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Sample records for asymptomatic hiv-1 infection

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 RNA levels in asymptomatic patients with early stage chronic HIV-1 infection: support for the hypothesis of local virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, F; Niebla, G; Romeu, J; Vidal, C; Plana, M; Ortega, M; Ruiz, L; Gallart, T; Clotet, B; Miró, J M; Pumarola, T; Gatell, J M

    1999-08-20

    To assess HIV-1 RNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their potential correlation with plasma viral load and central nervous system (CNS) HIV-1 infection markers in stable asymptomatic patients with a CD4 T cell count >500x10(6) cells/l. Consecutive patients screened for two trials were eligible for lumbar puncture assessment. At day 0, simultaneous samples of CSF and plasma were obtained and levels of total proteins, albumin, IgG, antibodies against HIV-1 p24 antigen, HIV-1 RNA (using the polymerase chain technique) and white cells were measured. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier was preserved (albumin index > or =7) in 59 out of 70 patients (84%). Intrathecal production of antibodies against HIV-1 p24 antigen was demonstrated in 55 out of 70 individuals (78%). Viral load in CSF was significantly lower than plasma values (3.13+/-0.95 versus 4.53+/-0.53, P = 0.0001). HIV-1 RNA was not detected in CSF in only three of the 70 patients (4%). Overall, there was a significant correlation between plasma and CSF HIV-1 RNA levels (r = 0.43, P = 0.0001); however, in 29 patients (41%) there were significant differences (>1.5 log10 copies/ml) between the viral loads in plasma and CSF. In the multivariate analysis, a high level of protein and white cells in CSF, but not the HIV-1 RNA plasma level, were factors independently associated with a higher level of HIV-1 RNA in CSF (P = 0.0001). HIV-1 RNA can be detected almost always in CSF of asymptomatic patients in early stages of HIV-1 infection including those with a preserved integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The important discrepancies between plasma and CSF viral load, and the independent association between CSF abnormalities and CSF viral load, support the hypothesis of local production of HIV-1.

  2. Static and dynamic posturography in patients with asymptomatic HIV-1 infection and AIDS

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    Dellepiane, M; Medicina, MC; Mora, R; Salami, A

    2005-01-01

    Summary Alterations of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, optokinetic nystagmus, and visuo-vestibular-ocular reflex, have already been described in patients with AIDS and HIV-1 positive asymptomatic subjects. The introduction to the clinical practice of posturographic techniques allows us to study, with precision, postural perturbation that may be present when performing Romberg’s test and to study the vestibulo-spinal reflex as a component of the vestibular system. The relative lack of studies on posturography and AIDS, encouraged us to continue our research on the vestibular system both in asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositive patients and in patients with AIDS (IV stage according to the classification proposed by the Centre for Disease Control). Recordings were made in group 1 (control group, 55 normal subjects), in group 2 (15 asymptomatic HIV-positive subjects), and in group 3 (15 patients with AIDS stage IV). Static and dynamic posturography were carried out using Tonnies platform system (Tonnies GmbH & Co., Wurzburg, Germany) and the data were analysed with Tonnies Posturographic Tübingen (TPOST) software vers. 5.19. In asymptomatic HIV+ subjects, we observed an increase in RW, RA and M3 reflex latency. AIDS patients (stage IV) exhibited significant alterations in almost all the posturographic parameters and the electromyographic potentials. Our results validate static and dynamic posturography as a method for otoneurological investigation and appear to confirm that the entire vestibular system is involved since the earliest stages of the HIV infection. In the HIV+ subjects, a variable dysfunction in the reflex control to long latency was observed, which is correlated with the alteration of the central dopaminergic system; in AIDS patients, the central nervous system damage appears more important, globally distributed and correlated also with immunosuppression. PMID:16749603

  3. Liver function tests in HIV-1 infected asymptomatic patients and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatic functions were assessed by serum assays of albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB), serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma – glutamyl transferase (GGT) in 51 HIV-1AIDS patients, 38 HIV-1 ...

  4. Neutralizing antibodies in slowly progressing HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Nielsen, C; Iversen, Johan

    1995-01-01

    Ten asymptomatic individuals who had experienced only limited CD4+ cell loss after prolonged infection with HIV-1 were studied. These individuals had a mean CD4+ cell count of 674 x 10(6) cells/L and a mean duration of infection of 8.5 years. Also included were 10 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected...

  5. Asymptomatic HIV infection

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  6. Increased sensitivity of CD4+ T-effector cells to CD4+CD25+ Treg suppression compensates for reduced Treg number in asymptomatic HIV-1 infection.

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    Georgina Thorborn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In HIV infection, uncontrolled immune activation and disease progression is attributed to declining CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cell (Treg numbers. However, qualitative aspects of Treg function in HIV infection, specifically the balance between Treg cell suppressive potency versus suppressibility of effector cells, remain poorly understood. This report addresses this issue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A classic suppression assay to measure CD4+CD45RO+CD25hi Treg cells to suppress the proliferation of CD4+CD45RO+CD25- effectors cells (E following CD3/CD28 polyclonal stimulation was employed to compare the suppressive ability of healthy volunteers (N = 27 and chronic, asymptomatic, treatment naïve, HIV-infected subjects (N = 14. HIV-infected subjects displayed significantly elevated Treg-mediated suppression compared to healthy volunteers (p = 0.0047. Cross-over studies comparing Treg cell potency from HIV-infected versus control subjects to suppress the proliferation of a given population of allogeneic effector cells demonstrated increased sensitivity of CD4+CD25- effector cells from HIV-infected subjects to be suppressed, associated with reduced production of the Treg counter-regulatory cytokine, IL-17, rather than an increase in the suppressive potential of their CD4+CD25+ Treg cells. However, compared to controls, HIV+ subjects had significantly fewer absolute numbers of circulating CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells. In vitro studies highlighted that one mechanism for this loss could be the preferential infection of Treg cells by HIV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, novel data is provided to support the contention that elevated Treg-mediated suppression may be a natural host response to HIV infection.

  7. T cell dynamics in HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, D.R.; Boer, R.J. de; Wolthers, K.C.; Miedema, F.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of HIV-1 infection is CD4⁺ T cell depletion. This statement is widely used in papers on HIV-1 research; however, while true, it is deceptively simplistic in that it fails to describe what is actually a complex change in the representation of T cell

  8. Inhibiting sexual transmission of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Robin J; Moore, John P

    2003-10-01

    The worldwide infection rate for HIV-1 is estimated to be 14,000 per day, but only now, more than 20 years into the epidemic, are the immediate events between exposure to infectious virus and the establishment of infection becoming clear. Defining the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission, the target cells involved and how the virus attaches to and fuses with these cells, could reveal ways to block the sexual spread of the virus. In this review, we will discuss how our increasing knowledge of the ways in which HIV-1 is transmitted is shaping the development of new, more sophisticated intervention strategies based on the application of vaginal or rectal microbicides.

  9. Prospective Memory in HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    CAREY, CATHERINE L.; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; RIPPETH, JULIE D.; HEATON, ROBERT K.; GRANT, IGOR

    2006-01-01

    The cognitive deficits associated with HIV-1 infection are thought to primarily reflect neuropathophysiology within the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. Prospective memory (ProM) is a cognitive function that is largely dependent on prefronto-striatal circuits, but has not previously been examined in an HIV-1 sample. A form of episodic memory, ProM involves the complex processes of forming, monitoring, and executing future intentions vis-à-vis ongoing distractions. The current study e...

