were obtained during active microbiological surveillance at Patan Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Genotyping of disease and carriage isolates was undertaken using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Swabs were taken from 2,195 children, including 1,311 children at an OPD, 647 children attending schools, and 237 children in homes. Overall, Hib was identified in 5.0% (110/2,195; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.9% to 6.4%). MLST was performed on 108 Hib isolates from children carrying Hib isolates and 15 isolates from children with invasive disease. Thirty-one sequence types (STs) were identified, and 20 of these were novel STs. The most common ST isolates were sequence type 6 (ST6) and the novel ST722. There was marked heterogeneity among the STs from children with disease and children carrying Hib. STs identified from invasive infections were those commonly identified in carriage. This study provides evidence of Hib carriage among children in urban Nepal with genetically diverse strains prior to introduction of universal vaccination. The Hib carriage rate in Nepal was similar to the rates observed in other populations with documented high disease rates prior to vaccination, supporting implementation of Hib vaccine in Nepal in 2009.

  2. Pre-vaccination nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in a Nigerian population: epidemiology and population biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifedayo M O Adetifa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Introduction of pneumococcal vaccines in Nigeria is a priority as part of the Accelerated Vaccine Introduction Initiative (AVI of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI. However, country data on the burden of pneumococcal disease (IPD is limited and coverage by available conjugate vaccines is unknown. This study was carried out to describe the pre vaccination epidemiology and population biology of pneumococcal carriage in Nigeria. METHODS: This was a cross sectional survey. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS were obtained from a population sample in 14 contiguous peri-urban Nigerian communities. Data on demographic characteristics and risk factor for carriage were obtained from all study participants. Pneumococci isolated from NPS were characterised by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility and Multi Locus Sequencing Typing (MLST. RESULTS: The prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 52.5%. Carriage was higher in children compared to adults (67.4% vs. 26%, highest (≈90% in infants aged <9 months and reduced significantly with increasing age (P<0.001. Serotypes 19F (18.6% and 6A (14.4% were most predominant. Potential vaccine coverage was 43.8%, 45.0% and 62% for PCV-7, PCV-10 and PCV-13 respectively. There were 16 novel alleles, 72 different sequence types (STs from the isolates and 3 Sequence Types (280, 310 and 5543 were associated with isolates of more than one serotype indicative of serotype switching. Antimicrobial resistance was high for cotrimoxazole (93% and tetracycline (84%, a third of isolates had intermediate resistance to penicillin. Young age was the only risk factor significantly associated with carriage. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal carriage and serotype diversity is highly prevalent in Nigeria especially in infants. Based on the coverage of serotypes in this study, PCV-13 is the obvious choice to reduce disease burden and prevalence of drug resistant pneumococci. However, its use will require careful

  3. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of asymptomatic hyperuricemia and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, J G; Beltrán, L M; Mejía-Chew, C; Tevar, D; Torres, R J

    2016-12-01

    Sonography has detected urate deposits in 34%-42% of the patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. This may prompt reclassification of asymptomatic hyperuricemia into "asymptomatic gout" and consideration of urate lowering therapy (ULT) to resolve urate deposits. In patients with gout and no visible tophi, sonography has detected urate deposits in half of the patients. This may allow diagnosing "tophaceous gout" and influencing the serum urate target level, prophylaxis to avoid acute gout flares during ULT, and clinical follow-up. Current accessibility to sonography may better classify patients with hyperuricemia and gout and contribute to delineate therapeutic objectives and clinical guidance.

  4. Is faecal microbiota transplantation an option to eradicate highly drug-resistant enteric bacteria carriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davido, B; Batista, R; Michelon, H; Lepainteur, M; Bouchand, F; Lepeule, R; Salomon, J; Vittecoq, D; Duran, C; Escaut, L; Sobhani, I; Paul, M; Lawrence, C; Perronne, C; Chast, F; Dinh, A

    2017-04-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carriage present a major public health challenge. Decolonization strategies are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the impact of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on a cohort of patients with digestive tract colonization by CRE or VRE. Eight patients were included: six carrying CRE and two colonized by VRE. One month after FMT, two patients were free from CRE carriage, and another patient was free from VRE after three months. In our experience, this strategy is safe. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  6. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  7. Oral cancer: prevention and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bobby K

    2002-01-01

    Researchers in oral cancer agree that the early diagnosis of oral carcinoma greatly increases the probability of cure with minimum impairment and deformity. Primary prevention which involves reducing the exposure to tobacco, alcohol and betel quid has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. Secondary prevention involves screening for the early detection of oral cancer. Oral cancer screening can take many forms. Clinical examination and biopsy allow the early detection of premalignant and early oral cancers. Screening can be made more efficient by inspecting high-risk sites--the floor of the mouth, the ventrolateral surface of the tongue and the soft palate. Due to the cost of population screening, it is advisable to initially target high-risk groups, those over 40 years of age, including smokers and heavy drinkers. It is recommended that dentists perform an annual visual oral cancer examination on all their patients and obtain a specialist opinion for suspicious oral lesions. Ora Test with toluidine blue may be used as an adjunct to soft tissue examination to highlight any invisible, asymptomatic lesions. Exfoliative cytology can detect early oral cancer and can be performed by dentally untrained personnel. It is rapid and relatively non-invasive and therefore may be useful in population-based oral cancer screening programmes. Recently, based on various studies, the oral CDx brush biopsy technique has been proposed as a highly accurate method of detecting oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. More frequent oral cancer examinations are recommended for treated oral cancer patients to monitor the development of secondary tumours. Family members of patients with oral cancer are also at high risk and therefore should be examined more frequently. Whatever screening method is used, a positive screening result must be confirmed by biopsy. A public awareness programme that stresses the importance of at least one annual dental examination

  8. Chalmydia trachomatis infection among asymptomatic males in an infertility clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania - Pramanik J

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to a variety of complications including tubal infertility. Similarly asymptomatic infection in male partner can also hinder conception. The prevalence of this infection among the infertile female in the Institute′s Infertility Clinic was observed to be 34%. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out these infection among the asymptomatic male partners of these infected women. Fifteen asymptomatic males who were not treated with any antibiotics in recent past were enrolled. First voided urine, semen and blood were collected from each individual for diagnosis of this infection. Chlamydia antigen was detected in 33.3% while Chlamydia antibody was detected in seven (46.7% of these cases. Of these seven, three cases were positive for antigen. This preliminary observation suggests that amongst the infertile couple a sizable percentage (60% of asymptomatic male partners remain infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

  9. Assessment of Liver and Renal Functions of Asymptomatic Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winniecure), used in our institute for the treatment of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) infection, on liver and renal functions of individuals undergoing therapy. A total of 100 asymptomatic Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) seropositive ...

  10. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF Guignardia citricarpa IN ASYMPTOMATIC SWEET ORANGE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDA DE SILLOS FAGANELLO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Citrus black spot, a fungal disease caused by the quarantine fungus Guignardia citricarpa, restricts the exportation of fresh fruit to countries in the European Union. The occurrence of latent infections and the time required for diagnosis using conventional methods have brought about the need to validate fast, efficient and reproducible molecular techniques to detect the pathogen in asymptomatic tissue. As such, this study aims to detect G. citricarpa in the symptomatic fruit and asymptomatic leaf tissue of sweet oranges by conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Specificity and limit of detection (LOD were assessed in tissue samples of fruit lesions and asymptomatic leaves. Low concentrations of the fungus were found in asymptomatic leaves. Under these conditions, real-time PCR proved to be viable, reproducible and highly sensitive to detection of the pathogen.

  11. Clinical characteristics of potential kidney donors with asymptomatic kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Elizabeth C.; Lieske, John C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Rule, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with symptomatic kidney stones are characterized by older age, male gender, white race, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Whether these characteristics differ in patients with asymptomatic kidney stones is unknown.

  12. Dextrocardia with asymptomatic right atrial appendage aneurysm: a case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sate, Hossein; Reshadati, Najmeh; Aliakbarzadeh, Parvaneh; Molazadeh, Negin

    2017-01-01

    .... We report a case of asymptomatic RAAA in a patient with dextrocardia and anomalous origin of RCA from left coronary sinus which was treated successfully by CABG and the aneurysm was completely excised...

  13. Prevalence of radiographic markers of femoroacetabular impingement in asymptomatic adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Benedet Scheidt; Carlos Roberto Galia; Cristiano Valter Diesel; Ricardo Rosito; Carlos Alberto de Souza Macedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of radiographic signs of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in asymptomatic adults and correlate them with data from physical examinations. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 82 asymptomatic volunteers, 164 hips, between 40 and 60 years of age, selected by convenience. They were submitted to anamnesis and clinical examination of the hip, anteroposterior (AP) pelvis radiographs with three incidences, Dunn 45° and Lequesne false profile o...

  14. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis.......The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....

  15. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among an obstetric population in Ibadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awonuga, D O; Dada-Adegbola, H O; Fawole, A O; Olala, F A; Onimisi-Smith, H O

    2011-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is the major risk factor for symptomatic urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Screening and identification of bacteriuria during pregnancy have been recommended. To determine the prevalence and pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria associated with pregnancy. The study was a descriptive, cross sectional survey of pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among consecutive patients presenting for the first antenatal visit at a University College Hospital, during a period of two months. Relevant information obtained from all the patients recruited for the study included age, parity, educational level, gestational age and occupation of participant. Haemoglobin electrophoresis patterns were also retrieved and recorded. Main outcome measures were prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial isolates and their antibiotic sensitivities. There were 205 eligible participants with a mean age of 30.6 ± 4.3 years and a mean gestational age at booking of 20.9 ±7.0 weeks. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 22(10.7%). The isolated pathogens were predominantly coliforms (Klebsiella and E. coli) accounting for 45.5% and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (27.3%). Only gentamycin, nitrofurantoin and ofloxacin demonstrated high efficacy against these uropathogens with antibiotic sensitivity rates of 72.7%-81.8%. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in this centre is relatively high. This underscores the need for routine screening of pregnant women for bacteriuria.

  16. [Is there a role for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis screening?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Bass, Arie

    2014-08-01

    Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is highly controversial Many surgeons routinely screen their patients for carotid disease prior to major operations, yet the benefit of such practice was never demonstrated. The treatment of symptomatic patients has not changed much during the last twenty years, since the publication of the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET). However, in contrast, the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS) and the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST) failed to get the same acceptance among the multidisciplinary group treating CAS.The prevalence of asymptomatic 60-99% carotid artery stenosis among the general population is about 1%. Neither ACAS nor ACST showed that stenosis severity was associated with increasing stroke risk. The 'realpolitik' is that mass interventions in asymptomatic patients will probably only ever prevent about 1% of all strokes. This is even truer regarding patients scheduLed for major operation, in which the incidence of stroke is less than 1%. Moreover the current evidence in the literature suggests that the best medicaL treatment (BMT) results in 0.5% strokes per year, better than resuLts which can be offered by surgery. According to the current evidence, it seems that asymptomatic carotid artery screening should be discontinued, since it is a major waste of resources.

  17. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Load Carriage on Lumbar Spine Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Research Center Institutional Review Boards approved this pilot study, and all volunteers gave oral and written informed consent. Imaging Marines were...2001 ; 6 : 316 – 9 . 33. Geijer H , Beckman K , Jonsson B , et al. Digital radiography of scoliosis with a scanning method: initial

  19. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and nasal carriage in furuncles and impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durupt, F; Mayor, L; Bes, M; Reverdy, M-E; Vandenesch, F; Thomas, L; Etienne, J

    2007-12-01

    The precise role of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and nasal carriage in common skin infections remains unclear. To seek correlations between toxin expression, S. aureus nasal carriage and clinical manifestations in patients with community-acquired furuncles and impetigo. From November 2004 to August 2005, we studied clinical data and bacteriological samples prospectively collected from 121 patients presenting with furuncles or impetigo. Sixty-four patients (31 with furuncles and 33 with impetigo) had S. aureus-positive skin culture. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were present in 13 of 31 (42%) isolates from furuncles and were associated with epidemic furunculosis. Exfoliative toxin genes were present in 10 of 10 (100%) and 12 of 21 (57%) bullous and nonbullous impetigo isolates, respectively. Nasal carriage of S. aureus was found in 58% of patients overall. It was strongly associated with chronic furunculosis but not with simple furuncles (88% vs. 29%, P impetigo are associated with exfoliative toxins. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is associated with the chronicity of furuncles.

  20. Agglutination by anti-capsular polysaccharide antibody is associated with protection against experimental human pneumococcal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsi, E; Roche, A M; Reiné, J; Zangari, T; Owugha, J T; Pennington, S H; Gritzfeld, J F; Wright, A D; Collins, A M; van Selm, S; de Jonge, M I; Gordon, S B; Weiser, J N; Ferreira, D M

    2017-03-01

    The ability of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to decrease transmission by blocking the acquisition of colonization has been attributed to herd immunity. We describe the role of mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) to capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in mediating protection from carriage, translating our findings from a murine model to humans. We used a flow cytometric assay to quantify antibody-mediated agglutination demonstrating that hyperimmune sera generated against an unencapsulated mutant was poorly agglutinating. Passive immunization with this antiserum was ineffective to block acquisition of colonization compared to agglutinating antisera raised against the encapsulated parent strain. In the human challenge model, samples were collected from PCV and control-vaccinated adults. In PCV-vaccinated subjects, IgG levels to CPS were increased in serum and nasal wash (NW). IgG to the inoculated strain CPS dropped in NW samples after inoculation suggesting its sequestration by colonizing pneumococci. In post-vaccination NW samples pneumococci were heavily agglutinated compared with pre-vaccination samples in subjects protected against carriage. Our results indicate that pneumococcal agglutination mediated by CPS-specific antibodies is a key mechanism of protection against acquisition of carriage. Capsule may be the only vaccine target that can elicit strong agglutinating antibody responses, leading to protection against carriage acquisition and generation of herd immunity.

  1. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus treated with topical mupirocin (pseudomonic acid) in a children's hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Frank; W. Lenz; E. Damrath; I. Kappstein; F. D. Daschner

    1989-01-01

    textabstract2% mupirocin ointment applied intra-nasally for 5 days was assessed for elimination of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in 31 staff members in a children's hospital. Three volunteers failed to complete the trial because of side effects, i.e. buccal reddening and swelling, and

  2. Dynamics of Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Carriage During the Course of Viral Bronchiolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Tina E.; Schuurs, Theo A.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Hennus, Marije P.; Bont, Louis J.

    The effect of viral infection on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae during childhood is not well known. We studied dynamics of pneumococcal colonization by quantitative PCR during the natural course of viral bronchiolitis. At time of admission, 47(47%) of 100 patients with

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuland, E A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325855633; Al Naiemi, N; Kaiser, A M; Heck, M; Kluytmans, J A J W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323262139; Savelkoul, P H M; Elders, P J M; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in a representative sample of the general adult Dutch community, to identify risk factors and to gain understanding of the epidemiology of these resistant strains.

  4. ESBL carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers is associated with occupational exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, W.; Gompel, Van L.; Schmitt, H.; Liakopoulos, A.; Heres, L.; Urlings, B.A.; Mevius, D.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage in slaughterhouse workers and the association with occupational exposure to slaughter animals and products. Stool samples from 334 employees in a Dutch pig slaughterhouse were obtained. Presence of ESBL was determined by

  5. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has an...

  6. 29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for carriage..., railway line or oil or gas pipeline where published tariff rates are in effect”. In order for this... is actually governed by published tariff rates in effect pursuant to State or Federal law for such...

  7. Eradication of carriage with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: determinants of treatment failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammerlaan, Heidi S. M.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Berkhout, Hanneke; Buiting, Anton; de Brauwer, Els I. G. B.; van den Broek, Peterhans J.; van Gelderen, Paula; Leenders, Sander A. C. A. P.; Ott, Alewijn; Richter, Clemens; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Spijkerman, Ingrid J. B.; van Tiel, Frank H.; Voorn, G. Paul; Wulf, Mireille W. H.; van Zeijl, Jan; Troelstra, Annet; Bonten, Marc J. M.; van de Berg, C. M. F.; Bosman, J.; Bremer, A.; Bril, W.; Commeren, D.; van Essen, G.; Gigengack-Baars, A.; van Kasteren, M. M. E.; Lommerse, E. J. M.; Mascini, E.; Renders, N. H. M.; van Rijen, M.; Schellekens, J.; Smeets, E.; Sprangers, T.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Verbon, A.; Verduin, K.; Wagenvoort, J. H. T.; van Wijngaarden, P.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from an observational study in which the effectiveness of a guideline for eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage was evaluated, we identified variables that were associated with treatment failure. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed

  8. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Australian (pre-clinical and clinical) Medical Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Stubbs; M. Pegler; A. Vickery; C. Harbour

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in 808 Australian medical students was studied. Five groups of students experienced varying degrees of clinical exposure in a hospital environment ranging from 0 to 42 months. The overall percentage of carriers among the five groups did not

  9. Dynamics of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage during the course of viral bronchiolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Tina E.; Schuurs, Theo A.; Veeger, Nic J G M; Hennus, Marije P.; Bont, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of viral infection on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae during childhood is not well known. We studied dynamics of pneumococcal colonization by quantitative PCR during the natural course of viral bronchiolitis. At time of admission, 47 (47%) of 100 patients with

  10. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macadam Clare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Conclusions Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  11. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Thika Level 5 Hospital, Kenya : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiken, Alexander M; Mutuku, Irene M; Sabat, Artur J; Akkerboom, Viktoria; Mwangi, Jonah; Scott, J Anthony G; Morpeth, Susan C; Friedrich, Alexander W; Grundmann, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen but little is known about its circulation in hospitals in developing countries. We aimed to describe carriage of S.aureus amongst inpatients in a mid-sized Kenyan government hospital. METHODS: We

  12. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macadam, Clare; Barnett, Julie; Roberts, Graham; Stiefel, Gary; King, Rosemary; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel; Holloway, Judith A; Lucas, Jane S

    2012-02-02

    Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  13. [Pneumococcal carriage in mothers and children of the Panare Amerindians from the State of Bolivar, Venezuela].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello Gonzalez, T.; Rivera-Olivero, I.A.; Pocaterra, L.; Spadola, E.; Araque, M.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Waard, J.H. de

    2010-01-01

    In North America, the indigenous groups have been identified as a population with increased risk of pneumococcal colonization and pneumococcal invasive disease. However, little information is available from South American natives. In the present study we evaluated the nasopharyngeal carriage and

  14. An easy method for detection of nasopharyngeal carriage of multiple Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Margit S.; Sørensen, Uffe; Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified method for detection of pneumococcal carriage and for revealing the presence of several serotypes in a nasopharyngeal sample is evaluated. Enrichment broth was used for transportation and for the initial culturing of samples. All specimens were examined directly by the...

  15. The reliability of the Extra Load Index as a measure of relative load carriage economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sean; Cooke, Carlton; Lloyd, Ray

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h-1, 6 km·h-1 and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg. Results show ELI values did not differ significantly between trials for any of the speeds (p = 0.46) with either of the additional loads (p = 0.297). The systematic bias, limits of agreement and coefficients of variation were small in all trial conditions. We conclude the ELI appears to be a reliable measure of relative load carriage economy. Practitioner Summary: This paper demonstrates that the ELI is a reliable measure of load carriage economy at a range of walking speeds with both a light and heavy load. The ELI, therefore, represents a useful tool for comparing the relative economy associated with different load carriage systems.

  16. Effect of mupirocin treatment on nasal, pharyngeal, and perineal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); J. Verveer (Jeroen); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractNasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for S. aureus infections. Mupirocin nasal ointment is presently the treatment of choice for decolonizing the anterior nares. However, recent clinical trials show limited benefit from mupirocin prophylaxis in preventing

  17. Biofilm formation, gel and esp gene carriage among recreational beach Enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, Ahmad; Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Gires, Usup

    2014-06-12

    Biofilm production, gel and esp gene carriage was enumerated among forty six vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) beach isolates. A higher proportion (61.54%) of biofilm producers was observed among beach sand as compared to beach water enterococci isolates (30%) indicating that enterococci within the sand column may be more dependent on biofilm production for survival than their beach water counterparts. Correlation analysis revealed strongly negative correlation (r=-0.535, p=0.015) between vancomycin resistance and biofilm formation. Given the observation of high prevalence of biofilm production among beach sand and the concomitant absence of esp gene carriage in any of the isolate, esp gene carriage may not be necessary for the production of biofilms among beach sand isolates. On the whole beach sand and water isolates demonstrated clearly different prevalence levels of vancomycin resistance, biofilm formation, esp and gel gene carriage. Application of these differences may be found useful in beach microbial source tracking studies. Tested starved cells still produced biofilm albeit at lower efficiencies. Non-dividing enterococci in beach sand can survive extended periods of environmental hardship and can resume growth or biofilm production in appropriate conditions thus making them infectious agents with potential health risk to recreational beach users.

  18. Epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in children in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Krisztina; Tóthpál, Adrienn; Kardos, Szilvia; Dobay, Orsolya

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage rate in healthy children all over Hungary and to specify some risk factors, the antibiotic resistance patterns of the bacteria, and their genetic relatedness. In total, 878 children (aged 3-6 years) were screened at 21 day-care centers in 16 different cities in Hungary, between February 2009 and December 2011. Samples taken from both nostrils were cultured on blood agar, and suspected S. aureus isolates were identified by β-hemolysis, catalase positivity, clump test, and nucA PCR. Methicillin-resistant strains were screened by mecA and mecC PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by agar dilution or gradient test strips. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping. S. aureus carriage rate was found to be 21.3%, which correlates well with international data. We found no statistically significant correlation between the gender or the sibling status and S. aureus carriage. All isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and mupirocin. The resistance rates for erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were 7.5%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 3.7%, and 4.3%, respectively. The isolates showed very high genetic diversity. In summary, carried S. aureus isolates are more sensitive to antibiotics compared with clinical isolates in Hungary, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage rate is very low yet.

  19. Nasopharyngeal carriage of respiratory pathogens in Warao Amerindians: significant relationship with stunting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Hermsen, M.; Rivera-Olivero, I.A.; Sisco, M.C.; Jonge, M.I. de; Hermans, P.W.M.; Waard, J.H. de

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens in geographically isolated Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. METHODS: In this point prevalence survey, nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1064 Warao Amerindians: 504 children aged 0-4 years, 227 children aged

  20. New Pneumococcal Carriage Acquired in Association with Acute Respiratory Infection Is Prone to Cause Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auranen, Kari; Syrjänen, Ritva; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi

    2016-01-01

    For considering vaccine-prevention of pneumococcal acute otitis media (PncAOM), relationships between pneumococcal carriage, respiratory infection and PncAOM need to be understood. We analyzed nasopharyngeal samples collected from 329 unvaccinated Finnish children aged 2-24 months at scheduled visits and at visits during respiratory infection in 1994-97. We assessed temporal associations of respiratory infection with pneumococcal acquisition and whether PncAOM hazard depends on the relative timing of acquisition and the infection onset. The data comprised 607 person-years of risk-time for acquisition, 245 person-months of concurrent respiratory infection and carriage, and 119 episodes of PncAOM. The acquisition hazard was 3-fold in the month preceding respiratory sickness (hazard ratio, HR 3.5, 90% credible interval CI 2.9, 4.1) as compared to acquisition in healthy children. Moreover, the PncAOM hazard was markedly higher (HR 3.7, 90% CI 2.4, 5.3) during the first month of carriage acquired around the acute phase of respiratory infection (between 1 month before and 1 week after the sickness onset), as compared to carriage acquired later during sickness. The high proportion (76%) of PncAOM events occurring within 1 month of acquisition was due to frequent acquisition being associated with respiratory infection as well as the susceptibility of such acquisition to cause otitis media.

  1. Nasopharyngeal carriage of respiratory pathogens in Warao Amerindians: significant relationship with stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermsen, Meyke; Rivera-Olivero, Ismar A; Sisco, María Carolina; de Jonge, Marien I; Hermans, Peter W M; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2017-04-01

    To assess risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens in geographically isolated Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. In this point prevalence survey, nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1064 Warao Amerindians: 504 children aged 0-4 years, 227 children aged 5-10 years and 333 caregivers. Written questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographics and environmental risk factors. Anthropometric measurements were performed in children aged 0-4 years. Carriage rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were 51%, 7%, 1% and 13%, respectively. Crowding index, method of cooking and tobacco exposure were not associated with increased carriage. In multivariable analysis, an increase in height-for-age Z score (i.e. improved chronic nutritional status) was associated with decreased odds of S. pneumoniae colonisation (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.83) in children aged 0-4 years. Better knowledge of demographic and environmental risk factors facilitates better understanding of the dynamics of colonisation with respiratory bacteria in an Amerindian population. Poor chronic nutritional status was associated with increased pathogen carriage in children <5 years of age. The high rates of stunting generally observed in indigenous children may fuel the acquisition of respiratory bacteria that can lead to respiratory and invasive disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Long-term cortisol levels are not associated with nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manenschijn, L.; Jetten, A.M.; Wamel, W.J.B. van; Tavakol, M.; Koper, J.W.; Akker, E.L.T. van den; Belkum, A. van; Rossum, E.F.C. van

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonizes the anterior nares in part of the population and the persistent carrier state is associated with increased infection risk. Knowledge concerning the determinants of S. aureus nasal carriage is limited. Previously, we found that glucocorticoid receptor

  3. Dried saliva spots : A robust method for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krone, Cassandra L.; Oja, Anna E.; van de Groep, Kirsten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413649776; Sanders, Elisabeth A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126771960; Bogaert, Debby|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/264105834; Trzcinski, Krzysztof|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323349609

    2016-01-01

    The earliest studies in the late 19th century on Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) carriage used saliva as the primary specimen. However, interest in saliva declined after the sensitive mouse inoculation method was replaced by conventional culture, which made isolation of pneumococci from the

  4. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia-prone age groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, Helmia; Severin, Juliëtte A; Gasem, M Hussein; Keuter, Monique; Wahyono, Hendro; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W M; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control pneumococcal diseases. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae in Semarang, Indonesia. A population-based survey was performed in Semarang, Indonesia. Nasopharyngeal swabs and questionnaires were taken from 496 healthy young (6-60 month-old) children and 45-70 year-old adults. Forty-three percent of children aged 6-60 months and 11% of adults aged 45-75 years carried S. pneumoniae. Determinants of carriage were being a child (OR 7.7; 95% CI = 4.5-13.0), passive smoking (OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4), and contact with toddler(s) at home (OR 3.0; 95% CI = 1.9-4.7). The most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B and 15B/C. The current commercially available vaccines cover <50% serotypes found in children. Twenty-four percent of S. pneumoniae strains were penicillin non-susceptible, and 45% were resistant to cotrimoxazol. The limited coverage of commercially available vaccines against the serotypes found in this population, and the high proportion of non-susceptibility to penicillin and cotrimoxazol suggest the need for region-specific information and strategies to control S. pneumoniae.

