WorldWideScience

Sample records for asymptomatic internal carotid

  1. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis.......The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....

  2. Association between leukoaraiosis and cerebral blood flow territory alteration in asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-F; Kuo, Y-S; Wu, W-C; Tang, S-C; Jiang, S-F

    2018-01-09

    To test the hypothesis that leukoaraiosis (also known as white matter lesion) is associated with cerebral blood flow territory change as revealed by territorial arterial spin-labeling (TASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis (aICAS). The institutional review board approved this study. Thirty-three patients with aICAS were included prospectively and divided into high-grade (ultrasonographic stenosis ≥70%, n=17) and low-grade (n=16) groups; 16 healthy subjects were also included. Cerebral flow territory was delineated for left ICA, right ICA, and vertebral arteries using TASL MRI and fuzzy clustering. Two licensed neuroradiologists independently and dichotomously rated the hemispherical asymmetry of flow territories. Flow territories were finalised by consensus, and when asymmetry was present, these were divided into normal and abnormal areas where the raters separately assessed leukoaraiosis based on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and the Fazekas scale. The inter-rater agreement in the evaluation of flow territory asymmetry with TASL imaging in conjunction with time-of-flight angiogram is substantial (Cohen's kappa=0.82). Multinomial logistic regression (reference group=healthy subjects) indicates that global leukoaraiosis is not a predictor of aICAS after controlling for age, whereas in high-grade patients, the deep white matter lesion is more severe in the area receiving collateral circulation than in the area with normal flow territory (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p=0.03). TASL MRI is clinically feasible in aICAS and shows that more severe deep white matter lesions are associated with collateral circulation in high-grade patients. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitude towards one's illness vs. attitude towards a surgical operation, displayed by patients diagnosed with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm and asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisić, M; Rzepa, T

    2012-08-01

    Two most frequent asymptomatic diseases qualifying for vascular surgery are abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). Emotions experienced by the patient activate processes of dealing with the cognitive dissonance of asymptomatic disease. The aim of this paper was to compare the reasons involved in decision making on surgery in two asymptomatic vascular pathologies. Fifty patients were divided into two groups: the ICAS group-27 (CAS or CEA) and the AAA group-23 (EVAR or open surgical operation (OSR). Specific questionnaire regarding: 1) self-image; 2) attitude to one's illness; 3) reasons for decision on surgery was applied for the study. The χ² test was used to for the analysis. The AAA patients reacted emotionally (88.2%) comparing to ICAS patients reacting "rationally" (59.3%) (α=0.05). In AAA patients attitude towards themselves had worsened (α=0.001) AAA patients were less likely to seek support in decision on surgery (α=0.01). ICAS patients are internally motivated (78.7%), whereas AAA patients are externally motivated (63.9%) (α=0.001). Reasons underlying the decision on surgery, were predominantly rational (55.8%). In the process of decision-making on surgery by asymptomatic patients, evolutionary transformation takes place - the emotional attitude to one's illness leads to rationally evaluated decision. Regardless of the causes the process of making a decision on surgical operation tended to run more smoothly in ICAS patients. The ICAS patients tended to display a rational attitude to their illness. AAA patients displayed a distinctly emotional attitude towards their illness.

  4. Asymptomatic carotid arterial stenosis - population based screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in the general population is discussed in many countries because of the benefits of carotid endarterectomy in the three trials. Many factors influence the cost-effectiveness of screening. These factors are the prevalence of carotid stenosis, the

  5. Effects of uncomplicated carotid endarterectomy on cognitive function and brain perfusion in patients with unilateral asymptomatic severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery by comparison with unoperated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Daigo; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Yoshida, Kenji; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Chida, Kohei; Oshida, Sotaro; Yoshida, Jun; Fujiwara, Shunro; Terasaki, Kazunori

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present exploratory study was to evaluate the effects of uncomplicated carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on cognitive function and brain perfusion in patients with unilateral asymptomatic severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by comparison with unoperated patients. Patients with age ≤75 years and unilateral asymptomatic severe stenosis (≥70%) of the cervical ICA underwent CEA with antiplatelet therapy (surgically treated group: 116 patients) or antiplatelet therapy alone or neither (medically treated group: 45 patients). For the surgically treated group, neuropsychological testing and brain perfusion measurement using single-photon emission computed tomography were performed within one month before surgery and one month after surgery. For the medically treated group, the same testing and measurement were performed twice at an interval of 1 to 2 months. None of the operated patients developed new major ischemic events after surgery or intraoperative cerebral hyperperfusion. None of the patients in the medically treated group experienced neurological deficits including transient ischemic attacks during the study period. The incidence of patients with interval cognitive improvement was significantly greater in the surgically treated group (11 patients: 9%) than in the medically treated group (0%) (p = 0.0352). The incidence of patients with interval brain perfusion improvement in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere was significantly greater in the surgically treated group (24 patients: 21%) than in the medically treated group (0%) (p = 0.0003). Uncomplicated CEA may improve cognitive function and brain perfusion in patients with unilateral asymptomatic severe stenosis of the ICA when compared with unoperated patients.

  6. Association between Asymptomatic Unilateral Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and Electrophysiological Function of the Retina and Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Machalińska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was designed to assess retinal and optic nerve bioelectrical function in patients with unilateral asymptomatic but hemodynamically significant internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS. Methods. Forty-two subjects with a diagnosis of unilateral ICAS and 34 controls were analyzed. Full-field electroretinogram (ERG, pattern electroretinogram (PERG, and pattern visual-evoked potentials, as well as optical coherence tomography and ophthalmological examination, were performed. Data analysis included eyes ipsilateral to ICAS (EIS and eyes contralateral to ICAS (ECS. Results. Intraocular pressure was significantly decreased in EIS and ECS compared to that in the controls. In the macula, both the cube average thickness and cube volume values were significantly reduced both in EIS and ECS compared to those in the controls. Similarly, PERG P50 and N95 wave amplitudes were significantly smaller in EIS and ECS compared to those in the controls. The ERG rod b-wave and rod-cone a-wave amplitudes were decreased, and implicit times were significantly prolonged, whereas the OP wave index was reduced in EIS compared to that in the controls. No differences in IOP, OCT, or ERG and PERG parameters were identified between EIS and ECS. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that retinal bioelectrical function is negatively affected by ICAS despite the absence of objective clinical signs and symptoms of ocular ischemia.

  7. Current management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Serrano-Rodríguez, L

    2015-05-01

    Asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is a common problem in daily clinical practice, and its management is still the subject of controversy. In contrast to symptomatic carotid disease, the main studies on surgical treatment of patients with ACS have shown only a modest benefit in the primary prevention of stroke. In addition, current medical treatment has drastically decreased the risk of stroke in patients with ACS. Selecting patients amenable to endovascular treatment and determining how and when to conduct the ultrasound follow-up of these patients are issues that still need resolving. This article analyzes two new studies underway that provide evidence for better management of ACS in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  8. Carotid revascularization and medical management for asymptomatic carotid stenosis: Protocol of the CREST-2 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Virginia J; Meschia, James F; Lal, Brajesh K; Turan, Tanya N; Roubin, Gary S; Brown, Robert D; Voeks, Jenifer H; Barrett, Kevin M; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Huston, John; Lazar, Ronald M; Moore, Wesley S; Wadley, Virginia G; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Moy, Claudia S; Chimowitz, Marc; Howard, George; Brott, Thomas G

    2017-10-01

    Rationale Trials conducted decades ago demonstrated that carotid endarterectomy by skilled surgeons reduced stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. Developments in carotid stenting and improvements in medical prevention of stroke caused by atherothrombotic disease challenge understanding of the benefits of revascularization. Aim Carotid Revascularization and Medical Management for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Trial (CREST-2) will test whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting plus contemporary intensive medical therapy is superior to intensive medical therapy alone in the primary prevention of stroke in patients with high-grade asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods and design CREST-2 is two multicenter randomized trials of revascularization plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone. One trial randomizes patients to carotid endarterectomy plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone; the other, to carotid stenting plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone. The risk factor targets of centrally directed intensive medical therapy are LDL cholesterol medical therapy alone arm is 4.8% higher or 2.8% lower than an anticipated 3.6% rate in the revascularization arm. Discussion Management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis requires contemporary randomized trials to address whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting plus intensive medical therapy is superior in preventing stroke beyond intensive medical therapy alone. Whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting has favorable effects on cognition will also be tested. Trial registration United States National Institutes of Health Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02089217.

  9. [Is there a role for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis screening?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Bass, Arie

    2014-08-01

    Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is highly controversial Many surgeons routinely screen their patients for carotid disease prior to major operations, yet the benefit of such practice was never demonstrated. The treatment of symptomatic patients has not changed much during the last twenty years, since the publication of the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET). However, in contrast, the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS) and the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST) failed to get the same acceptance among the multidisciplinary group treating CAS.The prevalence of asymptomatic 60-99% carotid artery stenosis among the general population is about 1%. Neither ACAS nor ACST showed that stenosis severity was associated with increasing stroke risk. The 'realpolitik' is that mass interventions in asymptomatic patients will probably only ever prevent about 1% of all strokes. This is even truer regarding patients scheduLed for major operation, in which the incidence of stroke is less than 1%. Moreover the current evidence in the literature suggests that the best medicaL treatment (BMT) results in 0.5% strokes per year, better than resuLts which can be offered by surgery. According to the current evidence, it seems that asymptomatic carotid artery screening should be discontinued, since it is a major waste of resources.

  10. Carotid plaque thickness and carotid plaque burden predict future cardiovascular events in asymptomatic adult Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik; Sartori, Samantha; Sandholt, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Prediction of cardiovascular events improves using imaging, i.e. coronary calcium score and ultrasound assessment of carotid plaque. This study analysed the predictive value of two ultrasound measures of carotid plaque size: carotid plaque thickness and carotid and intima......-media thickness (IMT). Methods and results: A total of 6102 asymptomatic persons underwent assessment of conventional risk factors and imaging by carotid ultrasound. Carotid plaque burden (cPB) and maximum carotid plaque thickness (cPTmax) were measured from 'cross-sectional sweep' video acquisition...

  11. Endarterectomy or Stenting in Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Dallit; Falah, Batla; Karmeli, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death in the western world, and carotid endarterectomy has been shown to be effective in treating both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Carotid stenting is a relatively new form of treatment for carotid stenosis and few studies have looked specifically at asymptomatic patients. To retrospectively examine short- and long-term results in the treatment of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis with surgery or stenting. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis treated by carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy in our department from 2006-2007. The primary endpoints were stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during the periprocedural period; or any ipsilateral stroke, restenosis, or death within 4 years after the procedure. The study comprised 409 patients who were treated by either stenting or surgery. There was a low morbidity rate in both treatment groups with no significant difference in morbidity or mortality between the treatment groups in both in the short-term as well as long-term. Both treatment methods have a low morbidity and mortality rate and should be considered for patients with few risk factors and a long life expectancy. Treatment method should be selected according to the patient's individual risk factors and imaging data.

  12. Asymptomatic carotid lesions after endarterectomy of contralateral carotid artery. Five-year follow-up study and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Helgstrand, U J; Egeblad, M R

    1987-01-01

    Of 185 patients who consecutively underwent carotid endarterectomy five years ago, 135 had a patent asymptomatic contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA). During follow-up (median, 59 months), 36 patients developed new neurologic symptoms (18 strokes and 18 transient ischemic attacks). Thirtee...... of stroke without warning was increased in these subgroups, we did not consider the risk high enough to warrant prophylactic endarterectomy. An exception enough to warrant prophylactic endarterectomy. An exception may be the patient with a more than 90% stenosis....

  13. Imaging markers of stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Prabhakaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid stenosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke. While symptomatic carotid stenosis requires prompt revascularization, there is significant debate about the management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS, especially in light of recent advances in medical therapy. As a result, there is an even greater need for reliable predictors of stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. Besides clinical factors and stenosis grade, plaque morphology and cerebral hemodynamics may be suitable prognostic tools. High-risk features, using Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI suggest that subpopulations at sufficiently high risk (10% annually can be identified and in whom revascularization would be most beneficial. In this review, imaging tools to aid in stroke risk stratification in patients with ACS are discussed.

  14. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with severe peripheral vascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Mirsharifi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of carotid artery stenosis (CAS in the  eneral population is not high enough to justify screening programs. This study was done to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS among patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD.
    • METHODS: Between March 2005 and February 2006, 54 consecutive  atients with severe PVD admitted at a vascular surgery unit and underwent carotid duplex scanning in a prospective study. A  uestionnaire was used to collect data concerning known risk factors. Significant CAS was defined as a stenosis of 70% or greater.
    • RESULTS: The mean age was 62.5 years (51-72. Out of 54 patients, 2 (3.7% had an occluded internal carotid artery. Significant CAS was found in 9 (16.7% and its presence was correlated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, coronary artery disease, severity of symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and carotid bruit. On multivariate analysis, only hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit seemed to have independent influence.
    • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of significant ACAS is higher among  atients with severe PVD. This patient population may indicate a  uitable subgroup for screening of ACAS, especially when hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit are present.
    • KEYWORDS: Carotid artery stenosis, duplex ultrasound scanning, peripheral vascular disease, carotid endarterectomy,
    • cerebrovascular accident.

  15. Early detection of asymptomatic carotid disease in patients with arteriosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rančić Zoran S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with lower extremities atherosclerosis is relatively high. Limiting screening of specific subgroups for any demographic or medical characteristics is ineffective. Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis is indicated in all patients with lower extremities atherosclerosis except in whom prophylactic carotid endarterectomy is not recommended because of comorbid disease or extreme age.

  16. The Impact of Carotid Artery Stenting on Cerebral Perfusion, Functional Connectivity, and Cognition in Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeAsymptomatic carotid artery stenosis can lead to not only stroke but also cognition impairment. Although it has been proven that carotid artery stenting (CAS can reduce the risk of future strokes, the effect of CAS on cognition is conflicting. In recent years, pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL MRI and resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI have been employed in cognitive impairment studies. For the present study, cognition is evaluated in severe asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients undergoing CAS, and the mechanisms underlying the cognitive change are explored by pASL MRI and R-fMRI.Materials and methodsWe prospectively enrolled 24 asymptomatic, severe (≥70%, unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis patients, who were expecting the intervention of CAS. Cognition assessment (including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Beijing Version, the Minimum Mental State Examination, the Digit Symbol Test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Verbal Memory Test and an integrated MRI program (pASL MRI, and R-fMRI were administered 7 days before and 3 months after CAS.Results16 subjects completed the follow-up study. After stenting, significant improvement in the scores of the MMSE, the Verbal Memory test, and the delayed recall was found. No significant difference was found in the scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Beijing Version, the Digit Symbol Test, and the immediate recall. After CAS treatment, asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients showed increased perfusion in the left frontal gyrus, increased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF in the right precentral gyrus, and increased connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in the right supra frontal gyrus. However, no significant correlations were found between these imaging changes and cognition assessments.ConclusionSuccessful CAS can partly improve cognition in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients. The cognition

  17. Is it possible that this patient is asymptomatic? The role of multidetector ct angiography in detection of ulcerated plaques in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasković Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although intervention in patients with symptomatic carotid disease is generally accepted as beneficial, the management of asymptomatic disease is still controversial. We wanted to introduce and discuss treatment options in a patient with asymptomatic carotid stenosis and high embolic potential lesions of common and internal carotid artery detected by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT. Case Outline. A 78-year-old female patient was admitted to our institution for diagnostics and surgical treatment of asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis. Upon admission, color duplex ultrasonography of the carotid arteries revealed the left common carotid artery (CCA stenosis of 50% and the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA stenosis of 60%, while the right CCA was narrowed by 60% and the ipsilateral ICA by 80%. Because of the left subclavian artery (LSA occlusion, also described by ultrasonography, MDCT angiography was performed to assess arterial morphology for possible angioplasty. In addition to LSA occlusion, MDCT angiography surprisingly revealed significant left CCA (>80% and ICA (>70% narrowing by ulcerated plaques with high embolic potential. Surgical treatment of the left CCA and ICA was indicated and Dacron® tubular graft interposition was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the Institute on the third postoperative day. After the six-month follow-up the patient was doing well with well-preserved graft patency. Conclusion. Although color duplex ultrasonography is reliable and safe imaging modality in carotid stenosis diagnosis, MDCT angiography plays a significant role in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis since plaques with high embolic potential could be detected, which, if left untreated, could have severe neurological ischemic consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41002

  18. Acute internal carotid artery occlusion after carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Yunoki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of acute carotid artery (CA occlusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA. Case 1: a 58-year-old man was admitted with transient right-sided hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MR angiography (MRA revealed cerebral infarction in the left cerebral hemisphere and left CA stenosis. Ten days after admission, he underwent CEA. 24 h after surgery, he developed right hemiplegia. MRI and MRA demonstrated a slightly enlarged infarction and left internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion. Emergency reoperation was performed and complete recanalization achieved. The patient made a clinically significant recovery. Case 2: a 65 year-old man underwent a right-sided CEA for an asymptomatic 80% CA stenosis. 48 h after surgery, his family noticed he was slightly disorientated. MRI and MRA revealed multiple infarctions and right ICA occlusion. He was treated with antiplatelet therapy without reoperation because sufficient cross-flow from the left ICA through the anterior communicating artery was demonstrated by angiography, and his neurological symptoms were mild. His symptoms gradually alleviated and he was discharged 14 days after surgery. With ICA occlusion after CEA, immediate re-operation is mandatory with severe neurological symptoms, whereas individualized judgement is needed when the symptoms are mild.

  19. Antiplatelet Therapy in Carotid Artery Stenting and Carotid Endarterectomy in the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, A; Halliday, A; Bulbulia, R; Coppi, G; de Borst, G J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/237108151

    OBJECTIVE: Strokes are infrequent but potentially serious complications following carotid intervention, but antiplatelet therapy can reduce these risks. There are currently no specific guidelines on dose or duration of peri-procedural antiplatelet treatment for patients undergoing carotid

  20. Carotid Stenting Versus Endarterectomy for Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresoli, Paola; Habib, Bettina; Reynier, Pauline; Secrest, Matthew H; Eisenberg, Mark J; Filion, Kristian B

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus on the comparative efficacy and safety of carotid artery stenting (CAS) versus carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. To evaluate CAS versus CEA in asymptomatic patients, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing CAS to CEA in asymptomatic patients using a pre-specified protocol. Two independent reviewers identified randomized controlled trials meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria, extracted relevant data, and assessed quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Random effects models with inverse-variance weighting were used to estimate pooled risk ratios (RRs) comparing the incidences of periprocedural and long-term outcomes between CAS and CEA. We identified 11 reports of 5 randomized controlled trials for inclusion (n=3019) asymptomatic patients. The pooled incidences of any periprocedural stroke (RR, 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-3.40), periprocedural nondisabling stroke (RR, 1.95; 95% CI, 0.98-3.89), and any periprocedural stroke or death (RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.95-3.11) trended toward an increased risk after CAS. We could not rule out clinically significant differences between treatments for long-term stroke (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.76-2.03) and the composite outcome of periprocedural stroke, death or myocardial infarction, or long-term ipsilateral stroke (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.70-1.21). Although uncertainty surrounds the long-term outcomes of CAS versus CEA, the potential for increased risks of periprocedural stroke and periprocedural stroke or death with CAS suggests that CEA is the preferred option for the management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm Mimicking Peritonsillar Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Brzost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm (EICAA is an uncommon arterial lesion. Patients typically present with neurologic symptoms resulting from impaired cerebral perfusion and compression symptoms of cranial nerves. Often EICAA presents as a pulsatile neck mass, which is otherwise asymptomatic. We present a case of an 84-year-old female, who was initially referred to the Emergency Department for Otolaryngology with suspected peritonsillar abscess. The patient had a history of recent upper airway infection and cardiovascular comorbidities, including hypertension and ischaemic stroke complicated by extensive neurologic deficits. Physical examination revealed a compact, nonpulsatile mass in the lateral parapharyngeal space and local erythema of the mucosa. Duplex Doppler Ultrasonography and Computed Tomography revealed an atherosclerotic aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery, measuring 63×55×88 mm, stretching from the skull base to the angle of the mandible.

  2. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND AND STENOSIS OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Flis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elucidation of the ultrasound structure of the atherosclerotic plaque in stenosis of internal carotid artery may have important implications for carotid surgery. This study compares the ability of computer derived 3D ultrasound gray scale volumetric measurements to diferentiate between ultrasonic structure of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid plaque causing more than 70% stenosis.Methods. Eightysix internal carotid artery stenoses (70–99%, 45 symptomatic, 41 asymptomatic were imaged with 3D ultrasound to obtain the whole volume of the atherosclerotic plaque. Digitalized sonograms were computerized and normalized to the gray scale median (GSM of blood (0 and vessel adventitia (200. Plaque GSM was obtained for the whole volume by computing the volume ratio between echolucent and echogenic areas. The plaque heterogeneity was obtained by computing the density of echogenic areas per volume unit. Parametric t test was used for statistic analysis.Results. Minimum volume GSM ratio (determining echolucency was higher for asymptomatic plaque (0.6 – CI 0.48– 0.91 versus 0.3 – CI 0.21–0.75: p = 0.002. Greater GSM heterogeneity was present in symptomatic plaque (6.8 – CI 2.5– 18.3 versus 0.41 – CI 0.2–3.4;.p = 0.0001.Conclusions. Volume ultrasound imaging that enables objective assessment of whole ultrasonic plaque structure is more sensitive that single longitudinal view sonography for differentiating between ultrasonic structure of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque.

  3. Reversible and Asymptomatic Gyral and Subarachnoid Contrast Enhancement after Carotid Stenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangosa, Alessandra Briatico; Tortora, Domenico; Modestino, Francesco; Cotroneo, Antonio R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of sulcal hyperdensity in patients after endovascular procedures is not necessarily attributable to hemorrhage. It may frequently indicate the absolute or concomitant extravasation of contrast material into the subarachnoid spaces. This case report describes the clinical case of an 84-year-old patient with 90% stenosis of the right internal carotid who presented with a diffuse gyral and sulcal hyperdensity in the right temporal-occipital and frontal lobes at routine post-carotid stenting (CAS) brain CT scan. The patient was asymptomatic and CT findings were interpreted as contrast enhancement hyperattenuation and no therapeutic decisions were made. A 24-hour follow-up brain CT demonstrated the complete resolution of the hyperdensity, confirming the diagnosis. In this patient we considered the concomitant presence of gyral and sulcal hyperdensity as the consequence of reversible damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) determining a transitory extravasation of contrast material. Asymptomatic gyral and subarachnoid contrast enhancement following CAS is generally indicative of benign and transitory damage to the BBB and is not to be misinterpreted as hemorrhage. PMID:25923674

  4. Dual antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel and aspirin) is associated with increased all-cause mortality after carotid revascularization for asymptomatic carotid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer, Francisco; Novak, Zdenek; Combs, Bart R; Lowman, Bruce; Passman, Marc A; Mujib, Marjan; Jordan, William D

    2014-04-01

    Despite the established guidelines, there is not a clear consensus about how to manage antiplatelet therapy after carotid surgery. It is a common practice in vascular surgery to use the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel in the treatment of such patients. In this work, we analyzed the impact on long-term survival of antiplatelet therapy in patients treated for carotid stenosis at a single institution over a 10-year period. Outcomes of 471 patients who underwent carotid intervention (1999-2008) were analyzed. Discharge prescription summaries were retrieved, and patients were divided into two groups according to their antiplatelet regimen: aspirin-only group and aspirin plus clopidogrel group. Only patients with a minimum of 30 days of confirmed antiplatelet therapy were included. All-cause mortality during follow-up represented the primary outcome, whereas stroke and bleeding at 30 days and during follow-up represented secondary end points. When local records were sparse, the Social Security Death Index was queried to confirm mortality. The International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9 codes), was reviewed for treatment related to a bleeding condition. When divided by indication, there was an increased mortality rate in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease receiving dual antiplatelet therapy as compared with aspirin alone (47% vs 40%; P = .05). Patients with symptomatic carotid disease had a nonsignificant decrease in all-cause mortality if they received dual antiplatelet therapy (38% vs 39%; P = .53). In a subgroup analysis, there was a significant increase in the rate of all-cause mortality among patients older than 75 years receiving dual antiplatelet therapy for asymptomatic carotid disease (82% vs 56%; P = .001), whereas there was a nonsignificant decrease in mortality in patients older than 75 years receiving dual antiplatelet therapy for symptomatic carotid disease (47% vs 63%; P = .50). There was no difference in secondary outcomes

  5. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study) : an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Joerg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Bradbury, A.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molynewc, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Fell, G.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; Van Schil, P.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; De Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verhelst, R.; DeJaegher, L.; Peeters, A.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J-F; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M-F; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L-H; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Alback, A.; Harno, H.; Ijas, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepantalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; Bruininckx, C. M. A.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S. P.; van Hasselt, B. A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; van Otterloo, J. C. A. de Mol; de Vries, A. C.; Nieholt, G. J. Lycklama A.; van der Kallen, B. F. W.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; De Leeuw, F. E.; Kool, L. J. Schultze; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. Bart; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sorensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennoe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, Jordi; Gimenez Gaibar, A.; Perendreu, J.; Bjorses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T-B; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Bonati, L. H.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E-W; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, N.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Bradbury, A. W.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nasser, H-C; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dolman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Beard, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Gaines, P.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Venables, G.; Belli, A.; Clifton, A.; Cloud, G.; Halliday, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Malik, I.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Brown, M. M.; Jaeger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Wong, J.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.; Rogers, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid

  6. High cardiovascular event rates in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis: the REACH Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aichner, F T; Topakian, R; Alberts, M J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on current cardiovascular event rates in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS) are sparse. We compared the 1-year outcomes of patients with ACAS > or =70% versus patients without ACAS in an international, prospective cohort of outpatients.......26%, P = 0.04), cardiovascular death (2.29% vs. 1.52%, P = 0.002), the composite end-point cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke (6.03% vs. 4.29%, P events (1.41% vs. 0.81%, P = 0.002). In patients with ACAS, Cox regression analyses identified history of cerebrovascular...... ischaemic events as most important predictor of future stroke (HR 3.21, 95% CI 1.82-5.65, P events. Stroke was powerfully predicted by prior cerebrovascular...

  7. Microanatomy of the Supracavernous Internal Carotid - Anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This anatomic variety is often associated with aneurysms and other vascular anomalies. The discovery of a case and the review of the literature allow us to evoke some embryological hypotheses. Keywords: Anterior cerebral artery, Internal carotid artery, Optic nerve, Aneuryom, Artère cérébrale antérieure, Artère carotide ...

  8. Ultrasound screening for asymptomatic carotid stenosis in subjects with calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Directed ultrasonic screening for carotid stenosis is cost-effective in populations with > 5% prevalence of the diagnosis. Occasionally, calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries are incidentally detected on odontological panoramic radiographs. We aimed to determine if directed screening for carotid stenosis with ultrasound is indicated in individuals with such calcifications. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Carotid ultrasound examinations were performed on consecutive persons, with findings of calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiography that were otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Results Calcification in the area of the carotid arteries was seen in 176 of 1182 persons undergoing panoramic radiography. Of these, 117 fulfilled the inclusion criterion and were examined with carotid ultrasound. Eight persons (6.8%; 95% CI 2.2-11.5% had a carotid stenosis - not significant over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.232, Binomial test. However, there was a significant sex difference (p = 0.008, as all stenoses were found in men. Among men, 12.5% (95%CI 4.2-20.8% had carotid stenosis - significantly over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.014, Binomial test. Conclusions The incidental finding of calcification in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs should be followed up with carotid screening in men that are otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Trial Registration The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00514644

  9. Early Detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Asymptomatic Patients Assessed by Carotid Duplex and Coronary Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsi Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Carotid duplex may detect subclinical vascular atherosclerosis in more than half of asymptomatic patients without coronary artery calcification detected by coronary computed tomography. These findings have important implications for early-stage atherosclerosis screening and implementation of primary preventive intervention.

  10. Prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis according to age and sex systematic review and metaregression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, M.; Greving, J.P.; de Jong, A.W.F.; Buskens, E.; Bots, M.L.

    Background and Purpose-In the discussion on the value of population-wide screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS), reliable prevalence estimates are crucial. We set out to provide reliable age- and sex-specific prevalence estimates of ACAS through a systematic literature review and

  11. A prospective randomized trial comparing endarterectomy to stenting in severe asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Dallit; Karmeli, Ron

    2017-12-01

    For an asymptomatic patient with severe carotid stenosis the most important question is how to prevent an ischemic stroke. Carotid artery stenosis is the estimated cause of stroke in 8-20% of the cases. Today more than 50% of procedures for carotid stenosis are done on asymptomatic patients, but few of the randomized controlled trials comparing carotid endarterectomy and stenting examined specifically these patients. All patients with severe (>70%) asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis seen in the Carmel medical center vascular clinic were prospectively screened and randomized 1:1 for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid stenting (CAS). Patients eligible for both procedures were enrolled. The primary objectives of the study were: 1) periprocedural complications - stroke (CVA), transient ischemic attack (TIA), myocardial infarction (MI), and death; 2) long-term results: mortality, prevention of ipsilateral stroke or TIA, and freedom from restenosis. One-hundred and thirty-six patients were treated with mean follow-up of 26 months. There was no difference in short and long term results between the two groups. Thirty day morbidity included: 1 CVA in each group with no MI. Long-term results included 4 deaths in each group; none from CVA. One TIA was noted after CAS, and 3 cases of restenosis were found in CEA and one in CAS. CAS is a maturing procedure and has improved significantly over the past several years. Future developments of stents and protection devices will achieve better perioperative results. This along with our excellent long term results will promote the use of stenting for suitable patients.

  12. Clinical and Imaging Features Associated with an Increased Risk of Late Stroke in Patients with Asymptomatic Carotid Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naylor, A R; Schroeder, T V; Sillesen, H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 2011 American Heart Association Guidelines on the management of asymptomatic carotid disease recommends that carotid endarterectomy (CEA) (with carotid artery stenting (CAS) as an alternative) may be considered in highly selected patients with 70-99% stenoses. However, no guidance....../CAS. METHODS: Review of clinical and/or imaging based scoring systems, predictive algorithms and imaging parameters that may be associated with an increased (or decreased) risk of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease. RESULTS: Parameters associated with an increased risk of late stroke include...

  13. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, J.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R.L.; Bonati, L.H.; Worp, H.B. van der; Borst, G.J. de; Lo, T.H.; Gaines, P.; Dorman, P.J.; Macdonald, S.; Lyrer, P.A.; Hendriks, J.M.; McCollum, C.; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Brown, M.M.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Kool, L.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The International

  14. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Jörg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; van Schil, P.; St Blasius, A. Z.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; de Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J.-F.; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M.-F.; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L.-H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepäntalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; Bruijninckx, C. M. A.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S. P.; van Hasselt, B. A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; van Otterloo, J. C. A. de Mol; de Vries, A. C.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; van der Kallen, B. F. W.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Kool, L. J. Schultze; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. B.; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sørensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, Jordi; Gaibar, A. Gimenez; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T.-B.; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E.-W.; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, M.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nasser, H.-C.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Venables, G.; Belli, A.; Cloud, G.; Halliday, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Malik, I.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The International

  15. Early results after synchronous carotid stent placement and coronary artery bypass graft in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Juan Guillermo; Rojas, Kristin E; Balestrini, Carlos; Espinel, Camilo; Figueredo, Antonio; Saaibi, Jose Federico; Machuca, Santiago; Murcia, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    The optimal management of patients with combined carotid and coronary artery disease requiring cardiac surgery is still unknown. Staged carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting (CAS), each followed by coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), are options frequently employed. However, for patients with severe carotid artery disease in urgent need of open cardiac revascularization, staged operations may not be the most appropriate alternative. The aim of this study was to describe our experience using a synchronous CAS-CABG method with minimal interprocedural time. We used this synchronous combination of procedures in patients with combined carotid and coronary artery disease admitted for urgent CABG. Patients with concomitant severe carotid and coronary artery disease scheduled for synchronous CAS and urgent CABG between December 2006 and January 2010 were included in the study. All procedures were performed at a single center: the Cardiovascular Foundation of Colombia, in Floridablanca, Santander, Colombia. The study cohort was characterized according to demographic and clinical characteristics, which included degree of carotid stenosis, presence/absence of preoperative neurological symptoms, and cardiac operative risk profile. All patients underwent CAS under embolic protection devices and then CABG within the next 2 hours. Patients received aspirin pre- and postprocedure but were started on clopidogrel only after CABG. The primary end point of the study was the composite incidence rate of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death 30 days after CAS-CABG. Fifteen patients with concomitant severe carotid and coronary artery disease underwent synchronous CAS-CABG. Most patients (60%) were men, and mean (± standard deviation) age was 65.2 (± 8.4) years. Most patients (93%) were neurologically asymptomatic. The median (interquartile range) ejection fraction and logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) for the cohort were 55% (36

  16. Increased platelet count and leucocyte-platelet complex formation in acute symptomatic compared with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCabe, D J H

    2005-09-01

    The risk of stroke in patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis is considerably higher than in patients with asymptomatic stenosis. In the present study it was hypothesised that excessive platelet activation might partly contribute to this difference.

  17. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity and apnea test in symptomatic and asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić-Prokin Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR represents an autoregulatory response of the arterial trunks on the specific vasoactive stimuli, most commonly CO2. Objective. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare VMR in high-grade symptomatic (SCAS and asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACAS, using the apnea test to evaluate the hemodynamic status. Methods. The study included 50 patients who were hospitalized at the neurology and vascular surgery departments as part of preparation for carotid endarterectomy. We evaluated VMR by calculating the breath holding index (BHI in 34 patients with SCAS and 16 patients with ACAS, with isolated high-grade carotid stenosis. We evaluated the impact of risk factors and collateral circulation on BHI, as well as the correlation between the degree of carotid stenosis and BHI. Results. A pathological BHI was more frequent in the SCAS group (p<0.01. There was no difference in the range of BHI values between the groups, both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Only male gender was associated with pathological BHI in both groups (p<0.05. Collateral circulation did not exist in over 60% of all subjects. We confirmed a negative correlation between the degree of carotid stenosis and BHI. Conclusion. SCAS and ACAS patients present with different hemodynamics. While ACAS patients have stable hemodynamics, combination of hemodynamic and thromboembolic effects is characteristic of SCAS patients.

  18. Is carotid artery evaluation necessary for primary prevention in asymptomatic high-risk patients without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim GH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available GeeHee Kim,1 Ho-Joong Youn,2 Yun-Seok Choi,2 Hae Ok Jung,2 Wook Sung Chung,2 Chul-Min Kim1 1Department of Internal Medicine, St Vincent’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objective: Routine measurement of the carotid intima–media thickness is not recommended in recent clinical practice guidelines for risk assessment of the first atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD event (the definition of which includes acute coronary syndromes, a history of myocardial infarction, stable or unstable angina, coronary or other arterial revascularization, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or peripheral arterial disease presumed to be of atherosclerotic origin. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of carotid artery evaluation for primary prevention of ASCVD in asymptomatic high-risk patients visiting a teaching hospital.Methods: Eight hundred seventy-three patients (487 male [55.8%], mean age 59.4±11.5 years who were statin-naive and without ASCVD, which was proven by coronary angiography or coronary CT angiography, were enrolled in this study. The patients underwent carotid scanning in the Medical Department of St Mary’s Hospital from September 2003 to March 2009. ASCVD outcomes were evaluated for median follow-up of 1,402 days.Results: A total of 119 participants experienced ASCVD events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR] =1.026, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.002–1.050, P=0.033, history of smoking (HR =1.751, 95% CI =1.089–2.815, P=0.021, statin therapy (HR =0.388, 95% CI =0.205–0.734, P=0.004, and carotid plaques (HR =1.556, 95% CI =1.009–2.400, P=0.045 were associated with ASCVD events. In middle-aged group (45≤ age <65, n=473, history of smoking (HR =1.995, 95% CI =1.142–3.485, P=0.015, statin therapy (HR =0.320, 95% CI =0.131

  19. Increased platelet activation in early symptomatic versus asymptomatic carotid stenosis and relationship with microembolic status: Results from the Platelets And Carotid Stenosis (PACS) Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Ja

    2013-04-26

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral microembolic signals (MES) may predict increased stroke risk in carotid stenosis. However, the relationship between platelet counts or platelet activation status and MES in symptomatic versus asymptomatic carotid stenosis has not been comprehensively assessed. SETTING: University teaching hospitals. METHODS: This prospective, pilot observational study assessed platelet counts and platelet activation status, and the relationship between platelet activation and MES in asymptomatic versus early (≤4 weeks after TIA\\/stroke) and late phase (≥3 months) symptomatic moderate or severe (≥50%) carotid stenosis patients. Full blood count measurements were performed, and whole blood flow cytometry was used to quantify platelet surface activation marker expression (CD62P and CD63) and circulating leucocyte-platelet complexes. Bilateral simultaneous transcranial Doppler ultrasound monitoring of the middle cerebral arteries was performed for 1 hour to classify patients as MES-positive or MES-negative. RESULTS: Data from 31 asymptomatic patients were compared with 46 symptomatic patients in the early phase, and 35 of these patients followed up to the late phase after symptom onset. The median platelet count (211 vs. 200 x 10(9) \\/L; p=0.03) and the median% lymphocyte-platelet complexes were higher in early symptomatic than asymptomatic patients (2.8 vs. 2.4%, p=0.001). The% lymphocyte-platelet complexes was higher in early symptomatic than asymptomatic patients with ≥70% carotid stenosis (p=0.0005), and in symptomatic patients recruited within 7 days of symptom onset (p=0.028). Complete TCD data were available in 25 asymptomatic and 31 early phase symptomatic, and 27 late phase symptomatic patients. 12% of asymptomatic versus 32% of early phase symptomatic (p=0.02) and 19% of late phase symptomatic patients (p=0.2) were MES-positive. Early symptomatic MES-negative patients had a higher% lymphocyte-platelet complexes than asymptomatic MES

  20. INTERNAL CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY UNDER LOCAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Šikovec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endarterectomy of the internal carotid artery, supported by medicamental treatment, is the best method used to prevent stroke with symptomatic patients with an over 70-percent narrowing of the ipsilateral carotid artery. With patients who have successfully passed the operation the occurrence of the stroke is less often than with non-operated patients (1% vs. 6–10% per year. Therefore, it is important that the operation is carried out as safely as possible. Currently, the average acceptable rate of death and/ or severe stroke risk stands at between 2–4%. Greatest problems faced during carotid artery surgery are embolism of the affected artery during preparation, brain ischaemia during the blockade of the carotid artery, and embolism and intimal tearing due to injury of the internal carotid artery by the temporary internal shunt. Due to the risk of causing an embolism and intimal tearing, the use of the internal shunt can be dangerous. Therefore, selective usage of the shunt is recommended when necessary due to brain ischaemia.Methods. Under block/conduction anaesthesia (deep and superficial cervical block we have performed surgery on 23 patients (16 males, 7 females because of severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (over 70%. A mixture of Xylocain 1% and Marcain 1.5% was used for the cervical block. Cerebral blood circulation was monitored by neurological testing of the patient awake during the procedure. During the procedure, we performed standard monitoring of the vital functions including the blood pressure. Additionally, the transcranial Doppler monitoring of the blood flow through the middle cerebral artery was used with 20 of the patients.Results. Even after placing the artery clamp and cutting off the blood flow through the internal carotid artery no neurological deficits were observed with 18 patients, neither did we use temporary internal shunt with them. Five patients suffered problems with loss of consciousness

  1. A randomized trial of decision-making in asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, B; Zaman, I F; Ashraf, K; Majed, Y; Norwood, E M; Schuh, L A; Smith, B J; Smith, R E; Schultz, L R

    2012-01-31

    We sought to evaluate whether different presentation formats, presenter characteristics, and patient characteristics affect decision-making in asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Subjects included individuals presenting to a neurology clinic. Participants included those over age 18 without known carotid stenosis. Subjects were randomized to a 30-second video with 1 of 5 presentation formats (absolute risk, absolute event-free survival, annualized absolute risk, relative risk, and a qualitative description) delivered by 1 of 4 presenter physicians (black woman, white woman, black man, white man). Subjects then completed a one-page form regarding background demographics and their decision regarding treatment choice. A total of 409 subjects watched the video and completed the survey. Overall, 48.4% of subjects chose surgery. Presentation format strongly predicted choice of surgery (qualitative [64%], relative risk [63%], absolute risk [43%], absolute event-free survival [37%], and annualized absolute risk [35%], p framing) strongly determines patient decision-making in asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Subject age, gender, and education level may also influence the decision. Clinicians should consider the influence of these variables when counseling patients.

  2. Relationships between 2-Year Survival, Costs, and Outcomes following Carotid Endarterectomy in Asymptomatic Patients in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallaert, Jessica B; Newhall, Karina A; Suckow, Bjoern D; Brooke, Benjamin S; Zhang, Min; Farber, Adrienne E; Likosky, Donald; Goodney, Philip P

    2016-08-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for asymptomatic patients with limited life expectancy may not be beneficial or cost-effective. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among survival, outcomes, and costs within 2 years following CEA among asymptomatic patients. Prospectively collected data from 3097 patients undergoing CEA for asymptomatic disease from Vascular Quality Initiative VQI registry were linked to Medicare. Models were used to identify predictors of 2-year mortality following CEA. Patients were classified as low, medium, or high risk of death based on this model. Next, we examined costs related to cerebrovascular care, occurrence of stroke, rehospitalization, and reintervention within 2 years following CEA across risk strata. Overall, 2-year mortality was 6.7%. Age, diabetes, smoking, congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal insufficiency, absence of statin use, and contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis were independently associated with a higher risk of death following CEA. In-hospital costs averaged $7500 among patients defined as low risk for death, and exceeded $10,800 among high risk patients. Although long-term costs related to cerebrovascular disease were 2 times higher in patients deemed high risk for death compared with low risk patents ($17,800 vs. $8800, P = 0.001), high risk of death was not independently associated with a high probability of high cost. Predictors of high cost at 2 years were severe contralateral ICA stenosis, dialysis dependence, and American Society for Anesthesia Class 4. Both statin use and CHF were protective of high cost. Greater than 90% of patients undergoing CEA live long enough to realize the benefits of their procedure. Moreover, the long-term costs are supported by the effectiveness of this procedure at all levels of patient risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolated origin of the left internal carotid artery from the pulmonary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Michael C; Nguyen, Pamela H; DiPatri, Arthur J; Shaibani, Ali

    2008-09-01

    The authors describe what is, to their knowledge, the first reported case of the anomalous origin of an internal carotid artery from the pulmonary artery. An otherwise asymptomatic 6-year-old girl, who presented with headaches and hypertension, underwent a comprehensive workup that revealed extensive meningeal and cerebral artery anastomoses to the left internal carotid artery--itself arising from the origin of the left pulmonary artery. This unique anatomical anomaly, caused by a disturbed pattern of aortic arch regression, resulted in a right-to-left vascular shunt into the pulmonary artery and a disturbance of intracranial artery flow patterns, complicating the management options.

  4. Asymptomatic carotid plaque and pro-inflammatory genetic profile in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annoni, Giorgio; Annoni, Federico; Arosio, Beatrice; Viazzoli, Chiara; Segato, Elena; Lucchi, Tiziano; Vergani, Carlo

    2009-12-01

    Several indices of subclinical atherosclerosis (ATS), including ultrasound (US) scan of carotid vessels, have received attention in clinical studies of the general population. Since inflammation takes part in the development of ATS, we studied the relationship between US imaging of carotid vessels and genetic predisposition to inflammation, in both elderly subjects without acknowledged CV risk factors and elderly subjects with acknowledged CV risk factors undergoing primary prevention. Seventy-two elderly subjects (aged between 65-84) were divided into three groups on the basis of cardiovascular (CV) risk (G0: 0-9%, G1: 10-20% and G2: >20%) according to the NCEP Adult Panel III Report. They underwent US evaluation of carotid arteries and were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes of a number of cytokines: TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-10, IL-6 and IFN-gamma. Asymptomatic carotid plaque (ACP) was detected in 19 subjects, not only in those belonging to the major risk group (36.8%) but also in those at lower risk (63.2%). In these subjects, we found a different genotype distribution in the polymorphisms of IFN-gamma (+874), IL-6 (-174) and IL- 10 (-1082). The TT +874 IFN-gamma and GG -174 IL-6 high producer-genotypes and the AA IL-10 low producergenotype were indeed more frequent in the ACP group (IFN-gamma: p=0.000 and IL-6: p=0.004). We found no correlation between genotype and carotid intima-media thickening. Our data suggest that, in the elderly, inflammation-associated polymorphisms are related to atherogenesis and that the finding of ACP on US scan can be valuable in identifying subjects at risk for CV events, even if they lack traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as an increase in IMT.

  5. The importance of internal carotid artery occlusion tolerance test in carotid endarterectomy under locoregional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaretti, Marcos; de Vasconcelos, Laura T; Dourado, Jules; de Souza, Renata F; Fontoura, Renato R; de Sousa, Atos A

    2016-06-01

    Carotid endarterectomy is considered a safe and effective method for preventing stroke in the short and long term in patients with severe carotid stenosis. The internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion tolerance test was performed to evaluate cerebral tolerance during temporary carotid occlusion, defined as the capacity of the cerebral hemisphere to maintain adequate cerebral blood flow during occlusion of the ICA. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the importance of this test in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. From August 2008 to May 2015, 115 consecutive patients (39 female, 77 male) were referred for carotid endarterectomy at the Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte by the main author. Of the 115 patients who participated in the study, 107 were submitted to carotid endarterectomy. Morbi-mortality was 2.7 %. The presence of deficits during the ICA occlusion tolerance test in less than 30 s was associated with the presence of complications. Among the 104 patients who showed no deficits during the test, only one case (0.9 %) presented complications, while among the three cases that showed deficits during the test and who were submitted to carotid endarterectomy, two cases presented complications (p carotid endarterectomy under locoregional anesthesia is a safe surgical procedure. The internal carotid artery occlusion tolerance test can help identify high-risk patients who have been assigned this treatment.

  6. Ten-year risk of stroke in patients with previous cerebral infarction and the impact of carotid surgery in the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streifler, Jonathan Y; den Hartog, Anne G; Pan, Samuel; Pan, Hongchao; Bulbulia, Richard; Thomas, Dafydd J; Brown, Martin M; Halliday, Alison

    2016-12-01

    Silent brain infarcts are common in patients at increased risk of stroke and are associated with a poor prognosis. In patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis, similar adverse associations were claimed, but the impact of previous infarction or symptoms on the beneficial effects of carotid endarterectomy is not clear. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of prior cerebral infarction in patients enrolled in the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial, a large trial with 10-year follow-up in which participants whose carotid stenosis had not caused symptoms for at least six months were randomly allocated either immediate or deferred carotid endarterectomy. The first Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial included 3120 patients. Of these, 2333 patients with baseline brain imaging were identified and divided into two groups irrespective of treatment assignment, 1331 with evidence of previous cerebral infarction, defined as a history of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack > 6 months prior to randomization or radiological evidence of an asymptomatic infarct (group 1) and 1002 with normal imaging and no prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (group 2). Stroke and vascular deaths were compared during follow-up, and the impact of carotid endarterectomy was observed in both groups. Baseline characteristics of patients with and without baseline brain imaging were broadly similar. Of those included in the present report, male gender and hypertension were more common in group 1, while mean ipsilateral stenosis was slightly greater in group 2. At 10 years follow-up, stroke was more common among participants with cerebral infarction before randomization (absolute risk increase 5.8% (1.8-9.8), p = 0.004), and the risk of stroke and vascular death was also higher in this group (absolute risk increase 6.9% (1.9-12.0), p = 0.007). On multivariate analysis, prior cerebral infarction was associated with a greater risk of stroke (hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence

  7. Carotid angioplasty with stenting for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Nozomu; Tanasawa, Toshihiko; Okada, Takeshi; Endo, Otone; Yamamoto, Naohito [Kainan Hospital Aichi Prefectural Welfare Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives, Department of Neurosurgery, Aichi (Japan); Miyachi, Shigeru; Hattori, Kenichi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is becoming accepted as an effective and reliable treatment option for severe carotid artery stenosis. However, it is rarely applied for carotid occlusion, especially in its chronic stage. We report our experience of CAS for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion representing compromised cerebral blood flow using various protection methods. A 77-year-old woman, who was already diagnosed with severe left internal carotid artery stenosis, suddenly had right hemiparesis and aphasia. At that time, she was treated conservatively because her neurological status was quite good, in spite of left carotid artery occlusion. Her symptoms improved in the short term, except slight aphasia, but deteriorated again 18 days from the onset, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new ischemic lesions. CAS was then performed for the occluded carotid artery on the 23rd day from the first onset. Using the proximal protection technique, the occluded lesion was crossed carefully with a microguidewire. Stents were also placed successfully with the distal protection technique. The occluded carotid artery was completely recanalized without any unfavorable events or neurological deterioration. In this patient, CAS was successfully to treat chronic carotid artery occlusion. These procedures and techniques are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Autonomic outcome is better after endarterectomy than after stenting in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Sven; Finn, Sigrid; Ehrhardt, Jens; Hoyer, Dirk; Mayer, Thomas; Zanow, Juergen; Guenther, Albrecht; Schwab, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Carotid endarterectomy and stenting have comparable efficacy in stroke prevention in asymptomatic carotid stenosis. In patients with carotid stenosis, cardiac events have a more than threefold higher incidence than cerebrovascular events. Autonomic dysfunction predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and carotid stenosis interferes with baroreceptor and chemoreceptor function. We assessed the effect of elective carotid revascularization (endarterectomy vs stenting) on autonomic function as a major prognostic factor of cardiovascular health. In 42 patients with ≥70% asymptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis, autonomic function was determined by analysis of heart rate variability (total band power [TP], high frequency band power [HF], low-frequency band power [LF], very low frequency band power [VLF]), baroreflex sensitivity (αHF, αLF), respiratory chemoreflex sensitivity (central apnea-hypopnea index), and cardiac chemoreflex sensitivity (hyperoxic TP, HF, LF, and VLF ratios) before and 30 days after revascularization. Patients with endarterectomy were older than patients with stenting (69 ± 7 vs 62 ± 7 years; P ≤ .008) but did not differ in gender distribution and preintervention autonomic function. Compared with stenting, postintervention heart rate variability was higher (ln TP, 6.7 [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.3-7.0] vs 6.1 [95% CI, 5.8-6.5; P ≤ .009]; ln HF, 4.5 [95% CI, 4.1-5.0] vs 4.0 [95% CI, 3.4-4.5; P ≤ .05]; ln VLF, 6.0 [95% CI, 5.7-6.4] vs 5.5 [95% CI, 5.2-5.9; P ≤ .02]); respiratory chemoreflex sensitivity (central apnea-hypopnea index, 5.5 [95% CI, 2.8-8.2] vs 10.0 [95% CI, 6.9-13.1; P ≤. 01]) and cardiac chemoreflex sensitivity (TP ratio, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.3] vs 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9-1.0; P ≤ .0001]; HF ratio, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.2-1.5] vs 0.9 [95% CI, 0.8-1.1; P ≤ .001]; LF ratio, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.3-1.6] vs 1.0 [95% CI, 0.8-1.1; P ≤ .0001]; VLF ratio, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.3) vs 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9-1.1; P ≤ .002]) were lower

  9. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with basilar aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briganti, F.; Tortora, F.; Elefante, A. [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Cattedra di Neuroradiologia, 80131, Napoli (Italy); Maiuri, F. [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery Service, Napoli (Italy)

    2004-10-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with an associated aneurysm of the basilar tip, studied by CT angiography, MR angiography and digital angiography. The patient became symptomatic with an episode of loss of consciousness, likely due to reduced blood perfusion. The other 20 reported cases of bilateral carotid hypoplasia (only four of which with an associated aneurysm) are reviewed. The findings of noninvasive procedures (including narrowing of the carotid canals on CT) may lead to a correct diagnosis before angiography is performed; they may also help to differentiate angiographic narrowing of the hypoplastic internal carotids from the string sign often observed in some acquired conditions. (orig.)

  10. Predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Rosane; Larrúbia, Manuella Rangel; Bussade, Isabela; Pereira, Joana Rodrigues Dantas; Lima, Giovanna A Balarini; Epifanio, Marcio Antonio; Schettino, Claudio Domenico Sahione; Momesso, Denise Prado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and clinical predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM. The study included 45 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (aged 36 ± 9 years) who underwent carotid Doppler ultrasound evaluation to determine the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and to assess the occurrence of carotid artery plaques. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), and metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined by the World Health Organization criteria. The cohort had a mean age of 36 ± 9 years, diabetes duration of 18.1 ± 9.5 years, and body mass index (BMI) of 24.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. MS was present in 44.4% of the participants. The CIMT was 0.25 ± 0.28 mm, and the prevalence of carotid artery plaques was 13%. CIMT correlated positively with hypertension (p = 0.04) and waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.37, p = 0.012). The presence of carotid artery plaques correlated positively with age (p = 0.018) and hypertension (p = 0.017). eGDR correlated negatively with CIMT (r = -0.39, p = 0.009) and carotid plaques (p = 0.04). Albuminuria showed a correlation trend with CIMT (p = 0.06). Patients with carotid artery plaques were older, had a higher prevalence of hypertension, and lower eGDR. No correlation was found between CIMT and carotid plaques with diabetes duration, MS, BMI, cholesterol profile, glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or fibrinogen. Insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, and older age were predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM.

  11. Early control of distal internal carotid artery during carotid endarterectomy: does it reduce cerebral microemboli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommertz, G; Das, M; Langer, S; Koeppel, T A; Krings, T; Mess, W H; Schiefer, J; Jacobs, M J

    2010-06-01

    According to the results of the large trials on carotid endarterectomy (CEA), this type of surgery is only warranted if perioperative mortality and morbidity are kept considerably low. Less attention has been paid to methods of cerebral protection during CEA, although intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) can visualise intracerebral microemboli (MES) during routine carotid dissection, although MES occur throughout the CEA, only those during dissection are related to neurological outcome. Prevention of MES by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery dislodging from the carotid artery plaque during dissection is very likely the mechanism behind an eventual benefit from this approach. Hence, the amount of MES might serve as a surrogate parameter for the risk of periprocedural neurological events. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether early control of the distal carotid artery during CEA is capable of reducing the number of MES by means of a prospective randomised trial. Twenty-eight patients (29 procedures) could be prospectively included in our study. Before surgery we randomly assigned the patients to two groups: group A (N.=12): CEA by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery; group B (N.=17): CEA with dissection of the total carotid bifurcation before clamping the arteries. Periprocedurally, we continuously monitored the cerebral blood flow in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery by means of TCD. Pre- and postoperative morbidity were independently verified by a neurologist control of the distal internal carotid artery did not reduce the occurrence of MES during dissection of the carotid bifurcation. Also, the total number of MES throughout the procedure and postoperatively was comparable between both groups. The procedure related times as well as the clinical outcome did not differ significantly. Thus, early control of the distal internal carotid artery has got no advantage but also no disadvantage

  12. [Risk factors of rupture of internal carotid artery during surgical resection of carotid body tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Wang, J S; Yao, C; Chang, G Q; Yin, H H; Li, S Q; Lü, W M; Hu, Z J; Wang, S M

    2017-06-13

    Objective: To investigate risk factors of rupture of internal carotid artery resection during carotid body tumor resection and to summarize our treatment experience. Methods: During the period from 1991 to 2016, rupture of internal carotid artery occurred in 27 patients (28 tumors) during surgical resection of carotid body tumor in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Their clinical and follow-up data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. For all patients underwent surgical resection during this period, Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors of intraoperative rupture of internal carotid artery. Results: Of these 28 tumors, there were 15 (53.6%) tumors with diameter≥5 cm and 20 (71.4%) Shamblin Ⅲ tumors. Intraoperatively, shunt was applied for 8 (28.6%) cases. Thirteen (46.4%) patients underwent ligation of external carotid artery, while 2 (7.1%) patients accepted resection of cranial nerves. Direct closure/patchplasty, autologous vessels or graft reconstruction was used in 16, 10 and 2 cases, respectively. Postoperatively, stroke occurred in 4(14.3%) cases and cranial nerve deficit in 15 (53.6%) cases. During a median length of 36 (14-125) months, cranial nerve deficit persisted in 5 cases. Follow-up radiologic examination indicated 3 (10.7%) cases of targeted vessel occlusion. However, no new-onset stroke was identified. Among all patients underwent surgical resection of carotid body tumor, female (OR=3.650, P=0.012), age≤25 years old (OR=3.710, P=0.013) and Shamblin Ⅲ tumor (OR=4.631, P=0.008) increase the risks of intraoperative carotid artery rupture. Conclusions: Shamblin Ⅲ tumor is the predictor of rupture of internal carotid artery. Intraoperative, properly increased blood pressure, intraoperative heparinization and use of shunt for those cases without well-compensated cranial collateral arteries are likely to decreasing the incidence of stroke.

  13. Preoperative White Matter Lesions Are Independent Predictors of Long-Term Survival after Internal Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niku Oksala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs predict long-term survival of conservatively treated acute stroke patients with etiology other than carotid stenosis. In carotid endarterectomy patients, WMLs are associated with severe carotid stenosis and unstable plaques, with the risk of perioperative complications and with increased 30-day perioperative risk of death. However, no data exist on their effect on postoperative long-term survival, a factor important when considering the net benefit from carotid endarterectomy. Whether this effect is independent of classical risk factors and indications for surgery is not known either. We hypothesized that WMLs could be evaluated from preoperative routine computed tomography (CT scans and are predictors of postoperative survival, independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors, indication category and degree of carotid stenosis. Methods: A total of 353 of 481 (73.4% consecutive patients subjected to carotid endarterectomy due to different indications, i.e. asymptomatic stenosis (n = 28, 7.9%, amaurosis fugax (n = 52, 14.7%, transient ischemic attack (n = 135, 38.2% or ischemic stroke (n = 138, 39.1%, from prospective vascular registries during the years 2001-2010 with digital preoperative CT scans, were included in the study. WMLs were rated by a radiologist (Wahlund criteria in a blinded fashion. Internal carotid artery (ICA stenoses were angiographically graded (Results: WML severity could be assessed with a substantial intraobserver agreement (Spearman's rho 0.843, p Conclusions: WMLs in a preoperative CT scan provide a substantially reliable estimate of postoperative long-term survival of carotid endarterectomy patients independent of currently used criteria, i.e. cardiovascular risk factors, indication category and degree of ipsilateral ICA stenosis.

  14. Development and validation of a score to predict life expectancy after carotid endarterectomy in asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Michele; Barbetta, Iacopo; Bissacco, Daniele; Trimarchi, Santi; Catanese, Vincenzo; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonardelli, Stefano; Settembrini, Piergiorgio G

    2017-09-21

    Recent improvement of best medical treatment for carotid stenosis has sparked a debate on the role of surgery identification of patients who may benefit from carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is crucial to avoid overtreatment. An expected 5-year postoperative survival is one of the main selection criteria. The aim of this study was the development of a score for predicting survival of asymptomatic patients after CEA. Our score was derived from a retrospective analysis of 648 consecutive asymptomatic patients from a single hospital. External validation of the score was then performed on a second cohort of 334 asymptomatic patients from two different hospitals in the same area. Factors associated with reduced postoperative survival within the derivation cohort (DC) were identified and tested for statistical significance. Each selected factor was assigned a score proportional to its β coefficient: 1 point for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and lack of statin treatment; 4 points for age 70 to 79 years and creatinine concentration ≥1.5 mg/dL; 8 points for age ≥80 years and dialysis. The DC was divided into four groups based on individual scores: group 1, 0 to 3 points; group 2, 4 to 7 points; group 3, 8 to 11 points; and group 4, ≥12 points. Group-specific survival curves were calculated. The validation cohort (VC) was stratified according to the score. Survival of each of the four risk groups within the VC was compared with its analogue from the DC. Median follow-up of the DC and VC was, respectively, 56 and 65 months. Intercohort comparison of 5-year survival was 84.7% ± 1.7% vs 85.2% ± 2% (P = .41). Group-specific 5-year survival within the DC was 97% ± 1.5% (group 1), 88.4% ± 2.2% (group 2), 69.6% ± 4.7% (group 3), and 48.1% ± 13.5% (group 4; P < .0001). Five-year survival within the VC was 95.5% ± 2% (group 1), 89.5% ± 2.7% (group 2), 65% ± 6.1% (group 3), and 44.8% ± 14.1% (group 4

  15. Short-term results of a randomized trial examining timing of carotid endarterectomy in patients with severe asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Miraldi, Fabio; Frati, Giacomo; Macrina, Francesco; Toscano, Michele

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the timing of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the prevention of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis >70% receiving a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). From January 2004 to December 2009, 185 patients with unilateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis >70%, candidates for CABG, were randomized into two groups. In group A, 94 patients received a CABG with previous or simultaneous CEA. In group B, 91 patients underwent CABG, followed by CEA. All patients underwent preoperative helical computed tomography scans, excluding significant atheroma of the ascending aorta or aortic arch. Baseline characteristics of the patients, type of coronary artery lesion, and preoperative myocardial function were comparable in the two groups. In group A, all patients underwent CEA under general anesthesia with the systematic use of a carotid shunt, and 79 patients had a combined procedure and 15 underwent CEA a few days before CABG. In group B, all patients underwent CEA, 1 to 3 months after CABG, also under general anesthesia and with systematic carotid shunting. Two patients (one in each group) died of cardiac failure in the postoperative period. Operative mortality was 1.0% in group A and 1.1% in group B (P = .98). No strokes occurred in group A vs seven ipsilateral ischemic strokes in group B, including three immediate postoperative strokes and four late strokes, at 39, 50, 58, and 66 days, after CABG. These late strokes occurred in patients for whom CEA was further delayed due to an incomplete sternal wound healing or because of completion of a cardiac rehabilitation program. The 90-day stroke and death rate was 1.0% (one of 94) in group A and 8.8% (eight of 91) in group B (odds ratio [OR], 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.91; P = .02). Logistic regression analysis showed that only delayed CEA (OR, 14.2; 95% CI, 1.32-152.0; P = .03) and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; P = .004) reliably predicted

  16. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Occlusion of Internal Carotid Artery in Kimura's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Tamaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a unique case of Kimura's disease in which cerebral infarction was caused by occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. A 25-year-old man with Kimura's disease was admitted to our hospital because of left hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed infarction in the right frontal and temporal lobes. Cerebral angiography demonstrated right internal carotid artery occlusion affecting the C1 segment, with moyamoya-like collateral vessels arising from the right opthalamic artery. Kimura's disease is a chronic disease characterized by the clinical triad of slowly enlarging subcutaneous masses with lymphoid hyperplasia in the head and neck. It often occurs in young Asian men. In our patient, the pathogenesis of internal carotid artery occlusion was unknown. There have only been a few case reports in which occlusion of the internal carotid artery was associated with autoimmune disease, and no previous cases of internal carotid occlusion associated with Kimura's disease have been reported. We suspected that occlusion of this patient's internal carotid artery may be caused by the autoimmune mechanism that underlies Kimura's disease.