  10. Prospective memory in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Catherine L; Woods, Steven Paul; Rippeth, Julie D; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2006-05-01

    The cognitive deficits associated with HIV-1 infection are thought to primarily reflect neuropathophysiology within the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. Prospective memory (ProM) is a cognitive function that is largely dependent on prefronto-striatal circuits, but has not previously been examined in an HIV-1 sample. A form of episodic memory, ProM involves the complex processes of forming, monitoring, and executing future intentions vis-à-vis ongoing distractions. The current study examined ProM in 42 participants with HIV-1 infection and 29 demographically similar seronegative healthy comparison (HC) subjects. The HIV-1 sample demonstrated deficits in time- and event-based ProM, as well as more frequent 24-hour delay ProM failures and task substitution errors relative to the HC group. In contrast, there were no significant differences in recognition performance, indicating that the HIV-1 group was able to accurately retain and recognize the ProM intention when retrieval demands were minimized. Secondary analyses revealed that ProM performance correlated with validated clinical measures of executive functions, episodic memory (free recall), and verbal working memory, but not with tests of semantic memory, retention, or recognition discrimination. Taken together, these findings indicate that HIV-1 infection is associated with ProM impairment that is primarily driven by a breakdown in the strategic (i.e., executive) aspects of retrieving future intentions, which is consistent with a prefronto-striatal circuit neuropathogenesis.

  11. Infected cell killing by HIV-1 protease promotes NF-kappaB dependent HIV-1 replication.

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    Gary D Bren

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells often results in apoptotic death of infected cells, yet it is unclear what evolutionary advantage this offers to HIV-1. Given the independent observations that acute T cell HIV-1 infection results in (1 NF-kappaB activation, (2 caspase 8 dependent apoptosis, and that (3 caspase 8 directly activates NF-kappaB, we questioned whether these three events might be interrelated. We first show that HIV-1 infected T cell apoptosis, NF-kappaB activation, and caspase 8 cleavage by HIV-1 protease are coincident. Next we show that HIV-1 protease not only cleaves procaspase 8, producing Casp8p41, but also independently stimulates NF-kappaB activity. Finally, we demonstrate that the HIV protease cleavage of caspase 8 is necessary for optimal NF-kappaB activation and that the HIV-1 protease specific cleavage fragment Casp8p41 is sufficient to stimulate HIV-1 replication through NF-kappaB dependent HIV-LTR activation both in vitro as well as in cells from HIV infected donors. Consequently, the molecular events which promote death of HIV-1 infected T cells function dually to promote HIV-1 replication, thereby favoring the propagation and survival of HIV-1.

  12. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

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    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  13. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

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    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  14. Innate immune sensing of HIV-1 infection.

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    Jakobsen, Martin R; Olagnier, David; Hiscott, John

    2015-03-01

    The innate immune system plays a critical role in the control of viral infections. Although the mechanisms involved in sensing and response to viral pathogens has progressed tremendously in the last decade, an understanding of the innate antiviral response to human retroviruses lagged behind. Recent studies now demonstrate that human retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) trigger a type I interferon antiviral response through novel cytosolic sensors that detect DNA intermediates of reverse transcription; in addition, these early host-pathogen interactions may trigger cell death pathways depending on the activation state of the target cell. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the understanding of innate immune sensing of human retroviruses. Innate immune sensing of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 is influenced by the target cell phenotype, viral replicative intermediates, and host restriction factors that limit retroviral replication. Macrophages and dendritic cells detect HIV-DNA intermediates, whereas CD4 T cells differentially sense HIV DNA depending on the level of T-cell activation. Furthermore, the structure of the viral capsid and interplay between innate DNA sensors and host restriction factors all contribute to the magnitude of the ensuing innate immune response. The interplay between HIV infection and the innate immune system has emerged as an important component of HIV pathogenesis, linked to both induction of innate immunity and stimulation of cell death mechanisms. Ultimately, an in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of innate immune control of human retrovirus infection may facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies to control retrovirus-induced immunopathology.

  15. A macaque model of HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Ambrose, Zandrea; Chung, Nancy P. Y.; Piatak, Michael; Yuan, Fang; Trubey, Charles M.; Coalter, Vicky; Kiser, Rebecca; Schneider, Doug; Smedley, Jeremy; Pung, Rhonda; Gathuka, Mercy; Estes, Jacob D.; Veazey, Ronald S.; KewalRamani, Vineet N.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of a primate model that utilizes HIV-1 as the challenge virus is an impediment to AIDS research; existing models generally employ simian viruses that are divergent from HIV-1, reducing their usefulness in preclinical investigations. Based on an understanding of species-specific variation in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiretroviral genes, we constructed simian-tropic (st)HIV-1 strains that differ from HIV-1 only in the vif gene. We demonstrate that such minimally modified stHIV-1 stra...

  16. HIV-1 vaccine induced immune responses in newborns of HIV-1 infected mothers.

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    McFarland, Elizabeth J; Johnson, Daniel C; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Tomaras, Georgia D; McNamara, James; Read, Jennifer S; Douglas, Steven D; Deville, Jaime; Gurwith, Marc; Gurunathan, Sanjay; Lambert, John S

    2006-07-13

    Breast milk transmission continues to account for a large proportion of cases of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 worldwide. An effective HIV-1 vaccine coupled with either passive immunization or short-term antiretroviral prophylaxis represents a potential strategy to prevent breast milk transmission. This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of ALVAC HIV-1 vaccine with and without a subunit envelope boost in infants born to HIV-1-infected women. : Placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. Infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers in the US were immunized with a prime-boost regimen using a canarypox virus HIV-1 vaccine (vCP1452) and a recombinant glycoprotein subunit vaccine (rgp120). Infants (n = 30) were randomized to receive: vCP1452 alone, vCP1452 + rgp120, or corresponding placebos. Local reactions were mild or moderate and no significant systemic toxicities occurred. Subjects receiving both vaccines had gp120-specific binding serum antibodies that were distinguishable from maternal antibody. Repeated gp160-specific lymphoproliferative responses were observed in 75%. Neutralizing activity to HIV-1 homologous to the vaccine strain was observed in 50% of the vCP1452 + rgp120 subjects who had lost maternal antibody by week 24. In some infants HIV-1-specific proliferative and antibody responses persisted until week 104. HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were detected in two subjects in each treatment group; the frequency of HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses did not differ between vaccine and placebo recipients. The demonstration of vaccine-induced immune responses in early infancy supports further study of HIV-1 vaccination as a strategy to reduce breast milk transmission.

  17. Chronic HIV-1 infection frequently fails to protect against superinfection.

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    Anne Piantadosi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Reports of HIV-1 superinfection (re-infection have demonstrated that the immune response generated against one strain of HIV-1 does not always protect against other strains. However, studies to determine the incidence of HIV-1 superinfection have yielded conflicting results. Furthermore, few studies have attempted to identify superinfection cases occurring more than a year after initial infection, a time when HIV-1-specific immune responses would be most likely to have developed. We screened a cohort of high-risk Kenyan women for HIV-1 superinfection by comparing partial gag and envelope sequences over a 5-y period beginning at primary infection. Among 36 individuals, we detected seven cases of superinfection, including cases in which both viruses belonged to the same HIV-1 subtype, subtype A. In five of these cases, the superinfecting strain was detected in only one of the two genome regions examined, suggesting that recombination frequently occurs following HIV-1 superinfection. In addition, we found that superinfection occurred throughout the course of the first infection: during acute infection in two cases, between 1-2 y after infection in three cases, and as late as 5 y after infection in two cases. Our results indicate that superinfection commonly occurs after the immune response against the initial infection has had time to develop and mature. Implications from HIV-1 superinfection cases, in which natural re-exposure leads to re-infection, will need to be considered in developing strategies for eliciting protective immunity to HIV-1.

  18. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules.

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    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This "shock" approach is then followed by "kill" of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells.

  19. Vaginalmycosis and HIV-1 infection in Kaduna, Nigeria. | Eni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal mycosis and HIV-1 infection are common health problems in females. These infections cause high mortality, morbidity and reproductive health disorders in females. The study is to investigate to what extent these infections are prevalent in this centre. 300 non- pregnant females who tested positive with HIV-1 ...