  5. Validation of an instrumented dummy to assess mechanical aspects of discomfort during load carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Wettenschwiler

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing load in backpacks and other load carriage systems over the last decades, load carriage system designs have to be adapted accordingly to minimize discomfort and to reduce the risk of injury. As subject studies are labor-intensive and include further challenges such as intra-subject and inter-subject variability, we aimed to validate an instrumented dummy as an objective laboratory tool to assess the mechanical aspects of discomfort. The validation of the instrumented dummy was conducted by comparison with a recent subject study. The mechanical parameters that characterize the static and dynamic interaction between backpack and body during different backpack settings were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether high predictive power (coefficient of determination R2>0.5 in assessing the discomfort of load carriage systems could be reached using the instrumented dummy. Measurements were conducted under static conditions, simulating upright standing, and dynamic conditions, simulating level walking. Twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt, were assessed. The mechanical parameters were measured in the shoulder and the hip region of the dummy and consisted of average pressure, peak pressure, strap force and relative motion between the system and the body. The twelve configurations consisted of three different weights (15kg, 20kg, and 25kg, combined with four different hip belt tensions (30N, 60N, 90N, and 120N. Through the significant (p<0.05 correlation of the mechanical parameters measured on the dummy with the corresponding values of the subject study, the dummy was validated for all static measurements and for dynamic measurements in the hip region to accurately simulate the interaction between the human body and the load carriage system. Multiple linear regressions with the mechanical parameters measured on the dummy as independent

  6. Faecal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital and community setting: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle eClaassen-Weitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and rationale: Staphylococcus aureus faecal carriage has been identified as a potential source for nosocomial transmission and a risk factor for disease development. This systematic review determined the overall S. aureus (including methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates within the community and healthcare settings.Methodology: Peer-reviewed articles indexed in Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, and Web of Science were identified using applicable and controlled vocabulary through to 11 November 2015. Eligible studies were ascertained by three independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of proportions were performed to determine S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates reported by eligible studies.Results: Twenty six studies were included in this review. The pooled estimates for S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage were 26 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 16.8 % - 36.3 %, 86 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 65.9 % - 97.9 % and 10 % (95 % CI: 0.7 % - 27.0 %, respectively. Faecal S. aureus carriage rates increased on average from 10 % to 65 % during the first eight weeks of life, followed by an average carriage rate of 64 % at six months and 46 % at one year of life. Genotyping techniques were employed mainly in studies conducted in developed countries and comprised largely of gel-based techniques. Six studies reported on the role of S. aureus faecal strains in diarrhoea (n = 2 and the risk for acquiring infections (n = 4. Eight of the 26 studies included in this review performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus faecal isolates.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that screening for S. aureus faecal carriage, at least in populations at high risk, could be an effective measure for the prevention of S. aureus transmission and infection in the healthcare and community setting. More well-structured studies need to be

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 in Lyme neuroborreliosis and asymptomatic HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremell Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF CXCL13 is a diagnostic marker of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB, as its levels have been shown to be significantly higher in LNB than in several other CNS infections. Levels have also been shown to decline after treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone, but levels after treatment with oral doxycycline have previously not been studied. Like Borrelia burgdorferi, HIV also has neurotropic properties. Elevated serum CXCL13 concentrations have been reported in HIV patients, but data on CSF levels are limited. Methods We longitudinally analysed CSF CXCL13 concentrations in 25 LNB patients before and after oral doxycycline treatment. Furthermore, we analysed CSF CXCL13 concentrations in 16 untreated LNB patients, 27 asymptomatic untreated HIV-1 infected patients and 39 controls with no signs of infectious or inflammatory disease. Results In the longitudinal LNB study, initially high CSF CXCL13 levels declined significantly after doxycycline treatment, which correlated to a decreased CSF mononuclear cell count. In the cross-sectional study, all the LNB patients had CSF CXCL13 levels elevated above the lowest standard point of the assay (7.8 pg/mL, with a median concentration of 500 pg/mL (range 34–11,678. Of the HIV patients, 52% had elevated CSF CXCL13 levels (median 10 pg/mL, range 0–498. There was a clear overlap in CSF CXCL13 concentrations between LNB patients and asymptomatic HIV patients. All but one of the 39 controls had CSF CXCL13 levels below 7.8 pg/mL. Conclusions We confirm previous reports of highly elevated CSF CXCL13 levels in LNB patients and that these levels decline after oral doxycycline treatment. The same pattern is seen for CSF mononuclear cells. CSF CXCL13 levels are elevated in neurologically asymptomatic HIV patients and the levels overlap those of LNB patients. The diagnostic value of CSF CXCL13 in LNB remains to be established.

  8. Asymptomatic malaria in children under 5 years old in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... not affect significantly the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria. Age, gender and anaemia were significantly associated with asymptomatic malaria. Conclusion: Interventions to reduce asymptomatic malaria are advocated. Keywords: Asymptomatic malaria, Benin City, Children under 5 years. An Erratum was published for ...

  9. A comparison of meningococcal carriage by pregnancy status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudtson Eric J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is the second leading cause of invasive meningitis. A prerequisite for infection is colonization of the nasopharynx, and asymptomatic carrier rates are widely reported in the range of 10-15%. Recent reports have indicated an increased likelihood that a pediatric admission for Neisseria meningitidis will have a mother who is pregnant in the home. We hypothesized that this association may relate to immunologic changes in pregnancy leading to higher carrier rates. We compared the carrier status by performing nasopharyngeal swabs for Neisseria meningitidis in 100 pregnant and 99 non-pregnant women. Average age of the participants was 28.9 +/- 6.7 years. The average gestational age at specimen collection was 27.5 +/- 9.4 weeks. Non pregnant women were significantly more likely to use tobacco (38% vs 24%, p The meningococcal carrier rate in our population is well below what is widely reported in the literature. Assuming a 1% carrier rate in the pregnant group and a 0.5% carrier rate in the non pregnant group, 4,763 patients would be required to detect a difference of this magnitude, given 80% power and an alpha of 0.05.

  10. ESBL carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers is associated with occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, W; VAN Gompel, L; Schmitt, H; Liakopoulos, A; Heres, L; Urlings, B A; Mevius, D; Bonten, M J M; Heederik, D J J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage in slaughterhouse workers and the association with occupational exposure to slaughter animals and products. Stool samples from 334 employees in a Dutch pig slaughterhouse were obtained. Presence of ESBL was determined by selective plating, microarray analysis, and gene sequencing. Questionnaires were used to collect personal and occupational information. The overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 4·8% (16/334). All ESBL-producing isolates were Escherichia coli. The ESBL genes detected were bla CTX-M-1 (n = 8), bla CTX-M-15 (n = 3), bla CTX-M-27 (n = 2), bla CTX-M-24 (n = 1), bla CTX-M-55 (n = 1), and bla SHV-12 (n = 1). A higher prevalence of ESBL was seen in workers in jobs with as tasks 'removal of lungs, heart, liver, tongue' (33%), and 'removal of head and spinal cord' (25%). For further analysis, participants were divided in two groups based on potential exposure to ESBL as related to their job title. One group with an assumed higher exposure to ESBL (e.g. stable work, stabbing, dehairing, removal of organs) and another group with an assumed lower exposure to ESBL (e.g. refrigeration, packaging and expedition). In the 'higher exposure' group, ten out of 95 (10·5%) were carrying ESBL vs. six out of 233 (2·6%) in the 'lower exposure' group. Human ESBL carriage was significantly associated with job exposure in the slaughterhouse (OR 4·5, CI 1·6-12·6). Results suggest that ESBL carriage in slaughterhouse workers overall is comparable with the Dutch population. Within the slaughterhouse population a difference in carriage exists depending on their position along the slaughter line and tasks involved.

  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus carriage in healthy school-age children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Terranova, Leonardo; Ruggiero, Luca; Ascolese, Beatrice; Montinaro, Valentina; Rios, Walter Peves; Galeone, Carlotta; Principi, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are common commensals of the upper respiratory tract in children and adolescents. Understanding the relationship between these two pathogens, including their potential for mutual interference, is needed to evaluate the epidemiology of the diseases they cause, the factors that condition acquisition and carriage, and the impact of related preventative measures. We obtained oropharyngeal and nasal swabs from 497 healthy subjects aged 6-17 years. S. pneumoniae detection and serotyping were performed using a real-time PCR and S. aureus detection was performed using the RIDAGENE MRSA system. We found that 136 (27.3%) of the children were carriers of both species, 121 (24.3%) of the children carried S. pneumoniae alone and 128 (25.7%) of the children carried S. aureus alone. S. aureus carriage was similar between children who carried S. pneumoniae (136/257, 52.9 %, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 46.8-58.9%) vs those who did not (128/240, 53.3%, 95% CI: 47.0 -59.5%) and was independent of age and vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Vaccination with PCV7 did not affect S. aureus carriage [S. pneumoniae: 84/143 (58.7%, 95% CI: 50.5 -66.5%) vaccinated children vs 171/351 (48.7%, 95% CI: 43.5 -53.9%) unvaccinated children; S. aureus: 67/143 (46.9%, 95% CI: 38.9-55.0 %) vaccinated children vs 195/351 (55.6%, 95% CI: 50.3 -60.7%) unvaccinated children]. Pneumococcal serotype also did not appear to affect S. aureus carriage. These findings suggested that the carriage of S. pneumoniae did not affect that of S. aureus in older children and adolescents, regardless of age, PCV7 vaccination and pneumococcal serotype. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among patients and healthcare workers in a hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talib, Hassanain; Yean, Chan Yean; Hasan, Habsah; Nik Zuraina, N M N; Ravichandran, Manickam

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a common source of nosocomial infection and colonization. The aim of the present study was to assess the burden of methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal carriage, its association with factors of interest including its genetic relationships. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was found to be 28.7%. This study showed that patients with a history of previous antibiotic intake, nasogastric tube, and longer hospitalization had a significantly high risk of being MRSA nasal carriers. The genetic relationship of all 34 nasal MRSA isolates revealed four major clusters of isolates, and there was a relationship between MRSA isolated from inpatients and healthcare workers.

  13. Varicella-Zoster Virus Keratitis with Asymptomatic Conjunctival Viral Shedding in the Contralateral Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Miyakoshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of varicella-zoster virus (VZV keratitis with detection of VZV DNA in the tear fluid of not only the symptomatic eye but also the contralateral asymptomatic eye by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods: This is a case report. A 63-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with circular corneal ulcer and stromal opacity with infiltration accompanied by mild conjunctival and ciliary injections in the left eye. Bacterial cultures of the corneal scrapings and virus PCR analyses of tear fluid from both eyes were performed. Results: No pathogen was found by bacterial cultures. PCR was negative for Acanthamoeba, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus, but positive for VZV. VZV DNA was also detected in the unaffected eye. Based on the diagnosis of VZV keratitis, oral valacyclovir and acyclovir eye ointment were administered to the corneal infected eye. The infected eye was healed and VZV DNA turned negative in the tear fluid of the treated eye after 6 months of treatment; however, VZV DNA was still positive in the tear fluid of the contralateral eye. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first case report of the detection of VZV DNA in the tear fluid of both affected and unaffected eyes in a patient with VZV keratitis. Asymptomatic conjunctival shedding of VZV may continue in the healthy unaffected eye in VZV keratitis patients.

  14. Symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslankoylu, Ali Ertug; Kuyucu, Necdet; Yilmaz, Berna Seker; Erdogan, Semra

    2011-11-21

    This study aimed to examine the incidence, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and to determine the risk factors associated with symptomatic candidiasis. This retrospective study included 67 patients from a 7-bed PICU in a tertiary care hospital that had Candida-positive cultures between April 2007 and July 2009. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, Candida isolates, antimicrobial and antifungal treatments, and previously identified risk factors for symptomatic candidiasis were recorded, and symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were compared. In all, 36 (53.7%) of the patients with Candida-positive cultures had asymptomatic candidiasis and 31 (46.3%) had symptomatic candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most common Candida sp. in the asymptomatic patients (n = 20, 55.6%), versus Candida parapsilosis in the symptomatic patients (n = 15, 48.4%). The incidence of central venous catheter indwelling, blood transfusion, parenteral nutrition, and surgery was higher in the symptomatic patient group than in the asymptomatic patient group (P candidiasis according to forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR: 6.1; 95% CI: 1.798-20.692). Surgery was the only risk factor significantly associated with symptomatic candidiasis and non-albicans Candida species were more common among the patients with symptomatic candidiasis. While treating symptomatic candidiasis in any PICU an increase in the incidence of non-albicans candidiasis should be considered.

  15. Clinical characteristics of potential kidney donors with asymptomatic kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Elizabeth C; Lieske, John C; Vrtiska, Terri J; Krambeck, Amy E; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J; Melton, L Joseph; Rule, Andrew D

    2011-08-01

    Patients with symptomatic kidney stones are characterized by older age, male gender, white race, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Whether these characteristics differ in patients with asymptomatic kidney stones is unknown. All potential kidney donors who underwent protocol computed tomography angiograms/urograms (2000-08) at the Mayo Clinic were identified. Renal abnormalities, including kidney stones, were assessed radiographically. Comorbidities, including past symptomatic kidney stones, were abstracted from the medical record. Characteristics of persons with and without radiographic stones were compared. Stone burden among persons with and without past symptomatic stones was compared. Among 1957 potential kidney donors, 3% had past symptomatic stones and 11% had radiographic stones (10% had only asymptomatic radiographic stones). Asymptomatic stone formers were more likely to be of white race, have low urine volumes and have radiographic findings of renal parenchymal thinning, focal renal scarring, medullary sponge kidney and polycystic kidney disease. Asymptomatic stone formers were not characterized by older age, male gender, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome, abnormal kidney function, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia or hypophosphatemia. Among persons with radiographic stones, those with past symptomatic stones had a slightly higher number of stones (mean 2.7 versus 2.4; P = 0.04), but a much greater diameter for the largest stone (mean 4.8 versus 1.6 mm; P kidney stones. These findings suggest that different pathophysiologic mechanisms could be involved in asymptomatic stone formation versus symptomatic stone passage.

  16. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  17. [Oral ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  18. Influence of Host Genetics and Environment on Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Middle-Aged and Elderly Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Paal Skytt; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Fode, Peder

    2012-01-01

    Background. Nasal carriage is a major risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Approximately, one-quarter of adults carry S. aureus. However, the role of host genetics on S. aureus nasal carriage is unknown. Methods. Nasal swabs were obtained from a national cohort of middle-aged and elde......Background. Nasal carriage is a major risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Approximately, one-quarter of adults carry S. aureus. However, the role of host genetics on S. aureus nasal carriage is unknown. Methods. Nasal swabs were obtained from a national cohort of middle...... exhibited only a modest influence on the S. aureus carrier state of middle-aged and elderly individuals....

  19. [Sexually transmitted infections of the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöfer, H

    2012-09-01

    Various sexual practices like fellatio, cunnilingus, or anilingus (rimming) can cause both symptomatic and asymptomatic oral infections in both sexes. Clinically apparent lesions are found in primary, secondary, and tertiary syphilis, in acute HIV infection and the subsequent stage of immunodeficiency (opportunistic infections), as well as in herpes and human papilloma virus infections. Genital candidiasis also can be transmitted to the oral cavity. Depending on the infective agent transmitted, ulcerative, inflammatory or papillomatous lesions of the lips, tongue, mucous membranes and pharynx occur. Oropharyngeal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis (Serovar D-K) can cause pharyngitis and tonsillitis with sore throat, but are completely asymptomatic in most cases. Asymptomatic infections are an important, but frequently overlooked reservoir for new infections. Systemic treatment of oral STI's usually is the same as that for anogenital infections. It can be accompanied by symptomatic topical therapy. When the tonsils and other difficult to reach tissues are infected, higher doses and an antibiotic with good tissue penetration are recommended.

  20. Spirometry screening for airway obstruction in asymptomatic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnivesky, Juan; Skloot, Gwen; Rundle, Andrew; Revenson, Tracey A; Neugut, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    Screening spirometry might help identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at an earlier stage. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of airway obstruction in a cohort of asymptomatic smokers who underwent spirometry as part of a routine health maintenance examination. The study cohort consisted of a consecutive sample of 386 asymptomatic smokers (≥5 pack-years) without a history of COPD or asthma, who completed spirometry testing as part of a routine health maintenance examination. Overall, 9 study subjects (2.3%, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.4%) had evidence of airway obstruction on spirometry. Univariate and multiple regression analyses showed that the risk of airway obstruction was not significantly associated with age, sex, race, smoking history or past history of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry screening of asymptomatic smokers may help detect a small number of patients with airway obstruction who are at high risk for COPD.

  1. Coronary calcification among 3477 asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvrehus, Kristian A; Jasinskiene, Jurgita; Sand, Niels P

    2015-01-01

    referred for cardiac CT, to assess whether differences in CAC may be explained by symptoms or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: The presence and extent of CAC, gender, family history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes and tobacco were compared in 1220......BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be detected by cardiac computed tomography (CT), is associated to cardiovascular risk, and common in asymptomatic individuals and patients referred for cardiac CT. DESIGN: CAC was evaluated in asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients...... asymptomatic individuals aged 49-61 years and 2257 age-matched symptomatic patients referred for cardiac CT with suspected coronary artery disease. RESULTS: Symptomatic individuals had a higher frequency of a family history of coronary artery disease (46% vs. 23%, p 

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnezhad M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria is prevalent during pregnancy. It can lead to pyelonephritis, premature pregnancy and low birth weight. In this prospective study, to determine prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria, 205 consecutive pregnant women who visited our prenatal care clinic in Mirza-Koochakkhan Hospital and had no urinary symptom were entered. Patients data were recorded using a questionnaire and urine samples were obtained for urinalysis and urine culture. We analysed data by using fisher exact and chi-squared test. 14 cases had positive urine culture (6.8%. Significant correlation was seen between asymptomatic bacteriuria and age, parity, past history of kidney stone, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection, preterm delivery and pyuria pvalue <0.05. We suggest routine urine culture in first visit of high risk and 16th week of low risk pregnancies.

  3. [Oral medicine 8. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, K P; van der Meij, E H; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-01-01

    Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa is a potentially malignant disorder, which means that there is an elevated risk oftransformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. The term oral leukoplakia is a clinical diagnosis for a predominantly white lesion which is not immediately recognizable as another well definable lesion which is white in appearance. Oral leukoplakia is generally an asymptomatic disorder of the mucosa with a prevalence of less than 2 per cent in the adult population. Tobacco usage is considered to be the most important etiological factor. Malignant transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma occurs in about I per cent per year. A patient with oral leukoplakia is generally referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, who takes a biopsy for a definitive histopathological diagnosis. The outcome of the histopathological study, which may vary from hyperkeratosis to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, will determine the treatment. It is preferable that every leukoplakia is removed to reduce the risk of malignant transformation. Long term follow-up is indicated. Follow-up may in some cases be performed by the general dental practitioner.

  4. Experimental Escherichia coli O157:H7 carriage in calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C A; Harmon, B G; Zhao, T; Doyle, M P

    1997-01-01

    Nine weaned calves (6 to 8 weeks of age) were given 10(10) CFU of a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by oral-gastric intubation. After an initial brief period of pyrexia in three calves and transient mild diarrhea in five calves, calves were clinically normal throughout the 13- to 27-day study. The population of E. coli O157:H7 in the faces decreased dramatically in all calves during the first 2 weeks after inoculation. Thereafter, small populations of E. coli...

  5. ORAL FOCAL MUCINOSIS: A RARE CASE REPORT OF TWO CASES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    histological analysis and the treatment involves complete surgical excision. Its recurrence ... KEYWORDS: Oral focal mucinosis, Soft tissue lesions, Gingival lesions ... It has an unknown etiology, possibly from overproduction of hyaluronic acid by fibroblasts (2).Clinically, the lesion appears as asymptomatic round elevations,.

  6. [Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children and multidrug resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Müjgan; Aslan, Gönül; Emekdaş, Gürol; Kuyucu, Necdet; Kanik, Arzu

    2008-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae plays an important role for the development of invasive disease and the spread of resistant strains within the community. The aims of this study were to determine the carriage rate of nasopharyngeal S. pneumoniae at healthy school children, to search the susceptibility of the strains to various antibiotics and to evaluate the risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci. A total of 1440 healthy children (age range: 6-13 years old) attending to three primary schools which were chosen randomly in Mersin province (Mediterranean region of Turkey) were included to the study between April 2003 to March 2004. The isolation and identification of S. pneumoniae strains from nasopharyngeal samples were performed by conventional culture methods. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were done according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute directions by disk diffusion method, and penisilin MIC values were detected by E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden). S.pneumoniae were isolated from 201 (13.9) of the children. The susceptibility rate of the isolates to penicilin was found as 87.1% (n:175), while 12% (n:24) of the strains yielded intermediate and 1% (n:2) yielded high resistance against penicilin. Overall percentages of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and macrolides were 30% and 4%, respectively. Two out of eight erythromycin (E) resistant strains showed inducible MLS(B) (macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B) type while six showed M (due to active efflux system) type of resistance. Resistance to meropenem, vancomycin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were not detected. Of S. pneumoniae isolates, 20% were found resistant to only one antibiotic (two strains to penicilin; 39 strains to TMP-SMX), 8.9% to two antibiotics (16 strains to penicillin+TMP-SMX; two strains to penicillin+E) and 2.9% to three or more antibiotics (five strains to penicillin+E+TMP-SMX; one strain to

  7. A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland Suzanne M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design was used. Women with mastitis (cases, n = 100 were recruited from two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia (emergency departments, breastfeeding clinics and postnatal wards. Breastfeeding women without mastitis (controls, n = 99 were recruited from maternal and child health (community centres and the rooms of a private obstetrician. Women completed a questionnaire and nasal specimens were collected from mother and baby and placed in charcoal transport medium. Women also collected a small sample of milk in a sterile jar. Results There was no difference between nasal carriage of S. aureus in breastfeeding women with mastitis (42/98, 43% and control women (45/98, 46%. However, significantly more infants of mothers with mastitis were nasal carriers of S. aureus (72/88, 82% than controls (52/93, 56%. The association was strong (adjusted OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.30, 8.27 after adjustment for the following confounding factors: income, private health insurance, difficulty with breastfeeding, nipple damage and tight bra. There was also a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis (adjusted OR 9.34, 95%CI 2.99, 29.20. Conclusion We found no association between maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus and mastitis, but nasal carriage in the infant was associated with breast infections. As in other studies of mastitis, we found a strong association between nipple damage and mastitis. Prevention of nipple damage is likely to reduce the incidence of infectious

  8. Variable performance of models for predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in European surgical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andie S; Pan, Angelo; Harbarth, Stephan; Patroni, Andrea; Chalfine, Annie; Daikos, George L; Garilli, Silvia; Martínez, José Antonio; Cooper, Ben S

    2015-02-27

    Predictive models to identify unknown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage on admission may optimise targeted MRSA screening and efficient use of resources. However, common approaches to model selection can result in overconfident estimates and poor predictive performance. We aimed to compare the performance of various models to predict previously unknown MRSA carriage on admission to surgical wards. The study analysed data collected during a prospective cohort study which enrolled consecutive adult patients admitted to 13 surgical wards in 4 European hospitals. The participating hospitals were located in Athens (Greece), Barcelona (Spain), Cremona (Italy) and Paris (France). Universal admission MRSA screening was performed in the surgical wards. Data regarding demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for MRSA carriage were prospectively collected during the study period. Four logistic regression models were used to predict probabilities of unknown MRSA carriage using risk factor data: "Stepwise" (variables selected by backward elimination); "Best BMA" (model with highest posterior probability using Bayesian model averaging which accounts for uncertainty in model choice); "BMA" (average of all models selected with BMA); and "Simple" (model including variables selected >50% of the time by both Stepwise and BMA approaches applied to repeated random sub-samples of 50% of the data). To assess model performance, cross-validation against data not used for model fitting was conducted and net reclassification improvement (NRI) was calculated. Of 2,901 patients enrolled, 111 (3.8%) were newly identified MRSA carriers. Recent hospitalisation and presence of a wound/ulcer were significantly associated with MRSA carriage in all models. While all models demonstrated limited predictive ability (mean c-statistics MRSA-positive individuals despite screening fewer patients than the Stepwise model. Moreover, the Simple model improved

  9. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consecutive asymptomatic seropositive HIV patients and an equal number of age, sex, education, economic and marital status matched HIV seronegative control. All subjects were assessed with the general health questionnaire (GHQ, mini mental status examination, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS and sensation seeking scale (SSS and the scores were analyzed statistically. Results: Asymptomatic HIV positive patients had significantly higher GHQ caseness and depression but not anxiety on HADS as compared to HIV seronegative controls. On SSS asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects showed significant higher scores in thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility as compared to controls. HIV seropositive patients had significantly higher incidence of total psychiatric morbidity. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is higher in asymptomatic HIV patients when compared to HIV seronegative controls. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. High sensation seeking and substance abuse found in HIV seropositive patients may play a vital role in engaging in high-risk behavior resulting in this dreaded illness.

  10. Carriage and invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Caracas, Venezuela: the relative invasiveness of serotypes and vaccine coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olivero, I A; del Nogal, B; Sisco, M C; Bogaert, D; Hermans, P W M; de Waard, J H

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Venezuela needs previous studies to assess vaccine efficiency. We conducted a survey of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in urban children in Caracas and studied the distribution of serotypes. We compared these data with survey data available for invasive strains isolated in the same area and in the same time period. An overall pneumococcal carriage rate of 27% was observed. The most predominant capsular serotypes among carriage isolates were 6B (29%), 19A (13.8%), 23F (10%), 14 (8.3%), 6A (8.3%) and 15B/C (3.3%) and among invasive isolates 6B (25%), 14 (15%), and 19A, 6A, 7F, and 18 (7.5% each). The serotypes/groups 1, 5, 7F and 18, jointly covering 30% of the invasive strains, represented less than 0.7% of the carrier strains. The theoretical coverage of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV13 for carriage and invasive strains was calculated to be 74% and 90%, respectively. Our study demonstrates important differences for the serotype distribution in disease and carriage isolates and provides a key baseline for future studies addressing the prevalence and replacement of invasive and carriage serotypes after the introduction of the PCV 13 vaccine in Venezuela in the year 2010.

  11. Asymptomatic Primary Infection with Epstein-Barr Virus: Observations on Young Adult Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel J; Pachnio, Annette; Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Leese, Alison M; Begum, Jusnara; Long, Heather M; Croom-Carter, Debbie; Stacey, Andrea; Moss, Paul A H; Hislop, Andrew D; Borrow, Persephone; Rickinson, Alan B; Bell, Andrew I

    2017-11-01

    (EBV) is transmitted orally, replicates in the throat, and then invades the B lymphocyte pool through a growth-transforming latent infection. While primary infection in childhood is usually asymptomatic, delayed infection is associated with infectious mononucleosis (IM), a febrile illness in which patients have high circulating viral loads and an exaggerated virus-induced immune response involving both CD8 + T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we show that in five cases of asymptomatic infection, viral loads in the blood were as high as those in patients during the acute phase of IM, whereas the cell-mediated responses, even when they resembled those in patients during the acute phase of IM in timing and quality, were never as exaggerated. We infer that IM symptoms arise as a consequence not of the virus infection per se but of the hyperactivated immune response. Interestingly, there were idiosyncratic differences among asymptomatic cases in the relationship between the viral load and the response kinetics, emphasizing how much there is still to learn about primary EBV infection. Copyright © 2017 Abbott et al.

  12. Oral Allergy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Kondo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as the symptoms of IgE-mediated immediate allergy localized in the oral mucosa, and the characteristics depend on the lability of the antigen. Another term used for this syndrome is pollen-food allergy (PFS; the patient is sensitized with pollen via the airways and exhibits an allergic reaction to food antigen with a structural similarity to the pollen (class 2 food allergy. In addition to PFS, latex-fruit syndrome is also well-known as the disease exhibiting OAS. In treating the condition, it must be noted that most but not all symptoms of PFS are those of OAS. In many cases, antigens become edible by heating, but some are resistant to heating. Also, since the exacerbation of atopic dermatitis is occasionally observed after the intake of cooked antigens in asymptomatic individuals, careful inquiry of the history is important in designing the treatment. Immunotherapy against the cross-reacting pollen has also been attempted in PFS.