  18. Unilateral congenital hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery in a newborn: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Valentino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoplasia of one or both internal carotid artery (ICA is a rare congenital developmental abnormality. The early neurological presentation of this disorder is rare because many of these cases remain asymptomatic and go undetected due to the presence of collateral vessels. We describe a newborn that presented with seizures at 27 hours after birth. Extended ischemia of the right hemisfere was observed on computed tomography (CT, while the 3D MIP reconstruction showed hypoplasia of right internal carotid artery. After about 3 weeks, the rapid improvement of the newborn’s cerebral ultrasound and EEG allowed to discontinue corticosteroid and sedative therapy. The infant was discharged after 40 days of life in good clinical condition.

  19. Carotid Artery End-Diastolic Velocity and Future Cerebro-Cardiovascular Events in Asymptomatic High Risk Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyemoon; Jung, Young Hak; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Min, Pil-Ki; Yoon, Young Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Choi, Eui-Young

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic value of additional carotid Doppler evaluations to carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque has not been completely evaluated. A total of 1119 patients with risk factors for, but without, overt coronary artery disease (CAD), who underwent both carotid ultrasound and Doppler examination were included in the present study. Parameters of interest included peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities, resistive indices of the carotid arteries, IMT, and plaque measurements. The primary end-point was all-cause cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization therapy, heart failure admission, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Model 1 covariates comprised age and sex; Model 2 also included hypertension, diabetes and smoking; Model 3 also had use of aspirin and statin; and Model 4 also included IMT and plaque. The mean follow-up duration was 1386±461 days and the mean age of the study population was 60±12 years. Amongst 1119 participants, 43% were women, 57% had a history of hypertension, and 23% had diabetes. During follow-up, 6.6% of patients experienced CVEs. Among carotid Doppler parameters, average common carotid artery end-diastolic velocity was the independent predictor for future CVEs after adjustments for all models variables (HR 0.95 per cm/s, 95% confident interval 0.91-0.99, p=0.034 in Model 4) and significantly increased the predictive value of Model 4 (global χ(2)=59.0 vs. 62.8, p=0.029). Carotid Doppler measurements in addition to IMT and plaque evaluation are independently associated with future CVEs in asymptomatic patients at risk for CAD.

  20. The critical role of the external carotid artery in cerebral perfusion of patients with total occlusion of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalainas, I; Avgerinos, E D; Daskalopoulos, M E; Papapetrou, A; Papasideris, C P; Katsikas, V; Xiromeritis, K; Moulakakis, K; Gianakopoulos, T; Liapis, C D

    2012-02-01

    The ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA) can potentially provide an important collateral pathway for cerebral blood flow in the presence of occlusion or severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA), recovering up to 15% of the middle cerebral arterial flow. The aim of the study is to elucidate the role of ECA in cerebral flow of patients with total ICA occlusion. Retrospective study of prospectively collected data of 139 patients with total ICA occlusions. The patients were divided to symptomatic and asymptomatic and were categorized in four subgroups according to the stenosis rates: A) ipsilateral ECAECA stenosis ECA stenosis ≥70% and contralateral ICA stenosis ECA stenosis ≥70% and contralateral ICA stenosis ≥75%. Fifty eight (41.7%) patients were asymptomatic. The highest rate (48.2%) of asymptomatic patients was in Group A. Among patients with strokes, the highest rate belonged in groups C and D (44.4% and 50% respectively) where ipsilateral ECA stenosis was ≥70% irrespectively of the contralateral ICA patency. Ipsilateral external carotid artery stenosis ≥70% proved to be and independent risk factor for symptom presentation (P=0.013). The study reveals the significant role of ECA patency in cerebral flow in patients with ICA occlusion.

  1. Endarterectomy achieves lower stroke and death rates compared with stenting in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkos, Stavros K; Kakisis, Ioannis; Tsolakis, Ioannis A; Geroulakos, George

    2017-08-01

    It is currently unclear if carotid artery stenting (CAS) is as safe as carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for patients with significant asymptomatic stenosis. The aim of our study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials comparing CAS with CEA. On March 17, 2017, a search for randomized controlled trials was performed in MEDLINE and Scopus databases with no time limits. We performed meta-analyses with Peto odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Quality of evidence was assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method. The primary safety and efficacy outcome measures were stroke or death rate at 30 days and ipsilateral stroke at 1 year (including ipsilateral stroke and death rate at 30 days), respectively. Perioperative stroke, ipsilateral stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and cranial nerve injury (CNI) were all secondary outcome measures. The systematic review of the literature identified nine randomized controlled trials reporting on 3709 patients allocated into CEA (n = 1479) or CAS (n = 2230). Stroke or death rate at 30 days was significantly higher for CAS (64/2176 [2.94%]) compared with CEA (27/1431 [1.89%]; OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.01-2.44; P = .044), with low level of heterogeneity beyond chance (I2 = 0%). Also, stroke rate at 30 days was significantly higher for CAS (63/2176 [2.90%]) than for CEA (26/1431 [1.82%]; OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.04-2.54; P = .032; I2 = 0%). MI at 30 days was nonsignificantly lower for CAS (12/1815 [0.66%]) compared with CEA (16/1070 [1.50%]; OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.24-1.14; P = .105; I2 = 0%); however, CNI at 30 days was significantly lower for CAS (2/1794 [0.11%]) than for CEA (33/1061 [3.21%]; OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.07-0.26; P carotid intervention, there is moderate-quality evidence to suggest that CEA had significantly lower 30-day stroke and also stroke or death rates compared with CAS at the cost of higher CNI and nonsignificantly higher MI rates. The

  2. Development of a validated model to predict 30-day stroke and 1-year survival after carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis using the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Randall R; Brooke, Benjamin S; Neal, Dan; Beck, Adam W; Conrad, Mark F; Arya, Shipra; Desai, Sapan; Aziz, Faisal; Ryan, Patrick; Cronenwett, Jack L; Kraiss, Larry W

    2017-08-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been shown to be an effective treatment for patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis when perioperative stroke rates are low and patients survive long enough to benefit from the intervention. Our objective was to develop and to validate a simple risk prediction model for 30-day stroke and 1-year mortality to guide optimal selection of patients for CEA. Asymptomatic patients undergoing first-time elective CEA within the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) from 2010 to 2015 were selected. Outcome measures included any 30-day postoperative stroke and 1-year mortality. Patient demographics, comorbidities, carotid artery disease burden, and provider characteristics were evaluated to select a parsimonious clinical model for risk prediction using multivariable logistic regression. Internal validation was performed for stroke and split sample validation was done for 1-year survival to ensure generalizability. We identified 31,939 patients for inclusion in the stroke analysis (2010-2015) and 24,086 patients for the mortality analysis (2010-2014). Both the 30-day stroke rate (0.9%) and 1-year mortality rate (3.4%) varied substantially across 265 VQI centers (range, 0%-8.3% and 0%-20%, respectively). Eleven significant factors were selected for the 30-day stroke risk prediction model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.67). Internal validation demonstrated good discrimination (bias corrected AUC = 0.652; calibration intercept and slope of 0.03 and 1.01, respectively). Similarly, 10 significant factors were selected for the 1-year mortality risk prediction model (AUC, 0.764). External validation demonstrated excellent discrimination and calibration (AUC, 0.764; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.80). Stroke and 1-year mortality rates after CEA for asymptomatic stenosis vary across VQI centers. We have developed a preoperative risk model that can be used to accurately estimate risk of perioperative stroke and 1

  3. Internal carotid artery occlusion or subocclusion: Contemporary diagnostic challenges: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Measurement of vessel stenosis using ultrasonography or magnetic resonance is still the principal method for determining the severity of carotid atherosclerosis and need for endarterectomy. Case Outline. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the Cardiovascular Institute 'Dedinje' due to a clinically asymptomatic restenosis of the operated left internal carotid artery (ICA. Angiography and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA in previous hospitalization had revealed occluded right ICA. However, routine duplex ultrasonography revealed a highgrade restenosis (85% of the left ICA and subocclusion of the right ICA by an ulcerated plaque (confirmed on repeated MRA. Conclusion. Selective arteriography examination could misrepresent the degree of stenosis especially in patents with the ICA that seems to be occluded. MRA is considered the method of choice for identifying pseudo-occlusions of ICA.

  4. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    a significant improvement in baseline flow occur. Flow reserve determined by cerebral vasodilation, however, will improve in most patients with hemodynamic failure. In addition, some patients in the low-pressure group develop marked, but temporary, hyperperfusion after reconstruction of very high grade carotid...

  5. Treatment of a symptomatic intrathoracic internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcations are an anatomic anomaly with such rarity that only six cases have been reported to date. The true incidence of and preferred treatment options for a diseased intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcation or internal carotid artery (ICA have not been clearly described. This case report describes a 72-year-old man who experienced a postoperative right hemispheric stoke after an aortic valve replacement, radiofrequency maze procedure, and left atrial appendage clip. Postoperative cerebrovascular evaluation revealed a severely diseased intrathoracic ICA that was treated by ligation of the diseased proximal ICA and transposition of the distal ICA to the disease-free external carotid artery. The patient provided written consent to present the history, data, and images in this manuscript.

  6. [Traumatic common carotid-internal jugular fistula: positive aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrahami, R; Levinzon, M; Haddad, M; Zelikovsky, A

    1997-06-15

    A 42-year-old man presented with a penetrating neck injury from a pellet gun. Physical examination showed an open 1 cm wound on the right side of the neck, hematoma of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle, and carotid artery injury. He was hemodynamically stable and there was no neurological deficit. Arteriogram of the neck disclosed a pseudoaneurysm with an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein. At surgery, the tears in the carotid artery and jugular vein were sutured and a vacuum drain was introduced. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 5 days later. Instead of the expected results of a penetrating carotid artery injury, such as blood loss, airway obstruction or neurological deficit, the arteriovenous fistula caused by the pellet actually saved the patient's life. Blood flow from the artery via the pseudoaneurysm to the jugular vein kept the patient in stable condition.

  7. Carotid artery stenting; Karotisangioplastie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiehler, Jens [Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neuroradiologische Diagnostik und Intervention, Diagnostikzentrum

    2009-09-15

    An ipsilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery is found in 10 - 15 % of all ischemic strokes and indicates an increased risk of a second stroke. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a therapy that is established for many years. CAS reveals complication rates and long-term efficacy comparable to carotid endarterectomy (TEA). Especially younger patients seem to benefit from CAS. Abilities and experiences of the therapist and the choice of the techniques used are critical for patient safety. The efficacy of CAS for treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis is probable but still unproven in prospective-randomized trial. (orig.)

  8. Surgical treatment of internal carotid and posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikus, H J; Heros, R C

    1998-10-01

    Saccular aneurysms of the subarachnoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are very common. Although some of the aneurysms arising from the subarachnoid ICA have earned the reputation of easy to treat surgically, aneurysms in this region may be complex and quite difficult to repair. Even a simple aneurysm associated with the posterior communicating artery may harbor surprises for the unwary or inexperienced surgeon. This article details the pertinent anatomy of the subarachnoid internal carotid artery and associated saccular aneurysms, provides a guide to their diagnosis and surgical treatment, and briefly reviews some of the published surgical results. Pitfalls and technique tips are highlighted.

  9. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    . Examination of periorbital flow direction or oculoplethysmography could be used as a screening procedure. Negative tests most certainly rule out any severe pressure gradient across the stenosis, irrespective of the luminal reduction. A positive result, on the other hand, should be further quantified since...... a significant improvement in baseline flow occur. Flow reserve determined by cerebral vasodilation, however, will improve in most patients with hemodynamic failure. In addition, some patients in the low-pressure group develop marked, but temporary, hyperperfusion after reconstruction of very high grade carotid...

  10. Internal carotid artery stenting for blunt carotid artery injuries with an associated pseudoaneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, John D; Reuland, Kurt R; Villarreal, David H; McGovern, Thomas M; Rowe, Stephen A; Norwood, Scott H

    2008-02-01

    Blunt carotid artery injuries (BCI) are being recognized and treated with increasing frequency because of improved screening protocols. Recent advances in endovascular techniques using microcoils, angioplasty, and stenting offer a new treatment strategy for those patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysms (PA) (BCI and PA). Experience with these techniques is limited because of the rarity of these injuries. Early anticoagulation (AC) or antiplatelet (AP) therapy combined with carotid artery stenting is a safe alternative to AC alone for the treatment of grade III carotid artery injuries (BCI and PA). Prospective cohort study. A rural, community Level I trauma center. All patients with a nonocclusive BCI and PA during a 5.5 year period from June 23, 2000 to December 31, 2005 were included in the study. : Eleven patients with grade BCI and PA underwent endovascular repair. Nine patients (81%) had associated traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. AC (heparin drip) or AP therapy (clopidogrel or aspirin or both) was initiated in all patients within 48 hours of diagnosis of BCI. Time from admission to AC or AP was 21 +/- 9.5 hours (mean +/- SD). Mortality rate was 18% (2 of 11). One death was attributed to severe brain injury. The other was attributed to a stroke from the carotid injury. No patient had radiologic progression of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage on head computed tomography despite AP or AC. One patient sustained a mild embolic cerebrovascular ischemic event before stenting. No other survivors developed a stroke or any other evidence of cerebral ischemic symptoms. Two recurrent PAs developed during hospitalization and were successfully managed with an additional stent. All survivors were discharged with a good neurologic outcome. Seven patients had follow-up from 6 months to 4 years: one developed asymptomatic 50% stenosis at 6 months requiring successful angioplasty. All others showed complete healing without stenosis. Carotid artery stenting is safe and

  11. Location of the internal carotid artery and ophthalmic artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yasin Hamarat

    2017-10-06

    Oct 6, 2017 ... There are some published results of OA anatomical studies [18,20-22]. .... right eye) and the depth of intracranial segment of ophthal- mic artery ... internal carotid artery and segments of ophthalmic artery in high tension glaucoma patients. No. of glaucoma patients. Eye. ICA edge, mm. IOA, mm. EOA, mm.

  12. Regional Topography of the Internal Carotid Artery | Kipyator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the extra cranial portion of the internal carotid artery and structures associated with it, which are vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgical approach to the neck region in 18 individuals. Distances from the origin of the artery to hypoglossal nerve and posterior belly of digastric muscle were measured.

  13. Intercavernous portion of internal carotid artery occlusion resulting from snowboarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudiptamohan Mukhopadhyay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sudiptamohan Mukhopadhyay1, Awen Iorwerth21Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK; 2Department of Orthopaedics, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Wales, UKAbstract: A 33-year-old gentleman who was otherwise fit and healthy suffered repetitive low impact head injuries while snowboarding in Austria over a period of one week. During the fall he had several hyperextension injuries and presented with headache, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness (felt ‘drunk’ on Friday night despite not being drunk, diplopia, abnormal pupillary signs. A Horner’s syndrome was diagnosed and on investigation, the left intercavernous portion of internal carotid artery (ICA was found to be thrombosed. The symptoms gradually settled after conservative treatment for a month. Blunt head trauma is a recognized cause of carotid dissection and thrombosis and many neuromechanics studies have attempted to calculate the wall shear stress involved. Physicians treating snowboarders should be aware of the condition and should look for Horner’s syndrome and consider the possibility of carotid occlusion. With a thorough PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE search using ‘snowboarding’, ‘carotid dissection’, ‘Horner’s syndrome’ no such case was found to be reported. Proper training for such sport activities is essential to avoid serious consequences.Keywords: snowboarding, carotid dissection, Horner’s syndrome

  14. Assessment of 'on-treatment platelet reactivity' and relationship with cerebral micro-embolic signals in asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Justin A; Tobin, Oliver; Tierney, Sean; Feeley, Timothy M; Egan, Bridget; Coughlan, Tara; Ronan Collins, D; O'Neill, Desmond; Harbison, Joseph A; Doherty, Colin P; Madhavan, Prakash; Moore, Dermot J; O'Neill, Sean M; Colgan, Mary-Paula; Saqqur, Maher; Murphy, Raymond P; Moran, Niamh; Hamilton, George; McCabe, Dominick J H

    2017-05-15

    The relationship between on-treatment platelet reactivity and cerebral micro-embolic signals (MES) is unknown, and has not been previously simultaneously assessed in asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis patients. Consecutive eligible patients with ≥50% asymptomatic or recently symptomatic carotid stenosis (≤4weeks following TIA/ischaemic stroke) were recruited to this pilot study. Symptomatic patients were followed up to the 'late' phase (≥3months) following symptom onset or carotid intervention; longitudinal data were analysed from symptomatic patients with data available at both time-points. Platelet function/reactivity was assessed with the PFA-100® to measure collagen-ADP (C-ADP) and collagen-epinephrine (C-EPI) closure times in citrate-anticoagulated whole blood. Bilateral simultaneous 1-hour transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) monitoring of the middle cerebral arteries was performed to classify patients as MES +ve or MES -ve. 31 patients with ≥50% asymptomatic and 46 with early symptomatic carotid stenosis or occlusion were included. 35 symptomatic patients were followed up to the late phase (23 following carotid intervention). Prevalence of 'high on-treatment platelet reactivity' (HTPR) on the C-EPI cartridge did not differ between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients overall, but was lower in 'symptomatic post-intervention' than asymptomatic patients on aspirin monotherapy (10% vs. 50%; p=0.03). The prevalence of HTPR on the C-EPI cartridge decreased between the early and late phases in symptomatic patients (63% vs. 34%; p=0.017), including those on aspirin monotherapy (p=0.016). There were no significant differences in HTPR status between asymptomatic vs. early or late symptomatic MES +ve or MES -ve patients. Carotid interventional treatment, presumably in combination with resolution of the acute phase response, may decrease the prevalence of HTPR in patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis over time. Preliminary subgroup

  15. Discrepancy analysis between crystallized and fluid intelligence tests: a novel method to detect mild cognitive impairment in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaiwa, A; Kuwayama, N; Akioka, N; Kashiwazaki, D; Kuroda, S

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to accurately determine the presence of mild cognitive impairment, which is often difficult to evaluate using only simple tests. Our approach focused on discrepancy analysis of fluid intelligence relative to crystallized intelligence using internationally recognized neuropsychological tests. One-hundred and five patients diagnosed with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis were assessed. The neuropsychological tests included the two subtests (information and picture completion) of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R-two-subtests): crystallized intelligence tests and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory and total score) as fluid intelligence tests. Discrepancy analysis was used to assess cognitive impairment. The score for RBANS was subtracted from the score for WAIS-R-two-subtests, and if the score difference was greater than the 5% confidence limit for statistical significance, it was defined as a decline in cognitive function. The WAIS-R-two-subsets was within normal limits when compared with the standardized values. However, all RBANS domains showed significant declines. Frequencies of decline in each RBANS domain were as follows: 69 patients (66%) in immediate memory, 26 (25%) in visuospatial/constructional, 54 (51%) in language, 63 (60%) in attention, 54 (51%) in delayed memory and 78 (74%) in the total score. Moreover, 99 patients (94%) showed decline in at least one RBANS domain. Cognitive function is only preserved in a few patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Mild cognitive impairment can be precisely detected by performing the discrepancy analysis between crystallized and fluid intelligence tests. © 2017 EAN.

  16. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology, di Cagliari (Italy); Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max [Neuroradiology Division, Neuroradiology, UVA Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Raz, Eytan [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Rome (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-18

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  17. High shear stress relates to intraplaque haemorrhage in asymptomatic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuenter, A.; Selwaness, M.; Arias Lorza, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery plaques with vulnerable plaque components are related to a higher risk of cerebrovascular accidents. It is unknown which factors drive vulnerable plaque development. Shear stress, the frictional force of blood at the vessel wall, is known to influence plaque...

  18. [Intraluminal Thrombus in Internal Carotid Artery Successfully Treated with Adjuvant Anticoagulant Therapy Followed by Carotid Endarterectomy:A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamide, Hisato; Hayashi, Yutaka; Ueno, Megumi

    2016-10-01

    An intraluminal thrombus in the carotid artery is relatively rare. A high frequency of perioperative symptomatic stroke has been reported in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, and no standard therapy has yet been developed. A 69-year-old woman, with no history of trauma, presented with ischemic stroke and mild right hemiparesis. Computed tomography and MRI showed an infarction in the left parietal region. A carotid Doppler study showed carotid stenosis on the left side. Further investigation with digital subtraction angiography confirmed significant carotid artery stenosis with an intraluminal thrombus in the left internal carotid artery. She was treated with initial intravenous anticoagulant therapy followed by carotid endarterectomy with thrombus removal 14 days after admission(subacute phase). There was no postoperative complication and she had uneventful course over 3 years of follow-up. Initial adjuvant anticoagulant therapy for symptomatic intraluminal thrombus followed by carotid revascularization is an effective surgical strategy. A meticulous surgical procedure is required to perform a carotid endarterectomy in patients with an intraluminal thrombus.

  19. Cerebral Lesions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Relation to Asymptomatic Carotid and Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Sebastian; Schoos, Mikkel; Sillesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and vertebral artery stenosis (VAS) are associated with cerebral infarction after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). It remains unclear whether this association is causal. We investigated the associations between neurologically asymptomatic CAS...... and VAS and the occurrence of subclinical cerebral lesions after CABG verified by magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: CABG patients were included and CAS and VAS were identified by magnetic resonance angiography. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify new post-operative subclinical...... cerebral lesions. The associations between CAS/VAS post-operative cerebral lesions were investigated. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were included in the study. 13% had significant CAS and 11% had significant VAS. Thirty-five percent had new cerebral infarction postoperatively. We found a significant...

  20. Unusual looping of the internal carotid artery in relation to an enlarged lymph node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak SB

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations of internal carotid artery is important to surgeons doing head and neck surgery as well as to radiologists doing imaging and invasive techniques. In the current case, the right internal carotid artery showed a characteristic loop at its beginning. An abnormal, enlarged lymph node was found at the carotid bifurcation, which was projecting into the loop. The left internal carotid artery was normal. The unusual looping of internal carotid artery at its beginning might result in altered blood flow to the brain and may lead to confusions in surgical, imaging and invasive techniques.

  1. Carotid endarterectomy in cervical block anesthesia in patients with occluded contralateral internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilijevski Nenad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of modern carotid surgery is relief of symptoms, stroke prevention, improvement in quality of life, prevention of vascular dementia, and prolongation of lifetime. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to compare the outcome of carotid endarterectomy in cervical block vs. general anesthesia in patients with occluded contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA. METHOD: One hundred patients (76 male, 24 female, mean age 60.81 years with occluded contralateral ICA were operated from 1997-2000. Neurological symptomatology, deficiency and stroke incidence were preoperatively analyzed in two groups. Duplex-scanning, angiograms and CT-scan confirmed the diagnosis. Risk factors analysis included hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, smoking and history of CAD, CABG and PAOD. Morbidity and mortality were used to compare the outcome of surgery in two groups. RESULTS There was no difference of age, gender and symptomatology between the groups. Paresis, TIA and dysphasia were most frequent. 70%-90% of ICA stenosis was seen in the majority of patients. Hypertension and smoking were dominant risk factors in these two groups. Eversion carotid end arterectomy was the most frequent technique used. In three cases out of nine that were operated under cervical block, the neurological symptoms developed just after clamping, so the intra-luminal shunt was placed. Postoperative morbidity was 12% and mortality was 8%. Conclusion: There was no difference of preoperative parameters, surgical technique and outcome in these two groups. Without other intraoperative monitoring, cervical block anesthesia might be an option in patients with the occlusion of the contralateral ICA. However, prospective studies involving more patients are needed.

  2. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Associated with the Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pria Anand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old woman presented with a right-hemispheric stroke 1 year after she had suffered a left-hemispheric stroke. Her diagnostic workup was notable for bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries at their origins and a positive lupus anticoagulant antibody test. There was no evidence of carotid dissection or another identifiable cause for her carotid occlusions. These findings suggest that the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be implicated in the pathological changes that resulted in occlusions of the extracranial internal carotid arteries. Young stroke patients who present with unexplained internal carotid artery occlusions may benefit from testing for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies.

  3. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients.

  4. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  5. [Surgical treatment of tumors of the carotid body with reconstruction of the internal carotid artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reparaz, L; Magallón, P; Riera, L; Capilla, M T; Merino, M J; Martínez, I; Hernández, A; Sáez, L; Alamo, O; Jiménez Cossío, J A

    1990-01-01

    The experience about treatment in infiltrating tumors of Carotid Corpus, III Degree (Shamblin), is presented. Different methods of carotid reconstruction, and biologic and evolutive characteristics are emphasized, discussing preoperatory study and surgical technics.

  6. Two-year treatment with rosuvastatin reduces carotid intima-media thickness in HIV type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy with asymptomatic atherosclerosis and moderate cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, Leonardo; Manfredi, Roberto; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Trapani, Fabio Filippo; Salvadori, Caterina; Magistrelli, Eleonora; Danese, Ilaria; Verucchi, Gabriella; Serra, Carla; Viale, Pierluigi

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that rosuvastatin significantly decreases serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers and slows progression of carotid atherosclerosis in the general population. However, there are no data about its effect on progression of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients. Adult patients with HIV infection, on stable antiretroviral therapy, with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia, who started a rosuvastatin treatment at 10 mg daily during the period 2007-2009 were enrolled and followed-up for 24 months. Thirty-six patients (30 males) were enrolled, with a mean age of 49 years, a mean duration of current antiretroviral therapy of 38 months, and a mean 10-year risk of myocardial infarction of 18.5%. Rosuvastatin led to a significant decrease in mean values of intima-media thickness in all extracranial carotid arteries, with the greatest magnitude observed in carotid bifurcations (a mean decrease of 18.7% in the right artery and of 21.4% in the left artery) and in internal carotid arteries (a mean decrease of 23.7% in the right artery and of 25.6% in the left artery). Moreover, there was a significant reduction in mean levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides versus respective baseline values associated with a significantly decreased mean cardiovascular risk. The treatment with rosuvastatin was well tolerated, and serious adverse events were not reported. A 24-month treatment with rosuvastatin in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with subclinical atherosclerosis and a moderate cardiovascular risk seems to promote significantly favorable changes in carotid atherosclerosis, associated with a favorable effect on serum lipid levels and a good tolerability profile.

  7. Prevalence, impact, and predictive value of detecting subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Sartori, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    performed in a single cohort. OBJECTIVES: The BioImage Study (A Clinical Study of Burden of Atherosclerotic Disease in an At-Risk Population) sought to identify imaging biomarkers that predict near-term (3-year) atherothrombotic events. METHODS: The BioImage Study enrolled 5,808 asymptomatic U.S. adults......PB). The primary endpoint was the composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke). A broader secondary MACE endpoint also included all-cause death, unstable angina, and coronary revascularization. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 2.7 years...

  8. Factors that Predict Failure to Meet Merit-Based Incentive Payment System Quality Measures for Asymptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Koprowski, Steven; Ali, Fadwa; Desai, Sapan S

    2017-12-05

    The Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) created by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services financially penalizes providers who fail to meet expected quality of care measures. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the factors that predict failure to meet PQRS measures for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). PQRS measure 260 (discharge by postoperative day 2 following CEA in asymptomatic patients) and 346 (rate of postoperative stroke or death following CEA in asymptomatic patients) were evaluated using hospital records from the state of Florida from 2008 to 2012. The impact of demographics, comorbidities, hospital factors, admission variables, and individual practitioner data upon timely discharge, and postoperative stroke and death. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and significance (P 2.0% (OR, 1.7), African-American race (OR, 2.0), and female gender (OR, 1.3). The presence of any of these factors was associated with a 13.5% rate of failure. The most significant negative predictor for PQRS measure 346 was surgeon postoperative stroke rate >2.0% (OR, 6.2 for stroke and OR, 29.0 for death). Surgeons in this underperforming group had worse outcomes compared to their peers despite having patients with fewer risk factors for poor outcomes. Surgeon specialty, board certification, and case volume do not impact either PQRS measures. Selected groups of patients and surgeons with a disproportionately high rate of postoperative stroke are at risk of failing to meet PQRS pay for performance quality measures. Awareness of these risk factors may help mitigate and minimize the risk of adversely impacting the value stream. Further evaluation of the causative factors that lead to surgeon underperformance could help to improve the quality of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis treated with medical therapy alone: temporal trends and implications for risk assessment and the design of future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Nira; Raman, Gowri; Moorthy, Denish; O'Donnell, Thomas F; Thaler, David E; Feldmann, Edward; Lau, Joseph; Kitsios, Georgios D; Dahabreh, Issa J

    2014-01-01

    The rate of adverse clinical outcomes among patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis receiving medical therapy alone can be used to guide clinical decision-making and to inform future research. We aimed to investigate temporal changes in the incidence rate of clinical outcomes among patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis receiving medical therapy alone and to explore the implications of these changes for the design of future comparative studies. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, US Food and Drug Administration documents, and reference lists of included studies (last search: December 31, 2012). We selected prospective cohort studies of medical therapy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and we extracted information on study characteristics, risk of bias, and outcomes. We performed meta-analyses to estimate summary incidence rates, meta-regressions to assess trends over time, and simulations to explore sample size requirements for the design of future studies comparing new treatments against medical therapy. The main outcomes of interest were ipsilateral stroke, any stroke, cardiovascular death, death, and myocardial infarction. We identified 41 studies of medical therapy for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis (last recruitment year: 1978-2009). The summary incidence rate of ipsilateral carotid territory stroke (25 studies) was 1.7 per 100 person-years. This incidence rate was significantly lower in recent studies (last recruitment year from 2000 onwards) as compared to studies that ended recruitment earlier (1.0 vs. 2.3 events per 100 person-years; p studies), cardiovascular death (6 studies), death (13 studies), and myocardial infarction (5 studies) were 2.7, 4.1, 4.6, and 1.8 per 100 person-years, respectively. Simulations showed that future studies would need to enroll large numbers of patients with a relatively high incidence rate under medical therapy, and evaluate interventions with large effect

  10. Assessment of the contribution of the external carotid artery to brain perfusion in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laar, Peter Jan; van der Grond, Jeroen; Bremmer, Jochem P; Klijn, Catharina J M; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the contribution of the ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA) to cerebral perfusion in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion. Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent were obtained. Thirty functionally independent patients (24 men, 6 women; mean age, 63 years) with an angiographically proven unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and transient or minor disabling ischemic attacks ipsilateral to the side of the internal carotid artery occlusion were included. Grading of ECA collateral flow was performed with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography. The contribution of the ECA to regional cerebral blood flow was assessed with selective arterial spin labeling MRI. Differences in regional cerebral blood flow were analyzed with Student t test. Twenty percent of the patients had ECA Grade 0 collateral flow (no filling of ophthalmic artery), 20% Grade 1 (filling of carotid siphon), and 60% Grade 2 (filling of anterior and/or middle cerebral artery) as demonstrated on digital subtraction angiography. Although in the Grade 1 group, the ECA supplied a smaller region of the brain compared with the Grade 2 group, the mean regional cerebral blood flow of the perfusion territory supplied by the ECA is similar (P=0.70) in the Grade 1 group (mean+/-SD 57+/-16 mL/min/100 g) and the Grade 2 group (60+/-12 mL/min/100g). In patients with symptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion, focal brain regions may strongly depend on the contribution to cerebral perfusion of the ECA ipsilateral to the side of the internal carotid artery occlusion, even in patients with limited ECA collateral supply as demonstrated on digital subtraction angiography.

  11. Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonati, Leo H.; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Ederle, Jörg; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Mali, Willem P. Th M.; Beard, Jonathan D.; Cleveland, Trevor; Engelter, Stefan T.; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Ford, Gary A.; Dorman, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Doig, D.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Kennedy, F.; Tindall, H.; Turner, E.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davis, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; van, P.; St, A. Z.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; Brugge-Oostende, A. Z. Sint Jan; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verhelst, R.; Ziekenhuis, Imelda; DeJaegher, L.; Daneault, N.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L.-H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Curtze, S.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Lappalainen, K.; Lepäntalo, M.; Meretoja, A.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; van Hasselt, A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; Lycklama, G. J.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Schultze, L. J.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Buczek, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; San, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsäter, A.; Mätzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Bonati, L. H.; Engelter, S. T.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Belli, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.; Rogers, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis, but long-term efficacy is uncertain. We report long-term data from the randomised International Carotid Stenting Study comparison of these treatments. Methods Patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis

  12. Agenesis of the internal carotid artery with a large hemangioma of the tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murotani, K.; Hiramoto, M.

    1985-07-01

    Total developmental absence of the internal carotid artery is relatively rare, with only 54 cases previously reported. Most, being without neurological symptoms, were found by chance. For this patient with cavernous hemangiomas in the facial, oral and cervical regions, conventional treatment would be embolization of the feeding vessels, combined with ligation of the external carotid artery. Angiography, however, revealed agenesis of the left internal carotid artery, abnormal origin of the aortic arch and azygos anterior cerebral artery.

  13. Severity and presence of atherosclerosis signs within the segments of internal carotid artery: CBCT's contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damaskos, S.; da Silveira, H.L.D.; Berkhout, E.W.R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to assess with cone-beam computed tomography the distribution and interrelation of the presence of calcifications along the course of the internal carotid artery and to associate their severity with their allocation within the segments of internal carotid artery, gender,

  14. Shear-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery occurs independent of hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiland, Ryan L; Smith, Kurt J; Carter, Howard Henry

    2017-01-01

    the hypothesis that, after a 30-s transient increase in arterial CO2 tension and consequent increase in internal carotid artery shear stress, internal carotid artery diameter would increase, indicating shear-mediated dilation, in the absence of concurrent hypercapnia. In 27 healthy participants, partial...... pressures of end-tidal O2 and CO2, ventilation (pneumotachography), blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography), heart rate (electrocardiogram), internal carotid artery flow, diameter, and shear stress (high-resolution duplex ultrasound), and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial Doppler......) were measured during 4-min steady-state and transient 30-s hypercapnic tests (both +9 mmHg CO2). Internal carotid artery dilation was lower in the transient compared with steady-state hypercapnia (3.3 ± 1.9 vs. 5.3 ± 2.9%, respectively, P internal carotid artery shear stress...

  15. Angioplasty of symptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis with intraluminal thrombus: therapeutic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.; Mayol, A. [Seccion de Neurorradiologia Intervencionista, Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Gil-Peralta, A.; Gonzalez-Marcos, J.R. [Servicio de Neurologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Boza, F. [Servicio de Neurofisiologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Ruano, J. [Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain)

    2004-04-01

    Intraluminal thrombus in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is usually found in patients with severe atheromatous stenosis. Having reviewed 300 carotid angioplasties for symptomatic >70% ICA stenosis, we found three patients (1%) with intraluminal thrombus. Conservative treatment with anticoagulants and double antiplatelet coverage can result in lysis of the thrombus without severe risks. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting, preferably with distal protection, can be an excellent alternative to carotid endarterectomy. (orig.)

  16. Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery: angiographic evaluation and embryologic explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Gyu; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eui Jong [Kyunghee Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Ho [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Asan(Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To find and describe the cerebellar arteries arising from the internal carotid artery, explain them embryologically, and evaluate their clinical implication. To determine the point in the internal carotid artery from which the cereballar artery arose anomalously, consecutive angiographic studies performed in the last three years were reviewed. The distribution of such anomalous cerebellar arteries, the point in the internal carotid artery from which the anomalous vessels originated, and associated findings were analyzed. Five anomalous origins of cerebellar arteries arising arising directly from the internal carotid artery were found in five patients. Three anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) and one common trunk of an AICA and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were found to originate from the internal carotid artery at a point close to the origin of the primitive trigeminal artery. A PICA arose from an artery presenting a course similar to the proatlantal intersegmental artery. Intracranial aneurysms in two patients, Moyamoya disease in one, and facial arteriovenous malformation in one. In our series, AICAs supplied from the arteries considered to be persistent trigeminal artery variants were the most common type. A correlation between type of anomalous cerebellar artery and type of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis may exist. Cerebellar arteries originating anomalously from the internal carotid artery seem to occur as a result of the persistence of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses associated with incomplete fusion of the longitudinal neural arteries. An understanding of these anomalous cerebellar arteries may help prevent accidents during therapeutic embolization and surgical treatment, as well as misinterpretation.

  17. Case report: Thrombosed giant cavernous carotid artery aneurysm secondary to cervical internal carotid artery dissection: An unusual entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin S Baldawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous thrombosis of a giant intracranial aneurysm with parent artery occlusion is known. The exact mechanism is however unclear and various theories have been proposed. We present an unusual case of an angiographically documented cervical internal carotid artery (ICA dissection, which led to total occlusion of the ICA distal to the dissected site, with acute cessation of forward blood flow. This resulted in acute upstream thrombosis of the giant cavernous carotid artery aneurysm and an acute cavernous sinus syndrome-like presentation.

  18. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ederle, Jörg

    2010-03-20

    Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy.

  19. A giant internal carotid artery aneurysm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilcan Kotan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms greater than 2.5 cm in diameter are classified as giant aneurysms and represent 5-8% of all intracranial aneurysms. Giant intracranial aneurysms demonstrates the clinical course with symptoms related to subarachnoid haemorrhage, mass effect, thromboembolism and seizures. Not only because of their large sizes, but also because of their usually wide and calcified aneurysm neck, existing thrombus within and its proximity to cranial nerves; giant aneurysms causes serious surgical difficulties. Giant aneurysms of the anterior intracranial circulation are rare, slowly progressive vascular abnormalities, often presenting with neuro-ophthalmological symptoms before they rupture. Herein, a case of 77-year-old woman with a giant aneurysm originated from intracavernous segment of internal carotid artery detected in magnetic resonance angiography who presented symptoms due to affected multiple cranial nerves related to mass effect.

  20. Classical surgical approach and treatment with clips of extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Vukas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.

  1. Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Tortuosity and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundExtracranial internal carotid artery (eICA tortuosity may trigger cerebral ischemia, and body mass index (BMI is a measure of body mass based on height and weight. The main purpose of this study is to determine the influence of BMI on the tortuosity of eICA.MethodsA total of 926 carotid artery angiograms were performed in 513 patients, of which 116 cases and matched controls were selected. Arterial tortuosity was defined as simple tortuosity, kinking, or coiling. The severity of tortuosity was measured by tortuosity index, formula: [(actual length/straight-line length − 1 × 100].ResultsBMIs were different between the two groups [tortuosity: 27.06 kg/m2 (SD 2.81 kg/m2 versus none: 23.3 kg/m2 (SD 2.78 kg/m2; p < 0.001]. BMI was independently and significantly associated with eICA tortuosity (odds ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.35–1.86; p < 0.001. eICA tortuosity index is linearly associated with BMI (exponential coefficient β = 1.067, p < 0.001. The optimal predictive threshold of BMI for eICA tortuosity was 25.04 kg/m2. The physiological mechanism underlying the reasons why higher BMI has negative influence on extracranial carotid artery tortuosity may be an intra-abdominal hypertension caused by a much higher amount of body fat stored in visceral adipose tissue.ConclusionOur result reveals a novel role for greater BMI on the presence of eICA tortuosity. For each increase in BMI of 1 kg/m2, there is a corresponding 1.59-fold increase in the risk of developing eICA tortuosity. The severity of eICA tortuosity increases linearly with increased BMI.

  2. Evidence for shear stress-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Howard Henry; Atkinson, Ceri L; Heinonen, Ilkka H A

    2016-01-01

    Increases in arterial carbon dioxide tension (hypercapnia) elicit potent vasodilation of cerebral arterioles. Recent studies have also reported vasodilation of the internal carotid artery during hypercapnia, but the mechanism(s) mediating this extracranial vasoreactivity are unknown. Hypercapnia ...

  3. [Anatomic variations of the internal carotid artery: implications for the neurologic endovascular therapist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, Marco; Leeb, Angel; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Tortuosity of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) can hinder navigation intravascular devices for treating intracranial aneurysms and even complex ICA access techniques can fail. Variations in the course of the internal carotid artery are known as coiling, kinking or tortuosity of the vessel. Such failures have clinical relevance. During endovascular procedures these anomalies difficult the intravascular surgical procedure. A potential alternative is the reconstruction of these anatomic anomalies of the carotid artery using neuro-interventional methods. We present a practical review of the literature.

  4. Internal carotid artery aneurysms, cranial nerve dysfunction and headache: the role of deformation and pulsation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Catarino, M.; Wikholm, G.; Svendsen, P. [Interventional Neuroradiology, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Frisen, L. [Ophthalmology Dept., Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Elfverson, J. [Neurosurgery Dept., Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Quiding, L. [Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Dept., Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    Cranial nerve dysfunction and headache may occur with unruptured aneurysms of the cavernous and supraclinoid portions of the internal carotid artery. Nerve deformation (mass effect) and transmitted pulsations have been suggested as pathogenetic mechanisms. Differentiation may be possible by studying effects of endovascular treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils. Symptoms and signs of cranial neuropathy were retrospectively contrasted with angiographic aneurysm volumes before and after treatment in 10 patients. Mean follow-up was 36 months. Symptoms improved in three of four patients with cranial nerve dysfunction and in all patients with headache: None of the other patients, one with cranial nerve dysfunction, and three who were asymptomatic, developed any new symptoms after treatment. Aneurysm volume ranged from 0.1 to 2.7 cm{sup 3} before and 0.2 to 5.7 cm{sup 3} after treatment; the size thus increased by 15 to 110%, a change which was statistically significant (P = 0.004). The consistent increase in aneurysm volume with treatment is not associated with clinical deterioration, suggesting that deformation and displacement play a minor role in cranial neuropathy and that transmitted pulsations may be more important. (orig.)

  5. Anevrysme de la carotide interne a propos d'un cas | Pio | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction : L'anévrysme de la carotide interne est une pathologie rare et leur étiologie est variée. Observation : Nous rapportons un cas d'anévrysme de la carotide interne chez une patiente de 59 ans. L'étiologie post-traumatique a été retenue. L'échodoppler transcrânien a constitué l'examen de dépistage. A partir de ce ...

  6. Modeling of internal carotid artery aneurysm and blood flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingqiang; Zhong, Hua; Duan, Shaoyin

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of aneurysm is quite common in the clinics, and is hazardous to patients. Its occurrence is considered to be related to the hemodynamic abnormalities. To construct the model of internal carotid artery aneurysm (ICA-A), and have a simulation of blood flow. Based on the CTA data from spiral CT scan, the ICA-A model was constructed, and the types of blood flow, wall shear stress (WSS), Von Mises stress (VMS) and pressure were simulated and calculated. ICA-A model has been built and shape is the same morphology as CT 3D-image. In the whole cardiac cycle, the blood flow of aneurysm body is swirl, its velocity is slower than that of aneurysm neck; the maximum deformation, wall shear stress, pressure and von mises stress of aneurysm wall is at the neck, the minimum is at the top. The highest value appeared at 0.52 s in the cardiac cycle of 0.74 s, the lowest is at 0.21 s. It is effective and practical to construct the model of ICA-A base on CTA data. Blood flow simulation of ICA-A will provide new basis for the study on the occurrence and development of aneurysm.

  7. Internal carotid occlusion in a patient with previous history of periodontitis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhar, Ivan; Lovrencić-Huzjan, Arijana; Plancak, Darije; Sodec-Simicević, Darja; Strineka, Maja; Demarin, Vida

    2012-09-01

    Although inflammatory periodontal disease has been proven to be related to carotid intima media thickness, it has been recently suggested that even an alteration of carotid hemodynamics might contribute to atherosclerosis in patients with periodontal disease. A 52-year-old female patient was referred to periodontology department due to painful alveolar mucosa. On the basis of dental history, we concluded that the patient had a severe form of generalized aggressive periodontitis that led to complete edentulism. The patient was advised to undergo ultrasonography of carotid arteries with arterial stiffness measurements at neurology department. A diagnosis of the right internal carotid artery occlusion was established. Inflammatory periodontal disease may affect arterial hemodynamics and even lead to artery occlusion. It is advisable that patients with a severe form of periodontitis should be referred for carotid artery ultrasonography.

  8. Ocular and cerebral ischemic mechanisms in disease of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R T; Morrow, I M

    1984-05-01

    Stenosis of the internal carotid artery reduces the flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery. Lowered velocity permits increased red cell aggregation and decreased red cell deformability which increases viscosity. Contrary to the theory of remotely originating emboli, this is an alternate hypothesis regarding transient attacks of ocular and cerebral ischemia. The ophthalmic artery circulation time was measured in two groups of patients. The circulation time was defined as the interval between the appearance of contrast media in the siphon of the internal carotid artery and in the ocular choroid. The measurement was made on 151 angiograms of 108 subjects. These vessels were normal. An additional 76 patients had 108 angiograms which showed various amounts of internal carotid artery stenosis. These 76 patients had transient ischemic attacks; retinal, cerebral, or both. There is a significant difference in the ophthalmic artery circulation time in the two groups. The slowing in the ophthalmic artery is related to the degree of internal carotid artery narrowing. The circulation time in a cerebral branch of the internal carotid was not measured. It is presumed that stenosis of the internal carotid artery would have the same effect on a cerebral artery as on the ophthalmic artery.

  9. p.Q192R SNP of PON1 seems not to be Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in an Asymptomatic and Normolipidemic Brazilian Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zanetti Scherrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Evidences suggest that paraoxonase 1 (PON1 confers important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Objective:To investigate the relationships between p.Q192R SNP of PON1, biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic, normolipidemic Brazilian population sample.Methods:We studied 584 volunteers (females n = 326, males n = 258; 19-75 years of age. Total genomic DNA was extracted and SNP was detected in the TaqMan® SNP OpenArray® genotyping platform (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were determined and PON1 activity was measured using paraoxon as a substrate. High-resolution β-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cIMT and the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a subgroup of individuals (n = 317.Results:The presence of p.192Q was associated with a significant increase in PON1 activity (RR = 12.30 (11.38; RQ = 46.96 (22.35; QQ = 85.35 (24.83 μmol/min; p Conclusion:In low-risk individuals, the presence of the p.192Q variant of PON1 is associated with a beneficial plasma lipid profile but not with carotid atherosclerosis.

  10. Significance of the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with asymptomatic arteriosclerosis affecting the aorta and the cerebral, extra-cranial carotid and coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Tomohide; Takahashi, Wakoh; Ohnuki, Youichi; Kawada, Shiaki; Takizawa, Shunya

    2013-01-01

    The presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with stroke and cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between MetS and the localization of atherosclerosis at various sites remains uncertain. In this study, in order to reveal the relevance of MetS to atherosclerosis at several sites, we investigated the relationships among vascular risk factors, asymptomatic cerebral infarction and atherosclerosis in the aorta and carotid and coronary arteries in adults without overtly symptomatic cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. The subjects in this study included 2,759 Japanese participants (1,845 men and 914 women, mean age: 52 years) with no history of stroke or cardiovascular events. The diagnosis of MetS was made based on modifications to criteria obtained from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. In all subjects, the presence of cerebral infarction in the extra-cranial carotid, coronary and aortic arteries was investigated using MRI, B-mode ultrasonography and CT. Of the 2,759 subjects, 796 (28.9%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The presence of MetS increased the odds ratio (OR) to 1.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.65, p-value arteriosclerosis, 2.07 (95% CI: 1.62-2.27, p-value arteriosclerosis in all regions, including the cerebral small-vessels, extra-cranial carotid arteries, coronary arteries and abdominal aorta. MetS might be a predictor for small and large vessel disease throughout the body.

  11. Diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad carotídea aterosclerótica extracraneal asintomática Diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic extracranial atherosclerotic carotid artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Sposato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad aterosclerótica asintomática de la arteria carótida interna extracraneal alcanza una prevalencia de hasta el 12.5%. La angioplastia carotídea todavía no ha demostrado ser lo suficientemente segura y eficaz para prevenir el ACV isquémico en estos pacientes. Estudios aleatorizados demostraron que la endarterectomía carotídea es superior al tratamiento médico en cuanto a reducción del riesgo de ACV isquémico si es realizada por equipos con tasas de complicaciones (ACV o muerte menores que 3%. Sin embargo, los pacientes evaluados en estos estudios comenzaron a reclutarse hace más de 25 años, cuando la utilización de antiagregantes plaquetarios era menor que la actual, el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial era menos efectivo y todavía no se usaban estatinas como componentes fundamentales de los esquemas de prevención vascular. La optimización de la calidad del tratamiento médico en las últimas décadas ha llevado a una significativa reducción del riesgo de ACV en pacientes no intervenidos quirúrgicamente. En base a estas observaciones y con la excepción de casos específicos, el tratamiento médico es la opción terapéutica de elección en pacientes con enfermedad aterosclerótica carotídea extracraneal asintomática.The reported prevalence of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial internal carotid artery is up to 12.5%. Carotid angioplasty has not yet proven safe and effective enough to prevent ischemic stroke in these patients. Randomized studies showed that carotid endarterectomy is superior to medical therapy in reducing the risk of ischemic stroke when performed by surgical teams with complication rates (stroke or death of less than 3%. However, recruitment of these patients began more than 25 years ago, when the use of antiplatelet agents was lower than today, the treatment of hypertension was less effective than currently, and statins were not considered as key components of

  12. Effect of internal carotid artery stenting on superior thyroid artery Doppler flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Yasemin; Akdemir, Ramazan; Varim, Perihan; Ayhan, Lacin Tatli; Cakar, Mehmet Akif; Vatan, Mehmet Bulent; Kilic, Harun

    2014-10-01

    Patients with carotid disease are frequently referred for carotid artery stenting based on the results of carotid duplex studies. During carotid artery stenting, the stent is usually extended into the common carotid artery, thereby crossing the external carotid artery. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding internal carotid stenting and external carotid artery flow velocities, but the effect of stenting on ipsilateral superior thyroid artery velocities has not been defined. This study examined the effect of internal carotid angioplasty and stenting on the ipsilateral superior thyroid artery Doppler-derived flow parameters. We prospectively studied preinterventional and postinterventional duplex scans obtained from 41 patients (mean age ± SD, 64 ± 10 years) who underwent carotid artery stenting. The Doppler-defined preprocedural peak systolic velocity (PSV) end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) in the ipsilateral external carotid and superior thyroid arteries were compared with postprocedural values. Among patients with stenting, the preprocedural PSV, EDV, RI, and PI in the ipsilateral superior thyroid artery were 30 ± 11 cm/s, 13 ± 6 cm/s, 0.62 ± 0.11, and 1.04 ± 0.28,respectively; after stenting, they were 36 ± 8 cm/s, 14 ± 9 cm/s, 0.71 ± 0.07, and 1.11 ± 0.19. The preprocedural PSV, EDV, RI, and PI in the ipsilateral external carotid artery were 79 ± 24 cm/s, 17 ± 7 cm/s, 0.77 ± 0.26, and 1.27 ± 0.22; after stenting, they were 94 ± 31 cm/s, 20 ± 6 cm/s, 0.80 ± 0.4, and 1.25 ± 0.31. Despite a slight increase in superior thyroid and external carotid artery flow, there was no statistically significant change from before to after stenting. This study showed no differences in blood velocity profiles in the ipsilateral superior thyroid and external carotid arteries after stenting. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Successful Coil Embolization of Pediatric Carotid Cavernous Fistula Due to Ruptured Posttraumatic Giant Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajima, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Park, Hun Soo; Yokoyama, Shohei; Wada, Takeshi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is to occlude the arteriovenous shunt and to preserve the patency of the concerned internal carotid artery. However, for the ipsilateral posttraumatic fragile cerebrum, coil embolization plus parent artery occlusion for the high-flow direct CCF is better for the prevention of hyperperfusion syndrome and intracranial hemorrhage. We experienced such a case and managed it successfully. A 6-year-old boy had severe head trauma caused by being hit by a car. He was transferred to our department and diagnosed as having left acute subdural hematoma and acute brain swelling. Emergent evacuation of hematoma and external decompression were performed. He was treated for severe brain swelling in the intensive care unit for 2 months. Cranioplasty was performed 3 months after the injury. His right hemiparesis and aphasia persisted, so he was transferred to a rehabilitation hospital. However, 2 years after the head injury, he was referred to our department because of abducens nerve palsy. He was diagnosed as having a symptomatic posttraumatic direct CCF, which was caused by a ruptured left cavernous giant internal carotid artery aneurysm. The direct CCF was treated with coil embolization of the giant aneurysm and parent artery occlusion. Coil embolization of the aneurysm and parent artery occlusion for the posttraumatic direct CCF was a good option to manage the abducens nerve palsy and to prevent postoperative hyperperfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased Levels of Human Carotid Lesion Linoleic Acid Hydroperoxide in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients Is Inversely Correlated with Serum HDL and Paraoxonase 1 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human carotid plaque components interact directly with circulating blood elements and thus they might affect each other. We determined plaque paraoxonase1 (PON1 hydrolytic-catalytic activity and compared plaque and blood levels of lipids, HDL, PON1, and HbA1c, as well as plaque-oxidized lipids in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Human carotid plaques were obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients undergoing routine endarterectomy, and the lesions were ground and extracted for PON activity and lipid content determinations. Plaque PONs preserved paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lactonase activities. The PON1-specific inhibitor 2-hydroxyquinoline almost completely inhibited paraoxonase and lactonase activities, while only moderately inhibiting arylesterase activity. Oxysterol and triglyceride levels in plaques from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients did not differ significantly, but plaques from symptomatic patients had significantly higher (135% linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LA-13OOH levels. Their serum PON1 activity, cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly, but symptomatic patients had significantly lower (28% serum HDL levels and higher (18% HbA1c levels. Thus LA-13OOH, a major atherogenic plaque element, showed significant negative correlations with serum PON1 activity and HDL levels, and a positive correlation with the prodiabetic atherogenic HbA1c. Plaque PON1 retains its activity and may decrease plaque atherogenicity by reducing specific oxidized lipids (e.g., LA-13OOH. The inverse correlation between plaque LA-13OOH level and serum HDL level and PON1 activity suggests a role for serum HDL and PON1 in LA-13OOH accumulation.

  15. Surgical dissection of the internal carotid artery under flow control by proximal vessel clamping reduces embolic infarcts during carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ishii, Akira; Takahashi, Jun C; Takagi, Yasushi; Yamagata, Sen; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of flow control of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by the clamping of the common carotid artery, external carotid artery, and superior thyroid artery during surgical ICA dissection to reduce ischemic complications after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Sixty-seven patients (59 men; age, 70.5 ± 6.2 years) who underwent CEA by the same surgeon were retrospectively studied. Both conventional CEA (n = 29) and flow-control CEA (n = 38) were performed with the patient under general anesthesia and with the use of somatosensory-evoked potential and near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring as a guide for selective shunting. The number of new postoperative infarcts was assessed with preoperative and postoperative diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained within 3 days of surgery. In addition to surgical technique, the effects of the following factors on new infarcts also were examined: age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and application of shunting. New postoperative DWI lesions were observed in 7 of 67 patients (10.4%), and none of them was symptomatic. With respect to operative technique, the incidence rate of DWI spots was significantly lower in the flow-control group (2.6%) than in the conventional group (20.7%), odds ratio: 0.069; 95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.779; P = 0.031). On multiple logistic regression analysis, age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and the use of internal shunting did not have significant effects on new postoperative DWI lesions, whereas technique did have an effect. The proximal flow-control technique for CEA helps avoid embolic complications during surgical ICA dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endovascular management of iatrogenic cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a 9-year-old child: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, Martín; Lobelo, Nelson Oswaldo; Rodríguez, María Claudia; Villamor, Perla; Otoya, Ana María

    2017-04-01

    Extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms are uncommon in the pediatric population and are usually secondary to direct trauma to the vessel. Treatment options include surgery (ligation), anticoagulation therapy and endovascular treatment. Endovascular covered stents have shown good results in adult populations, resulting in occlusion of the aneurysm and preservation of the artery without significant complications. However, there have been only limited reports in the literature reporting endovascular carotid stent placement in the pediatric population. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy patient, who developed a cervical ICA pseudoaneurysm after a parapharyngeal tumor resection. He was successfully treated by primary endovascular covered stent placement. During a follow-up of 6 months the patient has been asymptomatic, without any adverse event. Additionally, a literature review is done. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontaneous Recanalization of Complete Internal Carotid Artery: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report | Jul-Dec 2010 | Vol-2 | Issue-2. 73. Spontaneous Recanalization of Complete ... up with periodic carotid ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance. Angiography (MRA) or CT angiography, ... identified high-risk predictive factors for delayed stroke in those treated medically (90 to 94% ...

  18. Neurofibromatosis-associated massive right internal carotid artery aneurysm with a coexisting arteriovenous fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlin Wayne Causey, MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old woman presented with a right cervical mass that had been slowly enlarging for 6 years, causing pulsatile tinnitus and dizziness with compression. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a partially thrombosed 8-cm right internal carotid artery aneurysm with a coexisting arteriovenous fistula. Conventional angiography demonstrated a vertebrojugular fistula (right vertebral artery to right internal jugular vein and retrograde flow in the right vertebral artery to the fistula. Successful repair was performed in a staged fashion: operative repair of the internal carotid artery aneurysm with interposition bypass, followed by endovascular embolization of the vertebrojugular fistula through a bilateral vertebral artery approach.

  19. The subpetrous carotid wall hematoma. A sign of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery on non-enhanced computed tomography. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen-Kondering, U. [Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Neuroradiology; Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Huhndorf, M.; Madjidyar, J.; Jansen, O. [Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2015-03-15

    Spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery (CAD) is an increasingly recognized cause for stroke especially in young and middle-aged patients. We hypothesized that non-enhanced cranial computed tomography (NECCT) can visualize the subpetrous carotid wall hematoma and thus enable identification of patients with CAD. We retrospectively reviewed patients with confirmed CAD (n=21) and a control group with ischemic symptoms but without CAD (n=42) who received NECCT at admission. Two independent neuroradiologists rated the presence and shape of SPH, density and diameter of the subpetrous internal carotid artery. Additionally, we correlated the shape of the subpetrous carotid wall hematoma with the grade of stenosis on subsequent angiographic imaging. The subpetrous carotid wall hematoma was present in 14 of 21 patients (Cohen's k = 0.67). Mean diameter was 6.95 ± 1.05 mm in dissected vessels and 5.71 ± 1.52 mm in the contralateral vessel (p<0.05). Mean difference in vessel density was 15.05 ± 8.01 HU (p<0.01). Median grade of stenosis was significantly higher in patients with a full moon- shaped (n=11) than crescent-shaped (n=3) subpetrous carotid wall hematoma (21% vs. 80%, p<0.05). Two-thirds of patients with CAD were correctly identified on NECCT. The extracranial carotid artery should be evaluated in patients with symptoms of cerebral ischemia.

  20. Elasticity of the carotid artery walls as a prognostic factor for the occurrence of restenosis after a surgery for internal carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Andrzej; Madycki, Grzegorz; Hendiger, Włodzimierz; Staszkiewicz, Walerian; Lewszuk, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of carotid artery patency is one of the most frequently performed operations in vascular surgery. One of the most important problems that occur both short- and long-term after carotid endarterectomy is recurrent stenosis. Despite advances in imaging studies and better knowledge of the mechanisms of atherogenesis, the mechanism of restenosis remains unclear. Patients with internal carotid artery atherosclerosis experience decreased elasticity of the intima-media complex, resulting in increased vessel wall stiffness. In the future, measurement of carotid artery elasticity may become a marker for the development of post-surgical stenosis occurring after endarterectomy of both the carotid artery and other peripheral vessels. To assess the elasticity of carotid artery walls as a prognostic factor for the occurrence of restenosis after a surgery for common carotid artery stenosis. Classic carotid artery endarterectomy was performed in 180 patients selected on the basis of standard, ultrasound- based recommendations. The phenomenon of restenosis was examined using ultrasound techniques at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the surgery. Measurements of carotid artery elasticity were performed using a Vascular Echo Doppler device, and patients were divided into two groups depending on the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of restenosis. Group I (without restenosis) included 156 (86.6%) patients, and Group II (with restenosis) included 24 (13.4%) patients. At 3 and 6 months after the surgery, an increase of the elasticity of vessel walls (coefficient a) was observed in both groups, but the differences in the elasticity of the carotid arteries were not significant. At 12 months after the surgery, all patients in Group II (with restenosis) had significantly increased coefficient a values as compared to Group I patients (p elasticity as measured using coefficient a may be associated with the process leading to the occurrence of restenosis after the surgery. Further research

  1. Revascularization of the internal carotid artery for isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calió, Francesco G; Papaspyropoulos, Vassilios; Montesano, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Antonio

    2003-02-01

    The operation for isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in preventing stroke and relieving the symptoms of cerebral ischemia. A consecutive sample clinical study with a mean follow-up of 44 months. The surgical department of an academic tertiary care center and an affiliated secondary care center. Fifty-four patients with a mean age of 67 years underwent 55 revascularizations of the internal carotid artery. The surgical procedures consisted of the following: shortening and reimplantation in the common carotid artery in 36 cases, bypass grafting in 15 cases, and transposition into the external carotid artery in 4 cases. Cumulative survival, primary patency, and stroke-free and neurologic symptom-free rates expressed by standard life-table analysis. No patients died in the postoperative period. The postoperative stroke rate was 1.8%. The cumulative rates (SEs) at 5 years were as follows: survival, 70% (10.2%); primary patency, 89% (7.8%); overall stroke free, 92% (6.8%); ipsilateral stroke free, 96% (5.3%); neurologic symptom free, 90% (7.5%); and ipsilateral symptom free, 93% (6.5%). Revascularization of the internal carotid artery for the treatment of isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking is safe and effective in preventing stroke and relieving symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency.