  20. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL...... syphilis.IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels correlated positively with plasma HIV RNA values at the time of diagnosis (r = 0.38, P = 0.023, and r = 0.64, P HIV-1 and early...... infection to 46.7 pg/mL (IQR, 28.4-78.9) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.027) and decreased to 13.0 pg/mL (IQR, 6.2-19.4) after treatment of syphilis (P

  1. Identification of Acute HIV-1 Infection by Hologic Aptima HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay

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    Eller, Leigh Anne; Malia, Jennifer; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Oundo, Joseph; Lueer, Cornelia; Cham, Fatim; de Souza, Mark; Michael, Nelson L.; Robb, Merlin L.; Peel, Sheila A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Qualitative RNA assay was used in a rigorous screening approach designed to identify individuals at the earliest stage of HIV-1 infection for enrollment into subsequent studies of cellular and viral events in early infection (RV 217/Early Capture HIV Cohort [ECHO] study). Volunteers at high risk for HIV-1 infection were recruited from study sites in Thailand, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya with high HIV-1 prevalence rates among the populations examined. Small-volume blood samples were collected by finger stick at twice-weekly intervals and tested with the Aptima assay. Participants with reactive Aptima test results were contacted immediately for entry into a more comprehensive follow-up schedule with frequent blood draws. Evaluation of the Aptima test prior to use in this study showed a detection sensitivity of 5.5 copies/ml (50%), with all major HIV-1 subtypes detected. A total of 54,306 specimens from 1,112 volunteers were examined during the initial study period (August 2009 to November 2010); 27 individuals were identified as converting from uninfected to infected status. A sporadic reactive Aptima signal was observed in HIV-1-infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy. Occasional false-reactive Aptima results in uninfected individuals, or nonreactive results in HIV-1-infected individuals not on therapy, were observed and used to calculate assay sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity and specificity of the Aptima assay were 99.03% and 99.23%, respectively; positive and negative predictive values were 92.01% and 99.91%, respectively. Conversion from HIV-1-uninfected to -infected status was rapid, with no evidence of a prolonged period of intermittent low-level viremia. PMID:28424253

  2. Astrocytes Resist HIV-1 Fusion but Engulf Infected Macrophage Material

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    Rebecca A. Russell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues and establishes long-lived viral reservoirs. These reservoirs include the CNS, in which macrophage-lineage cells, and as suggested by many studies, astrocytes, may be infected. Here, we have investigated astrocyte infection by HIV-1. We confirm that astrocytes trap and internalize HIV-1 particles for subsequent release but find no evidence that these particles infect the cell. Astrocyte infection was not observed by cell-free or cell-to-cell routes using diverse approaches, including luciferase and GFP reporter viruses, fixed and live-cell fusion assays, multispectral flow cytometry, and super-resolution imaging. By contrast, we observed intimate interactions between HIV-1-infected macrophages and astrocytes leading to signals that might be mistaken for astrocyte infection using less stringent approaches. These results have implications for HIV-1 infection of the CNS, viral reservoir formation, and antiretroviral therapy.

  3. Endometrial Histopathology in Patients with Laparoscopic Proven Salpingitis and HIV-1 Infection

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    Nelly R. Mugo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective. To identify sensitive and specific histological criteria for endometritis in women with laparoscopically-confirmed acute salpingitis. Methods. Women, age 18–40 years of age presenting with complaints of lower abdominal pain ≤2 weeks and no antibiotics use in past two weeks, were enrolled. They underwent clinical examination, screening for HIV; other sexually transmitted infections plus endometrial biopsy sampling for histopathology. Diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of acute salpingitis. Controls were women undergoing tubal ligation and HIV-1 infected women asymptomatic for genital tract infection. Results. Of 125 women with laparoscopically-confirmed salpingitis, 38% were HIV-1 seropositive. Nineteen HIV-1 negative controls were recruited. For the diagnosis of endometritis, ≥1 plasma cells (PC and ≥3 polymorphonuclear lymphocytes (PMN per HPF in the endometrium had a sensitivity of 74% for HIV-1-seropositive, 63% for HIV-1-seronegative women with a specificity of 75% and positive predictive value of 85% regardless of HIV-1-infection for predicting moderate to severe salpingitis. For HIV-1-seronegative women with mild salpingitis, ≥1 PC and ≥3 PMN had a sensitivity of 16% and a PPV of 57%. Conclusion. Endometrial histology, did not perform well as a surrogate marker for moderate to severe salpingitis, and failed as a surrogate marker for mild salpingitis.

  4. Modeling Anti-HIV-1 HSPC-Based Gene Therapy in Humanized Mice Previously Infected with HIV-1.

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    Khamaikawin, Wannisa; Shimizu, Saki; Kamata, Masakazu; Cortado, Ruth; Jung, Yujin; Lam, Jennifer; Wen, Jing; Kim, Patrick; Xie, Yiming; Kim, Sanggu; Arokium, Hubert; Presson, Angela P; Chen, Irvin S Y; An, Dong Sung

    2018-06-15

    Investigations of anti-HIV-1 human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC)-based gene therapy have been performed by HIV-1 challenge after the engraftment of gene-modified HSPCs in humanized mouse models. However, the clinical application of gene therapy is to treat HIV-1-infected patients. Here, we developed a new method to investigate an anti-HIV-1 HSPC-based gene therapy in humanized mice previously infected with HIV-1. First, humanized mice were infected with HIV-1. When plasma viremia reached >107 copies/mL 3 weeks after HIV-1 infection, the mice were myeloablated with busulfan and transplanted with anti-HIV-1 gene-modified CD34+ HSPCs transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing two short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against CCR5 and HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), along with human thymus tissue under the kidney capsule. Anti-HIV-1 vector-modified human CD34+ HSPCs successfully repopulated peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues in HIV-1 previously infected humanized mice. Anti-HIV-1 shRNA vector-modified CD4+ T lymphocytes showed selective advantage in HIV-1 previously infected humanized mice. This new method will be useful for investigations of anti-HIV-1 gene therapy when testing in a more clinically relevant experimental setting.

  5. Clinical research in HIV-1 infected children

    OpenAIRE

    Fraaij, Pieter

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAcquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was described for the first time in 1981. Two years later the previously unknown human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was identified as the causative agent. HIV has been included in the genus Lent/viruses of the Retroviridae family. Two types are recognized: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Of these, HIV-1 is the primary etiologic agent of the current pandemic. HIV probably originates from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) which is endemic in African mon...

  6. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia

    2005-01-01

    Stunted development and reduced fecundity of Schistosoma parasites in immunodeficient mice and the impaired ability of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans to excrete schistosome eggs have been described. This study explores the effect that HIV-1-associated immunodeficiency has ...

  7. The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils during HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mahmoud Mohammad; Abuharfeil, Nizar Mohammad; Yaseen, Mohammad Mahmoud; Shabsoug, Barakat Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    It is well-recognized that human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mainly targets CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Nonetheless, during the past three decades, a huge number of studies have reported that HIV-1 can directly or indirectly target other cellular components of the immune system including CD8+ T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), among others. PMNs are the most abundant leukocytes in the human circulation, and are known to play principal roles in the elimination of invading pathogens, regulating different immune responses, healing of injured tissues, and maintaining mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, little was known about the impact of HIV-1 infection on PMNs as well as the impact of PMNs on HIV-1 disease progression. This is because early studies focused on neutropenia and recurrent microbial infections, particularly, during advanced disease. However, recent studies have extended the investigation area to cover new aspects of the interactions between HIV-1 and PMNs. This review aims to summarize these advances and address the impact of HIV-1 infection on PMNs as well as the impact of PMNs on HIV-1 disease progression to better understand the pathophysiology of HIV-1 infection.