  13. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli carriage in long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N; Lee, Betsy; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2005-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli in residents in a long-term care facility. FQ-resistant E. coli were identified from rectal swabs for 25 (51%) of 49 participants at study entry. On multivariable analyses, prior FQ use was the only independent risk factor for FQ-resistant E. coli carriage and was consistent for FQ exposures in the previous 3, 6, 9, or 12 months. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of FQ-resistant E. coli identified clonal spread of 1 strain among 16 residents. Loss (6 residents) or acquisition (7 residents) of FQ-resistant E. coli was documented and was associated with de novo colonization with genetically distinct strains. Unlike the case in the hospital setting, FQ-resistant E. coli carriage in long-term care facilities is associated with clonal spread.

  14. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  15. Carriage frequency, diversity and methicillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish small ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Jacob; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Stamphøj, Inga

    2013-01-01

    . This study provides novel data about the occurrence of S. aureus in small ruminants, revealing high carriage frequency and diversity in these animals. The finding of mecC in ovine ST130 isolates suggests that sheep may be a reservoir of this new emerging MRSA clone of suspected animal origin. Inclusion......The ecology of Staphylococcus aureus in animals has recently gained attention by the research community due to the emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA). We investigated carriage frequency and clonal diversity of S. aureus in 179 sheep and 17 goats in Denmark using...... spa typing and MLST. S. aureus was detected in 74 sheep (41%) and 11 goats (64%). The isolates belonged to 26 spa types (including six novel spa types) and 12 STs (including three novel STs). The most common lineage was ST133, which was found in 65% sheep and 55% goats. MRSA was found in three animals...

  16. THE PROBLEMS OF MANAGEMENT OF LOGISTIC AND CARRIAGE PROCESSES IN THE INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Pomffyová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing of logistic and carriage processes in the manufacturing enterprises are as much effectively executed as common possibilities of their own information and communication technologies and their application´s rate are effectively utilized. In the small and medium enterprises (SME, divisions or responsible specialists that have to manage such processes do not always exist. It is the cause that exact specification of information and communication processes creating information management support absents or is inaccurately determined. We pointed on the frequently occurring case when the data format is not supported with enterprise information systems. In 2012, we were researching how information supports of logistic and carriage processes are made in the small and medium enterprises. We were trying to find out some difficulties as well as causes occurred by cooperation between manufacturing enterprises in the international environment to do them more effectively. We have summarized our researching in this article.

  17. Lipoma in oral mucosa: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tavakoli Hoseini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoma is a common tumor of soft tissue. Its location on the oral mucosa is rare, representing 1% to 5% of benign oral tumors although it is the most mesenchymal tumor of the trunk and proximal por-tions of extremities. Lipoma of the oral cavity may occur in any region. The buccal mucosa, tongue, and floor of the mouth are among the common locations. The clinical presentation is typically as an asymptomatic yellowish mass. The overlying epithelium is intact, and superficial blood vessels are usually evident over the tumor. Other benign connective tissue lesions such as granular cell tumor, neurofibroma, traumatic fibroma and salivary gland lesions (mucocele and mixed tumor might be included in differential diagnosis. We present two cases of oral lipoma in unusual locations: one in junction of soft and hard palate and the other in tongue. Both were rare in the literature.

  18. Metagenomic Insights into Transferable Antibiotic Resistance in Oral Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, S; Roberts, A P; Martin, F E; Adler, C J

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is considered one of the greatest threats to global public health. Resistance is often conferred by the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which are readily found in the oral microbiome. In-depth genetic analyses of the oral microbiome through metagenomic techniques reveal a broad distribution of ARGs (including novel ARGs) in individuals not recently exposed to antibiotics, including humans in isolated indigenous populations. This has resulted in a paradigm shift from focusing on the carriage of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria to a broader concept of an oral resistome, which includes all resistance genes in the microbiome. Metagenomics is beginning to demonstrate the role of the oral resistome and horizontal gene transfer within and between commensals in the absence of selective pressure, such as an antibiotic. At the chairside, metagenomic data reinforce our need to adhere to current antibiotic guidelines to minimize the spread of resistance, as such data reveal the extent of ARGs without exposure to antimicrobials and the ecologic changes created in the oral microbiome by even a single dose of antibiotics. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metagenomics in the investigation of the oral resistome, including the transmission of antibiotic resistance in the oral microbiome. Future perspectives, including clinical implications of the findings from metagenomic investigations of oral ARGs, are also considered. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  19. Rate of Carriage, Serotype Distribution and Penicilin Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Healty Children

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENER, Burçin

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define carriage rates for Streptococcus pneumoniae in a given population in Ankara and also to determine the sertypes and penicilin resistance of these strains. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from a total of 661 children between 1 and 11 years of age living in a province of Ankara between January 1995 and January 1997. Serotyping was performed by detection of the Quellung reaction. Penicilin susceptibilities of the isolates were screened by agar dilution metho...

  20. Higher prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci carriage among reclaimed water spray irrigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rachel Rosenberg; Kleinfelter, Lara; He, Xin; Micallef, Shirley A; George, Ashish; Gibbs, Shawn G; Sapkota, Amy R

    2017-10-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are leading causes of nosocomial infections and community-acquired methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) infections are increasing. CoNS have been previously detected in reclaimed water. To date, no studies have evaluated the prevalence of CoNS carriage among humans exposed to reclaimed water in the U.S. We examined the prevalence and odds of CoNS and antibiotic-resistant CoNS carriage in spray irrigators exposed to reclaimed water compared to controls. We collected nasal and dermal swab samples from 19 reclaimed water spray irrigation workers (n=96 total samples) and 24 controls (n=92 total samples). Samples were analyzed for CoNS using culture-based assays. Isolates were confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests, logistic regression, and generalized linear mixed effects models. The prevalence of CoNS, antibiotic-resistant CoNS, and MRCoNS carriage among spray irrigation workers was 79% (15/19), 32% (6/19), and 16% (3/19), compared to 13% (3/24), 4% (1/24), and 0% (0/24) of controls. Spray irrigators were more likely to be carriers of CoNS (p<0.01), antibiotic-resistant CoNS (p<0.01), and MRCoNS (p=0.02) compared to controls. The odds of CoNS carriage significantly increased with exposure to reclaimed water (p=0.04) even accounting for changes over time (p=0.05). Our data highlight the need to further examine the potential dissemination of CoNS and antibiotic-resistant CoNS from reclaimed water into the environment and human communities and related public health implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus intermedius in Humans in Contact with Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, R G; Marples, R. R.; Noble, W. C.

    2011-01-01

    A study of staphylococci isolated from the anterior nares of 16 owners of dogs with atopic dermatitis and 13 veterinary practice staff in constant contact with dogs was conducted. There was one persistent nasal carrier and four transient nasal carriers of Staphylococcus intermedius. This carriage rate is higher than previously reported and presumably contributes to the presence of antibodies to S. intermedius in about 20 per cent of the normal population. Thus transfer of S. intermedius from ...

  2. Investigation of Nasal Staphylococcus Aureus Carriage in Intensive Care Unit and Operating Room Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Uluğ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in our hospital staff, and antibiotic susceptibility of these strains to methicillin and some other antibiotics. Methods: In this study, involving personnel working in operating room, neonatal and intensive care units of our hospital, nose cavity swab samples were taken from 81 subjects using cotton swabs soaked into serum physiologic. Single colony inoculation was performed on 5% sheep blood agar. The samples were incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. The Catalase and coagulase tests were performed on the strains which showed gram-positive cocci. We evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility of all S. aureus strains to oxacillin and several other antibiotics by disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI recommendations.. Results: Nasal S. aureus carrier was detected in 21 subjects (25.9%. Among all S. aureus isolated from nasal area, nine (11.1% were methicillin-resistance and 12 (14.8% were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. When the occupation was considered, the carriage rates were 20.8% among doctors, 25% among auxiliary health-care workers and 29.7% among health-care workers other than doctors. There was no significant difference in carriage rate between these groups (p=0.239. The isolated strains showed no resistance to mupirocin and teicoplanin. Intranasal administration of mupirocin to all carriers for five days resulted in elimination of staphylococci with a success rate of 100%. Conclusion: According to these results, we assume that the nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus is not an important issue in our hospital. However, it was concluded that topical mupirocin is an effective agent to be used securely in the elimination of S. aureus colonization in nasal carriers. (The Me di - cal Bul le tin of Ha se ki 2012; 50: 48-52

  3. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the effect of tea extracts on isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Amani F; Mohamed, Osama N; El-Fiky, Fathy K; Ahmed, Khaled A

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage among patients, healthcare workers (HCWs), and community individuals, as well as to test the effect of tea extracts on detected S. aureus isolates. This cross-sectional study that was followed by an experimental study included a total of 1021 nasal swab samples that were collected from 470 community cases, 191 HCWs, and 360 patients. Isolation of S. aureus and MRSA was carried out on mannitol salt agar plates. S. aureus isolates were identified according to standard microbiological methods. Methicillin resistance was determined by disc-diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute recommendations. A total of six tea samples (black and green) were purchased from different markets in Alexandria and were extracted. The antibacterial effects of these tea extracts were tested against identified MRSA isolates using agar gel diffusion method. The overall S. aureus nasal carriage rate was 12.5%, distributed as 7.9% MRSA and 4.6% methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. The rates of MRSA nasal carriage among HCWs, patients, and community cases were 10.5, 8.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Green tea had a strong effect on more than half of the isolates (55%) and an intermediate effect on 45% of them. It had no weak effect on any of the MRSA isolates. Among all tested individuals, HCWs had the highest percentage of MRSA nasal carriage. Green tea had a significantly stronger inhibitory effect than black tea on almost all tested isolates.

  4. Comparative Study on Implementing Home Air Conditioning for Passenger Carriages in the Indonesian Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardianto Eko Prasetio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Passenger comfort is important in railway transport system. The train operator company in Indonesia would like to increase passenger comfort by installing home air conditioning into all existing carriages of the economy train. The air conditioning is expected to give better passenger convince. Therefore, the aims of this research are to know the cooling load and compare characteristic between home Air Conditioning (AC and train AC. The cooling load calculation is analyzed using Cooling Load Temperature Difference (CLTD/Solar Cooling Load (SCL/Cooling Load Factor (CLF method. Comparison between both home air conditioning and train air conditioning are discussed to identify the benefits and drawbacks of each type. The total heat that needs to be removed from a passenger carriage with home AC is 104,334 Btu/h, while the total cooling capacity of home AC is 75,000 Btu/h. The passenger carriages with train AC have cooling capacity 119,100 Btu/h to remove heat 11,5290 Btu/h. The Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER value of most home AC is higher than train AC, installation time of home AC is shorter than train AC, total cost for 20 years period of home AC is more than train AC. There is no guarantee for home AC, so everything that happens to it will become the full responsibility of train operator company. The train AC control system is more effective than the home AC. No fresh air is permitted to circulate within the home AC system hence, the same air is repeatedly processed in the system. Implementing home air conditioning in the existing passenger carriages is worthwhile for short time period in the goal to increase and improve the level of service provided by giving better comfortability to the passenger.

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF THE «CARRIAGE-CARGO» SYSTEM MOTION MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF LIFTING AND TRANSPORT MACHINES CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Hryhorov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of a mathematical model that describes the cable crane «carriage-cargo» system motion, taking into account the carriage movement resistance, the wind strength and the friction forces. The obtained system equations can be used to build the controllability function for the «carriage-cargo» system and determine the cable crane control by minimizing the operation cycle time by cargo oscillation damping.

  6. Consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Camps, MJL; Netten, PM; Collet, JT; Schneeberger, PM; Hoepelman, AIM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) more often than women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the consequences of ASB are in these women. Objectives: To compare women with DM with and without ASB for the development of symptomatic urinary tract

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic colorectal diverticulosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Wei; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Tu, Ming-Shium; King, Tai-Ming; Wang, Jui-Ho; Hsu, Chao-Wen; Hsu, Ping-I; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic colorectal diverticulosis in Taiwanese general population. From January 2009 to December 2011, consecutive asymptomatic subjects undergoing a health check-up were evaluated by colonoscopy. The colorectal diverticulosis was assessed, and a medical history and demographic data were obtained from each subject. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to search the risk factors of colorectal diverticulosis. Of the 1899 asymptomatic subjects, the prevalence of colorectal diverticulosis was 13.5%. On univariate logistic regression analysis, age over 60 years old, male, adenomatous polyp, current smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly associated with diverticulosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age over 60 years old (relative risk [RR], 2.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-6.47), adenomatous polyps (RR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.18-4.61) and heavy alcohol consumption (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.08) were independent predictors for colorectal diverticulosis. The prevalence of asymptomatic colorectal diverticulosis was 13.5% in Taiwan. Age over 60 years old, adenomatous polyp and heavy alcohol consumption may affect the risk of development of the disease.

  8. Lorenzo’s Oil in Treatment of Asymptomatic ALD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 4:1 glyceryl trioleate-glyceryl trierucate (Lorenzo’s oil on disease progression in 89 asymptomatic boys (mean age 4.7+/-4.1 years; range 0.2-15 years with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD and normal brain MRI was studied at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, and other centers.

  9. Urinary Screening for Detection of Asymptomatic Haematuria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , a survey was carried out among pupils of two primary schools; one located in the urban area and the other in the periurban area of Port Harcourt Local Government Area. The prevalence rate of significant asymptomatic proteinuria was one ...

  10. High prevalence of asymptomatic plasmodium infection in a suburb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is endemic in many parts of the world. Various strategies have been planned to control malaria from time to time in many places. Whatever may be the strategy the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic plasmodium parasitaemics has been of prime importance as useful parameter for its control.

  11. The Prevalence and Outcome of Asymptomatic Chlamydial Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of those with HSG result (64), the accuracy of the test kit showed low sensitivity - 44.2% (19/43) and negative predictive value 40.0% (16/40) (but, high specificity - 76.2%(16/21), and positive predictive value - 79.2% (19/24). Conclusion: Asymptomatic Chlamydial infection is common among infertile women and it positively ...

  12. Ultrasound study of the asymptomatic shoulder in patients with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. Department of Orthopaedics, University of Pretoria. 3. Department of Statistics, University of Pretoria ... The asymptomatic shoulder had no history of problems severe enough to have required medical ... is little published on the natural history of small rotator cuff tears, and the answer to whether small tears progress to.

  13. Committee Opinion No.703: Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria is an important clinical sign of urinary tract malignancy. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria has been variably defined over the years. In addition, the evidence primarily is based on data from male patients. However, whether the patient is a man or a woman influences the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, and the risk of urinary tract malignancy (bladder, ureter, and kidney) is significantly less in women than in men. Among women, being older than 60 years, having a history of smoking, and having gross hematuria are the strongest predictors of urologic cancer. In low-risk, never-smoking women younger than 50 years without gross hematuria and with fewer than 25 red blood cells per high-power field, the risk of urinary tract malignancy is less than or equal to 0.5%. Furthermore, the evaluation may result in more harm than benefit and is unlikely to be cost effective. Thus, data support changing current hematuria recommendations in this low-risk group. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society encourage organizations producing future guidelines on the evaluation of microscopic hematuria to perform sex-specific analysis of the data and produce practical sex-specific recommendations. In the meantime, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society recommend that asymptomatic, low-risk, never-smoking women aged 35-50 years undergo evaluation only if they have more than 25 red blood cells per high-power field.

  14. Committee Opinion No. 703 Summary: Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria is an important clinical sign of urinary tract malignancy. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria has been variably defined over the years. In addition, the evidence primarily is based on data from male patients. However, whether the patient is a man or a woman influences the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, and the risk of urinary tract malignancy (bladder, ureter, and kidney) is significantly less in women than in men. Among women, being older than 60 years, having a history of smoking, and having gross hematuria are the strongest predictors of urologic cancer. In low-risk, never-smoking women younger than 50 years without gross hematuria and with fewer than 25 red blood cells per high-power field, the risk of urinary tract malignancy is less than or equal to 0.5%. Furthermore, the evaluation may result in more harm than benefit and is unlikely to be cost effective. Thus, data support changing current hematuria recommendations in this low-risk group. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society encourage organizations producing future guidelines on the evaluation of microscopic hematuria to perform sex-specific analysis of the data and produce practical sex-specific recommendations. In the meantime, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society recommend that asymptomatic, low-risk, never-smoking women aged 35-50 years undergo evaluation only if they have more than 25 red blood cells per high-power field.

  15. Pregnancy outcome in asymptomatic women with abnormal vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tract can result in deciduitis, chorioamnionitis, amniotic fluid infection, fetal sepsis and intrauterine death. Intrauterine infection may occur early in pregnancy and remain asymptomatic and undetected for months until preterm labour or premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) occur.[3]. Abnormal genital tract colonisation ...

  16. Multislice computed tomography in an asymptomatic high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Francesco; Leo, Roberto; Clementi, Fabrizio; Razzini, Cinzia; Borzi, Mauro; Martuscelli, Eugenio; Pizzuto, Francesco; Chiricolo, Gaetano; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2007-02-01

    Approximately 50% of all acute coronary syndromes occur in previously asymptomatic patients. This study evaluated the value of multislice computed tomography for early detection of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in high-risk asymptomatic subjects. One hundred sixty-eight asymptomatic subjects with >or=1 major risk factor (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, family history, or smoking) and an inconclusive or unfeasible noninvasive stress test result (stress electrocardiography, echocardiography, or nuclear scintigraphy) were evaluated in an outpatient setting. After clinical examination and laboratory risk analysis, all patients underwent multislice computed tomographic (MSCT) coronary angiography within 1 week. In all subjects, conventional coronary angiography was also carried out. Multislice computed tomography displayed single-vessel CAD in 16% of patients, 2-vessel CAD in 7%, and 3-vessel CAD in 4%. Selective coronary angiography confirmed the results of multislice computed tomography in 99% of all patients. Sensitivity and specificity of MSCT coronary angiography were 100% and 98%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 95% and a negative predictive value of 100%. In conclusion, MSCT coronary angiography is an excellent noninvasive technique for early identification of significant CAD in high-risk asymptomatic patients with inconclusive or unfeasible noninvasive stress test results.

  17. Asymptomatic Proteinuria and Hematuria in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya M. Sorangavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken because many cases of asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria are present in school children.Aims and Objectives:The study was under taken to evaluate asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria in 100 school children of both sexes from 6 to 15 years of age. Material and Methods: Samples were collected randomly from students of different classes at the Government Kannada Primary School, K H B Colony,Bijapur, Karnataka (India. The midstream urine sample was collected in a clean wide mouth jar,examined by dipsticks for proteinuria and hematuria by microscopy. Results:We found that asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria was more prevalent amongst the children between 10 to 13 years of age group with female predominance i.e.16% proteinuria and 5% of microscopic hematuria respectively. Conclusion:By this study we conclude that it would be possible to screen a large population of children for asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria at a relatively low cost.

  18. Profile of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Markers in Asymptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was to determine the profile of viral markers of HBV and HCV among asymptomatic individuals with chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Methods: Seventy one subjects who were chronic HBsAg positive were recruited as cases and thirty three apparently normal individuals who were negative for HBsAg served as ...

  19. Endarterectomy or Stenting in Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Dallit; Falah, Batla; Karmeli, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death in the western world, and carotid endarterectomy has been shown to be effective in treating both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Carotid stenting is a relatively new form of treatment for carotid stenosis and few studies have looked specifically at asymptomatic patients. To retrospectively examine short- and long-term results in the treatment of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis with surgery or stenting. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis treated by carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy in our department from 2006-2007. The primary endpoints were stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during the periprocedural period; or any ipsilateral stroke, restenosis, or death within 4 years after the procedure. The study comprised 409 patients who were treated by either stenting or surgery. There was a low morbidity rate in both treatment groups with no significant difference in morbidity or mortality between the treatment groups in both in the short-term as well as long-term. Both treatment methods have a low morbidity and mortality rate and should be considered for patients with few risk factors and a long life expectancy. Treatment method should be selected according to the patient's individual risk factors and imaging data.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Antonia; Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Castro, José Miguel; Quesada-Charneco, Miguel; Escobar-Jiménez, Fernando; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP), even asymptomatic, have an increased cardiovascular risk. However, data on reversibility or improvement of cardiovascular disorders with surgery are controversial. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of classic cardiovascular risk factors in patients with asymptomatic PHP, to explore their relationship with calcium and PTH levels, and analyze the effect of parathyroidectomy on those cardiovascular risk factors. A retrospective, observational study of two groups of patients with asymptomatic PHP: 40 patients on observation and 33 patients who underwent surgery. Clinical and biochemical data related to PHP and various cardiovascular risk factors were collected from all patients at baseline and one year after surgery in the operated patients. A high prevalence of obesity (59.9%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (25%), high blood pressure (47.2%), and dyslipidemia (44.4%) was found in the total sample, with no difference between the study groups. Serum calcium and PTH levels positively correlated with BMI (r=.568, P=.011, and r=.509, P=.026 respectively) in non-operated patients. One year after parathyroidectomy, no improvement occurred in the cardiovascular risk factors considered. Our results confirm the high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in patients with asymptomatic PHP. However, parathyroidectomy did not improve these cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Asymptomatic intestinal protozoa in school age children in Pategi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... The prevalence of intestinal asymptomatic protozoan infection was assessed (November, 2012 through May, 2013) among school age children in Pategi, Pategi Local Government ... The distribution of the parasites was E. histolytica/dispar (75.1), E. coli (18.8) and G. lamblia (6.1%).

  2. Neutrophils ingestion rate of nitroblue tetrazolium in asymptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study suggests that the presence of E. coli endotoxin could trigger aggressive antigen phagocytosis in pregnant women with asymptomatic malaria parasiteamia. This could have far reaching consequences in pregnancy. The possibility of co-morbidity of E. coli infection in malaria parasiteamia pregnant women in ...

  3. Pattern of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections in women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roles of gonorrhea and non-gonococcal urethritis due to Chlamydia trachomatis in the etiology of infertility due to tubal occlusion have been established by various studies. Hysterosalphingography (HSG) is done to investigate tubal patency. This study was aimed at finding the prevalence of asymptomatic sexually ...

  4. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pre-school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-01-08

    Jan 8, 2013 ... Department of Medicine,. University of Nigeria Teaching ... fore escape diagnosis by the primary care physician. Asymptomatic .... Urine microscopy. Ten milliliters of urine specimen from each participant was centrifuged in a test tube at 3,000 revolutions per minute (rpm) for five minutes. The supernatant ...

  5. [Screening of parasitic diseases in the asymptomatic immigrant population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goterris, Lidia; Bocanegra, Cristina; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Moure, Zaira; Treviño, Begoña; Zarzuela, Francesc; Espasa, Mateu; Sulleiro, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Large presacral epidermoid cyst in an asymptomatic woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Izumi, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst is an infrequent entity among cysts found in the presacral region, frequently coexistent with a meningocele. Diffusion-weighted imaging is known to be a useful diagnostic measure for differentiating presacral epidermoid cysts. Here, we present a large but asymptomatic case found in the presacral region. Epidermoid cysts should be considered in patients with presacral cysts.

  7. A family study of asymptomatic small bowel Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancone, Livia; Calabrese, Emma; Petruzziello, Carmelina; Capanna, Alessandra; Zorzi, Francesca; Onali, Sara; Condino, Giovanna; Lolli, Elisabetta; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Borgiani, Paola; Pallone, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Discrepancies between severity of lesions and symptoms may be observed in Crohn's disease. We prospectively assessed whether Crohn's disease may be diagnosed among asymptomatic relatives of patients, using Small Bowel Contrast Ultrasonography. Diagnosis of asymptomatic Crohn's disease relatives was defined ultrasonographically as: bowel wall thickness >3mm, bowel dilation/stricture, lumen diameter >2.5 cm. Diagnosis was confirmed by ileocolonoscopy. Subjects were also screened for the Leu3020insC mutation. Consent was given by 35 asymptomatic first-degree relatives of 18 Crohn's disease patients. Ultrasonography indicated increased bowel wall thickness (5mm) compatible with ileal Crohn's disease in 1 relative (2.8%), a 42 year-old male. Ileocolonoscopy, histology, and radiology confirmed the diagnosis of stricturing ileal Crohn's disease. Gallbladder stones were detected in 7/35 (20%) relatives and Leu3020insC mutation in 3/35 (8.5%). Small Bowel Contrast Ultrasonography may be a useful tool to diagnose asymptomatic small bowel Crohn's disease among first-degree relatives of patients. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Asymptomatic brain metastases in patients with cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukauskaite, Ruta; Schmidt, Henrik; Asmussen, Jon Thor

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the frequency of asymptomatic brain metastases detected by computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma referred to first-line systemic treatment. Between 1995 and 2009, 697 Danish patients were screened with a contrast...

  9. Human giardiasis in Serbia: asymptomatic vs symptomatic infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, A.; Klun, I.; Bobić, B.; Ivović, V.; Vujanić, M.; Živković, T.; Djurković-Djaković, O.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animalto- person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed. PMID:21678797

  10. Sonographic evaluation of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, N; Kichouh, M; Boulet, C; Machiels, F; De Mey, J; De Maeseneer, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the appearance of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic subjects. Thirty-one asymptomatic subjects were examined by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists. The plantar fascia was evaluated for thickness, echogenicity, vascularity on power Doppler, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, andcalcifications. The study included 14 men and 17 women (age, 17-79 years; mean, 45 years). The mean thickness of the plantar fascia in men was 3.7 mm (range 2.5-7 mm), and in women 3.5 mm (range, 1.7-5.1 mm). The thickness was greater than 4 mm in 4 men (bilateral in 2). The mean thickness of fascias thicker than 4 mm in men was 5.4 mm (range, 4.3-7 mm). The thickness was greater than 4 mm in 5 women ( bilateral in 4). The mean thickness of fascias thicker than 4 mm in women was 4.7 mm (range, 4.2-5.1 mm). There was no statistically significant difference between men and women and between both heels. Hypoechogenicity was observed in 3 men (bilateral in 2), and in 5 women (bilateral in 6). Hypervascularity, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, and calcifications were not observed. A thickness greater than 4 mm and hypoechogenicity, are common in the plantar fascia of asymptomatic subjects. Findings that were not seen in asymptomatic subjects include a thickness greater than 7 mm, hypervascularity on power Doppler, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, and calcifications.

  11. Asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women in Sagamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Untreated genital tract infections in pregnancy may be associated with adverse effects on foetal and maternal health leading to poor pregnancy outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and microbial isolates associated with asymptomatic genital infectionsin pregnancy. Methodology: ...

  12. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the

  13. Asymptomatic malaria and associated factors among blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood transfusion saves life of patients with severe anaemia. However, blood transfusion can transmit blood-borne parasites. Despite malaria being endemic in Tanzania, there is limited information on asymptomatic malaria among blood donors. This study determined the prevalence and associated factors of ...

  14. Studies On the Incidence of Asymptomatic Plasmodium Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection among orphans between age groups, gender and blood groups was investigated. Standard microscopic methods were used to screen for malaria parasites in the blood specimens obtained from eighty-five (85) subjects in three orphanages in Kaduna and ...

  15. Evidence-based treatments for the asymptomatic HIV- positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banzi

    Preventing opportunistic infections in the asymptomatic. HIV-positive patient. Is antituberculosis prophylaxis beneficial? There is grade-A evidence from two SRs4,5 and several well-con- ducted RCTs6-9 that shows that in people who are both HIV- and tuberculin-positive, prophylactic anti-TB drugs significantly reduce.

  16. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnancy: Much Ado about Nothing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chi-square test and analysis for linear trend in proportions were used to determine association between qualitative variables, and a P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among the recruited pregnant women was 8.0%. Escherichia coli (E coli) and ...