  2. Risk Factors for Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, or Death Following Carotid Endarterectomy : Results from the International Carotid Stenting Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doig, D.; Turner, E. L.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R. L.; De Borst, G. J.; Stansby, G.; Beard, J. D.; Engelter, S. T.; Richards, T.; Brown, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is standard treatment for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis but carries a risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. This study investigated risk factors for these procedural complications occurring within 30 days of endarterectomy in the

  3. Risk Factors For Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, or Death Following Carotid Endarterectomy: Results From the International Carotid Stenting Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doig, D.; Turner, E. L.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R. L.; de Borst, G. J.; Stansby, G.; Beard, J. D.; Engelter, S. T.; Richards, T.; Brown, M. M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M.; van Schil, P.; St Blasius, A. Z.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; de Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J. F.; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M. F.; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L. H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepäntalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A.; Roos, Y. B.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J.; Bruijninckx, C. M.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S.; van Hasselt, B. A.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; van Otterloo, J. C.; de Vries, A. C.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; van der Kallen, B. F.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Kool, L. J.; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Kort, G. A.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. B.; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sørensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, J.; Gaibar, A. G.; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T. B.; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E. W.; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, M.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nahser, H. C.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Venables, G.; Belli, A.; Cloud, G.; Halliday, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Malik, I.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is standard treatment for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis but carries a risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. This study investigated risk factors for these procedural complications occurring within 30 days of endarterectomy in the

  4. Primary internal carotid artery aneurysm in a 15-year-old male: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Sarac, Timur; Lorenz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms are a rare entity in the adult population. Very little information is known in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 15-year-old male with an isolated internal carotid artery aneurysm and a review of the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Circle of Willis Collateral During Temporary Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion II: Observations From Computed Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bill Hao; Leung, Andrew; Lownie, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    The Circle of Willis (CoW) is the most effective collateral circulation to the brain during internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Carotid stump pressure (CSP) is an established surrogate measure of the cerebral collateral circulation. This study aims to use hemodynamic and computed tomography angiography measurements to determine the strongest influences upon the dependent variable, CSP. These findings could help clinicians noninvasively assess the adequacy of the collateral circulation and facilitate surgical risk assessment in an outpatient setting. CSP and mean arterial pressure were measured during carotid endarterectomy or during carotid balloon test occlusion in 92 patients. Intracranial arterial diameters were measured on computed tomography angiography at 16 different locations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the key factors associated with CSP. In a subgroup of individuals (n=27) with severe (>70% North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) contralateral stenosis or occlusion, the same analysis was performed. The contralateral anterior cerebral artery proximal to anterior communicating artery (A1) of the CoW had the strongest influence upon CSP, followed by the mean arterial pressure, the contralateral ICA diameter, and the anterior communicating artery diameter (R 2=0.364). In the subgroup with high-grade contralateral ICA stenosis, the ipsilateral posterior communicating artery exerted the strongest influence (R 2=0.620). During ICA occlusion, the anterior CoW dominates in preserving collateral flow, especially the contralateral A1 segment. In individuals with high-grade contralateral carotid stenosis, the posterior communicating artery calibre becomes a dominant influence. The most favourable anatomy consists of large contralateral A1 and anterior communicating arteries, and no contralateral carotid stenosis.

  6. Giant cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a child: endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeroglu, M.; Arat, A.; Cekirge, S.; Akpinar, E. [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Eryilmaz, A.; Akmansu, H. [Ankara Numune Research and Education Hospital, ENT Department, Ankara (Turkey); Koeroglu, Kale B. [Ankara Numune Research and Education Hospital, Internal Medicine Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-10-01

    We report a child with a giant upper cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm presenting with dysphagia, respiratory distress and a sentinel mild epistaxis, then massive epistaxis. Rupture of the pseudoaneurysm during treatment occurred, as in one reported case. Prompt endovascular treatment yielded a good outcome. (orig.)

  7. Internal carotid artery dissection following chiropractic treatment in a pregnant woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton Adam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A case of internal carotid artery dissection in a pregnant woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE immediately following chiropractic treatment is presented. The literature regarding complications of neck manipulation during pregnancy, spontaneous dissection of craniocervical arteries in pregnancy and the postpartum period, and dissection of craniocervical arteries in SLE are reviewed. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first case of carotid artery dissection following chiropractic treatment in a pregnant woman published in the literature.

  8. Congenital horner syndrome with heterochromia iridis associated with ipsilateral internal carotid artery hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Fabrice C; Coulier, Julie; Rommel, Denis; Boschi, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    Horner syndrome (HS), also known as Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy, comprises ipsilateral ptosis, miosis, and facial anhidrosis. We report herein the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with congenital HS associated with ipsilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA), as revealed by heterochromia iridis and confirmed by computed tomography (CT). CT evaluation of the skull base is essential to establish this diagnosis and distinguish aplasia from agenesis/hypoplasia (by the absence or hypoplasia of the carotid canal) or from acquired ICA obstruction as demonstrated by angiographic CT.

  9. Goldenhar syndrome associated with contralateral agenesis of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Elisa; Ormitti, Francesca; Crisi, Girolamo; Sesenna, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is an extremely rare vascular anomaly. Aplasia and displacement of the horizontal portion of the petrous carotid artery have been described in a patient with mandibulofacial dysostosis. To the best of our knowledge, the association between Goldenhar syndrome and ipsilateral ICA agenesis has emerged only in one case documented in the medical literature to date. We describe here a case that illustrates the association of Goldenhar syndrome with contralateral agenesis of the ICA incidentally detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging and subsequently confirmed on magnetic resonance angiography and high resolution computed tomography.

  10. Methodology to study intimal failure mechanics in human internal carotid arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2005-12-01

    While the incidence of blunt carotid artery injuries is low, the mortality rate is extremely high (40%). Clinical evidence indicates that the intimal region of the artery often sustains failure, while maintaining the integrity of the outer layers. This condition may lead to delayed ischemic symptoms, commonly reported in clinical literature. To date, the mechanical properties of the intima relative to the outer vessel layers have not been quantified in the human carotid artery. The purpose of the present study was to develop a methodology to determine the longitudinal mechanical properties of the human internal carotid artery in tension, with an emphasis on intimal failure. This was accomplished by opening the vessel at the mid-diameter level, creating an 'I'-shaped testing specimen, subjecting the specimen to failure loading, documenting the stretch characteristics of the intimal and adventitial sides in the temporal domain, and correlating the synchronized videography with mechanical loading. Intimal failure data were quantified using stress and strain parameters in conjunction with digital videography of the intimal and adventitial sides. The present methodology can be used to determine the mechanical properties of the intima relative to ultimate carotid artery failure. These data will assist in the understanding of blunt carotid artery injuries, its diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the intracavernous internal carotid artery presenting with massive epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Patricia S; Tampieri, Donatella; Atkinson, Jeffrey D; Daniel, Sam J; Teitelbaum, Jeanne; Shemie, Sam D

    2006-05-01

    To report a case of posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the intracavernous internal carotid artery presenting with massive epistaxis and to discuss its pathophysiology and management. Case report and literature review. Pediatric intensive care unit in a tertiary-care center. Twelve days after a motor vehicle accident causing a head injury and facial fractures, this patient presented with massive epistaxis due to a pseudoaneurysm of the intracavernous internal carotid artery . Nasal packing was performed and subsequent angiography demonstrated the vascular lesion that had dissected into the sphenoid sinus. Endovascular stent and coil occlusion of the vascular lesion was performed, and the patient's condition improved without any ischemic or thromboembolic sequelae. Posttraumatic aneurysms of the intracavernous internal carotid artery can be associated with delayed and sometimes lethal massive epistaxis. This vascular lesion should be considered in patients with traumatic brain injury presenting with basal skull fractures in the region of the carotid canal or cavernous sinus and/or orbital fractures and compromise of the optical nerves. Knowledge of these risk factors and early diagnosis can minimize the high mortality risk.

  12. Results in a consecutive series of 83 surgical corrections of symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of evidence to document the safety and efficacy of operative treatment of carotid stenosis, surgical indications for elongation and kinking of the internal carotid artery remain controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgical correction of internal carotid artery kinking in patients with persistent hemispheric symptoms despite antiplatelet therapy. A consecutive series of 81 patients (mean age, 64 years) underwent 83 surgical procedures to correct kinking of the internal carotid artery either by shortening and reimplanting the vessel on the common carotid artery, inserting a bypass graft, or transposing the vessel onto the external carotid artery. Mean follow-up was 56 months (range, 15-135 months). Study endpoints were 30-day mortality and any stroke occurring during follow-up. No postoperative death was observed. The postoperative stroke rate was 1%. Primary patency, freedom from neurologic symptoms, and late survival at 5 years (x +/- standard deviation) were 89 +/- 4.1%, 92 +/- 4%, and 71 +/- 6%, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that surgical correction for symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in relieving symptoms and preventing stroke. Operative correction should be considered as the standard treatment for patients with symptomatic carotid kinking that does not respond to antiplatelet therapy.

  13. Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Asymptomatic Subjects With Advanced Vascular Atherosclerosis of the Carotid Artery (Type III and IV b Findings Using Ultrasound) and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ansgar; Bojara, Waldemar; Schunk, Klaus

    2018-02-01

    A study was conducted as to whether the early diagnosis of coronary heart disease in asymptomatic subjects with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery which additionally shows at least one risk factor is successful using ultrasound technology. Within the scope of an occupational screening program using subjects from diverse employment sectors, people were given the opportunity to determine their risk of heart attack. During the study the total plaque area (TPA), the maximum plaque thickness in the carotid artery and the PROCAM-Scores of 3,748 healthy men and 2,260 healthy women between the ages of 20 and 64 years were determined. During the subsequent follow-up study 94 subjects sickened. An ultrasound examination of the carotid artery of 79 patients revealed a type III or IV b finding. In a pilot study 33 asymptomatic subjects with a type III or IV b finding in the ultrasound examination were assessed using a computed tomography (CT) coronary angiogram. Additional 10 asymptomatic subjects were examined independently to undergo further cardiac examinations. In the final analysis only five patients had entirely smooth coronary arteries, six had coronary sclerosis, eight had a 30% stenosis, one had a 30-50% stenosis and 23 patients had a stenosis ≥ 50%; and in extreme case, a left main coronary artery stenosis with three-vessel disease. Asymptomatic subjects with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery (type III and type IV b findings) had a high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Early treatment of the disease improves the patient's prognosis. A screening consisting in the combination of TPA measurement and determining the maximum plaque thickness is recommended.

  14. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): a randomised controlled trial with cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Roland L; Dobson, Joanna; Ederle, Jörg; Doig, David; Bonati, Leo H; Morris, Stephen; Patel, Nishma V; Brown, Martin M

    2016-03-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for the treatment of carotid stenosis, but safety and long-term efficacy were uncertain. To compare the risks, benefits and cost-effectiveness of CAS versus CEA for symptomatic carotid stenosis. International, multicentre, randomised controlled, open, prospective clinical trial. Hospitals at 50 centres worldwide. Patients older than 40 years of age with symptomatic atheromatous carotid artery stenosis. Patients were randomly allocated stenting or endarterectomy using a computerised service and followed for up to 10 years. The primary outcome measure was the long-term rate of fatal or disabling stroke, analysed by intention to treat (ITT). Disability was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). A cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) was calculated over a 5-year time horizon. A total of 1713 patients were randomised but three withdrew consent immediately, leaving 1710 for ITT analysis (853 were assigned to stenting and 857 were assigned to endarterectomy). The incidence of stroke, death or procedural myocardial infarction (MI) within 120 days of treatment was 8.5% in the CAS group versus 5.2% in the CEA group (72 vs. 44 events) [hazard ratio (HR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16 to 2.45; p = 0.006]. In the analysis restricted to patients who completed stenting, age independently predicted the risk of stroke, death or MI within 30 days of CAS (relative risk increase 1.17% per 5 years of age, 95% CI 1.01% to 1.37%). Use of an open-cell stent conferred higher risk than a closed-cell stent (relative risk 1.92, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.33), but use of a cerebral protection device did not modify the risk. CAS was associated with a higher risk of stroke in patients with an age-related white-matter changes score of 7 or more (HR 2.98, 95% CI 1.29 to 6.93; p = 0.011). After completion of follow-up with a median of 4.2 years, the number

  15. Cost-utility analysis of stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen; Patel, Nishma V; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L; Richards, Toby; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Rothwell, Peter M; Brown, Martin M

    2016-06-01

    The International Carotid Stenting Study was a multicenter randomized trial in which patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly allocated to treatment by carotid stenting or endarterectomy. Economic evidence comparing these treatments is limited and inconsistent. We compared the cost-effectiveness of stenting versus endarterectomy using International Carotid Stenting Study data. We performed a cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years per patient for both treatments over a five-year time horizon based on resource use data and utility values collected in the trial. Costs of managing stroke events were estimated using individual patient data from a UK population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Mean costs per patient (95% CI) were US$10,477 ($9669 to $11,285) in the stenting group (N = 853) and $9669 ($8835 to $10,504) in the endarterectomy group (N = 857). There were no differences in mean quality-adjusted life years per patient (3.247 (3.160 to 3.333) and 3.228 (3.150 to 3.306), respectively). There were no differences in adjusted costs between groups (mean incremental costs for stenting versus endarterectomy $736 (95% CI -$353 to $1826)) or adjusted outcomes (mean quality-adjusted life years gained -0.010 (95% CI -0.117 to 0.097)). The incremental net monetary benefit for stenting versus endarterectomy was not significantly different from zero at the maximum willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year commonly used in the UK. Sensitivity analyses showed little uncertainty in these findings. Economic considerations should not affect whether patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis undergo stenting or endarterectomy. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  16. Severe optochiasmatic arachnoiditis after rupture of an internal carotid artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ramina

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 24-year-old man with progressive visual loss due to optochiasmatic arachnoiditis is presented. The cause of the arachnoiditis was subarachnoidal bleeding due to rupture of an internal carotid artery aneurysm. The aneurysm was clipped 5 years after the first episode of bleeding. The diagnosis of optochiasmatic arachnoiditis was confirmed during the operation. This case, is presented in order to discuss the causes, the symptoms and the therapeutical possibilities of this rare condition.

  17. Hemicrania continua-like headache associated with internal carotid artery dissection may respond to indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Avi; Abbas, Muhammad A; Sharma, Dinesh K; Silberstein, Stephen D

    2007-01-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is an idiopathic, chronic disorder characterized by a continuous, strictly unilateral headache associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms. The symptoms of HC typically respond dramatically to indomethacin therapy. We describe a patient with traumatic internal carotid artery dissection, who presented with a clinical picture mimicking HC that initially responded to indomethacin. Patients with a clinical picture similar to HC should be managed with a high index of suspicion for a possible cervical arterial dissection.

  18. Combined interventional and surgical treatment of tandem middle cerebral artery embolus and internal carotid artery occlusion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Mark B; Renfrow, Jaclyn J; Singh, Jasmeet; Garg, Nitin; Wolfe, Stacey Q

    2017-11-17

    Tandem internal carotid artery (ICA) origin occlusion and middle cerebral artery (MCA) thromboembolism is a life-threatening condition with poor neurological outcome. The authors report on a patient presenting with acute ischemic stroke from a tandem ICA and MCA occlusion with penumbra. Emergency MCA mechanical thrombectomy was performed through percutaneous cervical ICA access due to the inability to cross the cervical carotid occlusion. Emergency carotid endarterectomy to reperfuse the poorly collateralized hemisphere and repair the ICA access site was performed 2 hours after completion of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) infusion. This case illustrates the shortest reported interval between tPA infusion and open surgical intervention for carotid revascularization, as well as the role of direct carotid artery access for mechanical thrombectomy. The authors also describe the use of a temporizing femoral artery-to-ICA shunt to maintain cerebral perfusion in the setting of ICA occlusion.

  19. Current Issues in the Presentation of Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L.; Peacock, Munro; Bandeira, Francisco; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cusano, Natalie E.; Dempster, David; Lewiecki, E. Michael; Liu, Jian-Min; Minisola, Salvatore; Rejnmark, Lars; Silva, Barbara C.; Walker, Marcella D.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This report summarizes data on traditional and nontraditional manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) that have been published since the last International Workshop on PHPT. Participants: This subgroup was constituted by the Steering Committee to address key questions related to the presentation of PHPT. Consensus was established at a closed meeting of the Expert Panel that followed. Evidence: Data from the 5-year period between 2008 and 2013 were presented and discussed to determine whether they support changes in recommendations for surgery or nonsurgical follow-up. Consensus Process: Questions were developed by the International Task Force on PHPT. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies was undertaken. After extensive review and discussion, the subgroup came to agreement on what changes in the recommendations for surgery or nonsurgical follow-up of asymptomatic PHPT should be made to the Expert Panel. Conclusions: 1) There are limited new data available on the natural history of asymptomatic PHPT. Although recognition of normocalcemic PHPT (normal serum calcium with elevated PTH concentrations; no secondary cause for hyperparathyroidism) is increasing, data on the clinical presentation and natural history of this phenotype are limited. 2) Although there are geographic differences in the predominant phenotypes of PHPT (symptomatic, asymptomatic, normocalcemic), they do not justify geography-specific management guidelines. 3) Recent data using newer, higher resolution imaging and analytic methods have revealed that in asymptomatic PHPT, both trabecular bone and cortical bone are affected. 4) Clinically silent nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis can be detected by renal imaging and should be listed as a new criterion for surgery. 5) Current data do not support a cardiovascular evaluation or surgery for the purpose of improving cardiovascular markers, anatomical or functional abnormalities. 6) Some patients with mild PHPT

  20. Multi-parametric ultrasound criteria for internal carotid artery disease - comparison with CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Siepmann, Timo; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Bodechtel, Ulf; Reichmann, Heinz; Puetz, Volker [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neurology, Dresden (Germany); Floegel, Thomas [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neurology, Dresden (Germany); Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Kitzler, Hagen H. [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Alexandrov, Andrei V. [The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (known by its acronym DEGUM) recently proposed a novel multi-parametric ultrasound approach for comprehensive and accurate assessment of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease. We determined the agreement between duplex ultrasonography (DUS) interpreted by the DEGUM criteria and CT angiography (CTA) for grading of extracranial ICA steno-occlusive disease. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent DUS and CTA. Internal carotid artery stenosis was graded according to the DEGUM-recommended criteria for DUS. Independent readers manually performed North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial-type measurements on axial CTA source images. Both modalities were compared using Spearman's correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. A total of 303 acute cerebral ischemia patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; 58 % men; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4 [interquartile range 7]) provided 593 DUS and CTA vessel pairs for comparison. There was a positive correlation between DUS and CTA (r{sub s} = 0.783, p < 0.001) with mean difference in degree of stenosis measurement of 3.57 %. Bland-Altman analysis further revealed widely varying differences (95 % limits of agreement -29.26 to 22.84) between the two modalities. Although the novel DEGUM criteria showed overall good agreement between DUS and CTA across all stenosis ranges, potential for wide incongruence with CTA underscores the need for local laboratory validation to avoid false screening results. (orig.)

  1. Validation of ultrasound parameters to assess collateral flow via ophthalmic artery in internal carotid artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomotaka; Doijiri, Ryosuke; Saito, Kozue; Kajimoto, Katsufumi; Ihara, Masafumi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Kotaro; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the flow patterns using ultrasound (US) in the external carotid artery (ECA) in patients with total occlusion of internal carotid artery (ICA) and characterize collateral retrograde flow through the ophthalmic artery (OA, secondary collateral, internalization). This study was performed on 45 patients who were retrospectively selected with total occlusion of the ICA, who underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and US (43 men; mean age 68.1 ± 7.9 years). Collateral retrograde flow and collateral flow through the circle of Willis (primary collateral) were determined by DSA and MRA. We compared several US parameters such as ECA peak systolic velocity, mean velocity, end-diastolic (ED) velocity, pulsatility index (PI), and pulsatility transmission index (PTI). PTI was defined as the ratio of ipsilateral ECA PI to the ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA). In this patient group, 27 patients showed retrograde flow through OA as assessed by DSA. The presence of primary collateral flow was significantly lower in patients with retrograde flow than without (P ECA ED velocity was significantly higher, and PI and PTI were significantly lower with retrograde flow through OA than without (P ECA because a collateral pathway through OA in cases of ICA occlusion had less primary collateral pathways. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Artéria carótida interna aberrante na orelha média Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corintho Viana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Malformações vasculares na orelha média são raras, e a artéria carótida interna (ACI aberrante deve ser lembrada no diagnóstico diferencial, visto o grande risco trazido por uma intervenção cirúrgica inadvertidamente realizada na cavidade timpânica. O paciente pode apresentar-se assintomático ou, comumente, com hipoacusia e/ou zumbido pulsátil. As imagens fornecidas pela tomografia computadorizada (TC e ressonância magnética (RM, incluindo a angiorressonância, firmam o diagnóstico. Os autores descrevem um caso em criança de 13 anos, em que o diagnóstico foi feito através de exames de imagens, direcionados por uma importante suspeita clínica.Vascular anomalies of the middle ear are uncommon and, because aberrant internal carotid artery, among others, implies great risk at middle ear surgery, it must be remembered at the differential diagnosis. The patient may be asymptomatic, or complains of pulsatile tinnitus and conductive hearing loss. Computer tomography of the temporal bones and magnetic resonance imaging supplemented with magnetic resonance angiography can make the diagnosis. The authors present an aberrant internal carotid artery on a 13-year-old patient, whose diagnosis was performed by otoscopic examination, and imaging methods based on a previous clinical suspicion.

  3. GLENOHUMERAL INTERNAL ROTATION DEFICIT IN THE ASYMPTOMATIC PROFESSIONAL PITCHER AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO HUMERAL RETROVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Tokish

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if glenohumeral internal rotation deficits (GIRD exist in an asymptomatic population of professional pitchers, and to assess whether these changes are primarily a bony or soft tissue adaptation. Twenty three, active, asymptomatic professional (Major League Baseball pitchers volunteered for the study. Clinical measures of glenohumeral ranges of motion, laxity, GIRD, as well as radiographic measures of humeral retroversion were taken by two independent orthopaedic surgeons. Data comparing side to side differences in range of motion, laxity, and humeral retroversion were analyzed for statistical significance using a paired t-test for continuous data and a Chi-squared test for ordinal data, with a significance set at 0.05. Evaluations of statistical correlations between different measurement parameters were accomplished using a Pearson product moment correlation. We hypothesized GIRD will be positively correlated with humeral retroversion (HR in the pitching arm. All clinical and radiographic measures were made in the field, at spring training, by physicians of both private and institutional based sports medicine practices. For the entire group, significant differences were exhibited for HR, external rotation at 90° and internal rotation at 90°, for dominant vs. non-dominant arms. GIRD of greater than 25° was noted in 10/23 of pitchers. In this group, HR was significantly increased and correlated to GIRD. No such increase or correlation was noted for the non-GIRD group. GIRD is a common finding in asymptomatic professional pitchers, and is related to humeral retroversion. Thus internal rotation deficits should not be used as the sole screening tool to diagnose the disabled throwing shoulder

  4. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blackham, Aaron [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  5. Cerebro-retinal ischemia after bilateral occlusion of internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogousslavsky, J.; Regli, F.

    1985-05-01

    Six patients with occlusion of internal carotid arteries (ICAs) were prospectively followed during a mean period of 14 months. Prior to demonstration of occlusions, four patients suffered a mild stroke, and three isolated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or amaurosis fugax. All patients remained alive and with an unchanged functional ability. During follow-up, one patient suffered amaurosis fugax and TIAs followed by a mild stroke, three suffered isolated TIAs or amaurosis fugax, two suffered reversible cerebro-retinal ischemia of more than 24 hours, and one remained symptomfree. In three cases, delayed cerebro-retinal ischemia distal to one of the occluded ICAs was systematically triggered by orthostatic, cardiogenic or iatrogenic hypotension, and resolved after adequate medical treatment or restoration of a functional collateral circulation by endarterectomy of a tightly stenosed ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA), suggesting hemodynamic phenomena. In three cases, micro-emboli originating from a stump or an ulcerated ipsilateral common carotid artery and migrating through well-developed ECA collateral channels explained delayed episodes of ipsilateral TIAs or amaurosis fugax, which disappeared in two cases after adequate anticoagulant therepy was introduced. Bilateral occlusion of ICA may be a relatively benign condition, if the patients are carefully controlled and treated.

  6. [Study of the hypoplasic internal carotid artery by use of multislice spiral computed tomography. Two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra de Grassa, B; Romero-Vidal, F J; Alarcón-Alcaraz, M M; Arenillas-Lara, J F; Fernández-Lara, L J; Coscojuela-Santaliestra, P

    Hypoplastic internal carotid artery (HICA) is a rare benign congenital malformation. Its angiographic image string sign is shared by entities that may be either medically or surgically treated. We report two cases diagnosed by helical computerized tomography (HCT). Case 1: woman diagnosed clinically and by magnetic resonance (MR) of Chiari I malformation with associated syringomyelia. An HCT of the craniocervical junction was done to rule out osseous malformations. An hypoplastic posterior fossa (PF) with small right carotid foramen was diagnosed. An arteriography with HCT was done that showed the carotid string sign. Case 2: a 82 years old hypertensive woman with left hemiparesia and homonymous hemianopsia was diagnosed of right temporooccipital infarct. An HCT arteriography disclosed occlusion of the right posterior cerebral artery, calcification of the left carotid siphon and stenosis of the right siphon. Bi and tridimensional reconstructions of the circle of Willis, cranial base and distal cervical carotid arteries showed an hypoplastic right carotid artery and foramen. Multislice HCT is a recently incorporated diagnostic tool that allows a volumetric study in a short period of time, seconds. An angiographic study can be done intravenously in cases of vascular anomaly suspiction, hypoplastic carotid artery in the reported cases. HCT is the only current imaging tool that can diagnose this anomaly without the aid of other imaging studies.

  7. Guidelines for the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: summary statement from the Fourth International Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilezikian, John P; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Eastell, Richard; Silverberg, Shonni J; Udelsman, Robert; Marcocci, Claudio; Potts, John T

    2014-10-01

    Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is routinely encountered in clinical practices of endocrinology throughout the world. This report distills an update of current information about diagnostics, clinical features, and management of this disease into a set of revised guidelines. Participants, representing an international constituency, with interest and expertise in various facets of asymptomatic PHPT constituted four Workshop Panels that developed key questions to be addressed. They then convened in an open 3-day conference September 19-21, 2013, in Florence, Italy, when a series of presentations and discussions addressed these questions. A smaller subcommittee, the Expert Panel, then met in closed session to reach an evidence-based consensus on how to address the questions and data that were aired in the open forum. Preceding the conference, each question was addressed by a relevant, extensive literature search. All presentations and deliberations of the Workshop Panels and the Expert Panel were based upon the latest information gleaned from this literature search. The expert panel considered all the evidence provided by the individual Workshop Panels and then came to consensus. In view of new findings since the last International Workshop on the Management of Asymptomatic PHPT, guidelines for management have been revised. The revised guidelines include: 1) recommendations for more extensive evaluation of the skeletal and renal systems; 2) skeletal and/or renal involvement as determined by further evaluation to become part of the guidelines for surgery; and 3) more specific guidelines for monitoring those who do not meet guidelines for parathyroid surgery. These guidelines should help endocrinologists and surgeons caring for patients with PHPT. A blueprint for future research is proposed to foster additional investigation into issues that remain uncertain or controversial.

  8. [Study on correlation between retinal vessel morphology or ocular hemodynamic parameter and internal carotid artery stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Y; Wang, H; Zhang, X J; Feng, Y H; Wang, Z C; Wang, Y L

    2016-12-11

    Objective: To analyze the correlation between retinal vascular calibers, ocular blood flow parameters and internal carotid artery stenosis and to evaluate the effect of internal carotid artery stenosis on ocular blood vessels comprehensively. Methods: A retrospective case-control study. The clinical data of 141 patients who underwent head-and-neck computed tomography (CT) angiography examinations of the ICA were collected at Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2014 to January 2016. According to diagnostic criteria, the patients were divided into four groups: the non-stenosis group, the mild stenosis group, the moderate stenosis group, and the severe stenosis andocclusion group. The retinal vascular caliber was measured in color fundus photograph by IVAN software. Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure the parameters of ocular blood flow, including the peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI). The enumeration data were analyzed with chi-square test, the measurement data were analyzed with rank-sum test, and the correlation test was performed with spearman. Results: The gender ratio of the patients without stenosis, mild stenosis, moderate stenosis, severe stenosis and occlusion was 12/7, 31/19, 28/25, 12/7, χ(2) test was not statistically significant (χ(2)= 0.79, P=0.85); There was no statistically significant difference between the different groups (χ(2)= 0.15, P=0.68), the age of four groups were (64.1±8.3), (54.3±14.3), (68.9±11.8) and (59.1±8.0) y, respectively. In the no internal carotid artery stenosis group, the arteries diameter is (164.5±15.6) μm ,the vein diameter is (245.6±20.0) μm and the arteriovenous ratio is 0.7±0.1. There is no difference among the mild stenosis group, moderate stenosis group and the severe stenosis (χ(2)artery caliber=6.92, Partery caliber=0.08; χ(2)vein diameter=4.16, Pvein diameter=0.25; χ(2)arteriolar

  9. Persistent dorsal ophthalmic artery arising from the internal carotid artery: Report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Hwan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Normally, the ophthalmic artery (OA) arises from the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and enters the orbit via the optic canal. A persistent dorsal OA is a rare variation that originates from the cavernous segment of the ICA and enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure. To the best of our knowledge, persistent dorsal OA has not been described in the Korean literature. In this paper, we report three cases of persistent dorsal OA with review of the literature on embryogenesis and other origins of the OA.

  10. Internal Carotid Artery Ectasia: The Value of Imaging Studies Prior to Biopsy of a Retropharyngeal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of retropharyngeal tissue mass often raises the suspicion of malignancy, especially in elderly patients. This prompts urgent biopsy to investigate tissue histology. We discuss a case where this is contraindicated as the retropharyngeal mass was illustrated by CT scanning and confirmed with MRI to be a tortuous coursing internal carotid artery. An awareness of this unusual anatomical variation and a careful interpretation of imaging studies both at the stage of differential diagnosis and pre-operative screening are essential to avoid damage to important structures, causing unnecessary complications.

  11. Clinical implications of internal carotid artery tortuosity, kinking and coiling: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenteno M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of the internal carotid artery are diverse. Abnormalities in their geometry and paths are commonly identified by ultrasonography and angiography. The surgical correction of symptomatic CAs is better in preventing stroke compared with best medical therapy, as well as it completely eliminates the symptoms in patients with nonhemispheric symptoms. The ICA anomalies may be dangerous and represent a risk factor for massive bleeding. Suture ligatures can penetrate and occlude torn vessels, scalpels or biting instruments can lacerate vessels, and indirectly conducted electric cauterization can burn the soft of bony tissues

  12. Bilateral internal carotid artery agenesis with artery compression of the brain parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jihong; Jiang, Dingyao; Zhang, Shizheng

    2008-09-15

    Bilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) agenesis is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. The most common type of collateral circulation is developed through the circle of Willis via the basilar and posterior communicating arteries. Both anterior circulations are usually supplied by enlarged posterior communicating arteries (PCOMs). We present an unusual case of bilateral ICA agenesis, which is associated with dolichoectatic left PCOM and left posterior cerebral artery (PCA) compression of left basal ganglia and thalamus. These complex cerebral and vascular anomalies can be noninvasively revealed and evaluated by CT and MR.

  13. In vivo measurements of cerebral metabolic abnormalities by proton spectroscopy after a transient ischemic attack revealing an internal carotid stenosis > 70%; Anomalies metaboliques cerebrales mesurees in vivo par la spectroscopie du proton dans les accidents ischemiques transitoires revelant une stenose de la carotide interne superieure a 70%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, M.; Becker, F.; Lemesle, M.; Walker, P.; Guy, F.; Martin, D.; Baudouin, N.; Brunotte, F.; Dumas, R. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 21 -Dijon (France)

    1996-06-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to look for cerebral metabolic abnormalities within the first 3 days after a transient ischemic attack revealing an internal carotid stenosis > 70 %. Methods: Five patients with a transient ischemic attack lasting between 30 and 180 minutes, affecting sensory and motor brachio-facial territory, with or without aphasia. Were studied. A CT-scan, an EEG, a cervical Doppler ultrasound, a standard arteriography, a magnetic resonance imaging and a proton spectroscopy were performed within the cerebral area affected by the transient ischemic attack. We measured 2 markers: N-acetyl-aspartate, the marker of the neuronal mass, and lactate, the marker of anaerobe metabolism. In each case, a contralateral internal stenosis was diagnosed by cervical Doppler ultrasound and standard arteriography. No cerebral infarction was observed. Results: With the affected cerebral area defined according to clinical and EEG features, proton spectroscopy showed a significant rise of lactate, without any change in N-acetyl-aspartate levels. Conclusions: Within the first 3 days after a transient ischemic attack, there is a significant risk of lactate inside the affected cerebral area. This change may reflect a localized and transient hypoperfusion, but long enough to induce a rise of lactate but not sufficient to produce a cerebral infarct. This area is probably at risk to induce cerebral infarct. This data lead us to study the metabolic change induced by the asymptomatic internal carotid stenosis. (authors). 18 refs.

  14. Current status of revascularization surgery for Moyamoya disease: special consideration for its 'internal carotid-external carotid (IC-EC) conversion' as the physiological reorganization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-05-01

    Moyamoya disease is a chronic cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology, which is characterized by bilateral steno-occlusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network formation at the base of the brain. Moyamoya disease is known to have unique and dynamic nature to convert the vascular supply for the brain from internal carotid (IC) system to the external carotid (EC) system, as indicated by Suzuki's angiographic staging established in 1969. Insufficiency of this 'IC-EC conversion system' may result in cerebral ischemia, as well as in intracranial hemorrhage from inadequate collateral vascular network, both of which represent the clinical presentation of moyamoya disease. Therefore, surgical revascularization by extracranial-intracranial bypass is the preferred procedure for moyamoya disease to complement 'IC-EC conversion' and thus to avoid cerebral infarction and/or intracranial hemorrhage. Long-term outcome of revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease is favorable, but rapid increase in cerebral blood flow on the affected hemisphere could temporarily cause unfavorable phenomenon such as cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. We would review the current status of revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease based on its basic pathology, and sought to discuss the significance of measuring cerebral blood flow in the acute stage and intensive perioperative management.

  15. Extracranial-intracranial bypass for internal carotid/middle cerebral atherosclerotic steno-occlusive diseases in conjunction with carotid endarterectomy for contralateral cervical carotid stenosis: clinical results and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomohiro; Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Akira; Tsutsumi, Kazuo; Saito, Isamu; Saito, Nobuhito

    2016-10-01

    Clinical results as well as cognitive performances after extracranial to intracranial (EC-IC) bypass in conjunction with contralateral carotid endarterectomy (CEA) are poorly understood. Data from 14 patients who underwent unilateral EC-IC bypass for atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA)/middle cerebral artery (MCA) steno-occlusive disease in conjunction with CEA for contralateral cervical carotid stenosis were retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative results were evaluated by MRI imagings. Nine patients also underwent neuropsychological examinations (NPEs), including assessment by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) before and about 6 months after bilateral surgeries. Postoperative MRI follow-up (median, 8 months; interquartile range, 7-8 months) confirmed successful bypass in all patients, with no additional ischemic lesions on T2WI when compared with preoperative imaging. Further, MRA showed patent bypass and contralateral smooth patency at CEA portion in all patients. In the group rate analysis, all five postoperative NPE scores (Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, WMS-memory, WMS-attention, and Average scores of all those four scores) were improved relative to preoperative NPE scores. Performance IQ and Average score improvements were statistically significant. Clinical results after EC-IC bypass in conjunction with contralateral CEA were feasible. Based on the group rate analysis, we conclude that successful unilateral EC-IC bypass and contralateral carotid endarterectomy does not adversely affect postoperative cognitive function.

  16. A New Anatomic Variation: Coexistence of Both Dandy-Walker Variant and Ophthalmic Artery Originating From Contralateral Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogul, Hayri; Havan, Nuri; Gedikli, Yusuf; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2016-06-01

    The authors report on 1 patient of variant origin of right ophthalmic artery (OA) from ophthalmic segment of the left internal carotid artery. A 41-year-old man was performed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography. Cerebral MR imaging revealed a Dandy-Walker variant. In MR angiography the authors observed this unusual variant of origin of OA and a complete occlusion of right internal carotid artery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first patient who has coincidence of both Dandy-Walker variant and origin of OA from contralateral internal carotid artery. Careful observation of MR angiography images with maximum intensity projection is very important for detecting rare vascular variations.

  17. Relationship between intracranial internal carotid artery calcification and enlarged cerebral perivascular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiao-Xiao [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); The First People' s Hospital of Wenling, Department of Neurology, Wenling (China); Li, Ge-Fei; Wu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yan-Hui; Zhuang, Mei-Ting; Hou, Tian-Yu; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Feng-Di; Wang, Xue-Mei; Shen, Ying; Cui, Guo-Hong; Su, Jing-Jing; Chen, Wei [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Tang, Xue-Mei; Sun, Ji; Liu, Jian-Ren [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Clinical Research Center, Shanghai (China)

    2017-06-15

    The association between intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) calcification and lacunes, white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) has been well researched. However, enlarged cerebral perivascular space (PVS) has not yet been reported to correlate with intracranial internal carotid artery calcification. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. A total of 189 patients with ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory who presented within 7 days of ictus from 2012 to 2015 were enrolled respectively. All patients were required to have undergone head computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, or computed tomography angiography. Clinical characteristics were recorded. IICA calcification and enlarged PVS were semi-quantitatively evaluated, and the presence of lacunes, WMH, and CMBs was recorded. Of the 189 patients, 63.5% were male. Mean age of the patients was 68.6 ± 12.2 years. There were 104 patients with IICA calcification. Age, diabetes mellitus, lacunes, and white matter hyperintensity were significantly associated with IICA calcification (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, diabetes mellitus, and lacunes were independent predictors of IICA calcification (P < 0.05). A lower risk of IICA calcification was found in patients with a higher enlarged PVS score (P = 0.004). Higher enlarged PVS scores were associated with a lesser degree of IICA calcification. There appears to be a relationship between reduced risk of IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. (orig.)

  18. Carotid artery surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right- and left-internal carotid arteries, and the right- and left-external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to both the head and brain. Review Date 6/1/2015 Updated by: Daniel ...

  19. Semi-automatic quantitative measurements of intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis and calcification using CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, Leslie; Berg, Rene van den; Majoie, Charles B. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nederkoorn, Paul J. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Intracranial carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. However, its quantitative assessment is not routinely performed in clinical practice. In this diagnostic study, we present and evaluate a novel semi-automatic application to quantitatively measure intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) degree of stenosis and calcium volume in CT angiography (CTA) images. In this retrospective study involving CTA images of 88 consecutive patients, intracranial ICA stenosis was quantitatively measured by two independent observers. Stenoses were categorized with cutoff values of 30% and 50%. The calcification in the intracranial ICA was qualitatively categorized as absent, mild, moderate, or severe and quantitatively measured using the semi-automatic application. Linear weighted kappa values were calculated to assess the interobserver agreement of the stenosis and calcium categorization. The average and the standard deviation of the quantitative calcium volume were calculated for the calcium categories. For the stenosis measurements, the CTA images of 162 arteries yielded an interobserver correlation of 0.78 (P < 0.001). Kappa values of the categorized stenosis measurements were moderate: 0.45 and 0.58 for cutoff values of 30% and 50%, respectively. The kappa value for the calcium categorization was 0.62, with a good agreement between the qualitative and quantitative calcium assessment. Quantitative degree of stenosis measurement of the intracranial ICA on CTA is feasible with a good interobserver agreement ICA. Qualitative calcium categorization agrees well with quantitative measurements. (orig.)

  20. Carotid revascularization: risks and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marlene O'Brien, Ankur Chandra Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Despite a decline during the recent decades in stroke-related death, the incidence of stroke has remained unchanged or slightly increased, and extracranial carotid artery stenosis is implicated in 20%–30% of all strokes. Medical therapy and risk factor modification are first-line therapies for all patients with carotid occlusive disease. Evidence for the treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 70% with either carotid artery stenting (CAS or carotid endarterectomy (CEA is compelling, and several trials have demonstrated a benefit to carotid revascularization in the symptomatic patient population. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is more controversial, with the largest trials only demonstrating a 1% per year risk stroke reduction with CEA. Although there are sufficient data to advocate for aggressive medical therapy as the primary mode of treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, there are also data to suggest that certain patient populations will benefit from a stroke risk reduction with carotid revascularization. In the United States, consensus and practice guidelines dictate that CEA is reasonable in patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis, a reasonable life expectancy, and perioperative risk of less than 3%. Regarding CAS versus CEA, the best-available evidence demonstrates no difference between the two procedures in early perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, and no difference in 4-year ipsilateral stroke risk. However, because of the higher perioperative risks of stroke in patients undergoing CAS, particularly in symptomatic, female, or elderly patients, it is difficult to recommend CAS over CEA except in populations with prohibitive cardiac risk, previous carotid surgery, or prior neck radiation. Current treatment

  1. Carotid endarterectomy: The procedure of choice for carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Savitr Sastri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is the commonest cause of neurological morbidity and mortality. Carotid endarterectomy has been shown to be beneficial in preventing ischemic strokes in patients with significant stenosis of the carotid artery, both in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Carotid artery stenting has been proposed as an alternative to CEA for this population. This paper reviews the available literature on carotid endarterectomy comparing it to the best medical therapy and carotid artery stenting in the prevention of ischemic strokes in patients with carotid stenosis. The use of newer imaging techniques and tools to redefine the existing idea of "asymptomatic" stenosis and post procedural strokes has also been reviewed. We present a concise review of existing data that shows unequivocally that endarterectomy still remains superior to stenting and best medical therapy as of now.

  2. Simultaneous bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation: case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadgir, R.N.; Ahmed, T. [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Loevner, L.A.; Moonis, G.; Slawek, K.; Imbesi, S. [Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Chalela, J. [Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Single-vessel cervical arterial dissections typically occur in young adults and are a common cause of cerebral ischemia and stroke. Although the pathogenesis of multivessel dissection is unclear, it is thought to be a consequence of underlying collagen vascular disease. We present a 34-year-old previously healthy man who developed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation. (orig.)

  3. Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. Comparison among MRI, hemodynamics and clinical feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasumasa; Tsuda, Harumi; Nabatame, Hidehiko; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni

    1987-10-01

    Four cases of bilateral internal carotid occlusion are reported with respect to clinical features, hemodynamics and various image diagnosis. MRI is applied to three cases. The patients comprised 2.08 % of all cerebral occlusive diseases treated during the past five years at our clinic. One case is of abrupt onset and three cases are progressing profiles. In one of these cases, collateral circulation is supplied mainly by leptomeningeal anastomosis of the posterior cerebral artery and posterior pericallosal artery branching from the basilar artery. In two of them, they are supplied through the circle of Willis. Middle cerebral artery occlusion, occlusion supra occlusionem, however, causes decisive ischemic lesion in its teritory. Applying MRI, complicated ischemic lesions, such as lacunar infarction, paraventricular lesion, deep white matter lesion and border zone infarction can clearly be identified. In the case of total aphasia, the lesions responsible are demonstrated clearly by MRI, but only vaguely by X-ray CT.

  4. Intrasphenoid septations inserted into the internal carotid arteries: a frequent and risky relationship in transsphenoidal surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Clauder Oliveira; Marenco, Horacio Armando; de Assis Vaz Guimarães Filho, Francisco; da Costa, Marcos Devanir Silva; de Oliveira Santos, Bruno Fernandes; de Paula Santos, Rodrigo; Zymberg, Samuel Tau

    When an expanded endonasal transsphenoidal surgical approach is performed, intrasphenoid septations must be completely resected. If these structures are close to the internal carotid artery (ICA), then their manipulation might cause vascular injury. The objective of this study is to describe the frequency of intrasphenoid septations in the internal carotid artery protuberance (ICAp). Computed tomography (CT) scans of 421 patients were analysed. Intrasphenoid septations (classified as intersphenoid or accessory) and their relationship to the ICAp were described. Additionally, a sphenoid sinus classification was performed based on their degree of pneumatisation to determine whether a difference exists in the frequency of intrasphenoid septations inserted into ICAp with regard to sinus type. The patient mean age was 39±21.4 years. Overall, 219 patients (52%) had septations in the ICAp; 359 patients (85.3%) had intersphenoid septations; of the latter, 135 (37.6%) had septations in the ICAp. This frequency was higher among patients with sphenoid sinus type 4 or 5 (44.7% and 43.5%, respectively). Accessory septations were found in 255 patients (60.6%); 140 of these septations (54.9%) were in the ICAp. Among 351 patients with types 3, 4 or 5 sphenoid sinuses (i.e., only well-pneumatised sphenoid sinuses), 219 (62.4%) had septations in the ICAp. These frequencies are higher than those reported in most previous studies. The frequency of intrasphenoid septations in the ICAp found is considerable. It is higher among patients with more pneumatised sinuses. This finding justifies an appropriate pre-operative study, and careful attention must be paid during transsphenoidal surgery. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics of clinical semiotics in children with pathological tortuosity of internal carotid arteries in remote period after surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoĭkhet, Ya N; Khorev, N G; Kulikova, N I; Beller, A V; Kulikov, V P; Miller, V E

    2010-01-01

    The present study enrolling a total of eighty-eight 4-to-16-year-old children and adolescents was aimed at detailed elaboration and formalization of clinical signs of the internal carotid artery pathological kinking syndrome. To achieve these objectives, the authors carried out a comparative analysis of clinical manifestations of the disease in the surgically treated subjects (constituting the Surgery Group comprising 43 children and adolescents) and non-operated patients (making up the Comparison Group consisting of 45 age- and gender-matched subjects). There were no baseline differences in the incidence rate of clinical syndromes and symptoms between the groups of the would-be operated and conservatively treated patients. Also studied were the remote outcomes (1-to-12-year follow up) of surgical correction for pathological tortuosity of the internal carotid artery. The incidence rate of regression of neurological symptomatology along different clinical signs after surgery was shown to vary within a wide range from 11.6% to 96.3%. Resection of the proximal portion of the internal carotid artery with re-implantation into the old ostium turned out to be clinically effective in 90.0% of cases, with the haemodynamic efficacy amounting to 83.3%. Arteriolysis of the internal carotid artery rendered a clinical effect in 75% of cases, with a haemodynamical effect thereof equalling 25.0%. The decision as to the type of a surgical intervention to perform was primarily made based on the findings of angiography of the internal carotid artery. The operation of arteriolysis did not lead to deterioration of the child's condition.

  6. Rationale for graft selection in patients with complex internal carotid artery aneurysms treated with extracranial to intracranial high-flow bypass and therapeutic internal carotid artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Hidetoshi; Miyata, Shiro; Tsuboi, Toshiyuki; Noda, Kosumo; Ota, Nakao; Takahashi, Osamu; Takeda, Rihee; Tokuda, Sadahisa; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Tanikawa, Rokuya

    2017-06-02

    OBJECTIVE After internal carotid artery (ICA) sacrifice without revascularization for complex aneurysms, ischemic complications can occur. In addition, hemodynamic alterations in the circle of Willis create conditions conducive to the formation of de novo aneurysms or the enlargement of existing untreated aneurysms. Therefore, the revascularization technique remains indispensable. Because vessel sizes and the development of collateral circulation are different in each patient, the ideal graft size to prevent low flow-related ischemic complications (LRICs) in external carotid artery (ECA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass with therapeutic ICA occlusion (ICAO) has not been well established. Authors of this study hypothesized that the adequate graft size could be calculated from the size of the sacrificed ICA and the values of MCA pressure (MCAP) and undertook an investigation in patients with complex ICA aneurysms treated with ECA-graft-MCA bypass and therapeutic ICAO. METHODS In the period between July 2006 and January 2016, 80 patients with complex ICA aneurysms were treated with ECA-MCA bypass and therapeutic ICAO. Preoperative balloon test occlusion (BTO) was performed, and the BTO pressure ratio was defined as the mean stump pressure/mean preocclusion pressure. Low flow-related ischemic complications were defined as new postoperative neurological deficits and ipsilateral cerebral blood flow reduction. Initial MCAP (iMCAP), MCAP after clamping the ICA (cMCAP), and MCAP after releasing the graft (gMCAP) were intraoperatively monitored. The MCAP ratio was defined as gMCAP/iMCAP. Based on the Hagen-Poiseuille law, the expected MCAP ratio ([expected gMCAP]/iMCAP) was hypothesized as follows: (1 - cMCAP/iMCAP)(graft radius/ICA radius)2 + (cMCAP/iMCAP). Correlations between the BTO pressure ratio and cMCAP/iMCAP, and between the actual and expected MCAP ratios, were evaluated. Risk factors for LRICs were also evaluated. RESULTS The mean BTO pressure ratio was

  7. Correlation of Folic Intake and Internal Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness Changes In Post Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodik Tugasworo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The thickness of the carotid artery intima media / intima-media thickness (IMT is one of atherosclerosis markers. Atherosclerosis is one of the causes of ischemic stroke. Some studies suggest that low folate intake is predicted to affect the atherosclerotic process, but this remains controversial. Our objective is to analyze the relationship between folate intake with changes in the internal carotid artery IMT after ischemic stroke patients.The study is one group pretest posttest design with 72 post ischemic stroke subjects from neurology polyclinic of Kariadi Hospital, from June to December 2013. Folate intake was measured by Food Frequency Questionnaire and the internal carotid artery IMT by duplex ultrasonography. Measurements were taken at two periods with 6 months interval. Other factors that affect atherosclerosis consisting of age, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus. The analysis in this study using Spearman correlation, chi-square and logistic regression. Resultwas significant if the p value were <0.05.There were 44 male subjects (61.1% and 28 female subjects (38.9%. The mean age was 61.6 (SD = 7.99 years. The mean intake of folate was 178.10 (SD = 38.875 mg / day. Median serum folic acid level 8.43 (4.96 to 55.01 NML / L. The mean change in ICA IMT was 0.10 (SD = 0.156 mm. Folate intake was not correlated with serum levels of folic acid. Serum folic acid levels are not correlated with changes in the internal carotid artery IMT. There was correlation between the risk factors of age, BMI, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia with changes in the internal carotid artery IMT.

  8. SONOlysis in prevention of Brain InfaRctions During Internal carotid Endarterectomy (SONOBIRDIE) trial - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbáč, Tomáš; Netuka, David; Beneš, Vladimír; Nosáľ, Vladimír; Kešnerová, Petra; Tomek, Aleš; Fadrná, Táňa; Beneš, Vladimír; Fiedler, Jiří; Přibáň, Vladimír; Brozman, Miroslav; Langová, Kateřina; Herzig, Roman; Školoudík, David

    2017-01-17

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a beneficial procedure for selected patients with an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Surgical risk of CEA varies from between 2 and 15%. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of sonolysis (continual transcranial Doppler monitoring, TCD) using a 2-MHz diagnostic probe with maximal diagnostic energy on the reduction of the incidence of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and brain infarction detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by the activation of the endogenous fibrinolytic system during CEA. Design: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. international, multicenter trial for patients with at least 70% symptomatic or asymptomatic ICA stenosis undergoing CEA. patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic ICA stenosis of at least 70% are candidates for CEA; a sufficient temporal bone window for TCD; aged 40-85 years, functionally independent; provision of signed informed consent. Randomization: consecutive patients will be assigned to the sonolysis or control (sham procedure) group by computer-generated 1:1 randomization. Prestudy calculations showed that a minimum of 704 patients in each group is needed to reach a significant difference with an alpha value of 0.05 (two-tailed) and a beta value of 0.8 assuming that 10% would be lost to follow-up or refuse to participate in the study (estimated 39 endpoints). the primary endpoint is the incidence of stroke or TIA during 30 days after CEA and the incidence of new ischemic lesions on brain MRI performed 24 h after CEA in the sonolysis and control groups. Secondary endpoints are occurrence of death, any stroke, or myocardial infarction within 30 days, changes in cognitive functions 1 year post procedure related to pretreatment scores, and number of new lesions and occurrence of new lesions ≥0.5 mL on post-procedural brain MRI. descriptive statistics and linear/logistic multiple regression models will be

  9. Clinical and imaging features associated with intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications in patients with ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Arda [Mersin University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Akpinar, Erhan [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Topcuoglu, Mehmet Akif; Arsava, Ethem Murat [Hacettepe University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    Intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications (ICAC), a frequent finding on imaging studies, are predictive of future stroke risk in population-based studies. The clinical significance of this observation among ischemic stroke patients is however less clear. In this study, we analyzed ICAC burden in relation to vascular risk factor profile, stroke etiology, and extent of craniocervical vascular calcifications in a consecutive series of ischemic stroke patients. The burden of ICAC was determined both on non-contrast CT and CT-angiography source images by semiquantitative scoring algorithms. The distribution of vascular risk factors, etiologic stroke subtype, and calcification burden in other craniocervical arteries was assessed among patients with no ICAC, mild-moderate ICAC, and severe ICAC. Of 319 patients included into the study, 28 % had no ICAC, 35 % had mild-moderate ICAC, and 37 % had severe ICAC on CT angiography. Independent factors associated with ICAC burden in multivariate analysis included age (p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.006), and coronary artery disease (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a stroke etiology of large artery atherosclerosis or cardioaortic embolism was significantly related to higher ICAC burden (p = 0.006). Patients with severe ICAC were more likely to harbor calcifications in other vascular beds (p < 0.001). All of these findings persisted when analyses were repeated with CT-based ICAC burden assessments. ICAC burden reflects a continuum of atherosclerotic disease involving carotid arteries together with other craniocervical vascular beds. ICAC is significantly associated with stroke of large vessel or cardioembolic origin. This information might help the clinician in prioritizing etiologic work-up in the acute period. (orig.)

  10. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of carotid arteries: Early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Momčilo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Treatment of carotid stenosis could be surgical: eversion endarterectomy, conventional endarterectomy and patch-plasty, resection with graft interposition and bypass procedure or, in the past few years, carotid artery angioplasty (PTA with stent implantation. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to present early results of carotid artery angioplasty and stenting, as well as to identify indications for this procedure. METHOD Twenty-three patients with stenosis of internal carotid artery were included in the prospective study which was performed in the period from July 2006 to July 2007. For PTA and stenting of the carotid artery we used Balloon dilatation catheter Ultra-softTM SV and Carotid WallstentTM MonorailTM. During the procedure, brain protection by embolic protection system Filter Wire EZ was essentially performed. Descriptive statistical methods were performed to present and describe the patient characteristics, risk factors and results. RESULTS 23 patients were examined. In four (17.39% cases there was asymptomatic, while in 19 (82.61% there was symptomatic homodynamic significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery. Four of these 19 patients (17.39% had late restenosis following carotid endarterectomy, four (17.39% important respiratory failure, and 11 (47.83% important heart disease. Patients were followed up for the first 30 postopertive days. In that period, there were no mortality and no needs for surgical conversions. In one case (4.35%, residual stenosis of 30% remained. Two patients (8.70% had TIA and one (4.35% had CVI. CONCLUSION Main indications for PTA and stenting of carotid arteries are: surgically inaccessible lesions (at or above C2; or subclavial; radiation-induced carotid stenosis; prior ispilateral radical neck dissection; prior carotid endarterectomy (restenosis, severe cardiac and pulmonary conditions. Limitations and contraindications to carotid angioplasty and stentning include: significant

  11. Outcome following carotid endarterectomy: lessons learned from a large international vascular registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menyhei, G; Björck, M; Beiles, B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess if technical and patient-related factors are related to outcome after carotid surgery.......The aim of the study was to assess if technical and patient-related factors are related to outcome after carotid surgery....

  12. Experiences with carotid endarterectomy at Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan Madathipat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid artery disease poses a grave threat to cerebral circulation, leading to a stroke with its devastating sequelae, if left untreated. Carotid endarterectomy has a proven track record with compelling evidence in stroke prevention. Objectives: aTo confirm that carotid endarterectomy (CEA is safe and effective in preventing stroke at both short and long term. b to demonstrate long term patency of internal carotid artery when arteriotomy repair is performed using autologous saphenous vein patch. Materials and Methods: During ten years, from September 1997 to February 2008, thirty nine patients who underwent consecutive carotid endarterectomy at our institute, form the basis of this report. Their age ranged from thirty to seventy eight years, with a mean age of 56. There were four women in this cohort. Thirty seven patients were symptomatic with> 70% stenosis and two were asymptomatic with> 80% stenosis, incidentally detected. Imaging included Duplex scan and MRA for carotid territory and brain, and non-invasive cardiac assessment. Co-morbidities included smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Carotid Endarterectomy was performed under general anaesthesia, using carotid shunt and vein patch arteriotomy repair. Results: All the patients made satisfactory recovery, without major adverse cerebral events in this series. Morbidities included Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA in two, needing only medications in one, and carotid stenting in the other. Minor morbidities included neck hematoma in two and transient hypoglossal paresis in three patients. Yearly follow-up included duplex scan assessment for all the patients. Two patients died of contralateral stroke, two of myocardial events and two were lost to follow up. Thirty three patients are well and free of the disease during the follow up of three to 120 months. Conclusion: Carotid endarterectomy provided near total freedom from adverse cerebral

  13. Bilateral dissection of the internal carotid artery at the base of the skull due to blunt trauma: incidence and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Y; Di Mauro, P; Tomachot, L; Albanese, J; Martin, C; Alliez, B; Juhan, C

    1998-11-01

    Between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 1996, a total of 1095 head trauma vicims were admitted in our intensive care unit. If CT scans demonstrated ischemic brain lesions, arteriography to visualize supraaortic vessels was performed. Carotid artery dissection was observed in ten patients (0.91%) and was bilateral in eight patients (0.73%). In the bilateral carotid artery dissection (BCAD) group, there were five women and three men, with a mean age of 35.2 years (range: 17 to 54 years). Injuries resulted from traffic accidents in seven patients and a fall in one patient. Upon admission, six patients presented with alteration of consciousness and three with hemiplegia or hemiparesia, associated with aphasia in two cases. In two other cases, hemiplegia occurred 24 hr and 13 days after the accident. All patients had brain infarction, which was unilateral in five cases and bilateral in three cases. The severity of lesions was graded on the basis of arteriographic findings as follows: Type I, wall involvement without significant stenosis or dilation; Type II, arterial dissection with stenosis >70% (Type IIA) or dilatation >50% (Type IIB) and the normal diameter of the proximal or distal internal carotid artery; and Type III, thrombosis of the internal carotid artery. Lesions were asymmetrical in six patients, including two with Type II and III lesions and four with Type I and II lesions, and symmetrical in two patients, including one with bilateral Type III lesions and one with bilateral Type II lesions. Surgery was performed in two patients with Type II lesions, including one case associated with contralateral carotid thrombosis. The intrapetrous carotid artery was exposed by an ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgeon and repaired by interposition grafting. Follow-up in these two surgical cases was 28 and 31 months. In the remaining six cases, medical treatment was performed. Outcome in nonsurgical cases was variable: death in two cases at 31 and 43 days after the accident

  14. The presence of calcifications along the course of internal carotid artery in Greek and Brazilian populations: a comparative and retrospective cone beam CT data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silveira, H.L.D.; Damaskos, S.; Arús, N.A.; Tsiklakis, K.; Berkhout, E.W.R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to retrospectively compare the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications (STCs) depicted incidentally along the extra- and intracranial course of the internal carotid artery (ICA) on cone beam computed tomography examinations in 2 different populations (Greeks and Brazilians).

  15. Internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm with life-threatening epistaxis as a complication of deep neck space infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paulo Sérgio Lucas; Waisberg, Daniel Reis

    2011-05-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the cervical internal carotid artery is a very rare, potentially fatal complication of a neck space infection in children associated with high mortality and morbidity. A 3-year-old boy presented with spontaneous massive epistaxis 45 days after a deep neck space infection caused by a peritonsillar abscess. During nasopharyngeal packing, he evolved with cardiac arrest. Intra-arterial angiography was then performed that revealed a large pseudoaneurysm. Endovascular treatment using detachable balloons achieved complete exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm. The child made an uneventful recovery and was discharged with mild left hemiparesis and no deficit of sensory or cognitive functions. Pseudoaneurysms of the internal carotid artery after a deep neck space infection can be associated with delayed and potentially fatal massive epistaxis. Furthermore, a regional (ie, extranasal) blood vessel should be promptly investigated when there are signs of hypovolemic shock. A high level of suspicion and definitive treatment are essential for successful management of these patients.

  16. Age but not ABCD(2) score predicts any level of carotid stenosis in either symptomatic or asymptomatic side in transient ischaemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, G S; Kyu, M M; Bettencourt-Silva, J H; Loke, Y K; Clark, A B; Metcalf, A K; Potter, J F; Myint, P K

    2015-09-01

    The ABCD(2) score is routinely used in assessment of transient ischaemic attack (TIA) to assess the risk of developing stroke. There remains uncertainty regarding whether the ABCD(2) score could be used to help predict extent of carotid artery stenosis (CAS). We aimed to (i) collate and analyse all available published literature on this topic and (ii) compare the data from our local population to the existing evidence base. We conducted a retrospective-observational study over a 6-month period using our East of England hospital-based TIA clinic data with a catchment population of ~750,000. We also searched the literature on studies reporting the association between ABCD(2) score and CAS. We included 341 patients in our observational study. The mean age in our cohort was 72.86 years (SD 10.91) with 52% male participants. ABCD(2) score was not significantly associated with CAS (p = 0.78). Only age > 60 years was significantly associated with ipsilateral (> 50%) and contralateral CAS (> 50% and > 70%) (p ABCD(2) score and CAS was reported, confirming our findings. Our systematic review and observational study confirm that the ABCD(2) score does not predict CAS. However, our observational study has examined a larger number of possible predictors and demonstrates that age appears to be the single best predictor of CAS in patients presenting with a TIA. Selection of urgent carotid ultrasound scan thus should be based on individual patient's age and potential benefit of carotid intervention rather than ABCD(2) score. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Lumped Parameter Method to Calculate the Effect of Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion on Anterior Cerebral Artery Pressure Waveform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Numerical modeling of biological structures would be very helpful tool to analyze hundreds of human body phenomena and also diseases diagnosis. One physiologic phenomenon is blood circulatory system and heart hemodynamic performance that can be simulated by utilizing lumped method. In this study, we can predict hemodynamic behavior of one artery of circulatory system (anterior cerebral artery when disease such as internal carotid artery occlusion is occurred. Method: Pressure-flow simulation is one the leading common approaches for modeling of circulatory system behavior and forecasts of hemodynamic in numerous physiological conditions. In this paper, by using lumped model (electrical analogy, CV system is simulated in MATLAB software (SIMULINK environment. Results: The performance of healthy blood circulation and heart is modeled and the obtained results used for further analyses. The stenosis of internal carotid artery at different rates was, then, induced in the circuit and the effects are studied. In stenosis cases, the effects of internal carotid artery occlusion on left anterior cerebral artery pressure waveform are investigated. Conclusion: The findings of this study may have implications not only for understanding the behavior of human biological system at healthy condition but also for diagnosis of diseases in circulatory and cardiovascular system of human body.