  8. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Guthrie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI.Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01.Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  9. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia H Swartz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 38 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent anti-retroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are known to mediate inflammation and have been shown to be required for HIV-1 infection at the level of HIV-1 membrane fusion. Here we review the literature on the role of purinergic receptors in HIV-1 infection and associated inflammation and describe a role for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  10. Sex and gender differences in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbeck, Morgane; Scully, Eileen; Altfeld, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    The major burden of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) type 1 pandemic is nowadays carried by women from sub-Saharan Africa. Differences in the manifestations of HIV-1 infection between women and men have been long reported, and might be due to both socio-economic (gender) and biological (sex) factors. Several studies have shown that women are more susceptible to HIV-1 acquisition than men. Following HIV-1 infection, women have lower viral loads during acute infection and exhibit stronger antiviral responses than men, which may contribute to differences in the size of viral reservoirs. Oestrogen receptor signalling could represent an important mediator of sex differences in HIV-1 reservoir size and may represent a potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, immune activation, a hallmark of HIV-1 infection, is generally higher in women than in men and could be a central mechanism in the sex difference observed in the speed of HIV-1 disease progression. Here, we review the literature regarding sex-based differences in HIV-1 infection and discuss how a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms could improve preventive and therapeutic strategies. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Brain magnetic resonance imaging screening is not useful for HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Teruya, Katsuji; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Oka, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the diagnostic usefulness of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms in detecting intracranial diseases at early stages. In this retrospective analysis, the study patients were HIV-1-infected patients who underwent brain MRI scan in clinical practice between 2001 and 2013. We excluded patients with MRI for (1) follow-up examination for prediagnosed intracranial diseases, (2) cancer staging, (3) screening mycobacterium/bacteria/fungi disease proliferation in the brain, and (4) evaluation for meningitis/encephalitis. The study patients (n=485) were classified into two groups: those who underwent brain MRI scan without any neurological symptoms/signs (asymptomatic patients, n=158) and those who underwent MRI due to such symptoms (symptomatic patients, n=327). Asymptomatic patients had lower CD4 counts than symptomatic patients (median 78 versus 241/μl). Intracranial diseases were detected in three (2%) of the asymptomatic patients [two toxoplasmosis and one progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)] compared to 58 (19%) of the symptomatic patients (the χ(2) test, pMRI screening for HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms is of little value.

  12. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera...... on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...

  13. Inhibition of HIV-1 lentiviral particles infectivity by Gynostemma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... infections with claims of efficacy against HIV-1 infections were screened. These claims motivated the study in which the inhibition of viral vector infectivity of HeLa cells was assessed flow cytometrically by measuring the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene incorporated in the lentiviral.

  14. Trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells fosters both HIV-1 trans-infection in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes and reactivation of the HIV-1 reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzini, Chiara; Arenaccio, Claudia; Olivetta, Eleonora; Anticoli, Simona; Manfredi, Francesco; Ferrantelli, Flavia; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Schietroma, Ivan; Andreotti, Mauro; Federico, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    Intact HIV-1 and exosomes can be internalized by dendritic cells (DCs) through a common pathway leading to their transmission to CD4+ T lymphocytes by means of mechanisms defined as trans-infection and trans-dissemination, respectively. We previously reported that exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells activate both uninfected quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes, which become permissive to HIV-1, and latently infected cells, with release of HIV-1 particles. However, nothing is known about the effects of trans-dissemination of exosomes produced by HIV-1-infected cells on uninfected or latently HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes. Here, we report that trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells induces cell activation in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, which appears stronger with mature than immature DCs. Using purified preparations of both HIV-1 and exosomes, we observed that mDC-mediated trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells to resting CD4+ T lymphocytes induces efficient trans-infection and HIV-1 expression in target cells. Most relevant, when both mDCs and CD4+ T lymphocytes were isolated from combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-1-infected patients, trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells led to HIV-1 reactivation from the viral reservoir. In sum, our data suggest a role of exosome trans-dissemination in both HIV-1 spread in the infected host and reactivation of the HIV-1 reservoir.

  15. Evaluation of Xpert HIV-1 Qual assay for resolution of HIV-1 infection in samples with negative or indeterminate Geenius HIV-1/2 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, Michal; Wax, Marina; Gozlan, Yael; Rakovsky, Aviya; Mendelson, Ella; Mor, Orna

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of HIV infection is a multistage algorithm. Following screening with 4(th) generation combination immunoassay, confirmation of HIV infection is performed with an antibody assay that differentiates HIV-1 from HIV-2 infection. In the newly updated algorithm, samples that are nonreactive or indeterminate in the differentiation assay are to be tested with an HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) test for resolution. Xpert HIV-1 Qual is a new NAAT assay approved for the identification of HIV infection in whole and dried blood. To assess the performance of Xpert HIV-1 Qual supplementary assay in resolving the clinical status of serum samples reactive by 4(th) generation immunoassays and indeterminate or negative by Geenius HIV-1/2 confirmatory assay. In a retrospective study, samples from 97 individuals for whom the true HIV-1 status was already known (by follow-up samples) and which were negative or indeterminate by HIV-1/2 Geenius assay were tested with Xpert Qual HIV-1 assay. Xpert Qual assay correctly classified all 97 samples from HIV-1 positive (n=49) and negative (n=48) individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert Qual when using the true HIV status as a reference were 100% (92.7-100% at 95% confidence interval [CI] and 92.6-100% at 95% CI, respectively). Applying Xpert Qual HIV-1 assay in the new HIV multi-stage diagnostic algorithm correctly classified 100% of HIV-1 infections including 49 from HIV-1 carriers who have not yet seroconverted. With this assay the total time required for acute HIV diagnosis could be significantly reduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired production of cytokines is an independent predictor of mortality in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Gerstoft, Jan; Pedersen, Bente K

    2003-01-01

    With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients.......With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients....

  17. Assessment of recent HIV-1 infection by a line immunoassay for HIV-1/2 confirmation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schüpbach

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the number of recent HIV infections is important for epidemiologic surveillance. Over the past decade approaches have been developed to estimate this number by testing HIV-seropositive specimens with assays that discriminate the lower concentration and avidity of HIV antibodies in early infection. We have investigated whether this "recency" information can also be gained from an HIV confirmatory assay. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The ability of a line immunoassay (INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score, Innogenetics to distinguish recent from older HIV-1 infection was evaluated in comparison with the Calypte HIV-1 BED Incidence enzyme immunoassay (BED-EIA. Both tests were conducted prospectively in all HIV infections newly diagnosed in Switzerland from July 2005 to June 2006. Clinical and laboratory information indicative of recent or older infection was obtained from physicians at the time of HIV diagnosis and used as the reference standard. BED-EIA and various recency algorithms utilizing the antibody reaction to INNO-LIA's five HIV-1 antigen bands were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. A total of 765 HIV-1 infections, 748 (97.8% with complete test results, were newly diagnosed during the study. A negative or indeterminate HIV antibody assay at diagnosis, symptoms of primary HIV infection, or a negative HIV test during the past 12 mo classified 195 infections (26.1% as recent (< or = 12 mo. Symptoms of CDC stages B or C classified 161 infections as older (21.5%, and 392 patients with no symptoms remained unclassified. BED-EIA ruled 65% of the 195 recent infections as recent and 80% of the 161 older infections as older. Two INNO-LIA algorithms showed 50% and 40% sensitivity combined with 95% and 99% specificity, respectively. Estimation of recent infection in the entire study population, based on actual results of the three tests and adjusted for a test's sensitivity and specificity, yielded 37% for BED-EIA compared to 35% and 33