  17. Hand carriage of Candida occurs at lesser rates in hospital personnel who use antimicrobial hand disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Mustafa; Sahin, Idris; Oksuz, Sukru; Sencan, Irfan; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir; Cakir, Selma; Ozaydin, Cigdem

    2014-09-01

    The hands of hospital personnel are considered to be important for colonization and infection of patients with Candida spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different hand disinfectants in reducing the carriage of Candida species on the hands of hospital personnel. A controlled study was conducted at Duzce University School of Medicine Hospital. Eighty hospital personnel were included in the trial. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to hand hygiene procedures: group 1, hand rubbing with alcohol-based solution; group 2, hand washing with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate; group 3, hand washing with 7.5% povidone-iodine; group 4, hand washing with plain soap and water. The hands of all participants were tested by culture with the broth wash technique. Hand carriage of Candida spp. was lower in the 4% chlorhexidine gluconate group (10.5%, p = 0.006), in the 7.5% povidone-iodine group (18.7%, p = 0.043), and in the alcohol-based hand rub group (21.1%, p = 0.048) compared to the group washing hands with plain soap and water (50%). The use of hand disinfectant containing antimicrobial agents is more effective than hand washing with water and soap in reducing carriage of Candida on the hands of hospital personnel. It is recommended that hospital personnel use an antimicrobial hand disinfectant in units where there is a high risk of Candida infection.

  18. Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Carriage in the Conjugate Vaccine Era with a Focus on Pneumococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Devine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was included in the UK national immunisation program in 2006, and this was replaced by thirteen-valent PCV in 2010. During this time, the carriage of vaccine-type Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased but pneumococcal carriage remained stable due to increases in non-vaccine-type S. pneumoniae. Carriage studies have been undertaken in various countries to monitor vaccine-type replacement and to help predict the serotypes, which may cause invasive disease. There has been less focus on how conjugate vaccines indirectly affect colonization of other nasopharyngeal bacteria. If the nasopharynx is treated as a niche, then bacterial dynamics are accepted to occur. Alterations in these dynamics have been shown due to seasonal changes, antibiotic use, and sibling/day care interaction. It has been shown that, following PCV7 introduction, an eradication of pneumococcal vaccine types has resulted in increases in the abundance of other respiratory pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. These changes are difficult to attribute to PCV7 introduction alone and these studies do not account for further changes due to PCV13 implementation. This review aims to describe nasopharyngeal cocarriage of respiratory pathogens in the PCV era.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus carriage rates and antibiotic resistance patterns in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delost, Gregory R; Delost, Maria E; Armile, James; Lloyd, Jenifer

    2016-04-01

    Overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, which are occurring more frequently within the community. We sought to determine whether long-term antibiotic therapy for acne alter the carriage rate and antibiotic resistance profiles of S aureus. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, quasiexperimental study. Samples of anterior nares were obtained from dermatology patients given a diagnosis of acne vulgaris (n = 263) who were treated with antibiotics (n = 142) or who were not treated with antibiotics (n = 121). Specimens were tested for the presence of S aureus by growth on mannitol salt agar and then isolated on 5% sheep blood agar. Identification was confirmed based on colonial morphology, Gram stain, catalase, and coagulase testing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the VITEK 2 system (bioMerieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). The S aureus carriage rate was significantly lower in patients with acne treated with antibiotics (6.3%) compared with those not treated with antibiotics (15.7%; P = .016). The percentage of S aureus isolates resistant to 1 or more antibiotics did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (P = .434). Cross-sectional study, patient compliance, and effects of prior acne treatments are limitations. Treatment of patients with acne using antibiotics decreases the S aureus carriage rate but does not significantly alter the antibiotic resistance rates. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics of pneumococcal acquisition and carriage in young adults during training in confined settings in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagai Levine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks and sporadic cases of pneumococcal illness occur among young adults in confined settings. Our aim was to characterize pneumococcal acquisition and carriage among healthy young adults in Israel during military training in confined settings. METHODS: During the years 2007-2008, an observational longitudinal study was conducted in three cohorts of healthy soldiers, during a 7-month basic training period. Epidemiological data, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal cultures were sampled on 5 occasions: before and 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after start of training. Samples were processed within 2-18 hours. Relatedness of isolates was investigated by capsular typing of all isolates and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine acquisition and transmission. Carriage and acquisition patterns were analyzed and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of time on acquisition after mixing, controlling for other covariates. RESULTS: Pneumococci were recovered on 202 of 1872 visits among 742 individuals, including 40 different serotypes. Mean carriage prevalence increased in all visits following training initiation. Acquisition during training was high, as 36.9% of individuals acquired pneumococci at least once during training, and for almost one fourth of the whole population this occurred during the first 6 weeks. Significant clustering was noted. Sharing drinking glass/bottle was found to be a significant and common risk factor for pneumococcal acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal acquisition is highly frequent when young adults live in close contact in confined settings, especially early after mixing.

  1. Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae Lineages Increase with Carriage Duration and Size of the Polysaccharide Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispin Chaguza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency. Using univariate analyses, we found an association between both recombination measures and multiple factors associated with the capsule, including duration and prevalence of carriage. Because many capsular factors are correlated, we used multivariate analysis to correct for collinearity. Capsule size and carriage duration remained positively associated with recombination, although with a reduced P value, and this effect may be mediated through some unassayed additional property associated with larger capsules. This work describes an important impact of serotype on recombination that has been previously overlooked. While the details of how this effect is achieved remain to be determined, it may have important consequences for the serotype-specific response to vaccines and other interventions.

  2. Surveillance of Australian Hajj pilgrims for carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria: Data from two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Mohammad Irfan; Tashani, Mohamed; Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Heron, Leon; Pedersen, Kristen; Jeoffreys, Neisha; Kok, Jen; Haworth, Elizabeth; Dwyer, Dominic E; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2017-03-16

    To estimate the pharyngeal carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) among Australian Hajj pilgrims. In 2014, surveillance was conducted in two phases among Australian Hajj pilgrims: The first phase during Hajj in Mina, and the second phase soon after returning home to Australia. Nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs were taken from participants then tested, firstly by nucleic acid testing, and also by standard culture. Of 183 participants recruited in the first phase, 26 (14.2%) tested positive for S. pneumoniae; 4 had received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Only one tested positive for N. meningitidis (W). Of 93 2nd phase samples cultured, 17 (18.3%) grew S. aureus, all methicillin sensitive, 2 (2.2%) grew N. meningitidis (on subculture; one serotype B, one negative), and 1 (1%), from an unvaccinated pilgrim, grew S. pneumoniae. Relatively high carriage of S. pneumoniae and little meningococcal carriage was found. This indicates the importance of a larger study for improved infection surveillance and possible vaccine evaluation.

  3. Intestinal Carriage of Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms: Current Status of Surveillance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Michael R.; Wilson, Brigid; Kaye, Keith; Donskey, Curtis J.; Perez, Federico

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Carbapenemases have become a significant mechanism for broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. Intestinal carriage of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) is an important source of transmission. Isolation of carriers is one strategy that can be used to limit the spread of these bacteria. In this review, we critically examine the clinical performance, advantages, and disadvantages of methods available for the detection of intestinal carriage of CPOs. Culture-based methods (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] protocols, chromogenic media, specialized agars, and double-disk synergy tests) for detecting carriage of CPOs are convenient due to their ready availability and low cost, but their limited sensitivity and long turnaround time may not always be optimal for infection control practices. Contemporary nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) such as real-time PCR, hybridization assays, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), or a combined culture and NAAT approach may provide fast results and/or added sensitivity and specificity compared with culture-based methods. Infection control practitioners and clinical microbiologists should be aware of the strengths and limitations of available methods to determine the most suitable approach for their medical facility to fit their infection control needs. PMID:26511484

  4. Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White Pattern ECG in USAF Aviators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Eddie D; Rupp, Karen A N; Palileo, Edwin; Haynes, Jared

    2017-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern is occasionally found in asymptomatic aviators during routine ECGs. Aeromedical concerns regarding WPW pattern include risk of dysrhythmia or sudden cardiac death (SCD), thus affecting the safety of flight. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and outcomes of aviators with asymptomatic WPW pattern and assess for risk factors that contribute to progression to dysrhythmia or symptoms. The U.S. Air Force (USAF) ECG library database containing over 1.2 million ECGs collected over the past 68 yr was used to identify 638 individual aviators with WPW pattern. Demographic, medical history, and outcome data were obtained by medical record review. Aviators who developed high risk features defined as symptoms, arrhythmia, or ablation of a high risk pathway, were compared to those who remained asymptomatic. Prevalence of WPW pattern was 0.30% among all USAF aviators. Of the 638 individuals, 64 (10%) progressed to the combined endpoint of SCD, arrhythmia, and/or ablation of a high risk pathway over 6868 patient years, with average follow-up of 10.5 yr. There were two sudden cardiac deaths (0.3%). Annual risk of possible sudden incapacitation was 0.95% and of SCD 0.03%. Those that progressed to high risk were significantly younger, had lower diastolic blood pressure, lower total cholesterol, and better physical fitness testing scores. WPW pattern on ECG found in asymptomatic aviators confers fit populations.Davenport ED, Rupp KAN, Palileo E, Haynes J. Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern ECG in USAF aviators. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):56-60.

  5. Asymptomatic and yet C. difficile-toxin positive? Prevalence and risk factors of carriers of toxigenic Clostridium difficile among geriatric in-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissle, Klaus; Kopf, Daniel; Rösler, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    colonization. Colonization with toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains occurs frequently in asymptomatic patients admitted to a geriatric unit. Previous CDI, antibiotic exposure and hospital stay, but not clinical variables such as CGA, are the main factors associated with asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage. Colonization is a crucial risk factor for subsequent development of symptomatic CDI.

  6. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may be considered a complication in women with diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus Women Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Utrecht Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, S. E.; Stolk, R. P.; Camps, M. J.; Netten, P. M.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Bouter, K. P.; Bravenboer, B.; Collet, J. T.; Jansz, A. R.; Hoepelman, A. I.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of and risk factors for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in women with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 636 nonpregnant women with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) who were 18-75 years of age and had no abnormalities of the urinary tract, and

  7. Pneumococcal Carriage in Children under Five Years in Uganda-Will Present Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Be Appropriate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lindstrand

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the major cause of death in children globally, with more than 900,000 deaths annually in children under five years of age. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes most deaths, most often in the form of community acquired pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs are currently being implemented in many low-income countries. PCVs decrease vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage, a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease, and thereby affects pneumococcal disease and transmission. In Uganda, PCV was launched in 2014, but baseline data is lacking for pneumococcal serotypes in carriage.To study pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype distribution in children under 5 years of age prior to PCV introduction in Uganda.Three cross-sectional pneumococcal carriage surveys were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2011, comprising respectively 150, 587 and 1024 randomly selected children aged less than five years from the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. The caretakers were interviewed about illness history of the child and 1723 nasopharyngeal specimens were collected. From these, 927 isolates of S. pneumoniae were serotyped.Overall, the carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 56% (957/1723. Pneumococcal carriage was associated with illness on the day of the interview (OR = 1.50, p = 0.04. The most common pneumococcal serotypes were in descending order 19F (16%, 23F (9%, 6A (8%, 29 (7% and 6B (7%. One percent of the strains were non-typeable. The potential serotype coverage rate for PCV10 was 42% and 54% for PCV13.About half of circulating pneumococcal serotypes in carriage in the Ugandan under-five population studied was covered by available PCVs.

  8. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults....

  9. [Advantages and disadvantages of insulin therapy in elderly diabetics with asymptomatic hyperglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, M; Staffelbach, O; Sonnenberg, G E; Keller, U; Berger, W

    1979-12-01

    15 elderly diabetic patients with fasting blood glucose levels above 160 mg/100 ml, without hyperglycemic symptoms and previously treated with oral antidiabetic agents, were put on insulin. The change of treatment regimen was made in the outpatient department. Frequent clinical and laboratory controls were performed and the patients were given full instructions for injection technique and diet. On the insulin regimen a prompt and lasting improvement was observed in the metabolic parameters (blood glucose levels both fasting and after food intake, Hb A1c, serum insulin, glucagon and serum lipid concentrations). The so-called "asymptomatic" patients noticed a marked improvement in their general status and performance. Three months after insulin therapy was started 13 of our 15 patients preferred the insulin treatment to oral agents. However, weight gain and a tendency to hypoglycemia were noticed in less disciplined patients. In addition, considerable time was spent on instruction of the patients. Bearing these factors in mind, insulin therapy in elderly diabetics with so-called "sysmptomatic hyperglycemia" can be regarded as worthwhile.

  10. Prospects of Nanocarriers for Oral Delivery of Bioactives Using Targeting Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayath, Neha N; Nehoff, Hayley; Taurin, Sebastien; Greish, Khaled

    The oral route is the preferred mode of administration, however the poor intestinal absorption of many bioactive compounds limit their efficacy. Several strategies have been developed to overcome the low oral bioavailability of bioactive compounds. Nanocarriers present a unique opportunity to overcome this limitation due to their diverse bioactive carriage potential, surface functionality and design flexibility. Despite these favorable characteristics, the oral delivery of nanocarriers faces several challenges which are discussed in this review. The review addresses the different mechanisms of transport across the intestinal epithelium. In addition, we will comment on the various methods and models for evaluating the intestinal permeability, with a critical discussion of the uniformity of these models in investigating the oral bioavailability of nanocarrier systems. Finally, we will discuss some of the recently developed nanocarriers for oral delivery of bioactives that show promising results.

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  12. Ileal ulcer in asymptomatic individuals. Is this Crohn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The endoscopic finding of ileal ulcers, alone or in small number, is not usual, but when it occurs in asymptomatic patients, an impasse may be generated regarding the action to be taken, since the medical literature is unclear as to how to proceed in this situation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate patients with ileal ulcers, single or in a small number, asymptomatic, and their follow-up. METHODS: The author reports a series of asymptomatic cases (23 patients of ulcers - single or in small number - found in colonoscopy exams performed for other reasons than typical clinical manifestations of Crohn's disease. RESULTS: Most patients were not treated and remained asymptomatic during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: The patients remained asymptomatic and without treatment in most cases, and, considering the small number of cases and the short observation time, this study does not allow to conclude that this is the best practice in case of asymptomatic patients with ileal ulcer.O achado endoscópico de úlceras ileais, isoladas ou em pequeno número, não é frequente, mas quando ocorre em pacientes assintomáticos pode gerar um impasse quanto à conduta a ser tomada, já que a literatura médica não é clara quanto a como se proceder nessa situação. OBJETIVO: Avaliar pacientes que apresentaram úlceras ileais solitárias ou em pequena quantidade, assintomáticos e a evolução clínica dos mesmos. MÉTODOS: O autor relata uma série de casos (23 pacientes assintomáticos que apresentaram úlceras ileais únicas ou em pequeno número em colonoscopias realizadas por outros motivos que não manifestações clínicas típicas de doença de Crohn. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes não foi tratada e permaneceu assintomática pelo período de acompanhamento. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes permaneceram assintomáticos e sem tratamento em sua maioria, salientando-se o reduzido número de casos e o curto tempo de observação, de modo a não permitirem a este estudo

  13. PCV13-vaccinated children still carrying PCV13 additional serotypes show similar carriage density to a control group of PCV7-vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Ron; Juergens, Christine; Trammel, James; Patterson, Scott; Greenberg, David; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Porat, Nurith; Gruber, William C; Scott, Daniel A

    2017-02-07

    In addition to reducing vaccine-type nasopharyngeal carriage rates, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may decrease carriage density in vaccinated individuals still carrying vaccine serotypes. However, reduction of carriage density has not been systematically studied. This study compared the effect of PCV13 versus PCV7 on carriage density of the serotypes in PCV13 that are not included in PCV7. This randomized, double-blind study was conducted in southern Israel and included Jewish and Bedouin subjects. Per protocol, 881 and 873 infants received PCV13 and PCV7, respectively, at ages 2, 4, 6, and 12months. Nasopharyngeal cultures at ages 7, 12, 13, 18, and 24months were plated using the 4-quadrant semiquantitative method and graded 0 (negative) to 4 (growth in all plate quadrants). In this post hoc analysis, the least squares means of cumulative colonization densities per serotype and serotype combination of the total population and each ethnic subpopulation in each vaccine group were calculated, and differences between vaccine groups derived from a linear model. PCV13-vaccinated children still carrying the 6 additional PCV13 serotypes unique to PCV13 showed no significant differences in carriage density compared with the PCV7-vaccinated control group. No differences in carriage density were shown between Jewish and Bedouin subpopulations despite higher carriage rates among Bedouin subjects. Although PCV13 vaccination reduces vaccine-type carriage compared with PCV7 vaccination by reducing nasopharyngeal acquisition of the additional PCV13 serotypes as previously reported, the current study lacks evidence of a decrease in carriage density of these serotypes when acquired in vaccinated children. Despite the lack of effect on carriage density observed, surveillance data suggest a dramatic decrease in disease rates after PCV implementation. Thus, the current analysis suggests that PCV's impact on carriage density has minimal or no impact on vaccine success. (www

  14. Should incidental asymptomatic angiographic stenoses and occlusions be treated in patients with peripheral arterial disease?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-09-01

    The clinical importance of angiographically detected asymptomatic lower-limb stenoses and occlusions is unknown. This study aims to (i) assess the clinical outcome of asymptomatic lesions in the lower limb, (ii) identify predictors of clinical deterioration, and (iii) determine which asymptomatic lower-limb lesions should be treated at presentation.

  15. The prevalence, serogroup distribution and risk factors of meningococcal carriage in adolescents and young adults in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Rahmi Tuna; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Karbuz, Adem; Salman, Nuran; Sutçu, Murat; Kurugol, Zafer; Balliel, Yasemin; Celik, Melda; Hacimustafaoglu, Mustafa; Kuyucu, Necdet; Kondolot, Meda; Sensoy, Gülnar; Metin, Ozge; Kara, Soner Sertan; Dinleyici, Meltem; Kılıç, Omer; Bayhan, Cihangul; Gurbuz, Venhar; Aycan, Emre; Memedova, Aygun; Karli, Arzu; Bozlu, Gulçin; Celebi, Solmaz

    2017-05-04

    The serogroup epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), which varies considerably by geographic region and immunization schedule, changes continuously. Meningococcal carriage data are crucial for assessing IMD epidemiology and designing f potential vaccination strategies. Meningococcal seroepidemiology in Turkey differs from that in other countries: serogroups W and B are the predominant strains for IMD during childhood, whereas no serogroup C cases were identified over the last 10 y and no adolescent peak for IMD was found. There is a lack of data on meningococcal carriage that represents the whole population. The aims of this multicenter study (12 cities in Turkey) were to evaluate the prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis carriage, the serogroup distribution and the related risk factors (educational status, living in a dormitory or student house, being a household contact with Hajj pilgrims, smoking, completion of military service, attending bars/clubs) in 1518 adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 y. The presence of N. meningitidis DNA was tested, and a serogroup analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction. The overall meningococcal carriage rate was 6.3% (n = 96) in the study population. A serogroup distribution of the 96 N. meningitidis strains isolated from the nasopharyngeal specimens revealed serogroup A in 5 specimens (5.2%), serogroup B in 9 specimens (9.4%), serogroup W in 64 specimens (66.6%), and serogroup Y in 4 specimens (4.2%); 14 were classified as non-grouped (14.4%). No serogroup C cases were detected. The nasopharyngeal meningococcal carriage rate was 5% in the 10-14 age group, 6.4% in the 15-17 age-group, and 4.7% in the 18-20 age group; the highest carriage rate was found in the 21-24 age group (9.1%), which was significantly higher than those of the other age groups (p Turkey and was similar to the recent rates observed in the same age groups in other countries. The most prevalent serogroup was W, and no serogroup C

  16. Longitudinal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in indigenous Australian and Alaska native children with bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Hare

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. METHODS: Indigenous children aged 0.5-8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79 and Alaska (n = 41 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004-8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005-6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children; these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004-6 to 11% in 2010. While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs, in a 'cumulative dose-response' relationship

  17. Outbreaks of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in day care cohorts in Finland – implications for elimination of transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auranen Kari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Day care centre (DCC attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus in the population. Exposure within families and within DCCs are the main risk factors for colonisation with pneumococcal serotypes in DCC attendees. Methods Transmission of serotype specific carriage was analysed with a continuous time event history model, based on longitudinal data from day care attendees and their family members. Rates of acquisition, conditional on exposure, were estimated in a Bayesian framework utilising latent processes of carriage. To ensure a correct level of exposure, non-participating day care attendees and their family members were included in the analysis. Posterior predictive simulations were used to quantify transmission patterns within day care cohorts, to estimate the basic reproduction number for pneumococcal carriage in a population of day care cohorts, and to assess the critical vaccine efficacy against carriage to eliminate pneumococcal transmission. Results The model, validated by posterior predictive sampling, was successful in capturing the strong temporal clustering of pneumococcal serotypes in the day care cohorts. In average 2.7 new outbreaks of pneumococcal carriage initiate in a day care cohort each month. While 39% of outbreaks were of size one, the mean outbreak size was 7.6 individuals and the mean length of an outbreak was 2.8 months. The role of families in creating and maintaining transmission was minimal, as only 10% of acquisitions in day care attendees were from family members. Considering a population of day care cohorts, a child-to-child basic reproduction number was estimated as 1.4 and the critical vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage as 0.3. Conclusion Pneumococcal transmission occurs in serotype specific outbreaks of carriage, driven by within-day-care transmission and between-serotype competition. An amplifying effect of the day

  18. Intestinal carriage of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producing E. coli in women with urinary tract infections, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuikoue, Ingrid Cécile; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Toukam, Michel; Burdet, Charles; Ruppé, Etienne; Gonsu, Kamga Hortense; Fokunang, Charles; El Mniai, Assiya; Larissa, Kamgue; Pieme, Anatole Constant; Mboupaing, Mallila Georgia; Kakam, Caroline Mietchop; Fogang, Hervé Kengne; Andremont, Antoine; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2016-10-31

    During the last decade, the prevalence of the intestinal carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamases - producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli) has continued to increase worldwide in the community, especially in developing countries. Hence, we undertook a study to determine the ESBL-E. coli fecal carriage rate and the associated risk factors in Cameroonian women. A total of 86 women suspected of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) were included in 10 health structures from May 2011 to April 2012. After filling a questionnaire, they provided a stool sample that was plated on selective media for ESBL producing bacteria. The identification of strains was obtained with mass spectrometry and the antibiotic susceptibility by disk diffusion in agar media. The ESBL type was determined by PCR. The relative abundance of ESBL-E. coli was measured for positive samples. Eventually, the presence of antibiotics in stool was assessed. The carriage rate of ESBL-E. coli was 57/86 (66.3%). Phenotypic and molecular characterization showed that all ESBL-E. coli strains contained group 1 CTX-M enzymes. Multivariate analysis showed that ESBL-E. coli fecal carriage was associated with the presence of antibiotics in stools (p coli fecal carriage in women with UTI suspicion from the Cameroonian community is extremely high and associated with recent antibiotic intake.

  19. Nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and Staphylococcus aureus in Streptococcus pneumoniae-vaccinated and non-vaccinated young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukers-Muijrers, N H T M; Stobberingh, E; Beisser, P; Boesten, R C H; Jacobs, P; Hoebe, C J P A

    2013-03-01

    Since the implementation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPn) conjugate vaccination (PCV), non-vaccine types have prevailed in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and an increase in Staphylococcus aureus (SA) burden has been suggested. Here, we assess the epidemiology of SA and SPn nasal carriage in 620 children at day-care centres; 141 of these children had received 1-4 PCV7 doses. A higher vaccine dosage was associated with non-vaccine-type SPn carriage. Of all SPn isolates, 45% were PCV7 types, 1% were additional PCV10 types and 22% were the three additional PCV13 types. SA carriage was inversely associated with vaccine-type SPn carriage. SPn serotype 19A showed higher SA co-carriage rates compared to other SPn serotypes. PCV7 implementation does not prevent children from being part of the IPD-related SPn transmission chain. These results contribute to the monitoring of SA- and SPn-related disease and add to the debate on the current national vaccination policy that recently included a change from PCV7 to PCV10.

  20. Epidemiological Markers for Interactions Among Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus in Upper Respiratory Tract Carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewnard, Joseph A; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Huppert, Amit; Pettigrew, Melinda M; Regev-Yochay, Gili; Dagan, Ron; Weinberger, Daniel M

    2016-05-15

    Cocolonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae among children has been noted in numerous studies, as has an inverse relationship involving colonization with these species and Staphylococcus aureus. Interactions among these pathogens could mediate unanticipated outcomes of clinical interventions, including changes in H. influenzae and S. aureus disease incidence following pneumococcal vaccine introduction. However, it remains unclear whether cocolonization patterns represent true interspecies interactions or whether they result from confounding factors. We investigated polymicrobial carriage using longitudinal data from 369 Bedouin children and 400 Jewish children in Israel who were enrolled in a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) trial. Children were swabbed 10 times between 2 and 30 months of age. The pathogens followed distinct age and seasonal distributions, but polymicrobial carriage associations persisted after controlling for these and other confounding factors. Receipt of PCV7 resulted in pneumococcal serotype replacement but did not influence total carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or S. aureus. The fact that S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. aureus polymicrobial carriage patterns do not result from confounding by age and season supports the idea of active interspecies interactions. However, pneumococcal serotype replacement may prevent changes in H. influenzae and S. aureus carriage among PCV7 recipients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Asymptomatic portal vein aneurysms: To treat, or not to treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirji, Sameer A; Robertson, Faith C; Casillas, Sergio; McPhee, James T; Gupta, Naren; Martin, Michelle C; Raffetto, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Background Portal vein aneurysms are rare dilations in the portal venous system, for which the etiology and pathophysiological consequences are poorly understood. Method We reviewed the existing literature as well as present a unique anecdotal case of a patient presenting with a very large portal vein aneurysm that was successfully managed conservatively and non-operatively without anticoagulation, with close follow-up and routine surveillance. Result The rising prevalence of abdominal imaging in clinical practice has increased rates of portal vein aneurysm detection. While asymptomatic aneurysms less than 3 cm can be clinically observed, surgical intervention may be necessary in large asymptomatic aneurysms (>3 cm) with or without thrombus, or small aneurysms with evidence of evolving mural thrombus formation on imaging. Conclusion Portal vein aneurysms present a diagnostic challenge for any surgeon, and the goal for surgical therapy is based on repairing the portal vein aneurysm, and if portal hypertension is present decompressing via surgically constructed shunts.

  2. Isolated Asymptomatic Short Sternum in a Healthy Young Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Turturro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital sternal defects are rare deformities frequently associated with other anomalies of the chest wall and other organ systems. Although pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, and cleft sternum can present as isolated deformity, in most cases they are associated with heart and inner organs anomalies and described as symptoms of syndromes like Marfan syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Poland anomaly, and Cantrell pentalogy. In contrast, the etiology of an isolated defect is not well understood. We observed a short sternum (dysmorphic manubrium, hypoplastic body, and complete absence of the xiphoid process in a completely asymptomatic 13-year-old woman. A comprehensive instrumental exams panel was performed to exclude associated anomalies of the heart and of the other organ systems. The patient was completely asymptomatic and she did not need any medical or surgical treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated short sternum reported in literature.