  18. Ocular Image and Haemodynamic Features Associated with Different Gradings of Ipsilateral Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyse the changes of ocular haemodynamics and morphology in Chinese patients with internal carotid artery (ICA stenosis in the current study. Methods. A retrospective case-control study was conducted with 219 patients. The haemodynamic characteristics, the calibre of retinal vessels, and the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT were compared. We analysed the correlations with the degree of ipsilateral ICA stenosis. Results. There were no significant differences among the groups in the central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE, central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE, and AVR (p=0.073, p=0.188, and p=0.738, resp.. The peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV in the central retinal artery (CRA and the posterior ciliary artery (PCA were significantly lower than normal eyes (p<0.001. The outer retinal layer thickness and SFChT values of the ICA stenosis groups were significantly lower than normal eyes (p=0.030 and p<0.001, resp.. Conclusion. The PSV and EDV in CRA and PCA and the SFChT and outer retinal layer thickness of ICA eyes were significantly lower than normal eyes. ICA stenosis may impact choroidal haemodynamics, and decreased choroidal circulation might affect the discordance of the SFChT and the outer retinal layer thickness.

  19. Vision Loss and RNFL Thinning after Internal Carotid Arter Occlusion and Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Alime; Demirci, Seden; Umul, Ayse

    2014-12-01

    Ischaemic, traumatic or neoplasmic damage to the optic chiasm, optic tract or lateral geniculate nucleus affects the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons, detected as reduced retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness around the optic nerve head. We report a case of vision loss and reduced RNFL thickness after internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. A 33-year-old woman with a 3-month history of vision loss in right eye and left hemiplegia. The best corrected visual acuity was 1.0 in left eye and there was no light perception in the right eye. Ocular motility, intra-ocular pressure, anterior segments were normal in the both eyes. Her fundus examinations were normal except optic atrophy in the right eye. Visual field test was not performed because of cooperation difficulties. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an infarction of the right MCA. Computed tomographic angiography showed right ICA occlusion. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated 6 clock hours of RNFL thinning in the right eye. Average RNFL thickness of the right and left eyes were 53µm, 96 µm respectively. Our findings show that a relatively short period of ICA occlusion and MCA infarction can cause vision loss and thinning of the RNFL.

  20. Hemodynamics model of fluid-solid interaction in internal carotid artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai-Nan, Xu; Fu-Yu, Wang; Lei, Liu; Xiao-Jun, Zhang; Hai-Yue, Ju

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present a relatively simple method to reconstruct cerebral aneurysms as 3D numerical grids. The method accurately duplicates the geometry to provide computer simulations of the blood flow. Initial images were obtained by using CT angiography and 3D digital subtraction angiography in DICOM format. The image was processed by using MIMICS software, and the 3D fluid model (blood flow) and 3D solid model (wall) were generated. The subsequent output was exported to the ANSYS workbench software to generate the volumetric mesh for further hemodynamic study. The fluid model was defined and simulated in CFX software while the solid model was calculated in ANSYS software. The force data calculated firstly in the CFX software were transferred to the ANSYS software, and after receiving the force data, total mesh displacement data were calculated in the ANSYS software. Then, the mesh displacement data were transferred back to the CFX software. The data exchange was processed in workbench software. The results of simulation could be visualized in CFX-post. Two examples of grid reconstruction and blood flow simulation for patients with internal carotid artery aneurysms were presented. The wall shear stress, wall total pressure, and von Mises stress could be visualized. This method seems to be relatively simple and suitable for direct use by neurosurgeons or neuroradiologists, and maybe a practical tool for planning treatment and follow-up of patients after neurosurgical or endovascular interventions with 3D angiography.

  1. Hemodynamics model of fluid–solid interaction in internal carotid artery aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-Yu, Wang; Lei, Liu; Xiao-Jun, Zhang; Hai-Yue, Ju

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present a relatively simple method to reconstruct cerebral aneurysms as 3D numerical grids. The method accurately duplicates the geometry to provide computer simulations of the blood flow. Initial images were obtained by using CT angiography and 3D digital subtraction angiography in DICOM format. The image was processed by using MIMICS software, and the 3D fluid model (blood flow) and 3D solid model (wall) were generated. The subsequent output was exported to the ANSYS workbench software to generate the volumetric mesh for further hemodynamic study. The fluid model was defined and simulated in CFX software while the solid model was calculated in ANSYS software. The force data calculated firstly in the CFX software were transferred to the ANSYS software, and after receiving the force data, total mesh displacement data were calculated in the ANSYS software. Then, the mesh displacement data were transferred back to the CFX software. The data exchange was processed in workbench software. The results of simulation could be visualized in CFX-post. Two examples of grid reconstruction and blood flow simulation for patients with internal carotid artery aneurysms were presented. The wall shear stress, wall total pressure, and von Mises stress could be visualized. This method seems to be relatively simple and suitable for direct use by neurosurgeons or neuroradiologists, and maybe a practical tool for planning treatment and follow-up of patients after neurosurgical or endovascular interventions with 3D angiography. PMID:20812022

  2. Pre-operative embolisation of internal carotid artery branches and pial vessels in hypervascular brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Y S; Ahn, J Y; Chang, J H; Cho, J H; Suh, S H; Lee, B H; Lee, K S

    2008-05-01

    Pre-operative embolisation is an effective method used to reduce intra-operative bleeding and operative difficulty in hypervascular brain tumour surgery. However, embolisation of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and pial tumour feeding branches has certain limitations. From March 2000 to November 2006, 8 patients underwent superselective embolisation for hypervascular brain tumour. Seven tumours were extra-axial (6 meningiomas, 1 solitary fibrous tumour) and 1 was intra-axial (metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma). In all patients, feeding vessels from ICA branches or pial arteries were successfully embolised using superselective microcatheterisation. A provocative test was applied in 4 patients who had tumours adjacent to the motor cortex. Angiographic devascularisation was slight to extensive. Mean devascularisation on post-embolisation MRI ranged from 40 to 80% (mean 63.8%). One patient (12.5%) suffered an embolisation-related complication (loss of choroidal brush), but was not clinically worse because of the pre-existing blindness. Superselective embolisation of ICA branches or pial vessels should be performed if several conditions are met, especially angiographic findings, pre-existing neurologic deficits, provocative test, and technical feasibility. If the ICA embolisation for hypervascular tumour is successfully achieved, the bleeding loss and operative risk can be reduced.

  3. Anatomical nuances of the internal carotid artery in relation to the quadrangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Ricardo L L; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Goulart, Carlos R; Upadhyay, Smita; Buohliqah, Lamia; Lazarini, Paulo R; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in relation to the quadrangular space (QS) and to propose a classification system based on the results. METHODS A total of 44 human cadaveric specimens were dissected endonasally under direct endoscopic visualization. During the dissection, the anatomical variations of the ICA and their relationship with the QS were noted. RESULTS The space between the paraclival ICAs (i.e., intercarotid space) can be classified as 1 of 3 different shapes (i.e., trapezoid, square, or hourglass) based on the trajectory of the ICAs. The ICA trajectories also directly influence the volumetric area of the QS. Based on its geometry, the QS was classified as one of the following: 1) Type A has the smallest QS area and is associated with a trapezoid intercarotid space, 2) Type B corresponds to the expected QS area (not minimized or enlarged) and is associated with a square intercarotid space, and 3) Type C has the largest QS area and is associated with an hourglass intercarotid space. CONCLUSIONS The different trajectories of the ICAs can modify the area of the QS and may be an essential parameter to consider for preoperative planning and defining the most appropriate corridor to reach Meckel's cave. In addition, ICA trajectories should be considered prior to surgery to avoid injuring the vessels.

  4. Internal jugular vein/common carotid artery cross-sectional area ratio and central venous pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Nejad, Hooman; Mohammadinejad, Payam; Ahmadi, Faezeh

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the accuracy of the sonographic assessment of internal jugular vein/common carotid artery (IJV/CCA) cross-sectional area ratio in predicting central venous pressure (CVP) in critically ill patients. In adult patients who underwent central venous catheterization for monitoring of hemodynamic status, we used bedside sonography for diameter and cross-sectional area measurement of IJV and CCA. The IJV/CCA ratio was then calculated, and its correlation with CVP as well as its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were analyzed. We enrolled 52 patients with a mean age of 58.8 ± 10.7 years. The mean IJV/CCA ratio was 1.89 ± 0.83 and 1.90 ± 0.83, respectively, at inspiration and expiration. A significant correlation was observed between IJV/CCA ratio and CVP (r = 0.728, p central venous catheterization in order to evaluate the hemodynamic status of critically ill patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:312-318, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Semi-automatic quantitative measurements of intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis and calcification using CT angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, Leslie; Marquering, Henk A.; van den Berg, René; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Majoie, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. However, its quantitative assessment is not routinely performed in clinical practice. In this diagnostic study, we present and evaluate a novel semi-automatic application to quantitatively measure

  6. Internal carotid artery dissection after anterior cervical disc replacement: first case report and literature review of vascular complications of the approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret, Jean-Edouard; Francois, Patrick; Papagiannaki, Chrysanthi; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Terrier, Louis-Marie; Zemmoura, Ilyess

    2013-07-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman who underwent cervical total disc replacement at C4C5 and C5C6 levels and fusion at C6C7 level through an anterior right-side approach. After anesthesia recovery, the patient presented left hemiparesia and facial palsy due to large right hemispheric stroke. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed as soon as the patient developed neurologic symptoms of stroke and revealed a right internal carotid artery dissection. Digital substraction angiography, endovascular stenting, angioplasty and thrombectomy were performed. Six months after treatment, clinical examination showed mild left-arm spasticity. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of internal carotid artery stroke without dissection or thrombosis are reported. In conclusion, although vascular complications are rare after anterior cervical spine procedure, internal carotid artery dissection can occur. Suspected risk factors are prolonged retraction of the carotid artery and neck extension.

  7. Systematic preoperative coronary angiography and stenting improves postoperative results of carotid endarterectomy in patients with asymptomatic coronary artery disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Ricco, J-B; Greco, C; Mangieri, E; Calio', F; Ceccanei, G; Pacilè, M A; Schiariti, M; Tanzilli, G; Barillà, F; Paravati, V; Mazzesi, G; Miraldi, F; Tritapepe, L

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of systematic coronary angiography followed, if needed, by coronary artery angioplasty (percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)) on the incidence of cardiac ischaemic events after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients without evidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). From January 2005 to December 2008, 426 patients, candidates for CEA, with no history of CAD and with normal cardiac ultrasound and electrocardiography (ECG), were randomised into two groups. In group A (n=216) all the patients had coronary angiography performed before CEA. In group B, all the patients had CEA without previous coronary angiography. In group A, 66 patients presenting significant coronary artery lesions at angiography received PCI before CEA. They subsequently underwent surgery under aspirin (100 mg day(-1)) and clopidogrel (75 mg day(-1)). CEA was performed within a median delay of 4 days after PCI (range: 1-8 days). Risk factors, indications for CEA and surgical techniques were comparable in both groups (p>0.05). The primary combined endpoint of the study was the incidence of postoperative myocardial ischaemic events combined with the incidence of complications of coronary angiography. Secondary endpoints were death and stroke rates after CEA and incidence of cervical haematoma. Postoperative mortality was 0% in group A and 0.9% in group B (p=0.24). One postoperative stroke (0.5%) occurred in group A, and two (0.9%) in group B (p=0.62). No postoperative myocardial event was observed in group A, whereas nine ischaemic events were observed in group B, including one fatal myocardial infarction (p=0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that preoperative coronary angiography was the only independent variable that predicted the occurrence of postoperative coronary ischaemia after CEA. The odds ratio for coronary angiography (group A) indicated that when holding all other variables constant, a patient having preoperative coronary angiography

  8. Internal carotid artery dissection in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nasser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS type IV, also known as vascular EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1/100,000 to 1/250,000. In EDS type IV, vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a preference for large- and medium-sized arteries. Dissections of the vertebral and carotid arteries in their extra- and intra-cranial segments are typical. The authors report the case of a patient with EDS type IV for whom the diagnosis was established based on clinical signs and who developed internal carotid artery dissection at the age of 44 years. In the absence of a specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical interventions should focus on symptomatic relief, prophylactic measures, and genetic counseling. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated, and a conservative approach to vascular complications is usually recommended.

  9. Carotid Stump Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Toufic Dakhoul MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To highlight the case of a patient with multiple transient ischemic attacks and visual disturbances diagnosed with carotid stump syndrome and managed with endovascular approach. Case Presentation. We present the case of a carotid stump syndrome in an elderly patient found to have moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis in response to an advertisement for carotid screening. After a medical therapeutic approach and a close follow-up, transient ischemic attacks recurred. Computed tomographic angiography showed an occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and the presence of moderate stenosis in the right internal carotid artery, which was treated by endovascular stenting and balloon insertion. One month later, the patient presented with visual disturbances due to the left carotid stump and severe stenosis of the left external carotid artery that was reapproached by endovascular stenting. Conclusion. Considerations should be given to the carotid stump syndrome as a source of emboli for ischemic strokes, and vascular assessment could be used to detect and treat this syndrome.

  10. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chao; Mondal, Shubhro; Ping, Kaike; Chen, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM), on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model) and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM), uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM) of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM. PMID:28303160

  11. Endoscopic endonasal nasopharyngectomy: tensor veli palatine muscle as a landmark for the parapharyngeal internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Lin; Hsu, Ning-I; Shen, Ping-Hung

    2017-06-01

    Endoscopic endonasal nasopharyngectomy(EEN) can be a promising option for select patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, but serious complications can occur in terms of parapharyngeal internal carotid artery (PPICA) injury. Several landmarks have been proposed for locating the PPICA. In this study, we investigated the spatial relationship between the tensor veli palatini (TVP) muscle and the PPICA in a cadaveric model. Seven fresh cadaver heads were available for anatomic study. Eustachian tube and the levator veli palatine (LVP) muscle were partially sacrificed or truncated to maximize the surgical field, and the TVP muscle was carefully preserved. Complete dissection was defined as when the PPICA could be visualized. We then measured the distance between the posterior margin of the TVP muscle and PPICA (z-axis), and the distance from the midline of the nasopharynx to the PPICA (x-axis). Thirteen sides of the PPICA were successfully identified. The mean distance between the posterior margin of the TVP to the PPICA (z) was 20.3 mm (range, 12 to 28 mm), and the mean distance between the midline of the nasopharynx to the PPICA (x) was 19.6 mm (range, 15 to 24 mm). The PPICA was located in the same sagittal plane as the TVP muscle during dissection posteriorly. The PPICA appeared to lie around 2 cm laterally from the midline at around 2 cm in depth from the posterior margin of the TVP muscle. However, the exact position of the PPICA should be assessed using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative image-guided systems. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. Computed tomography angiography intraluminal filling defect is predictive of internal carotid artery free-floating thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaberi, A.; Lum, C.; Stefanski, P.; Iancu, D. [University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thornhill, R. [Neurosciences and Clinical Epidemiology Program/Methods Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Petrcich, W. [Neurosciences and Clinical Epidemiology Program/Methods Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Momoli, F. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Torres, C.; Dowlatshahi, D. [University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); University of Ottawa, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Filling defects at the internal carotid artery (ICA) origin in the work-up of stroke or transient ischemic attack may be an ulcerated plaque or free-floating thrombus (FFT). This may be challenging to distinguish, as they can appear morphologically similar. This is an important distinction as FFT can potentially embolize distally, and its management differs. We describe a series of patients with suspected FFT and evaluate its imaging appearance, clinical features, and evolution with therapy. Between 2008 and 2013, we prospectively collected consecutive patients with proximal ICA filling defects in the axial plane surrounded by contrast on CT/MR angiography. We defined FFT as a filling defect that resolved on follow-up imaging. We assessed the cranial-caudal dimension of the filling defect and receiver operating characteristics to identify clinical and radiological variables that distinguished FFT from complex ulcerated plaque. Intraluminal filling defects were identified in 32 patients. Filling defects and resolved or decreased in 25 patients (78 %) and felt to be FFT; there was no change in 7 (22 %). Resolved defects and those that decreased in size extended more cranially than those that remained unchanged: 7.3 mm (4.2-15.9) versus 3.1 mm (2.7-3.7; p = 0.0038). Receiver operating characteristic analysis established a threshold of 3.8 mm (filling defect length), sensitivity of 88 %, specificity of 86 %, and area under the curve of 0.86 (p < 0.0001) for distinguishing FFT from plaque. Filling defects in the proximal ICA extending cranially >3.8 mm were more likely to be FFT than complex ulcerated plaque. Further studies evaluating filling defect length as a predictor for FFT are warranted. (orig.)

  13. Dissection of internal carotid and vertebral arteries: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Andreevna Kalashnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature and the author’s results of an examination of almost 140 patients with dissection of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries (ICA and VA. Dissection is blood penetration through an intimal tear from the lumen of an artery into its wall to develop intramural hematoma (IMH. The cause of dissection is the weakness of the arterial wall presumably due to mitochondrial cytopathy. IMH narrows/occludes the arterial lumen or is a source of arterioarterial embolism, which in turn leads to ischemic stroke. Stroke as a result of dissection generally develops in young patients, who are not prone to traditional vascular risk factors, frequently after the influence of provocative factors (mild head/neck injury, head jerks, physical strain, contraceptives, etc.. The characteristics of stroke are head/neck pain on the side of dissection that appears a few days prior to stroke or simultaneously with the latter; quite often a good recovery of impaired functions; and low recurrence rates. Another major manifestation, isolated cervicocephalic pain, is encountered in PA dissection more frequently (in almost a third of cases and in ICA dissection less frequently (about 5%. Magnetic resonance (MR angiography and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR imaging play a leading role in the verification of dissection. Dissection should be treated with anticoagulants/antiaggregants in its acute phase, as well as with trophic drugs, primarily actovegin, in both acute and chronic phases.

  14. Quantitative flow measurement after placing a flow diverter for a distal internal carotid artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Wei; Wong, Ho-Fai; Ye, Yu-Ling; Chen, Yao-Liang; Chen, Wei-Liang; Ou, Chang-Hsien; Tsai, Yuan-Hsiung

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the differences in arterial flow after flow diverter placement using quantitative flow measurements based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Between November 2013 and November 2015, all patients who had flow diverters placed for distal internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms were reviewed. Patients in whom the stent was placed across the ostia of the ophthalmic artery (OphA) and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) were enrolled. Five regions of interest were selected: the proximal ICA (as a reference), terminal ICA, middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA), OphA, and AChA. The values of the peak, time-to-peak (TTP), and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed using a quantitative DSA technique. The study enrolled 13 patients. The quantitative flow analysis showed improved flow in the terminal ICA (peak and AUC, p=0.036 and p=0.04, respectively), MCA (AUC, p=0.023), and ACA (AUC, p=0.006), and decreased flow in the OphA (peak and AUC, p=0.013 and p=0.005, respectively) and AChA (peak and subtracted TTP, p=0.023 and p=0.050, respectively) after flow diverter placement. Larger aneurysm volume was significantly correlated with decreased OphA flow after the procedure (peak and AUC, p=0.049 and p=0.037, respectively). Larger aneurysm volume also had a marginal correlation with increased distal ICA flow after the procedure, but this did not reach significance (peak and AUC, p=0.195 and p=0.060, respectively). Without using extra contrast medium or radiation dosages, color-coded DSA enables quantitative monitoring of the cerebral circulation after flow-diverting treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Atherosclerotic plaques in the internal carotid artery and associations with lung function assessed by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Sophia; Nihlén, Ulf; Dencker, Magnus; Engström, Gunnar; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Wollmer, Per

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies on associations between reduced lung function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have mainly been based on forced expiratory volume in 1-s (FEV(1) ) and vital capacity (VC). This study examined potential associations between five different lung function variables and plaques in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Subjects (n = 450) from a previous population-based respiratory questionnaire survey [current smokers without lower respiratory symptoms, subjects with a self-reported diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and never-smokers without lower respiratory symptoms] were examined using spirometry, body plethysmography and measurements of diffusing capacity for CO (D(L,CO) ). Plaques in the ICA were assessed by ultrasonography. Two hundred and twenty subjects were current smokers, 139 ex-smokers and 89 never-smokers. COPD was diagnosed in 130 subjects (GOLD criteria). Plaques in the ICA were present in 231 subjects (52%). General linear analysis with adjustment for established risk factors for atherosclerosis, including C-reactive protein, showed that D(L,CO) was lower [77.4% versus 83.7% of predicted normal (PN), P = 0.014] and residual volume (RV) was higher (110.3% versus 104.8% of PN, P = 0.020) in subjects with than without plaques in the ICA. This analysis did not show any statistically significant association between plaques and FEV(1) or VC. The occurrence of plaques in the ICA was associated with low D(L,CO) and high RV, but not significantly with FEV(1) or COPD status. The results suggest that the relationships between reduced lung function, COPD and CVD are complex and not only linked to bronchial obstruction and low-grade systemic inflammation. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  16. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM, on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA. Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM, uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM.

  17. Carotid endarterectomy should not be based on consensus statement duplex velocity criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbo, Jesse A; Suckow, Bjoern D; Griffin, Claire L; Cronenwett, Jack L; Goodney, Philip P; Lukovits, Timothy G; Zwolak, Robert M; Fillinger, Mark F

    2017-04-01

    Randomized trials support carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in asymptomatic patients with ≥60% internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. The widely referenced Society for Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Statement on carotid duplex ultrasound (CDUS) imaging indicates that an ICA peak systolic velocity (PSV) ≥230 cm/s corresponds to a ≥70% ICA stenosis, leading to the potential conclusion that asymptomatic patients with an ICA PSV ≥230 cm/s would benefit from CEA. Our goal was to determine the natural history stroke risk of asymptomatic patients who might have undergone CEA based on consensus statement PSV of ≥230 cm/s but instead were treated medically based on more conservative CDUS imaging criteria. All patients who underwent CDUS imaging at our institution during 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. The year 2009 was chosen to ensure extended follow-up. Asymptomatic patients were included if their ICA PSV was ≥230 cm/s but less than what our laboratory considers a ≥80% stenosis by CDUS imaging (PSV ≥430 cm/s, end-diastolic velocity ≥151 cm/s, or ICA/common carotid artery PSV ratio ≥7.5). Study end points included freedom from transient ischemic attack (TIA), freedom from any stroke, freedom from carotid-etiology stroke, and freedom from revascularization. Criteria for review were met by 327 patients. Mean follow-up was 4.3 years, with 85% of patients having >3-year follow-up. Four unheralded strokes occurred during follow-up at carotid artery. Ipsilateral TIA occurred in 17 patients. An additional 12 strokes occurred that appeared unrelated to ipsilateral carotid disease, including hemorrhagic events, contralateral, and cerebellar strokes. Revascularization was undertaken in 59 patients, 1 for stroke, 12 for TIA, and 46 for asymptomatic disease. Actuarial freedom from carotid-etiology stroke was 99.7%, 98.4%, and 98.4% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Freedom from TIA was 98%, 96%, and 95%, freedom from any stroke was 99%, 96%, and

  18. The Role of the Model of End-Stage Liver Disease Score in Predicting Outcomes of Carotid Endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafcik, Brianna M; Farber, Alik; Eslami, Mohammad H; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; King, Elizabeth G; Siracuse, Jeffrey J

    2016-08-01

    The Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score has been traditionally utilized to prioritize for liver transplantation; however, recent literature has shown its value in predicting surgical outcomes for patients with hepatic dysfunction. The benefit of carotid endarterectomy in asymptomatic patients is dependent on low perioperative morbidity. Our objective was to use MELD score to predict outcomes in asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data sets from 2005 to 2012. The Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score was calculated using serum bilirubin, creatinine, and the international normalized ratio (INR). Patients were grouped into low (carotid endarterectomy identified. The majority 5556 (70%) had a low MELD score, 1952 (25%) had a moderate MELD score, and 458 (5%) had a high MELD score. High MELD score was independently predictive of postoperative death, increased length of stay, need for transfusion, pulmonary complications, and a statistical trend toward increased cardiac arrest/myocardial infarction. The Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score did not affect postoperative stroke, wound complications, or operative time. High MELD score places asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a higher risk of adverse outcomes in the 30 days following surgery. This provides further empirical evidence for risk stratification when considering treatment for these patients. Outcomes of medical management or carotid stenting should be investigated in high-risk patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Trombose de artéria carótida comum: tratamento cirúrgico com anastomose subclávio-carotidea Occlusion of the common carotid artery treated with a subclavian-internal carotid artery bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Dellaretti Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o caso de mulher de 62 anos, com história de vários ataques isquêmicos transitórios. Os exames complementares revelaram oclusão da artéria carótida comum e revascularização da artéria carótida interna (ACI através de anastomose com a artéria tiroidiana inferior, bem como aneurisma na ACI supraclinoidea. A paciente foi tratada com "bypass" entre a artéria subclávia e a artéria carótida interna cervical, ocorrendo regressão completa dos sintomas de isquemia cerebral no pós-operatório.We describe the case of a 62 years old woman with several transient isquemic attacks. The neuroradiological study demonstrated occlusion of the common carotid artery with revascularization of the internal carotid artery by anastomosis with the inferior thyroid artery and an aneurysm of internal carotid artery at the emergency of the anterior choroidal artery. The patient was treated with a bypass between the subclavian artery and the internal carotid artery with complete regression of the symptoms.

  20. Bilateral spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection managed with endovascular stenting – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Agarwala

    2016-09-01

    We describe a patient with ischemic stroke from spontaneous bilateral ICAD with completely occluded left ICA. Having failed medical therapy with antiplatelets and anticoagulants due to extensive loss of carotid vascular supply, he was managed successfully with endovascular stenting with good neurological recovery.

  1. HDL efflux capacity, HDL particle size, and high-risk carotid atherosclerosis in a cohort of asymptomatic older adults: the Chicago Healthy Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutharasan, R Kannan; Thaxton, C Shad; Berry, Jarett; Daviglus, Martha L; Yuan, Chun; Sun, Jie; Ayers, Colby; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Wilkins, John T

    2017-03-01

    HDL efflux capacity and HDL particle size are associated with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) events in middle-aged individuals; however, it is unclear whether these associations are present in older adults. We sampled 402 Chicago Healthy Aging Study participants who underwent a dedicated carotid MRI assessment for lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) plaque. We measured HDL particle size, HDL particle number, and LDL particle number with NMR spectroscopy, as well as HDL efflux capacity. We quantified the associations between HDL particle size and HDL efflux using adjusted linear regression models. We quantified associations between the presence of LRNC and HDL and LDL particle number, HDL particle size, and HDL efflux capacity using adjusted logistic regression models. HDL efflux capacity was directly associated with large (β = 0.037, P < 0.001) and medium (β = 0.0065, P = 0.002) HDL particle concentration and inversely associated with small (β = -0.0049, P = 0.018) HDL particle concentration in multivariable adjusted models. HDL efflux capacity and HDL particle number were inversely associated with prevalent LRNC plaque in unadjusted models (odds ratio: 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.96), but not after multivariable adjustment. HDL particle size was not associated with prevalent LRNC. HDL particle size was significantly associated with HDL efflux capacity, suggesting that differences in HDL efflux capacity may be due to structural differences in HDL particles. Future research is needed to determine whether HDL efflux is a marker of ASCVD risk in older populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Application of 3-Dimensional Computerized Tomography Angiography for Defining Cavernous Sinus Aneurysms and Intradural Aneurysms Involving the Internal Carotid Artery Around the Anterior Clinoid Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Quan; Huang, Chun-Bo; Wang, Jun-Yu; Jiang, Bing; Zhang, Long-Bo; Zeng, Ming; Chen, Yuan-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Chen, Feng-Hua

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the application of 3-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) for defining cavernous sinus aneurysms and intradural aneurysms involving the internal carotid artery around the anterior clinoid process. Results from 42 patients with an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery around the anterior clinoid process who underwent 3D-CTA were reviewed and compared with those of observed clinical operations. Among the 42 patients, there was a total of 45 aneurysms of the internal carotid artery around the anterior clinoid process. After surgery, 33 of the 45 aneurysms were confirmed as intradural aneurysms, and the other 12 were confirmed as aneurysms in the cavernous sinus. 3D-CTA imaging of the medial sagittal plane showed that 31 out of 31 (100%) intradural aneurysms of the internal carotid artery were above the virtual line between the inferior border of the anterior clinoid process and the tuberculum sellae, and 12 out of 14 (86%) cavernous sinus aneurysms were below the virtual line (P cavernous sinus aneurysms from intradural aneurysms involving the internal carotid artery around the anterior clinoid process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carotid Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Carotid Ultrasound Also known as carotid duplex. Carotid ultrasound is a painless imaging test that uses high- ... of your carotid arteries. This test uses an ultrasound machine, which includes a computer, a screen, and ...

  4. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissection caused by compression from a giant osteophyte due to atlantoaxial osteoarthritis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikedo, Taichi; Nakamura, Kazuhito; Sano, Noritaka; Nagata, Manabu; Okada, Yumiko; Kawakami, Taichiro; Murata, Takaho

    2017-10-01

    Deformed osseous structures have been reported as rare causes of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection, including the styloid process and the hyoid bone. Here, the authors describe the first known case of symptomatic ICA dissection caused by a giant osteophyte due to atlantoaxial osteoarthritis. The left ICA was fixed at the skull base and at the ICA portion compressed by the osteophyte, and it was highly stretched and injured between the two portions during neck rotation. The patient was successfully treated with ligation of the affected ICA following balloon test occlusion. Atlantoaxial osteoarthritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ICA dissection in patients with a severely deformed cervical spine.

  5. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of vulnerable carotid plaque: correlation between videodensitometric method and histological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherri Jesualdo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To establish the correlation between quantitative analysis based on B-mode ultrasound images of vulnerable carotid plaque and histological examination of the surgically removed plaque, on the basis of a videodensitometric digital texture characterization. Methods Twenty-five patients (18 males, mean age 67 ± 6.9 years admitted for carotid endarterectomy for extracranial high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70% luminal narrowing underwent to quantitative ultrasonic tissue characterization of carotid plaque before surgery. A computer software (Carotid Plaque Analysis Software was developed to perform the videodensitometric analysis. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to symptomatology (group I, 15 symptomatic patients; and group II, 10 patients asymptomatic. Tissue specimens were analysed for lipid, fibromuscular tissue and calcium. Results The first order statistic parameter mean gray level was able to distinguish the groups I and II (p = 0.04. The second order parameter energy also was able to distinguish the groups (p = 0,02. A histological correlation showed a tendency of mean gray level to have progressively greater values from specimens with 75% of fibrosis. Conclusion Videodensitometric computer analysis of scan images may be used to identify vulnerable and potentially unstable lipid-rich carotid plaques, which are less echogenic in density than stable or asymptomatic, more densely fibrotic plaques.

  6. The prognostic role of carotid plaque ultrasonography in cardiac damage after carotid endarterectomy: carotid plaque and cardiac risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyfos, George; Toutouzas, Konstantinos P; Benetos, George; Konstadoulakis, Manousos; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Katsaragakis, Stilianos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Zografos, Georgios; Filis, Konstantinos

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the correlation of ultrasound determined carotid plaque morphology with coronary risk and cardiac damage after carotid endarterectomy. Fifty patients (in a series of 162) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy had the indication for coronary CT-angiography preoperatively and were included in this study. Patients were classified according to ultrasonographic characteristics of carotid plaque. The Duke Criteria were used to assess the degree of coronary risk (low, medium and high risk). Cardiac damage after carotid endarterectomy was evaluated based on symptoms, cardiac Troponin I measurement and electrocardiographic findings. There were no deaths, strokes or symptomatic myocardial infarctions postoperatively (30-day results). Ten patients (20%) showed asymptomatic cardiac damage postoperatively. Cardiac damage after surgery did not show any difference between the three cardiac risk groups. Echogenic and specifically Type IV carotid artery plaques (Gray-Weale Criteria) were associated with high cardiac risk preoperatively and with postoperative cardiac damage. The degree of carotid artery stenosis, and echolucent carotid plaques were not associated with postoperative cardiac damage. Asymptomatic postoperative cardiac damage occurs often after carotid endarterectomy and presents independently from coronary risk. Carotid plaques of higher echogenicity are associated with severity of coronary artery disease and cardiac damage after carotid endarterectomy.

  7. High-flow bypass and wrap-clipping for ruptured blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery using intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubo Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoshitaka Kubo, Takahiro Koji, Kenji Yoshida, Hideo Saito, Akira Ogawa, Kuniaki Ogasawara Department of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan Abstract: Aneurysms at non-branching sites in the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA can be classified as “blood blister-like aneurysms” (BBAs, which have blood blister-like configurations and fragile walls. While surgical treatment for the BBA in the acute stage is recommended, the optimal surgical procedure remains controversial. In the study reported here, we describe the case of a 37-year-old woman with a ruptured BBA in the ophthalmic segment of the right ICA who underwent wrap-clipping with external carotid artery–internal carotid artery bypass by intraoperative estimation of the measurement of cortical cerebral blood flow (CoBF using a thermal diffusion flow probe. Trapping of the ICA in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage may result in ischemic complications secondary to hemodynamic hypoperfusion or occlusion of the perforating artery, and/or delayed vasospasm, even with concomitant bypass surgery. We believe that it is important to perform scheduled external carotid artery–internal carotid artery bypass before trapping of the ICA in patients with a ruptured BBA in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage and to perform wrap-clipping rather than trapping. This would provide much more CoBF if a reduction of CoBF occurs after trapping occlusion of the ICA including a ruptured BBA according to intraoperative CoBF monitoring. As far as we are aware, the case reported here is the first report on high-flow bypass and wrap-clipping for a ruptured BBA of the ICA using intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics. Keywords: surgery, cortical blood flow, external carotid artery–internal carotid artery bypass, subarachnoid hemorrhage

  8. A rare complication of middle ear cholesteatoma – Pseudoaneurysm of petrous internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Y. Lim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report a rare complication of middle ear cholesteatoma resulting pseudoaneurysm of petrous internal carotid artery (ICA. Case report: A 39 year old lady presented with sudden profuse bleeding from the right ear. Previously, she had been having bilateral intermittent foul smelling ear discharge for a year. Otoscope finding was insignificant as only blood seen. Computed tomography of temporal bone and magnetic resonance imaging of brain suggested locally aggressive cholesteatoma. Right ICA angiography showed pseudoaneurysm of petrous part of ICA. She underwent coil embolisation followed by bilateral modified radical mastoidectomy a month later. She recovered well after surgery and remained symptoms free. Conclusions: Pseudoaneurysm of petrous ICA as a complication of middle ear cholesteatoma is extremely rare. Spontaneous profuse bleeding maybe the only clinical presentation. Radiological imaging is important to diagnose and assist in treatment. Endovascular technique may be required, followed by surgical treatment for infection control Keywords: Cholesteatoma, Middle ear, Aneurysm, False, Angiography, Carotid artery, Internal

  9. Intraoperative radiation of canine carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. Therapeutic applications in the management of advanced head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, B.B.; Pelzer, H.; Tsao, C.S.; Ward, W.F.; Johnson, P.; Friedman, C.; Sisson, G.A. Sr.; Kies, M. (Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-12-01

    As a step in the application of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for treating advanced head and neck cancers, preliminary information was obtained on the radiation tolerance of the canine common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve to a single, high-dose electron beam. Both sides of the neck of eight mongrel dogs were operated on to expose an 8-cm segment of common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. One side of the neck was irradiated, using escalating doses of 2500, 3500, 4500, and 5500 cGy. The contralateral side of the neck served as the unirradiated control. At 3 and 6 months after IORT, one dog at each dose level was killed. None of the dogs developed carotid bleeding at any time after IORT. Light microscopic investigations using hematoxylin-eosin staining on the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein showed no consistent changes that suggested radiation damage; however, the Masson trichrome stain and hydroxyproline concentration of irradiated common carotid artery indicated an increase in the collagen content of the tunica media. Marked changes in the irradiated vagus nerve were seen, indicating severe demyelination and loss of nerve fibers, which appeared to be radiation-dose dependent. Four patients with advanced recurrent head and neck cancer were treated with surgical resection and IORT without any acute or subacute complications. The role of IORT as a supplement to surgery, external beam irradiation, and chemotherapy in selected patients with advanced head and neck cancer needs further exploration.

  10. Association Between Macrominerals Intake and Changes in Internal Carotid Artery-Intima Media Thickness in POST Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Tugasworo, Dodik; Silaen, Rumintang

    2017-02-01

    Carotid Intima Media Thickness (C-IMT) has been widely used as marker for atherosclerosis. Previous studies on minerals intake and its association with C-IMT revealed various. Most of the studies showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to determine wether macro minerals intake is related to internal carotid-intima media thickness (IC-IMT). This is a longitudinal study, pre test post test design conducted in Neurology clinic, Kariadi hospital, Semarang from June to December 2014. Subjects were 22 post ischemic stroke patients. Minerals intake and IC-IMT was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire and Duplex Carotid Ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square, Fisher Exact and Logistic Regression test. Subjects included in this study were 17 male subjects (77.3%) and 5 female subjects (22.7%). Mean of IC-IMT in female subjects was found to be higher than in male. Mean of total IC-IMT was increased after a period of six months (0.96±0.80 to 0.97±0.21 mm). There were significant association between calcium as well as sodium intakes and IC-IMT. In contrast, there were no association between magnesium as well as potassium intake and IC-IMT. Multivariate analysis suggest that sodium intake (OR=26.828) was the most influencing factor for IC-IMT, followed by calcium intake (OR=0.042). Calcium as well as potassium intake were independently associated with IC-IMT. Magnecium as well as sodium intake were not independently associated with IC-IMT changes. Sodium intake was the most influencing variable to IC-IMT changes, followed by calcium intake.

  11. Reperfusion does not improve impaired rapid-onset cortical plasticity in patients with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan List

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA has been associated with impaired cognition in patients, but its effect on rapid-onset cortical plasticity is not known. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA in patients with severe ICA stenosis reduces stroke risk, but the impact on cognition or physiology of the respective hemisphere remains controversial. METHODS/RESULTS: 16 patients with severe stenosis of the ICA and 16 age and sex matched controls were included. Rapid-onset cortical plasticity was assessed using the paired-associative stimulation (PAS protocol. PAS models long-term synaptic potentiation in human motor cortex, combining repetitive stimulation of the peripheral ulnar nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation of the contralateral motor cortex. Cognitive status was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. In patients, verbal learning and rapid-onset cortical plasticity were significantly reduced as compared to controls. Identical follow-up tests in 9 of the 16 patients six months after CEA revealed no improvement of cognitive parameters or cortical plasticity. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased rapid-onset cortical plasticity in patients with severe stenosis of the ICA was not improved by reperfusion. Thus, other strategies known to increase plasticity should be tested for their potential to improve cortical plasticity and subsequently cognition in these patients.

  12. Remifentanil decreases oral tissue blood flow while maintaining internal carotid artery blood flow during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Atsushi; Kasahara, Masataka; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2017-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of remifentanil infusion on oral tissue blood flow including submandibular gland tissue blood flow (SBF) and internal carotid artery blood flow (ICBF) in rabbits during sevoflurane anesthesia. Twelve male Japan White rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Remifentanil was infused at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/kg/min. Measurements included circulatory variables, common and external carotid artery blood flow (CCBF, ECBF), ICBF, tongue mucosal blood flow (TMBF), masseter muscle tissue blood flow (MBF), mandibular bone marrow tissue blood flow (BBF), tongue muscle tissue blood flow (TBF), and SBF. Vascular resistances for each tissue, including the tongue mucosa, masseter muscle, mandibular bone marrow, tongue muscle, and submandibular gland, were calculated by dividing the mean arterial pressure by the respective tissue blood flow. Remifentanil infusion decreased oral tissue blood flow and circulatory variables. CCBF, ECBF, and ICBF did not change. The calculated vascular resistance in each oral tissue, except for the tongue mucosa, increased in an infusion-rate-dependent manner. These results showed that remifentanil infusion reduced TMBF, MBF, BBF, TBF, and SBF in an infusion-rate-dependent manner without affecting ICBF under sevoflurane anesthesia.

  13. The 10-year Trend of Periprocedural Complication Following Carotid Artery Stenting; Single Center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jeong-Ho [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Department of Neurology (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jihoon; Yeo, Min-Ju; Kim, Beom Joon; Jang, Min Uk; Bae, Hee-Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stroke Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyo Jun; Oh, Chang Wan [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Cheolkyu [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Sung [Soonchunhyang University Medical Center, Biostatistical Consulting Unit (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon-Ku, E-mail: mkhan@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stroke Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeCarotid endarterectomy and stenting are used to treat carotid stenosis, with the volume of carotid artery procedures increasing over the past decade. We investigated the 10-year trend of periprocedural complications with an increasing procedure volume of carotid stenting at a single tertiary hospital.MethodsWe collected 416 consecutive cases (384 patients) of carotid artery stenting performed for either symptomatic (231 cases, 55.5 %) or asymptomatic (185 cases, 44.5 %) internal carotid artery stenosis at a single center. Periprocedural complication was defined as any stroke, myocardial infarction, or death. Procedure-related outcome included any dissection, hemodynamic event, or periprocedural complication.ResultsThe mean age was 68.8 years (82.8 % males; range of 20–89 years); 23.9 % were older than 75 years. Before the procedure, 99.3 and 56.0 % of patients received antiplatelet and lipid-lowering medication, respectively. The overall periprocedural complication rate was 3.6 % (1.6 and 5.2 % in the asymptomatic and symptomatic group, respectively). The composite outcome of any stroke or death was 3.4 %. Periprocedural complication and procedure-related outcome showed a decremental trend with increasing procedure volume, and this trend remained after adjusting for confounders.ConclusionsOur study suggests that carotid stenting at an experienced center might reduce the periprocedural complications. Our periprocedural complication rate of carotid artery stenting may be comparable to, or somewhat lower than, that reported in other clinical trials.

  14. Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma : multicenter study on incidence and long-term outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Lohle, Kristin; Reichel, Julia; Daubenbuchel, Anna M. M.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Mueller, Hermann L.

    Fusiform dilatations of the internal carotid artery (FDCA) represent a vascular complication following surgery for suprasellar tumors in children. Incidence rate and long-term prognosis of FDCA in terms of survival rates, vascular complications, and quality of survival are unknown for patients with

  15. De Novo Vertebral Artery Dissection after Endovascular Trapping for Ruptured Dissecting Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    HORIE, Nobutaka; SADAKATA, Eisaku; IZUMO, Tsuyoshi; HAYASHI, Kentaro; MORIKAWA, Minoru; NAGATA, Izumi

    The authors present an extremely rare case of a 54-year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a rupture of a dissecting internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm, who developed de novo vertebral artery dissection in the spasm period after endovascular trapping of the ICA. Interestingly, postoperative cardiopulmonary monitoring showed high global end-diastolic volume index and mean arterial pressure, which could contribute to this de novo dissection via hemodynamic stress in the cerebral circulation. Spontaneous intracranial artery dissection of more than two arteries is rare, and we believe this is the first case of de novo dissection occurring on a circulating vessel different from that of the initial dissection. The clinical implications are discussed in relation to postoperative hemodynamic stress with a review of the literature. PMID:24418785

  16. Serial MRI of a mycotic aneurysm of the cavernous carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloud, G.C.; Markus, H.S. [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, St George' s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom); Rich, P.M. [Department of Neuroradiology, Atkinson Morley' s Hospital, Copse Hill, London SW20 0NE (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    Cerebral mycotic or infective aneurysms are a rare complication of infectious illness, and such aneurysms of the intracavernous portion of the internal carotid artery are rare. They have been described as a consequence of cavernous sinus infection in an immunocompromised host, but not previously in a renal transplant recipient. We present such a case with serial MRI showing progression from arterial narrowing to aneurysm formation. Transcranial Doppler sonography of the middle cerebral artery showed distal asymptomatic embolisation from the aneurysm. (orig.)

  17. Distal flow protection during carotid stenting. a prospective study to quantify the embolic debris retrieved in the internal carotid artery territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiu, K; Martin, J B; Pache, J C; Gulmaraens, L; Theron, J; Rüfenacht, D A

    1999-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate presence of embolic debris during ICA stent procedures. Nine patients with severe carotid atheromatous stenosis were treated by stent implantation under distal flow protection using a non-detachable balloon. After stent implantation, the lumen of the ICA was cleaned by aspiration of 50 cc of blood before further flush cleaning and deflation of the protection balloon. The blood samples obtained from each patient were analyzed using a microscope to check quantity and aspect of embolic debris. Significant numbers of embolic debris were recovered from blood samples in all nine stenting cases, but very few were found in four out of the five control cases. This observation demonstrates the high risk of producing embolic debris during carotid stenting. Distal balloon occlusion and cleaning procedures are techniques to provide protection from thromboembolic complications to the brain.

  18. Carotid stenting and endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Hon-Kan; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2016-07-01

    Stroke, either ischemic or hemorrhagic, remains the second commonest cause of death worldwide in the last decade. Etiologies for ischemic stroke (IS) vary widely. Atherothrombotic occlusion is an essential cause to which carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is a major contributor. Administration of anti-platelet agent to patients with CAS has been shown to reduce incidence of long-term IS. In additional, in patients with symptomatic CAS, clinical trials have demonstrated that carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is superior to medical therapy for prevention of future CAS-related IS. However, CEA is not suitable for CAS post-radiotherapy or those located at higher level of the internal carotid artery; and major complications of this procedure including cranial nerve injuries have stimulated the interest of using percutaneous transfemoral carotid stenting as an alternative approach. Although transfemoral arterial approach of carotid stenting is not inferior to CEA in improving clinical outcomes, it has been reported to be associated with vascular complication and has its limitations in patients with athero-occlusive disease of abdominal aorta or bilateral iliac arteries, level II or III aortic arch, or bovine type carotid arterial anatomy. Therefore, transradial/transbrachial arterial approach has emerged as a novel method for carotid stenting. This article provides a critical review on interventional approaches for the treatment of CAS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term results of a randomized controlled trial analyzing the role of systematic pre-operative coronary angiography before elective carotid endarterectomy in patients with asymptomatic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Schneider, F; Greco, C; Mangieri, E; Schiariti, M; Tanzilli, G; Barillà, F; Paravati, V; Pizzardi, G; Calio', F; Miraldi, F; Macrina, F; Totaro, M; Greco, E; Mazzesi, G; Tritapepe, L; Toscano, M; Vietri, F; Meyer, N; Ricco, J-B

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the potential benefit of systematic preoperative coronary-artery angiography followed by selective coronary-artery revascularization on the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) without a previous history of coronary artery disease (CAD). We randomised 426 patients who were candidates for CEA, with no history of CAD, a normal electrocardiogram (ECG), and a normal cardiac ultrasound. In group A (n = 216) all patients underwent coronary angiography before CEA. In group B (n = 210) CEA was performed without coronary angiography. Patients were not blinded for relevant assessments during follow-up. Primary end-point was the occurrence of MI at 3.5 years. The secondary end-point was the overall survival rate. Median length of follow-up was 6.2 years. In group A, coronary angiography revealed significant coronary artery stenosis in 68 patients (31.5%). Among them, 66 underwent percutaneous Intervention (PCI) prior to CEA and 2 received combined CEA and coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). Postoperatively, no MI was observed in group A, whereas 6 MI occurred in group B, one of which was fatal (p = .01). During the study period, 3 MI occurred in group A (1.4%) and 33 were observed in group B (15.7%), 6 of which were fatal. The Cox model demonstrated a reduced risk of MI for patients in group A receiving coronary angiography (HR,.078; 95% CI, 0.024-0.256; p < .001). In addition, patients with diabetes and patients <70 years presented with an increased risk of MI. Survival analysis at 6 years by Kaplan-Meier estimates was 95.6 ± 3.2% in Group A and 89.7 ± 3.7% in group B (Log Rank = 6.54, p = .01). In asymptomatic coronary-artery patients, systematic coronary angiography prior to CEA followed by selective PCI or CABG significantly reduces the incidence of late MI and increases long-term survival. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02260453). Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular

  20. Mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery - report of a case and review of the literature; Aneurisma micotico da arteria carotida interna extracraniana - relato de um caso e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Edilene Cristina do; Silva, Ivone Martins da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Silvio Cavalcanti de [Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Abath, Carlos [Angiorad, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    1998-08-01

    The authors report a case of mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery in a 4-year-old- male child, resulting from tonsillar infection. The authors relate the difficulties to initially suggest the diagnosis, stress the importance of the differential diagnosis particularly in children and describe the findings on conventional films, US colour-Doppler, CT and carotid digital subtraction angiography. (author)

  1. Treatment strategies for complex internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms: direct ICA sacrifice or combined with extracranial-to-intracranial bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Tian, Yan-Long; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Song, Dong-Lei; Xu, Bin; Mao, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Direct surgery for complex internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms can be difficult. In certain situations, sacrificing the parent artery is a unique way to obliterate the aneurysm and extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass is indispensable to prevent postoperative cerebral ischemia. This article discusses the indications for direct ICA occlusion, and the strategies, techniques, and outcomes in a series of patients treated for complex ICA aneurysms in a single institution. During a 7-year period, 49 patients with complex ICA aneurysms underwent direct ICA sacrifice, or ICA sacrifice combined with EC-IC bypass. The appropriate type of bypass was determined by the results of balloon occlusion test and computed tomographic perfusion. The technique of ICA sacrifice used was selected based on the evaluation of retrograde filling of the aneurysm during balloon occlusion test. Ten patients underwent direct ICA sacrifice and no ischemia-related complications were evident during the 5-12 months of follow-up. A total of 39 patients were treated by ICA sacrifice combined with EC-IC bypass, including 21 cases of superficial temporal artery-radial artery-middle cerebral artery and 18 cases of external carotid artery-radial artery-middle cerebral artery. ICA sacrifice was achieved in 38 patients by using prolonged occlusion (25 cases) or acute occlusion (13 cases). Five patients presented with minor ischemia after surgery, but four patients recovered completely. Two patients developed brain swelling postoperatively and one developed intracranial hemorrhage, which required evacuation of the hematoma. Balloon occlusion test combined with computed tomographic perfusion can be an efficient way to evaluate the compromised cerebrovascular reserve in patients with complex ICA aneurysms after ICA occlusion. In conjunction with EC-IC bypass, ICA proximal occlusion or trapping can be an effective treatment strategy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Asymmetry of intracranial internal carotid artery on 3D TOF MR angiography: a sign of unilateral extracranial stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naggara, Olivier; Seiller, Nicolas; Gobin-Metteil, Marie-Pierre; Meder, Jean-Francois; Oppenheim, Catherine [Faculte de Medecine Rene Descartes, Universite Paris 5. Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris cedex 14 (France); Touze, Emmanuel; Mas, Jean-Louis [Faculte de Medecine Rene Descartes, Universite Paris 5. Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neurology, Paris cedex 14 (France)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine whether an asymmetry of size of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) on 3D time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) is predictive of a high-grade cervical ICA stenosis. Ninety-six stroke/TIA consecutive patients were recruited for the study, of whom 32 had unilateral high-grade ICA stenosis ({>=}70% NASCET) and were included into the case group, and the remaining 64 did not have such high-grade stenosis and were included in the control group. On intracranial MRA, two observers, blinded to the characteristics of cervical ICA stenosis, independently searched for qualitative size asymmetry between ICAs and measured the cross-sectional surface of the intracranial ICAs. An intracranial size asymmetry was seen in 28 of the 32 high-grade stenoses by both readers, and in 10 (reader{sub 1}) and 8 (reader{sub 2}) of the 64 controls (sensitivity = 88%, specificity = 84-88%). In patients without agenesia of the A1 segment of the circle of Willis (n = 70), sensitivity was {>=}90% and specificity = 96%. Surfaces ratios were significantly different (p < 0.001) between cases and controls. However, using ROC curves analysis, the quantitative processing did not improve the detection when compared with the qualitative assessment of intracranial ICA asymmetry. A size asymmetry of the intracranial ICAs reveals the presence of an underlying high-grade cervical stenosis, with a high degree of confidence, especially in patients without anatomical variant of the anterior part of the circle of Willis. This sign may allow an early detection of high-grade cervical carotid stenosis in stroke patients before dedicated neck imaging is performed. (orig.)

  3. Variant termination of the common carotid artery: Cases of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all cases of trifurcation, superior thyroid artery was the third branch. The common carotid artery quadrifurcated into external, internal carotid, superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries. The pentafurcations comprised internal carotid, external carotid, superior thyroid, occipital and posterior auricular arteries.

  4. Effect of white-matter lesions on the risk of periprocedural stroke after carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS): a prespecified analysis of data from a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, J.; Davagnanam, I.; Worp, H.B. van der; Venables, G.S.; Lyrer, P.A.; Featherstone, R.L.; Brown, M.M.; Jager, H.R.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from randomised trials have shown a higher early risk of stroke after carotid artery stenting than after carotid endarterectomy. We assessed whether white-matter lesions affect the perioperative risk of stroke in patients treated with carotid artery stenting versus carotid

  5. Effect of white-matter lesions on the risk of periprocedural stroke after carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS): a prespecified analysis of data from a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Jörg; Davagnanam, Indran; van der Worp, H. Bart; Venables, Graham S.; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Featherstone, Roland L.; Brown, Martin M.; Jäger, H. Rolf; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Bradbury, A.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; van Schil, P.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; de Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verhelst, R.; DeJaegher, L.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J.-F.; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M.-F.; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L.-H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepäntalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; Bruijninckx, C. M. A.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S. P.; van Hasselt, B. A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; de Mol van Otterloo, J. C. A.; de Vries, A. C.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; van der Kallen, B. F. W.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Schultze Kool, L. J.; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. B.; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sørensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, Jordi; Gimenez Gaibar, A.; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T.-B.; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E.-W.; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, N.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nasser, H.-C.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Belli, A.; Cloud, G.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.; Rogers, P.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from randomised trials have shown a higher early risk of stroke after carotid artery stenting than after carotid endarterectomy. We assessed whether white-matter lesions affect the perioperative risk of stroke in patients treated with carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy.

  6. Malformations of the internal organs and systems in children with asymptomatic spinal dysraphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Валентинович Виссарионов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to determine the prevalence of associated malformations in children with latent forms of spinal dysraphism.Materials and methods.The study involved 64 patients aged from 9 months to 17 years old. Clinical and radiological examination including MRI scan of spine and spinal canal were performed to evaluate the orthopaedic and neurological status of the patients.Results.Malformations of the spine were observed in 100 % of children, associated malformations of the organs and systems are found in 33 (52 % patients. Herewith the malformations of the genitourinary system were revealed - in 52 % of patients, the musculoskeletal system - in 45 % of children, the cardiovascular system - in 39 %, the digestive system - 12 %, otolaryngology - 9 % and bronchopulmonary system - in 3 % of patients.Conclusion.Pediatric patients with latent forms of spinal dysraphism require detailed examination both on the part of the spine and the spinal canal and the internal organs and systems. The most prevalent malformations included those of genitourinary, musculoskeletal (appendicular skeleton and cardiovascular systems.

  7. High-flow bypass and wrap-clipping for ruptured blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery using intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yoshitaka; Koji, Takahiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Saito, Hideo; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms at non-branching sites in the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) can be classified as "blood blister-like aneurysms" (BBAs), which have blood blister-like configurations and fragile walls. While surgical treatment for the BBA in the acute stage is recommended, the optimal surgical procedure remains controversial. In the study reported here, we describe the case of a 37-year-old woman with a ruptured BBA in the ophthalmic segment of the right ICA who underwent wrap-clipping with external carotid artery-internal carotid artery bypass by intraoperative estimation of the measurement of cortical cerebral blood flow (CoBF) using a thermal diffusion flow probe. Trapping of the ICA in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage may result in ischemic complications secondary to hemodynamic hypoperfusion or occlusion of the perforating artery, and/or delayed vasospasm, even with concomitant bypass surgery. We believe that it is important to perform scheduled external carotid artery-internal carotid artery bypass before trapping of the ICA in patients with a ruptured BBA in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage and to perform wrap-clipping rather than trapping. This would provide much more CoBF if a reduction of CoBF occurs after trapping occlusion of the ICA including a ruptured BBA according to intraoperative CoBF monitoring. As far as we are aware, the case reported here is the first report on high-flow bypass and wrap-clipping for a ruptured BBA of the ICA using intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics.

  8. Non-Newtonian blood flow dynamics in a right internal carotid artery with a saccular aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Alvaro; Zarate, Alvaro; Galvez, Marcelo; Badilla, Lautaro

    2006-02-01

    Flow dynamics plays an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of cerebral aneurysms. The temporal and spatial variations of wall shear stress in the aneurysm are hypothesized to be correlated with its growth and rupture. In addition, the assessment of the velocity field in the aneurysm dome and neck is important for the correct placement of endovascular coils. This work describes the flow dynamics in a patient-specific model of carotid artery with a saccular aneurysm under Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid assumptions. The model was obtained from three-dimensional rotational angiography image data and blood flow dynamics was studied under physiologically representative waveform of inflow. The three-dimensional continuity and momentum equations for incompressible and unsteady laminar flow were solved with a commercial software using non-structured fine grid with 283 115 tetrahedral elements. The intra-aneurysmal flow shows complex vortex structure that change during one pulsatile cycle. The effect of the non-Newtonian properties of blood on the wall shear stress was important only in the arterial regions with high velocity gradients, on the aneurysmal wall the predictions with the Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood models were similar.

  9. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was treated with heparin prior to starting warfarin. He made a partial recovery and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. This case is a reminder of carotid dissection as an uncommon but serious complication of high speed motor vehicle accident, which may be silent initially. Literature Review suggests risk stratification before relevant radiological screening at risk patients. Significant advances in CTA have made it the diagnostic tool of choice, but ultrasound is an important screening tool.

  10. DYNAMICS OF HIGHGER MENTAL FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH OBLITERATING LESIONS OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERIES IN SURGICAL BRAIN REVASCUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Vinogradov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obliterating atherosclerosis of internal carotid arteries is one of the main causes of ischemic stroke and discirculatory encephalopathy. It causes up to 40% of ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation. Currently, the strategy for stroke prevention is determined by the intensive development of surgical methods of treatment, primarily methods for managing lesions of brachiocephalic arteries. Based on the results of a number of international multicenter randomized studies, indications for reconstructive operations for BCA, tactics for managing patients in the postoperative period were formulated. A number of patients with atherosclerotic lesions of brachiocephalic arteries have reduced cognitive functions. The aim of the study is to compare cognitive functions (CF in patients who underwent different surgical approaches in the treatment of obliterating atherosclerotic lesion of internal carotid arteries (ICA.MATERIAL AND METHODS. We studied higher mental functions (HMFs in 116 patients with obliterating unilateral or bilateral lesion of ICA. The study of cognitive functions (MF was performed prior to carotid endarterectomy (CE, group 1, n=73 and transluminal balloon angioplasty of ICAs (TBA of ICA, group 2, n=43, and on days 5–7 and 30–31 after cerebral revascularization (CR. To assess the overall severity of cognitive impairment, the summary indicators of main screening neuropsychological tests were used: MMSE; MoCA; Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB; Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.RESULTS. Results Neuropsychologic disorders were reavealed in 98% of patients prior to surgery. An initially comparable condition of HMF in groups with CE and TBA of ICA was revealed. MMSE2 revealed a significant improvement in the results in group 1 both in comparison with the initial data (p<0.05 and in comparison with the results of the second test of group 2. The results of MMSE1 and MMSE2 in group 2 did not show significant

  11. Augmenting regional cerebral blood flow using external-to-internal carotid artery flow diversion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A; Berezina, Tamara L; Vazquez, Gabriela; Zaets, Sergey B; Tummala, Ramachandra; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of flow diversion by external carotid artery (ECA) occlusion on ipsilateral regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Local cerebral hyperperfusion in rats (n = 12) was induced by ligating the right ECA. Ipsilateral rCBF was determined pre- and post-ligation for 120 min using a laser Doppler flow meter. Sham animals (n = 6) were subjected to the craniotomy without ligation of the right ECA. In a separate series of rats (n = 5), brain tissue oxygen levels (pO(2)) in the right and left brain hemispheres were determined before and 90 min after ligation of the right ECA using a tissue oxygenation monitoring unit. We investigated the effect of ECA occlusion hemispheric changes in rCBF in one clinical case as a proof of concept. Ligation of ECA resulted in a statistically significant increase in rCBF on the ipsilateral side compared to the sham-operated rats (p group compared with sham-operated rats. There was no significant variation in MAP for the treated animals. Vascular permeability and cerebral water content in the right hemisphere after ligation of ECA did not significantly differ from the contralateral hemisphere. Ipsilateral hemisphere tissue pO(2) was significantly higher compared to the contralateral area (p ECA resulted in 3.6% and 12.1% increase in peak value and rise-time of the time-density curves. Flow diversion by temporary occlusion of the ECA can result in increased rCBF and cerebral pO(2) on the ipsilateral side. The strategy may represent a viable option to augment rCBF in focal cerebral ischemia.

  12. Epistaxe tardia secundária a pseudoaneurisma intracavernoso de carótida interna Delayed epistaxis secondary to intracavernous pseudoaneurysm of internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. de Sá

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurisma traumático da artéria carótida interna é uma causa rara de epistaxe, porém potencialmente fatal. O diagnóstico precoce é essencial para um adequado manejo da patologia. Os autores relatam um caso de pseudoaneurisma da carótida interna que se apresentou como epistaxe maciça após seis meses de trauma craniano prévio.Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery is a very rare but potentially fatal cause of epistaxis. Early diagnosis is essential for an adequate management of this entity. The authors present a case of pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery that developed massive epistaxis six months after skull base trauma.