  18. Assessment of recent HIV-1 infection by a line immunoassay for HIV-1/2 confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüpbach, Jörg; Gebhardt, Martin D; Tomasik, Zuzana; Niederhauser, Christoph; Yerly, Sabine; Bürgisser, Philippe; Matter, Lukas; Gorgievski, Meri; Dubs, Rolf; Schultze, Detlev; Steffen, Ingrid; Andreutti, Corinne; Martinetti, Gladys; Güntert, Bruno; Staub, Roger; Daneel, Synove; Vernazza, Pietro

    2007-12-01

    Knowledge of the number of recent HIV infections is important for epidemiologic surveillance. Over the past decade approaches have been developed to estimate this number by testing HIV-seropositive specimens with assays that discriminate the lower concentration and avidity of HIV antibodies in early infection. We have investigated whether this "recency" information can also be gained from an HIV confirmatory assay. The ability of a line immunoassay (INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score, Innogenetics) to distinguish recent from older HIV-1 infection was evaluated in comparison with the Calypte HIV-1 BED Incidence enzyme immunoassay (BED-EIA). Both tests were conducted prospectively in all HIV infections newly diagnosed in Switzerland from July 2005 to June 2006. Clinical and laboratory information indicative of recent or older infection was obtained from physicians at the time of HIV diagnosis and used as the reference standard. BED-EIA and various recency algorithms utilizing the antibody reaction to INNO-LIA's five HIV-1 antigen bands were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. A total of 765 HIV-1 infections, 748 (97.8%) with complete test results, were newly diagnosed during the study. A negative or indeterminate HIV antibody assay at diagnosis, symptoms of primary HIV infection, or a negative HIV test during the past 12 mo classified 195 infections (26.1%) as recent (EIA ruled 65% of the 195 recent infections as recent and 80% of the 161 older infections as older. Two INNO-LIA algorithms showed 50% and 40% sensitivity combined with 95% and 99% specificity, respectively. Estimation of recent infection in the entire study population, based on actual results of the three tests and adjusted for a test's sensitivity and specificity, yielded 37% for BED-EIA compared to 35% and 33% for the two INNO-LIA algorithms. Window-based estimation with BED-EIA yielded 41% (95% confidence interval 36%-46%). Recency information can be extracted from INNO-LIA-based confirmatory testing at

  19. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera...... on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...... to CD4 and that post binding events may be common to the infection of lymphocytes. Anti HIV-1 sera showed neutralizing activity against heterologous and even autologous escape virus. This finding, together with the observation that monocytes and M phi s are infected in vivo, suggests that protection...

  20. Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period in Tanzania, Zambia, and Botswana. National HIV prevention programs in Tanzania, Zambia, and Botswana must effectively address the infection rate among childbearing women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  1. Epidermal Langerhans cells, HIV-1 infection and psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemelman, V; Van Neer, F; Roberts, N; Patel, P; Langtry, J; Staughton, R C

    1994-03-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) subserve an important antigen-presenting function in the skin immune system. They bear CD4 receptors, which make them potential targets for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The observation of reduced numbers of LCs in the skin of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the association of severe psoriasis with HIV-1 infection, raise interesting questions regarding the role of LCs in the skin of HIV-1-positive psoriatic patients. In this study, LCs were quantified in the lesional and non-lesional skin of seven HIV-1-positive psoriatic patients, and the results were compared with age-, sex- and site-matched HIV-1-negative psoriatic patients. The number of LCs was determined by staining skin sections with S-100 polyclonal antibody, using the three-step avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method. The S-100-positive cells above the basal layer were quantified in two ways: cells/mm2 of epidermal area, and cells/mm of length of basement membrane. HIV-1-positive psoriatic patients showed a reduction in the number of epidermal LCs compared with HIV-1-negative psoriatic patients using both methods of quantification, in both lesional and non-lesional skin (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney test). In addition, a reduction in the number of LCs in lesional compared with non-lesional skin was observed in both HIV-1-positive and -negative patients when LCs were quantified per mm2 of epidermal area (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon test).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Raltegravir cerebrospinal fluid concentrations in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Gisslén, Magnus; Spudich, Serena; Lee, Evelyn; Jayewardene, Anura; Aweeka, Francesca; Price, Richard W

    2009-09-01

    Raltegravir is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor currently used in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients resistant to other drug classes. In order to assess its central nervous system penetration, we measured raltegravir concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in subjects receiving antiretroviral treatment regimens containing this drug. Raltegravir concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 25 paired CSF and plasma samples from 16 HIV-1-infected individuals. The lower limit of quantitation was 2.0 ng/ml for CSF and 10 ng/ml for plasma. Twenty-four of the 25 CSF samples had detectable raltegravir concentrations with a median raltegravir concentration of 18.4 ng/ml (range, <2.0-126.0). The median plasma raltegravir concentration was 448 ng/ml (range, 37-5180). CSF raltegravir concentrations correlated with CSF:plasma albumin ratios and CSF albumin concentrations. Approximately 50% of the CSF specimens exceeded the IC(95) levels reported to inhibit HIV-1 strains without resistance to integrase inhibitors. In addition to contributing to control of systemic HIV-1 infection, raltegravir achieves local inhibitory concentrations in CSF in most, but not all, patients. Blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers likely restrict drug entry, while enhanced permeability of these barriers enhances drug entry.

  3. Raltegravir cerebrospinal fluid concentrations in HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yilmaz

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Raltegravir is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor currently used in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients resistant to other drug classes. In order to assess its central nervous system penetration, we measured raltegravir concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma in subjects receiving antiretroviral treatment regimens containing this drug. METHODS: Raltegravir concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 25 paired CSF and plasma samples from 16 HIV-1-infected individuals. The lower limit of quantitation was 2.0 ng/ml for CSF and 10 ng/ml for plasma. RESULTS: Twenty-four of the 25 CSF samples had detectable raltegravir concentrations with a median raltegravir concentration of 18.4 ng/ml (range, <2.0-126.0. The median plasma raltegravir concentration was 448 ng/ml (range, 37-5180. CSF raltegravir concentrations correlated with CSF:plasma albumin ratios and CSF albumin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 50% of the CSF specimens exceeded the IC(95 levels reported to inhibit HIV-1 strains without resistance to integrase inhibitors. In addition to contributing to control of systemic HIV-1 infection, raltegravir achieves local inhibitory concentrations in CSF in most, but not all, patients. Blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers likely restrict drug entry, while enhanced permeability of these barriers enhances drug entry.

  4. Flail arm-like syndrome associated with HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years′ duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ′flail arm-like syndrome.′ The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen.

  5. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this in......To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera...... on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...... after seroconversion lead to persistent infection with high level of antigen production in contrast to infection by homologous virus isolated later. MAb against the V3-IIIB loop and sCD4 inhibited the infection of monocyte/M phi s in a dose dependent manner, indicating that infection requires binding...

  6. [Hematological changes associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, T; Hasselbalch, H C

    1993-05-10

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primarily involves a subgroup of T-lymphocytic cells, but other cell types are also invaded by the virus, including cell lines within the haematopoietic system. Together with infectious, inflammatory and neoplasic processes, invasion of haematopoietic tissue explains the haematological alterations which are seen during the course of infection with HIV-1. Anaemia develops in the large proportion of patients. Thrombocytopenia frequently occurs during the course of the disease, but may be seen in some patients already at the time of diagnosis, where the condition may be misdiagnosed as "idiopathic" thrombocytopenic purpura. Neutropenia is seen in all disease stages, but is most severe in patients with advanced disease. Bone marrow changes include varying degrees of dysplasia in one or more cell lines, which in some patients may mimic a myelodysplastic syndrome. The number of plasma cells is always increased. In many patients the bone marrow stroma exhibits an increased amount of reticular fibres. HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma. Acute myelogenous leukaemia and myelomatosis have been described in patients with advanced disease. Treatment of the above mentioned haematological abnormalities aims primarily at reducing replication of HIV-1, thereby diminishing suppression of haematopoiesis by the virus infection, and at controlling the opportunistic infections during the course of the disease. Specific antiviral therapy (AZT) is most successful in correcting thrombocytopenia. The possibility of bone marrow suppression mediated by a toxic drug effect should always be considered in this patient group.