  3. A Case of Aortopulmonary Window: Asymptomatic until the First Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aortopulmonary window (APW is an abnormal communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk in the presence of two separate semilunar valves. It is a rare congenital malformation which represents 0.1% of all congenital cardiac diseases. Herein, we report a very rare case of 27-year-old patient with unrepaired APW causing Eisenmenger syndrome and pulmonary hypertension who was asymptomatic until her first pregnancy. The median survival of uncorrected APW is 33 years. Aortopulmonary window is a very rare congenital anomaly. To our knowledge, asymptomatic adult case has not been reported until now. APW should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the severe pulmonary hypertension also in adult patients.

  4. Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa: A rare presentation with asymptomatic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa (EBP is a subtype of dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB and is clinically characterized by pruritic lichenified plaques or prurigo-like lesions with violaceous linear scarring. Pruritus has always been described as one of the most striking features in EBP. Mutations in COL7A gene, especially in the glycine residue, have been shown to cause this form of DDEB. In this report, we describe a north Indian familial clustering of three cases of EBP, spread across two generations, presenting with hypertrophic lichenoid cutaneous lesions, which were completely asymptomatic. Clinical and histopathological analysis favored the diagnosis of EBP in all three cases. They are being reported for their unusual asymptomatic presentation.

  5. Asymptomatic carriers contribute to nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixt, Thomas; Gradel, Kim Oren; Homann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nosocomial infection with Clostridium difficile pose a considerable problem despite numerous attempts by health care workers to reduce risk of transmission. Asymptomatic carriers of C difficile might spread their infection to other patients. We investigated the effects...... of of asymptomatic carriers on nosocomial C difficile infections. METHODS: We performed a population-based prospective cohort study at 2 university hospitals in Denmark, screening all patients for toxigenic C difficile in the intestine upon admittance, from October 1, 2012, to January 31, 2013. Screening results...... were blinded to patients, staff, and researchers. Patients were followed during their hospital stay by daily registration of wards and patient rooms. The primary outcomes were rate of C difficile infection in exposed and unexposed patients and factors associated with transmission. RESULTS: C difficile...

  6. Imaging markers of stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Prabhakaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid stenosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke. While symptomatic carotid stenosis requires prompt revascularization, there is significant debate about the management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS, especially in light of recent advances in medical therapy. As a result, there is an even greater need for reliable predictors of stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. Besides clinical factors and stenosis grade, plaque morphology and cerebral hemodynamics may be suitable prognostic tools. High-risk features, using Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI suggest that subpopulations at sufficiently high risk (10% annually can be identified and in whom revascularization would be most beneficial. In this review, imaging tools to aid in stroke risk stratification in patients with ACS are discussed.

  7. Depressive symptoms and spiritual wellbeing in asymptomatic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Paul J; Wilson, Kathleen; Iqbal, Navaid; Iqbal, Fatima; Alvarez, Milagros; Pung, Meredith A; Wachmann, Katherine; Rutledge, Thomas; Maglione, Jeanne; Zisook, Sid; Dimsdale, Joel E; Lunde, Ottar; Greenberg, Barry H; Maisel, Alan; Raisinghani, Ajit; Natarajan, Loki; Jain, Shamini; Hufford, David J; Redwine, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Depression adversely predicts prognosis in individuals with symptomatic heart failure. In some clinical populations, spiritual wellness is considered to be a protective factor against depressive symptoms. This study examined associations among depressive symptoms, spiritual wellbeing, sleep, fatigue, functional capacity, and inflammatory biomarkers in 132 men and women with asymptomatic stage B heart failure (age 66.5 years ± 10.5). Approximately 32 % of the patients scored ≥10 on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicating potentially clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis predicting fewer depressive symptoms included the following significant variables: a lower inflammatory score comprised of disease-relevant biomarkers (p meaning (p peace (p meaning and peace, may be a potential treatment target for depressive symptoms asymptomatic heart failure.

  8. Myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in asymptomatic diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshad, K; Sathyamurthy, I; Ashish, G; Padma, D; Shelley, S; Indirani, M; Subramanian, K

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most important cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Diabetes mellitus (DM) due to autonomic neuropathy leads to asymptomatic CAD. Hence, it is important to screen the patients with DM for CAD. To study the prevalence of asymptomatic CAD by Myocardial Perfuision SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) (MPS) in diabetics. This prospective study included 88 asymptomatic patients (58 males and 30 females) of Type 2 DM of more than 5 years duration in the age group of 40-65 years. Risk factors like hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, family history of CAD and Body Mass Index > or = 25 kg/sq.m were assessed. All these patients underwent MPS study as two day standard protocol. Thirty eight patients underwent invasive Coronary Angiography (CAG) and stenosis greater than 50% was considered significant. Abnormal perfusion was detected in 38 (43%) diabetics and 4 (11%) controls. A total of 81 perfusion defects were identified (19 fired and 62 reversible). CAG showed significant coronary stenosis in 26 (68.4%), insignificant in 8 (21%) and no stenosis in 4 (10.6%) patients. A total of 114 coronaries were analysed, significant stenosis in 67 (58.8%) coronaries, 21 (18.4%) had insignificant lesions and 26(22.8%) were normal. In comparison to CAG, MPS had sensitivity of 86.6% and specificity of 51%. The Myocardial Perfusion SPECT is a sensitive diagnostic tool to identify ischemia in asymptomatic diabetics. MPS can be used as screening test for risk stratification. It has a prognostic value in predicting the outcome of CAD and can be useful for long-term follow up too.

  9. Asymptomatic Presentation of Bochdalek’s Hernia in an Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, S. P.; Ravi, M. J.; Thrishuli, P. B.; Sharath Chandra, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Bochdalek hernia, a type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia usually presents in the immediate neonatal period with respiratory distress. Presentation in an adult is rare and asymptomatic. We report one such case of Bochdalek hernia, in a 35 year old male, who presented only with mild chest discomfort on left side. Radiological investigations were suggestive of a huge left side Bochdalek hernia with stomach and intestines in the left thorax. This case emphasizes the rarity of presentation of B...

  10. The Prevalence and Outcome of Asymptomatic Chlamydial Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of those with HSG result (64), the accuracy of the test kit showed low sensitivity ‑ 44.2% (19/43) and negative predictive value 40.0% (16/40) (but, high specificity. ‑ 76.2%(16/21), and positive predictive value ‑ 79.2% (19/24). Conclusion: Asymptomatic. Chlamydial infection is common among infertile women and it positively ...

  11. Is surgery necessary for 'mild' or 'asymptomatic' hyperparathyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederle, Bruno; Wémeau, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    A large majority of the currently diagnosed patients with hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are mild or asymptomatic, mainly women after menopause. Following the debate held at the 16th European Congress of Endocrinology in Wroclaw (Poland) from May 3-7, 2014, arguments are here presented by a surgeon and a medical practitioner considering these situations rather have to profit from surgery, or simply from survey. For the trained endocrine surgeon, it is evident that parathyroidectomy confirms the diagnosis and undoubtedly reduces the discomfort felt by certain patients, prevents all risks of complications, removes patients and medical teams from the monitoring and represents a real individual financial benefit. On the other hand, the medical practitioner considers that mild or asymptomatic PHPT is commonly stable, and very rare are the subjects at risk of complications, particularly of fractures; prevention of vascular and metabolic disorders, nephrolithiasis and bone rarefaction justify regular physical exercise, a safe alimentation, a sufficient calcium and high water intake, the correction of the frequent deficit in vitamin D; finally has also to be considered the impossibility to refer to specialized (endocrine) surgeons, the enormous cohort of subjects more than 50 years with 'mild' or 'asymptomatic' PHPT. The surgeon and the medical practitioner agree to consider that in patients with 'mild' or 'asymptomatic' disease, there is no place for medical treatments, in particular calcimimetics and bisphophonates. Both agree that further studies are needed to clarify the long-term prognosis of operated and non-operated PHPT in term of fractures, cardiovascular risk and mortality. Individual and collective cost/benefit ratios of surgery or survey are also still imperfectly evaluated. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  12. Asymptomatic vertebral fractures in patients with low bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar Leite de Negreiros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA is a test technique that can be used to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures (AVF. It uses dual energy X-ray bsorptiometry (DXA and can be performed concurrently with bone densitometry. This study aims to assess the prevalence of AVF in patients with low bone mass. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 135 individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD with a T-score 61 years.

  13. Oral medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence to: P Botha (p.mbotha@mweb. co.za). Clinical setting. The causes of oral signs and symptoms could include medicine side-effects, trauma, autoimmune disease, nutritional deficiency, fungal infection (Fig. 1), premalignant disease (Fig. 2), oral carcinoma (Fig. 3), or sequelae of cancer treatment. What is.

  14. A Rare Entity: Adult Asymptomatic Giant Vallecular Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mümtaz Taner Torun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cysts in the larynx are rare and generally asymptomatic. However, large cysts in adults can be symptomatic. If they are symptomatic, they typically present with respiratory and feeding difficulties. They are usually benign in terms of pathology. Several surgical techniques may be used for treatment. Case Report. A 56-year-old man presented to our clinic with hoarseness. Routine laryngeal examination revealed a giant mass and the larynx could not be visualized. At magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, a cystic mass originating from the vallecula was detected. There was no pathology at the glottic level. We planned tracheotomy for the airway and endoscopic surgery for excision. The mass was excised using CO2 laser and was reported as benign. Conclusion. An asymptomatic vallecular cyst may cause difficult intubation in any operation. It may also cause respiratory or other complications. Airway management should be led by an ear, nose, and throat surgeon, since tracheotomy may be required. Endoscopic excision with CO2 laser is a good choice for treatment in elective cases. In this report, we discuss the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with an asymptomatic giant vallecular cyst.

  15. Prevalence of oral Candida colonization in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, K; Kavoosi, F; Pishdad, G R; Mehriar, P; Ebrahimi, H; Bandegani, A; Pakshir, K

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of oral Candida colonization in patients with diabetes and its relationship with factors such as Candida species, serum glucose level, and the susceptibility rate of isolated yeasts to antifungals. Random samples were obtained from 113 patients with type 2 diabetes, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes, and 105 healthy controls. The samples were taken by swabbing the oral mucosa of patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy individuals. Afterwards the samples were inoculated onto CHROMagar-Candida. The growing colonies were counted, and the isolated yeasts were identified by PCR-RFLP and RapID methods. Various isolated species of Candida were also subjected to susceptibility testing of antibiotic drugs. Blood samples were taken to evaluate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Although the Candida carriage rate and density were statistically higher in diabetics than healthy individuals, no direct association was found between having high Candida-burden and glycosylated hemoglobin. The most commonly isolated species in both diabetics and controls was Candida albicans. Of the tested antifungal drugs, the highest rate of resistance was found against itraconazole, followed in frequency by ketoconazole and fluconazole. This study identified a significant association between the poor glycemic control and the higher prevalence rates of Candida carriage and density in diabetic patients. In addition, a high prevalence of C. dubliniensis in diabetic patients was found, which might be misdiagnosed with its morphologically related species, C. albicans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kuhn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Kock, R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived

  17. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients : A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, John; Aangenend, Helen; Kuhn, Malte; Hautvast, Jeannine; van Oorschot, Desiree; Loohuis, Alphons Olde; van der Velden, Koos; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Voss, Andreas; Kock, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived

  18. MRSA carriage in community outpatients: a cross-sectional prevalence study in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kühn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Olde Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Köck, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three

  19. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections and nasal carriage at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital Center, Casablanca, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zriouil, Sanaâ Bouhali; Bekkali, Mohammed; Zerouali, Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are a major problem in hospitals. The multidrug resistance and the nasal carriage of S. aureus play a key role in the epidemic of these infections. In this prospective study, 160 S. aureus strains were isolated from pathological samples of patients (79 cases) and nasal swabs (81) of cases and controls from January to July 2007. The susceptibility to 16 antibiotics, including cefoxitin, was determined by the agar diffusion method, and methicillin resistance was confirmed by amplifying the mecA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was high in the burns (57.7%) and dermatology (39.4%) wards, and the MRSA strains isolated were extremely multi-resistant, but all of them were still susceptible to vancomycin. The rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was high in both cases and controls, in state, MRSA nasal carriage was more common among people infected with S. aureus.

  20. Prevalence of faecal carriage of colistin-resistant Gram-negative rods in a university hospital in western France, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saly, Marion; Jayol, Aurelie; Poirel, Laurent; Megraud, Francis; Nordmann, Patrice; Dubois, Veronique

    2017-06-01

    Plasmid-mediated and chromosomally-encoded colistin resistance is increasingly being reported worldwide. We aimed to determine the prevalence of faecal carriage of colistin-resistant Gram-negative rod isolates in a university hospital in western France. From February to May 2016, rectal swabs from 653 patients hospitalized in various clinical settings were recovered and subsequently screened for colistin resistance using the SuperPolymyxin medium. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined according to EUCAST guidelines. Genetic detection of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance was performed by PCR. The faecal carriage with intrinsic colistin-resistant isolates was high (23 %), while the faecal carriage with Gram-negative rods showing acquired resistance was low (1.4 %). No isolate carried the plasmid-mediated mcr-1/mcr-2 genes. It was noteworthy that none of the patients carrying isolates with acquired colistin resistance had previously received a colistin-based treatment, while these isolates were not multidrug resistant.

  1. Analysis of Global Sagittal Postural Patterns in Asymptomatic Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Panpan; Yu, Miao; Sun, Zhuoran; Li, Weishi; Jiang, Liang; Wei, Feng; Liu, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zhongqiang; Liu, Zhongjun

    2016-04-01

    A prospective imaging study. To characterize the distribution of the global sagittal postural patterns in asymptomatic Chinese adults using Roussouly classification. The norms of sagittal parameters in asymptomatic Chinese population have been previously described, but no report described their global sagittal postural patterns as characterized by Roussouly classification. A cohort of 272 asymptomatic Chinese adults was recruited. Data was assimilated by reviewing the films for each subject. Sagittal parameters were measured and sagittal postural patterns were then determined according to Roussouly classification. The pattern distributions were compared across genders within the study cohort. We also compared the data across different ethnicities from our study and a previous study to further characterize Chinese sagittal postures. The cohort included 161 males and 111 females, with mean age of 23.2±4.4 years. The average descriptive results were as below: pelvic incidence (PI) 46.4°±9.6°, thoracic kyphosis (TK) 24.2°±9.0°, lumbar lordosis (LL) 50.6°±10.6°, sacral slope (SS) 37.2°±7.6°, pelvic tilt (PT) 9.4°±6.8°, spinosacral angle (SSA) 131.1°±7.5° and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) 17.24±32.36 mm. Despite a significant difference between two genders in LL, PI, SSA, and SVA, no difference was found in the distribution of Roussouly types among them. 47.8% of our cohort belonged to Roussouly type 3, while type 1, 2 and 4 comprised 23.2%, 14.0% and 15.1% of the subjects, respectively. Roussouly classification was capable of categorizing sagittal parameters except for the PT. This study also found that 4.4% of the recruited subjects belonged to the C7-anterior subgroup. From a characterization of the sagittal postural patterns of asymptomatic Chinese adults using Roussouly classification, the distribution was similar between Chinese males and females; however, from a cross-study comparison, it was different between asymptomatic Chinese and Caucasian

  2. Postepizootic Persistence of Asymptomatic Mycoplasma conjunctivae Infection in Iberian Ibex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Granados, José Enrique; Frey, Joachim; Serrano, Emmanuel; Velarde, Roser; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Fandos, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The susceptibility of the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to Mycoplasma conjunctivae ocular infection and the changes in their interaction over time were studied in terms of clinical outcome, molecular detection, and IgG immune response in a captive population that underwent a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) outbreak. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was detected in the Iberian ibex, coinciding with the IKC outbreak. Its prevalence had a decreasing trend in 2013 that was consistent with the clinical resolution (August, 35.4%; September, 8.7%; November, 4.3%). Infections without clinical outcome were, however, still detected in the last handling in November. Sequencing and cluster analyses of the M. conjunctivae strains found 1 year later in the ibex population confirmed the persistence of the same strain lineage that caused the IKC outbreak but with a high prevalence (75.3%) of mostly asymptomatic infections and with lower DNA load of M. conjunctivae in the eyes (mean quantitative PCR [qPCR] cycle threshold [CT], 36.1 versus 20.3 in severe IKC). Significant age-related differences of M. conjunctivae prevalence were observed only under IKC epizootic conditions. No substantial effect of systemic IgG on M. conjunctivae DNA in the eye was evidenced with a linear mixed-models selection, which indicated that systemic IgG does not necessarily drive the resolution of M. conjunctivae infection and does not explain the epidemiological changes observed. The results show how both epidemiological scenarios, i.e., severe IKC outbreak and mostly asymptomatic infections, can consecutively occur by entailing mycoplasma persistence. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma infections are reported in a wide range of epidemiological scenarios that involve severe disease to asymptomatic infections. This study allows a better understanding of the transition between two different Mycoplasma conjunctivae epidemiological scenarios described in wild host populations and highlights the ability of M

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Beefpacking Workers in a Midwestern United States Slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; Jordan, Jeanne A; Brownstein, Kirsten; Lander, Lina; Price, Lance B; Perry, Melissa J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation.

  4. Using Pneumococcal Carriage Data to Monitor Postvaccination Changes in the Incidence of Pneumococcal Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasche, Stefan; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Dagan, Ron

    2016-11-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have substantially reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease, including the incidence of otitis media (OM). However, in most countries, no surveillance exists to monitor the change in pneumococcal OM incidence after the introduction of PCVs. We explored whether measuring pneumococcal carriage was a useful surrogate for monitoring postvaccination changes in the incidence of pneumococcal OM. The 7-valent PCV was introduced to Israel's national immunization program in July 2009 and gradually replaced by the 13-valent PCV starting in November 2010. Each day since 2009, nasopharyngeal swabs have been obtained from the first 4 Bedouin children and the first 4 Jewish children who were younger than 5 years old and attended a pediatric emergency room in southern Israel. During the same time, OM surveillance in southern Israel included all children younger than 2 years of age who were diagnosed with OM and had undergone a middle-ear fluid culture. The relative change in the prevalence of vaccine-serotype (VT) pneumococcal carriage was predictive of the relative change in incidence of OM due to VT pneumococcus. However, the serotype replacement observed in non-VT carriage is not paralleled in the incidence of OM due to non-VT pneumococcus. This could indicate that there are more complex mechanisms of the immune response involved in preventing initial and consecutive episodes of OM, which has been changed through declining prevalence of the most virulent serotypes as a result of vaccination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised children in tertiary hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwenzi, Marcelyn T; Gudza-Mugabe, Muchaneta; Mujuru, Hilda A; Dangarembizi-Bwakura, Mutsa; Robertson, Valerie; Aiken, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing and gentamicin resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly recognised as a major cause of infection in low-income countries. We assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal carriage of these bacteria in hospitalised children in Harare, Zimbabwe. We conducted a cohort study in paediatric inpatients at two tertiary-referral hospitals between May and July 2015. Rectal swabs and faecal samples were collected within 24 h of admission and further follow-up samples were collected on alternate days during hospitalization. Disc-based, selective and enrichment methods were used to detect carriage of these two forms of resistance. Standard methods were used to confirm resistance status and determine the susceptibility of resistant isolates to other commonly-used antibiotics. One hundred and sixty four paediatric inpatient admissions (median age = 1.0 year, IQR = 0.2-2.2years) were enrolled, and an average of 1.9 faecal samples per patient were collected. On admission, 68/164 (41%) patients had both ESBL and gentamicin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae detected, 18 (11%) had ESBL only, 17 (10%) had gentamicin resistance only and 61 (37%) had negative screening for both forms of resistance. During hospitalisation, 32/164 (20%) patients were found to have a type of resistant organism which was not present in their admission sample. We found that faecal samples and use of a selective enrichment broth enhanced the detection of resistant organisms. Amongst resistant bacteria isolated, there were high levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol, but not ertapenem. More than half of children had enteric carriage of a clinically-relevant form of antibiotic resistance on admission to public-sector hospitals in urban Zimbabwe. Additionally, a fifth of children acquired a further form of resistance during hospitalisation. Urgent action is needed to tackle the spread of antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria in African hospitals.

  6. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousif Atia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus exerts immunomodulatory effect in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We Aim to investigate the frequency of nasal S.aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis and its possible influence on their symptoms and immune markers. We chosed 20 non smoker patients with house dust mite (HDM allergy causing allergic rhinitis and 20 non smoker healthy subjects matched for age and sex. For all subjects rhinoscopy was done, skin prick test, nasal culture for S.aureus, nasal interleukin 4,nasal total IgE, serum total IgE and serum specific IgE(SSIgE for HDM. Nasal S.aureus was detected in 16/20 patients (80% and 5/20 (25% in healthy subjects with highly significant statistical difference plt0.01. Correlation of nasal staph.aureus count and different systemic and local immune markers revealed highly significant positive correlation between nasal S.aureus count and serum total IgE (r = 0.78, plt0.01 and significant positive correlation with SSIgE (HDM (r = 0.53, plt0.05, nasal total IgE (r = 0.39, plt0.05 and nasal IL-4 (r = 0.55, plt0.05. Nasal staph.aureus actively modulated the immune reaction in persistent allergic rhinitis patients by promoting local IgE production, so we recommend early detection and treatment of S.aureus carriage in patients

  7. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among medical students of Belgrade University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA present the growing problem in the whole world. Carriage of MRSA is most frequent in the nose, and medical students come in contact both with patients and different persons in the community. Therefore, they may be significant for the transmission of MRSA from hospitals to out- of-hospital communities and vice versa. Objective. The aim of this study was to establish the carriage rate among students of the second, third and fourth year of study at the School of Medicine in Belgrade and to analyze their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Methods. In total 533 nasal samples were taken. The samples were incubated in Trypcase-soy broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, and thereafter the swabs were inoculated on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 2 µg/mL of oxacillin. The presence of nuc, mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes was examined by PCR. The characteristics of the MRSA strains were determined using: antibiotic susceptibility testing by Vitek2 System, SCCmec, agr typing and MLST. Results. MRSA was isolated from two of 533 investigated samples (0.37%. MRSA were isolated from the students of the second and third year of study. Profiles of strains were: ST80 (SCCmec type IV, agr type 3 and ST152 (SCCmec type V, agr type 1. MRSA strains were multiresistant. Conclusion. The nasal carriage rate of MRSA in population of medical students of the first year of study in Belgrade is low. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MRSA strains indicate their community origin. MLST typing revealed that isolates belong to ST80 and ST152. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON175039

  8. The Carriage Of Multiresistant Bacteria After Travel (COMBAT) prospective cohort study: methodology and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, Maris S; van Hattem, Jarne M; Bootsma, Martin C J; van Genderen, Perry J; Goorhuis, Abraham; Schultsz, Constance; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Verbrugh, Henri A; de Jong, Menno D; Melles, Damian C; Penders, John

    2014-04-28

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the major threats to public health around the world. Besides the intense use and misuse of antimicrobial agents as the major force behind the increase in antimicrobial resistance, the exponential increase of international travel may also substantially contribute to the emergence and spread of AMR. However, knowledge on the extent to which international travel contributes to this is still limited. The Carriage Of Multiresistant Bacteria After Travel (COMBAT) study aims to 1. determine the acquisition rate of multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae during foreign travel 2. ascertain the duration of carriage of these micro-organisms 3. determine the transmission rate within households 4. identify risk factors for acquisition, persistence of carriage and transmission of multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae. The COMBAT-study is a large-scale multicenter longitudinal cohort study among travellers (n = 2001) and their non-travelling household members (n = 215). Faecal samples are collected before and immediately after travel and 1 month after return from all participants. Follow-up faecal samples are collected 3, 6 and 12 months after return from travellers (and their non-travelling household members) who acquired multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae. Questionnaires are collected from all participants at each time-point. Faecal samples are screened phenotypically for the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Positive post-travel isolates from travellers with negative pre-travel samples are genotypically analysed for ESBL and carbapenemase genes with microarray and gene sequencing. The design and scale of the COMBAT-study will enable us to provide much needed detailed insights into the risks and dynamics of introduction and spread of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae by healthy travellers and the potential need and measures to monitor or manage these risks

  9. Neisseria meningitidis nasopharyngeal carriage during the Hajj: A cohort study evaluating the need for ciprofloxacin prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Almasri, Malak; Azhar, Esam I; Yasir, Muhammad; Al-Saeed, Muneera S; Ben Helaby, Huda; Borrow, Ray; Turkistani, Abdulhafeez; Assiri, Abdallah

    2017-04-25

    The annual Muslim pilgrimage has the potential of increase risk for acquisition of Neisseria meningitidis. Here, we evaluate the Hajj impact on the prevalence of N. meningitidis carriage in a paired and non-paired cohort of pilgrims. Secondary objectives were to calculate the compliance with recommended vaccination. This is a prospective paired (arriving and departing), non-paired arriving and non-paired departing cohort study with the collection of nasopharyngeal samples at the start and the end of the Hajj. The study included unpaired arriving pilgrims at King Abdul Aziz International Airport (N=1055), unpaired departing cohort (N=373), and a paired cohort (N=628) who were tested on arrival and departure. Meningococcal vaccination was received by all pilgrims, 98.2% received quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (ACWY), and 1.8% received meningococcal quadrivalent conjugate vaccine (MCV4). Only 1.61% and 23.03% received pneumococcal and influenza vaccines, respectively. Of the 1055 arriving unpaired pilgrim, 36 (3.4%) tested positive for nasopharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis, and 24 (66.7%) of these were serogroup B, the remainder were non-groupable. Haemophilus influenza was detected among 45 (4.3%), and 11 (1%) carriers were positive for both N. meningitidis and H. influenzae. Out of 373 in the unpaired departing cohort, 6 (1.61%) tested positive for N. meningitidis, and 34 (9.1%) were positive for H. influenzae. Of the 628 paired cohort pilgrims, 36 (5.7%) pilgrims were positive for N. meningitidis at arrival and 16 (2.5%) pilgrims were positive after the hajj. This the largest study of the epidemiology of N. meningitidis among pilgrims. The study showed a significant difference in the carriage between pilgrims from high endemicity and other pilgrims with a predominance of serogroup B. The continued use of ciprofloxacin as prophylactic antibiotics should be reconsidered as well as the consideration to add serogroup B as a required vaccination. Copyright

  10. Insights into nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in an urban and a rural community in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Egyir

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in the community in Ghana was never investigated prior to this study. The aims of the study were: i to assess prevalence of nasal S. aureus carriage in Ghanaian people living in an urban and a rural area, and ii to identify phenotypic and genotypic traits of strains isolated from the two communities. Nasal swabs were collected from healthy individuals living in an urban community situated in the suburb of the capital city, Accra (n = 353 and in a rural community situated in the Dangme-West district (n = 234. The overall prevalence of nasal carriage was 21% with a significantly higher prevalence in the urban (28% than in the rural community (11% (p<0.0001. The levels of antimicrobial resistance were generally low (<5% except for penicillin (91% and tetracycline (25%. The only two (0.3% MRSA carriers were individuals living in the urban area and had been exposed to hospitals within the last 12 months prior to sampling. Resistance to tetracycline (p = 0.0009 and presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL gene (p = 0.02 were significantly higher among isolates from the rural community compared to isolates from the urban community. Eleven MLST clonal complexes (CC were detected based on spa typing of the 124 S. aureus isolates from the two communities: CC8 (n = 36, CC152 (n = 21, CC45 (n = 21, CC15 (n = 18, CC121 (n = 6, CC97 (n = 6, CC30 (n = 5, CC5 (n = 5, CC508 (n = 4, CC9 (n = 1, and CC707 (n = 1. CC8 and CC45 were less frequent in the rural area than in the urban area (p = 0.02. These results reveal remarkable differences regarding carriage prevalence, tetracycline resistance, PVL content and clonal distribution of S. aureus in the two study populations. Future research may be required to establish whether such differences in nasal S. aureus carriage are linked to socio-economic differences between urban and rural communities in this