  13. A preliminary study of brain macrovascular reactivity in impaired glucose tolerance and type-2 diabetes: Quantitative internal carotid artery blood flow using magnetic resonance phase contrast angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Dinesh; Hughes, Timothy; Reeves, Josie; Boland, Elaine; Marques, Jefferson; Gandhi, Rajiv; Griffiths, Paul D; Tesfaye, Solomon; Wilkinson, Iain D

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to examine cerebrovascular autoregulation in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes and (2) to clarify whether cardiovascular autonomic nerve function is associated with abnormal cerebrovascular autoregulation. Totally, 46 subjects were recruited (12 = impaired glucose tolerance, 17 = type 2 diabetes and 17 = healthy volunteers). Arterial blood flow was assessed within the internal carotid artery at baseline and 20 min after intravenous pharmacological stress (1 g acetazolamide), using quantitative magnetic resonance phase-contrast angiography. Internal carotid artery vascular reactivity and pulsatility index was determined. All subjects underwent baroreceptor reflex sensitivity assessment. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes had significantly lower internal carotid artery vascular reactivity [40.2%(19.8) and 41.5%(18.7)], respectively, compared with healthy volunteers [57.0%(14.2); analysis of variance, p = 0.02]. There was no significant difference in internal carotid artery vascular reactivity between type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance groups (p = 0.84). There was a significant positive correlation between baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (low frequency:high frequency) with cardiac rhythm variability (ρ = 0.47, p = 0.04) and PI (ρ = 0.46, p = 0.04). We have demonstrated significant cerebrovascular haemodynamic abnormalities in subjects with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. This was associated with greater sympathovagal imbalance. This may provide an important mechanistic explanation for increased risk of cerebrovascular disease in diabetes. It also highlights that these abnormalities may already be present in prediabetes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Intra-arterial therapy for cardio embolic internal carotid artery terminus occlusion: The past and present status in real practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Guk; Jung, Cheol Kyu; KIm, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Beomn Joon; Han, Moon Ku; Bae, Hee Joon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Bae Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There is little data on the effect of intra-arterial therapy (IAT) in acute cardioembolic internal carotid artery terminus (ICAT) occlusion that has poor prognosis. We determined procedural and clinical outcomes in patients with acute cardioembolic ICAT occlusion treated with different methods of IAT. On retrospective review of our registry, patients with cardioembolic ICAT occlusion were categorized as thrombolytic-based IAT group (TLG) and thrombectomy-based IAT group (TEG) according to the primary endovascular technique. Subsequently, procedural and clinical outcomes were compared. Fifty-five patients had cardioembolic ICAT occlusion and 18 patients were assigned to TLG and 37 patients to TEG. The rate of complete reperfusion was significantly higher and the groin puncture to reperfusion time was significantly shorter in TEG than those in TLG. There was a trend towards functional outcome at 3 months in the TEG group; however, it was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Age, baseline Albert Stroke program early CT score and puncture to reperfusion time were factors affecting unfavorable outcome at 3 months, on multivariable analysis. Thrombectomy-based IAT has advantages over thrombolytic-based IAT in terms of the reduction of groin puncture to reperfusion time and improvement of the rate of complete reperfusion.

  15. Embolization of a giant pediatric, posttraumatic, skull base internal carotid artery aneurysm with a liquid embolic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Adam S; Simon, Scott; Mericle, Robert A

    2009-11-01

    Many treatments for posttraumatic, skull base aneurysms have been described. Eight months after an all-terrain-vehicle accident, this 12-year-old girl presented with right-side Horner syndrome caused by a 33 x 19-mm internal carotid artery aneurysm at the C-1 level. We chose to treat the aneurysm with a new liquid embolic agent for wide-necked, side-wall aneurysms (Onyx HD 500). We felt this treatment would result in less morbidity than surgery and was less likely to occlude the parent artery than placement of a covered stent, especially in a smaller artery in a pediatric patient. Liquid embolic agents also appear to be associated with a lower chance of recanalization and lower cost compared with stent-assisted coil embolization. After the patient was treated with loading doses of aspirin, clopidogrel bisulfate, and heparin, 99% of the aneurysm was embolized with 9 cc of the liquid embolic agent. There were no complications, and the patient remained neurologically stable. Follow-up angiography revealed durable aneurysm occlusion after 1 year. The cost of Onyx was less than the cost of coils required for coil embolization of similarly sized intracranial aneurysms at our institution. Liquid embolic agents can provide a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective approach to treatment of select giant, posttraumatic, skull base aneurysms in pediatric patients.

  16. A case of central diabetes insipidus after ketamine infusion during an external to internal carotid artery bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Sharib; Eskander, Jonathan P; Beakley, Burton D; McClure, Brian P; Amenta, Peter; Pierre, Nakeisha

    2017-02-01

    We report the first teenage case of ketamine-induced transient central diabetes insipidus. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with moyamoya disease undergoing an external carotid to internal carotid bypass and given a low-dose ketamine infusion. After approximately 2 hours in the supine position, with 0.5 Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane, a propofol infusion at 50 μg/kg/min, a remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min, and a ketamine infusion at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min, this patient had an excessive urine output. Initially, the Foley catheter contained 50 mL of urine. She was given 1500 mL of crystalloid during the case but produced 2700 mL of urine output. Increasing urine output was noted 1 hour into the procedure around the time that the patient experienced a 2-minute Cushing-like response characterized by bradycardia and hypertension. Several I-Stat samples revealed a worsening hypernatremia. The decision was made to check the urine osmolality and treat the patient with 4 μg of desmopressin (DDAVP). Urine output began to slow down to a normal rate of 2 mg/kg/h, as the patient was transferred from the operating room to the computed tomographic (CT) scanning room for a CT and CT angiogram; both were unremarkable. The neurosurgery team waited until the next day to complete the procedure. The procedure was completed successfully and uneventfully the next day without a ketamine infusion as part of the general anesthetic plan. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction score of 4 suggested a possible relationship between the patient's ketamine infusion and subsequent central diabetes insipidus. The 2 previous cases on this topic have suggested that ketamine, as an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, inhibits vasopressin release in the neurohypophysis. Urine output, urine osmolarity, and serum osmolarity should be monitored in patients given ketamine anesthetic; desmopressin should be present to prevent dangerous long-term sequela. Copyright © 2016

  17. Early Endarterectomy Carries a Lower Procedural Risk Than Early Stenting in Patients With Symptomatic Stenosis of the Internal Carotid Artery: Results From 4 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantner, Barbara; Kollerits, Barbara; Roubin, Gary S; Ringleb, Peter A; Jansen, Olaf; Howard, George; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Halliday, Alison; Gregson, John; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Calvet, David; Bulbulia, Richard; Bonati, Leo H; Becquemin, Jean-Pierre; Algra, Ale; Brown, Martin M; Mas, Jean-Louis; Brott, Thomas G; Fraedrich, Gustav

    2017-06-01

    Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for symptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery benefit from early intervention. Heterogeneous data are available on the influence of timing of carotid artery stenting (CAS) on procedural risk. We investigated the association between timing of treatment (0-7 days and >7 days after the qualifying neurological event) and the 30-day risk of stroke or death after CAS or CEA in a pooled analysis of individual patient data from 4 randomized trials by the Carotid Stenosis Trialists' Collaboration. Analyses were done per protocol. To obtain combined estimates, logistic mixed models were applied. Among a total of 4138 patients, a minority received their allocated treatment within 7 days after symptom onset (14% CAS versus 11% CEA). Among patients treated within 1 week of symptoms, those treated by CAS had a higher risk of stroke or death compared with those treated with CEA: 8.3% versus 1.3%, risk ratio, 6.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 21.9 (adjusted for age at treatment, sex, and type of qualifying event). For interventions after 1 week, CAS was also more hazardous than CEA: 7.1% versus 3.6%, adjusted risk ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.7 (P value for interaction with time interval 0.06). In randomized trials comparing stenting with CEA for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis, CAS was associated with a substantially higher periprocedural risk during the first 7 days after the onset of symptoms. Early surgery is safer than stenting for preventing future stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00190398; URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN57874028; Unique identifier: ISRCTN25337470; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00004732. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Colour Doppler evaluation of extracranial carotid artery in patients presenting with features of cerebrovascular disease: A clinical and radiological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sehrawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the morphological and hemodynamic changes that take place in carotid arteries by colour Doppler in patients presenting with features of stroke. Background and Objectives: Cerebrovascular accidents constitute a major cause of adult mortality. The principal indication for cerebrovascular Doppler examination is stroke prevention. Colour Doppler sonography is a sensitive method for detection of atherosclerotic plaque and provides considerable information about the extent and severity of plaque as well as the resulting diminution of arterial lumen. The main strengths of sonography of carotid arteries are patient comfort, lack of risk and accuracy in detecting carotid stenosis. Material and Methods: A prospective study of Colour Doppler in carotid arteries was carried out for 12 months from 1 st July 2009 to 1 st July 2010. The study was carried out on 40 individuals, suspected of cerebrovascular insufficiency and having one or the other risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. A detailed clinical history, CNS examination findings and evidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease were noted. Carotid Doppler evaluation was done by using Siemens Antares Ultrasound system. The data gathered were grey scale and Doppler findings of common carotid artery, internal carotid artery and external carotid arteries. Doppler findings were correlated with clinical features and risk factors. Results: In our study of 40 patients, the commonest lesion found was the atherosclerotic plaque. Highest incidence of plaque was seen in males 41% in the age group of 60-70 years and in females 37% in age group of 70-80 years. Cigarette smoking was the most common risk factor (60% associated with stroke/ Transient Ischaemic Attacks (TIA. Hemiparesis was the most common presenting symptom (35% among the symptomatic cases. Atheromatous plaque was most commonly found in the right carotid system (60%. Most common site for

  19. Painful Horner syndrome due to arteritis of the internal carotid artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, AE; Krikke, AP; de Jager, AEJ

    1998-01-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with painful Horner syndrome: severe periorbital pain, ptosis, and miosis of his right eye, with intact facial sweating. Lymphadenitis at the right side of his neck preceded the symptoms. MRI and magnetic resonance angiography showed thickening of the right internal

  20. Intracerebral haemorrhage after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Boesen, J

    1987-01-01

    Among 662 consecutive carotid endarterectomies eight cases of postoperative ipsilateral intracerebral haemorrhage were identified, occurring into brain areas which, preoperatively were without infarction. As blood pressures across the stenosis were routinely measured during surgery, the internal...

  1. Evaluation of Contrast MR Angiography in the Study of Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis. Systematic Review of the Literature; Evaluacion de la estenosis de la arteria carotida interna por angiografia REM con contraste: revision sistematica de la bibliografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, P.; Martinez Cantarero, J. [Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. Madrid (Spain); Ruiz Diaz, M.; Blazquez Morera, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Llano Senaris, J. E. de [Fundacion Gaspar Casal. Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic benefit of using contrast MR Angiography (MRA) in the study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis as opposed to intraarterial digital subtraction arteriography (LADSA). A search for relevant articles from 1990 to 2000 using MDLINE and EMBASE databases. Initial selection criteria: 1. articles which compare MRA and IADSA in the study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis; and 2, sample size of 10 or more subjects. Studies employing contrast MRA were subsequently selected. Contrast MRA diagnostic results were studied, as were those of non-contrast MRA (TOF) if included. Roc curves and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In the studies, 324 patients and 648 extracranial internal carotid arteries were evaluated (12 articles). The diagnostic results in carotid artery stenosis discrimination using contrast MRA as opposed to IADSA were sensitivity and specificity=97.28% and 96.08%. With regard to contrast MRA vs. non-contrast MRA (TOF), significant differences favoring contrast MRA in both sensitivity and specificity were observed. (p=0.08 and p<0.001, respectively). MRA techniques demonstrate very high diagnostic capabilities in the detection of carotid stenosis, with contrast MRA being more effective than non-contrast. MRA. In spite of not being superior to IADSA, given the morbimortality risk which the latter is associated (0.7-1.2%). many authors defend contrast MRA (in association with Doppler echography) having become the method of choice for presurgical study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis. (Author) 53 refs.

  2. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... results of stenting versus endarterectomy for carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med . 2016;374(11):1021- ...

  3. Chronic and acute anemia and extracranial internal carotid stenosis are risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaudin, Françoise; Verlhac, Suzanne; Arnaud, Cécile; Kamdem, Annie; Vasile, Manuela; Kasbi, Florence; Hau, Isabelle; Madhi, Fouad; Fourmaux, Christine; Biscardi, Sandra; Epaud, Ralph; Pondarré, Corinne

    2015-03-05

    Early transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening of the Créteil sickle cell anemia (SCA)-newborn cohort, and rapid initiation of transfusion programs, resulted in successful prevention of overt strokes, but a high cumulative risk of silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) remained, suggesting that TCD screening does not identify all patients with SCA at risk for SCI. We hypothesized that episodes of hypoperfusion/hypoxia, as observed during acute chest syndromes or acute anemic events (AAE), and extracranial internal carotid artery (eICA) stenoses, detectable via submandibular Doppler sonography and cervical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), could also be risk factors for SCI. This study includes 189 stroke-free patients with SCA from the Créteil newborn cohort (1992-2010) followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging/MRA, including cervical MRA at the last assessment. All patients with abnormal TCD and/or intracranial stenoses were placed on a transfusion program. Mean follow-up was 9.9 years (range, 2.2-19.9 years; 1844 patient-years). Annual rates of clinical events were calculated. The cumulative risk for SCI was 39.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.5%-54.7%) by age 18 years, with no plateau. We confirm that baseline hemoglobin level lower than 7 g/dL before age 3 years is a highly significant predictive risk factor for SCI (hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.43-6.17; P = .004). Furthermore, we show that AAE rate (odds ratio, 2.64 per unit increase; 95% CI, 1.09-6.38; P = .031) and isolated eICA stenosis (odds ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.18-8.70; P = .023) are significant and independent risk factors for SCI. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Intra-arterial high signals on arterial spin labeling perfusion images predict the occluded internal carotid artery segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, Shu; Satomi, Junichiro; Tada, Yoshiteru; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Kenji; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Mure, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan); Abe, Takashi; Harada, Masafumi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Tokushima (Japan); Yamamoto, Nobuaki; Kaji, Ryuji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Biomedical Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) involves perfusion imaging using the inverted magnetization of arterial water. If the arterial arrival times are longer than the post-labeling delay, labeled spins are visible on ASL images as bright, high intra-arterial signals (IASs); such signals were found within occluded vessels of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The identification of the occluded segment in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is crucial for endovascular treatment. We tested our hypothesis that high IASs on ASL images can predict the occluded segment. Our study included 13 patients with acute ICA occlusion who had undergone angiographic and ASL studies within 48 h of onset. We retrospectively identified the high IAS on ASL images and angiograms and recorded the occluded segment and the number of high IAS-positive slices on ASL images. The ICA segments were classified as cervical (C1), petrous (C2), cavernous (C3), and supraclinoid (C4). Of seven patients with intracranial ICA occlusion, five demonstrated high IASs at C1-C2, suggesting that high IASs could identify stagnant flow proximal to the occluded segment. Among six patients with extracranial ICA occlusion, five presented with high IASs at C3-C4, suggesting that signals could identify the collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery. None had high IASs at C1-C2. The mean number of high IAS-positive slices was significantly higher in patients with intra- than extracranial ICA occlusion. High IASs on ASL images can identify slow stagnant and collateral flow through the ophthalmic artery in patients with acute ICA occlusion and help to predict the occlusion site. (orig.)

  5. Simple classification of carotid bifurcation: is it possible to predict twisted carotid artery during carotid endarterectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamide, Tomoya; Nomura, Motohiro; Tamase, Akira; Mori, Kentaro; Seki, Shunsuke; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-12-01

    The internal carotid artery (ICA) usually runs posterolaterally to the external carotid artery (ECA), but occasionally we encounter the twisted carotid bifurcation, a variant in which the ICA courses medially to the ECA during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Prediction of this anomaly in the preoperative evaluation is mandatory, although descriptions in the literature are limited. We reviewed the clinical features of patients who underwent CEA and analyzed preoperative cerebral angiography, especially the anteroposterior (AP) view to determine whether it could be a predictive modality. In 58 consecutive CEA cases, we simply classified them into three groups; type 1 (the ICA runs laterally and the ECA runs medially), type 2 (the ICA and ECA run to overlap each other), and type 3 (the ICA runs medially and the ECA runs laterally), based on the findings of AP view of cerebral angiography. We compared the clinical features and intraoperative findings of these groups. Of 58 cases, types 1-3 were 24, 30, and four cases, respectively. Twisted carotid bifurcations were recognized in seven cases (12.4 %), including three cases in type 2 and four in type 3, and all twisted cases were found on the right side. Twisted carotids and right-sided lesion were significantly frequent in type 3, but no statistical differences of coexisting diseases were recognized among the three groups. CEAs of twisted carotid bifurcations were performed successfully with correction of the carotid position in three and as it was in four cases. Twisted carotid bifurcations were observed during operation in 10 % in type 2 and 100 % in type 3. CEA of twisted carotid bifurcations can be performed safely with or without correction of the carotid position. AP view of cerebral angiography could be useful for preoperative evaluation.

  6. Association between proximal internal carotid artery steno-occlusive disease and diffuse wall thickening in its petrous segment: a magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Li, Dongye [Capital Medical University and Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Brain Disorders Research, Beijing (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Zhao, Huilin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Zhensen; Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le; Li, Rui [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zechen [Philips Research China, Healthcare Department, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Zhao, Xihai [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Stroke, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Significant stenosis or occlusion in carotid arteries may lead to diffuse wall thickening (DWT) in the arterial wall of downstream. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease and DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. Symptomatic patients with atherosclerotic stenosis (>0%) in proximal ICA were recruited and underwent carotid MR vessel wall imaging. The 3D motion sensitized-driven equilibrium prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D-MERGE) was acquired for characterizing the wall thickness and longitudinal extent of the lesions in petrous ICA and the distance from proximal lesion to the petrous ICA. The stenosis degree in proximal ICA was measured on the time-of-flight (TOF) images. In total, 166 carotid arteries from 125 patients (mean age 61.0 ± 10.5 years, 99 males) were eligible for final analysis and 64 showed DWT in petrous ICAs. The prevalence of severe DWT in petrous ICA was 1.4%, 5.3%, 5.9%, and 80.4% in ipsilateral proximal ICAs with stenosis category of 1%-49%, 50%-69%, 70%-99%, and total occlusion, respectively. Proximal ICA stenosis was significantly correlated with the wall thickness in petrous ICA (r = 0.767, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that proximal ICA stenosis was independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA (odds ratio (OR) = 2.459, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.896-3.189, P < 0.001). Proximal ICA steno-occlusive disease is independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. (orig.)

  7. [Prevention of cerebral ictus, of carotid origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar Martín, E

    2001-01-01

    The current incidence of stroke in Europe and the USA is about 200 per 100,000 population per annum. Eighty percent of strokes are ischaemic and 20% are due to hemorrhage. Approximately half the patients with ischaemic strike have carotid artery stenosis and about one third (10% all stroke victims) have had no warning symptoms such as transient ischaemi attacks. The European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) and North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) have effectively shown that carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can prevent strokes in symptomatic patients. The benefit of operation is, at present, confined to those with at least 70% stenosis; for 30-69%, the trials have not yet reported a result. In asymptomatic patients the Veterans Administration Study and the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS) have yielded promising results that surgery may reduce the risk of TIA and minor stroke. There is as yet no convincing evidence in asymptomatic patients that moderate or severe stroke (or death) can be prevented by CEA. The aim of this trial is to determine whether CEA and appropriate best medical treatment (BMT) can improve stroke free survival time when compared with BMT alone.

  8. Evidence-Based Carotid Interventions for Stroke Prevention: State-of-the-art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Dylan R.; Ayabe, Kengo; Inoue, Takashi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Bulbulia, Richard; Halliday, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis is responsible for between 10–20% of all ischaemic strokes. Interventions, such as carotid end-arterectomy and carotid stenting, effectively reduce the risk of stroke in selected individuals. This review describes the history of carotid interventions, and summarises reliable evidence on the safety and efficacy of these interventions gained from large randomised clinical trials. Early trials comparing carotid endarterectomy to medical therapy alone in symptomatic patients, and asymptomatic patients, demonstrated that endarterectomy halved the risk of stroke and perioperative death in these two unique populations. The absolute risk reduction was smaller in the asymptomatic carotid trials, consistent with their lower absolute stroke risk. More recent trials in symptomatic patients, suggest that carotid stenting has similar long term durability to carotid endarterectomy, but possibly has higher procedural hazards dominated by non-disabling strokes. The Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial-2, along with individual patient data meta-analysis of all asymptomatic trials, will provide reliable evidence for the choice of intervention in asymptomatic patients in whom a decision has been made for carotid revascularisation. Given improvements in effective cardiovascular medical therapy, in particular lipid-lowering medications, there is renewed uncertainty as to whether carotid interventions still provide meaningful net reductions in stroke risk in asymptomatic populations. Four large trials in Europe and the US are currently underway, and are expected to report longterm results in the next decade. It is essential that surgeons, interventionalists, and physicians continue to randomise large numbers of patients from around the world to clarify current uncertainty around the management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis. PMID:28260723

  9. Endarterectomía carotídea en pacientes sintomáticos y asintomáticos: resultados de morbi-mortalidad desde 1998 hasta 2005 Carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients: morbid-mortality results from 1998 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Barrera

    2007-12-01

    carotid endarterectomy for carotid artery disease treatment by demonstrating high safety profiles. Objective: to determine the surgical morbidity and mortality results at 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up in patients submitted to carotid endarterectomy from 1998 to 2005. Design-Method: clinical histories of patients submitted to carotid endarterectomy from 1998 to September 2005 were evaluated. Results: 42 procedures were realized since 1998 until September 2005. 57% of the patients were men with mean age 68.8 ± 9.9 years. Important antecedents were arterial hypertension (82%, cigarette smoking (61 and dyslipidemia (50%. 82% showed symptoms of carotid disease. 11 patients had right carotid lesion and in 15 the lesion was bilateral, with mean obstruction of 85 ± 11.4%. Mortality was 4.7% and was not related to the surgical procedure. At September 2005, 57% of the discharged patients were asymptomatic. Conclusions: mortality for this group of patients is comparable to the worldwide published results. Procedure safety guarantees this surgical technique as the first option in this carotid pathology management.

  10. Treatment of Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Spontaneous Dissection with Pseudoaneurysm and Unilateral Lower Cranial Nerves Palsy by Two Silk Flow Diverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenak, Kamil, E-mail: zelenak@unm.sk [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Zelenakova, Jana [University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Slovakia); DeRiggo, Julius [University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Slovakia); Kurca, Egon; Kantorova, Ema [University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia)

    2013-08-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions in the parapharyngeal space (a dissection and a pseudoaneurysm) may present as isolated lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII) palsy (Collet-Sicard syndrome). Some arteriopathies such as fibromuscular dysplasia and tortuosity make a vessel predisposed to dissection. Extreme vessel tortuosity makes the treatment by a stent graft impossible. Two Silk stents were used in a 46 year-old man with left lower cranial nerves (IX-XII) palsy for the treatment of left ICA spontaneous dissection with pseudoaneurysm. A follow-up angiogram 5 months later confirmed pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and patency of the left ICA. The patient recovered completely from the deficits.

  11. [Anterior choroidal artery territory infarction with transcortical sensory aphasia after a neck clipping of left internal carotid artery aneurysms: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, A; Kubokura, T; Hotta, J; Ozawa, H; Inamori, S

    1996-01-01

    Anterior choroidal artery (Ach A) syndrome is widely known to be composed of a triad of hemiparesis, hemisensory loss and homonymous hemianopia. The authors report a case of Ach A-territory infarction after a direct operation for internal carotid artery aneurysms, which presented transcortical sensory aphasia in association with the characteristic triad. The literature and several previously reported cases with dominant and nondominant cerebral hemisphere signs in AcH A infarction are reviewed. The danger of Ach A occlusion and the importance of preserving it during aneurysm surgery are emphasized.

  12. Asymptomatic dystrophinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Florence (Italy); Hoffman, E.P.; Hoop, R.C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-31

    A 4-year-old girl was referred for evaluation for a mild but persistent serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation detected incidentally during routine blood screening for a skin infection. Serum creatine kinase activity was found to be increased. Immuno-histochemical study for dystrophin in her muscle biopsy showed results consistent with a carrier state for muscular dystrophy. Molecular work-up showed the proposita to be a carrier of a deletion mutation of exon 48 of the dystrophin gene. Four male relatives also had the deletion mutation, yet showed no clinical symptoms of muscular dystrophy (age range 8-58 yrs). Linkage analysis of the dystrophin gene in the family showed a spontaneous change of an STR45 allele, which could be due to either an intragenic double recombination event, or CA repeat length mutation leading to identical size alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an asymptomatic dystrophinopathy in multiple males of advanced age. Based on molecular findings, this family would be given a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. This diagnosis implies the development of clinical symptoms, even though this family is clearly asymptomatic. This report underscores the caution which must be exercised when giving presymptomatic diagnoses based on molecular studies. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Carotid stenosis, x-ray of the right artery (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the right carotid artery showing a severe narrowing (stenosis) of the internal carotid artery just past the ... artery or ulceration in the area after the stenosis in this close-up film. Note the narrowed ...

  14. Laser microdissection-based analysis of hypoxia- and thioredoxin-related genes in human stable carotid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okami, Nobuya; Kawamata, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Gou; Okada, Yoshikazu; Hori, Tomokatsu; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Neovascularization in the carotid atherosclerotic plaque is a common pathogenetic feature in carotid artery stenosis. To investigate whether the neovascular region of the stable plaque differentially expresses specific genes, we analyzed the patterns of angiogenesis-related gene expression in regions of the plaque isolated by laser microdissection and examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Carotid plaque samples were obtained by carotid endarterectomy in 27 clinically asymptomatic patients with high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis. Among these 27 plaque samples, 23 plaques were confirmed to be stable pathologically, and 14 stable plaques had neovascularization. The medial, shoulder, and neovascular regions of the 14 carotid plaques were determined by immunohistochemical staining. These 3 regions were microdissected, and total RNA was extracted for real-time RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, thioredoxin, and thioredoxin interacting protein were analyzed at mRNA level. Real-time RT-PCR was performed on 42 laser microdissected regions of 14 plaques. The expressions of all four genes examined were significantly lower in the medial region at mRNA level. High expressions were noted in both shoulder and neovascular regions, with no significant difference between the two. Furthermore, these expression patterns were related significantly to macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, hypoxia- and thioredoxin-related genes are significantly overexpressed in human stable carotid atherosclerotic plaques and strongly correlate with macrophage infiltration rather than neovascularization. Macrophage infiltration may lead to overexpression of these genes and promote angiogenesis in stable carotid plaques.

  15. Spontaneous thrombosis of internal carotid artery: a natural history of giant carotid cavernous aneurysms Trombose espontânea da artéria carótida interna: a história natural dos aneurismas gigantes intracavernosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Perez de Vasconcellos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe five cases of giant carotid cavernous aneurysms which evolved with spontaneous thrombosis of internal carotid artery (STICA, with emphasis at epidemiology, clinical presentation, natural history, related factors and neurological outcome. METHOD: There were 711 consecutives patients with 802 aneurysms with and without surgical treatment during a period of 19 years. We selected 35 patients with 40 carotid cavernous aneurysms (5% of which 20 (50% were giant aneurysms. Among those cases, 5 patients evolved with STICA (25%. Symptoms and findings at presentation were recorded and compared with those at outcome. RESULTS: Clinical presentation was commonly related to atherosclerotic factors such as elevated blood pressure (80%, diabetes mellitus (40% and dislipidemy (40%. All patients presented with hemicranial headache, ophthalmparesy and retro bulbar pain, and after STICA all presented improvement of symptoms. After STICA, 4 patients had regression of deficit, 2 partial and 2 complete. Four patients had sensorial trigeminal neuropathy in V1 and V2 territories, also showing improvement of symptoms after STICA. CONCLUSION: STICA is a common outcome in giant carotid cavernous aneurysms, and is related with significant improvement of symptoms; however, it may be catastrophic for those patients without efficient collateral circulation.OBJETIVO: Relatar cinco casos de aneurismas gigantes intracavernosos que evoluíram com trombose espontânea da artéria carótida interna (TEACI, estudando-se: prevalência, apresentação clínica, história natural, fatores associados e prognóstico neurológico. MÉTODO: Análise de 711 pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de 802 aneurismas cerebrais submetidos a tratamento clínico ou cirúrgico num período de 19 anos. Foram identificados 40 aneurismas intracavernosos, sendo que 20 desses eram gigantes. Dentre esses, 5 pacientes com aneurismas gigantes intracavernosos que evoluíram com TEACI

  16. Defective cerebrovascular autoregulation after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L G; Schroeder, T V

    1993-01-01

    Correction of high grade carotid artery stenosis may result in cerebral hyperperfusion because of defective vascular autoregulation. Thus, transcranial Doppler was used to determine mean arterial flow velocity (Vmean) of the middle cerebral artery in 95 patients before and after carotid endartere......Correction of high grade carotid artery stenosis may result in cerebral hyperperfusion because of defective vascular autoregulation. Thus, transcranial Doppler was used to determine mean arterial flow velocity (Vmean) of the middle cerebral artery in 95 patients before and after carotid......th postoperative day, respectively. The mean pressure difference across the stenosis was 31 (0-63) mmHg in the symptomatic group (n = 18) as opposed to only 10 (0-60) mmHg in the asymptomatic group (n = 77) (p surgery, ipsilateral Vmean increased to 177...

  17. Delayed aneurysm rupture due to residual blood flow at the inflow zone of the intracranial paraclinoid internal carotid aneurysm treated with the Pipeline embolization device: Histopathological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Akira; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ando, Mitsushige; Chihara, Hideo; Arai, Daisuke; Hattori, Etsuko; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral aneurysm rupture is a serious complication that can occur after flow diverter (FD) placement, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We encountered a case in which direct stress on the aneurysm wall caused by residual blood flow at the inflow zone near the neck during the process of thrombosis after FD placement appeared associated with aneurysm rupture. The patient was a 67-year-old woman with progressive optic nerve compression symptoms caused by a large intracranial paraclinoid internal carotid aneurysm. The patient had undergone treatment with a Pipeline embolization device (PED) with satisfactory adherence between the PED and vessel wall. Surgery was completed without complications, and optic nerve compression symptoms improved immediately after treatment. Postoperative clinical course was satisfactory, but the patient suddenly died 34 days postoperatively. Autopsy confirmed the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of the internal carotid aneurysm that had been treated with PED. Although the majority of the aneurysm lumen including the outflow zone was thrombosed, a non-thrombosed area was observed at the inflow zone. Perforation was evident in the aneurysm wall at the inflow zone near the neck, and this particular area of aneurysm wall was not covered in thrombus. Macrophage infiltration was not seen on immunohistochemical studies of the aneurysm wall near the perforation. A hemodynamically unstable period during the process of complete thrombosis of the aneurysm lumen after FD placement may be suggested, and blood pressure management and appropriate management with antiplatelet therapy may be important. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Noninvasive characterization of carotid plaque strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir A; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Hatsukami, Thomas; Cebral, Juan; Jones, Michael; Huston, John; Howard, George; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-06-01

    Current risk stratification of internal carotid artery plaques based on diameter-reducing percentage stenosis may be unreliable because ischemic stroke results from plaque disruption with atheroembolization. Biomechanical forces acting on the plaque may render it vulnerable to rupture. The feasibility of ultrasound-based quantification of plaque displacement and strain induced by hemodynamic forces and their relationship to high-risk plaques have not been determined. We studied the feasibility and reliability of carotid plaque strain measurement from clinical B-mode ultrasound images and the relationship of strain to high-risk plaque morphology. We analyzed carotid ultrasound B-mode cine loops obtained in patients with asymptomatic ≥50% stenosis during routine clinical scanning. Optical flow methods were used to quantify plaque motion and shear strain during the cardiac cycle. The magnitude (maximum absolute shear strain rate [MASSR]) and variability (entropy of shear strain rate [ESSR] and variance of shear strain rate [VSSR]) of strain were combined into a composite shear strain index (SSI), which was assessed for interscan repeatability and correlated with plaque echolucency. Nineteen patients (mean age, 70 years) constituting 36 plaques underwent imaging; 37% of patients (n = 7) showed high strain (SSI ≥0.5; MASSR, 2.2; ESSR, 39.7; VSSR, 0.03) in their plaques; the remaining clustered into a low-strain group (SSI <0.5; MASSR, 0.58; ESSR, 21.2; VSSR, 0.002). The area of echolucent morphology was greater in high-strain plaques vs low-strain plaques (28% vs 17%; P = .018). Strain measurements showed low variability on Bland-Altman plots with cluster assignment agreement of 76% on repeated scanning. Two patients developed a stroke during 2 years of follow-up; both demonstrated high SSI (≥0.5) at baseline. Carotid plaque strain is reliably computed from routine B-mode imaging using clinical ultrasound machines. High plaque strain correlates with known

  19. Endovascular management of internal carotid artery injuries secondary to endonasal surgery: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Peter T; Moran, Christopher J; Derdeyn, Colin P; Cross, DeWitte T; Dacey, Ralph G; Zipfel, Gregory J; Kim, Albert H; Uppaluri, Ravi; Haughey, Bruce H; Tempelhoff, Rene; Rich, Keith M; Schneider, John; Chole, Richard A; Chicoine, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Internal carotid artery (ICA) injury is a rare but severe complication of endonasal surgery. The authors describe their endovascular experience managing ICA injuries after transsphenoidal surgery; they review and summarize the current literature regarding endovascular techniques; and they propose a treatment algorithm based on the available evidence. METHODS A retrospective review of 576 transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resections was performed. Cases of ICA injury occurring at our institution and transfers from other hospitals were evaluated. Endovascular treatments for ICA injury reported in the literature were also reviewed and summarized. RESULTS Seven cases were identified from the institutional cohort (mean age 46.3 years, mean follow-up 43.4 months [1-107 months]) that received endovascular treatment for ICA injury. Five injuries occurred at our institution (5 [0.9%] of 576), and 2 injuries occurred at outside hospitals. Three patients underwent ICA sacrifice by coil placement, 2 underwent lesion embolization (coil or stent-assisted coil placement), and 2 underwent endoluminal reconstruction (both with flow diversion devices). Review of the literature identified 98 cases of ICA injury treated with endovascular methods. Of the 105 total cases, 46 patients underwent ICA sacrifice, 28 underwent lesion embolization, and 31 underwent endoluminal reconstruction. Sacrifice of the ICA proved a durable solution in all cases; however, the rate of persistent neurological complications was relatively high (10 [21.7%] of 46). Lesion embolization was primarily performed by coil embolization without stenting (16 cases) and stent-assisted coiling (9 cases). Both techniques had a relatively high rate of at least some technical complication (6 [37.5%] of 16 and 5 [55.6%] of 9, respectively) and major technical complications (i.e., injury, new neurological deficit, or ICA sacrifice) (5 [31.3%] of 16 and 2 [22.2%] of 9, respectively). Endoluminal reconstruction was

  20. Relationship between haemodynamic impairment and collateral blood flow in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkamp, Nolan S; Petersen, Esben T; Chappell, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment...... is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial...... arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were assessed with ASL before and after acetazolamide. Cerebral haemodynamics were normal in asymptomatic ICA stenosis patients, as opposed to patients with ICA occlusion, in whom the haemodynamics in both hemispheres...

  1. Real-world experience of treatment decision-making in carotid stenosis in a neurovascular board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, David Leander; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Alegiani, Anna C; Rosenkranz, Michael; Schmidt, Nils Ole; Regelsberger, Jan; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Magnus, Tim; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Fiehler, Jens; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2017-07-25

    To describe our experience with consensus-based decision-making for treatment of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis by neurologists, interventional neuroradiologists, vascular surgeons, and neurosurgeons in a multidisciplinary neurovascular board and to study adherence to treatment recommendations in the context of uncertainty with respect to the best treatment option. We established a multidisciplinary neurovascular board meeting twice a week with structured documentation of consensus decisions. Over a time period of 53 months, 614 cases with ICA stenosis were discussed, with 285 (46%) symptomatic and 279 (45%) asymptomatic cases. Recommendation for symptomatic ICA stenosis was revascularization in 76%, medical management alone in 8%, and further diagnostics in 16%. For asymptomatic ICA stenosis, recommendation was randomization in a clinical trial in 29%, revascularization in 27%, medical management alone in 23%, and further diagnostics in 22%. Treatment recommendations were followed in 94% of symptomatic ICA stenosis and 69% of asymptomatic ICA stenosis. Patients in whom carotid artery stenting was recommended for revascularization were younger and showed a higher rate of severe (≥70%) ICA stenosis. Interdisciplinary board decisions are a helpful and transparent tool to assure adherence to guideline recommendations, and to provide consensus-based individualized treatment strategies in clinical practice in the absence of unequivocal evidence. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Recanalization of symptomatic carotid artery dissections causing occlusion with multiple stents: the use of delayed double-contrast road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Leker, Ronen R; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Grigoriadis, Savvas; Rajz, Gustavo

    2010-04-01

    Internal carotid artery dissections (ICADs) with occlusion present with a high morbidity and mortality. No specific medical treatment has proven to be effective in this setting. In selected cases of ICAD with occlusion, stent-assisted angioplasty has been shown to be effective in restoring the perfusion. Spontaneous ICAD causing occlusion successfully recanalized with multiple telescoped stents extending intracranially has only been reported exceptionally. We report cases of symptomatic acute carotid occlusion after spontaneous dissection extending from the cervical to the petrocavernous ICA segments. Imaging studies revealed the presence of an extensive penumbra area in every case. Patients were treated by means of multiple stents deployed in a telescoped fashion with the aid of a delayed double-contrast road map. Post-procedural angiography demonstrated restitution of the carotid lumen with no signs of residual dissection or intracranial emboli. The patients improved rapidly, showing no residual neurological deficit after a week. At follow-up, patients are clinically asymptomatic and the vessel is patent with no radiological signs of myointimal hyperplasia. The successful angiographic and clinical results observed in our cases of extraintracranial stenting of a long carotid dissection causing occlusion contribute to the literature of carotid dissection treated with multiple stents.

  3. [Sports-related carotid artery dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrouschot, J; Bormann, A; Routsi, D; Stoll, A

    2009-09-01

    Sports-related carotid artery dissection are very rare and were described in different kinds of sports. We report on a 45-year old man who suffered bilateral brain infarctions caused by bilateral extracranial internal carotid artery dissection after excessive weight lifting in a gym. As possible trigger factors for the dissections we assumed the abrupt extension of the neck during weight lifting and the frequent Valsalva manoeuvers with massive rise in the pressure in the carotid artery system. The patient underwent angioplasty and stenting of the stenosis of right carotid artery, the primarily occluded left carotid artery recanalized spontaneously. Secondary prevention was established by platelet aggregation inhibitors. The patient recovered completely. The pathogenesis of sports-related dissections is multifactorial. In addition to sporting activities hereditary or acquired structural aberrations in the arterial walls could be discussed. Acute focal neurological symptoms after sport should always focus on carotid or vertebral artery dissection. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  4. The Influence of Various Morphologic and Hemodynamic Carotid Plaque Characteristics on Neurological Events Onset and Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan D. Brajovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of 72 patients with 111 asymptomatic carotid stenoses (ACS, mean age 65.42 ± 9.21, and a group of 36 patients with 58 symptomatic carotid stenoses (SCS, mean age 67.63 ± 8.79, were analyzed prospectively during a 3-year follow-up period. All patients underwent color duplex scan sonography (CDS, carotid arteriography, computed tomography (CT scan, and neurological examination. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation between echo plaque morphology (degree and plaque quality, local hemodynamic plaque characteristics, ischemic CT findings, and onset of new neurological events and deaths. The results analysis showed significantly more ACS in the group of 30–49% stenosis (p < 0.001, but significantly more SCS in the group of 70–89% (p < 0.0001 and ≥90% stenosis (p < 0.05. Fibrous plaque was more frequent in the ACS group (p < 0.001, while ulcerated and mixed plaques were more frequent in the SCS group (both p < 0.0001. In the SCS group, a significantly higher frequency of increased peak systolic and end diastolic velocities was noted at the beginning and end of the study (both p < 0.01, as well as for contralateral common (CCA or internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively, but reduced carotid blood flow volume (p < 0.05 only at the end of the study. In the ACS group, the best correlation with new neurological events and deaths was shown with positive CT findings, peak systolic flow velocity over 210 cm/sec, end diastolic flow velocity over 110 cm/sec, plaque stenosis ≥70%, plaque ulceration, mixed plaque (all p < 0.0001; stenosis ≥50% (p < 0.001; and reduced carotid blood flow volume (p < 0.05.

  5. Carotid stenosis: what is the high-risk population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hun Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prevention is the best treatment for cerebrovascular disease, which is why early diagnosis and the immediate treatment of carotid stenosis contribute significantly to reducing the incidence of stroke. Given its silent nature, 80% of stroke cases occur in asymptomatic individuals, emphasizing the importance of screening individuals with carotid stenosis and identifying high-risk groups for the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the most frequent risk factors for carotid stenosis. METHODS: A transversal study was conducted in the form of a stroke prevention campaign held on three nonconsecutive Saturdays. During the sessions, carotid stenosis diagnostic procedures were performed for 500 individuals aged 60 years or older who had systemic arterial hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus and/or coronary heart disease and/or a family history of stroke. RESULTS: The prevalence of carotid stenosis in the population studied was 7.4%, and the most frequent risk factors identified were mean age of 70 years, carotid bruit, peripheral obstructive arterial disease, coronary insufficiency and smoking. Independent predictive factors of carotid stenosis include the presence of carotid bruit or peripheral obstructive heart disease and/or coronary insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The population with peripheral obstructive heart disease and carotid bruit should undergo routine screening for carotid stenosis.

  6. Clinical experience with Thera DR rate-drop response pacing algorithm in carotid sinus syndrome and vasovagal syncope. The International Rate-Drop Investigators Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benditt, D G; Sutton, R; Gammage, M D; Markowitz, T; Gorski, J; Nygaard, G A; Fetter, J

    1997-03-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of cardiac pacing using the Thera DR rate-drop response algorithm for prevention of recurrent symptoms in patients with carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) or vasovagal syncope. The algorithm comprises both diagnostic and treatment elements. The diagnostic element consists of a programmable "window" used to identify heart rate changes compatible with an evolving neurally mediated syncopal episode. The treatment arm consists of pacing at a selectable rate and for a programmable duration. Forty-three patients (mean age 53 +/- 20.4 years) with CSS alone (n = 8), CSS in conjunction with vasovagal syncope (n = 4), or vasovagal syncope alone (n = 31) were included. Thirty-nine had recurrent syncope, while the remaining four reported multiple presyncopal events. Prior to pacing, 40 +/- 152 syncopal episodes (range from 1 to approximately 1,000 syncopal events) over the preceding 56 +/- 84.5 months. Postpacing follow-up duration was 204 +/- 172 days. Three patients have been lost to follow-up and in one patient the algorithm was disabled. Among the remaining 39 individuals, 31 (80%) indicated absence or diminished frequency of symptoms, or less severe symptoms. Twenty-three patients (23/29, or 59%) were asymptomatic with respect to syncope or presyncope. Sixteen patients had symptom recurrences. Of these, seven experienced syncope (7/39, or 18%) and 9 (29%) had presyncope: the majority of patients with recurrences (6/7 syncope and 7/9 presyncope) were individuals with a history of vasovagal syncope. Consequently, although symptoms were observed during postpacing follow-up, they appeared to be of reduced frequency and severity. Thus, our findings suggest that a transient period of high rate pacing triggered by the Thera DR rate-drop response algorithm was beneficial in a large proportion of highly symptomatic patients with CSS or vasovagal syncope.

  7. Early and late results of carotid endarterectomy: retrospective study of 70 operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Toledo de Aguiar

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Indications and results of carotid endarterectomy have been defined from clinical multicentric trials like the European Carotid Surgery Trialists, North-American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial and Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study. The patients included in these trials were highly selected, as were the surgeons performing the operations. Clinical practice is different but the same results should be achieved. OBJECTIVE: To study indications, technique, early and late results, and whether carotid endarterectomy has been performed in accordance with standards defined by multicentric trials. DESIGN: Retrospective case report study. SETTING: A tertiary care private hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 57 patients, on whom 70 carotid endarterectomies were performed over a 10-year period. The median age was 66.4 ± 7.8 years; 43 (75.4% were male, 41 (71.9% hypertensive, 36 (63.1% current smokers and 24 (21.0% had diabetes. Bilateral carotid stenosis was present in 31 (54.3% patients, peripheral arterial occlusions in 32 (56.1% and ischemic cardiopathy in 25 (43.1%. All patients had had angiography and 41 (71.9% had also had a duplex-scan of neck arteries. Cerebral imaging via computerized tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging was obtained for 36 patients. Patients were followed up over a period of one to 122 months. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: early and late post-operative death, early and late post-operative stroke, and recurrence of atheroma plaque and symptoms relative to carotid stenosis. RESULTS: There was one post-operative death (1.4% caused by myocardial infarction and two early strokes (2.8%: a total complication rate of 4.2%. After 3 and 5 years, 95.4% and 81.3% of patients respectively were stroke-free and 72.8% and 67.3% were alive. There were four recurrences and two of them related to stroke. Forty-nine (70% stenoses operated on were symptomatic. Brain infarction was detected in 59.2% of patients who underwent computerized

  8. Associations between Carotid Artery Plaque Score, Carotid Hemodynamics and Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiping Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The carotid artery plaque score (PS is an independent predictor of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. This study aims to evaluate the combination of PS and carotid hemodynamics to predict CHD. Methods: A total of 476 patients who underwent carotid ultrasonography and coronary angiography were divided into two groups depending on the presence of CHD. PS, carotid intima-media thickness, and carotid blood flow were measured. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to establish the best prediction model for CHD presence. Results: Age, sex, carotid intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery and carotid bifurcation, PS, peak systolic velocity (PSA of right internal carotid artery (RICA, and most resistance index data were significantly related with the presence of CHD. The area under the curve for a collective model, which included factors of the PS, carotid hemodynamics and age, was significantly higher than the other model. Age, PS, and PSA of RICA were significant contributors for predicting CHD presence. Conclusions: The model of PS and PSA of RICA has greater predictive value for CHD than PS alone. Adding age to PS and PSA of RICA further improves predictive value over PS alone.

  9. Associations between Carotid Artery Plaque Score, Carotid Hemodynamics and Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Liu, Mengxue; Ren, Tiantian; Wang, Xiangqian; Liu, Dandan; Xu, Mingliang; Han, LingFei; Wu, Zewei; Li, Haibo; Zhu, Yu; Wen, Yufeng; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The carotid artery plaque score (PS) is an independent predictor of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). This study aims to evaluate the combination of PS and carotid hemodynamics to predict CHD. Methods: A total of 476 patients who underwent carotid ultrasonography and coronary angiography were divided into two groups depending on the presence of CHD. PS, carotid intima-media thickness, and carotid blood flow were measured. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to establish the best prediction model for CHD presence. Results: Age, sex, carotid intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery and carotid bifurcation, PS, peak systolic velocity (PSA) of right internal carotid artery (RICA), and most resistance index data were significantly related with the presence of CHD. The area under the curve for a collective model, which included factors of the PS, carotid hemodynamics and age, was significantly higher than the other model. Age, PS, and PSA of RICA were significant contributors for predicting CHD presence. Conclusions: The model of PS and PSA of RICA has greater predictive value for CHD than PS alone. Adding age to PS and PSA of RICA further improves predictive value over PS alone. PMID:26569275

  10. A Case of Pseudoaneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery Following Endoscopic Endonasal Pituitary Surgery: Endovascular Treatment with Flow-Diverting Stent Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karadag

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Internal carotid artery (ICA pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of endoscopic endonasal surgery occurring in 0.4–1.1% of cases. Pseudoaneurysms can subsequently result in other complications, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, epistaxis, and caroticocavernous fistula with resultant death or permanent neurologic deficit. In this case, we illustrate endovascular treatment with a flow-diverting stent for an ICA pseudoaneurysm after endoscopic endonasal surgery for a pituitary adenoma in a 56-year-old male. Surgery was complicated by excessive intraoperative bleeding and emergent CT angiography confirmed an iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm on the anteromedial surface of the ICA. The pseudoaneurysm was treated endovascularly with flow-diverting stent implantation only. Follow-up CT angiography after three months demonstrated occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm.

  11. Stenosis of calcified carotid artery detected on Panoramic Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, So Yang; Oh, Won Mann; Yoon, Suk Ja; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan M. [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery with calcification detected on panoramic radiographs. This study used fifty carotid arteries of 36 dental patients whose panoramic radiograph and computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the presence of carotid artery calcification. A neuroradiologist interpreted CTA to determine the degree of stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. The degree of stenosis was stratified in four stages; normal (no stenosis), mild stenosis (1-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (70-99%). Among the fifty carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA, 20 carotid arteries (40%) were normal, 29 carotid arteries (18%) had mild stenosis, 1 carotid artery (2%) had moderate stenosis, and there was none with severe stenosis. Sixty percent of the carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA had internal luminal stenosis, and two percent had moderate stenosis. When carotid atheroma is detected on panoramic radiograph, it is possible that the dental patient has luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF VERTEBRAL ARTERIES BLOOD FLOW SPECTRAL DOPPLER INDICES IN COMPARISON WITH INTERNAL AND COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES BLOOD FLOW SPECTRAL DOPPLER INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mazaher

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is the cause of cerebrovascular accidents in 20% of cases. There are few reports regarding spectral Doppler indices (SDIs of vertebral arteries (VAs normal blood flow. The objective of this study was to provide basic reference data about SDIs of VAs normal blood flow separately and in comparison with internal carotid arteries (ICAs and common carotid arteries (CCAs normal blood flows SDIs. This cross-sectional study performed on 70 normal patients. Color Doppler sonography (CDS and spectral Doppler sonography (SDS of right and left VAs (RVA and LVA, right and left CCAs (RCCA and LCCA, right and left ICAs (RICA and LICA, were performed. The mean PSV, EDV, and RI values of RVA blood flow were as 41.60 ± 9.6 cm/s, 14.60 ± 3.7 cm/s and 0.65 ± 0.06, and the mean PSV, EDV and RI values of LVA blood flow were as 42.20 ± 10.2 cm/s, 15.20 ± 4.2 cm/s, and 0.64 ± 0.05, respectively. There was not statistically significant difference between the mean PSV, EDV and RI values of RVA and LVA blood flows. The mean PSV and EDV values of VAs blood flows were significantly lower than the values of CCAs and ICCAs blood flows, respectively. The mean RI value of VAs blood flows was significantly lower than the mean RI Value of CCAs blood flows, but there was not statistically significant difference between the mean RI value of VAs blood flows and the mean RI value of ICAs blood flows.

  13. Retrograde suction decompression of a large internal carotid aneurysm using a balloon guide catheter combined with a blood-returning circuit and STA-MCA bypass: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Fumihiro; Mizunari, Takayuki; Kominami, Shushi; Suzuki, Masanori; Fujiki, Yu; Kubota, Asami; Kobayashi, Shiro; Murai, Yasuo; Morita, Akio

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to treat large internal carotid aneurysms with simple surgical clipping. Here, we present a retrograde suction decompression (RSD) procedure for large internal carotid aneurysms using a balloon guide catheter combined with a blood-returning circuit and a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass.All patients underwent an STA-MCA bypass before the temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). A 6-French sheath was inserted into the common carotid artery (CCA), and a 6-French Patrive balloon catheter was placed into the ICA 5 cm past the bifurcation. Aneurysm exposure was obtained; temporary clips were placed on the proximal M1, A1, and posterior communicating (Pcom) segments; and an extension tube was then connected to the balloon catheter. A three-way stopcock was placed, and aspiration was performed through the device to collapse the aneurysm. The aspirated blood was returned to a venous line with an added heparin to prevent anemia after aspiration. During the decompression, the blood flow to the cortical area was supplied through the STA-MCA bypass. After the aneurysm collapse, the surgeon carefully dissected the perforating artery from the aneurysm dome or neck, and permanent clips were then placed on the aneurysm neck. Our procedure has several advantages, such as STA-MCA bypass without external carotid artery occlusion for preventing ischemic complications of the cortical area, anemia may be avoided because of the return of the aspirated blood, and a hybrid operation room is not required to perform this method.

  14. Platelet activation, function, and reactivity in atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, J A

    2012-09-27

    An important proportion of transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke is attributable to moderate or severe (50-99%) atherosclerotic carotid stenosis or occlusion. Platelet biomarkers have the potential to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular events in this patient population. A detailed systematic review was performed to collate all available data on ex vivo platelet activation and platelet function\\/reactivity in patients with carotid stenosis. Two hundred thirteen potentially relevant articles were initially identified; 26 manuscripts met criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. There was no consistent evidence of clinically informative data from urinary or soluble blood markers of platelet activation in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe carotid stenosis who might be considered suitable for carotid intervention. Data from flow cytometry studies revealed evidence of excessive platelet activation in patients in the early, sub-acute, or late phases after transient ischemic attack or stroke in association with moderate or severe carotid stenosis and in asymptomatic moderate or severe carotid stenosis compared with controls. Furthermore, pilot data suggest that platelet activation may be increased in recently symptomatic than in asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis. Excessive platelet activation and platelet hyperreactivity may play a role in the pathogenesis of first or subsequent transient ischemic attack or stroke in patients with moderate or severe carotid stenosis. Larger longitudinal studies assessing platelet activation status with flow cytometry and platelet function\\/reactivity in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic carotid stenosis are warranted to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for transient ischemic attack or stroke.

  15. [Screening strategies for the diagnosis of asymptomatic arterial lesions in patients with atherothrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenne, O; Touzé, E; Collet, J P; Raoux, F; Boissier, C; Carpentier, P H; Alpérovitch, A; Mas, J L; Montalescot, G

    2005-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is a ubiquitous inflammatory disease. Patients presenting an acute atherothrombotic event (acute coronary syndrom, stroke, aortic aneurysm, ...) have an increased risk of events in remote arterial territories affected by atherosclerosis. These patients could benefit from systematic screening of asymptomatic atherosclerotic lesions to avoid these complications. For each atherosclerotic territory (coronary artery, carotid artery, aorta, peripheral arteries including renal arteries), we review the methods for screening asymptomatic atherothrombotic lesions which could justify specific treatments: coronary artery stenosis > or = 50%, carotid artery stenosis > or = 60%, renal artery stenosis > or = 50%, and abdominal aortic aneurysm > or = 30 mm. This review shows that non invasive methods (ie, echography, tomodensitometry) are widely available for diagnosis of asymptomatic lesions in carotid and renal arteries, and in the aorta. Despite its invasive caracteristic, coronarory angiography remains the gold-standard for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, cardiac multi-slices CT-scan appears a promising technique for asymptomatic patients.

  16. Cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Sørensen, O

    1987-01-01

    Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in 56 patients before and one to four times after uncomplicated carotid endarterectomy. The findings were related to the ratio between internal carotid artery (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) mean pressures. Within the 1st...... postoperative day CBF increased by a median of 37% in the ipsilateral and 33% in the contralateral hemisphere. Later recordings showed a gradual return of CBF toward the preoperative level. Sixteen patients with an ICA/CCA pressure ratio below 0.7 showed a significantly more pronounced and longer-lasting flow......, occurred in the low pressure ratio group, while the hemispheric asymmetry on average was unchanged in the high pressure ratio group. This relative hyperemia was most pronounced 2 to 4 days following reconstruction. The marked hyperemia, absolute as well as relative, in patients with a low ICA/CCA pressure...

  17. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  18. Association of subclinical atherosclerosis using carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and coronary calcium score with left ventricular dyssynchrony: the multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi K; Donekal, Sirisha; Rosen, Boaz D; Tattersall, Matthew C; Volpe, Gustavo J; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Nasir, Khurram; Wu, Colin O; Polak, Joseph F; Korcarz, Claudia E; Stein, James H; Carr, James; Watson, Karol E; Bluemke, David A; Lima, João A C

    2015-04-01

    The role of atherosclerosis in the progression of global left ventricular dysfunction and cardiovascular events has been well recognized. Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony is a measure of regional myocardial dysfunction. Our objective was to investigate the relationship of subclinical atherosclerosis with mechanical LV dyssynchrony in a population-based asymptomatic multi-ethnic cohort. Participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) at exam 5 were evaluated using 1.5T cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, carotid ultrasound (n = 2062) for common carotid artery (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) intima-media thickness (IMT), and cardiac computed tomography (n = 2039) for coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessment (Agatston method). Dyssynchrony indices were defined as the standard deviation of time to peak systolic circumferential strain (SD-TPS) and the difference between maximum and minimum (max-min) time to peak strain using harmonic phase imaging in 12 segments (3-slices × 4 segments). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess associations after adjusting for participant demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, LV mass, and ejection fraction. In multivariable analyses, SD-TPS was significantly related to measures of atherosclerosis, including CCA-IMT (8.7 ms/mm change in IMT, p = 0.020), ICA-IMT (19.2 ms/mm change in IMT, p atherosclerosis are associated with parameters of subclinical LV dyssynchrony in the absence of clinical coronary event and left-bundle-branch block. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unilateral Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula Causing Bilateral Ocular Manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartini, Zeferino; Liebert, Fernando; Gatto, Luana Antunes Maranha; Jung, Thiago Simiano; Rocha, Carlos; Santos, Alex Marques Borges; Koppe, Gelson Luis

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral carotid cavernous fistula presents with ipsilateral ocular findings. Bilateral presentation is only seen in bilateral fistulas, usually associated with indirect (dural) carotid cavernous fistulas. Direct carotid cavernous fistulas are an abnormal communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. They typically begin with a traumatic disruption in the artery wall into the cavernous sinus, presenting with a classic triad of unilateral pulsatile exophthalmos, cranial bruit and episcleral venous engorgement. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with traumatic right carotid cavernous sinus fistula and bilateral ocular presentation successfully treated by interventional neuroradiology.

  20. Recanalization with subsequent near-total occlusion of an internal carotid artery aneurysm after immediate thrombotic occlusion using a flow-diverting stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, George Kwok Chu; Yu, Simon Chun Ho; Siu, Deyond Yung Woon; Poon, Wai Sang

    2012-04-01

    A flow-diverting stent is placed in the parent artery to reduce blood flow in the aneurysm sac to facilitate progressive thrombosis and neointimal remodeling while maintaining outflow in the side branches and perforators. All international multicenter registries have reported on the progressive occlusion of aneurysms with time and have implied that an occluded aneurysm would not recanalize given the protective effect of the altered hemodynamics. Recanalization of an occluded aneurysm after placement of a flow-diverting stent has not been reported in the literature. The authors here describe a case of aneurysm recanalization after immediate thrombotic occlusion of the aneurysm with a flow-diverting stent. A 46-year-old male chronic smoker with chronic hypertension and hypercholesterolemia had a recurrent internal carotid artery aneurysm 1 year after embolization. Immediate thrombotic occlusion of the aneurysm and cessation of blood flow to the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) occurred immediately after activating a flow-diverting stent, with corresponding ischemic complications. However, 3 months after insertion of the stent, follow-up MR angiography showed recanalization of the aneurysm as well as of the PCoA. Additional angiography studies at 6 months showed near-total occlusion of the aneurysm with the restoration of blood flow to the PCoA.

  1. Statins reduce levels of metalloproteinases in patients with carotid occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, P; Borrelli, V; Sterpetti, A V; Biacchi, D; Venturini, L; Tartaglia, E; Bononi, M; Di Marzo, L

    2014-12-01

    Pharmaceutical stabilization of an unstable low-grade carotid artery stenosis delays surgery and improve outcome. Statins can be used to reduce intimal media thickness. Our aim was to determine the clinical and biological effects of rosuvastatin on plaque stabilization or regression. Forty-two consecutive male patients presenting with an asymptomatic internal carotid artery plaque uniformly anechogenic (group 1) 40-50% lumen diameter reduction formed the basis of the study. A group of 35 patients affected with a uniformly echogenic carotid artery stenosis (40-50%) served as control (group 2). Patients were followed-up every 8-month for 2 years with B-mode ultrasonography and color imaging. A computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed before the initiation of the study period and at the end to confirm plaque characteristics and the degree of stenosis. Ticlopidine (250 mg/day) and rosuvastatin (10 mg/day) were administered. One blood sample was drawn at every control to assess the release of matrix metallopoteinases (MMPs)-1, -2, -3, -9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)-1 and -2. After the administration of rosuvastatin plasma level of MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9 significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.001). Conversely, plasma level of TIMP-1 and -2 significantly increased in both groups (P<0.001). B-mode ultrasonography and color imaging and CTA failed to demonstrate a stabilization or regression of uniformly anehogenic carotid plaque during follow-up. Rosuvastatin decreases the plasma level of MMPs and increases those of TIMPs. However, neither progression nor stabilization of low-grade unstable carotid plaques was seen.

  2. Location of the internal carotid artery and ophthalmic artery segments for non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement by multi-depth TCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarat, Yasin; Deimantavicius, Mantas; Kalvaitis, Evaldas; Siaudvytyte, Lina; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Zakelis, Rolandas; Bartusis, Laimonas

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to locate the ophthalmic artery by using the edge of the internal carotid artery (ICA) as the reference depth to perform a reliable non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement via a multi-depth transcranial Doppler device and to then determine the positions and angles of an ultrasonic transducer (UT) on the closed eyelid in the case of located segments. High tension glaucoma (HTG) patients and healthy volunteers (HVs) undergoing non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement were selected for this prospective study. The depth of the edge of the ICA was identified, followed by a selection of the depths of the IOA and EOA segments. The positions and angles of the UT on the closed eyelid were measured. The mean depth of the identified ICA edge for HTG patients was 64.3 mm and was 63.0 mm for HVs (p = 0.21). The mean depth of the selected IOA segment for HTG patients was 59.2 mm and 59.3 mm for HVs (p = 0.91). The mean depth of the selected EOA segment for HTG patients was 48.5 mm and 49.8 mm for HVs (p = 0.14). The difference in the located depths of the segments between groups was not statistically significant. The results showed a significant difference in the measured UT angles in the case of the identified edge of the ICA and selected ophthalmic artery segments (p = 0.0002). We demonstrated that locating the IOA and EOA segments can be achieved using the edge of the ICA as a reference point. OA: ophthalmic artery; IOA: intracranial segments of the ophthalmic artery; EOA: extracranial segments of the ophthalmic artery; ICA: internal carotid artery; UT: ultrasonic transducer; HTG: high tension glaucoma; SD: standard deviation; ICP: intracranial pressure; TCD: transcranial Doppler.