  7. Drug-induced reactivation of apoptosis abrogates HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut M Hanauske-Abel

    Full Text Available HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of

  8. Epidemiology of primary HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelgor, Linda; Kaldor, John

    2008-01-01

    To review recent studies reporting epidemiological and public health aspects of primary and recently acquired HIV infection, with a particular emphasis on patterns of occurrence, relationship to onward transmission, diagnostic strategies and risk factors. Diagnosis of primary HIV infection remains a relatively infrequent occurrence. Clinical and demographic characteristics may be helpful indicators to guide the decision to offer testing. The high levels of viraemia associated with primary HIV infection represent a particular risk of onward transmission, as recently demonstrated through studies using genotyping methods to link newly acquired cases. Diagnostic strategies involving nucleic acid detection have been increasingly used to identify cases prior to the development of antibodies. Serological tests for early infection are valid for epidemiological purposes but are not generally viewed reliable enough for individual diagnosis. Prospective studies continue to be a useful means of identifying factors associated with the risk of newly acquired HIV infection, and can guide the implementation and evaluation of prevention strategies. The occurrence of primary HIV infection is an event of public health importance. Understanding of the extent of primary HIV infection and its risk factors in populations can guide the development and evaluation of preventive interventions.

  9. Viral dynamics of HIV-1 infection | Martin | Southern African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Viral dynamics of HIV-1 infection. D Martin ...

  10. Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1 Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the immunological response to ART in HIV-1 infected ART naïve patients in relation to age, sex, baseline CD4+ T cell counts and generic ART regimens at Muhimbili Nation Hospital, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data from patients enrolled in the pilot ART program ...

  11. Host genetic factors in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to influence the rate of AIDS progression in HIV-1 infected individuals. The candidate host genes suspected to influence the rate of progression from HIV to AIDS can be divided into three categories: (i) genes encoding cell-surface receptors or lig- ands for these proteins; (ii) genes within human leukocyte antigens (HLA) that ...

  12. Frequency of Cryptococcal Meningitis in HIV-1 Infected Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), A total of 100 HIV-1 infected patients suspected of having meningitis or meningoencephalitis were subjected to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis (including Indian ink preparation and fungal culture by conventional methods) ...

  13. HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary; Wiegand, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical...

  14. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  15. Systems mapping of HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mathematical models of viral dynamics in vivo provide incredible insights into the mechanisms for the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations, the dynamics of viral drug resistance, and the way to eliminate virus infection from individual patients by drug treatment. The integration of these mathematical models with high-throughput genetic and genomic data within a statistical framework will raise a hope for effective treatment of infections with HIV virus through developing potent antiviral drugs based on individual patients’ genetic makeup. In this opinion article, we will show a conceptual model for mapping and dictating a comprehensive picture of genetic control mechanisms for viral dynamics through incorporating a group of differential equations that quantify the emergent properties of a system.

  16. Specific eradication of HIV-1 from infected cultured cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Aviad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A correlation between increase in the integration of Human Immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 cDNA and cell death was previously established. Here we show that combination of peptides that stimulate integration together with the protease inhibitor Ro 31-8959 caused apoptotic cell death of HIV infected cells with total extermination of the virus. This combination did not have any effect on non-infected cells. Thus it appears that cell death is promoted only in the infected cells. It is our view that the results described in this work suggest a novel approach to specifically promote death of HIV-1 infected cells and thus may eventually be developed into a new and general anti-viral therapy.

  17. Daily Acyclovir Delays HIV-1 Disease Progression Among HIV-1/HSV-2 Dually-Infected Persons: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingappa, Jairam R.; Baeten, Jared M.; Wald, Anna; Hughes, James P.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Mujugira, Andrew; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; Stewart, Grace John; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Myron; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth H.; de Bruyn, Guy; Gray, Glenda E.; McIntyre, James; Manongi, Rachel; Kapiga, Saidi; Coetzee, David; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Karita, Etienne; Kanweka, William; Delany, Sinead; Rees, Helen; Vwalika, Bellington; Magaret, Amalia; Wang, Richard S.; Kidoguchi, Lara; Barnes, Linda; Ridzon, Renee; Corey, Lawrence; Celum, Connie

    2010-01-01

    Background Well-tolerated medications that slow HIV-1 disease progression and delay initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are needed. Most HIV-1-infected persons are dually-infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Daily HSV-2 suppression reduces plasma HIV-1 levels, but whether HSV-2 suppression delays HIV-1 disease progression is unknown. Methods Within a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of HSV-2 suppressive therapy (acyclovir 400 mg orally bid) to decrease HIV-1 transmission, 3381 HSV-2/HIV-1 dually-infected heterosexual Africans who at enrollment had CD4 counts ≥250 cells/mm3 and were not taking ART were followed for up to 24 months. We evaluated the effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 disease progression, defined by a primary composite endpoint of first occurrence of CD4 count death. As an exploratory analysis, we evaluated the endpoint of CD4 decline to HIV-1 plasma RNA was 4.1 log10 copies/mL. Acyclovir reduced risk of HIV-1 disease progression: 284 participants on acyclovir versus 324 on placebo reached the primary endpoint (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–0.98, p=0.03). Among participants with CD4 counts ≥350 cells/mm3, acyclovir delayed risk of CD4 decline to HIV-1 disease progression by 16% (95% CI 2–29%). The role of HSV-2 suppression in reducing HIV-1 disease progression prior to ART initiation warrants consideration (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519). PMID:20153888

  18. Conserved epitopes on HIV-1, FIV and SIV p24 proteins are recognized by HIV-1 infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Shannon R; Sanou, Missa P; Rathore, Mobeen H; Levy, Jay A; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2015-01-01

    Cross-reactive peptides on HIV-1 and FIV p24 protein sequences were studied using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from untreated HIV-1-infected long-term survivors (LTS; >10 y of infection without antiretroviral therapy, ART), short-term HIV-1 infected subjects not on ART, and ART-treated HIV-1 infected subjects. IFNγ-ELISpot and CFSE-proliferation analyses were performed with PBMC using overlapping HIV-1 and FIV p24 peptides. Over half of the HIV-1 infected subjects tested (22/31 or 71%) responded to one or more FIV p24 peptide pools by either IFNγ or T-cell proliferation analysis. PBMC and T cells from infected subjects in all 3 HIV(+) groups predominantly recognized one FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp14) by IFNγ production and one additional FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp9) by T-cell proliferation analysis. Furthermore, evaluation of overlapping SIV p24 peptide sequences identified conserved epitope(s) on the Fp14/Hp15-counterpart of SIV, Sp14, but none on Fp9-counterpart of SIV, Sp9. The responses to these FIV peptide pools were highly reproducible and persisted throughout 2-4 y of monitoring. Intracellular staining analysis for cytotoxins and phenotyping for CD107a determined that peptide epitopes from Fp9 and Fp14 pools induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecules including perforin, granzyme B, granzyme A, and/or expression of CD107a. Selected FIV and corresponding SIV epitopes recognized by HIV-1 infected patients indicate that these protein sequences are evolutionarily conserved on both SIV and HIV-1 (e.g., Hp15:Fp14:Sp14). These studies demonstrate that comparative immunogenicity analysis of HIV-1, FIV, and SIV can identify evolutionarily-conserved T cell-associated lentiviral epitopes, which could be used as a vaccine for prophylaxis or immunotherapy.