  11. Nasopharyngeal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: incidence and outcomes in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupesh I; Kaufman, Howard K

    2011-06-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), especially community-acquired MRSA, have increased substantially during the past decade. The optimal protocols for screening patients, particularly during pregnancy, have not been determined. To determine the incidence of nasopharyngeal carriage of MRSA in pregnancy as well as whether there was a correlation between positive maternal screening test results and an increased risk of adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes, including neonatal carriage of MRSA. The authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records from Rockford Memorial Hospital in Illinois between December 14, 2007, and July 14, 2008. All patients, who were pregnant women admitted to the hospital, and their newborns had nasopharyngeal swabs collected for MRSA detection. Numbers of neonatal intensive care unit admissions and results of neonatal sepsis evaluations were noted. Maternal postoperative infections and anesthesia-related complications were noted and compared to those of control patients. Apgar scores at birth were compared with those of a control group. Of 1,045 patients who were tested, 31 patients (2.9%) had positive results for MRSA. By comparison, the hospital-wide MRSA prevalence for this period was 7.9% (569 positive results of 7,206 patients tested). This prevalence was substantially higher than that noted for the study population. Twenty-three of the 31 patients (74%) delivered at our institution and thus comprised the study group. A control group comprised 46 patients with negative results of MRSA screening. No positive results of neonatal MRSA screening tests were noted in either group, and no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups existed in 5-minute Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, or neonatal sepsis evaluations. Positive MRSA-screening test results were associated with a statistically significant decrease in the provision of regional anesthesia to the pregnant

  12. Schoolbag carriage and schoolbag-related musculoskeletal discomfort among primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; Simms, Ciaran; Blake, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Schoolbag carriage is a common occurrence and has been associated with musculoskeletal discomfort in children. The current study investigated the relationship between schoolbag-related musculoskeletal discomfort and individual, physical and psychosocial risk factors in primary school children in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey and pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. The site and intensity of musculoskeletal discomfort was assessed before and after schoolbag carriage to provide a dose-response assessment of schoolbag-related discomfort for the first time. Objective measurements of the children, schoolbags and other additional items were made, and a researcher assisted questionnaire was completed on arrival at school. A total of 529 children (male 55.8%: female 44.2%) with a mean age of 10.6 years ± 7.14 months were included. The majority had backpacks (93.8%) and 89.7% (n = 445) carried the backpack over 2 shoulders. The mean schoolbag weight (4.8 ± 1.47 kgs) represented a mean % body weight (%BW) of 12.6 ± 4.29%. Only 29.9% carried schoolbags that were ≤10%BW. A significantly greater proportion of normal weight children carried schoolbags that were >10%BW compared to overweight/obese children (p school for ≤10 min. The prevalence of baseline musculoskeletal discomfort was high (63.4%). Schoolbag-related discomfort was reported more frequently in the shoulders (27.3%) than in the back (15%). The dose-response assessment indicated that both statistically and meaningfully significant increases in discomfort were observed following schoolbag carriage. Multiple logistic regression models indicated that psychosocial factors and a history of discomfort were predictors of schoolbag-related back discomfort, while gender (being female) and a history of discomfort were predictors of schoolbag-related shoulder discomfort. None of the physical factors (absolute/relative schoolbag weight, carrying an additional item, duration of carriage

  13. Nasopharyngeal carriage and macrolide resistance in Indigenous children with bronchiectasis randomized to long-term azithromycin or placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, K M; Grimwood, K; Chang, A B; Chatfield, M D; Valery, P C; Leach, A J; Smith-Vaughan, H C; Morris, P S; Byrnes, C A; Torzillo, P J; Cheng, A C

    2015-11-01

    Although long-term azithromycin decreases exacerbation frequency in bronchiectasis, increased macrolide resistance is concerning. We investigated macrolide resistance determinants in a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Indigenous Australian children living in remote regions and urban New Zealand Māori and Pacific Islander children with bronchiectasis were randomized to weekly azithromycin (30 mg/kg) or placebo for up to 24 months and followed post-intervention for up to 12 months. Nurses administered and recorded medications given and collected nasopharyngeal swabs 3-6 monthly for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was significantly lower in azithromycin compared to placebo groups, while macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus carriage was significantly higher. Australian children, compared to New Zealand children, had higher carriage overall, significantly higher carriage of macrolide-resistant bacteria at baseline (16/38 versus 2/40 children) and during the intervention (69/152 versus 22/239 swabs), and lower mean adherence to study medication (63 % versus 92 %). Adherence ≥70 % (versus azithromycin group was associated with lower carriage of any pathogen [odds ratio (OR) 0.19, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.53] and fewer macrolide-resistant pathogens (OR 0.34, 95 % CI 0.14-0.81). Post-intervention (median 6 months), macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae declined significantly in the azithromycin group, from 79 % (11/14) to 7 % (1/14) of positive swabs, but S. aureus strains remained 100 % macrolide resistant. Azithromycin treatment, the Australian remote setting, and adherence <70 % were significant independent determinants of macrolide resistance in children with bronchiectasis. Adherence to treatment may limit macrolide resistance by suppressing carriage.

  14. Community carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli is associated with strains of low pathogenicity: a Swedish nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ny, Sofia; Löfmark, Sonja; Börjesson, Stefan; Englund, Stina; Ringman, Maj; Bergström, Jakob; Nauclér, Pontus; Giske, Christian G; Byfors, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Community carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (EPE) is common worldwide and there is a need to understand the connection between carriage and infection. We compared the molecular characteristics of EPE among Swedish community carriers with those of EPE causing invasive infections. We collected 2134 faecal samples from randomly selected Swedish inhabitants and examined them for the presence of EPE. All participating volunteers answered a questionnaire about putative risk factors for EPE carriage. Suspected EPE isolates (n = 418) from patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) were collected from Swedish laboratories. Isolates were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Our results show that the EPE population found in carriers generally had lower pathogenicity compared with the isolates from BSIs, since carriers had a lower proportion of E. coli belonging to phylogroup B2, ST131 and ST131 subclone H30-Rx. Isolates from carriers also had lower levels of multiresistance. The Swedish carriage rate of EPE was 4.7% (101/2134) among healthy volunteers. Risk factors associated with carriage were travel to countries in Asia (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.4-9.2) and Africa (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.7-7.7) and a diet without pork (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8 for pork eaters). E. coli host factors previously associated with higher pathogenicity were all more common in BSIs compared with carriers. This indicates that the risk of invasive infection with EPE may be relatively modest in many community carriers and that EPE carriage of high-risk strains should be the focus of attention for prevention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  15. Prevalence of nasal carriage and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus among inpatients and hospital staff at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egyir, Beverly; Guardabassi, Luca; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Larsen, Jesper; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Newman, Mercy Jemima; Larsen, Anders Rhod

    2013-12-01

    There is a paucity of data on Staphylococcus aureus epidemiology in Africa. Prevalence of nasal carriage and genetic diversity of S. aureus were determined among hospital staff (HS) and inpatients (IP) at the largest hospital in Ghana. In total, 632 nasal swabs were obtained from 452 IP and 180 HS in the Child Health Department (CHD) and Surgical Department (SD). S. aureus carriage prevalences were 13.9% in IP and 23.3% in HS. The chance of being a carrier was higher in HS (P=0.005) and IP staying ≤7 days in hospital (P=0.007). Resistance to penicillin (93%), tetracycline (28%) and fusidic acid (12%) was more common than for other agents (<5%). A higher chance of multidrug-resistant S. aureus carriage was observed among IP compared with HS (P=0.01). High genetic diversity was shown by spa typing, with 55 spa types found among 105 isolates; the predominant spa types were t355 (10%) and t084 (10%). MRSA was detected in six IP with an overall carriage prevalence of ca. 1.3%, but not in HS. All three MRSA isolates from SD belonged to ST88-SCCmec IV, and two of them displayed the same spa type and antibiograms; three MRSA isolates from CHD belonged to distinct lineages (ST88-SCCmec IV, ST8-SCCmec V and ST72-SCCmec V). Altogether, these data indicate a high diversity of S. aureus, low levels of MRSA carriage, and a higher chance of nasal carriage of multidrug-resistant S. aureus among IP compared with HS in this hospital. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... phenomenological approach of Dahlberg, Dahlberg, and Nyström. The essence of the phenomenon, oral hygiene, is described as a challenge: a mixture of ability and assigning priority; a challenge in which significant others, for better or worse, play an important role. We recommend a systematic cooperation between...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  17. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  18. Prevalence of nasal carriage and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus among inpatients and hospital staff at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egyir, Beverly; Guardabassi, Luca; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on Staphylococcus aureus epidemiology in Africa. Prevalence of nasal carriage and genetic diversity of S. aureus were determined among hospital staff (HS) and inpatients (IP) at the largest hospital in Ghana. In total, 632 nasal swabs were obtained from 452 IP and 180 HS...... in the Child Health Department (CHD) and Surgical Department (SD). S. aureus carriage prevalences were 13.9% in IP and 23.3% in HS. The chance of being a carrier was higher in HS (P = 0.005) and IP staying ≤7 days in hospital (P = 0.007). Resistance to penicillin (93%), tetracycline (28%) and fusidic acid (12...

  19. Insights into nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in an urban and a rural community in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egyir, Beverly; Guardabassi, Luca; Esson, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in the community in Ghana was never investigated prior to this study. The aims of the study were: i) to assess prevalence of nasal S. aureus carriage in Ghanaian people living in an urban and a rural area, and ii) to identify phenotypic and genotypic traits...... of strains isolated from the two communities. Nasal swabs were collected from healthy individuals living in an urban community situated in the suburb of the capital city, Accra (n = 353) and in a rural community situated in the Dangme-West district (n = 234). The overall prevalence of nasal carriage was 21...

  20. Recurrent oral angioleiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V G Mahima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angioleiomyomas are vascular variant of leiomyomas which are benign tumors of smooth muscle. They are exceedingly rare in the oral cavity. Malignant transformation of these tumors has also been reported occasionally which warrants knowledge of this soft tissue tumor. A 57 year old male patient reported with a 15 day history of an asymptomatic growth that had started insidiously in his lower left back tooth region. Clinical examination revealed a solitary, oval, sessile growth in the mandibular left retro molar region. Excisional biopsy was suggestive of Angioleiomyoma. A recurrence of the same was noted two months later which was also histopathologically reported as Angioleiomyoma. The same was confirmed using special stains. This case reports an unusual presentation of Angioleiomyoma with regards to both recurrence as well as rapid growth. It is important to be well aware of this uncommon entity as these tumors often can mimic or transform into malignancy. Precise clinicopathological examinations are therefore invaluable in establishing an accurate diagnosis and delivering suitable treatment.

  1. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complications of oral cancer may include: Complications of radiation therapy, including dry mouth and difficulty swallowing Disfigurement of the face, head, and neck after surgery Other spread ( metastasis ) of the cancer

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens ...

  4. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Oral Thrush KidsHealth > For Parents > Oral Thrush Print A ... A en español Muguet (candidiasis oral) What Is Oral Thrush? Oral thrush is a very common yeast ...

  5. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  8. Genotypic characterization of Malaysian human isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from carriage and clinical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakrin, Nik Noorul Shakira Mohamed; Masri, Siti Norbaya; Taib, Niazlin Mohd; Nordin, Syafinaz Amin; Jamal, Farida; Desa, Mohd Nasir Mohd

    2014-12-01

    This study characterized carriage and clinical pneumococcal isolates for serotypes, penicillin susceptibility, virulence genes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern of penicillin binding protein (PBP) genes. DNA fingerprint of isolates was generated by BOX-PCR. Majority of serotypes were 23F followed by 19F, 19A and 6A. Twenty-four percent of isolates were penicillin non-susceptible (PNSP). All of the targeted virulence genes were detected in all isolates with the exception of pili; 20.6% (n=22) for PI-1 and 14.0% (n=15) for PI-2. Of the 13 isolates which carried both PI-1 and PI-2, 10 were of clinical origin. Digested pbp-DNA produced three PBP-RFLP profiles for pbp1a (A1 to A3), six profiles for pbp2b (B1 to B6) and seven for pbp2x (X1 to X7) mostly in PNSPs. Based on BOX-PCR analysis, the majority of isolates were genetically diverse with a small number of potentially related isolates carrying pili genes. No obvious genotypic association was observed pertaining to carriage and clinical origin of isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intestinal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a community setting in Casablanca, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaoui, Imane; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Serray, Bahija; El Mdaghri, Naima; Timinouni, Mohammed; Ait Chaoui, Ahmed; El Azhari, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the rate of intestinal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and to perform a phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of VRE isolates in the community in Casablanca, Morocco. During 6 months in 2014, 113 faecal samples were examined for the presence of enterococci. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the disk diffusion method. Phenotypic and genotypic species identification was performed, and the vanA, vanB and vanC genes were detected by PCR. Each bacterial isolate resistant to vancomycin was subjected to amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 100 strains were collected from a community population of 80 persons; 55% of the isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium and 45% as Enterococcus faecalis. The resistance profile showed that 88% of the strains were multiresistant. The rate of faecal carriage of VRE was 21% (n=21), among which 8 strains were E. faecalis (17.8% of all E. faecalis) and 13 strains were E. faecium (23.6% of all E. faecium). PCR analysis revealed that all of the strains were resistant to vancomycin owing to possession of the vanA gene. The emergence of VRE and the high rate of colonisation by multiresistant enterococci are alarming. Strict measures are required to control the further spread of these strains in the Moroccan community. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Pandolf equation under-predicts the metabolic rate of contemporary military load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Jace R; Aisbett, Brad; Lewis, Michael; Billing, Daniel C

    2017-11-01

    This investigation assessed the accuracy of error of the Pandolf load carriage energy expenditure equation when simulating contemporary military conditions (load distribution, external load and walking speed). Within-participant design. Sixteen male participants completed 10 trials comprised of five walking speeds (2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5km·h -1 ) and two external loads (22.7 and 38.4kg). The Pandolf equation demonstrated poor predictive precision, with a mean bias of 124.9W and -48.7 to 298.5W 95% limits of agreement. Furthermore, the Pandolf equation systematically under-predicted metabolic rate (pload combinations. Predicted metabolic rate error ranged from 12-33% across all conditions with the 'moderate' walking speeds (i.e. 4.5-5.5km·h -1 ) yielding less prediction error (12-17%) when compared to the slower and faster walking speeds (21-33%). Factors such as mechanical efficiency and load distribution contribute to the impaired predictive accuracy. The authors suggest the Pandolf equation should be applied to military load carriage with caution. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of military load carriage on 3-D lower limb kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Stewart A; Haslam, Roger A

    2009-10-01

    The 3-D gait analysis of military load carriage is not well represented, if at all, within the available literature. This study collected 3-D lower limb kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters in order to assess the subsequent impact of carrying loads in a backpack of up to 32 kg. Results showed the addition of load significantly decreased the range of motion of flexion/extension of the knee and pelvic rotation. Also seen were increases in adduction/abduction and rotation of the hip and pelvis tilt. No changes to ankle kinematics were observed. Alterations to the spatiotemporal parameters of gait were also of considerable interest, namely, an increase in double support and a decrease in preferred stride length as carried load increased. Analysing kinematics during military or recreational load carriage broadens the knowledge regarding the development of exercise-related injuries, while helping to inform the human-centred design process for future load carrying systems. The importance of this study is that limited available research has investigated 3-D lower limb joint kinematics when carrying loads.

  12. Prey carriage varies with prey size in Cerceris fumipennis (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Nalepa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the hunting behavior of the solitary wasp Cerceris fumipennis is proving to be a useful method for detecting pest Buprestidae as well as for documenting buprestid diversity in eastern North America. Here we review prey carriage mechanisms in the species, and conclude that variation in prey carriage is correlated with the spectacular size range of their buprestid prey (4.9–22.3 mm length. Small prey items, including Agrilus species, are transported with the aid of a specialized morphological structure on the fifth metasomal sternite (“buprestid clamp”, resulting in a distinct curved posture during flight. Analysis of prey items from C. fumipennis in North Carolina in 2014 indicates that 30% of collected Agrilus spp. were not paralyzed prior to wasp arrival at the nest, and suggests that the buprestid clamp may function to prevent the escape of active small prey. Recognition that the curved flight posture of a female approaching her nest is a signal that she may be carrying a beetle in the genus Agrilus can improve efficiency of biosurveillance for pest Buprestidae.

  13. Nasopharyngeal Carriage Rate and Serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis in Turkish recruits upon entry to the military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Basustaoglu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine nasopharyngeal carriage rate and serogroup of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from Turkish recruits upon entry to the military. Material and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from 1995 soldiers and were inoculated immediately on BBL-modified Thayer-Martin medium plates. The plates were examined for the presence of colonies showing the typical morphology of N. meningitidis. Suspect colonies were screened for oxidase reactivity, and positive colonies were Gram stained. If Gram-negative diplococci were present, a biochemical profile by the API NH system was used for confirmation. Serogrouping of the meningococcal isolates was performed by a slide agglutination technique. Findings: The nasopharyngeal carriage rate of N. meningitidis was found to be 4.2% (n=83. Of these meningococci, 15.6% (n=13 were serogroup Y, 10.8% (n=9 were serogroup W-135, 9.6% (n=8 were serogroup C, 6.1% (n=5 were serogroup B, 2.4% (n=2 were serogroup A. The 46 isolates (55.4% were detected as nonserogroupable. Conclusion: Since serogroup Y and W-135 are predominant in this study population, it was suggest that Turkish recruits should be vaccinated by quadrivalent vaccine (A,C,Y, and W-135 upon the military instead of A+C polysaccharide vaccine and now quadrivalent vaccine has been carried out. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 447-450

  14. High prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among children in Szolnok, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Krisztina; Tóthpál, Adrienn; Kovács, Eszter; Sahin-Tóth, Judit; Horváth, Andrea; Kardos, Szilvia; Dobay, Orsolya

    2017-12-18

    We collected nasal samples from 1,390 healthy 3-7 years old children in Szolnok city, Hungary, in 2012. We detected 476 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 474 children. In two occasions, two different S. aureus were isolated, based on hemolysis type and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. S. aureus carriage rate was calculated to be 34.1% similar to others studies. Male gender was found to be a risk factor for carriage by statistical analysis. Altogether, four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were detected by mecA polymerase chain reaction, which means 0.8% community-acquired MRSA prevalence among the S. aureus isolates. All MRSA strains harbored the SCCmec type IV cassette (typical for CA-MRSA) and belonged to ST45 by multilocus sequence typing. During antibiotic susceptibility testing, we measured the following resistance rates: 0.0% for mupirocin, 0.2% for ciprofloxacin, 0.6% for gentamicin and oxacillin, 3.4% for tetracycline, 9.5% for clindamycin, 10.3% for erythromycin, and 91.4% for penicillin, which are generally lower compared with Hungarian clinical isolates.

  15. Direct detection of nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage via helicase-dependent isothermal amplification and chip hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frech Georges C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus constitutes one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. One out of every three individuals naturally carries S. aureus in their anterior nares, and nasal carriage is associated with a significantly higher infection rate in hospital settings. Nasal carriage can be either persistent or intermittent, and it is the persistent carriers who, as a group, are at the highest risk of infection and who have the highest nasal S. aureus cell counts. Prophylactic decolonization of S. aureus from patients’ noses is known to reduce the incidence of postsurgical infections, and there is a clear rationale for rapid identification of nasal S. aureus carriers among hospital patients. Findings A molecular diagnostic assay was developed which is based on helicase-dependent target amplification and amplicon detection by chip hybridization to a chip surface, producing a visible readout. Nasal swabs from 70 subjects were used to compare the molecular assay against culturing on “CHROMagar Staph aureus” agar plates. The overall relative sensitivity was 89%, and the relative specificity was 94%. The sensitivity rose to 100% when excluding low-count subjects (S. aureus colony-forming units per swab. Conclusions This molecular assay is much faster than direct culture and has sensitivity that is appropriate for identification of high-count (>100 S. aureus colony-forming units per swab nasal S. aureus carriers who are at greatest risk for nosocomial infections.

  16. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Elizabeth R; Kinyon, Joann M; Noxon, James O

    2012-12-07

    In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus schleiferi was previously assumed to be an inhabitant of carnivore skin, however, more recently, it has been repeatedly documented in the literature as both an inhabitant and as a pathogen. In order to determine the frequency of nasal carriage, and the methicillin susceptibility pattern of S. schleiferi from healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and/or pyoderma, a prospective study including 24 dogs with healthy ears and skin, 27 dogs with healthy ears and pyoderma, 15 dogs with otitis without pyoderma and 20 dogs with both otitis and pyoderma was performed. Specimens were obtained and cultured and isolates were identified as S. schleiferi based on growth and biochemical characteristics. S. schleiferi was isolated from the nares of 1 healthy dog, 3 dogs with recurrent pyoderma, 2 dogs with recurrent otitis, and 1 dog with both recurrent otitis and pyoderma. One of the S. schleiferi isolates was methicillin resistant. Nasal carriage of S. schleiferi does occur in healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and pyoderma. Methicillin resistant and sensitive S. schleiferi can be found in the nares of dogs with diseased ears and skin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nasal Carriage of Uncommon Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Nurses and Physicians of Tehran University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Salimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS have been identified as a major cause of nosocomial infections. Nasal carriage of CoNS in nurses and physicians is known to be an important risk factor for potential hospital infections. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of uncommon coagulase-negative staphylococci among nurse and physician staffs of Tehran University Hospitals. A total of 116 CoNS were isolated from anterior nares of the study participants working in different wards of the hospitals. Thirteen uncommon CoNS were identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods, were subsequently confirmed by API kits. Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus capitis species accounted for 53.85%, 30.77%, and 15.38% from the isolates, respectively. Six isolates (46.15% were found to be resistant to methicillin. In conclusion, screening of healthcare workers for uncommon CoNS colonization along with identification and testing for susceptibility of cultured isolates is of paramount importance in strengthening effective nosocomial infection control and prevention measures.

  18. Innovation Analysis Approach to Design Parameters of High Speed Train Carriage and Their Intrinsic Complexity Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shou-Ne; Wang, Ming-Meng; Hu, Guang-Zhong; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    In view of the problem that it's difficult to accurately grasp the influence range and transmission path of the vehicle top design requirements on the underlying design parameters. Applying directed-weighted complex network to product parameter model is an important method that can clarify the relationships between product parameters and establish the top-down design of a product. The relationships of the product parameters of each node are calculated via a simple path searching algorithm, and the main design parameters are extracted by analysis and comparison. A uniform definition of the index formula for out-in degree can be provided based on the analysis of out-in-degree width and depth and control strength of train carriage body parameters. Vehicle gauge, axle load, crosswind and other parameters with higher values of the out-degree index are the most important boundary conditions; the most considerable performance indices are the parameters that have higher values of the out-in-degree index including torsional stiffness, maximum testing speed, service life of the vehicle, and so on; the main design parameters contain train carriage body weight, train weight per extended metre, train height and other parameters with higher values of the in-degree index. The network not only provides theoretical guidance for exploring the relationship of design parameters, but also further enriches the application of forward design method to high-speed trains.

  19. Direct detection of incidental asymptomatic aneurysm by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asari, S.; Sakurai, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, K. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Ehime (Japan)); Sadamoto, K.

    1981-02-01

    Incidental asymptomatic aneurysms were found in 9 of 52 patients with intracranial aneurysms from February, 1978 to March, 1980. They had only mild initial symptoms, namely, headache, dysarthria, aphasis, light hemiparesis and others. No patients had severe neurological deficits. In eight of 9 patients with asymptomatic aneurysm, except one case of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma, 9 aneurysms (8 patients) were directly detected by high resolution CT (GE CT/T 8800) and confirmed by angiography. Location of these aneurysms as follows: three at the middle cerebral artery trifurcation, two at the internal carotisposterior communicans junction, one at anterior communication artery, one at the basilar top, one at the basilaris artery-superior cerebelli artery junction and one at the posterior cerebral artery. The smallest aneurysm detected by CT as 5 x 4 x 4 mm in size on angiography. The aneurysm may be suggested by small round or oval defect in the Sylvian fissure or suprasellar cistern, defect of the edge of the so called ''pentagon'' in the plain CT and then if its density is highly and homogeneously increased after contrast-enhanced (CE) scan. As the circle of Willis and other major cerebral arteries can often be demonstrated on CE.CT images, the aneurysm is frequently seen on these cerebral arteries. Limiting factors to direct CT detection of intracranial aneurysms are seemed to be size and location of aneurysm, anatomic location of circle of Willis and motion of patients etc. It may be considered, in our experiences, that the CT is useful in diagnosis of asymptomatic aneurysm and the higher direct CT detection rate to aneurysms, small or medium sized as well as giant aneurysms, will be obtained by devising scanning method, namely, multiprojection scans, multiple overlapping method and improvement of enhanced method.

  20. Asymptomatic spinal arachnoiditis in patients with tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, T. [Department of Neurology, CN Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Department of Medicine, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India); Kochar, D.K. [Department of Medicine, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India)

    2003-10-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is one of the common and disabling complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We focused on early diagnosis of spinal arachnoiditis by spinal MRI in asymptomatic patients in whom neurological examination was normal. We studied 16 patients with a diagnosis of probable or highly probable TBM with symptoms for less than 1 month; three had radiological evidence of spinal arachnoiditis. High cerebrospinal fluid protein appeared to be a risk factor for development of spinal arachnoiditis. MRI is sensitive to detect early spinal arachnoiditis. Earlier diagnosis may be helpful in management of spinal arachnoiditis in TBM. (orig.)

  1. Asymptomatic spinal arachnoiditis in patients with tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, T; Kochar, D K

    2003-10-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is one of the common and disabling complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We focused on early diagnosis of spinal arachnoiditis by spinal MRI in asymptomatic patients in whom neurological examination was normal. We studied 16 patients with a diagnosis of probable or highly probable TBM with symptoms for less than 1 month; three had radiological evidence of spinal arachnoiditis. High cerebrospinal fluid protein appeared to be a risk factor for development of spinal arachnoiditis. MRI is sensitive to detect early spinal arachnoiditis. Earlier diagnosis may be helpful in management of spinal arachnoiditis in TBM.

  2. Asymptomatic Left Atrial Myxoma in Elderly Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Yilmaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 75% of cardiac tumors are benign and approximately 50% are constituted of myxomas. Myxomas are more common among women, and generally appear between the third and sixth decade of life. The most common symptom of myxomas is respiratory distress associated with obstruction. The main goal in the surgery of cardiac myxomas is the full excision of the tumor with minimal manipulation and disruption/fragmentation together with the aid of a cardiopulmonary bypass. This case report is reported a seventy years old patient with asymptomatic cardiac myxoma whom undergoing surgery with general anesthesia twice at different times and undiagnosed cardiac myxoma in past seven years.

  3. Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors: background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C

    2009-01-01

    Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background...... of best interests, participation of minors in health-care decisions, parents' responsibilities to share genetic information, the role of clinical genetics and the health-care system in communication within the family. Second, it discusses, respectively, the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing...

  4. Coexistence of disseminated granuloma annulare and asymptomatic multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Aktan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma annulare (GA is a benign inflammatory dermatosis of unknown cause, characterized by necrobiotic dermal papules. Several morphologic forms of GA including localized, disseminated, linear, nodular, perforating, subcutaneous, pustular and arcuate dermal erythema have been reported in the literature. Disseminated GA, a rarely seen form, has been reported in association with some hematopoietic and solid malignancies; however, it has been suggested that the exact causative relationship between malignancy and GA is unclear. We present here a 66-year-old female patient with disseminated GA associated with asymptomatic multipl myeloma.