  3. [Relationship between the metabolic syndrome, endothelial function and intima-media thickness in asymptomatic middle-aged individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustiene, Olivija; Slapikas, Rimvydas; Marcinkeviciene, Jolanta; Petrauskiene, Irena; Milasauskiene, Zemyna; Griskeviciūte, Rasa; Plepyte, Julija; Zaliūnas, Remigijus

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between cardiovascular risk factors, metabolic syndrome, endothelial function and carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. A total of 180 subjects (86 men and 94 women, mean age 38.8+/-0.3 years) have been investigated. Anthropometric, blood pressure measurements have been performed and lipid as well as high sensitivity C-reactive protein blood levels have been tested. The endothelial function was assessed by measuring the vasodilatation of the brachial artery. The carotid intima-media thickness was measured with high resolution B-mode ultrasound imaging. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using International Diabetes Federation definition criteria (2005). The metabolic syndrome has been diagnosed in 48 (26.7%) individuals: 28 (32.6%) males and 20 (21.3%) females. Significantly reduced endothelial function has been established in asymptomatic men when compared to women. However, statistically significant decrease (4.84%) in endothelial function in metabolic individuals was detected only among males. In the metabolic patients intima-media of common carotid artery, carotid bulb and internal carotid artery was thicker than in those without metabolic syndrome (0.006, 0.007 and 0.007 cm, respectively) (alpha=0.000, beta=0.01). Endothelial dysfunction and intima-media thickening correlated with increased blood pressure, abdominal circumference and body mass index as well as with elevated blood triglyceride and glucose levels. Intima-media thickness was greater in individuals with impaired endothelial function in all carotid segments tested. No relationship has been observed between total or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and endothelial function, intima-media thickening or high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. These observations suggest that the metabolic syndrome and/or its components may influence the different initial mechanisms of atherosclerosis--disorder of endothelial function and

  4. The significance of CBF measurements for precise management of carotid stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Usui, Reiko; Takeda, Rihei; Nakamura, Hirohiko [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Severe hemodynamic cerebral ischemia associated with carotid stenosis could be one of the difining characteristics of the high-risk group for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vascular reactivity in patients treated with CEA were analyzed to clarify the significance of preoperative evaluation of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia using CBF-SPECT. Both the resting and acetazolamide-activated rCBF, and the severity of the hemodynamic cerebral ischemia (Stage 0-II) were quantified using the {sup 123}I-IMP autoradiography (ARG) method and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics were compared in both symptomatic patients (n=30) and asymptomatic patients (n=24). Postoperative improvement of resting rCBF was estimated in both groups. Stage II ischemia was quantitatively defined as both a resting rCBF of less than 80% of normal mean CBF and a vascular reserve (VR: (acetazolamide-activated rCBF/Resting rCBF-1) x 100%) of less than 10%. In the other 31 patients treated with CEA, postoperative hyperperfusion was investigated using CBF-SPECT within 24 hours after CEA. Preoperatively, Stage II ischemia (hemodynamically compromised state) was observed in 20% of symptomatic patients and 8% of asymptomatic patients. A significant difference in resting rCBF was indicated between symptomatic patients (31.8{+-}6.1 ml/100 g/min) and asymptomatic patients (37.6{+-}6.6 ml/100 g/min)(p<0.002, t-test). Severity of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia was generally moderate in symptomatic patients. Postoperatively, a significant increase of resting CBF was observed in symptomatic patients but not in asymptomatic patients. In the other 31 patients treated by CEA, symptomatic hyperperfusion was observed in 3 of 4 patients with Stage II ischemia and asymptomatic hyperperfusion was indicated in 3 of 4 patients with Stage I ischemia with a VR of less than 10%. Preoperative CBF measurements in patients treated with CEA were significant to define severe hemodynamic

  5. Carotid Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... head with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow or blocked, usually because ... other substances found in the blood. Carotid artery disease is serious because it can block the blood ...

  6. Recurrent carotid stenosis after CEA and CAS: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Brajesh K

    2007-12-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the preferred method for cerebral revascularization in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic high-grade extracranial carotid artery stenosis. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has recently emerged as a less invasive alternative to endarterectomy. Carotid stenting has been demonstrated to be technically feasible and safe in high-risk patients. It has been approved as an acceptable method for revascularization in circumstances where CEA yields suboptimal results. While the final role of CAS in carotid revascularization will be determined on the basis of ongoing randomized trials, it is clear that stenting will continue to be performed in subgroups of patients with carotid stenosis. Therefore, it is anticipated that there will be a corresponding increase in the number of in-stent restenosis cases. Considerable controversy exists regarding the clinical significance, natural history, threshold for management, and appropriate intervention of recurrent carotid stenosis after endarterectomy and after stenting. This review analyzes current information on this important clinical problem and presents evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of recurrent carotid stenosis.

  7. The Occipital Artery as an Alternative Donor for Low-Flow Bypass to Anterior Circulation After Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Failure prior to Exenteration for an Atypical Cavernous Sinus Meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakita, Shunya; Lenck, Stéphanie; Labidi, Moujahed; Watanabe, Kentaro; Bresson, Damien; Froelich, Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    In skull base tumors involving the cavernous sinus, indications for aggressive resection are sparse and must be carefully examined because of their invasiveness. With careful evaluation, techniques including internal carotid artery sacrifice with or without extracranial-intracranial bypass may still be an option in some cases. Moreover, previous surgery with the sacrifice of potential donor vessels requires adjusting the revascularization strategy. We describe an occipital artery-middle cerebral artery bypass before skull base tumor resection. A 47-year-old woman with a recurrent cavernous sinus meningioma was referred to our department. Because of tumor recurrence after radiotherapy and its rapid progression, radical resection, including part of the cavernous sinus, was planned. A balloon test occlusion was performed and showed good tolerance. An endovascular internal carotid artery occlusion was performed. The patient eventually experienced motor deficits and aphasia after surgery. Therefore, bypass surgery using an occipital artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed. The patient showed no exacerbation of symptoms after bypass surgery and subsequently underwent tumor resection. The reliability of balloon test occlusion in the management of giant aneurysms may not be similarly applicable to skull base tumors. If hypoperfusion symptoms occur after occlusion of the internal carotid artery, a surgical revascularization procedure should be considered because of the risk of ischemic stroke following tumor resection. For patients whose superficial temporal artery is not available, the occipital artery can be a valuable alternative donor for low-flow bypass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microsurgical Relations between Internal Carotid Artery-Posterior Communicating Artery (ICA-PComA) Segment Aneurysms and Skull Base: An Anatomoclinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Darder, José M; Quilis-Quesada, Vicent; Talamantes-Escribá, Fernando; Botella-Maciá, Laura; Verdú-López, Francisco

    2012-10-01

    Purpose The study of the clinical, anatomic, imaging, and microsurgical characteristics of the aneurysms of the internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (ICA-PComA) segment and their relationships with the skull base structures. Methods The anatomic relationships of PComA with neurovascular elements and skull base structures were studied in cadavers. The clinical, imaging, and microsurgical findings of 84 microsurgically treated ICA-PComA aneurysms compiled in a prospective database were reviewed. Results The most important anatomic relations of the PComA and ICA-PComA aneurysms are with the oculomotor nerve around the oculomotor triangle that forms the roof of the cavernous sinus. Aneurysms of the ICA-PComA are classified according to the orientation of the aneurysmal sac in infratentorial, supratentorial, and tentorial. Infratentorial aneurysms frequently present with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and oculomotor nerve paralysis. They have relations with skull base structures that often make it necessary to totally or partially resect the anterior clinoid process (6.7%) or anterior petroclinoid dural fold (15%). Supratentorial aneurysms course with SAH and without oculomotor nerve involvement, but they often are associated with intracranial hematoma. Conclusion ICA-PComA aneurysms have complex anatomic relations. The orientation of the aneurysmal fundus induces relevant differences in the anatomic relations, clinical presentation, and microsurgical approach to ICA-PComA aneurysms.

  9. Grading of proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis by Doppler/duplex ultrasound (DUS) and computed tomographic angiography (CTA): correlation and interrater reliability in real-life practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Oliver; Nikoubashman, Omid; Rajkumar, Parajuli; Keuler, Andreas; Wiesmann, Martin; Schulz, Jörg B; Reich, Arno

    2017-03-01

    Doppler/duplex ultrasound (DUS) and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) are frequently applied methods to assess the degree of proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenoses in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study evaluated the agreement and interrater reliability (IR) of both methods using a revised DUS grading system as well as different criteria (ECST/NASCET) under real-life conditions. CTA and DUS data of 281 proximal ICA stenoses [143 patients; 65.7 % male; age (mean (years) ± SD, range) 72.2 ± 11.1, 40-99] were retrospectively analyzed. For both methods, two independent raters estimated the degree of stenosis according to NASCET and ECST criteria. DUS raters applied revised German DUS criteria. For agreement and IR assessment, the linear weighted Kappa statistic was used. Correlation between DUS and CTA was substantial irrespective of the applied classification [weighted Kappa: 0.77 (NASCET)/0.79 (ECST)]. IR for DUS was almost perfect (weighted Kappa: 0.94) and better than for CTA [weighted Kappa: 0.78 (NASCET)/0.78 (ECST)]. In a real-life setting, CTA and DUS assessments of the degree of proximal ICA stenoses agreed substantially irrespective of the criteria applied (ECST/NASCET). For DUS, IR was better than for CTA.

  10. Successful treatment of a blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery by trapping with a high-flow bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Akitsugu; Okada, Yoshikazu; Kawamata, Takakazu; Onda, Hideaki; Kubo, Osami; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2008-07-01

    Treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is difficult because the wall of the aneurysm is fragile and there is a high risk of rebleeding. There has been no consensus on the best way to treat these aneurysms. A 32-year-old woman presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured blood blister-like aneurysm of the ICA. The site of the aneursym was clipped. Although angiography 1week after the operation showed that the aneurysm had been treated successfully, 3 weeks after the initial operation, the aneurysm was found to have recurred to the distal side. In a second operation, the aneurysm was successfully treated by trapping with a high-flow bypass. This case shows that clipping of the rupture site can be insufficient to treat blood blister-like aneurysm of the ICA causing SAH, even if the aneurysm seems to have resolved in follow-up angiographic studies. Trapping of the ICA with a bypass, if necessary a high-flow bypass, is recommended.

  11. Recurrent extracranial internal carotid artery vasospasm diagnosed by serial magnetic resonance angiography and superselective transarterial injection of a calcium channel blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Yoshiteru; Fujimura, Miki; Kimura, Naoto; Ezura, Masayuki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent vasospasm of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is extremely rare, and optimal management is unclear. A 25-year-old woman developed transient dysarthria and left-sided hemiparesis. Initial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed spotty acute infarction in the right temporal lobe, and MR angiography revealed right ICA occlusion. ICA occlusion was spontaneously resolved within 6 days of its onset, whereas transient left ICA narrowing was evident at 12 days. Because recurrent occlusion of the right ICA occurred at 14 days when the contralateral ICA was still narrowed, we attempted a local intra-arterial injection of a calcium channel blocker based on the diagnosis of recurrent extracranial ICA vasospasm. The local injection of 1 mg of nicardipine partially dilated the affected ICA, which confirmed the diagnosis of vasospasm. After the introduction of oral medication with benidipine hydrochloride, bilateral ICA vasospasm was completely resolved 23 days after its onset, as shown by MR angiography. In conclusion, we recommend intensive radiologic follow-up at the acute stage and therapeutic catheter angiography when the bilateral lesion is evident because bilateral occlusion of the ICA could lead to a catastrophic condition. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of contralateral carotid artery stenosis on outcomes after carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothof, Alexander B; Soden, Peter A; Fokkema, Margriet; Zettervall, Sara L; Deery, Sarah E; Bodewes, Thomas C F; de Borst, Gert J; Schermerhorn, Marc L

    2017-12-01

    Patients with contralateral carotid occlusion (CCO) have been excluded from randomized clinical trials because of a deemed high risk for adverse neurologic outcomes with carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Evidence for this rationale is limited and conflicting. Therefore, we aimed to compare outcomes after CEA between patients with and without CCO and varying degrees of contralateral carotid stenosis (CCS). We identified patients undergoing CEA from 2003 to 2015 in the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) registry. Patients were stratified by preoperative symptom status and presence of CCO. Multivariable analysis was used to account for differences in demographics and comorbidities. Our primary outcome was 30-day stroke/death risk. Of 15,487 patients we identified who underwent CEA, 10,377 (67%) were asymptomatic. CCO was present in 914 patients, of whom 681 (75%) were asymptomatic. Overall, the 30-day stroke/death was 2.0% for symptomatic patients (CCO: 2.6%) and 1.1% for asymptomatic patients (CCO: 2.3%). After adjustment, including symptom status, CCO was associated with higher 30-day stroke/death (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.3; P = .001), any in-hospital stroke (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.7-4.6; P carotid artery stenting than after CEA. We believe that CEA remains a valid and safe option for patients with CCO and that CCO should not be applied as a criterion to promote carotid artery stenting per se. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MRA of the intracranial circulation in asymptomatic patients with sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillams, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Boston City Hospital Imaging Foundation, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Academic Department of Medical Imaging, Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom); McMahon, L.; Weinberg, G. [Boston City Hospital Sickle Cell Centre, Boston, MA (United States); Carter, A.P. [Department of Radiology, Boston City Hospital Imaging Foundation, Boston, MA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Background. MR angiography (MRA) provides a mechanism for non-invasively studying blood flow, thus providing a new opportunity to study the intracranial circulation in asymptomatic sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Although conventional angiography is the gold standard for the depiction of vascular anatomy, this is too invasive for an asymptomatic population. Objective. To establish the range of appearances in asymptomatic SCD patients and to correlate brain MRI results (either sub-clinical abnormalities or normal brain parenchyma) with the MRA findings. Materials and methods. Brain MRI and MRA of the intracranial circulation was performed on 22 patients (13 male and 9 female, median age 7.5 years, range 1.3-20 years). Fourteen were homozygous SS and eight were SC. The median haematocrit at the time of MRI was 25.9 (range 13.8-33.3). Results. On MR imaging, four patients had infarcts in eight vascular territories (six anterior and two posterior). In 3/4 of anterior vascular territories with infarction, long ({>=} 6 mm) segments of abnormal signal were seen at the internal carotid artery bifurcation with associated reduced distal flow. Short focal areas of abnormal signal were commonly seen where vessels branched, bifurcated or curved and were not associated with infarcts. These areas probably represent turbulence-related dephasing secondary to high velocity flow found in SCD. Conclusion. Long segments ({>=} 6 mm) of abnormal signal with reduced distal flow correlated with sub-clinical infarction. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 24 refs.

  14. Combining carotid intima-media thickness with carotid plaque on screening for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David S; Bestwick, Jonathan P; Morton, Geraint; Drummond, Linda; Jenkins, Nick; Khodabakhsh, Pouran; Curzen, Nick P

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound-detected carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid plaque are possible screening tests for coronary heart disease (CHD) among asymptomatic individuals. To assess the increase in screening performance of combining carotid IMT and plaque compared with each measurement alone in the identification of individuals with CHD. Ultrasound examination of left and right carotid arteries was performed on 100 individuals (median age 57), 55 with a history of CHD (unstable angina or myocardial infarction) and 45 without. IMT measurements were taken from the common carotid artery and plaque was identified above, at and below the carotid bifurcation. Associations between IMT and plaque were determined using logistic regression, and screening performance was assessed from the distributions of IMT and plaque among cases and controls. At a false-positive rate of 5%, IMT (cut-off >0.75 mm) identified 30% (95% CI 14-58) of affected individuals. There was an increase in the detection rate of 8 percentage points (1-33%) using IMT and plaque combined compared with IMT alone. As the false-positive increased, the difference in the detection rate increased, up to a maximum of 20 percentage points (5-38%) at a false-positive rate of 20%. The comparison of IMT and plaque combined with plaque alone could only be estimated for the false-positive rate observed using plaque alone (18%); at this point the detection rate was 72% for plaque and 75% for plaque and IMT combined, an increase of 3 percentage points (0-4%). In screening for CHD, combining carotid IMT measurement with plaque assessment is better than using either measurement alone, but the improvement in discrimination is not sufficient to make carotid ultrasound screening for CHD worthwhile.

  15. Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  16. Cavernous carotid stenosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for Cushing's disease: A rare complication and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Xu, Zhiyuan; Schlesinger, David; Sheehan, Jason P

    2018-01-01

    Intracranial carotid stenosis or occlusion after SRS is an extraordinarily rare event. Because of the rarity of this event, increased awareness within the neurosurgical community is required. For those with post-radiosurgical carotid stenosis who are asymptomatic, longitudinal follow up is recommended. Management depends on whether the patient is symptomatic or asymptomatic. Those who are symptomatic may require balloon angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The changes of individual carotid artery wall layer by aging and carotid intima-media thickness value for high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jang-Ho; Kim, Wuon-Shik; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Kee-Sik; Park, Jeong Bae; Youn, Ho-Joong; Park, Chang-Gyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Jang-Young; Jeong, Jin-Won; Park, Jong Chun; Lim, Do-Sun; Kim, Moo Hyun; Woo, Jeong Taek

    2016-12-01

    It is still unclear which layer (intima or media) is mainly involved in increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by aging and also unclear regarding CIMT value suggesting high cardiovascular risk, although 75th percentile value of CIMT is known as a high risk in asymptomatic adults. We sought to find the changes of carotid intima thickness (CIT) and carotid media thickness (CMT) by aging and the 75th percentile value of CIMT in asymptomatic Korean adults. This is an observational cohort study. Carotid ultrasound findings (n=2204 from 12 hospitals) were prospectively collected. The carotid images were sent to Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science for analysis using specialized software which can measure intima and media wall also. Mean age was 58.1±13.5 years old (52% of men). Pearson's correlation coefficient between age and right CIMT (r=.489, Pvalue was 0.778 and 0.771 mm, respectively. Mean right CIT was 0.311±0.069 and 0.303±0.064 mm (P=.009), and mean right CMT was 0.391±0.124 and 0.388±0.131 mm (P=.694) in male and female, respectively. Left carotid ultrasound findings showed similar to the right one. An increased CIMT by aging was mainly due to increased CMT rather than CIT in asymptomatic adults. The 75th percentile values of right CIMT were 0.778 and 0.771 mm in asymptomatic Korean male and female adults, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Carotid endarterectomy in patients with occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery. Perioperative risk and late results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Rasmussen, L

    1987-01-01

    Recent reports on the outcome of carotid endarterectomy in patients with contralateral occlusion have been conflicting. Therefore, we reviewed 51 cases identified, among 675 consecutive carotid endarterectomies. A perioperative mortality of 2% and a permanent morbidity rate of 16% was observed...... severe strokes when compared to patients with only minor reduction in CPP. In addition, the internal carotid artery blood flow following endarterectomy was significantly higher in the low pressure group (P less than 0.02). No patients were lost during follow-up, for a mean of 34 months. The cumulative....... Compared with a complication rate of about 5% previously reported from this institution, this clearly indicates contralateral carotid occlusion as a major risk factor in carotid surgery. Though not statistically significant, patients with severely reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) had suffered more...

  19. Aneurisma da artéria carótida interna extracraniana: relato de caso Aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Taveira Garcia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas verdadeiros da artéria carótida interna extracraniana são raros, ao contrário dos supraclinóideos, somando menos de 4% dos aneurismas periféricos. Eles se apresentam clinicamente como massas palpáveis cervicais, junto à margem inferior do ângulo da mandíbula, causando rouquidão, disfagia e dor por compressão nervosa. Há freqüente associação desta doença com outros aneurismas periféricos devido à sua etiologia principal (aterosclerose. Os aneurismas periféricos são comumente identificados à ultra-sonografia Doppler, quando na vigência de janela acústica adequada. Nesta situação, os aneurismas podem ser avaliados tanto morfológica como hemodinamicamente. Sua identificação e estudo são importantes para prevenir graves complicações, como tromboses, infartos maciços ou embólicos da área correspondente no sistema nervoso central, ruptura e dissecção, além de auxiliar na indicação da melhor conduta terapêutica.Unlike supraclinoid aneurysms, true aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery are extremely rare (less than 4% of the peripheral aneurysms. The commonest presentation is a pulsatile neck swelling below the angle of the jaw associated with hoarseness, dysphagia and pain (neural compression. Concomitance with other peripherical aneurysms is frequent and caused by atherosclerosis. The morphological and hemodynamic features are very well evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, when the acoustic window is satisfactory. Identification and evaluation of these aneurysms are very important to prevent thrombosis, rupture, dissections, massive strokes and embolic brain infarcts, besides helping in the decision of the best treatment.

  20. Cervical Internal Carotid Occlusion versus Pseudo-occlusion at CT Angiography in the Context of Acute Stroke: An Accuracy, Interobserver, and Intraobserver Agreement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Ange; Fahed, Robert; Gaha, Mehdi; Chagnon, Miguel; Khoury, Naïm; Kotowski, Marc; Guilbert, François; Landry, David; Raymond, Jean; Roy, Daniel; Weill, Alain

    2017-10-25

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of computed tomographic (CT) angiography to distinguish true cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion from pseudo-occlusion (defined as an isolated intracranial thrombus that impedes ascending blood flow) in the context of acute stroke. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent thrombectomy with preprocedural CT angiography that helps to demonstrate a lack of attenuation in the cervical ICA on the symptomatic side (24 men and 13 women; mean age, 63 years; age range, 30-86 years). Seven readers, including five neuroradiologists and two interventional neuroradiology fellows, independently reviewed the CT angiography images to assess whether there was true cervical ICA occlusion. Their results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting true occlusion as well as accuracy and diagnostic odds ratio were calculated, with inter- and intraobserver κ statistics. Results Cervical ICA pseudo-occlusion occurred in 12 of 37 patients (32.4%) with nonattenuation of the cervical ICA on the symptomatic side. Interobserver agreement coefficients did not reach the substantial value of 0.61 for either pairs or groups of readers. The cohort's average sensitivity and specificity was 68% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59%, 76%) and 75% (95% CI: 71%, 80%), respectively, with a diagnostic odds ratio of 8 (95% CI: 3, 18) and only fair interobserver agreement (κ = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.47). Conclusion In the context of acute ischemic stroke with ipsilateral ICA nonattenuation at single-phase CT angiography, even specialized radiologists may not reliably distinguish true cervical occlusion from pseudo-occlusion. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  1. [Stenting of subtotal conclusion of internal carotid artery and comparing the cerebral embolic load of proximal balloon protection device with distal filter protection device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-wei; Ji, Xun-ming; Li, Shen-mao; Zhu, Feng-shui; Chen, Yan-fei; Ye, Ming; Jiao, Li-qun

    2013-07-16

    To study the safety, efficacy and perioperative complications of endovascular therapy in the treatment of subtotal conclusion of internal carotid artery(ICA) in patients. To compare the cerebral embolic load of proximal balloon protection device versus distal filter protection device during the operation. Review all the operations of stenting for subtotal conclusion of ICA in Xuanwu hospital. New cerebral infarction after stenting was assessed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Count the number of new ischemic lesions of every patient. 35 patients with subtotal conclusion of ICA received endovascular stenting. Proximal protective device was used for 21 patients. Distal protective device was used for 14 patients. All procedures succeeded. 32 patients received the cerebral MRI 1 week before and within 48 hours after the operation. Compared with filter protection(n = 14), proximal balloon device(n = 18) resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of new cerebral infarction (6/18 vs 10/14, P = 0.03). The number of new cerebral ischemic lesions were significant reduced by proximal balloon device (1/18 vs 4/14, P = 0.0006) . There were no serious cardiovascular events in 35 patients during the operation and the following up 3 months. 3 patients had restenosis which was demonstrated by ultrasound of ICA at 3 months after stenting. Endovascular stenting may be a safe and valid method for the treatment of subtotal occlusion of ICA. For the stenting of subtotal occlusion of ICA, proximal balloon protection device as compared with filter protection may reduce the embolic load to the brain more effectively. The stenting of subtotal occlusion of ICA still needs the randomized trails to confirm the safety and validity.

  2. The anatomic relationship between the internal jugular vein and the carotid artery in children after laryngeal mask insertion. An ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Ravi G; Wilson, Morven; Wilson, Graham; Marciniak, Bruno; Engelhardt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation, although challenging in children and prone to complications, is frequently required for total parenteral nutrition and infusion of drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomic relationship between the internal jugular vein (IJV) and carotid artery (CA) before, and after, insertion of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in children using ultrasound. Patients aged 2-16 were recruited to this prospective study and divided into three groups of 20 patients each: group 1: LMA size 2, group 2: LMA size 2½, and group 3: LMA size 3. Prior to, and following, LMA insertion, the position and depth of the vessels, and time to locate them were recorded. All measurements were taken at the level of the cricoid cartilage in a neutral head position in the spontaneously breathing patient during expiration. The IJV position in relation to the CA was noticed as anterior (A), anterolateral (AL), lateral (L), or medial (M). The position of the IJV was found to be in the anterolateral (AL) or anterior (A) position to the CA in the majority of cases. The anatomic relationship changed in 10/120 (8.3%) following insertion of the LMA. The mean depth was 0.80 (± 0.15) cm for the right IJV before LMA insertion and 0.84 (± 0.17) cm after insertion. Similar measurements were taken on the left side [0.81 (± 0.14) cm and 0.83 (± 0.18) cm]. The diameter as well as the depth of the IJV increased with the age and weight of the patient. This study demonstrates that the IJV is anterior or anterolateral to the artery in the majority of cases and that the anatomic relationship may change following the insertion of the LMA. It supports the need for using ultrasound-guided techniques for IJV cannulation following LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Objective Validation of Perfusion-Based Human Cadaveric Simulation Training Model for Management of Internal Carotid Artery Injury in Endoscopic Endonasal Sinus and Skull Base Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jasper; Hur, Kevin; Zhang, Zhipeng; Minneti, Michael; Pham, Martin; Wrobel, Bozena; Zada, Gabriel

    2017-12-29

    The emergence of minimally invasive endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery has necessitated reproducible and realistic simulators of rare vascular injuries. To assess the face and content validity of an innovative perfusion-based cadaveric model developed to simulate internal carotid artery (ICA) injury during endoscopic surgery. Otolaryngology and neurosurgery trainees attempted 3 consecutive trials of endoscopic control of a parasellar ICA injury, with standardized technical feedback. Time to hemostasis (TTH) and blood loss were trended. All participants completed validated questionnaires using a 5-point Likert scale to assess the domains of confidence gain, face validity, content validity, and curriculum applicability. Among all participants (n = 35), TTH and mean blood loss significantly decreased between first vs second attempt (P = .005), and first vs third attempt (P = .03). Following the first attempt, trainees experienced an average 63% reduction in blood loss and 59% reduction in TTH. In the quartile of most improved participants, average blood loss reduction was 1115 mL (84% reduction) and TTH of 259 s (84% reduction). There were no significant differences between trainees of varying postgraduate year or specialty. Average pre and postprocedural confidence scores were 1.38 and 3.16, respectively (P < .0001). All trainees reported model realism, which achieved mean face validity 4.82 ± 0.41 and content validity 4.88 ± 0.33. The perfusion-based human cadaveric ICA injury model achieves high ratings of face and content validity across all levels of surgical trainees, and enables safe, realistic simulation for standardized skull base simulation and future curriculum development. Objective improvements in performance metrics may translate to improved patient outcomes.

  4. Internal carotid arterial canal size and scaling in Euarchonta: Re-assessing implications for arterial patency and phylogenetic relationships in early fossil primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Kirk, E Christopher; Silcox, Mary T; Gunnell, Gregg F; Gilbert, Christopher C; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Allen, Kari L; Welch, Emma; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gonzales, Lauren A; Kay, Richard F; Seiffert, Erik R

    2016-08-01

    Primate species typically differ from other mammals in having bony canals that enclose the branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA) as they pass through the middle ear. The presence and relative size of these canals varies among major primate clades. As a result, differences in the anatomy of the canals for the promontorial and stapedial branches of the ICA have been cited as evidence of either haplorhine or strepsirrhine affinities among otherwise enigmatic early fossil euprimates. Here we use micro X-ray computed tomography to compile the largest quantitative dataset on ICA canal sizes. The data suggest greater variation of the ICA canals within some groups than has been previously appreciated. For example, Lepilemur and Avahi differ from most other lemuriforms in having a larger promontorial canal than stapedial canal. Furthermore, various lemurids are intraspecifically variable in relative canal size, with the promontorial canal being larger than the stapedial canal in some individuals but not others. In species where the promontorial artery supplies the brain with blood, the size of the promontorial canal is significantly correlated with endocranial volume (ECV). Among species with alternate routes of encephalic blood supply, the promontorial canal is highly reduced relative to ECV, and correlated with both ECV and cranium size. Ancestral state reconstructions incorporating data from fossils suggest that the last common ancestor of living primates had promontorial and stapedial canals that were similar to each other in size and large relative to ECV. We conclude that the plesiomorphic condition for crown primates is to have a patent promontorial artery supplying the brain and a patent stapedial artery for various non-encephalic structures. This inferred ancestral condition is exhibited by treeshrews and most early fossil euprimates, while extant primates exhibit reduction in one canal or another. The only early fossils deviating from this plesiomorphic

  5. Capillary Transit Time Heterogeneity Is Associated with Modified Rankin Scale Score at Discharge in Patients with Bilateral High Grade Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibu Mundiyanapurath

    Full Text Available Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI is inherently unreliable in patients with severe perfusion abnormalities. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a novel index of microvascular flow-patterns, so-called capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH to that of the commonly used delay parameter Tmax in patients with bilateral high grade internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS.Consecutive patients with bilateral ICAS ≥ 70%NASCET who underwent PWI were retrospectively examined. Maps of CTH and Tmax were analyzed with a volumetric approach using several thresholds. Predictors of favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale at discharge 0-2 were identified using univariate and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis.Eighteen patients were included. CTH ≥ 30s differentiated best between patients with favorable and unfavorable outcome when both hemispheres were taken into account (sensitivity 83%, specificity 73%, area under the curve [AUC] 0.833 [confidence interval (CI 0.635; 1.000]; p = 0.027. The best discrimination using Tmax was achieved with a threshold of ≥ 4s (sensitivity 83%, specificity 64%, AUC 0.803 [CI 0.585;1.000]; p = 0.044. The highest AUC was found for left sided volume with CTH ≥ 15s (sensitivity 83%, specificity 91%, AUC 0.924 [CI 0.791;1.000]; p = 0.005.The study suggests that CTH is superior to Tmax in discriminating ICAS patients with favorable from non-favorable outcome. This finding may reflect the simultaneous involvement of large vessels and microvessels in ICAS and underscore the need to diagnose and manage both aspects of the disease.

  6. Spontaneous extracranial carotid atherosclerosis evolution in asymptomatic individuals: a three-year prospective study Evolução espontânea da aterosclerose carotídea extra craniana em indivíduos assintomáticos: estudo prospectivo de três anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens José Gagliardi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the spontaneous evolution of extracranial carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients who did not present the main risk factors associated to the disease. METHOD:A prospective study including patients of both genders, age ranging from 40 to 70 years, not presenting any signs and symptoms of cerebrovascular disease and without the main atherosclerosis risk factors were included. Patients who were using or had used medication during the follow-up period that could potentially influence in the spontaneous course of atherosclerosis were excluded. The evaluation of the plaque and degree of stenosis were acquired using mode B, 7.5 MHz Doppler ultrasonography (USG. The follow-up was carried out for 36 months, with clinical, neurological, and USG exams repeated in a period of 6 to 8 months. Ninety-six individuals (48 women completed the study with the presence of plaque, and 52 (26 women with a degree of stenosis. RESULTS: As to the degree of stenosis, 25% of the patients had worsening, 69% remained stable and 6% improved. When only the presence or absence of plaque was considered, 20% showed worsening (plaque developed during follow-up, 7% improved (disappearance of plaque, and 73% remained stable. No differences were found between the male and female patients. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the dynamic characteristics of plaque. In asymptomatic individuals without specific treatment, spontaneous improvement may occur, however, rarely. These findings may contribute as an assessment criterion when a decision is to be made in high-risk patients.OBJETIVO: avaliar a evolução espontânea da aterosclerose carotídea. MÉTODO: estudo prospectivo com pessoas de ambos os sexos, idade de 40 a 70 anos, sem sinais e sintomas de doença cerebrovascular e sem os principais fatores de risco para aterosclerose. Foram excluídos os doentes que estavam em uso ou os que, durante o período de acompanhamento, usaram medicações que

  7. Carotid Stump Syndrome: Case Report and Endovascular Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhoul, Lara Toufic; Tawk, Rabih

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To highlight the case of a patient with multiple transient ischemic attacks and visual disturbances diagnosed with carotid stump syndrome and managed with endovascular approach. Case Presentation. We present the case of a carotid stump syndrome in an elderly patient found to have moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis in response to an advertisement for carotid screening. After a medical therapeutic approach and a close follow-up, transient ischemic attacks recurred. Computed tomographic angiography showed an occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and the presence of moderate stenosis in the right internal carotid artery, which was treated by endovascular stenting and balloon insertion. One month later, the patient presented with visual disturbances due to the left carotid stump and severe stenosis of the left external carotid artery that was reapproached by endovascular stenting. Conclusion. Considerations should be given to the carotid stump syndrome as a source of emboli for ischemic strokes, and vascular assessment could be used to detect and treat this syndrome.

  8. Patterns of Acute Ischemic Strokes After Carotid Endarterectomy and Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareyre, Fabien; Raffort, Juliette; Weill, Caroline; Marsé, Claire; Suissa, Laurent; Chikande, Julien; Hassen-Khodja, Réda; Jean-Baptiste, Elixène

    2017-10-01

    Acute ischemic strokes following surgical treatment of carotid stenosis lead to substantial disability and mortality, and vascular mechanisms underlying their development are not fully elucidated. The goal of this study was to analyze the topographic patterns of acute ischemic stroke following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were retrospectively collected from consecutive patients who underwent CEA and developed postoperative acute ischemic stroke. Based on the MRI data sets, the lesion patterns of acute stoke were characterized. Morphology of the circle of Willis, the 3-D time-of-flight (3D-TOF) of the cerebral arteries, and status of the carotid circulation were also analyzed in order to determine the vascular mechanisms involved in stroke development. Between January 2008 and May 2015, 821 patients were treated surgically for a symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis at the University Hospital of Nice. Nineteen (2.3%) patients had an acute ischemic stroke after surgery. Among them, 11 (57.9%) patients had a territorial infarction and 8 (42.1%) patients had an internal watershed infarction, cortical watershed infarction, or mixed border zone infarction. According to imaging data sets, embolic mechanism of stroke was reported for 12 (63.2%) patients, hemodynamic mechanism for 2 (10.5%) patients, and mixed mechanism for 5 (26.3%) patients. An asymmetry on 3D-TOF was observed in 60% and 50% of patients with hemodynamic and mixed stroke and in 25% of patients with embolic stroke. The latter 2 patients with embolic stroke underwent successful mechanical thrombectomy using stent-retriever devices. In this cohort, embolic mechanism leading to postoperative stroke was more frequently observed than hemodynamic mechanism. Immediate characterization of the cerebral lesion by postoperative brain MRI is of utmost importance because it may rapidly identify patients eligible for treatments

  9. Retrograde Suction Decompression Through Direct Puncture of the Common Carotid Artery for Paraclinoid Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Toyooka, Terushige; Fujii, Kazuya; Ueno, Hideaki; Tomura, Satoshi; Tomiyama, Arata; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Mori, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Surgical clipping of paraclinoid aneurysm can be very difficult because strong adhesions may hinder the dissection of the perforators and surrounding anatomical structures from the aneurysm dome. We describe our experience with using retrograde suction decompression during the clipping of paraclinoid aneurysms and discuss the relative advantages and pitfalls. This study included 23 patients with large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms who underwent surgical treatment consisting of direct clipping with suction decompression between March 2004 and August 2014. Direct puncture of the common carotid artery (CCA) was performed with a 20-gauge needle. The aneurysm was temporarily trapped by clamping of the CCA and external carotid artery (ECA), followed by temporary clipping of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) distal to the aneurysm neck. Blood was then gently aspirated through a catheter introduced into the cervical ICA, resulting in collapse of the aneurysm. Therefore, safe aneurysm dissection was feasible during interruption of the blood flow, which could be maintained for up to 5 min. This procedure was repeated until dissection and clipping of the aneurysm were completed. Seven patients were admitted with SAH, 11 with asymptomatic unruptured aneurysm, and 5 with symptomatic unruptured aneurysm. The aneurysms were located on the paraclinoidal segment of the ICA in 15 cases, on the ICA-posterior communicating artery (PComA) in 6, at the ICA bifurcation in 1, and on the anterior wall of the ICA in 1. None of them suffered complications related to the CCA puncture. Surgical outcome was good recovery in 13 patients, moderate disability in 4, severe disability in 4, and vegetative state in 1. Retrograde suction decompression through direct puncture of the common carotid artery is a useful adjunct technique for the clipping of paraclinoid ICA aneurysms.

  10. Differential effects of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy on external carotid artery patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Edward Y; Karmacharya, Jagajan; Velazquez, Omaida C; Carpenter, Jeffrey P; Skelly, Christopher L; Fairman, Ronald M

    2007-04-01

    To determine the effect of stent coverage of the external carotid artery (ECA) after carotid artery stenting (CAS) compared to eversion endarterectomy of the ECA after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The records of 101 CAS and 165 CEA procedures performed over 2 years were reviewed. Duplex velocities and history and physical examinations were taken prior to the procedure, at 1 month, and at 6-month intervals subsequently. CAS was performed by extending the stent across the internal carotid artery (ICA) lesion into the common carotid artery (CCA) thereby covering the ECA. CEA was performed with eversion endarterectomy of the ECA. The mean peak systolic velocities (PSV) in the ICA pre-CAS and pre-CEA were 361 and 352 cm/s, respectively. In terms of CAS, there was a significant increase in ECA velocities versus baseline at 12 (p = 0.009), 18 (p = 0.00001), and 24 (p = 0.005) months. In the CEA group, there was a significant decrease in ECA velocities versus baseline at 1 (p = 0.01) and 6 (p = 0.004) months. There were 2 occluded ECAs in follow-up in the CAS group and none in the CEA group. No significant differences were noted when comparing preprocedural ICA or ECA velocities. However, at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month intervals, the ECA velocities in the CAS group were significantly higher than in the CEA group (p = 0.03, p = 0.001, and p = 0.0004, respectively). There were no neurological symptoms in any patients during the study period. Although progressive stenosis of the ECA is noted during CAS, the ECA usually does not occlude. Furthermore, there are no associated neurological symptoms. Thus, apprehension for progressive ECA occlusion should not be a contraindication to CAS. In addition, concern for ECA coverage should not deter stent extension from the ICA to the CCA during CAS.

  11. Risk factors for neurological worsening and symptomatic watershed infarction in internal carotid artery aneurysm treated by extracranial-intracranial bypass using radial artery graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Hidetoshi; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Tsuboi, Toshiyuki; Noda, Kosumo; Ota, Nakao; Miyata, Shiro; Oda, Jumpei; Takeda, Rihee; Tokuda, Sadahisa; Kamada, Kyousuke

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT The revascularization technique, including bypass created using the external carotid artery (ECA), radial artery (RA), and M2 portion of middle cerebral artery (MCA), has remained indispensable for treatment of complex aneurysms. To date, it remains unknown whether diameters of the RA, superficial temporal artery (STA), and C2 portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and intraoperative MCA blood pressure have influences on the outcome and the symptomatic watershed infarction (WI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the factors for the symptomatic WI and neurological worsening in patients treated by ECA-RA-M2 bypass for complex ICA aneurysm with therapeutic ICA occlusion. METHODS The authors measured the sizes of vessels (RA, C2, M2, and STA) and intraoperative MCA blood pressure (initial, after ICA occlusion, and after releasing the RA graft bypass) in 37 patients. Symptomatic WI was defined as presence of the following: postoperative new neurological deficits, WI on postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging, and ipsilateral cerebral blood flow reduction on SPECT. Neurological worsening was defined as the increase in 1 or more modified Rankin Scale scores. First, the authors performed receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for continuous variables and the binary end point of the symptomatic WI. The clinical, radiological, and physiological characteristics of patients with and without the symptomatic WI were compared using the log-rank test. Then, the authors compared the variables between patients with and without neurological worsening at discharge and at the 12-month follow-up examination or last hospital visit. RESULTS Symptomatic WI was observed in 2 (5.4%) patients. The mean MCA pressure after releasing the RA graft (< 55 mm Hg; p = 0.017), mean (MCA pressure after releasing the RA graft)/(initial MCA pressure) (< 0.70 mm Hg; p = 0.032), and mean cross-sectional area ratio ([RA/C2 diameter](2) < 0.40 mm [p < 0.0001] and [STA/C2

  12. Deglutition syncope: a manifestation of vagal hyperactivity following carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endean, Eric D; Cavatassi, William; Hansler, Joseph; Sorial, Ehab

    2010-09-01

    A 61-year-old man with left amaurosis fugax and bilateral >80% internal carotid artery stenoses underwent a left carotid endarterectomy. On the first postoperative day, he developed hypotension, bradycardia, and chest pain with food ingestion. He was diagnosed as having deglutition syncope and was treated with oral anticholinergics. Similar symptoms occurred when he underwent a right carotid endarterectomy. Deglutition syncope is a neurally mediated situational syncope resulting from vagus nerve over-activity. This is the first report of deglutition syncope associated with carotid endarterectomy. It is important to recognize and differentiate these symptoms from other causes of postendarterectomy hemodynamic instability.

  13. Spontaneous carotid artery dissection causing a juvenile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, S.; Huebsch, P.; Schindler, E.

    1988-11-01

    The case of a 19-year-old patient is presented who was admitted with aphasia and hemiparesis due to basal ganglia infarction as a result of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery. The difficulties in diagnosing this disease with CT and MRI in the acute stage are demonstrated. Angiography is still imperative in order to ascertain that a carotid dissection has occurred.

  14. A curve model for association of serum homocysteine with carotid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adjusted regression analysis showed that the threshold values of Hcy with end diastolic velocity (EDV) of right common carotid artery (CCA) were 12.50 and 19.00, while for the EDV of right internal carotid artery (ICA), the values were 11.50 and 22.00. U-shaped curves were observed between Hcy and peak systolic ...

  15. EXTERNAL CAROTID-ARTERY REVASCULARIZATION - INDICATIONS, OPERATIVE TECHNIQUES AND RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONTJE, AH

    1992-01-01

    The external carotid artery (ECA) is an important collateral pathway in patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and recurrent symptoms. An ipsilateral ECA revascularization can improve cerebral perfusion or eliminate an embolic source. In the past 11 years 11 patients

  16. Fate of the external carotid artery following carotid interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kevin; Zhou, Wei; Tedesco, Maureen M; Al-Khatib, Weesam K; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Bech, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The external carotid artery (ECA) is an important collateral pathway for cerebral blood flow. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) typically crosses the ECA, while carotid endarterectomy (CEA) includes deliberate ECA plaque removal. The purpose of the present study was to compare the long-term patency of the ECA following CAS and CEA as determined by carotid duplex ultrasound. Duplex ultrasounds and hospital records were reviewed for consecutive patients undergoing CAS between February 2002 and April 2008, and were compared with those undergoing CEA in the same time period. Preoperative and postoperative ECA peak systolic velocities were normalized to the common carotid artery (CCA) as ECA/CCA ratios. A significant (80% or greater) ECA stenosis was defined as an ECA/CCA ratio of 4.0. A change of ratio by more than 1 was defined as significant. Data were analyzed using Student's t test and χ(2) analysis. A total of 86 CAS procedures in 83 patients were performed (81 men, mean age 69.9 years). Among them, 38.4% of patients had previous CEA, 9.6% of whom had contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion. Sixty-seven CAS and 65 CEA patients with complete duplex data in the same time period were included in the analyses. There was no difference in the incidence of severe ECA stenosis on preoperative ultrasound evaluations. During a mean follow-up of 34 months (range four to 78 months), three postprocedure ECA occlusions were found in the CAS group. The likelihood of severe stenosis or occlusion following CAS was 28.3%, compared with 11% following CEA (PECA status. Reduction in the patient's degree of ECA stenosis was observed in 9.4% of CAS versus 26.6% of CEA patients. Overall, immediate postoperative ratios of both groups were slightly improved, but there was a trend of more disease progression in the CAS group during follow-up. CAS is associated with a higher incidence of post-procedure ECA stenosis. Despite the absence of neurological symptoms, a trend toward late

  17. Vertebrobasilar And Bilateral Carotid Dolichoectasia: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Ali Yürekli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolichoectasia is a term used to describe marked widening, tortuosity and elongation of an artery. Intracranial vertebral and basilar arteries are most commonly involved. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is usually asymptomatic. Both vertebrobasilar and bilateral carotid dolichoectasia has been reported very rarely in the literature. Cranial nerve compression and cerebral ischemia findings are frequently seen in symptomatic patients. We reported a 67-year-old female, without medical or family history for cerebrovascular disease, presented with vertebrobasilar and bilateral carotid dolichoectasia and subarachnoid hemorrhage, manifesting as reduced level of consciousness and weakness, and left abducens palsy.

  18. Relationship between variations in the circle of Willis and flow rates in internal carotid and basilar arteries determined by means of magnetic resonance imaging with semiautomated lumen segmentation: reference data from 125 healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Fujita, N; Enoki, T; Matsumoto, K; Watanabe, Y; Murase, K; Nakamura, H

    2006-09-01

    Volume flow rates in the feeding arteries of the brain are measured to evaluate blood flow dynamics in vascular disease. Although these flow values are thought to be effected by anatomic variations in the circle of Willis, few reports have described the effect. This study reports on the relationship between variations in the circle of Willis and volume flow rates in the bilateral internal carotid and basilar arteries of normal volunteers. We prospectively examined 125 healthy volunteers by MR imaging. Variations in the circle of Willis were classified as "textbook" type, hypoplasia of the precommunicating segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A1), hypoplasia of the precommunicating segment of the posterior cerebral artery (P1), or "other." Volume flow rates were measured by 2D cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Lumen boundaries and volume flow rates were semiautomatically determined by pulsatility-based segmentation. Of the 117 subjects (61 men, 56 women; mean age, 23.6 years) considered suitable for flow measurement, 105 showed textbook type, and 6 each showed A1 hypoplasia and P1 hypoplasia. Total flow rates for the 3 variations were 781 +/- 151 mL/min (mean +/- SD), 744 +/- 119, and 763 +/- 129, respectively. Relative contributions by flow rates of the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery for the 3 variations were 39.8%:38.9%:21.3%, 31.8%:49.1%:19.0%, and 46.6%:41.6%:11.7%, respectively, showing statistically significant differences. Variations in the circle of Willis correlate significantly with relative contributions by the flow rates of the bilateral internal carotid and basilar arteries.

  19. Usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for detection of carotid plaque ulceration in patients with symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Gerrit L; van Dijk, Anouk C; van den Oord, Stijn C H; Hussain, Burhan; Verhagen, Hence J M; Sijbrands, Eric J G; van der Steen, Antonius F W; van der Lugt, Aad; Schinkel, Arend F L

    2013-07-15

    Previous data have indicated that carotid plaque ulceration is a strong predictor of cerebrovascular events. Standard ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) scans have poor diagnostic accuracy for the detection of carotid plaque ulceration. The aim of the present prospective study was to assess the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) scans for the detection of carotid plaque ulceration. The Institutional Ethics Committee approved the study protocol, and all patients provided informed consent. The patients had symptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery and underwent carotid computed tomographic angiography as part of their clinical evaluation. All patients underwent a CDUS examination in conjunction with CEUS. Carotid plaque ulceration was defined as the presence of ≥1 disruptions in the plaque-lumen border ≥1 × 1 mm. Carotid computed tomographic angiography was used as reference technique. The study population consisted of 20 patients (mean age 64 ± 9 years, 80% men), and 39 carotid arteries were included in the present analysis. Computed tomographic angiography demonstrated that the plaque surface was smooth in 15 (38%), irregular in 7 (18%) and ulcerated in 17 (44%) carotid arteries. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CDUS for the detection of ulceration was 29%, 73%, 54%, 46%, and 57%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CEUS for the detection of ulceration was 88%, 59%, 72%, 63%, and 87%, respectively. CEUS had superior sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for the assessment of carotid plaque ulceration compared with CDUS. CEUS improved the intrareader and inter-reader variability for the assessment of carotid plaque ulceration compared with CDUS. In conclusion, CEUS could be an additional method for the detection of carotid plaque ulceration. The role of CDUS for the assessment of carotid

  20. CT angiography helps to differentiate acute from chronic carotid occlusion: the ''carotid ring sign''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Patrik; Ntaios, George [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Neurology Service, Lausanne (Switzerland); Delgado, Montserrat G. [Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Bezerra, Daniel C. [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Meuli, Reto; Binaghi, Stefano [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    Currently, there is no reliable method to differentiate acute from chronic carotid occlusion. We propose a novel CTA-based method to differentiate acute from chronic carotid occlusions that could potentially aid clinical management of patients. We examined 72 patients with 89 spontaneously occluded extracranial internal carotids with CT angiography (CTA). All occlusions were confirmed by another imaging modality and classified as acute (imaging <1 week of presumed occlusion) orchronic (imaging >4 weeks), based on circumstantial clinical and radiological evidence. A neuroradiologist and a neurologist blinded to clinical information determined the site of occlusion on axial sections of CTA. They also looked for (a) hypodensity in the carotid artery (thrombus), (b) contrast within the carotid wall (vasa vasorum), (c) the site of the occluded carotid, and (d) the ''carotid ring sign'' (defined as presence of a and/or b). Of 89 occluded carotids, 24 were excluded because of insufficient circumstantial evidence to determine timing of occlusion, 4 because of insufficient image quality, and 3 because of subacute timing of occlusion. Among the remaining 45 acute and 13 chronic occlusions, inter-rater agreement (kappa) for the site of proximal occlusion was 0.88, 0.45 for distal occlusion, 0.78 for luminal hypodensity, 0.82 for wall contrast, and 0.90 for carotid ring sign. The carotid ring sign had 88.9% sensitivity, 69.2% specificity, and 84.5% accuracy to diagnose acute occlusion. The carotid ring sign helps to differentiate acute from chronic carotid occlusion. If further confirmed, this information may be helpful in studying ischemic symptoms and selecting treatment strategies in patients with carotid occlusions. (orig.)

  1. Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Shonni J.; Walker, Marcella D.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical profile of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) as it is seen in the United States and most Western countries has evolved significantly over the past half century. The introduction of the multichannel serum autoanalyzer in the 1970s led to the recognition of a cohort of individuals with asymptomatic hypercalcemia, in whom evaluation led to the diagnosis of PHPT. The term “asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism” was introduced to describe patients who lack obvious signs and symptoms referable to either excess calcium or parathyroid hormone. Although it was expected that asymptomatic patients would eventually develop classical symptoms of PHPT, observational data suggest that most patients do not evolve over time to become overtly symptomatic. In most parts of the world, the asymptomatic phenotype of PHPT has replaced classical PHPT. This report is a selective review of data on asymptomatic PHPT: its demographic features, presentation and natural history, as well as biochemical, skeletal, neuromuscular, psychological, and cardiovascular manifestations. In addition, we will summarize available information on treatment indications and options for those with asymptomatic disease. PMID:23374736

  2. Evaluation of Freehand B-Mode and Power-Mode 3D Ultrasound for Visualisation and Grading of Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Otto Pelz

    Full Text Available Currently, colour-coded duplex sonography (2D-CDS is clinical standard for detection and grading of internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS. However, unlike angiographic imaging modalities, 2D-CDS assesses ICAS by its hemodynamic effects rather than luminal changes. Aim of this study was to evaluate freehand 3D ultrasound (3DUS for direct visualisation and quantification of ICAS.Thirty-seven patients with 43 ICAS were examined with 2D-CDS as reference standard and with freehand B-mode respectively power-mode 3DUS. Stenotic value of 3D reconstructed ICAS was calculated as distal diameter respectively distal cross-sectional area (CSA reduction percentage and compared with 2D-CDS.There was a trend but no significant difference in successful 3D reconstruction of ICAS between B-mode and power mode (examiner 1 {Ex1} 81% versus 93%, examiner 2 {Ex2} 84% versus 88%. Inter-rater agreement was best for power-mode 3DUS and assessment of stenotic value as distal CSA reduction percentage (intraclass correlation coefficient {ICC} 0.90 followed by power-mode 3DUS and distal diameter reduction percentage (ICC 0.81. Inter-rater agreement was poor for B-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal CSA reduction 0.36, distal diameter reduction 0.51. Intra-rater agreement for power-mode 3DUS was good for both measuring methods (ICC, distal CSA reduction 0.88 {Ex1} and 0.78 {Ex2}; ICC, distal diameter reduction 0.83 {Ex1} and 0.76 {Ex2}. In comparison to 2D-CDS inter-method agreement was good and clearly better for power-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal diameter reduction percentage: Ex1 0.85, Ex2 0.78; distal CSA reduction percentage: Ex1 0.63, Ex2 0.57 than for B-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal diameter reduction percentage: Ex1 0.40, Ex2 0.52; distal CSA reduction percentage: Ex1 0.15, Ex2 0.51.Non-invasive power-mode 3DUS is superior to B-mode 3DUS for imaging and quantification of ICAS. Thereby, further studies are warranted which should now compare power-mode 3DUS with the angiographic gold standard

  3. Blunt-mechanism facial fracture patterns associated with internal carotid artery injuries: recommendations for additional screening criteria based on analysis of 4,398 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundinger, Gerhard S; Dorafshar, Amir H; Gilson, Marta M; Mithani, Suhail K; Manson, Paul N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2013-12-01

    Blunt internal carotid artery injuries (BCAIs) can result from craniofacial trauma, yet the association between craniofacial fractures and BCAIs is poorly understood. A retrospective cohort study of patients with blunt-mechanism facial fracture(s) presenting to a large trauma center was undertaken to identify facial fracture patterns predictive of BCAIs. Predictor variables included specific facial fracture patterns. Additional variables included demographic, injury mechanism, and associated injury classifications. Outcome variables included the presence or absence of BCAIs. All radiographic fracture patterns were confirmed by author review of computed tomographic imaging. BCAIs were confirmed and graded using the Biffl system. Differences in fracture patterns and demographic parameters in patients who presented with versus without concomitant BCAIs were compared, and relative risks for BCAI were calculated. Existing Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Level III Blunt Cerebrovascular Injury (BCVI) screening criteria then were applied to the dataset to determine if additional fracture patterns would be useful in BCAI screening as determined by alterations in screening sensitivity and specificity. Seventy BCAIs were identified in 54 of 4,398 patients with facial fractures (1.2%). Bilateral fractures in each facial third, complex midface, Le Fort, and subcondylar fractures, fractures in association with the cervical spine, and basilar skull fractures were high risk for concomitant BCAI. Twenty percent of BCAIs would not have been captured by existing Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Level III BCVI screening criteria. When patients meeting these screening criteria were removed from the study population, Le Fort I and subcondylar fractures were the only fracture patterns conferring increased risk for BCAI. Addition of these criteria to existing criteria improved the screening negative predictive value. Specific facial fracture patterns, including

  4. Hemodynamic study of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass in treatment of severe internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui LIU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI in superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA bypass and to provide radiological evidence for hemodynamic changes in STA-MCA bypass in the treatment of severe internal carotid artery (ICA and MCA stenosis and/or occlusion.  Methods A total of 76 cases (65 males and 11 females with average age of 55 who underwent STA-MCA bypass from January 2011 to February 2016 were included. Routine MRI and DSC-PWI were performed within one month before operation and within one week after operation. Hemodynamic changes [relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV, relative mean transit time (rMTT and relative time to peak (rTTP] of MCA blood supplying area at basal ganglia section (proximal end and centrum semiovale section (distal end were compared before and after operation.  Results Compared with before operation, rCBF was significantly increased after operation at ipsilateral basal ganglia section (proximal end, P = 0.000 and centrum semiovale section (distal end, P = 0.001. rCBV at basal ganglia section was significantly increased after operation (P = 0.021, while rCBV at centrum semiovale section had no significant difference compared with before operation (P = 0.844. rMTT (P = 0.000, 0.000 and rTTP (P = 0.000, 0.000 at ipsilateral basal ganglia section and centrum semiovale section were significantly reduced after operation.  Conclusions STA-MCA bypass can improve cerebral blood perfusion of MCA blood supplying area. DSC-PWI could assess the hemodynamics of ischemic area, so it is the optimal noninvasive technology to evaluate the curative effect of bypass and observe cerebral hemodynamic changes dynamically. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.06.010

  5. Evaluation of Freehand B-Mode and Power-Mode 3D Ultrasound for Visualisation and Grading of Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Johann Otto; Weinreich, Anna; Karlas, Thomas; Saur, Dorothee

    2017-01-01

    Currently, colour-coded duplex sonography (2D-CDS) is clinical standard for detection and grading of internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). However, unlike angiographic imaging modalities, 2D-CDS assesses ICAS by its hemodynamic effects rather than luminal changes. Aim of this study was to evaluate freehand 3D ultrasound (3DUS) for direct visualisation and quantification of ICAS. Thirty-seven patients with 43 ICAS were examined with 2D-CDS as reference standard and with freehand B-mode respectively power-mode 3DUS. Stenotic value of 3D reconstructed ICAS was calculated as distal diameter respectively distal cross-sectional area (CSA) reduction percentage and compared with 2D-CDS. There was a trend but no significant difference in successful 3D reconstruction of ICAS between B-mode and power mode (examiner 1 {Ex1} 81% versus 93%, examiner 2 {Ex2} 84% versus 88%). Inter-rater agreement was best for power-mode 3DUS and assessment of stenotic value as distal CSA reduction percentage (intraclass correlation coefficient {ICC} 0.90) followed by power-mode 3DUS and distal diameter reduction percentage (ICC 0.81). Inter-rater agreement was poor for B-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal CSA reduction 0.36, distal diameter reduction 0.51). Intra-rater agreement for power-mode 3DUS was good for both measuring methods (ICC, distal CSA reduction 0.88 {Ex1} and 0.78 {Ex2}; ICC, distal diameter reduction 0.83 {Ex1} and 0.76 {Ex2}). In comparison to 2D-CDS inter-method agreement was good and clearly better for power-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal diameter reduction percentage: Ex1 0.85, Ex2 0.78; distal CSA reduction percentage: Ex1 0.63, Ex2 0.57) than for B-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal diameter reduction percentage: Ex1 0.40, Ex2 0.52; distal CSA reduction percentage: Ex1 0.15, Ex2 0.51). Non-invasive power-mode 3DUS is superior to B-mode 3DUS for imaging and quantification of ICAS. Thereby, further studies are warranted which should now compare power-mode 3DUS with the angiographic gold standard imaging

  6. DURAL CAROTID-CAVERNOUS FISTULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cvenkel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas (CCF are communications fed by meningeal branches of the intracavernous internal carotid artery (ACI or/and external carotid artery (ACE. In contrast to typical CCF, the arteriovenous shunting of blood is usually low flow and low pressure. Spontaneous dural CCF are more common in postmenopausal women. Aetiology is unknown, but congenital malformation or rupture of thin-walled dural arteries within venous sinuses is believed to be the cause.Case reports. 3 cases lacking the typical clinical signs of CCF who had been treated as chronic conjunctivitis, myositis of the extraocular muscle and orbital pseudotumour are presented. Clinical presentation depends on the direction and magnitude of fistular flow and on the anatomy of the collateral branches. If increased blood flow is directed anteriorly in ophthalmic veins the signs of orbito-ocular congestion are present (»redeyed shunt syndrome«. Drainage primarly in the inferior petrosal sinus may cause painful oculomotor and abducens palsies without signs of ocular congestion (»white-eyed shunt syndrome«. Also different therapeutic approaches as well as possible complications are described.Conclusions. For definite diagnosis angiography is obligatory and is also therapeutic as one third to one half of dural CCF close spontaneously. Because of potential severe eye and systemic complications, surgical intervention is indicated only in cases with uncontrolled secondary glaucoma and hypoxic retinopathy.

  7. Relationship between carotid artery stenosis and ischemic ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between carotid artery stenosis and ischemic ocular diseases.METHODS: The clinical data of 30 cases(37 eyesof patients with ischemic eye diseases were collected from November 2010 to May 2014, and they were accepted the fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, transcranial Doppler(TCDultrasonic blood vessels of the eye, neck vascular color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI, the neck CT angiography(CTAand carotid artery digital subtraction angiography(DSAexamination, and then the ischemic eye disease patients with ocular symptoms were analyzed. The peak systolic velocity(PSVand resistance index(RIof ophthalmic artery and central retinal artery were compared. Correlation between the internal carotid artery intima-media thickness(IMTand ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery PSV and RI correlation risk; ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and ophthalmic artery PSV and RI; PSV and RI associated ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and central retinal artery were analyzed. RESULTS: Eye symptoms: a black dim, reduced vision, the eyes flash, and around the eye pain were 75.7%, 83.8%, 51.4% and 32.4%; The eye signs: the dilatation of retinal vein, retinal hemorrhage, arterial stenosis and cotton spot and the contralateral side were regarded as main signs. Ophthalmic artery PSV and RI value of the differences were statistically significant(PPP>0.05; The ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and ophthalmic artery PSV had no correlation with RI values(P>0.05; PSV and RI and the ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and central retinal artery had no correlation(P>0.05.CONCLUSION: The incidence of ischemic eye diseases and internal carotid artery stenosis is associated with very close, the clinical can regard the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis as an important basis for diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.

  8. Morning Glory Syndrome with Carotid and Middle Cerebral Artery Vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezzar, Hachemi; Mbekeani, Joyce N; Dalens, Helen

    2015-12-01

    To report a case of incidental asymptomatic atypical morning glory syndrome (MGS) with concomitant ipsilateral carotid and middle cerebral dysgenesis. A 6-year-old child was discovered to have incidental findings of MGS, with atypia. All visual functions were normal including vision and stereopsis. Neuroimaging revealed ipsilateral carotid and middle cerebral vascular narrowing without associated collateral vessels or cerebral ischemia commonly seen in Moyamoya disease. Subsequent annual examinations have been stable, without signs of progression. This case demonstrates disparity between structural aberrations and final visual and neurological function and reinforces the association between MGS and intracranial vascular disruption. Full ancillary ophthalmic and neuroimaging studies should be performed in all patients with MGS with interval reassessments, even when the patient is asymptomatic and functionally intact.

  9. Current Approaches for Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Köksal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent neurologic injuries and death following stroke, necessitates more vigorous treatment of carotid disease. Carotid stenting and carotid endarterectomy are treatment options in many centers besides medical treatment. Whether the patient is symptomatic or asymtomatic, indications and management strategies for treatment remain controversial. Despite the debate, carotid endarterectomy is still accepted to be the most efficientintervention to decrease risk of stroke due to carotid artery stenosis.