  19. Anti-HIV-1 activity of flavonoid myricetin on HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Silvana; Pardi, Vanessa; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic), H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic), and the dual tropic (X4R5) HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research.

  20. Anti-HIV-1 activity of flavonoid myricetin on HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Pasetto

    Full Text Available HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic, H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic, and the dual tropic (X4R5 HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research.

  1. Episodes of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with the acute phase of HIV-1 infection and with recurrence of viremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Gleusa de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a severe case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS characterized by flaccid areflexive tetraplegia and signs of autonomic instability related to acute HIV-1 infection, and the occurrence of relapse episodes coinciding with the detection of HIV-1 RNA in blood during the phase of irregular treatment with antiretroviral agents. The patient has been asymptomatic for 3 years and has an HIV-1 load below the limit of detection. The recurrence of GBS in this case may be related to alterations of the immunologic response caused by disequilibrium in the host-HIV relationship due to the increase in HIV-1 viremia.

  2. Multiple HIV-1/M + HIV-1/O dual infections and new HIV-1/MO inter-group recombinant forms detected in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Fabienne; Mourez, Thomas; Vessiere, Aurélia; Ngoupo, Paul-Alain; Alessandri-Gradt, Elodie; Simon, François; Rousset, Dominique; Plantier, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-13

    Due to the prevalence of HIV-1 group M and the endemicity of HIV-1 group O infections in Cameroon, patients may be infected with both viruses and/or with HIV-1/MO recombinant forms. Such atypical infections may be deleterious in terms of diagnosis and therapeutic management due to the high divergence of HIV-1/O. The aim of this study was to identify prospectively such atypical infections in Cameroon. Based on serological screening by env-V3 serotyping and a molecular strategy using group-specific (RT)-PCRs, we identified 10 Cameroonian patients harboring three different profiles of infection: (1) 4 HIV-1/M + O dual infections without evidence of recombinant; (2) 5 recombinants associated with one or both parental strains; and (3) 1 new recombinant form without parental strains. This work highlights the dynamic co-evolution of these two HIV groups in Cameroon that could lead to the emergence of a circulating recombinant form MO, and the need for accurate identification of such atypical infections for precise diagnosis, virological monitoring and therapeutic management with adapted tools.

  3. Laser irradiation reduces HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lugongolo, Masixole Y

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 epidemic remains a major health challenge. This study explores the effects of low level laser therapy on HIV-1 infected cells. Infection is reduced by irradiation and the mechanism needs to be investigated further....

  4. Cell-Associated HIV-1 DNA and RNA Decay Dynamics During Early Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Priyanka; Chadwick, Ellen G; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Ziemniak, Carrie; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Capparelli, Edmund V; Yenokyan, Gayane; Persaud, Deborah

    2015-12-15

    The decay of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells during early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in infected infants is not defined. HIV-1 DNA, including 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles, and multiply spliced (ms-) and unspliced (us-) HIV-1 RNA concentrations were measured at 0, 24, 48, and 96 weeks of cART in infants from the IMPAACT P1030 trial receiving lopinavir-ritonavir-based cART. The ratio of HIV-1 DNA concentrations to replication-competent genomes was also estimated. Linear mixed effects models with random intercept and linear splines were used to estimate patient-specific decay kinetics of HIV-1 DNA. The median HIV-1 DNA concentration before cART at a median age of 2 months was 3.2 log10 copies per million PBMC. With cART, the average estimated patient-specific change in HIV-1 DNA concentrations was -0.040 log10/week (95% confidence interval [CI], -.05, -.03) between 0 and 24 weeks and -0.017 log10/week between 24 and 48 weeks (95% CI, -.024, -.01). 2-LTR circles decreased with cART but remained detectable through 96 weeks. Pre-cART HIV-1 DNA concentration was correlated with time to undetectable plasma viral load and post-cART HIV-1 DNA at 96 weeks; although HIV-1 DNA concentrations exceeded replication-competent HIV-1 genomes by 148-fold. Almost all infants had ms- and usRNA detected pre-cART, with 75% having usRNA through 96 weeks of cART. By 2 months of age, a large pool of HIV-1-infected cells is established in perinatal infection, which influences time to undetectable viral load and reservoir size. This has implications for informing novel approaches aimed at early restriction of HIV-1 reservoirs to enable virologic remission and cure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Value of perfusion-weighted MR imaging in the assessment of early cerebral alterations in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-1-positive and HCV-positive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bladowska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS involvement occurs in the early stage of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. It has been documented that the hepatitis C virus (HCV can replicate in the CNS. The aim of the study was to evaluate early disturbances in cerebral microcirculation using magnetic resonance (MR perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI in asymptomatic HIV-1-positive and HCV-positive patients, as well as to assess the correlation between PWI measurements and the clinical data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients: 17 HIV-1-positive non-treated, 18 HIV-1-positive treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, 7 HIV-1/HCV-positive non-treated, 14 HCV-positive before antiviral therapy and 18 control subjects were enrolled in the study. PWI was performed with a 1.5T MR unit using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC method. Cerebral blood volume (CBV measurements relative to cerebellum (rCBV were evaluated in the posterior cingulated region (PCG, basal ganglia (BG, temporoparietal (TPC and frontal cortices (FC, as well as in white matter of frontoparietal areas. Correlations of rCBV values with immunologic data and liver histology activity index (HAI were analyzed. RESULTS: Significantly lower rCBV values were found in the right TPC and left FC as well as in PCG in HIV-1-positive naïve (p = 0.009; p = 0.020; p = 0.012, HIV-1 cART treated (p = 0.007; p = 0.009; p = 0.033, HIV-1/HCV-positive (p = 0.007; p = 0.027; p = 0.045 and HCV-positive patients (p = 0.010; p = 0.005; p = 0.045 compared to controls. HIV-1-positive cART treated and HIV-1/HCV-positive patients demonstrated lower rCBV values in the right FC (p = 0.009; p = 0.032, respectively and the left TPC (p = 0.036; p = 0.005, respectively, while HCV-positive subjects revealed lower rCBV values in the left TPC region (p = 0.003. We found significantly elevated rCBV values in BG in HCV-positive patients (p = 0.0002; p<0.0001 compared to

  6. Detection of Acute HIV-1 Infection by RT-LAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Donna L; Sullivan, Vickie; Owen, S Michele; Curtis, Kelly A

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost-effective diagnostic test for the detection of acute HIV-1 infection is highly desired. Isothermal amplification techniques, such as reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), exhibit characteristics that are ideal for the development of a rapid nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) because they are quick, easy to perform and do not require complex, dedicated equipment and laboratory space. In this study, we assessed the ability of the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay to detect acute HIV infection as compared to a representative rapid antibody test and several FDA-approved laboratory-based assays. The HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay detected seroconverting individuals one to three weeks earlier than a rapid HIV antibody test and up to two weeks earlier than a lab-based antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combo enzyme immunoassay (EIA). RT-LAMP was not as sensitive as a lab-based qualitative RNA assay, which could be attributed to the significantly smaller nucleic acid input volume. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of detecting acute HIV infection using the RT-LAMP assay. The availability of a rapid NAAT, such as the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay, at the point of care (POC) or in laboratories that do not have access to large platform NAAT could increase the percentage of individuals who receive an acute HIV infection status or confirmation of their HIV status, while immediately linking them to counseling and medical care. In addition, early knowledge of HIV status could lead to reduced high-risk behavior at a time when individuals are at a higher risk for transmitting the virus.