  5. [Oral hairy leukoplakia induced by topical steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigarios, E; Fricain, J-C; Projetti, F; Boulanger, M; Sibaud, V

    2015-10-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an EBV-associated condition of the oral mucosa, which is often painless. It is found predominantly in HIV-positive patients and is considered a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. OHL has rarely been described in HIV-negative patients, being found most often in association with iatrogenic immunosuppression. OHL induced by topical steroids remains extremely rare. An 81-year-old HIV-negative woman, treated for 3 months with topical steroids for oral lichen planus, developed an asymptomatic white, corrugated, non-removable plaque with vertical folds on the lateral edge of the tongue. Associated oral candidiasis was noted. Based upon histological findings and in situ hybridisation showing numerous EBV-infected epithelial cells, a diagnosis of oral hairy leucoplakia was made. To our knowledge, we report herein only the second recorded case of OHL induced strictly by topical steroids. Self-medication and poor adherence to dosage recommendations were noted in the patient's medical history. Physicians must be aware of the rare but nevertheless possible adverse events associated with topical steroid use, particularly when such medication is prescribed over a long period for inflammatory diseases of the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey of extra-intestinal immune responses in asymptomatic long-term Campylobacter jejuni-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Haag, Lea-Maxie; Fischer, André; Otto, Bettina; Kühl, Anja A; Göbel, Ulf B; Bereswill, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is among the most frequently reported bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea in humans worldwide. We recently reported a murine infection model mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. Six days following oral C. jejuni infection immediately after weaning, infant mice developed acute enterocolitis resolving within 2 weeks. Thereafter, C. jejuni could still be isolated from the intestines of asymptomatic mice at low levels accompanied by distinct immune responses, both at intestinal and extra-intestinal locations. We here show that, at day 103 post infection (p.i.), long-term C. jejuni-infected mice exhibited higher numbers of T lymphocytes in liver, lung, kindneys, and cardiac muscle as compared to uninfected controls. In addition, B lymphocytes were slightly higher, but macrophage numbers were significantly lower in liver and lung of C. jejuni-infected versus naive mice. As compared to uninfected control animals, proliferating cells were significantly lower in liver, lung, kidneys, cardiac muscle, and spleen at day 103 p.i., whereas more apoptotic cells were abundant in the spleen with predominance in the red pulp. This study underlines that post-infectious, immunological sequelae at extra-intestinal locations are of importance even in asymptomatic long-term C. jejuni carriers and need to be further studied in order to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  7. High prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in slaughterhouse workers in contact with live pigs in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Broens, E.M.; Voss, A.; Huijsdens, X.W.; Züchner, L.; Benthem, van B.H.B.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Mulders, M.N.; Giessen, van de A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock-associated MRSA has been found in various animals, livestock farmers and retail meat. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of nasal MRSA carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers. Three large pig slaughterhouses in The Netherlands were studied in 2008 using human and

  8. High prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in slaughterhouse workers in contact with live pigs in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleef, B.A. van; Broens, E.M.; Voss, A.; Huijsdens, X.W.; Zuchner, L.; Benthem, B.H. van; Kluytmans, J.A.; Mulders, M.N.; Giessen, A.W. Van De

    2010-01-01

    Livestock-associated MRSA has been found in various animals, livestock farmers and retail meat. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of nasal MRSA carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers. Three large pig slaughterhouses in The Netherlands were studied in 2008 using human and

  9. ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age : prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bunt, G; Liakopoulos, A; Mevius, D J; Geurts, Y; Fluit, A C; Bonten, M J M; Mughini-Gras, L; van Pelt, W

    OBJECTIVES: ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria

  10. ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age: prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, van den G.; Liakopoulos, A.; Mevius, D.J.; Geurts, Y.; Fluit, A.C.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Pelt, van W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria

  11. MRSA carriage among healthcare workers in non-outbreak settings in Europe and the United States: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dulon, Madeleine; Peters, Claudia; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert

    2014-01-01

    ...) in healthcare workers (HCWs) to be 4.6%. However, MRSA carriage in HCWs in non-outbreak settings is thought to be higher than in an outbreak situation, due to increased hygiene awareness in outbreaks, but valid data are missing...

  12. High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, J.; Schoormans, A.; Kwakernaak, M.; Duim, B.; Broens, E.; Dierikx, C.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in

  13. High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314839542; Schoormans, Anky; Kwakernaak, Mandy; Duim, Birgitta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143855352; Broens, Els|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314627723; Dierikx, Cindy; Mevius, Dik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079677347; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in

  14. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among college student athletes in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 259 college students in northern Taiwan surveyed, nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 22.4% and 1.54%, respectively and no significant difference was found between athlete students and non-athlete students. Three of four MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59, the endemic community clone.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage, emergence, clearance and population sex ratios in anaemic and non-anaemic malarious children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Olusola Gbotosho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in falciparum malaria is associated with an increased risk of gametocyte carriage, but its effects on transmission have not been extensively evaluated in malarious children. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage, emergence, clearance, population sex ratios (SR (defined as the proportion of gametocytes that are male, inbreeding rates and temporal changes in SR were evaluated in 840 malarious children. Gametocyte carriage pre-treatment was at a level of 8.1%. Anaemia at enrolment was an independent risk factor for gametocyte carriage post-treatment. The emergence of gametocytes seven days post-treatment was significantly more frequent in anaemic children (7/106 vs. 10/696, p = 0.002. In the initially detected gametocytes, the proportion of children with a male-biased SR (MBSR (> 0.5 was significantly higher in anaemic children (6/7 vs. 3/10, p = 0.027. Pre-treatment SR and estimated inbreeding rates (proportion of a mother's daughters fertilised by her sons were similar in anaemic and non-anaemic children. Pre-treatment SR became more female-biased in non-anaemic children following treatment. However, in anaemic children, SR became male-biased. Anaemia was shown to significantly increase gametocyte emergence and may significantly alter the SR of emerging gametocytes. If MBSR is more infective to mosquitoes at low gametocytaemia, then these findings may have significant implications for malaria control efforts in endemic settings where malaria-associated anaemia is common.

  16. Prospective Study of Infection, Colonization and Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in an Outbreak Affecting 990 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Coello; J. Jimenez (Jose); M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Arroyo; D. Minguez; C. Fernandez; F. Cruzet; C. Gaspar

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the three years between November 1989 and October 1992, an outbreak of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) affected 990 patients at a university hospital. The distribution of patients with carriage, colonization or infection was investigated prospectively. Nosocomial

  17. Genetic diversity and levels of expression of factor H binding protein among carriage isolates of Neisseria meningitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Lemée

    Full Text Available The prevention of meningococcal disease may be improved by recombinant vaccines such as 4CMenB and rLP2086 that target the factor H binding protein (fHbp, an immunogenic surface component of Neisseria meningitidis present as one of three variants. Whether such vaccines decrease carriage of invasive isolates and thus induce herd immunity is unknown. We analyzed the genetic diversity and levels of expression of fHbp among 268 carriage strains and compare them to those of 467 invasive strains. fhbp gene sequencing showed higher proportions of variants 2 and 3 among carriage isolates (p<0.0001. Carriage isolates expressed lower levels of fHbp (p<0.01 but that remain high enough to predict targeting by antibodies against fHbp particularly in group B isolates belonging to the frequent hypervirulent clonal complexes in Europe and North America (cc32, cc41/44, cc269. This suggests that fHbp targeting meningococcal vaccines might reduce, at least in part, the acquisition of some hyperinvasive isolates.

  18. Livestock-associated MRSA in household members of pig farmers: transmission and dynamics of carriage, a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte A G L van Cleef

    Full Text Available This prospective cohort study describes carriage of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA in household members from 49 farrowing pig farms in the Netherlands (2010-2011. Of 171 household members, 4% were persistent MRSA nasal carriers, and the MRSA prevalence on any given sampling moment was 10% (range 7-11%. Working in the stables (of which 98% was MRSA-positive, prevalence ratio (PR = 2.11 per 10 hours, working with sows (PR=1.97, and living with an MRSA-positive pig farmer (PR=4.63 were significant determinants for MRSA carriage. Significant protective factors were carriage of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (PR=0.50, and wearing a facemask when working in the stables (37% decreased prevalence. All MRSA strains during the study period were known livestock-associated types. The bacteriophage φ3 was not found in household members. Transmission from pigs and the environment appeared to be important determinants; human-to-human transmission could not sufficiently be differentiated. Wearing a facemask when working in the stables and carriage of MSSA are potential interventional targets.

  19. 14 CFR 137.23 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate issued...

  20. 14 CFR 133.14 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 133.14 Section 133.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate...

  1. Correlation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Breakpoints and Methicillin Resistance Gene Carriage in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Eftekhar,

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most important member of coagulase negative staphylococci responsible for community and hospital acquired infections. Most clinical isolates of S. epidermidis are resistant to methicillin making these infections difficult to treat. In this study, correlation of methicillin resistance phenotype was compared with methicillin resistance (mecA gene carriage in 55 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis. Susceptibility was measured by disc diffusion using methicillin discs, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were measured using broth microdilution. Methicillin resistance gene (MecA gene carriage was detected by specific primers and PCR. Disc susceptibility results showed 90.9% resistance to methicillin. Considering a MIC of 4 µg/ml, 78.1% of the isolates were methicillin resistant, 76.36% of which carried the mecA gene. On the other hand, when a breakpoint of 0.5 µg/ml was used, 89.09% were methicillin resistant, of which 93.75% were mecA positive. There was a better correlation between MIC of 0.5 µg/ml with disc diffusion results and mecA gene carriage. The findings suggest that despite the usefulness of molecular methods for rapid diagnosis of virulence genes, gene carriage does not necessarily account for virulence phenotype. Ultimately, gene expression, which is controlled by the environment, would determine the outcome

  2. Intelligence and Academic Achievement With Asymptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adriana S; Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Claussen, Angelika H; Vinson, Sherry S; Turcich, Marie R; Iovino, Isabella R; Voigt, Robert G; Caviness, A Chantal; Miller, Jerry A; Williamson, W Daniel; Hales, Craig M; Bialek, Stephanie R; Demmler-Harrison, Gail

    2017-11-01

    To examine intelligence, language, and academic achievement through 18 years of age among children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified through hospital-based newborn screening who were asymptomatic at birth compared with uninfected infants. We used growth curve modeling to analyze trends in IQ (full-scale, verbal, and nonverbal intelligence), receptive and expressive vocabulary, and academic achievement in math and reading. Separate models were fit for each outcome, modeling the change in overall scores with increasing age for patients with normal hearing ( n = 78) or with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) diagnosed by 2 years of age ( n = 11) and controls ( n = 40). Patients with SNHL had full-scale intelligence and receptive vocabulary scores that were 7.0 and 13.1 points lower, respectively, compared with controls, but no significant differences were noted in these scores among patients with normal hearing and controls. No significant differences were noted in scores for verbal and nonverbal intelligence, expressive vocabulary, and academic achievement in math and reading among patients with normal hearing or with SNHL and controls. Infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified through newborn screening with normal hearing by age 2 years do not appear to have differences in IQ, vocabulary or academic achievement scores during childhood, or adolescence compared with uninfected children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. HEPATITIS B, HIV AND SYPHILIS INFECTION IN ASYMPTOMATIC PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Yadav

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with Hepatitis b, HIV and Syphilis positivity among asymptomatic pregnant women. We also assessed maternal and fetal outcome in HBsAg, HIV and Syphilis pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study of 1000 consecutive apparently healthy asymptomatic pregnant women, who are attending the antenatal clinic of AVBRH Hospital Sawangi (Meghe during September 2014 To August 2016. The blood samples was collected after obtaining their informed written consent from those who were tested for HIV antibodies (NACO guidelines, HBsAg (ELISA test, and Syphilis (RPR SPANCARD latex kit. RESULTS The prevalence of HBsAg (1.7%, HIV (1.0%, Syphilis (0.1%. All the infection was more common in illiterate, multigravida, monogamous women of low socio-economic status, History of blood transfusion, IV/IM drug users and common in multiple sexual partner. CONCLUSION This present study clearly documented a relatively declined prevalence of HBsAg, HIV and Syphilis in pregnant women. The data reinforces the need for establishing effective preventive programs, which could lead to reduction in the prevalence of these infections.

  4. Growth curve analysis of asymptomatic and symptomatic meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasu, Satoshi; Nakasu, Yoko; Fukami, Tadateru; Jito, Junya; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2011-04-01

    Meningiomas sometimes appear to stop growing after attaining a large size. Commonly used exponential growth models do not reflect this phenomenon. We attempted to find the best curve to simulate their growth. Fifty-two patients with meningioma were followed up for 3.1-21.7 years (mean 7.5 years) with four or more imaging studies each. Thirty-one patients had asymptomatic tumors. The other 21 patients with residual or recurrent tumor were followed up after surgery. Time-volume curves for each tumor were plotted. Nonlinear regression analyses were performed against power, exponential, logistic, and Gompertzian curves. Time-volume curves corresponded to the Gompertzian and logistic growth curves better than to power or exponential curves. When simulating time-volume curves with Gompertzian curves, the majority of benign meningiomas began to slow their growth before patient age of 80 years. Twenty-three of 31 asymptomatic meningiomas had already passed the inflection point before diagnosis. In contrast, this happened less frequently in symptomatic tumors. Especially, all six atypical meningiomas continued to grow quasi-exponentially. Sigmoid curves that approach a plateau were better descriptors of the growth of benign meningiomas than were curves of unlimited growth. However, atypical meningiomas were unlikely to slow their growth.

  5. Asymptomatic vertebral fractures in patients with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreiros, Caio Cesar Leite de; Berigo, Marina Guareschi; Dominoni, Robson Luiz; Vargas, Deisi Maria

    2016-04-01

    Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a test technique that can be used to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures (AVF). It uses dual energy X-ray bsorptiometry (DXA) and can be performed concurrently with bone densitometry. This study aims to assess the prevalence of AVF in patients with low bone mass. Cross-sectional study including 135 individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD) with a T-score physical examination. Densitometric variables were obtained by bone mineral densitometry and VFA (Explorer, Hollogic®). Vertebral fractures were classified according to the Genant criteria. Student's t, chi-square and logistic regression were performed for statistical analysis. AVFs occurred in 24.4% of the subjects. They were older compared to those without AVF (65±9.25 versus 60.1±8.66; p=0.005), and had a history of lowimpact fractures (38.24% versus 19.8%; OR 2.5; p=0.03). Half of the patients that reported steroid therapy had AVFs, compared to one fifth of those who did not use steroids (50% versus 21.49%; OR 3.6; p=0.01). Asymptomatic vertebral fractures were present in approximately one fourth of patients. The risk factors associated were history of low-impact fracture, use of steroids and age > 61 years.

  6. Asymptomatic cervical spine fractures: Current guidelines can fail older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Christopher D; Spilman, Sarah K; King, Bradley D; Sherrill, Joseph E; Pelaez, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    Older adults represent a growing proportion of trauma patients treated in the United States, and cervical spine (c-spine) fracture is an injury that is increasingly common in this population. Neck pain is a major component of current clinical clearance guidelines, but some older adults with c-spine fractures report no neck pain after injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency at which c-spine fractures were unassociated with neck pain in an aging population. A retrospective review was performed for patients 55 years or older with a c-spine fracture during a 4-year study period. All patients had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 and were considered asymptomatic if they did not complain of neck pain on initial presentation, denied tenderness to palpation of the c-spine on examination, and were without neurologic deficit. Differences between groups were assessed with Kruskal-Wallis and χ tests. Of 173 patients with c-spine fractures, 36 (21%) were asymptomatic and reported no neck pain on presentation or on examination. The group without neck pain had higher median injury severity scores (15 vs 10; p guidelines, denial of pain may lead to missed injury. We recommend liberal c-spine imaging for older trauma patients with significant mechanism of trauma. Therapeutic study, level III.

  7. Unusual asymptomatic presentation of bladder cancer metastatic to the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunchi, Francesca; Vasuri, Francesco; Valerio, Vagnoni; Montagnani, Ilaria; Nelli, Federico; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Raspollini, Maria Rosaria

    2017-06-01

    Penile metastasis is an extremely rare event and mainly originate from primary pelvic tumor sites such us urinary bladder, gastro-intestinal tract and prostate and more rarely from respiratory system, bone tumors and melanoma. Here we describe the unusual presentation of two bladder urothelial cancer metastatic to the penis with no relevant clinical symptoms. Namely, a 69 years-old man with a warthy lesions of the foreskin and the glans misunderstood for a condylomata that at histological and immunohistochemical analysis showed a bladder urothelial carcinoma; and a 71 years-old man with reddish skin lesion of the glans, a previous history of bladder and urethral carcinoma and histological pagetoid spread of urothelial cancer to the glans. Recurrent bladder urothelial carcinoma is usually a visceral disease that rarely presents as a superficial asymptomatic skin lesion. The two reported cases were asymptomatic superficial penis metastases with a relatively slow growth and a fairy good prognosis after conservative surgical approach. Accurate clinical examination of the penis is mandatory for males with history of bladder cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetics of antibodies against pneumococcal proteins and their relationship to nasopharyngeal carriage in the first two months of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awa L Mendy

    Full Text Available The currently used Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines have had a significant impact on the pneumococcal diseases caused by the serotypes they cover. Their limitations have stimulated a search for alternate vaccines that will cover all serotypes, be affordable and effective in young children. Pneumococcal protein antigens are potential vaccine candidates that may meet some of the shortfalls of the current vaccines. Thus, this study aimed to determine the relationship between antibodies against pneumococcal protein antigens and nasopharyngeal carriage in infants.One hundred and twenty mother-infant pairs were enrolled into the study. They had nasopharyngeal swabs(NPS taken at birth and every two weeks for the first eight weeks after delivery, and blood samples were obtained at birth and every four weeks for the first eight weeks after delivery. Nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was determined from the NPS and antibodies against the pneumococcal proteins CbpA, PspA and rPly were measured in the blood samples.The S. pneumoniae carriage rate in infants increased to that of mothers by eight weeks of age. The odds of carriage in infants was 6.2 times (95% CI: 2.0-18.9 higher when their mothers were also carriers. Bacterial density in infants was lower at birth compared to their mothers (p = 0.004, but increased with age and became higher than that of their mothers at weeks 4 (p = 0.009, 6 (p = 0.002 and 8 (p<0.0001. At birth, the infants' antibodies against CbpA, and rPly pneumococcal protein antigens were similar, but that of PspA was lower (p<0.0001, compared to their mothers. Higher antibody concentrations to CbpA [OR (95% CI: 0.49 (0.26-0.92, p = 0.03], but not PspA and rPly, were associated with protection against carriage in the infants.Naturally induced antibodies against the three pneumococcal protein antigens were transferred from mother to child. The proportion of infants with nasopharyngeal carriage and the bacterial density of S

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae(Spn) Nasopharyngeal Carriage in Children Under 3 Years Old, Attending Day Care Centers in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Angela; Rearte, Analía; Von Spetch, Martha; Laban, Celia; Papucci, Santiago Lopez; Badano, Andrea; Ferrario, Claudia; Pereda, Rosana; Flores, Devora; Berry, Diana; Aguilera, Alejandra; Sponton, Norma; Sorhouet, Cecilia; Napoli, Daniela; Devoto, Susana; Vizzotti, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2012 the 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV-13) was introduced in the National Immunization Program. We performed an epidemiological study to describe SPN nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence. Methods Between June to September 2015 it was performed a cross-sectional study among children <3 years old, attending day care centers. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children at public and private centers from 5 cities of Argentina (Salta (North West), Trelew (South), Rosario (Centre), Buenos Aires (Capital city) and Posadas (North East)). Samples were analyzed at references hospitals of each city and isolates were submitted to the INEI “Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán “, for confirming and serotyping. We considered completed schedule 3 doses of PCV13, administrated14 days prior to enrollment. Results We included 359 toddlers, 61,6% (IC95% 56,3–66,6) were SPN carriers. Median age was 24 months, without significative difference in carriage status. Multivariate analysis showed that independently of age, sex and socioeconomic level, variables associated with carriage were: · City: Taking Salta as reference (less carriage prevalence), Rosario and Posadas were statistically associated with higher prevalence rates: OR: 3,1 (IC95% 1,3–7,1) y OR: 2,8 (IC96% 1,2–6,3) respectively · Children attending to public day care centers had higher carriage rates than those attending private ones: OR: 1,9 (IC95% 1,06–3,4) · Children sharing bedroom with 3 or more persons, were associated to mayor risk or carriage: OR: 1,7 (IC95% 1,03–2,7) We found 46 serotypes in the 221 isolates. (2 couldn’t be serotyped), 90,9% (IC95% 86,3–94,3) were non PCV 13 serotypes (most frequent were 15B, 23B and 11A). Only 7 of 46 were PCV13 serotypes. (Graphic 1) Of the 20 toddlers with PCV13 serotypes, 16 were completely vaccinated Graphic 1: S pneumoniae serotype distribution. N = 221 Conclusion Nasopharyngeal carriage of SPN was high in children < 3 years

  10. Lifestyle-Associated Risk Factors for Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in the Netherlands: An Exploratory Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda M L van Rijen

    Full Text Available Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA is rapidly increasing. Currently, it is unknown which reservoirs are involved. An exploratory hospital-based case-control study was performed in sixteen Dutch hospitals to identify risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage in patients not belonging to established risk groups.Cases were in- or outpatients from sixteen Dutch hospitals, colonised or infected with MRSA without healthcare- or livestock-associated risk factors for MRSA carriage. Control subjects were patients not carrying MRSA, and hospitalised on the same ward or visited the same outpatients' clinic as the case. The presence of potential risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage was determined using a standardised questionnaire.Regular consumption of poultry (OR 2⋅40; 95% CI 1⋅08-5⋅33, cattle density per municipality (OR 1⋅30; 95% CI 1⋅00-1⋅70, and sharing of scuba diving equipment (OR 2⋅93 95% CI 1⋅19-7⋅21 were found to be independently associated with CA-MRSA carriage. CA-MRSA carriage was not related to being of foreign origin.The observed association between the consumption of poultry and CA-MRSA carriage suggests that MRSA in the food chain may be a source for MRSA carriage in humans. Although sharing of scuba diving equipment was found to be associated with CA-MRSA carriage, the role played by skin abrasions in divers, the lack of decontamination of diving materials, or the favourable high salt content of sea water is currently unclear. The risk for MRSA MC398 carriage in areas with a high cattle density may be due to environmental contamination with MRSA MC398 or human-to-human transmission. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to determine the absolute risks of MRSA acquisition associated with the factors identified.

  11. Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care workers at Al Shifa hospital in Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aila, Nabil Abdullah; Al Laham, Nahed Ali; Ayesh, Basim Mohammad

    2017-01-05

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among hospital personnel is a common cause of hospital acquired infections. Emergence of drug resistant strains especially methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a serious problem in hospital environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA among Health Care Workers (HCWs) at Al Shifa Hospital, the major hospital in Gaza Strip. A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 HCWs. Nasal swabs were collected during February - April 2015, and cultured on blood and mannitol salt agar. The isolates were identified as S. aureus based on morphology, coagulase test, DNase test and mannitol salt agar fermentation. Disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. MRSA were confirmed by detection of the mecA gene by PCR. Out of the 200 healthcare workers, 62 (31%) carried S. aureus, of which 51 (82.3%) were MRSA. Therefore, 25.5% of all HCWs were identified as MRSA carriers. MRSA carriage rate was highest among nurses (30.4%) whereas the carriage rate among doctors was (16%). The majority of MRSA carriers were workers of internal medicine department and surgical wards (41.3 and 35% respectively). Out of the 51 MRSA isolates identified by oxacillin disc resistance, 40 were confirmed by PCR targeting the mecA gene. Penicillin showed the highest rate of resistance among MRSA and MSSA isolates (100%). The high rate of nasal MRSA carriage among healthcare workers found in this study is alarming and highlights the need for adjusted infection control measures to prevent MRSA transmission from HCWs to the vulnerable patient.

  12. Evaluation of pet contact as a risk factor for carriage of multidrug-resistant staphylococci in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi-Decristophoris, Paola; De Benedetti, Anna; Petignat, Christiane; Attinger, Monica; Guillaume, Jan; Fiebig, Lena; Hattendorf, Jan; Cernela, Nicole; Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2012-03-01

    Pets, often used as companionship and for psychological support in the therapy of nursing home residents, have been implicated as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We investigated the importance of pets as reservoirs of multidrug-resistant (MDR) staphylococci in nursing homes. We assessed the carriage of MDR staphylococci in pets and in 2 groups of residents, those living in nursing homes with pets and those living without pet contacts. We collected demographic, health status, and human-pet contact data by means of questionnaires. We assessed potential bacteria transmission pathways by investigating physical resident-to-pet contact. The observed prevalence of MDR staphylococci carriage was 84/229 (37%) in residents living with pets and 99/216 (46%) in those not living with pets (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-0.9). Active pet contact was associated with lower carriage of MDR staphylococci (aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8). Antibiotic treatment during the previous 3 months was associated with significantly increased risk for MDR carriage in residents (aOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.8-5.7). We found no evidence that the previously reported benefits of pet contact are compromised by the increased risk of carriage of MDR staphylococci in residents associated with interaction with these animals in nursing homes. Thus, contact with pets, always under good hygiene standards, should be encouraged in these settings. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Korean community and hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y J; Moon, H-W; Hur, M; Park, C-M; Cho, S E; Yun, Y-M

    2013-02-01

    The assessment and early recognition of risk factors for infections due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are important for infection control and proper treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-E in healthy individuals and hospitalized high-risk patients in Korea and to compare the characteristics of ESBL-E in these two groups. A total of 384 samples from 290 healthy individuals and 94 high-risk patients were collected. The screening of ESBL-E was performed using a commercial chromogenic medium. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek 2 system. The prevalence of ESBL-E carriage was 20.3 % in healthy individuals and 42.5 % in high-risk patients. Escherichia coli comprised a large majority (96.6 %) of the isolates from healthy individuals, but Klebsiella pneumoniae was more commonly detected (45.0 %) in high-risk patients than in healthy individuals. K. pneumoniae isolates exhibited significantly higher resistance to ceftazidime, ampicillin, and carbapenem, and E. coli exhibited higher resistance to cefotaxime. E. coli from high-risk patients exhibited significantly higher resistance to levofloxacin and cefepime than that from healthy individuals. We demonstrated the high prevalence of ESBL-E carriage in Korea and clarified the characteristics of ESBL-E carriage in healthy individuals and high-risk patients. The distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of colonizing ESBL-E were different between the group of healthy individuals and the high-risk patients. Active surveillance of ESBL-E carriage is suggested for infection control, and the use of chromogenic agar appears to be an efficient method.