  10. For-Profit Hospital Status and Carotid Artery Stent Utilization in US Hospitals Performing Carotid Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Justin V; George, Benjamin P; Kelly, Adam G; Holloway, Robert G

    2017-11-01

    Carotid artery stenting may be an economically attractive procedure for hospitals and physicians. We sought to identify the association of hospital ownership (nonprofit versus for-profit) on carotid artery stenting (CAS) versus carotid endarterectomy utilization in US hospitals. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample admissions for cerebrovascular disease from 2008 to 2011, we identified all private, nonfederal US hospitals performing at least 20 carotid revascularization procedures annually, including carotid artery stenting (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision 00.63) or carotid endarterectomy (International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision 38.12). We used a multilevel multivariable logistic regression controlling for patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics, to assess the effect of hospital ownership on CAS use. Across 723 hospitals (600 nonprofit, 123 for-profit), 66 731 carotid revascularization admissions were identified. Approximately 1 in 5 (n=11 641; 17.4%) revascularizations received CAS. The mean CAS rate among nonprofit hospitals was 17.5 per 100 revascularizations (median, 11.5; interquartile range, 5.2-24.5), and the mean CAS rate among for-profit hospitals was 24.2 per 100 revascularizations (median, 16.0; interquartile range, 6.7-33.3; Pprofit hospital designation was associated with greater odds of CAS (adjusted odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.98). For-profit hospital ownership is associated with a higher rate of CAS compared to nonprofit hospitals in those receiving carotid revascularization. Further research is needed to understand the individual- and system-level factors driving this difference. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Approach To Unstable Plaque In Carotid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Ghabaee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk of cerebral infarction due to thrombo emboli originating  from carotid artery disease estimated to be near 15%, and this risk  is closely associated with the severity of luminal stenosis. But at the same time characteristics  of the plaque should be taken into account for therapeutic planning when the patient is asymptomatic and the diameter of the stenosis does not reach the threshold of 70%. Search for markers of plaque vulnerability, instability, or thromboembolic potential as complementary to the degree of the luminal stenosis in stroke risk prediction should be considered .These morphologic features of carotid plaques are increasingly believed to be one of those markers that could carry further prognostic information, and early recognition of these plaques features may identify a high-risk subgroup of patients who might particularly benefit from aggressive interventions with aggressive medical treatment. Color and duplex Doppler sonography  evaluates both  morphologic and hemodynamic   abnormalitie of carotid. Echogensity, degree of stenosis and plaque surface features are essential parameters of morphological abnormality.

  12. An audit tool for assessing the appropriateness of carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feasby Thomas E

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To update appropriateness ratings for carotid endarterectomy using the best clinical evidence and to develop a tool to audit the procedure's use. Methods A nine-member expert panel drawn from all the Canadian Specialist societies that are involved in the care of patients with carotid artery disease, used the RAND Appropriateness Methodology to rate scenarios where carotid endarterectomy may be performed. A 9-point rating scale was used that permits the categorization of the use of carotid endarterectomy as appropriate, uncertain, or inappropriate. A descriptive analysis was undertaken of the final results of the panel meeting. A database and code were then developed to rate all carotid endarterectomies performed in a Western Canadian Health region from 1997 to 2001. Results All scenarios for severe symptomatic stenosis (70–99% were determined to be appropriate. The ratings for moderate symptomatic stenosis (50–69% ranged from appropriate to inappropriate. It was never considered appropriate to perform endarterectomy for mild stenosis (0–49% or for chronic occlusions. Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid disease was thought to be of uncertain benefit at best. The majority of indications for the combination of endarterectomy either prior to, or at time of coronary artery bypass grafting were inappropriate. The audit tool classified 98.0% of all cases. Conclusions These expert panel ratings, based on the best evidence currently available, provide a comprehensive and updated guide to appropriate use of carotid endarterectomy. The resulting audit tool can be downloaded by readers from the Internet and immediately used for hospital audits of carotid endarterectomy appropriateness.

  13. Issues to Be Addressed and Hopefully Resolved in the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wesley S

    2016-05-01

    The superiority of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) plus best medical treatment (BMT) over BMT alone for the management of patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis is based on randomized controlled trials that recruited patients up to 30 years ago. Best medical treatment has improved considerably since that time with respect to stroke prevention. Furthermore, a new carotid intervention has emerged during the last 2 decades and has gradually become established, that is, carotid artery stenting (CAS). Consequently, the efficacy of current BMT alone needs to be compared not only with CEA plus BMT but also with CAS plus BMT to determine which strategy achieves the optimal stroke prevention rates. This article highlights the purpose of the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST) 2 and discusses the issues that CREST-2 will hopefully provide answers to. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Asymptomatic inhaled foreign body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Muhammad U.; Asghar, Asif; Tareen, Irum; Azhar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    It is very rare to have a big foreign body in the lungs without any complications or symptoms for 2 years. A 14-year-old male with episodes of minor hemoptysis for 4 weeks had a history of inhalation of a bullet 2 years earlier. He had asymptomatic for lung complications for 2 years. The bullet was removed by right thoracotomy and non-anatomical wedge stapled resection, and he followed an uneventful recovery. An aspirated foreign body although big can remain asymptomatic for a long time, especially if it has migrated to the periphery. PMID:27652366

  15. Haemodynamic evaluation of carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral ischaemia in the region of an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis may be caused by embolism or cerebral hypoperfusion. A severe ICA stenosis may be well compensated by collateral blood supply, however, in some patients the capacity of the collateral blood supply is insufficient. Studi...

  16. Effectiveness of a handmade "New Carotid Catheter" in transradial carotid angiography: A comparison with conventional multipurpose catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Yakup

    2017-10-11

    The incidence and severity of carotid atherosclerosis increases in proportion with coronary artery disease and its severity. A special catheter specifically used for transradial carotid angiography has not yet been marketed. In this study, we investigate the feasibility and safety of our carotid catheter, which was made by reshaping currently available catheters. Between 2010 and 2017, a total of 921 patients with indications for carotid angiography were identified after angiographic examinations and included in the study. Carotid angiography was performed in 403 patients (female, n = 161) using the 3.5 JL catheter, while in 518 (female, n = 207) patients, new catheters were employed. The new catheter was shaped like a hook in the laboratory with a heat gun. Demographic information and angiographic data from the patients in both groups were retrospectively analyzed. The baseline characteristics of both groups were comparable. When compared with the use of a 3.5 JL catheter, right transradial carotid angiographies performed with our new handmade catheter resulted in lesser amounts of opaque material used (55 mL vs 66 mL, P catheter also resulted in a higher success rate of selective visualization (97% vs 40%, P complication were comparable between the two catheters (6.5% vs 6.6% P = 234). Neither permanent damage nor morbidity or mortality was observed in either arm. Currently available catheters and methods are inadequate for routine transradial carotid angiography. For routine transradial carotid angiography, innovatively designed catheters are required. The catheter we developed for transradial carotid angiography was more successful than the conventional catheter in obtaining satisfactory images. High quality images can be obtained with the newly designed catheters. Transradial carotid angiography can be performed using our newly developed carotid catheter. The carotid arteries of patients with widespread coronary artery disease can be

  17. The presence of some cytokines and Chlamydia pneumoniae in the atherosclerotic carotid plaque in patients with carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Janczak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last few years the role of microorganisms in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been widely discussed. Chlamydia pneumoniae activates immune cells to produce cytokines that are responsible for the formation of atheromatous carotid lesions.Material and methods: The study was carried out at the Department of Vascular, General and Transplantation Surgery, Wroclaw Medical University, in 2002-2003, on 100 consecutive symptomatic patients with internal carotid stenosis, who underwent an endarterectomy procedure. Each patient had their carotid artery sampled in order to find C. pneumoniae DNA using the nested PCR method and some cytokines (TGF-β, VEGF, FGF, TNF-α using immunohistochemical examination. The control group consisted of 20 young organ donors who had been diagnosed with brain death and who had their healthy carotid artery harvested. Analogous genetic and immunohistochemical tests were performed.Results: We did not confirm the presence of either cytokines or C. pneumoniae in the healthy carotid arteries. The presence of FGF was probably due to intima fibroblast activity, which is responsible for elastin and collagen synthesis for the extracellular matrix. C. pneumoniae was discovered in 68% of patients with carotid plaques. Three cytokines (TGF-β, FGF, TNF-α were detected in atherosclerotic internal carotid arteries as well.Conclusion: Chronic infection by C. pneumoniae may exacerbate carotid plaque development and may lead to its destabilization.

  18. Differential Influence of Carotid Stenosis and White Matter Disease on Motor and Cognitive Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, M C; Calistri, V; Mainero, C; Tinelli, E; Aceti, A; Pontico, M; Tardioli, S; Santini, M; Fiorelli, M; Panico, M A; Speziale, F; Caramia, M D; Schulz, R-J; Caramia, F

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive and motor performance can be supported, especially in older subjects, by different types of brain activations, which can be accurately studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Vascular risk factors (VRFs) are extremely important in the development of cognitive impairment, but few studies have focused on the fMRI cortical activation characteristics of healthy subjects with and without silent cerebrovascular disease including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and carotid stenosis (CS) performing cognitive tasks. Thirty-five volunteers with and without asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis above 70% and variable degrees of WMH underwent performance of a simple motor and cognitive task during an fMRI session. While the performance of the motor task resulted in a cortical activation dependent of age but not of WMH and carotid stenosis, performance of the cognitive task was accompanied by a significantly increased activation independently correlated with age, presence of WMH as well as of carotid stenosis. in this study, cognitive domains regulating attention and working memory appear to be activated with a pattern influenced by the presence of carotid stenosis as well as by white matter hyperintensities. The impairment of these cognitive abilities is of high relevance in Alzheimer's disease pathology. The fMRI pattern shown in patients with asymptomatic but significant carotid stenosis might be related to chronic cerebrovascular hypoperfusion, a critical pathophysiological mechanisms in AD. In these patients, carotid endoarterectomy should be considered also for AD prevention and might be recommended.

  19. Factors Influencing Decision Making for Carotid Endarterectomy versus Stenting in the Very Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Sung Hyuk; Bushnell, Cheryl D.

    2017-01-01

    As the population ages worldwide, the number of elderly patients with carotid stenosis is also increasing. There have been many large clinical trials comparing carotid endarterectomy (CAE) versus stenting, but the inclusion criteria (i.e., symptomatic or asymptomatic), stenting methods (i.e., protection device), and primary end point (i.e., the definition of myocardial infarction and follow-up period) were different between trials. Therefore, the interpretation of those results is difficult and requires attention. When it comes to age, the patients older than 80 years were excluded or stratified to a high risk group in previous landmark trials. However, a recent guideline recommended that endarterectomy may be associated with lower stroke risk compared with carotid artery stenting in patients older than 70 years with symptomatic carotid disease. The annual risk of stroke in individuals with asymptomatic carotid stenosis is about 1–3% but the risk is about 4–12% with symptomatic stenosis without carotid intervention. Although the outcome of CAE is better than that of carotid stenting in patients older than 70 years, the perioperative risk is higher in older patients. Therefore, it is important to classify high risk patients and consider underlying disability and life expectancy of very elderly patients before deciding whether to undergo a carotid intervention. In addition, we should also consider that the stroke rate with intensive medical treatment is unknown and is currently being investigated in randomized controlled trials. Intensive medical treatment includes high intensity statins, diabetes and blood pressure control, and aggressive antiplatelet treatment. The aim of this review is to report the factors that may be responsible for the variability in the treatment of carotid stenosis, particularly in the elderly population. This will allow the readers to integrate the current available evidence to individualize the treatment of carotid stenosis in

  20. Carotid baroreceptor stimulation blood pressure response mapped in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (C-Map study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Nikhil; Clair, Daniel G; Jaye, Deborah A; Scheiner, Avram

    2016-12-01

    Continuous stimulation of the carotid baroreceptors has been shown to evoke a sustained systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction in hypertensive subjects. This study conducted a detailed mapping of the SBP and heart rate response to electrical stimulus at different locations in the carotid sinus region in patients undergoing a carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The Carotid Sinus Autonomic Response Mapping (C-Map) Study is a multicenter, prospective, non-randomized, acute feasibility study conducted in 10 hypertensive subjects undergoing CEA. Electrode pairs were placed in multiple locations in the region of the carotid sinus for acute stimulation, and the tests were repeated after plaque removal and vessel repair. The configuration that elicited the largest pressure reduction in 8 of 10 patients was with the electrodes arranged longitudinally along the medial (in relation to the bifurcation) wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA) near the bifurcation (11.2±8.1mmHg, pEndarterectomy surgery did not affect maximal acute stimulation response but improved baroreflex sensitivity acutely. Acute extravascular baroreceptor stimulation (BRS) mapping demonstrated that blood pressure reductions are dependent on electrode location and orientation. In most subjects, the largest SBP reductions were elicited in the region of the medial wall of the ICA. This area can be targeted for future BRS lead design and implant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Asymptomatic ocular sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Azevedo de Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease. It commonly affects the skin, lungs, kidneys, and central nervous system. In the eyes it primarily affects the uveal tract, conjunctiva, lacrimal glands and optic nerve. Here in we describe the case of a patient with systemic sarcoidosis and asymptomatic eye inflammation.

  2. Eight to ten years follow-up after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen Rathenborg, Lisbet; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    Follow-up information was obtained on 185 patients who consecutively underwent carotid endarterectomy eight to ten years previously. Doppler ultrasound examination was performed in 59 patients who were still alive and living within 100 miles of the hospital. Using lifetable analysis, the annual...... of restenosis and the development of symptoms, perhaps with the exception of internal carotid artery occlusion, which is not an accepted indication for carotid endarterectomy. Together with recent data from the literature, these observations challenge the indication for reoperative carotid surgery....... rate of focal strokes was estimated to be 2% and 1.5% on the operated and the contralateral, non-operated carotid artery, respectively. Doppler examination revealed 48% re-stenoses, including 14% occlusion and 15% greater than 50% stenosis. However, there was no association between the occurrence...

  3. Oclusão bilateral das artérias carótidas internas, sífilis meningovascular e SIDA: relato de caso Internal carotid bilateral occlusion, meningovascular syphilis and AIDS: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORISBERTO LAMBRECHT

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de obstrução bilateral na origem das artérias carótidas internas, apresentando como sinais/sintomas associados hemiparesia e hipoestesia superficial e profunda à direita, associada a sífilis meningovascular em paciente com SIDA. Tomografia de crânio apresentou pequenas lesões hipodensas, com predomínio à esquerda, e arteriografia evidenciou oclusão bilateral das artérias carótidas. A associação entre lues e SIDA não é infrequente, porém o quadro oligossintomático do paciente, provavelmente devido a oclusão arterial lenta e gradual chama a atenção.We report a case of bilateral occlusion of internal carotid arteries ,presenting with right hemiparesis and hypoesthesia, associated to meningovascular syphilis in a patient with AIDS. CT scan showed few small hypodense lesions, with a predominance on the left side, and the angiography showed bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries. The association between syphilis and AIDS is not unusual, but the paucity of symptoms, probably due to a slow and gradual occlusion is not commonly reported.

  4. Carotid stenting versus carotid endarterectomy : Evidence basis and cost implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M. P.; de Borst, G. J.; Mali, W. P. Th. M.; Kappelle, L. J.; Moll, F. L.; Ackerstaff, R. G. A.; Rothwell, P. M.; Brown, M. M.; van Sambeek, M. R.; Buskens, E.

    Objective: Carotid Angioplasty combined with Stenting (CAS) is increasingly performed because of its presumed benefits. A study was performed to identify key factors that determine the cost-effectiveness as compared to conventional carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Methods: The incremental

  5. Eversion carotid endarterectomy generates fewer microemboli than standard carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mingyuan; Sillesen, H H; Lorentzen, Jørgen E

    2000-01-01

    to test whether the occurrence of microembolism differed between eversion and standard carotid endarterectomy (CEA).......to test whether the occurrence of microembolism differed between eversion and standard carotid endarterectomy (CEA)....

  6. Accuracy of the screening physical examination to identify subclinical atherosclerosis and peripheral arterial disease in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournot, Maxime; Boccalon, Henri; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Guilloux, Jérôme; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Hanaire-Broutin, Hélène; Chamontin, Bernard; Galinier, Michel; Ferrières, Jean

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of the screening vascular physical examination for predicting asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic and apparently healthy subjects. A standardized physical examination and a carotid and femoral ultrasonography were administered to 2736 men and women aged 20 to 90 years old, with no personal history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and no complaint of neurologic, coronary, or lower limb symptom. We assessed the accuracy of auscultation for bruits and pulse palpation for identifying the presence of significant carotid stenosis, carotid plaque, femoral plaque, and ankle-brachial index (ABI) factors. The absence of both pedal pulses also provided additional information, beyond risk factors, on the presence of an ABI <0.9 (+LR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.93 to 6.60). The presence of a carotid bruit did not affect the likelihood of carotid stenosis, plaque, or intima-media thickness above the median. Unlike carotid auscultation, pulse palpation and auscultation for femoral bruits provided valuable information on the presence of asymptomatic PAD and underlying atherosclerosis in apparently healthy subjects.

  7. The modified operative technique of partial eversion carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Richard; Porter, Johnathan; Al-Khaffaf, Haytham

    2017-01-01

    We report a modified operative technique termed partial eversion carotid endarterectomy (PECE). During a 9-year period (2006-2015), 352 patients underwent PECE. Indications for surgery, intraoperative details, and outcomes were recorded. The initial 185 patients had carotid duplex ultrasound imaging at 6 weeks and then at 6, 12, and 24 months. Subsequent patients had carotid imaging at 4 to 6 weeks. Indications included stroke (76), transient ischemic attack (153), and amaurosis fugax (33); 58 patients were asymptomatic, and 32 patients had surgery before cardiac surgery. Median clamp time was 14 minutes (interquartile range, 11.5-17 minutes). Median total operation time was 41 minutes (interquartile range, 31-72 minutes). Outcomes included four transient ischemic attacks (1.2%), five strokes (1.4%), and two deaths at 30 days (0.5%). No significant cranial nerve injuries or carotid restenosis was detected during follow-up. PECE is technically straightforward, with outcomes comparable to those of current operative techniques. Its advantages included reduced operative and carotid clamping time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis. This final recommendation statement applies to adults who ...

  9. Stent Placement for Carotid Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Lownie, Stephen P; Pandey, Sachin K; Boulton, Mel R

    2017-02-01

    The carotid web is an intraluminal shelf-like projection arising from the posterior wall of the carotid bifurcation and an uncommon etiology of ischemic strokes. We describe the feasibility of endovascular stent placement to treat this condition. A 47-year-old woman presented with a sudden occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. Computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography showed a carotid web in the ipsilateral carotid bifurcation. Treatment included mechanical thrombectomy for the middle cerebral artery occlusion and carotid stent placement to prevent further ischemic episodes from the carotid web. At the 6-month follow-up, good apposition of the stent against the artery wall was noted, and the patient was free of neurologic symptoms. Carotid artery stent placement is a feasible option in the management of carotid webs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of routine completion angiography on the results of primary carotid endarterectomy: a prospective study in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, J-B; Régnault de la Mothe, G; Fujita, S; Page, O; Valagier, A; Marchand, C

    2011-05-01

    To assess the usefulness of completion angiography in the prevention of stroke, carotid occlusion and residual stenosis after primary carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the setting of a teaching hospital. From January 1995 to August 2009, 1055 consecutive patients having 1179 CEAs were entered in a prospective study excluding patients with severe renal insufficiency, allergy to contrast media and patients with repeat CEA or carotid bypass. In this cohort, 552 patients (52.3%) were asymptomatic, 318 (30.2%) had a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and 185 (17.5%) had a stroke. Routine completion angiography was obtained in all 1055 patients. The decision to perform a surgical revision was decided for any of the following defects: (1) a residual stenosis of more than 50% of the internal carotid artery (ICA) or common carotid artery (CCA) and of more than 70% of the external carotid artery (ECA), (2) any flap and (3) any intraluminal-filling defect. A postoperative duplex scan was obtained within a week after surgery and thereafter on a yearly basis. Median follow-up was 7 years. CEA was performed by a senior surgeon as first operator in 812 cases (69%) and by a trainee, with a scrubbed senior surgeon, in 367 cases (31%). Completion angiography revealed significant defects in 72 cases (6.1%) warranting revision for ECA flap (n = 30), thrombus in contact with the patch (n = 7), distal ICA flap or stenosis (n = 20) and CCA flap or residual plaque (n = 15). Logistic regression analysis showed that total length of the carotid plaque >6 cm (p = 0.02, Odds ratio: 2.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.21-3.72)), eversion endarterectomy of the ECA (p = 0.01, Odds ratio 3.41; 95%CI (2.10-5.94)) and trainee as first operator (p = 0.02, Odds ratio 2.42; 95%CI (1.81-4.23)) were independent predictors of operative defects seen on completion angiography. No complication in relation to carotid catheterisation or injection of contrast media occurred in this series. The 30

  11. Childhood Age and Associations Between Childhood Metabolic Syndrome and Adult Risk for Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Carotid Intima Media Thickness: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Juha; Magnussen, Costan G; Sinaiko, Alan; Woo, Jessica; Urbina, Elaine; Jacobs, David R; Steinberger, Julia; Prineas, Ronald; Sabin, Matthew A; Burns, Trudy; Berenson, Gerald; Bazzano, Lydia; Venn, Alison; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Dwyer, Terence; Juonala, Markus

    2017-08-16

    There is paucity of knowledge concerning the specific age in youth when the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) begin to be operative. Thus, we investigated the relation of age to the associations of childhood MetS with adult MetS, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high carotid intima-media thickness. Five thousand eight-hundred three participants were analyzed in 4 cohort studies (Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns, Bogalusa Heart Study, Princeton Lipid Research Study, Insulin Study). International cutoffs and previously used 75th percentile cutoffs were used for children to define MetS and its components. Mean follow-up period was 22.3 years. Logistic regression was used to calculate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Childhood MetS and overweight were associated with over 2.4-fold risk for adult MetS from the age of 5 years onward. Risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus was increased from the age of 8 (risk ratio, 2.6-4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-6.76 and 1.12-7.24, respectively) onward for the 2 childhood MetS criteria based on international cut-off values and for childhood overweight. Risk for high carotid intima-media thickness was significant at ages 11 to 18 years in relation to childhood MetS or overweight (risk ratio, 2.44-4.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.55 and 2.55-5.66, respectively). Continuous childhood MetS score was associated with adult MetS from the age of 5, with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the age of 14 and with high carotid intima-media thickness from the age of 11 years onward. Adult MetS was predicted by MetS in childhood beginning at age 5. However, adult type 2 diabetes mellitus and subclinical atherosclerosis were not predicted by childhood data until after age 8. Body mass index measurement alone at the same age points provided similar findings. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. Carotid intima-media thickness : influence of drug treatment and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubels, FL; Terpstra, WF; Smit, AJ

    1999-01-01

    With B-mode ultrasound measurements of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arterial wall (asymptomatic) atherosclerosis can be detected. In this article several studies are reviewed in which IMT was used as a surrogate endpoint to assess effects of lipid-lowering or antihypertensive

  13. Increased Duration of Operating Time for Carotid Endarterectomy Is Associated with Increased Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Lehman, Erik B; Reed, Amy B

    2016-10-01

    Carotid endarterectomy is the gold standard operation to prevent stroke in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and asymptomatic high-grade carotid artery stenosis. Longer operative times for different operations have been shown to affect the outcomes adversely. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative complications after carotid endarterectomy, and their relation to the operative times. The American College of Surgeons database was queried for all patients who underwent carotid endarterectomies from 2005 to 2007. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the operative time (140 min). The incidence of preoperative morbidities and postoperative complications was then compared among these groups. A total of 10,423 patients underwent carotid endarterectomies during this time period. Longer operative time (>140 min) is associated with higher incidence of 30-day mortality (1.3% vs. 0.7%, P = 0.013), length of stay ≥7 days (12.7% vs. 8.1%, P carotid endarterectomy are associated with increased risk of postoperative complications. Factors associated with longer operative times for carotid endarterectomy can be identified preoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Wall shear stress evolution in carotid artery bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad, S. I.; Bosioc, A. I.; Totorean, A. F.; Petre, I.; Bernad, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    The steady flow in an anatomically realistic human carotid bifurcation was simulated numerically. Main parameters such as wall shear stress (WSS), velocity profiles and pressure distributions are investigated in the carotid artery, namely in bifurcation and sinusoidal enlargement regions. Flow in the carotid sinus is dominated by a single secondary vortex motion accompanied by a strong helical flow. This type of flow is induced primarily by the curvature and asymmetry of the in vivo geometry. Low wall shear stress concentration occurs at both the anterior and posterior aspects of the proximal internal bulb.

  15. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...

  16. Quantification of carotid plaque lipid content with magnetic resonance T2 mapping in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhalil, Mohammad; Biasiolli, Luca; Chai, Joshua T; Galassi, Francesca; Li, Linqing; Darby, Christopher; Halliday, Alison; Hands, Linda; Magee, Timothy; Perkins, Jeremy; Sideso, Ed; Jezzard, Peter; Robson, Matthew D; Handa, Ashok; Choudhury, Robin P

    2017-01-01

    Techniques to stratify subgroups of patients with asymptomatic carotid artery disease are urgently needed to guide decisions on optimal treatment. Reliance on estimates of % luminal stenosis has not been effective, perhaps because that approach entirely disregards potentially important information on the pathological process in the wall of the artery. Since plaque lipid is a key determinant of plaque behaviour we used a newly validated, high-sensitivity T2-mapping MR technique for a systematic survey of the quantity and distribution of plaque lipid in patients undergoing endarterectomy. Lipid percentage was quantified in 50 carotid endarterectomy patients. Lipid distribution was tested, using two imaging indices (contribution of the largest lipid deposit towards total lipid (LLD %) and a newly-developed LAI 'lipid aggregation index'). The bifurcation contained maximal lipid volume. Lipid percentage was higher in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic patients with degree of stenosis (DS ≥ 50%) and in the total cohort (P = 0.013 and P = 0.005, respectively). Both LLD % and LAI was higher in symptomatic patients (P = 0.028 and P = 0.018, respectively), suggesting that for a given plaque lipid volume, coalesced deposits were more likely to be associated with symptomatic events. There was no correlation between plaque volume or lipid content and degree of luminal stenosis measured on ultrasound duplex (r = -0.09, P = 0.53 and r = -0.05, P = 0.75), respectively. However, there was a strong correlation in lipid between left and right carotid arteries (r = 0.5, P carotid plaque. Importantly, plaque lipid content was not related to the degree of luminal stenosis assessed by ultrasound. Determination of plaque lipid content may prove useful for stratification of asymptomatic patients, including selection of optimal invasive treatments.

  17. The role of carotid ultrasound in assessing carotid atherosclerosis in individuals at low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Blai; Betriu, Angels; Feinstein, Steve B; Valdivielso, Jose M; Zamorano, Jose L; Fernández, Elvira

    2013-12-01

    Detection of carotid atherosclerosis might help to better identify individuals susceptible to cardiovascular events. We aimed to quantify the number of participants with carotid atherosclerosis and low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk according to the traditional risk factor scoring, and therefore with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events. Cross-sectional, observational study performed during a cardiovascular screening program. From a total of 3778 volunteers, low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk individuals (N=2354) were identified and studied. Physical examination, blood test, and carotid ultrasound followed standard procedures. Common, bulb, and internal carotid arteries were examined and common carotid intima-media thickness was measured. SCORE risk value was calculated for all participants. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis was performed. Mean age of participants was 58.9 (15) years, 43.8% were men, 23.7% had hypertension, and 20.5% had hypercholesterolemia. The mean SCORE value was 1.47 (1.4). Both carotid intima-media thickness and the prevalence of carotid plaques increased steadily and significantly (P<.005) as advanced decades of life were analyzed. Variables significantly related with the presence of carotid atherosclerosis were age, male sex, and systolic blood pressure. Interestingly, 592 (25.1%) individuals were reclassified to a higher risk due to the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. There was a clear dissociation between cardiovascular risk scoring and the presence of atherosclerosis, because 1 of 4 study participants at low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk had carotid atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Carotid Endarterectomy to Remove Retained Solitaire Stent Retriever inside Carotid Stent after Mechanical Thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Mary In-Ping Huang; Smith, Tony P; Brown, Patrick A; Gonzalez, L Fernando; Zomorodi, Ali R

    2017-05-01

    Tandem occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) occur in up to a third of patients with acute ischemic strokes undergoing endovascular mechanical thrombectomy. Understanding open neurosurgical management of associated complications with this procedure is important. A 67-year-old man with acute onset of left hemiparesis and a tandem right ICA and MCA occlusion. He underwent carotid stent angioplasty of a stenotic ICA, followed by attempted Solitaire stent retrieval of an MCA clot. On withdrawal, the tines of the Solitaire stent lodged inside the Precise carotid stent. The patient was started on aspirin, Plavix, and heparin infusion, and underwent a carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with safe removal of the stents and primary vessel repair. This is the first case reported to date of a Solitaire stent becoming lodged inside a Precise carotid stent, salvaged by CEA with safe removal of the stents and primary vessel repair. We discuss the timing, indication, alternatives, and technical nuances of a CEA in this setting. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that look for inherited genetic markers linked to disease, and imaging tests that produce pictures of the inside of the body. These ... a risk factor. Risk factors for carotid artery disease include: age high blood pressure diabetes tobacco smoking high cholesterol coronary artery disease (CAD) obesity ...

  20. Treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas using detachable balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Han, Joon Koo; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    Since the introduction of the concept of detachable balloon technique to occlude arteriovenous fistulas, this technique has become the treatment of choice in the management of traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas (CCF). We tried the occlusion of fistula using detachable balloons in 30 consecutive cases of traumatic CCF and the result of our experience is reported. Transarterial approach with manually-tied latex balloons is tried in all cases and the fistulas were successfully occlude in 28 cases of all. In 20 cases, internal carotid artery was preserved and the arterial lumen was occluded along with fistula opening in 9 cases. In rest of 2 cases, surgical ligation was done because of procedure-related thromboembolism and incomplete occlusion of fistula. We experienced hemiparesis as a major complication in 3 cases. In one of them, the symptom developed during occlusion tolerance test, one just after insertion of guiding catheter into the internal carotid artery, and in one case 2 days after the occlusion of internal carotid artery. In one case, the procedure was performed by the direct puncture of carotid artery because of the ligation of common carotid artery by previous surgery. It is suggested that the systemic heparinization during the procedure is indispensable and starting the procedure with No 9 balloon is considered reasonable.

  1. High-flow bypass with radial artery graft followed by internal carotid artery ligation for large or giant aneurysms of cavernous or cervical portion: clinical results and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hideaki; Inoue, Tomohiro; Tanishima, Takeo; Tamura, Akira; Saito, Isamu; Saito, Nobuhito

    2017-09-27

    High-flow bypass followed by ligation of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is an effective treatment, but the impact of abrupt occlusion of the ICA is unpredictable, especially on postoperative cognitive function. The present study evaluated the clinical results as well as cognitive performances after high-flow bypass using radial artery graft (RAG) with supportive superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass, followed by ICA ligation. Ten consecutive patients underwent high-flow bypass surgery for large or giant ICA aneurysms of cavernous or cervical portion. Demographics, clinical information, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computed tomography, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials, neuropsychological examinations including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and follow-up data were analyzed. The aneurysm was located on the cavernous segment in eight cases and cervical segment in two cases, and mean aneurysm size was 27.9 mm. Postoperative DSA demonstrated robust bypass flow from the external carotid artery to MCA via the RAG, and no anterograde flow into the aneurysm. No patient showed new symptoms after the operation. Follow-up clinical study and MR imaging were performed in nine patients and showed no additional ischemic lesion compared with preoperative imaging. Seven patients completed neuropsychological examinations before and after surgery. All postoperative scores except WMS-R composite memory score slightly improved. High-flow bypass followed by ICA ligation can achieve good clinical outcomes. Successful high-flow bypass using RAG with supportive STA-MCA bypass and ICA ligation does not adversely affect postoperative cognitive function.

  2. Race-ethnic variation in carotid bifurcation geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sebastian; Nelson, Donoffa; Rundek, Tatjana; Mandrekar, Jay; Rabinstein, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Disturbances in local blood flow influenced by arterial geometry contribute to atherogenesis. Carotid bifurcation hemodynamics depend on the relative sizes of the common carotid artery (CCA), internal carotid artery (ICA), and external carotid artery (ECA), which vary considerably among individuals. The prevalence of carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis differs among race-ethnic groups and is generally lower in African Americans despite a more adverse vascular risk factor profile. We here examine whether there are race-ethnic differences in carotid bifurcation anatomy. The diameters of the CCA, carotid bulb, ICA, and ECA were measured from consecutive cerebral angiograms of African American, white, and Caribbean Hispanic patients. The bulb/CCA, ICA/CCA, ECA/CCA, ECA/ICA, and total cross-sectional outflow/inflow ratio ([ICA(2) + ECA(2)]/CCA(2)) were calculated. The final analysis included 272 bifurcations of which 103 were among white, 87 Hispanic, and 82 African American patients. The mean age of the population was 59.8 +/- 15.8 years and 148 (54.4%) were men. African Americans had a lower ICA/CCA ratio (P ECA ratio (P ECA/CCA ratio (P groups. We found significant differences in the relative sizes of the ICA, ECA, and CCA among race-ethnic groups. African Americans had a proportionally smaller ICA and larger ECA in comparison with whites and Caribbean Hispanics.

  3. Straight artery sign in extracranial carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanwela, Nijasri C; Phanthumchinda, Kammant; Suwanwela, Nitaya

    2003-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become generally accepted as a non-invasive method to provide the definitive diagnosis of cervicocerebral vessel dissection. The finding of an intramural hematoma on axial MR images is the characteristic sign of the disease. However, there has been no previous report of the characteristic magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA) findings. The authors retrospectively reviewed MRI and MRA findings of patients with spontaneous extracranial carotid dissection. The most striking finding on MRA was the straightness of the affected artery when compared to the non-affected side of the same patient. For quantitative measurement, "Carotid Straightness Index (CSI)" was developed to measure the straightness of the arteries and compared the indices of both extracranial internal carotid arteries in the same patient. The patients' age range was from 21-55 years (mean 38 years). There were 6 males and 3 females. All patients had the classical "Straight artery sign" on the MRA. The carotid straightness index was significantly higher in the affected artery when compared to the normal side of the same patient. The straight artery sign and the carotid straightness index can be very useful for early detection of the extracranial carotid dissection. It can be found in early stage disease or in less severe forms of carotid dissection where significant narrowing is not demonstrated.

  4. [An asymptomatic chronic hypokalaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Marie-Pierre; Cheminel, Valérie; Crevon, Lionel; Dubourg, Laurence; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Mounier, Chantal; Prevosto, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic patient presenting a severe chronic renal hypokalaemia. Once being sure of no diuretics use, two hypothesis can be mentioned for a normotensive patient presenting an hypokalaemia associated with a metabolic alcalosis: Bartter syndrome or Gitelman syndrome. The highlighting of low magnesaemia and hypocalciuria strongly concentrates the diagnosis on Gitelman syndrome. First, this has been strengthened by the results of renal function tests and later it has confirmed by molecular diagnosis with the identification of a known homozygous mutation on SLC12A3 gene. In the patient family, the same chromosomal abnormality has been found in the young sister. For these two patients the treatment ordered is an antikaliuretic diuretic, magnesium and potassium supplements. This case shows the difficulty to diagnose Gitelman syndrome: it is frequently mistaken for Bartter syndrome. The main differences between these two syndromes are magnesaemia and calciuria. Furthemore , patients with Gitelman syndrome are often asymptomatic, this explains why prevalence of this illness is probably underestimated.

  5. Stenting of Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimae, N.; Morimoto, T.; Nagata, K.

    2003-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study is to evaluate our cases of cervical internal carotid artery stenosis for safty stenting. We investigate the preoperative internal carotid artery stenosis using by integrated backscatter (IBS) method of ultra sonography, comparing with the thirty five surgical specimens as to their nature, histological structure, thickness of fibrous cap. We choose the protection method according to plaque structure, and placed Easy-Wall stent or Smart stent after prePTA. We added post PTA according to the extent of expansion and IVUS findings. Calibrated IBS = IBS value (ROI) /intinal IBS value of ‘bleeding’, ‘lipiď, ‘thrombus’, fiber, ‘hyalinization’ were -27.5, -22.5, -15.2, -11.1, +2.1. That of the thin fibrous cap were -10.9*, that of thic fibrous cap were -2.4 (*p safty stenting. PMID:20591243

  6. Isolated Subarachnoidal Hemorrhage following Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bodenant

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a rare but well-described complication following carotid endarterectomy or stenting. Clinical signs are ipsilateral, throbbing, unilateral headache with nausea or vomiting, seizures, and neurological deficits, with or without intracerebral abnormalities on CT scan, such as brain edema or intracerebral hemorrhage. Subarachnoidal hemorrhage is rarely described especially if it occurs isolated. We describe a 74-year-old man with a history of high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, atrioventricular block with pacemaker, and ischemic cardiopathy with coronary bypass. He underwent right carotid endarterectomy for a 90% NASCET asymptomatic stenosis. Four days after surgery, he complained of unusual headaches with right, throbbing hemicrania. Nine days after surgery, he presented with left hemiplegia and a partial motor seizure. He had fluctuant altered consciousness, left hemiplegia, and left visual and sensory neglect. Brain CT showed right frontal subarachnoidal hemorrhage without parenchymal bleeding. Cerebral angiography found no cerebral aneurysm, no vascular malformation, but a vasospasm of the left middle cerebral artery. Transcranial Doppler confirmed this vasospasm. Evolution was favorable with no recurrence of seizures but with an improvement of the neurological deficits and vasospasm. Physicians should bear in mind this very rare complication of endarterectomy and immediately perform neuroimaging in case of unusual headache following endarterectomy or angioplasty.

  7. NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels; Hansen, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    for atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined the interrelationship between P-NT-proBNP, presence of atherosclerosis and/or vascular dysfunction in the coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: P-NT-proBNP was measured in 200 asymptomatic type 2 patients without known cardiac disease that received intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Patients were examined for coronary, carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis, as defined by coronary calcium score=400, carotid intima...

  8. NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels; Hansen, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    for atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined the interrelationship between P-NT-proBNP, presence of atherosclerosis and/or vascular dysfunction in the coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: P-NT-proBNP was measured in 200 asymptomatic type 2 patients without known cardiac disease that received intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Patients were examined for coronary, carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis, as defined by coronary calcium score≥400, carotid intima...

  9. Carotid Endarterectomy or Stenting in Octogenarians in a Monocentric Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Cristiano; Taurino, Maurizio; Rizzo, Luigi; Stella, Nazzareno; Persiani, Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients at high risk for complications from surgery. The very elderly (≥80-year-old) are 1 subgroup of patients identified as being at increased risk for carotid surgery. However, there is concern that the very elderly are also at increased risk for complications of CAS. A stroke and death rate of 12% were reported in very elderly patients during the roll-in phase of Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stent Trial. We are reporting on a clinical series of CAS and CEA with independent neurologic assessment in the very elderly. The aim of this article is to evaluate early and mild-term results obtained in the treatment of the carotid artery stenosis in symptomatic and asymptomatic octogenarians, comparing the data of CEA and CAS in academic hospital. Between 2002 and 2013, a consecutive series of 129 CAS and 45 CEA patients (≥80-year-old) were treated in our academic hospital, a center with extensive carotid revascularization experience. Independent neurologic assessment was performed before and after procedures. Exclusion criteria were cerebral hemorrhage diagnosed within 6 months, cerebral tumors and dementia. Hostile aortic arches were nevertheless treated with alternative approaches like cervical or radial access. All the procedures have been performed by the senior authors. The average age was 86.9 years. Most patients were male (56%), and the target lesion carotid stenosis was asymptomatic in 80% of patients. No significant differences were obtained regarding gender, symptoms, risk factors or comorbidities, and evident CT lesions among the 2 groups of different treatments. Embolic protection devices were used in all cases with the CAS procedure. The overall 30-day incidence of stroke and death was 2.3% (3 of 129) in CAS group and 4.4% (2 of 45) in CEA group. Exclusion of high-risk patients from CAS, based on age alone, seems to be unjustified

  10. Characteristics of duplex sonographic parameters over time after successful carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther S H; Sun, Zhiyuan; Kapadia, Samir; Bajzer, Christopher; Arrigain, Susana; Gornik, Heather L

    2012-08-01

    Carotid duplex sonography is the primary tool for surveillance after carotid artery stenting, but the course of sonographic velocities over time after successful stenting is unclear. The purpose of this study was to describe carotid duplex sonographic velocity parameters after successful carotid artery stenting and to determine the predictors of poststent sonographic velocities. We queried institutional carotid stent and noninvasive vascular laboratory databases for internal carotid artery stents placed between January 2004 and June 2007. We included patients with stenosis of 20% or less on completion angiograms who had carotid duplex sonography within 30 days before and 7 days after stenting. The prestent peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), internal-to-common carotid artery PSV ratio, contralateral internal carotid artery velocities, stent type, open- versus closed-cell stent design, and days of follow-up were tested as potential predictors of poststent velocities. Eighty-two of 498 patients met inclusion criteria. The mean PSV and PSV ratio decreased from 423.6 cm/s and 7.1 before stenting to 98.5 cm/s and 1.3 after stenting (both P PSV, EDV, and PSV ratio) were dependent on prestent ipsilateral and contralateral velocities. The poststent EDV was dependent on the type of stent. The upper range for 0% to 20% stenosis in the stented internal carotid artery was a PSV of 141 cm/s, an EDV of 42 cm/s, and a PSV ratio of 2.1 or lower. With a median follow-up of 1 year, the PSV and PSV ratio remained stable over time in successfully stented carotid arteries. Deviations in sonographic parameters after initial poststent carotid duplex sonography should prompt an investigation for possible in-stent restenosis.

  11. Gene expression and 18FDG uptake in atherosclerotic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Græbe, Martin; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker

    2010-01-01

    by carotid endarterectomy. The gene expression of markers of vulnerability - CD68, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase 9, cathepsin K, GLUT-1, and hexokinase type II (HK2) - were measured in plaques by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In a multivariate linear regression model, GLUT-1, CD68, cathepsin K, and HK2 gene......) and an additional ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis of greater than 60% were recruited. FDG uptake in the carotids was determined by PET/computed tomography and expressed as mean and maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmean and SUVmax). The atherosclerotic plaques were subsequently recovered...... destabilization. Accordingly, FDG-PET could prove to be an important predictor of cerebrovascular events in patients with carotid plaques....

  12. Activation of calpain-1 in human carotid artery atherosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we observed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced death of endothelial cells was calpain-1-dependent. The purpose of the present paper was to study the possible activation of calpain in human carotid plaques, and to compare calpain activity in the plaques from symptomatic patients with those obtained from patients without symptoms. Methods Human atherosclerotic carotid plaques (n = 29, 12 associated with symptoms were removed by endarterectomy. Calpain activity and apoptosis were detected by performing immunohistochemical analysis and TUNEL assay on human carotid plaque sections. An antibody specific for calpain-proteolyzed α-fodrin was used on western blots. Results We found that calpain was activated in all the plaques and calpain activity colocalized with apoptotic cell death. Our observation of autoproteolytic cleavage of the 80 kDa subunit of calpain-1 provided further evidence for enzyme activity in the plaque samples. When calpain activity was quantified, we found that plaques from symptomatic patients displayed significantly lower calpain activity compared with asymptomatic plaques. Conclusion These novel results suggest that calpain-1 is commonly active in carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques, and that calpain activity is colocalized with cell death and inversely associated with symptoms.

  13. [The management of carotid reestenosis--an experience with the conventional surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos; Almeida, Paulo; Castelobranco, Orlanda; Romero, Madalena; Cabral, Gonçalo; Dinis da Gama, A

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a series of 26 consecutive patients, 20 men and 6 women, age range 47-80 years, average age of 66 years, who underwent conventional surgery for the treatment of carotid reestenosis. The surgical management consisted in the resection of a segment of the common carotid-internal carotid arteries and interposition of a prosthetic graft, followed by ligation of the external carotid, in 3 patients; in the remainder 23 cases a venous bypass graft was interposed from the common carotid to the internal carotid artery, above the lesion, with preservation of the external carotid artery flow and ligation of the internal carotid, just below the anastomosis. There was no operative mortality and the significant morbility consisted in a cervical hematoma in one patient, transient disphonia in two cases and transient disphagia in one patient. During the mean follow up time of 43 months, one patient developed a significant reestenosis of the venous graft and another patient developed an aneurysm of the venous graft, both conditions requiring surgical repair. Based on the early and late results of this experience, the authors elect the open conventional surgery as the method of choice for the treatment of carotid reestenosis.

  14. 18FDG PET and ultrasound echolucency in carotid artery plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Pedersen, Sune F; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate inflammation in echolucent carotid artery plaques. BACKGROUND: Ultrasound echolucency of carotid artery plaques has been proven to differentiate patients at high risk of stroke. On the other hand, positron emission tomography (PET) of plaques with the use...... for ultrasound and PET imaging. Plaque standardized gray scale medians (GSM) were measured in longitudinal ultrasound images to quantitate echolucency, and GSM values were compared with FDG PET uptake quantified by maximum standardized uptake values (SUV). Symptomatic plaques were compared with contralateral...... plaques ranged from high to low inflammatory activity, as depicted with PET. Quantitative FDG SUV differentiated asymptomatic from symptomatic plaques, whereas GSM values did not. There was a positive correlation between CD68 expression and FDG uptake (r = 0.50, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results...

  15. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stenting; CAS; Angioplasty - carotid artery; Carotid artery stenosis - angioplasty; ... Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-arery stenosis. N Engl J Med . 2010;363(1):11- ...

  16. Carotid artery stenosis -- self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000717.htm Carotid artery stenosis - self-care To use the sharing features on ... feel their pulse under your jawline. Carotid artery stenosis occurs when the carotid arteries become narrowed or ...

  17. Spontaneous carotid dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dutra Queiroz Flumignan

    Full Text Available Summary Carotid dissection is a rare occurrence but it is the main cause of stroke in individuals aged less than 45 years, and can be the etiology in up to 25% of strokes in young adults. We report a case with classic image of ying yang on vascular ultrasound, which was treated according to the best available medical evidence, yielding a favorable outcome.

  18. Simultaneous noncontrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) imaging: Comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography for measuring carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hongge; Sun, Jie; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Balu, Niranjan; Hippe, Daniel S; Liu, Haining; Kohler, Ted R; Zhu, Wenzhen; Yuan, Chun

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate in a proof-of-concept study the feasibility of Simultaneous Noncontrast Angiography and intraPlaque hemorrhage (SNAP) imaging as a clinical magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) technique for measuring carotid stenosis. There is a growing interest in detecting intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) during the clinical management of carotid disease, yet luminal stenosis has remained indispensable during clinical decision-making. SNAP imaging has been proposed as a novel IPH imaging technique that provides carotid MRA with no added scan time. Flowing blood shows negative signal on SNAP because of phase-sensitive inversion recovery. In all, 58 asymptomatic subjects with 16-79% stenosis on ultrasound were scanned at 3T by SNAP with 0.8 mm isotropic resolution and 16 cm longitudinal coverage. Two readers measured luminal stenosis of bilateral carotid arteries (n = 116) on minimum intensity projections of SNAP using the NASCET criteria. In the subset (48 arteries) with contrast-enhanced (CE) MRA available for comparison, luminal stenosis was also measured on maximum intensity projections of CE-MRA. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with 95% confidence intervals were 0.94 (0.90-0.96) and 0.93 (0.88-0.96) for intra- and interreader agreement on stenosis measurements, respectively. Corresponding kappas for grading stenosis (0-29%, 30-69%, 70-99%, and 100%) were 0.79 (0.67-0.89) and 0.80 (0.68-0.90). Agreement between SNAP and CE-MRA was high (ICC: 0.95 [0.90-0.98]; kappa: 0.82 [0.71-0.93]). As a dedicated IPH-imaging sequence, SNAP also provided carotid stenosis measurement that showed high intra- and interreader consistency and excellent agreement with CE-MRA. Further comparisons with digital subtraction angiography and other noninvasive techniques are warranted. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1045-1052. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Carotid versus coronary atherosclerosis burdens in acute compared with chronic symptomatic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Stéphanie; Bibeau, Karine; Bertrand, Olivier F; Lévesque, Valérie; Deschênes St-Pierre, Béatrice; Pibarot, Philippe; Després, Jean-Pierre; Larose, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Prediction of coronary events remains elusive. Carotid atherosclerosis may be a surrogate for coronary risk, as carotid and coronary diseases occur simultaneously - albeit at times with a weak association - depending on clinical presentation. We investigated carotid and coronary atherosclerosis in men with new-onset unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) vs. long-standing severe chronic stable angina (CSA). Bilateral carotid artery and 3-vessel coronary artery atherosclerosis burdens were measured within 1 month, respectively, by 3D-volumetric carotid magnetic resonance imaging and coronary angiography-derived modified CASS-50 score. Men with STEMI (n = 50) and long-standing CSA (n = 50), matched for age, were enrolled (58.6 ± 8.8 years). All of them had carotid atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis burden was greater in the carotid arteries of STEMI vs. CSA (wall volume: 196.2 ± 44.4 vs. 169.2 ± 38.0 mm3/4 mm, p = 0.002), but greater in the coronary arteries of CSA vs. STEMI (modified CASS-50 score: 3 vs. 1, p < 0.0001). Normalized wall index (NWI) of internal carotid was associated with modified CASS-50 score in STEMI (ρ = 0.40, p = 0.022) and in CSA (ρ = -0.39, p = 0.031). Carotid atherosclerosis was observed in all CAD patients, and atherosclerosis burden in carotid and in coronary arteries varied according to clinical presentation.

  20. Trombose de artéria carótida interna relacionada a trauma de palato em criança Internal carotid artery thrombosis related to trauma of palate in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Souza Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de trombose de artéria carótida interna secundária relacionada a trauma de palato mole em criança. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Criança admitida com quadro de alteração do nível de consciência, sonolência, afasia e hemiplegia direita; tinha antecedente de trauma corto contuso leve em palato mole há oito horas. A investigação tomográfica evidenciou acidente vascular isquêmico secundário à interrupção do fluxo sanguíneo em território de artéria cerebral média esquerda. A arteriografia mostrou oclusão da artéria carótida interna imediatamente distal à sua origem, com aspecto radiológico de "ponta de lápis", obstruindo o fluxo sanguíneo na região. A paciente foi submetida à investigação para doença pró-trombótica e cardíaca, contudo, não foi detectada nenhuma alteração. A administração de enoxaparina em dose terapêutica por três semanas conduziu à melhora clínica progressiva. Após três semanas de seguimento, a paciente não mostrava sequelas motoras. COMENTÁRIOS: As lesões intraorais são frequentes em crianças e a maioria evolui sem complicações. A trombose da artéria carótida interna é uma complicação rara, mas bem documentada destas lesões e decorre da compressão do vaso com trombogênese localizada. A taxa de mortalidade relatada é de 30% e as sequelas ocorrem em 85% dos casos.OBJECTIVE: To describe a child with internal carotid artery thrombosis secondary to trauma of the soft palate. CASE DESCRIPTION: Child presented with altered level of consciousness, drowsiness, aphasia, right hemiplegia, and a history of trauma, with mild concussion of the soft palate eight hours prior to admission. CT scan showed ischemic stroke secondary to interruption of blood flow in the area of the left middle cerebral artery. Arteriography showed occlusion of the carotid artery just distal to its origin, with radiological appearance of "pencil tip", obstructing blood flow in the region

  1. Doppler examination of the periorbital arteries adds valuable hemodynamic information in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Steenberg, H J

    1987-01-01

    The periorbital flow direction and internal carotid artery (ICA) angiogram were compared to the ICA pressure gradient across the stenosis and the distal ICA pressure in 51 patients subjected to carotid endarterectomy. All 17 patients with inverted periorbital flow had stenoses exceeding 50...

  2. Residual high-grade stenosis after recanalization of extracranial carotid occlusion in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luitse, M.J.; Velthuis, B.K.; Dauwan, M.; Dankbaar, J.W.; Biessels, G.J.; Kappelle, L.J.; Meijer, F.J.; Dijk, E.J. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Residual stenosis after recanalization of an acute symptomatic extracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) might be an indication for carotid endarterectomy. We evaluated the proportion of residual high-grade stenosis (>/=70%, near occlusions not included)

  3. Awake carotid endarterectomy to decrease stroke rate in high-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    As there were no symptoms of cerebral ischaemia, the decision was taken to proceed without an internal carotid artery (ICA) shunt. Dur- ing the carotid artery clamp, the patient had two episodes of dysarthria. The systolic blood pressure was 110 mmHg on both occasions. Administration of 100mcg phenylephrine intrave-.

  4. A noisy zygoma fracture--complication of carotid-cavernous sinus fistula: total recovery of monocular blindness and frozen-eye after endoarterial coil embolization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierenbroodspot, F.; Damme, P.A. van; Cruysberg, J.R.M.

    2005-01-01

    A case of a patient with a zygoma fracture in combination with a carotid-cavernous sinus fistula--an arterio-venous fistula between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus--is presented. The most frequent cause is trauma, but the carotid-cavernous sinus fistula itself may have been the

  5. Stroke caused by a myxoma stenosing the common carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Vicente, Elena; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Bellmunt, Sergi; Borras, Xavier F; Gómez-Ansón, Beatriz; Bagué, Silvia; Camps-Renom, Pol; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of stroke due to stenosis caused by a myxoma in the common carotid artery with no evidence of a cardiac origin. Only 1 such case has been reported previously in the literature. A previously healthy 37-year-old woman presented with repeated episodes of acute focal deficits together with motor, sensory, and language symptoms typical of left internal carotid territory involvement. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed acute and subacute ischemic lesions in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery and border zone infarcts (middle cerebral artery with anterior and posterior cerebral arteries). Magnetic resonance angiography showed a filling defect in the distal portion of the left common carotid artery causing stenosis over 70%. Transesophageal echocardiography showed no embolic sources. Blood tests ruled out a prothrombotic state. The image was initially interpreted as a possible subacute thrombus and anticoagulation was started. No changes were observed in the follow-up carotid ultrasound examination after 12 days of treatment. A gelatinous mass was removed during carotid surgery. No subjacent lesion was observed in the vessel wall. Pathology examination showed a spindle cell fibromyxoid tissue with fibrinoid material typical of myxoma. We hypothesize that the myxoma originated in the vessel, or alternatively, that a cardiac myxoma embolized without leaving a residual cardiac tumor. Although exceptional, myxoma should be added to the list of unusual causes of carotid artery stenosis causing stroke. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictive Value of Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation Assessment in Surgical Management of Patients with High-Grade Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Semenyutin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA capacity along with the degree of internal carotid artery (ICA stenosis and characteristics of the plaque can also play an important role in selection of appropriate treatment strategy. This study aims to classify the patients with severe ICA stenosis according to preoperative state of DCA and to assess its dynamics after surgery. Thirty-five patients with severe ICA stenosis having different clinical type of disease underwent reconstructive surgery. DCA was assessed with transfer function analysis (TFA by calculating phase shift (PS between Mayer waves of blood flow velocity (BFV and blood pressure (BP before and after operation. In 18 cases, regardless of clinical type, preoperative PS on ipsilateral side was within the normal range and did not change considerably after surgery. In other 17 cases preoperative PS was reliably lower both in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic stenosis. Surgical reconstruction led to restoration of impaired DCA evidenced by significant increase of PS in postoperative period. Our data suggest that regardless clinical type of disease various state of DCA may be present in patients with severe ICA stenosis. This finding can contribute to establishing the optimal treatment strategy, and first of all for asymptomatic patients. Patients with compromised DCA should be considered as ones with higher risk of stroke and first candidates for reconstructive surgery.

  7. Macroadenoma pituitário não hemorrágico produzindo oclusão reversível de artéria carótida interna: a respeito de um caso Non-hemorragic pituitary macroadenoma producing reversible internal carotid artery occlusion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Cavalcanti

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com macroadenoma pituitário não hemorrágico produzindo oclusão reversível de artéria carótida interna. A obstrução da artéria carótida interna por tumor pituitário é rara, particularmente na ausência de apoplexia hipofisária. A correlação neurorradiológica torna-se de fundamental importância para demonstrar a oclusão completa ou trombose do vaso afetado. O completo restabelecimento pós-cirúrgico do fluxo sangüíneo da artéria carótida interna torna-se imperativo para a completa regressão sintomatológica.The case of woman with diagnosis on non-hemorragic pituitary macroadenoma producing reversible occlusion of the internal carotid artery is presented. The obstruction of the internal carotid artery by a pituitary tumor is rare, particularly in the absence of hypophyseal apoplexy. The neuroradiological correlation becomes fundamentally important to demonstrate the complete occlusion or thrombosis of the affected vessel. The complete restablishment of blood flow of the internal carotid artery after surgery becomes imperative for the complete symptomatological regression.

  8. Numerical simulation of blood flow and plaque progression in carotid-carotid bypass patient specific case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Nenad; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Milosevic, Zarko; Kovacevic, Pavle; Velicki, Lazar

    2015-01-01

    This study describes computer simulation of blood flow and plaque progression pattern in a patient who underwent surgical treatment for infected carotid prosthetic tube graft using carotid-carotid cross-over bypass. The 3D blood flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the continuity equation. Mass transfer within the blood lumen and through the arterial wall is coupled with the blood flow and is modelled by the convection-diffusion equation. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport in lumen of the vessel is described by Kedem-Katchalsky equations. The inflammatory process is solved using three additional reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Calculation based on a computer simulation showed that flow distribution in the left carotid artery (CA) was around 40-50% of the total flow in the right common CA. Also, the left CA had higher pressure gradient after surgical intervention. Plaque progression simulation predicted development of the atherosclerotic plaque in the position of the right common CA and the left internal CA. A novel way of atherosclerotic plaque progression modelling using computer simulation shows a potential clinical benefit with significant impact on the treatment strategy optimization.

  9. High-Resolution magnetic resonance imaging of carotid atherosclerotic plaque; Hochaufloesende Bildgebung atherosklerotischer Gefaesswandlaesionen der Karotiden durch die Magnetresonanztomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saam, T.; Reiser, M.; Nikolaou, K. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum Mannheim gGmbH, Universitaetsklinikum Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (Germany); Hatsukami, T.S. [Surgery, VA Puget Sound Health Care System and Univ. of Washington (United States); Yuan, C. [Radiology, Univ. of Washington (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality in the United States with an incidence rate of approximately 700 000 deaths per year. As a means to prevent cerebrovascular events, current concepts advocate endarterectomy or carotid stenting in patients with advanced carotid disease. Arterial stenosis alone has been shown to be a poor predictor of cardiovascular events and therefore both arterial stenosis and patient symptom status are taken as indications for interventional therapy. Several studies have shown that symptomatic subjects benefit more from a carotid endarterectomy than asymptomatic subjects: 3 - 6 carotid endarterectomies are needed to prevent one stroke per year in symptomatic subjects with > 70% stenosis compared to 14 - 17 carotid endarterectomies in asymptomatic patients with > 50% stenosis. It is commonly accepted today that factors other than the degree of luminal stenosis can determine a patient's symptom status, such as the composition or the superficial structure of atherosclerotic plaque. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has overcome the limitations of current angiographic techniques and has emerged as a leading non-invasive imaging modality for atherosclerotic disease, especially within carotid arteries and other large vessels. In this review, the state of the art in MRI of atherosclerosis is presented in terms of hardware and image acquisition protocols. Also, the results of validation studies for measuring lesion size, composition and inflammation will be summarized. Finally, the status of several clinical trials involving MRI of atherosclerosis will be reviewed. (orig.)

  10. Segment-specific carotid intima-media thickness and cardiovascular risk factors in Koreans: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Sang Cheol; Park, Seung Woo; Kim, Youn Sic; Lee, Joo Yeon; Ebrahim, Shah; Song, Yun-Mi

    2012-10-01

    Increased carotid intima-media thickness is associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. This study aimed to evaluate the contributions of cardiovascular risk factors and inheritance to segment-specific carotid intima-media thickness. Cross-sectional observational study. A total of 706 Korean adults was selected from the Healthy Twin Study. The intima-media thickness of common, carotid bifurcation, and internal carotid artery were measured using B-mode ultrasound. Behavioral and biological cardiovascular risk factors were measured. Quantitative genetic and linear mixed analyses were performed to examine inherited and environmental contributions to intima-media thickness variation. Heritability of intima-media thickness was moderately high with estimates (95% confidence intervals) of 0.48 (0.37, 0.59), 0.38(0.27, 0.49), and 0.45(0.34, 0.55) for common, carotid bifurcation, and internal carotid artery, respectively. The additive genetic cross-trait correlations between the segments ranged between 0.43 and 0.75, suggesting a shared genetic influence on the three carotid segments. Additive inherited effects contributed 21% and 31% (common and internal carotid, respectively) to the total variance of the intima-media thickness, while measured cardiovascular risk factors accounted for 46% and 26% (common and internal carotid, respectively). The cardiovascular risk factors significantly associated with carotid intima-media thickness were as follows: in men, alcohol use (bifurcation); physical activity (common and internal); BMI (all segments); diabetes (bifurcation and internal); hypertension (internal); and HDL-cholesterol (common and bifurcation); and in women, smoking (bifurcation), hypertension (common), total and LDL cholesterol (bifurcation and internal), and hs-CRP (common and internal). Individual cardiovascular risk factors were differentially associated with carotid intima-media thickness by segments and sex. Inherited effects made a heterogeneous

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  12. Ocularhaemodynamics parameters of asymptomatic HAART ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Vmax of blood flow in central retinal artery (CRA) of asymptomatic HAART - experienced HIV infected children was 12.2cm/s while that of seronegative children was 13.4 cm/s. The PI and RI of blood flow in CRA of asymptomatic HAARTexperienced HIV-infected children were 0.8 and 0.5 respectively while those of ...

  13. The haemodynamic effect of carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M-Y; Sillesen, H H; Jørgensen, L G; Schroeder, T V

    2002-07-01

    to assess the haemodynamic effect of carotid artery surgery, and to relate postoperative changes to the state of cerebral circulation before revascularisation. using transcranial Doppler we studied bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow velocities before and on 1st day, 2nd or 3rd day and 4th or 5th day and 3 months after carotid surgery in 61 patients. In addition, ipsilateral MCA flow velocity was monitored continuously during surgery. Data were related to the internal carotid artery (ICA) perfusion pressure (cerebral perfusion pressure index, CPPI), measured directly before ICA clamping. postoperatively, MCA flow velocities increased significantly overall (pCPPICPPI, whereas MCA flow velocities remained increased in the group of patients with low CPPI. At 3 months flow velocities in both groups were normalised. New neurological symptoms occurred in four patients, who all had low CPPI preoperatively (22% (4/18) vs 0%; Fisher's exact test: p=0.006). some degree of hyperperfusion was seen in most patients, but the changes were significantly more pronounced in patients with preoperative hypoperfusion, who also suffered significantly more neurological complications.

  14. Comprehensive and rapid assessment of carotid plaques in acute stroke using a new single sweep method for three-dimensional carotid ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashyan, Harapet; Saqqur, Maher; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Romanchuk, Helen; Nanda, Navin C; Becher, Harald

    2013-04-01

    We describe a 68-year-old man with acute stroke in whom the newly developed single sweep method for three-dimensional (3D) carotid ultrasound provided a rapid and comprehensive assessment of atherosclerotic plaque burden in the internal carotid artery. The two-dimensional duplex carotid scan diagnosed 50-69% stenosis, and with the three-dimensional method, the markedly hypoechogenic plaque (total volume 1.42 mL) was shown to occupy 77% of the total arterial volume (1.84 mL), consistent with severe lesion. The ultrasound findings were confirmed by computed tomographic angiography and subsequent carotid endarterectomy. The new single sweep 3D carotid ultrasound has the potential to become a valuable clinical tool in the assessment of stroke patients. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Low prevalence of significant carotid artery disease in Iranian patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass grafting ranks as one of the most frequent operations worldwide. The presence of carotid artery stenosis may increase the stroke rate in the perioperative period. Routine preoperative noninvasive assessment of the carotid arteries are recommended in many institutions to reduce the stroke rate. Methods 271 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting at Shaheed Madani hospital of Tabriz, Iran (age, 58.5 Y; 73.1% male underwent preoperative ultrasonography for assessment of carotid artery wall thickness. Results Plaque in right common, left common, right internal and left internal carotid arteries was detected in 4.8%, 7.4%, 43.2% and 42.1% of patients respectively. 5 patients (1.8% had significant ( Conclusion Consecutive Iranian patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery show a very low prevalence of significant carotid artery disease.

  16. Carotid duplex ultrasound and transcranial Doppler findings in commercial divers and pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Vosoughi, Kia; Akhoundi, Fahimeh H; Mehrpour, Masoud; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Esmaeili, Setareh; Sabet, Azin Shafiee

    2016-12-01

    The risky working environments of divers and pilots, and the possible role of extreme ambient pressure in carotid stenosis, make ischemic stroke an important occupational concern among these professionals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of being exposed to hyperbaric or hypobaric conditions with carotid artery stenosis by comparing common carotid intima-media thickness (CCIMT) and blood flow velocities of cerebral arteries in divers and pilots using carotid duplex ultrasound (CDUS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD). CDUS and transtemporal TCD were performed in 29 divers, 36 pilots and 30 control participants. Medical history, blood pressure, lipid profile and blood sugar were recorded to control the previously well-known risk factors of atherosclerosis. Findings of the CDUS and TCD [including: CCIMT and blood flow velocities of internal carotid artery (ICA), common carotid artery (CCA), and middle cerebral artery (MCA)] of divers and pilots were compared with those of the control group using regression analysis models. Both right and left side CCIMT were significantly higher in divers (P < 0.05) and pilots (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control group. Carotid index [peak systolic velocity (PSV) of ICA/PSV of CCA) of divers and pilots were also higher than the control group. TCD findings were not significantly different between divers, pilots, and the control group. Increased CCIMT and carotid index in diver and pilot groups appear to be suggestive of accelerated atherosclerosis of carotid artery in these occupational groups.

  17. Comparative analysis of conventional and eversion carotid endarterectomy: Prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dragan M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Studies completed in the last decade of the 20th century showed benefits of carotid endarterectomy in the prevention of stroke in patients with a high-grade stenosis of the internal carotid artery. OBJECTIVE The aim of this prospective, randomized study was the comparison of early and long-term results between the conventional and eversion carotid endarterectomy, and literature review. METHOD By the method of random choice, 103 patients were operated on using the eversion carotid endarterectomy and 98 patients using the conventional technique. Operative treatment was carried out under general anaesthesia. Following the clammping of the carotid artery, retrograde blood pressure was determined by a direct puncture of the internal carotid artery above the stenotic lesions. In patients with retrograde pressure below 20 mm Hg intraluminal shunting was routinely performed. Early results were estimated (during the first seven postoperative days based on mortality, central neurological complications (stroke, TIA and cranial or cervical nerve lesions. Long-term results were estimated (after at least two years based on long-term survival rate, central neurological complications (stroke, TIA and the incidence of haemodynamically significant restenosis of the carotid artery treated by endarterectomy. RESULTS The average time of clamming of the internal carotid artery in the eversion carotid anderectomy group was 5.36 minutes shorter than in the group treated by the conventional technique. Student's t-test showed a statistically highly significant difference in the time needed for clamming of the internal carotid artery between the two groups. The average duration of eversion endarterectomy (82 minutes was most often 19 minutes shorter than the duration of the conventional endarterectomy (101 minutes. Student's t-test showed a statistically highly significant difference in the average length of surgeries. The distal intimal fixation was more

  18. MR imaging of carotid webs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesen, Mari E. [University of Calgary, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Calgary (Canada); Foothills Medical Centre, Seaman Family MR Research Centre, Calgary (Canada); Eswaradass, Prasanna Venkatesan; Singh, Dilip; Mitha, Alim P.; Menon, Bijoy K. [University of Calgary, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Calgary (Canada); Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary Stroke Program, Calgary (Canada); Goyal, Mayank [Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary Stroke Program, Calgary (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Radiology, Calgary (Canada); Frayne, Richard [Foothills Medical Centre, Seaman Family MR Research Centre, Calgary (Canada); University of Calgary, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    We propose a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol for the characterization of carotid web morphology, composition, and vessel wall dynamics. The purpose of this case series was to determine the feasibility of imaging carotid webs with MR imaging. Five patients diagnosed with carotid web on CT angiography were recruited to undergo a 30-min MR imaging session. MR angiography (MRA) images of the carotid artery bifurcation were acquired. Multi-contrast fast spin echo (FSE) images were acquired axially about the level of the carotid web. Two types of cardiac phase resolved sequences (cineFSE and cine phase contrast) were acquired to visualize the elasticity of the vessel wall affected by the web. Carotid webs were identified on MRA in 5/5 (100%) patients. Multi-contrast FSE revealed vessel wall thickening and cineFSE demonstrated regional changes in distensibility surrounding the webs in these patients. Our MR imaging protocol enables an in-depth evaluation of patients with carotid webs: morphology (by MRA), composition (by multi-contrast FSE), and wall dynamics (by cineFSE). (orig.)

  19. A cardiologist in the carotids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William A

    2004-05-05

    Carotid endarterectomy for stroke prevention has been the standard of care for 50 years in patients with extra-cranial carotid bifurcation disease. Over the past decade, carotid stenting has emerged as a viable alternative to surgery. Combined with filter embolic protection devices, both a randomized control trial (Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy registry [SAPPHIRE]) as well as registry data (ACCULINK for Revascularization of Carotids in High Risk Patients registry [ARCHeR] and Registry Study to evaluate the Neuroshield Bare-Wire Cerebral Protection System and X-Act Stent in patients at high risk for Carotid Endarterectomy [SECuRITY]) have compared favorably to endarterectomy in patients at high risk for operative revascularization. Conditions associated with high operative risk included patients with significant cardiac, pulmonary, and renal disease; previous neck operation; previous radiation; and anatomically difficult surgical access. On the basis of these results, a carotid stent system approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is anticipated in 2004. Although this will be a welcome addition to endarterectomy in the armamentarium of therapeutic options for patients with carotid disease, several challenges lie ahead. Coverage and reimbursement for the carotid stenting has been severely restricted to include only those procedures performed as part of an FDA investigational device exemption trial protocol, and a national noncoverage decision will have to be reckoned with before broader coverage can be put into place (assuming FDA approval). In addition, the level of national expertise in carotid endovascular intervention is limited, and training will need to be tailored to the three specialties likely to perform the procedure: cardiology, radiology, and vascular surgery. Each of these specialties will have specific, and different, requirements for their training, further complicating the task of

  20. Clipping Surgery for Paraclinoid Carotid Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Yasunaga; Suzuki, Yota; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Ichinose, Shunsuke; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Paraclinoid carotid aneurysm is widely treated with coil embolization. However, all paraclinoid carotid aneurysms cannot be obliterated by the endovascular approach. Our direct surgical procedure was presented. The clinical data of surgically treated paraclinoid carotid aneurysms were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred ninety paraclinoid carotid aneurysms in 181 patients were directly obliterated at the Shinshu University Hospital and its affiliated hospitals between 1991 and 2013. Direct surgical repair of the paraclinoid carotid aneurysm is still useful, even in the era of endovascular treatment.

  1. Protective effect of posterior cerebral circulation on carotid body ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, M D; Ozkan, U; Gündoğdu, C; Onder, A

    2002-04-01

    Carotid Bodies (CB) are fed mainly by External Carotid Artery (ECA) and rarely by Internal Carotid Artery (ICA). We aimed to investigate the effect of Bilateral Common Carotid Artery ligation and BCCAL plus bilateral external carotid artery ligation on CB. This study has been conducted on 30 hybrid male rabbits. Normal CB analyses were made in six of these animals and others divided into two groups. BCCAL has been applied to the 1st group, and the 2nd group has undergone bilateral ECA ligation in addition to BCCAL. After sacrificing the animals, both sides CB were histopathologically observed. Normal and ischemic cells were counted. Bilateral Common Carotid Artery ligation did not cause total atrophy in CB. Partial reversible atrophy of CB was seen in group I, but that atrophy was found to be irreversible and all animals died within one week after ligation in group II. Retrograde blood flow mechanisms and collateral circulation impede the oligemic CB atrophy after BCCAL. But bilateral ECA ligation, in addition to BCCAL, causes both sides irreversible CB atrophy and death of animals within one week of ligation. The CB are parasympathetic paraganglia. They are chemoreceptors and located at the bifurcation zone of common carotid arteries. They are fed mainly by ECA or by its branches and rarely by ICA. As a consequence of this, BCCAL and/or ligation of external branches of common carotid artery may lead to an ischemic impairment of CB. In order to analyse the effect of carotid stenosis on CB, CB were directly examined in 6 of 30 hybrid rabbits. BCCAL was applied to twelve rabbits (group I) with ligation of both ECA in addition to BCCAL were made to the others (group II). Animals were followed up four months in group I; but all of the animals in group II died within one week. From both sides the CB were taken including the carotid bifurcation and histopathological changes were evaluated. As a result, it has been observed that incomplete ischemic lesions have developed

  2. Intima-media thickness of peripheral arteries in asymptomatic cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berkmortel, F W; Smilde, T J; Wollersheim, H; van Langen, H; de Boo, T; Thien, T

    2000-06-01

    Although it is known that smoking is associated with an increase in arterial wall thickness, most studies have been performed in heterogeneous groups of older age, already suffering from atherosclerotic diseases or having additional cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect on arterial wall thickness of the carotid and femoral artery in cigarette smokers. In a cross-sectional study, intima-media thickness of the common and internal carotid artery, carotid bulb and common femoral artery was determined with the use of a B-mode ultrasound device, in 184 (44.3+/-9.0 years) cigarette smokers for whom smoking is the single cardiovascular risk factor. Comparisons were made with 56 non-smokers, matching in age and gender. The posterior walls of both carotid bulbs (right: P=0.0005; left: P=0.02) and of the internal carotid arteries (right: P=0.004; left: P=0.003) as well as the posterior wall of the right common carotid artery (P=0.02) and of the right common femoral artery (P<0.0001) were thicker in smokers. Cigarette smoking as the single cardiovascular risk factor causes wall thickening of the carotid and femoral arteries, which indicates that early atherosclerosis is already present in smokers entering middle age.

  3. Angioplasty and stenting of symptomatic and asymptomatic vertebral artery stenosis: to treat or not to treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhutik, V; Lago, A; Tembl, J I; Aparici, F; Vazquez, V; Mainar, E

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive indications for treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenosis remain unavailable. Even less is known about endovascular treatment of asymptomatic cases. We treated symptomatic and asymptomatic vertebral ostium stenosis with angioplasty and stenting and investigated the long term outcome. Consecutive patients with two different indications were included. Group 1 (G1) had symptomatic >50% stenosis. Group 2 (G2) had asymptomatic >50% stenosis and severe lesions of anterior circulation and were expected to benefit from additional cerebral blood supply. Twenty nine vertebral origin stenoses in 28 patients (75% men, mean age 64 +/- 9 years) were treated. There were 16 G1 and 13 G2 cases. Technical success rate was 100%. Immediate neurological complications rate was 3.4% (one G1 patient with vertebral TIA due to release of emboli). Two further strokes were seen during follow up (32 +/- 24 months): vertebrobasilar stroke in a G2 patient with permeable stent in V1 segment, new ipsilateral V3 occlusion and high-risk cardioembolic source, and carotid stroke in a G1 patient who had had ipsilateral carotid stenting. There were no deaths of any cause. Asymptomatic restenosis was observed in one out of 19 patients from both groups who underwent a follow up angiography. Angioplasty and stenting appears to be technically feasible and safe in asymptomatic and symptomatic vertebral stenosis. More studies are needed in order to clarify its role in primary and secondary prevention of vertebrobasilar stroke. High risk anterior circulation lesions should be taken into account as a possible indication in patients with asymptomatic vertebral stenosis.

  4. Management of Iatrogenic Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula Occurring During Endovascular Treatment of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Nima; Nwachuku, Enyinna; Jovin, Tudor J; Jankowitz, Brian T; Jadhav, Ashutosh P; Ducruet, Andrew F

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic carotid cavernous fistula may occur as a complication of endovascular treatment of acute stroke. We report 3 cases of such lesions. All patients were initially managed conservatively. Two patients have remained asymptomatic. One patient became symptomatic with right eye proptosis, chemosis, and right lateral gaze diplopia 3 weeks post thrombectomy. He underwent endovascular embolization via transfemoral transvenous approach via the inferior ophthalmic vein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy inspontaneous internal carotid artery dissection: case report Paralisia isolada do nervo oculomotor na dissecção de artéria carótida interna: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Resende Campos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial oculosympathetic palsy followed by ischemic manifestations in brain or retina are the main symptoms of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA dissection. Unusually, cranial nerves may be affected. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy is found only rarely. CASE: We present a 50-year-old nondiabetic man who experienced acute onset of right occipital headache which spread to the right retro-orbital region. Five days later he noticed diplopia and right blurred vision sensation. Neurologic examination disclosed only impaired adduction and upward gaze of right eye, slight ipsilateral pupillary dilatation, without ptosis. Brain MRI was normal. Angiography showed right internal carotid artery dissection with forward occlusion to the base of the skull. Intravenous heparin followed by warfarin was prescribed. The headache and the oculomotor nerve deficit gradually resolved in the next three weeks. DISCUSSION: Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy is underrecognized as a clinical presentation of extracranial ICA dissection. If the angiographic evaluation is incomplete without careful study of extracranial arteries, misdiagnosis may lead to failure to initiate early treatment to prevent thromboembolic complications. For this reason we draw attention to the need for careful evaluation of cervical arteries in patients with oculomotor nerve palsy. Mechanical compression or stretching of the third nerve are possible mechanisms, but the direct impairment of the blood supply to the third nerve seems to be the most plausible explanation.A paralisia oculosimpática parcial (síndrome de Horner seguida por manifestações isquêmicas cerebrais ou retinianas são os principais sintomas da dissecção da artéria carótida interna (ACI extracraniana. O acometimento de nervos cranianos é incomum. Apenas raramente a paralisia isolada do nervo oculomotor pode ser encontrada. CASO: homem de 50 anos, sem diabetes, apresentou cefaléia occipital de início s

  6. De-adoption and exnovation in the use of carotid revascularization: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelis, Kimon; Skinner, Jonathan; Gottlieb, Daniel; Goodney, Philip

    2017-10-26

    Objective To determine physician characteristics associated with exnovation (scaling back on use) and de-adoption (abandoning use) of carotid revascularization.Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study.Setting Medicare claims linked to the Doximity database provider registry, 2006-13.Participants 9158 physicians who performed carotid revascularization on Medicare patients between 2006 and 2013.Main outcome measures The primary outcomes were the number of carotid revascularization procedures for each physician per year at the end of the sample period, and the percentage change in the volume of carotid revascularization procedures.Results At baseline (2006-07), 9158 physicians performed carotid revascularization. By 2012-13 the use of revascularization in this cohort had declined by 37.7%, with two thirds attributable to scaling back (exnovation) rather than dropping the procedure entirely (de-adoption). Compared with physicians with fewer than 12 years of experience, those with more than 25 years of experience decreased use by an additional 23.0% (95% confidence interval -36.7% to -9.2%). The lowest rates of decline occurred in physicians specializing in vascular or thoracic surgery, for whom the procedures accounted for a large share of revenue. Physicians with high proportions of patients aged more than 80 years or with asymptomatic carotid stenosis were less likely to reduce their use of carotid revascularization.Conclusion Surgeons with more experience and the lowest share in carotid revascularization practice reduced their use of the procedure the most. These practice factors should be considered in quality improvement efforts when the evidence base evolves away from a specific treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Usefulness of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in predicting the severity of carotid artery stenosis in patients undergoing carotid angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Varım

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotid artery stenosis (CAS is primarily caused by atherosclerotic plaque. Progressive inflammation may contribute to the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque. The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR is a new and simple marker that indicates inflammation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the use of the PLR to determine the severity of CAS. One hundred forty patients were chosen from among patients who underwent carotid angiography in our institution. Symptomatic patients with stenosis >50% in the carotid arteries and asymptomatic patients with stenosis >80% were diagnosed via carotid angiography as having critical stenosis. Patients were classified into two groups. Group 1 included patients who had critical CAS, whereas Group 2 included patients with noncritical CAS, as determined by carotid angiography. Correlations between the PLR and the severity of CAS were analyzed. There were no significant differences in sex and age between the two groups. The PLR was 162.5 ± 84.7 in the noncritical CAS group patients and 94.9 ± 60.3 in the critical CAS group patients (p < 0.0001. The PLR value of 117.1 had 89% sensitivity and 68% specificity for CAS [95% confidence interval, 0.043–0.159; area under the curve, 0.101 ± 0.03]. In this study, we have shown that PLR values may be associated with critical stenosis in at least one of the carotid arteries. Furthermore, PLR values may be used to predict critical stenosis in the carotid arteries.

  8. Mid-cervical flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion: diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial internal carotid artery sign on computed tomographic angiography in hyperacute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Pitakvej, Nantaporn [King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital the Thai Red Cross Society, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Dumrongpisutikul, Netsiri; Lerdlum, Sukalaya [King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital the Thai Red Cross Society, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulalongkorn University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-10-15

    Flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is a flow-related phenomenon that creates computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings that mimic tandem intracranial-extracranial ICA occlusion or dissection. We aim to determine the diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign on CTA in hyperacute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively included consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients presenting within 6 h of symptom onset who underwent 4D brain CTA and arterial-phase neck CTA using a 320-detector CT scanner during August 2012 to July 2015. Two blinded readers independently reviewed arterial-phase neck CTA and characterized the extracranial ICA configurations into mid-cervical flame-shaped, proximal blunt/beak-shaped, and tubular-shaped groups. 4D whole brain CTA was used as a reference standard for intracranial ICA occlusion detection. Diagnostic performance of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign and interobserver reliability were calculated. Of the 81 cases, 11 had isolated intracranial ICA occlusion, and 6 had true extracranial ICA occlusion. Mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign was found in 45.5% (5/11) of isolated intracranial ICA occlusions but none in the true extracranial ICA occlusion group. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign for the detection of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion were 45.5, 100, 100, 92.1, and 92.6%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was 0.90. The mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign may suggest the presence of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion and allow reliable exclusion of tandem extracranial-intracranial ICA occlusion in hyperacute ischemic stroke setting. (orig.)

  9. [Ways to improve immediate and remote results of carotid endarterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhuget, R A; Karpenko, A A; Kamenskaya, O V; Ignatenko, P V; Starodubtsev, V B; Postnov, V G

    2016-01-01

    The authors analysed the results of carotid endarterectomy in a total of 469 patients with the use of simultaneous assessment of the oxygen status and collateral blood flow of the brain in order to determine feasibility of placing a temporary bypass, carried out at the Centre of Vascular and Hybrid Surgery of the Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Circulatory Pathology named after Academician E.N. Meshalkin in 2008-2012. It was shown that it is more appropriate to use a temporary bypass based on simultaneous assessment of the oxygen status and collateral blood flow of the brain: in synchronous decrease of the degree of cerebral oxygenation during tentative occlusion by more than 20% of the baseline level, or in absolute values of cerebral oxygenation below 40% and simultaneous decrease of retrograde pressure below 40 mm Hg. It was determined that simultaneous assessment of tolerance of the brain to ischaemia significantly decreased the incidence of using a temporary bypass from 16 to 3% (χ2=22.51; pcarotid endarterectomy after 4 years showed that a decrease in the number of temporary shunts did not influence cumulative survival (log-rank test; p=0.73), the incidence of stroke (log-rank test; p=0.68) and patency of the reconstructed carotid arteries in the remote period (log-rank test; p=0.70). It was determined that in the remote period of carotid endarterectomy restenoses of reconstructed carotid arteries were encountered statistically significantly less often in the group of eversion carotid endarterectomy as compared with classic carotid endarterectomy (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.07-070; p=0.009) and with prosthetic repair of the internal carotid artery (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.02-0.83; p=0.03).

  10. Red cell distribution width and mortality in carotid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnerth, Anna; Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Mayer, Florian J; Minar, Erich; Wojta, Johann; Schillinger, Martin; Koppensteiner, Renate; Hoke, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with morbidity and mortality in chronic cardiac disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of RDW as a predictor of adverse outcome in patients with carotid atherosclerosis. We prospectively studied 1065 of 1286 consecutive patients with neurological asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis as assessed by duplex Doppler sonography. The study end points were all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality respectively. During a median follow-up time of 6·2 years (interquartile range 5·9-6·6), corresponding to 5551 overall person-years, 275 patients (25·8%) died. Of them, 182 patients (66·2%) died due to cardiovascular causes. RDW was significantly associated with adverse outcome. In a continuous multivariate Cox regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio for each per cent increase in RDW was 1·39 (95% CI 1·27-1·53; P < 0·001) for all-cause and 1·43 (95% CI 1·28-1·60; P < 0·001) for cardiovascular mortality respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a gradual relationship between increasing quartiles of RDW and death (log rank P < 0·001). Adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause death ranged from 0·89 to 1·94 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile (P < 0·001 for trend) and for cardiovascular death from 1·08 to 2·34 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile (P < 0·001 for trend) respectively. Red cell distribution width was significantly and independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular death in patients with asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  11. Level-Set Based Carotid Artery Segmentation for Stenosis Grading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmel, C.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Viergever, M.A.; Niessen, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    A semi-automated method is presented for the determination of the degree of stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in 3D contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiograms. Hereto, we determined the central vessel axis (CA), which subsequently is used as an initialization for a level-set based segmentation

  12. Mechanical stresses in carotid plaques using MRI-based fluid-structure interaction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Samuel A; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Eldrup, Nikolaj

    2008-01-01

    fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of carotid atherosclerotic plaques were performed facilitating in-vivo estimation of longitudinal internal fibrous cap stresses. The FSI simulation combined finite element analysis (FEA) with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of blood...

  13. Mapping white matter diffusion and cerebrovascular reactivity in carotid occlusive disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conklin, J.; Fierstra, J.; Crawley, A. P.; Han, J. S.; Poublanc, J.; Silver, F. L.; Tymianski, M.; Fisher, J. A.; Mandell, D. M.; Mikulis, D. J.

    Objective: To characterize the relationship between cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and white matter (WM) diffusion in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease. Methods: In this exploratory observational study, 41 patients with severe stenosis or occlusion of the extracranial

  14. Evaluation of the criteria for angiotomography indications in the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial injury associated with blunt trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerindo Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blunt carotid and vertebral artery injury (BCVI occur infrequently. The incidence of this type of injury is difficult to determine as many emergency room patients are neurologically asymptomatic. The statistics have not been reported in Brazil. The objectives of the current study were: To evaluate the accuracy of criteria used to recommend angiotomography in the diagnosis of cervical BCVI in 100 patients with blunt cervical trauma in the trauma services section of a Brazilian quaternary care hospital. Methods During a 30-month (2006-2008, all patients admitted to the emergency room of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo with blunt cervical trauma and potential risk of cervical vessel injury, were subjected to cervical angiotomography to diagnose BCVI. The data analyzed are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and statistical analyses included Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Results During the study period 2467 blunt trauma patients were admitted. In 100 patients that met the criteria for inclusion in the study, angiotomography identified 23 with BCVI, including 17 males and six females. The mean patient age was 34.81 ± 14.84 years. Car crash (49% and car-pedestrian accidents (24% were the most frequent causes of injury. Ten patients had internal carotid artery injuries, two patients had common carotid artery injuries, and 11 patients had vertebral artery injuries. Seven patients presented with Degree I arterial injuries, 10 patients presented with Degree II artery injuries, four patients presented with Degree IV artery injuries, one patient presented with a Degree V artery injury, and one patient had a carotid fistula. Seven out of the 23 patients with BCVI (30.4% presented with cervical vertebrae fractures, and 11 out of the 23 patients with BCVI (47.8% presented with facial fractures (LeFort II and III. Conclusions Although there is no consensus

  15. Intraoperative Completion Studies, Local Anesthesia, and Antiplatelet Medication Are Associated With Lower Risk in Carotid Endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappich, Christoph; Kuehnl, Andreas; Tsantilas, Pavlos; Schmid, Sofie; Breitkreuz, Thorben; Kallmayer, Michael; Zimmermann, Alexander; Eckstein, Hans-Henning

    2017-04-01

    In Germany, all surgical and endovascular procedures on the carotid bifurcation must be documented in a statutory nationwide quality assurance database. We aimed to analyze the association between procedural and perioperative variables and in-hospital stroke or death rates after carotid endarterectomy. Between 2009 and 2014, overall 142 074 elective carotid endarterectomy procedures for asymptomatic or symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were documented in the database. The primary outcome of this secondary data analysis was in-hospital stroke or death. Major stroke or death, stroke, and death, each until discharge were secondary outcomes. Adjusted relative risks (RRs) were assessed by multivariable multilevel regression analyses. The primary outcome occurred in 1.8% of patients, with a rate of 1.4% in asymptomatic and 2.5% in symptomatic patients, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, lower risks of stroke or death were independently associated with local anesthesia (versus general anesthesia: RR, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.95), carotid endarterectomy with patch plasty compared with primary closure (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.97), intraoperative completion studies by duplex ultrasound (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.88) or angiography (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71-0.90), and perioperative antiplatelet medication (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.97). No shunting and a short cross-clamp time were also associated with lower risks; however, these are suspected to be confounded. Local anesthesia, patch plasty compared with primary closure, intraoperative completion studies by duplex ultrasound or angiography, and perioperative antiplatelet medication were independently associated with lower in-hospital stroke or death rates after carotid endarterectomy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Asymptomatic cervicocerebral atherosclerosis, intracranial vascular resistance and cognition: the AsIA-neuropsychology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olóriz, Jorge; López-Cancio, Elena; Arenillas, Juan F; Hernández, María; Jiménez, Marta; Dorado, Laura; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; Cáceres, Cynthia; Forés, Rosa; Pera, Guillem; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis has emerged as a relevant contributor to cognitive impairment and dementia whereas the role of intracranial stenosis and vascular resistance in cognition remains unknown. This study aims to assess the association of asymptomatic cervicocerebral atherosclerosis and intracranial vascular resistance with cognitive performance in a large dementia-free population. The Barcelona-AsIA (Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis) Neuropsychology Study included 747 Caucasian subjects older than 50 with a moderate-high vascular risk (assessed by REGICOR score) and without history of neither symptomatic vascular disease nor dementia. Extracranial and transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound examination was performed to assess carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), presence of carotid plaques (ECAD group), intracranial stenosis (ICAD group), and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI) as a measure of intracranial vascular resistance. Neuropsychological assessment included tests in three cognitive domains: visuospatial skills and speed, verbal memory and verbal fluency. In univariate analyses, carotid IMT, ECAD and MCA-PI were associated with lower performance in almost all cognitive domains, and ICAD was associated with poor performance in some visuospatial and verbal cognitive tests. After adjustment for age, sex, vascular risk score, years of education and depressive symptoms, ECAD remained associated with poor performance in the three cognitive domains and elevated MCA-PI with worse performance in visuospatial skills and speed. Carotid plaques and increased intracranial vascular resistance are independently associated with low cognitive functioning in Caucasian stroke and dementia-free subjects. We failed to find an independent association of intracranial large vessel stenosis with cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiographically occult perforation and dissection of the common carotid artery following stab injury to the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gamba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many diagnostic algorithms have been devised to reduce the rate of negative explorations associated with indiscriminate surgical management of penetrating neck injuries. In hemodynamically stable patients, the need for surgical intervention is usually determined by integrating both clinical signs and radiological findings; if such investigations remain unremarkable, recommended treatment consists in close observation and sequential physical examinations. We report on a 29-year-old male who was admitted to a Swiss tertiary care hospital after sustaining a penetrating injury to his left neck following a knife attack. Disregarding a pre-hospital account of hemorrhage from the wound and slight dysphagia, no manifest symptoms or signs of internal organ damage were present on primary survey. Moreover, there was no evidence of vascular or aerodigestive tract injury on initial CT angiography. We nonetheless proceeded with immediate surgical exploration, exposing a significant perforation of the left common carotid artery with concomitant dissection of the said vessel. Surgical repair was successfully performed and the patient suffered no long-term sequelae. We thus recommend that a high level of suspicion be upheld in both asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic patients with PNI and that clinical practitioners remain cautious in the face of deceptively reassuring radiologic findings.

  18. PLACD-7T Study: Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque Components Correlated with Cerebral Damage at 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, A G; Bovens, S M; Koning, W; Hendrikse, J; Pasterkamp, G; Moll, F L; de Borst, G J

    2011-02-01

    In patients with carotid artery stenosis histological plaque composition is associated with plaque stability and with presenting symptomatology. Preferentially, plaque vulnerability should be taken into account in pre-operative work-up of patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. However, currently no appropriate and conclusive (non-) invasive technique to differentiate between the high and low risk carotid artery plaque in vivo is available. We propose that 7 Tesla human high resolution MRI scanning will visualize carotid plaque characteristics more precisely and will enable correlation of these specific components with cerebral damage. The aim of the PlaCD-7T study is 1: to correlate 7T imaging with carotid plaque histology (gold standard); and 2: to correlate plaque characteristics with cerebral damage ((clinically silent) cerebral (micro) infarcts or bleeds) on 7 Tesla high resolution (HR) MRI. We propose a single center prospective study for either symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with haemodynamic significant (70%) stenosis of at least one of the carotid arteries. The Athero-Express (AE) biobank histological analysis will be derived according to standard protocol. Patients included in the AE and our prospective study will undergo a pre-operative 7 Tesla HR-MRI scan of both the head and neck area. We hypothesize that the 7 Tesla MRI scanner will allow early identification of high risk carotid plaques being associated with micro infarcted cerebral areas, and will thus be able to identify patients with a high risk of periprocedural stroke, by identification of surrogate measures of increased cardiovascular risk.

  19. Influence of intranasal and carotid cooling on cerebral temperature balance and oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Wanscher, Michael; Secher, Niels H.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of intranasal cooling with balloon catheters, increased nasal ventilation, or percutaneous cooling of the carotid arteries on cerebral temperature balance and oxygenation in six healthy male subjects. Aortic arch and internal jugular venous blood temperat......The present study evaluated the influence of intranasal cooling with balloon catheters, increased nasal ventilation, or percutaneous cooling of the carotid arteries on cerebral temperature balance and oxygenation in six healthy male subjects. Aortic arch and internal jugular venous blood...

  20. [Carotid body paraganglioma in a teenager. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vázquez, María Elisa; Llamas-Macías, Francisco Javier; Nuño-Escobar, César; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2014-01-01

    Paragangliomas of the head and neck are neuroendocrine tumors. They have a low incidence (0.6%), are generally benign, have a poorly defined etiology, and multiple factors have been associated with their origin. Humans and other species living at high altitudes (>2000 m above sea level) are subjected to a relatively chronic hypoxia and there is a high prevalence of the development of carotid body hyperplasia and eventually paragangliomas. This disease is usually seen in patients in their 50s and in their 30s if there is a family history. We present the case of a 16 year-old female with acute pharyngitis and growing tumor located on the left side of the neck, without symptoms. A duplex Doppler ultrasound showed a solid nodular lesion on the left carotid bifurcation. A left lateral cervicotomy was performed, finding a highly vascularized tumor of 4 × 3 × 3 cm involving the common carotid from its middle third, the internal carotid up to the cranial base, and the external carotid to its upper third, and intimately related to the trachea, esophagus and cervical spine. The tumor was completely resected and the histopathological analysis corroborated the presence of paragangliomas. The publication of this case is relevant and of clinical interest due to the uncommon age of presentation and the fact that it should be considered as a diagnostic possibility.

  1. Visualization of the superior opthalmic vein on carotid angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servo, A.

    1982-05-01

    Visualization of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) on carotid angiography was investigated based on a prospective sample of 452 carotid angiograms performed during one year. The SOV with normal blood flow direction, from facial veins into the cavernous sinus (CS), was seen on 26% and with reversed flow direction in 7% of the angiograms. A hypothesis was suggested that the anatomical variations of the moddle cerebral (MCV) and uncal veins (UV) affected the visualization. When both the MCV and UV drained into the CS, the SOV was seen in 11% of 179 angiograms. If the MCV and UV bypassed the CS, the SOV was seen on 51% of 118 angiograms. The difference is significant. Intubation of the patient increased the visualization of the SOV with normal flow direction but did not affect the visualization of the SOV with reversed flow. No SOV with normal blood flow direction was seen on selective internal carotid angiography.

  2. Correlation between aortic/carotid atherosclerotic plaques and cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baojun; Sun, Shaoli; Liu, Guorong; Li, Yuechun; Pang, Jiangxia; Zhang, Jingfen; Yang, Lijuan; Li, Ruiming; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Changchun; Li, Xiue

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between aortic/carotid atherosclerotic plaques and cerebral infarction. We examined 116 cases of cerebral infarction using transcranial Doppler ultrasound in order to exclude cerebrovascular stenosis. Transesophageal echocardiography and color Doppler ultrasound were used to detect aortic atherosclerotic plaques (AAPs) and carotid atherosclerotic plaques (CAPs). AAPs were detected in a total of 70 of the 116 cases (60.3%), including 56 with moderate/severe atherosclerotic changes (48.3%). The difference in the incidence of various types of infarction between APP severity levels was significant (PCAPs (55.2%), including 46 with unstable plaque (39.7%). The difference in the incidence of various types of infarction between CAP stability levels was significant (PCAP are significant causes of embolic infarction without stenosis in the internal carotid arteries.

  3. Surgical treatment of large and giant cavernous carotid aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornrattanakul, Kitiporn; Sakarunchai, Ittichai; Yamashiro, Kei; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Suyama, Daisuke; Kawase, Tsukasa; Kato, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Cavernous carotid aneurysms (CCAs) are uncommon pathologic entities. Extradural place and the skull base location make this type of an aneurysm different in clinical features and treatment techniques. Direct aneurysm clipping is technically difficult and results in a significant postoperative neurological deficit. Therefore, several techniques of indirect surgical treatment were developed with different surgical outcomes, such as proximal occlusion of internal carotid artery (ICA) or trapping with or without bypass (superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass or high-flow bypass). High-flow bypass with proximal ICA occlusion seems to be the most appropriate surgical treatment for CCA because of the high rate of symptom improvement, aneurysm thrombosis, and minimal postoperative complications. However, in cases of CCA presented with direct carotid-cavernous fistula, the appropriate surgical treatment is high-flow bypass with aneurysm trapping, which the fistula can be obliterated immediately after surgery. PMID:28761512

  4. Case of radiation induced aneurysm of extracranial carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Takashi; Ikota, Toshio; Yamashita, Kousuke; Kodama, Takao

    1988-08-01

    An unusual case of post-irradiation aneurysm of extracranial internal carotid artery is presented. A 70-year-old man, complaining of left cervical throbbing mass with focal pain, was admitted on February 8, 1985. It was noted, from his past history, that he had had surgery of the removal of cervical lymphnodes and that unknown dosage of irradiation had been added to the cervical region 30 years before. Left carotid angiography (on admission) demonstrated a giant aneurysm in the cervical portion of internal carotid artery. Right carotid angiography with compression of left carotid artery revealed good cross filling through anterior communicating artery. Computed tomography with contrast media showed a ring like enhanced mass, which was thought to suggest that a large part of the aneurysm was filled with intraluminal thrombosis. During 30 days of evaluation, the aneurysm grew larger and his cervical pain became untolerable. Operation, the resection of the aneurysm and the reconstruction (of circulation) with vein graft, was challenged on March 12. It was so difficult with meticulous work that the ligation of left common carotid artery was performed after all. Seven days after the operation, he suffered from the gastrointestinal bleeding, which was enough to lead him to hypovolemic shock. Thereafter, right hemiparesis and aphasia were brought about. Two months later, he died of pneumonia. On histological examination, it was demonstrated that the aneurysm communicated with the necrotic tissue and that the normal structure of the blood vessel was not observed in the aneurysmal wall and consisted of the collagenous fiber and granulated tissue. The aneurysm was interpreted as a false one.

  5. Physical and computational fluid dynamics models for the hemodynamics of the artiodactyl carotid rete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Haley D; Bourke, Jason

    2015-12-07

    In the mammalian order Artiodactyla, the majority of arterial blood entering the intracranial cavity is supplied by a large arterial meshwork called the carotid rete. This vascular structure functionally replaces the internal carotid artery. Extensive experimentation has demonstrated that the artiodactyl carotid rete drives one of the most effective selective brain cooling mechanisms among terrestrial vertebrates. Less well understood is the impact that the unique morphology of the carotid rete may have on the hemodynamics of blood flow to the cerebrum. It has been hypothesized that, relative to the tubular internal carotid arteries of most other vertebrates, the highly convoluted morphology of the carotid rete may increase resistance to flow during extreme changes in cerebral blood pressure, essentially protecting the brain by acting as a resistor. We test this hypothesis by employing simple and complex physical models to a 3D surface rendering of the carotid rete of the domestic goat, Capra hircus. First, we modeled the potential for increased resistance across the carotid rete using an electrical circuit analog. The extensive branching of the rete equates to a parallel circuit that is bound in series by single tubular arteries, both upstream and downstream. This method calculated a near-zero increase in resistance across the rete. Because basic equations do not incorporate drag, shear-stress, and turbulence, we used computational fluid dynamics to simulate the impact of these computationally intensive factors on resistance. Ultimately, both simple and complex models demonstrated negligible changes in resistance and blood pressure across the arterial meshwork. We further tested the resistive potential of the carotid rete by simulating blood pressures known to occur in giraffes. Based on these models, we found resistance (and blood pressure mitigation as a whole) to be an unlikely function for the artiodactyl carotid rete. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. The influence of obesity on the assessment of carotid intima-media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; Irimia, Pablo; Martínez-Vila, Eduardo; Barba, Joaquín; Guembe, María Jesús; Varo, Nerea; Castellano, José María; Viñes, José Javier; Díez, Javier

    2012-10-01

    The assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) may improve cardiovascular risk prediction. The optimal protocol for CIMT measurement is unclear. CIMT may be measured in the common carotid artery (CCA), carotid bifurcation (CB), and internal carotid artery (ICA), but measurements from CB and ICA are more difficult to obtain. We studied the influence of body mass index (BMI) and atheroma plaques on the capacity to obtain CIMT measurements at different carotid sites. Using an automatic system, CIMT was measured in 700 subjects aged 45-75, in the near and far walls of CCA, CB, and ICA bilaterally. The presence of atheroma plaques, BMI and vascular risk factors were recorded. CIMT measurements in CCA were possible in all except one subject. It was not possible to obtain CIMT measurements at CB or ICA in 24.1% of normal weight and 58.8% of obese subjects. The likelihood of obtaining CIMT measurement at all carotid sites decreased as the BMI increased. Atheroma plaques in a carotid segment did not preclude CIMT measurement at this site. CIMT measurements in distal carotid segments are more challenging in obese subjects. Measuring CIMT at CCA remains feasible in obese subjects and should be the primary endpoint in these subjects. Nevertheless, CB and ICA measurements, when feasible, would improve risk classification. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Delayed presentation of carotid artery dissection following major orthopaedic trauma resulting in dense hemiparesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edmundson, S P

    2012-01-31

    We report a 30-year-old patient who was involved in a high-velocity road traffic accident and developed a left-sided hemiparesis, which was noted in the post-operative period following bilateral femoral intramedullary nailing. CT scanning of the brain revealed infarcts in the right frontal and parietal lobes in the distribution of the right middle cerebral artery. CT angiography showed occlusion of the right internal carotid artery consistent with internal carotid artery dissection. He was anticoagulated and nine months later was able to walk independently. An awareness of this injury is needed to diagnose blunt trauma to the internal carotid artery. Even in the absence of obvious neck trauma, carotid artery dissection should be suspected in patients with a neurological deficit in the peri-operative period.

  8. A case of Behcet's disease with aneurysms of common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Myung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Sung Jae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-06-15

    One case of Behcet's disease with multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta is presented with brief review of the literatures. A 26-year-old woman had slowly enlarging pulsatile masses in both sides of neck and recurrent ulcerations in oral cavity and genitalia. One day prior to admission, aphasia, right facial nerve palsy and right hemiplegia suddenly developed. Brain CT showed acute infarction in left basal ganglia. Both Carotid Angiography and abdominal Aortography demonstrated multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta with organizing thrombi and thromboembolism of internal carotid artery.

  9. Evaluation of the medtronic exponent self-expanding carotid stent system with the medtronic guardwire temporary occlusion and aspiration system in the treatment of carotid stenosis: combined from the MAVErIC (Medtronic AVE Self-expanding CaRotid Stent System with distal protection In the treatment of Carotid stenosis) I and MAVErIC II trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Randall T; Popma, Jeffrey J; Apruzzese, Patricia; Zimetbaum, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Embolic protection devices and improved stent technology have advanced the endovascular treatment of carotid artery disease. A combined analysis was performed of the MAVErIC (Medtronic AVE Self-expanding CaRotid Stent System with distal protection) I and II trials to evaluate the safety and feasibility of this system among patients at high risk for surgical endarterectomy. Four hundred ninety-eight patients were enrolled in the MAVErIC I (99 patients) and MAVErIC II (399 patients) studies from June 2001 to October 2004. The results were pooled for statistical analysis of a common primary end point, the 365-day rate of major adverse events. Clinical follow-up took place at 30 days, 6 months, and 365 days postprocedure. The 365-day major adverse event rate, defined as death, stroke, or myocardial infarction within 30 days, and death, ipsilateral stroke, or myocardial infarction from days 31 to 365 was 12.5%. The incidence of neurological death through 365 days was 1.1%. The 30-day major adverse event rate was 5.4%. Subgroup analyses showed no notable differences in the 365-day major adverse event rate for symptomatic patients compared with asymptomatic patients. Treatment of carotid artery disease with carotid artery stenting with a self-expanding stent and distal embolic protection results in a low 30-day adverse event rate, including the occurrence of stroke in patients at high risk for carotid endarterectomy.

  10. The carotid bodies in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive rats--a study concerning size, location and blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeck, J O; Honig, A; Pfeiffer, C; Schmidt, M

    1981-01-01

    Size, anatomical position and blood supply of the carotid bodies were studied by light microscopic methods in spontaneously hypertensive rats of the Okamoto-strain (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar rats (NWR) of a random-bred strain. In both groups of animals the single carotid body was usually supplied by only one glomic artery which most frequently derived from the external carotid artery, more rarely from the occipital artery and very seldom from the internal carotid artery. In general the carotid bodies were of ellipsoide shape and compact structure and as a rule closely located to the internal carotid artery. In the NWR at the origins of their glomic arteries almost regularly circular intraarterial cushions were found; in the SHR such cushions were only seen in a few cases, and if so than they were less clearly developed. In the SHR, never in the NWR, within the carotid body the lumen of some branches of the glomic arteries was narrowed by pad-like structures. When compared with the NWR the SHR showed enlarged carotid bodies and a respiratory alcalosis, suggesting that systemic hypertension leads to morphologically and functionally detectable alterations of both carotid body structure and function.

  11. A new screening pathway for identifying asymptomatic patients using dental panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sawagashira, Tsuyoshi; Tagami, Motoki; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Zhou, Xiangrong; Iida, Yukihiro; Matsuoka, Masato; Katagi, Kiyoji; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    To identify asymptomatic patients is the challenging task and the essential first step in diagnosis. Findings of dental panoramic radiographs include not only dental conditions but also radiographic signs that are suggestive of possible systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, and maxillary sinusitis. Detection of such signs on panoramic radiographs has a potential to provide supplemental benefits for patients. However, it is not easy for general dental practitioners to pay careful attention to such signs. We addressed the development of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system that detects radiographic signs of pathology on panoramic images, and the design of the framework of new screening pathway by cooperation of dentists and our CAD system. The performance evaluation of our CAD system showed the sensitivity and specificity in the identification of osteoporotic patients were 92.6 % and 100 %, respectively, and those of the maxillary sinus abnormality were 89.6 % and 73.6 %, respectively. The detection rate of carotid artery calcifications that suggests the need for further medical evaluation was approximately 93.6 % with 4.4 false-positives per image. To validate the utility of the new screening pathway, preliminary clinical trials by using our CAD system were conducted. To date, 223 panoramic images were processed and 4 asymptomatic patients with suspected osteoporosis, 7 asymptomatic patients with suspected calcifications, and 40 asymptomatic patients with suspected maxillary sinusitis were detected in our initial trial. It was suggested that our new screening pathway could be useful to identify asymptomatic patients with systemic diseases.

  12. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is unrelated to decrease in external carotid artery blood flow during acute hypotension in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Sørensen, Henrik; Hirasawa, Ai

    2016-01-01

    New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) is impaired by sympathetic blockade, and the external carotid artery (ECA) vascular bed may prevent adequate internal carotid artery blood flow. We examined whether α1-receptor blockade-induced attenuat...

  13. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  14. Prevalence and pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the cultured organism (89%) were sensitive to Nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women at the UPTH is high. The most prevalent organism was Klebsiella. Keywords: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, Prevalence, Pattern, Klebsiella, Nitrofurantion, Morbidity ...

  15. Safety of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Carotid Endarterectomy for Prevention of Restenosis: A Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Miguel A; Chang, José; Hernández, Alvaro; Martínez, Emmanuel; Fernández, Huberth; Quirós, Gerardo; Salazar, Johanna; Ramos-Esquivel, Allan; Maud, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of recurrent carotid stenosis after carotid endarterectomy varies from 1% to 37% with only 0-8% symptomatic restenosis. Safety of short-term (30 days) dual-antiplatelet therapy has not been established in this type of procedure. To investigate the safety of dual antiplatelet therapy after carotid endarterectomy to prevent restenosis. We retrospectively identified all the patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (symptomatic or asymptomatic) treated at our center between July 2010 and July 2013 according to local protocols. All patients received a dose of 100 mg of aspirin daily immediately after carotid endarterectomy, with subsequent 100 mg of aspirin daily for the rest of the study period, and some patients received 75 mg of Clopidogrel for 30 days starting immediately after surgical procedure (dual therapy group), assigned according to medical criteria. Duplex carotid ultrasound and clinical assessments were performed at 30 days and 1 year after the procedure. A total of 44 patients (71.2 ± 7.9 years old; 77.2% symptomatic) were analyzed; 35 of them with dual therapy (79.54%). At 30 days, two patients from the mono-therapy group developed restenosis (22.2%), compared to none in dual therapy group (p=0.04). At one year follow-up, only one patient from the dual group showed restenosis (p=0.10). No deaths, major bleeding or new strokes were reported in both groups. Short-term dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel after carotid endarterectomy might be associated with a lower incidence of restenosis. This observation must be validated in a prospective trial.

  16. Utility of USPIO-enhanced MR imaging to identify inflammation and the fibrous cap: A comparison of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.P.S. [University Department of Radiology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom); Tang, T.Y. [University Department of Radiology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom); Cambridge Vascular Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Trivedi, R.; Weerakkody, R.; U-King-Im, J. [University Department of Radiology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom); Gaunt, M.E.; Boyle, J.R. [Cambridge Vascular Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Li, Z.Y. [University Department of Radiology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom); Miller, S.R. [Biostatistics and Data Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Harlow (United Kingdom); Graves, M.J. [University Department of Radiology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom); Gillard, J.H. [University Department of Radiology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jhg21@cam.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Background and purpose: Inflammation is a risk factor the vulnerable atheromatous plaque. This can be detected in vivo on high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using a contrast agent, Sinerem{sup TM}, an ultra-small super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO). The aim of this study was to explore whether there is a difference in the degree of MR defined inflammation using USPIO particles, between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid plaques. We report further on its T{sub 1} effect of enhancing the fibrous cap, which may allow dual contrast resolution of carotid atheroma. Methods: Twenty patients with carotid stenosis (10 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic) underwent multi-sequence MR imaging before and 36 h post-USPIO infusion. Images were manually segmented into quadrants and signal change in each quadrant was calculated following USPIO administration. Mean signal change across all quadrants were compared between the two groups. Results: Symptomatic patients had significantly more quadrants with a signal drop than asymptomatic individuals (75% vs. 32%, p < 0.01). Asymptomatic plaques had more quadrants with signal enhancement than symptomatic ones (68% vs. 25%, p < 0.05); their mean signal change was also higher (46% vs. 15%, p < 0.01) and this appeared to correlate with a thicker fibrous cap on histology. Conclusions: Symptomatic patients had more quadrants with signal drop suggesting larger inflammatory infiltrates. Asymptomatic individuals showed significantly more enhancement possibly suggesting greater stability as a result of thicker fibrous caps. However, some asymptomatic plaques also had focal areas of signal drop, suggesting an occult macrophage burden. If validated by larger studies, USPIO may be a useful dual contrast agent able to improve risk stratification of patients with carotid stenosis and inform selection for intervention.

  17. A systematic review of outcomes in patients with staged carotid artery stenting and coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Luis A; Costa, Marco A; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Zenni, Martin; Wludyka, Peter; Silliman, Scott; Bass, Theodore A

    2008-02-01

    Although current guidelines state that carotid endarterectomy is probably recommended before or concomitant to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with carotid stenosis, significant controversies to this recommendation still persist. Carotid artery stenting has been recently introduced as an alternative revascularization modality in high-risk patients. The aim of this study was to define, based on the published information, if carotid artery stenting is beneficial in this setting. A search of MEDLINE and a manual search of the literature from selected articles were performed. A total of 6 studies with 277 patients reporting carotid stenting followed by staged CABG were available for this clinical outcome analysis. All were retrospective and single-center studies. The mean age was 69 years; 78% were males. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis was present in 76% of patients. The mean time to CABG was 32 days. The incidence of stroke and death associated with the stent procedure was 4.7%. Only 6 patients (2.2%) developed stroke associated with CABG. The overall combined 30-day event rate after CABG, including all events during carotid artery stenting, were as follows: minor stroke, 2.9%; major stroke, 3.2%; mortality, 7.6%; and combined death and any stroke, 12.3%. In this pooled analysis, the combined incidence of death and stroke in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting and staged CABG remains elevated. These results confirm that the presence of carotid stenosis is per se a marker of risk that might persists independent of its treatment. A systematic or randomized evaluation appears warranted.

  18. Pre-operative Carotid Plaque Echolucency Assessment has no Predictive Value for Long-Term Risk of Stroke or Cardiovascular Death in Patients Undergoing Carotid Endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, D; de Borst, G J; Bulbulia, R; Pan, H; Halliday, A

    2017-08-01

    In patients with carotid stenosis receiving medical treatment, carotid plaque echolucency has been thought to predict risk of future stroke and of other cardiovascular events. This study evaluated the prognostic value of pre-operative plaque echolucency for future stroke and cardiovascular death in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy in the first Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST-1). In ACST-1, 1832/3120 patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA), of whom 894 had visual echolucency assessment according to the Gray-Weale classification. During follow-up patients were monitored both for peri-procedural (i.e. within 30 days) death, stroke, or MI, and for long-term risk of stroke or cardiovascular death. Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation was used to calculate odds ratios of peri-procedural risk and Kaplan-Meier statistics with log-rank test were used to compare cumulative long-term risks. Of 894 operated patients in whom echolucency was assessed, 458 plaques (51%) were rated as echolucent and peri-procedural risk of death/stroke/MI in these patients was non-significantly higher when compared with patients with non-echolucent plaques (OR 1.48 [95% CI 0.76-2.88], p = .241). No differences were found in the 10 year risk of any stroke (30/447 [11.6%] vs. 29/433 [11.0%], p = .900) or cardiovascular (non-stroke) death (85/447 [27.9%] vs. 93/433 [32.1%], p = .301). In ACST-1, carotid plaque echolucency assessment in patients undergoing CEA offered no predictive value with regard to peri-operative or long-term stroke risk or of cardiovascular (non-stroke) death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than

  20. Carotid artery stenting : a 2009 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, Clark J.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Geelkerken, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is is still considered the gold standard in the treatment of patients with significant carotid stenosis and has proven its value over the past decades. Endovascular techniques have evolved, and carotid artery stenting (CAS) is challenging CEA to become

  1. The Interaction Between Carotid Baroreceptor and Chemoreceptor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension and hypoxia often occur together in the clinical setting implying that the carotid baroreceptor and carotid chemoreceptors are affected simultaneously. This work was designed to study the effects of increased reflex sympathetic activity following carotid baroreceptor and chemoreceptor stimulation on reflex ...

  2. Carotid endarterectomy with regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, R E; Pikus, H J

    2001-09-01

    The senior author (REH) has changed his technique for performing carotid endarterectomy from the use of general anesthesia to the use of cervical block anesthesia. Because a randomized study was not performed, it is difficult to separate effects of increased surgical experience from those caused by a change in anesthetic regimen. Nonetheless, there has been a substantial decrease in complications, length of hospital stay, and costs concomitant with the change to regional anesthesia; we think there is a causal relationship. The use of cervical block anesthesia has practically eliminated the non-stroke-related complications associated with carotid endarterectomy in our practice. The technique for performing carotid endarterectomy under cervical block anesthesia is described in detail.

  3. Brain Oxygen Supply Parameters in the Risk Assessment of Cerebral Complications During Carotid Endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenskaya, Oksana V; Loginova, Irina Yu; Lomivorotov, Vladimir V

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether preoperative regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) and the decrease in rSO2 during carotid clamping were predictive of the risk for neurologic complications in carotid endarterectomy and to determine the cutoff values of the studied parameters. Cohort, prospective, nonrandomized trial. Research Institute of Circulation Pathology, Novosibirsk, Russia. The study comprised 466 adults who underwent carotid endarterectomy since 2012. None. Patient characteristics, postoperative complications, and brain oxygen supply during carotid endarterectomy were analyzed. The primary endpoints were the perioperative and early postoperative neurologic complications. Ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 1.5% of patients, and cognitive disorders were reported in 2.6% of patients. Preoperative rSO2 of 50% was the cutoff value for the prediction of stroke outcome after carotid endarterectomy, with a sensitivity of 90.7% and specificity of 66.7%. A 20% decrease in rSO2 during temporary carotid clamping was the cutoff value for the prediction of stroke, with a sensitivity of 86.0% and specificity of 57.1%, and for the prediction of cognitive disorders, with a sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 58.3%. Preoperative rSO2 less than 50% and a decrease in rSO2 of at least 20% during temporary carotid artery clamping caused a significant increase in the hospitalization period. A 20% or more decrease in rSO2 during temporary internal carotid artery clamping during carotid endarterectomy caused a 10-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke and an 8-fold increased risk of cognitive disorders, whereas preoperative rSO2 less than 50% resulted in a 6-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke in the perioperative and early postoperative periods of carotid endarterectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stroke/Death Rates Following Carotid Artery Stenting and Carotid Endarterectomy in Contemporary Administrative Dataset Registries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, K I; Kalmykov, E L; Naylor, A R

    2016-01-01

    Randomised trials have reported higher stroke/death rates after carotid artery stenting (CAS) versus carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Despite this, the 2011 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines expanded CAS indications, partly because of the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial, but also because of improving outcomes in industry sponsored CAS Registries. The aim of this systematic review was: (i) to compare stroke/death rates after CAS/CEA in contemporary dataset registries, (ii) to examine whether published stroke/death rates after CAS fall within AHA thresholds, and, (iii) to see if there had been a decline (over time) in procedural risk after CAS/CEA. PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched according to the recommendations of the PRISMA statement from January 1, 2008 until February 23, 2015 for administrative dataset registries reporting outcomes after both CEA and CAS. Twenty-one registries reported outcomes involving more than 1,500,000 procedures. Stroke/death after CAS was significantly higher than after CEA in 11/21 registries (52%) involving "average risk for CEA" asymptomatic patients and in 11/18 registries (61%) involving "average risk for CEA" symptomatic patients. In another five registries, CAS was associated with higher stroke/death rates than CEA for both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, but formal statistical comparison was not reported. CAS was associated with stroke/death rates that exceeded risk thresholds recommended by the AHA in 9/21 registries (43%) involving "average risk for CEA" asymptomatic patients and in 13/18 registries (72%) involving "average risk for CEA" symptomatic patients. In 5/18 registries (28%), the procedural risk after CAS in "average risk" symptomatic patients exceeded 10%. Data from contemporary administrative dataset registries suggest that stroke/death rates following CAS remain significantly higher than after CEA and often exceed accepted AHA

  5. Asymptomatic schwannoma of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of an asymptomatic right atrial mass detected on a screening ECHO. Pre-operative imaging and intraoperative frozen section suggested an atrial myxoma, but the extracardiac nature of the mass and its adherence to the right superior pulmonary vein and interatrial septum were inconsistent with this. Detailed histological assessment confirmed the diagnosis of atrial schwannoma. Limited case reports have shown complete resection is curative.

  6. Carotid cavernous fistula after elective carotid endarterectomy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Asser

    2014-12-01

    This is a case to illustrate a rare complication of carotid artery surgery. The patient had atherosclerotic vessel damage of ICA visible on earlier CT scans. This combined with abrupt increase of transmural pressure due to the revascularization procedure could possibly lead to arterial wall rupture and fistula formation.

  7. Targeted particle tracking in computational models of human carotid bifurcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ian

    2011-12-01

    A significant and largely unsolved problem of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow in anatomically relevant geometries is that very few calculated pathlines pass through regions of complex flow. This in turn limits the ability of CFD-based simulations of imaging techniques (such as MRI) to correctly predict in vivo performance. In this work, I present two methods designed to overcome this filling problem, firstly, by releasing additional particles from areas of the flow inlet that lead directly to the complex flow region ("preferential seeding") and, secondly, by tracking particles both "downstream" and "upstream" from seed points within the complex flow region itself. I use the human carotid bifurcation as an example of complex blood flow that is of great clinical interest. Both idealized and healthy volunteer geometries are investigated. With uniform seeding in the inlet plane (in the common carotid artery (CCA)) of an idealized bifurcation geometry, approximately half the particles passed through the internal carotid artery (ICA) and half through the external carotid artery. However, of those particles entering the ICA, only 16% passed directly through the carotid bulb region. Preferential seeding from selected regions of the CCA was able to increase this figure to 47%. In the second method, seeding of particles within the carotid bulb region itself led to a very high proportion (97%) of pathlines running from CCA to ICA. Seeding of particles in the bulb plane of three healthy volunteer carotid bifurcation geometries led to much better filling of the bulb regions than by particles seeded at the inlet alone. In all cases, visualization of the origin and behavior of recirculating particles led to useful insights into the complex flow patterns. Both seeding methods produced significant improvements in filling the carotid bulb region with particle tracks compared with uniform seeding at the inlet and led to an improved understanding of the complex

  8. Bayes Clustering and Structural Support Vector Machines for Segmentation of Carotid Artery Plaques in Multicontrast MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Guan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of carotid artery plaque in MR images is not only a key part but also an essential step for in vivo plaque analysis. Due to the indistinct MR images, it is very difficult to implement the automatic segmentation. Two kinds of classification models, that is, Bayes clustering and SSVM, are introduced in this paper to segment the internal lumen wall of carotid artery. The comparative experimental results show the segmentation performance of SSVM is better than Bayes.

  9. Direct Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistula: Angiographic Classification and Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cuong Tran; Nguyen, Dang; Duc, Vo Tan; Chau, Huynh Hong; Son, Vo Tan

    2014-01-01

    experienced sacrifice of the parent vessels and it was associated with sizes of the fistula. Total severe complication was about 2.4% which included 1 death (0.6%) due to vagal shock; 1 transient hemiparesis post-sacrifice occlusion of the carotid artery but the patient had recovered after 3 months; 1 acute thrombus embolism and the patient was completely saved with recombinant tissue plaminogen activator (rTPA); 1 balloon dislodgement then got stuck at the anterior communicating artery but the patient was asymptomatic. Endovascular intervention as the treatment of direct traumatic CCF had high cure rate and low complication with its ability to preserve the carotid artery. It also can supply flexible accesses to the fistulous site with various alternative embolic materials. The new classification of type A CCF based on angiographic features was helpful for planning for the embolization. Coil should be considered as the first embolic material for small size fistula meanwhile detachable balloons was suggested as the first-choice embolic agent for the medium and large size fistula. PMID:25207910

  10. Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg

    simulationer, som tillod beregning af longitudinelle stress-niveauer i den fibrøse kappe. Afhandlingen indeholder tre artikler, som beskriver denne metode. Den første; “Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques using MRI-Based Fluid Structure Interaction Models”, beskriver i detaljer metoden til at danne de...

  11. Does carotid intima-media thickness have relationship with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Allameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common reproductive endocrine disorder associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors and metabolic disturbances and a genetically heterogeneous disease. Intima-media thickness (IMT is an indicator of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to determine the relation between IMT and PCOS in women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 44 PCOS patients and 44 healthy women. Data collection included lipid profiles, blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, and common and internal IMT of carotid artery which were measured in studied subjects. IMT was measured by a radiologist using a linear 12 MHz ultrasound probe (LOGIC S6, GE in carotid setting. Results: IMT of common carotid artery (56.8 ΁ 7.6 in cases versus 49.8 ΁ 7.3 in controls, internal carotid artery (56.9 ΁ 6.03 in cases versus 49.6 ΁ 6.9 in controls, and both common and internal carotid artery (56.6 ΁ 6.7 in cases versus 49.7 ΁ 6.9 in controls were significantly higher in PCOS patients than healthy women (P < 0.001. Conclusions: In summary, results demonstrated that carotid artery thickness as a risk for premature atherosclerosis in patients with PCOS is higher than healthy subjects. And hence care and monitoring of PCOS women with these risk factors sounds to be important and necessary.

  12. Carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis on MR angiography: a university hospital-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Okada, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Kaiji [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Rarely in the anterior circulation, an anastomosis of the carotid and anterior cerebral arteries occurs when an anomalous branch arises from the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery and anastomoses with the A1-A2 junction of the anterior communicating artery. Right-side predominance is known. To our knowledge, the incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis has not been reported, so we researched cases in our institution records to determine incidence and investigated characteristic features of the condition on magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. To isolate such cases, we retrospectively reviewed cranial MR a