  14. Multi-serotype pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence in vaccine naïve Nepalese children, assessed using molecular serotyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Kandasamy

    Full Text Available Invasive pneumococcal disease is one of the major causes of death in young children in resource poor countries. Nasopharyngeal carriage studies provide insight into the local prevalence of circulating pneumococcal serotypes. There are very few data on the concurrent carriage of multiple pneumococcal serotypes. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and serotype distribution of pneumococci carried in the nasopharynx of young healthy Nepalese children prior to the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine using a microarray-based molecular serotyping method capable of detecting multi-serotype carriage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 6 weeks to 24 months from the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal between May and October 2012. Nasopharyngeal swabs were frozen and subsequently plated on selective culture media. DNA extracts of plate sweeps of pneumococcal colonies from these cultures were analysed using a molecular serotyping microarray capable of detecting relative abundance of multiple pneumococcal serotypes. 600 children were enrolled into the study: 199 aged 6 weeks to <6 months, 202 aged 6 months to < 12 months, and 199 aged 12 month to 24 months. Typeable pneumococci were identified in 297/600 (49.5% of samples with more than one serotype being found in 67/297 (20.2% of these samples. The serotypes covered by the thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine were identified in 44.4% of samples containing typeable pneumococci. Application of a molecular serotyping approach to identification of multiple pneumococcal carriage demonstrates a substantial prevalence of co-colonisation. Continued surveillance utilising this approach following the introduction of routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccinates in infants will provide a more accurate understanding of vaccine efficacy against carriage and a better understanding of the dynamics of subsequent serotype and genotype replacement.

  15. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  16. Emerging pneumococcal carriage serotypes in a high-risk population receiving universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbs Liz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV at 18 months of age. This study presents carriage serotypes following this schedule. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage in Aboriginal children 0 to 6 years of age living in remote Aboriginal communities (RACs in 2003 and 2005. Nasal secretions were collected and processed according to published methods. Results 902 children (mean age 25 months living in 29 communities in 2003 and 818 children (mean age 35 months in 17 communities in 2005 were enrolled. 87% children in 2003 and 96% in 2005 had received two or more doses of 7PCV. From 2003 to 2005, pneumococcal carriage was reduced from 82% to 76% and reductions were apparent in all age groups; 7PCV-type carriage was reduced from 11% to 8%, and 23PPV-non-7PCV-type carriage from 31% to 25% respectively. Thus non-23PPV-type carriage increased from 57% to 67%. All these changes were statistically significant, as were changes for some specific serotypes. Shifts could not be attributed to vaccination alone. The top 10 of 40 serotypes identified were (in descending order 16F, 19A, 11A, 6C, 23B, 19F, 6A, 35B, 6B, 10A and 35B. Carriage of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC > = 0.12 μg/mL strains (15% overall was detected in serotypes (descending order 19A, 19F, 6B, 16F, 11A, 9V, 23B, and in 4 additional serotypes. Carriage of azithromycin resistant (MIC > = 2 μg/mL strains (5% overall, was detected in serotypes (descending order 23B, 17F, 9N, 6B, 6A, 11A, 23F, and in 10 additional serotypes including 6C. Conclusion Pneumococcal carriage remains high (~80% in this vaccinated population. Uptake of both pneumococcal vaccines increased, and carriage was reduced between 2003 and 2005. Predominant serotypes in combined

  17. Identification of Blastocystis hominis isolates from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Fadime; Genc, Ahmet; Elgun, Gullu; Koltas, Ismail Soner

    2009-11-01

    Despite years of study, the pathogenic role of Blastocytis hominis is still controversial. Genotypic differences between the asymptomatic and symptomatic isolates should assist in determining the pathogenicity of Blastocystis. In this study, we genotyped 32 Blastocystis isolates obtained from 12 asymptomatic healthy individuals and 20 symptomatic patients pain by polymerase chain reaction using known seven kinds of sequence tagged site primers in this study. When we compared genotype of Blastocystis isolates between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patient group, we found that subtype3 is the most dominant genotype in asymptomatic individual (9/12) and subtype1 determined all of symptomatic patients (20/20).

  18. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard Larsen, Marie; Sorensen, J. A.; Godballe, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a common premalignant lesion. The possible benefits of specific interventions in preventing a malignant transformation of OL are not well understood. This review assesses different invasive treatment techniques for OL and evaluate the optimal treatment...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging features of asymptomatic bipartite patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J., E-mail: juliemobrien@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Incorporating National Children' s Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Murphy, C.; Halpenny, D.; McNeill, G.; Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Incorporating National Children' s Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)

    2011-06-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of bipartite patella in asymptomatic patients. Materials and methods: The study was prospective in type and performed following institutional ethical committees approval. In total, 25 subjects were recruited into the study and informed consent obtained in each case. The local radiology database was utilised in conjunction with a clinical questionnaire to identify patients who had asymptomatic bipartite patella. Any patient with a history of trauma or symptomatic disease was excluded from the study. MRI imaging was performed in each case on a 1.5 T system using a dedicated knee coil and a standardised knee protocol. The images obtained were then analysed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Results: Of the 25 subjects, there were 8 females and 17 males. The mean age was 34.6 years. All but one of the bipartite fragments were located on the superolateral aspect of the patella. In 23 cases, one fragment was identified. The average transverse diameter of the fragment was 12.8 mm. The average distance between the fragment and the adjacent patella in the axial plane was 1.46 mm. In addition, the cartilage overlying the patella and accessory fragment was intact in all cases. The average thickness of the patella cartilage at its border to the fragment was 2.4 mm with an average ratio of the cartilage thickness of the fragment as compared with the cartilage thickness of the patella of 0.72. There was no evidence of high signal or bone marrow oedema on fluid sensitive sequences within either the patella or the fragment in any of the patients. Fluid was identified in the cleft between the patella and the fragment in the majority of cases. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bipartite patella is characterised by intact but thinned cartilage along the border between the patella and the fragment, fluid between the cleft and a lack of any bone marrow oedema or high signal within

  20. High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in south-eastern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The WHO has reported that RDT and microscopy-confirmed malaria cases have declined in recent years. However, it is still unclear if this reflects a real decrease in incidence in Bangladesh, as particularly the hilly and forested areas of the Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT) Districts report more than 80% of all cases and deaths. surveillance and epidemiological data on malaria from the CHT are limited; existing data report Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax as the dominant species. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the District of Bandarban, the southernmost of the three Hill Tracts Districts, to collect district-wide malaria prevalence data from one of the regions with the highest malaria endemicity in Bangladesh. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect blood samples from febrile and afebrile participants and malaria microscopy and standardized nested PCR for diagnosis were performed. Demographic data, vital signs and splenomegaly were recorded. Results Malaria prevalence across all subdistricts in the monsoon season was 30.7% (95% CI: 28.3-33.2) and 14.2% (95% CI: 12.5-16.2) by PCR and microscopy, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections accounted for 58.9%, P. vivax mono-infections for 13.6%, Plasmodium malariae for 1.8%, and Plasmodium ovale for 1.4% of all positive cases. In 24.4% of all cases mixed infections were identified by PCR. The proportion of asymptomatic infections among PCR-confirmed cases was 77.0%, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic cases accounted for only 19.8 and 3.2%, respectively. Significantly (p malaria prevalence in two to nine year olds were 18.6 and 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference in malaria prevalence and parasite density was observed between dry and rainy season. Conclusions A large proportion of asymptomatic plasmodial infections was found which likely act as a reservoir of transmission. This has major implications for ongoing malaria control programmes that

  1. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  2. Gametocyte clearance dynamics following oral artesunate treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djimde Abdoulaye A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin-based combination therapies decrease Plasmodium gametocyte carriage. However, the role of artesunate in monotherapy in vivo, the mechanisms involved, and the utility of gametocyte carriage as a potential tool for the surveillance of antimalarial resistance are poorly understood. In 2010–2011, we conducted an open-label, prospective efficacy study of artesunate as monotherapy in children 1–10 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bougoula-Hameau, Mali. Standard oral doses of artesunate were administered for 7 days and patients were followed up for 28 days. The data were compared to a similar study conducted in 2002–2004. Of 100 children enrolled in the 2010–2011 study, 92 were analyzed and compared to 217 children enrolled in the 2002–2004 study. The proportion of gametocyte carriers was unchanged at the end of treatment (23% at baseline vs. 24% on day 7, p = 1.0 and did not significantly decline until day 21 of follow-up (23% vs. 6%, p = 0.003. The mean gametocyte density at inclusion remained unchanged at the end of treatment (12 gametocytes/μL vs. 16 gametocytes/μL, p = 0.6. Overall, 46% of the 71 initial non-carriers had gametocytes detected by day 7. Similar results were found in the 2002–2004 study. In both studies, although gametocyte carriage significantly decreased by the end of the 28-day follow-up, artesunate did not clear mature gametocytes during treatment and did not prevent the appearance of new stage V gametocytes as assessed by light microscopy. Baseline gametocyte carriage was significantly higher 6 years after the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this setting.

  3. Impact of PCV13 on Serotype 3 Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Nasopharyngeal Carriage in Massachusetts’ Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot, Rotem; Shea, Kimberly M; Little, Brent A; Yildirim, Inci; Pelton, Stephen I

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Although a substantial decline in overall vaccine serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence has been observed following immunization with PCV7 and subsequently PCV13, the reported effectiveness for individual vaccine serotypes has varied. Reported effectiveness of PCV13 for serotype 3 (ST3) disease has differed by study design and geography, with a wide range of estimates including zero. We assessed the impact of PCV13 on ST3 IPD cases and nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage in Massachusetts’ children. Methods Cases of ST3 IPD in children Pelton, Pfizer: Board Member and Grant Investigator, Consulting fee, Research grant and Speaker honorarium; Merck vaccines: Board Member, Consulting fee and Speaker honorarium; GSK: Board Member, Consulting fee and Speaker honorarium; Sequiris: Board Member, Consulting fee and Speaker honorarium

  4. [Changes in the immunocompetent cell system of the peripheral blood in HIV carriage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabanov, V R; Markov, I S; Marchenko, N E

    1995-01-01

    HIV-carriage is characterized by hematological signs such as normocytosis of the general leucocyte count and deviations within normal range of values for myeloid series cells (neutrophiles, eosinophiles, basophiles). A peculiar hematological sign seen in HIV-infection is a finding of a raised content of cellular elements of mononuclear type on a hemogramme of peripheral blood and consistent decrease in the level of small T-lymphocytes against the background of substantial growth of suppressor-killer populations (large lymphocytes and lymphocyte-like mononuclears) as evidenced by a mononucleorogramme of peripheral blood, which fact provide a mechanism of antiviral protection at early stages of HIV-infection. Such changes in hemogrammes of peripheral blood, consistently found in all virus carriers, may be used in clinical settings as an early diagnostic sign of HIV-infection.

  5. Oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in a cohort of a daycare center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Barreto, Demóstenes; Calderón-Jaimes, Ernesto; Rodríguez, Romeo S; Espinosa, Luz Elena; Viña-Flores, Lucía; Jiménez-Rojas, Verónica

    2002-01-01

    To define epidemiologic relationships to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors for nasopharyngeal colonization by antibiotic-resistant pneumococci, their serotypes and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in children attending a daycare center (DCC). A prospective cohort study was conducted among children (n = 53) attending the DCC at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, which is staffed by 20 employees. Patients were enrolled in the study during a two-year period from September 1997 to September 1999. All the participants were followed prospectively, swabbing them every four months. The strains recovered were typed and screened for susceptibility to several antibiotics. The daycare records were reviewed also. Odds ratios and fisher's exact test: or chi square test of significance were computed from contingency tables as appropriate. Exact 95% confidence intervals were computed for odds ratios. Data analysis was performed using Epi statistics program version 6.04 a. Pneumococci were recovered from 45/53 of the infants at one or more visits. A total of 178 isolates were carried. The carriage rate was 47%. Only 7 adults acquired pneumococci during the study. Types 6, 14, 19 and 23 were prevalent and represented 77% of the total. Antibiotic-resistant strains were higher to penicillin and erythromycin. Children were frequent carriers of pneumococci, the rate of carriage was high in infancy and tended to decrease with age. The types commonly carried by children were the same as those causing invasive disease. There is a high proportion of carriers with antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Children who have had frequent antimicrobial courses are at particular risk.

  7. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in a cohort of a daycare center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Barreto Demóstenes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define epidemiologic relationships to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors for nasopharyngeal colonization by antibiotic-resistant pneumococci, their serotypes and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in children attending a daycare center (DCC. Material and Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted among children (n=53 attending the DCC at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, which is staffed by 20 employees. Patients were enrolled in the study during a two-year period from September 1997 to September 1999. All the participants were followed prospectively, swabbing them every four months. The strains recovered were typed and screened for susceptibility to several antibiotics. The daycare records were reviewed also. Odds ratios and fisher's exact test: or chi square test of significance were computed from contingency tables as appropriate. Exact 95% confidence intervals were computed for odds ratios. Data analysis was performed using Epi statistics program version 6.04 a. Results. Pneumococci were recovered from 45/53 of the infants at one or more visits. A total of 178 isolates were carried. The carriage rate was 47%. Only 7 adults acquired pneumococci during the study. Types 6,14,19 and 23 were prevalent and represented 77% of the total. Antibiotic-resistant strains were higher to penicillin and erythromycin. Conclusions. Children were frequent carriers of pneumococci, the rate of carriage was high in infancy and tended to decrease with age. The types commonly carried by children were the same as those causing invasive disease. There is a high proportion of carriers with antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Children who have had frequent antimicrobial courses are at particular risk.

  8. Fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community setting in Casablanca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Ouair, Hind; El Otmani, Fatima; Saile, Rachid; El Mdaghri, Naima; El Azhari, Mohammed; Timinouni, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The importance of community-acquired infections due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) has been increasingly recognized in recent years. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal carriage of ESBL-PE in the community in Casablanca, Morocco. During 6 months (2013), 93 fecal samples were examined for ESBL-PE. Isolates expressing an ESBL phenotype were investigated for the presence of genes encoding β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Conjugation experiments were done to determine the mobility of ESBL genes. The prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-PE was 4.3% (4/93; 95% CI, 0.2-8.4). Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 2), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 1), and Serratia odorifera (n = 1) were the ESBL-producing species. Four (66.7%) of these isolates were multidrug-resistant. The blaSHV-12 (n = 5) was the most frequent ESBL gene detected, followed by blaCTX-M-15 (n = 3).The non-ESBL gene detected was blaTEM-1 (n = 5). One isolate harbored the qnrB1 variant. RESULTS of conjugation experiments indicated that blaSHV-12 + blaTEM-1 + qnrB1 and blaCTX-M-15 + blaTEM-1 genes were co-transferred and that these genes were carried by a conjugative plasmid of high molecular weight (125 kb). Our results show the importance of the intestinal tract as a reservoir for ESBL-PE in the community in Morocco.

  9. Application of a method of welding for improvement of reliability of hoppers of slag carriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аркадій Васильович Лоза

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of the design of slag carriages is of great importance, as these belong to transportation system of iron and steel works, operating with enhanced danger due to the necessity to carry molten materials. That is why it is required to eliminate the slightest possibility of any failures of emergency situations at operation of slag carriages. Presence of defects in the hopper’s wall undermines its reliability and diminishes its service life. Hopper’s wall undergo at operation tremendous mechanical and thermal loads. Heating over the temperature range 500-600C º leads to appearance of residual deformations, it deteriorating exploitation conditions of a slag carrier. Overheating of separate sections of the casing can drastically deteriorate strength characteristics of the material, specified for the hopper’s design. This leads to alternations of its original geometry. The existing methods of improvement of its strength are insufficient due to economic and technological reasons. For this reason a technical solution was proposed and tested, in which additional reinforcing ribs to be installed above the deformation area on the side surface of the hopper were presumed. The indicted area is characterized by the smallest heating temperature its exploitation temperature possesses higher strength characteristics than other sections. This feature was used for strengthening of a less strong adjoining deformation area, undergoing high heating temperature. Reinforcing ribs are made by foundry methods do not always ensure the desired effect as they present the source of inner defects and formation of cracks. This is explained by formation of heat centres and T-shaped elements of casting, that are last crystallized and have no dense structure. That is why it was proposed to install welded reinforcing ribs for improved design of a slag carriers. The ribs are to be manufactured of steel rolled stock. This variant of installation of additional

  10. NASOPHARYNGEAL CARRIAGE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN ORPHANS, PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND UNORGANIZED CHILDREN UNDER 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae is a source of respiratory mucosal and invasive infections. For effective vaccine prophylaxis of these diseases the national monitoring of the circulating serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae is required. Objective: To analyze serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae in the nasopharyngeal carriage in children under 5 years. Methods and patients: The study included orphanage, nursery and children not attending preschool institutions (unorganized children without respiratory infections and not receiving antibiotic therapy. Conducted microbiological analysis of nasopharyngeal flora, serotyping of pneumococcus, assess their sensitivity to antibiotics. Results: Nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was found in 23%, Moraxella catarrhalis - in 23%, Haemophilus influenzae - 16% of the 246 children included in the study. Serotype was determined in 54 pneumococcal isolates: predominant serotypes 19F (21%, 6B (15%, 23F (14%, 14 (8%. The coincidence of the spectrum obtained with serotypes members of the PCV7 pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and PKV10, was 81% in PKV13 - 90%. The proportion of strains sensitive to clindamycin, 31%, to macrolides - 40% to trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole - 60%. Multiple resistance was observed in 37% of the identified pneumococcal serotypes. In erythromycin-resistant strains resistance was caused by the presence of ermB-gene (in 74% of cases or mef-dependent efflux pump as the sole determinant (9%, in 17% of cases – with its association. Maximum antibiotic resistance is observed in pneumococcal vaccine serotypes. Conclusions: The results of the study comparing with previously obtained data shows stability over the past decades the spectrum of pneumococci circulating in the Russian population of children. A substantial increase in pneumococcal resistance to (especially vaccine serotypes antibiotic penicillin

  11. The effects of load carriage and bracing on the balance of schoolgirls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H K; Leung, Dawn S S; Holmes, Andrew D

    2007-09-01

    The balance function of children is known to be affected by carriage of a school backpack. Children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) tend to show poorer balance performance, and are typically treated by bracing, which further affects balance. The objective of this study is to examine the combined effects of school backpack carriage and bracing on girls with AIS. A force platform was used to record center of pressure (COP) motion in 20 schoolgirls undergoing thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO brace) treatment for AIS. COP data were recorded with and without brace while carrying a backpack loaded at 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% of the participant's bodyweight (BW). Ten participants stood on a solid base and ten stood on a foam base, while all participants kept their eyes closed throughout. Sway parameters were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. No effect of bracing was found for the participants standing on the solid base, but wearing the brace significantly increased the sway area, displacement and medio-lateral amplitude in the participants standing on the foam base. The medio-lateral sway amplitude of participants standing on the solid base significantly increased with backpack load, whereas significant increases in antero-posterior sway amplitude, sway path length, sway area per second and short term diffusion coefficient were found in participants standing on the foam base. The poorer balance performance exhibited by participants with AIS when visual and somatosensory input is challenged appears to be exacerbated by wearing a TLSO brace, but no interactive effect between bracing and backpack loading was found.

  12. Detection of selection signatures for ear carriage in Maltese goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Talenti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection and breeding practices in goats have led to the fixation of several traits. This is probably due to the standardization of several peculiar morphological characteristics that have always been one of the major exclusion criteria of individuals from selection. Among these, ear carriage is one of the most ancient and considered a signature of domestication in several species, such as the dog, pig, sheep and goat (Boyko et al., 2010. The availability of improved genomic analyses tools for goats may provide useful information on genes involved in this trait. By studying, for example, the homozygosity decay of haplotypes (contiguous length of alleles such information can be detected. In the current study, we focused on the Maltese goat, a breed showing floppy ears, in comparison with other Italian breeds using a goat medium density SNP chip (Nicoloso et al., 2015. A total 48,767 SNP markers for 369 animals belonging to 16 breeds or populations were analyzed. Genotypes were imputed within population excluding markers without known position on the current genome assembly (ARS1, Bickhart et al., 2017. Population analysis using MDS, ADMIXTURE and fastSTRUCTURE confirmed the good differentiation among the populations. Integrated Haplotype Score (iHS, Sabeti et al., 2007 was performed for each population, comparing the regions detected on the Maltese breed with the others considered to detect genes that may be involved into shaping  ear morphology. These results may provide new insights into ear carriage phenotype by detecting genes that play a pivotal role in shaping the goat phenotypic diversity. Acknowledgement The research was funded by INNOVAGEN project.

  13. Carriage rate and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae amongst children in Thika Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Githii

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rates of carriage are highest in infants and the elderly. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of nasopharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae, and to describe the antibiotic resistant patterns and the serotypes of the carried isolates. A cross-sectional study design was used. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 315 children in the months of Octoberand November 2010 and processed to isolate S. pneumoniae. The isolates were serotyped by the Quellung reaction and their antibiotic susceptibilities assessed by the disc diffusion method. The overall nasopharyngeal carriage rate for S. pneumoniae was 17%. Seventeen serotypes were detected amongst 55 strains analysed: 6A, 23F, 19F, 13, 6B, 14A, 20, 7C, 1,15B, 35B, 19A, 11A, 34, 5, 3 and 23A. Susceptibility testing revealed that nearly all (98% were resistant to cotrimoxazole, 9% were resistant to penicillin and 7% to cefotaxime. Resistance to chloramphenicol and erythromycin was 2% and 4%, respectively. All isolates were fully sensitive to tetracycline. High levels of cotrimoxazole resistance and some resistance to other antimicrobial agents commonly used in Thika District Hospital shows that there is need to revise antimicrobial policy in this region in the treatment of invasive pneumococcal infections. The frequent serotypes found in this study have previously been associated with pneumococcal infectionsin children. Several of these serotypes are included in the ten-valent vaccine and therefore useof this vaccine will help reduce pneumococcal infections in Thika.

  14. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among pediatricians in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhu-Chering Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs are at the interface between hospitals and communities. The survey for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriage among HCWs has mostly been conducted to investigate outbreaks or endemics. Community-associated MRSA are prevalent among children in Taiwan. We conducted this study to better understand the carriage rate of MRSA among pediatricians in non-outbreak situations in Taiwan,. METHODS: A total of 220 pediatricians from Taiwan who attended the annual meeting of Taiwan Pediatric Association in April, 2010 were recruited to participate in this study and were sampled from the nares for the detection of MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and further by culture. The following molecular analyses were performed, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST, typing of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec and the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes. RESULTS: MRSA was detected from 15 attendees (6.8% by PCR. MRSA-colonized attendees had a significantly lower rate (0.041 of working in the medical center, while borderline significantly higher rate of working in the Regional Hospital (p=0.056, than those without MRSA colonization. From those 15 samples, 12 MRSA isolates were identified by culture and molecularly characterized. Three PFGE patterns, two sequence types (ST 59, ST 508, and two SCCmec types (IV and VT were identified, respectively. Five isolates, including three carrying SCCmec types VT, were PVL-positive. All 12 isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, fusidic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and doxycyclin, and resistant to penicillin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Around seven percent of pediatricians in Taiwan harbored CA-MRSA in their nares.

  15. Nasal Carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Elderly People in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesida

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Staphylococcus aureus is a lethal opportunistic pathogen capable of causing a wide range of infections, especially in debilitated hosts such as the elderly. Nasal carriers of this organism have an increased risk of becoming infected with the pathogen. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage, to determine the probable risk factors, and to examine the frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA among elderly people in hospital and nursing home settings in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods Two hundred thirty nasal samples were collected from the anterior nares of individuals aged 65 years and older. Possible risk factors were assessed using well-structured questionnaires, and the samples were subjected to standard bacteriological procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined with the disk diffusion method. Detection of methicillin resistance was done with the disk diffusion test using cefoxitin 30 μg, and confirmed with OXOID MRSA CHROMagar. Results Fifty (21.7% S. aureus strains were identified among the samples, and antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that multidrug resistance was common. Approximately 20% were resistant to gentamicin, ofloxacin, and mupirocin. Cloxacillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and ceftazidime showed the least anti-staphylococcal activity, and almost half of the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. The MRSA nasal carriage rate was 10% and colonization was favored by previous antibiotic use, hypertension, and tuberculosis. Conclusions The occurrence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus in the elderly cohort indicates their capacity to serve as reservoirs for these strains, which could facilitate the dissemination of MRSA into the community. Therefore, decolonization and the implementation of measures to prevent the spread of this organism are necessary.

  16. Periodontal and oral manifestations of marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Swati Y; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Tipton, David A

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana, prepared from the plant Cannabis sativa, is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States. Marijuana use has been associated with adverse psychosocial and health effects, including effects on oral tissues. Periodontal literature has limited references to the periodontal effects of cannabis use. In this report, we present two cases of marijuana-associated gingival enlargement and review the literature on oral complications of marijuana use. Two asymptomatic males, aged 23 and 42 years, presented independently for oral prophylaxis. Both had an unremarkable medical history and related a history of significant marijuana use of 2-16 years duration. Common findings following oral and periodontal examination were nicotinic stomatitis-like lesions, uvulitis and gingival enlargement. Marginal and papillary gingiva of the anterior dentition were the areas primarily affected by gingival enlargement, while some of these areas exhibited a nodular or "pebbly" appearance. Marijuana-associated gingival enlargement was diagnosed in the reported cases. A review of the literature revealed two other reports of marijuana-associated gingival enlargement, all in young adult males with chronic (2 or more years) cannabis use. These authors reported a resemblance to phenytoin-induced enlargement. Biochemical similarities between phenytoin and cannabis active compounds suggest possible common pathogenetic mechanisms. Uvulitis and nicotinic stomatitis appear to be the two most common of the several oral manifestations of marijuana use. Chronic marijuana use may result in gingival enlargement with clinical characteristics similar to phenytoin-induced enlargement.

  17. Asymptomatic Bilateral Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction due to Supernumerary Renal Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoja Mohammadali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A supernumerary renal artery is a common arterial variation, which warrants consi-derations in a variety of urologic and retroperitoneal operations. Supernumerary renal arteries can be associated with other uro-vascular variations and anomalies such as duplicated renal veins and ureters, aberrant origin of the gonadal arteries, persistence of fetal renal lobulation, and kidney malrotation. The role of crossing supernumerary renal arteries in ureteropelvic junction obstruc-tion (UPJO is controversial. We report a healthy potential renal transplant donor with bilateral UPJO, which appeared to be secondary to supernumerary renal (inferior polar arteries. We believe that the bilateral occurrence of asymptomatic UPJO associated with supernumerary renal arteries has not been previously reported.

  18. Pregnancy complicated by asymptomatic uterine arteriovenous malformation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Kaei; Yamaguchi, Mina; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Miyakawa, Isao

    2007-04-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare disease. Percutaneous arterial embolization has been performed for patients who wish to preserve their ability to conceive. A 27-year-old primigravida was admitted for treatment of threatened premature labor at 21 weeks of gestation. She had been diagnosed with asymptomatic uterine AVM 2 years previously. She had not received any treatment before conception. At 41 weeks of gestation she spontaneously delivered a healthy infant weighting 3,154 g. and the Excessive bleeding (1,600 mL) occurred, probably due to eruption of the AVM vessel at the time of parturition. At 3 months postpartum, the patient underwent arterial embolization of AVM. The management of uterine AVM should be individualized, taking into account the patient's desire to maintain her fertility and the symptoms.

  19. Uncovering sensory axonal dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Chang, Tsui-San; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr). Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (Pdiabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches. PMID:28182728

  20. Detection of Tumorigenic Rhizobia in Asymptomatic Peach Plants by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raio

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available At present the only method for the detection of Rhizobium radiobacter and R. rhizogenes (ex Agrobacterium tumefaciens in plants is by isolating the bacteria on selective medium and testing them in vivo for pathogenicity. This procedure is time-consuming and not appropriate for detecting low concentrations of these agrobacteria. In this study a protocol was developed for detecting tumorigenic agrobacteria in the stem and root tissues of artificially inoculated peach plants. DNA was extracted from the plant tissues by a rapid procedure and then a 246 bp sequence of the vir region of the pTi was amplified by PCR. The target sequence was found in all stem and root samples of asymptomatic peach plants, and was evidenced in all the samples analyzed showing the effectiveness and reliability of the method.