  7. Detection of Acute HIV-1 Infection by RT-LAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna L Rudolph

    Full Text Available A rapid, cost-effective diagnostic test for the detection of acute HIV-1 infection is highly desired. Isothermal amplification techniques, such as reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP, exhibit characteristics that are ideal for the development of a rapid nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT because they are quick, easy to perform and do not require complex, dedicated equipment and laboratory space. In this study, we assessed the ability of the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay to detect acute HIV infection as compared to a representative rapid antibody test and several FDA-approved laboratory-based assays. The HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay detected seroconverting individuals one to three weeks earlier than a rapid HIV antibody test and up to two weeks earlier than a lab-based antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab combo enzyme immunoassay (EIA. RT-LAMP was not as sensitive as a lab-based qualitative RNA assay, which could be attributed to the significantly smaller nucleic acid input volume. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of detecting acute HIV infection using the RT-LAMP assay. The availability of a rapid NAAT, such as the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay, at the point of care (POC or in laboratories that do not have access to large platform NAAT could increase the percentage of individuals who receive an acute HIV infection status or confirmation of their HIV status, while immediately linking them to counseling and medical care. In addition, early knowledge of HIV status could lead to reduced high-risk behavior at a time when individuals are at a higher risk for transmitting the virus.

  8. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management

  9. Genetic composition of replication competent clonal HIV-1 variants isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), HIV-1 proviral DNA from PBMC and HIV-1 RNA in serum in the course of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo-Matas, Diana; van Gils, Marit J; Bowles, Emma J; Navis, Marjon; Rachinger, Andrea; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B; Kootstra, Neeltje A; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2010-09-30

    The HIV-1 quasispecies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is considered to be a mix of actively replicating, latent, and archived viruses and may be genetically distinct from HIV-1 variants in plasma that are considered to be recently produced. Here we analyzed the genetic relationship between gp160 env sequences from replication competent clonal HIV-1 variants that were isolated from PBMC and from contemporaneous HIV-1 RNA in serum and HIV-1 proviral DNA in PBMC of four longitudinally studied therapy naïve HIV-1 infected individuals. Replication competent clonal HIV-1 variants, HIV-1 RNA from serum, and HIV-1 proviral DNA from PBMC formed a single virus population at most time points analyzed. However, an under-representation in serum of HIV-1 sequences with predicted CXCR4 usage was sometimes observed implying that the analysis of viral sequences from different sources may provide a more complete assessment of the viral quasispecies in peripheral blood in vivo. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection Increases Apoptosis and HIV-1 Replication in HIV-1 Infected Jurkat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Jiying; Biswas, Santanu; Zhao, Jiangqin; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-02-02

    Influenza virus infection has a significant impact on public health, since it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is not well-known whether influenza virus infection affects cell death and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in HIV-1-infected patients. Using a lymphoma cell line, Jurkat, we examined the in vitro effects of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) infection on cell death and HIV-1 RNA production in infected cells. We found that pH1N1 infection increased apoptotic cell death through Fas and Bax-mediated pathways in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells. Infection with pH1N1 virus could promote HIV-1 RNA production by activating host transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-ĸB), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-related pathways. The replication of HIV-1 latent infection could be reactivated by pH1N1 infection through TCR and apoptotic pathways. These data indicate that HIV-1 replication can be activated by pH1N1 virus in HIV-1-infected cells resulting in induction of cell death through apoptotic pathways.

  11. Infection with human retroviruses other than HIV-1: HIV-2, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, David; Ambrosioni, Juan; Paredes, Roger; Marcos, M Ángeles; Manzardo, Christian; Moreno, Asunción; Miró, José M

    2015-08-01

    HIV-1 is the most prevalent retrovirus, with over 30 million people infected worldwide. Nevertheless, infection caused by other human retroviruses like HIV-2, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 is gaining importance. Initially confined to specific geographical areas, HIV-2, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are becoming a major concern in non-endemic countries due to international migration flows. Clinical manifestations of retroviruses range from asymptomatic carriers to life-threatening conditions, such as AIDS in HIV-2 infection or adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia or tropical spastic paraparesis in HTLV-1 infection. HIV-2 is naturally resistant to some antiretrovirals frequently used to treat HIV-1 infection, but it does have effective antiretroviral therapy options. Unfortunately, HTLV still has limited therapeutic options. In this article, we will review the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects of infections caused by these human retroviruses.

  12. Effect of HIV-1 infection on malaria treatment outcome in Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria and HIV-1 infection cause significant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV-1 increases risk for malaria with the risk increasing as immunity declines.The effect of HIV-1 infection on antimalarial treatment outcome is still inconclusive. Objective: To compare antimalarial treatment outcome ...

  13. High viral load in lymph nodes and latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in peripheral blood cells of HIV-1-infected chimpanzees.

    OpenAIRE

    Saksela, K; Muchmore, E; Girard, M; Fultz, P; Baltimore, D

    1993-01-01

    We have examined human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in chimpanzees by analyzing HIV-1 DNA and RNA in lymph nodes and peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Like certain asymptomatic HIV-infected persons, these chimpanzees had no detectable viral replication in their PBMCs. However, viral replication and a high viral load were observed in the lymphatic tissue. Despite the absence of viral replication in PBMCs, 1/1,000 to 1/10,000 of the PBMCs contained HIV-1 proviral DNA, and...

  14. Progression to symptomatic disease in people infected with HIV-1 in rural Uganda: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, D.; Mahe, C.; Mayanja, B; Whitworth, JA

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the rate of progression from seroconversion to symptomatic disease in adults infected with HIV-1, and to establish whether the background level of signs and symptoms commonly associated with HIV-1 in uninfected controls are likely to affect progression rates. DESIGN: Longitudinal, prospective cohort study of people infected with HIV-1 and randomly selected subjects negative for HIV-1 antibodies identified during population studies. SETTING: Study clinic with basic medi...

  15. High-accuracy identification of incident HIV-1 infections using a sequence clustering based diversity measure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Yu Xia

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of HIV-1 incidence are essential for monitoring epidemic trends and evaluating intervention efforts. However, the long asymptomatic stage of HIV-1 infection makes it difficult to effectively distinguish incident infections from chronic ones. Current incidence assays based on serology or viral sequence diversity are both still lacking in accuracy. In the present work, a sequence clustering based diversity (SCBD assay was devised by utilizing the fact that viral sequences derived from each transmitted/founder (T/F strain tend to cluster together at early stage, and that only the intra-cluster diversity is correlated with the time since HIV-1 infection. The dot-matrix pairwise alignment was used to eliminate the disproportional impact of insertion/deletions (indels and recombination events, and so was the proportion of clusterable sequences (Pc as an index to identify late chronic infections with declined viral genetic diversity. Tested on a dataset containing 398 incident and 163 chronic infection cases collected from the Los Alamos HIV database (last modified 2/8/2012, our SCBD method achieved 99.5% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity, with an overall accuracy of 99.3%. Further analysis and evaluation also suggested its performance was not affected by host factors such as the viral subtypes and transmission routes. The SCBD method demonstrated the potential of sequencing based techniques to become useful for identifying incident infections. Its use may be most advantageous for settings with low to moderate incidence relative to available resources. The online service is available at http://www.bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn:8080/SCBD/index.jsp.

  16. High-accuracy identification of incident HIV-1 infections using a sequence clustering based diversity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xia-Yu; Ge, Meng; Hsi, Jenny H; He, Xiang; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Shao, Yi-Ming; Pan, Xian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of HIV-1 incidence are essential for monitoring epidemic trends and evaluating intervention efforts. However, the long asymptomatic stage of HIV-1 infection makes it difficult to effectively distinguish incident infections from chronic ones. Current incidence assays based on serology or viral sequence diversity are both still lacking in accuracy. In the present work, a sequence clustering based diversity (SCBD) assay was devised by utilizing the fact that viral sequences derived from each transmitted/founder (T/F) strain tend to cluster together at early stage, and that only the intra-cluster diversity is correlated with the time since HIV-1 infection. The dot-matrix pairwise alignment was used to eliminate the disproportional impact of insertion/deletions (indels) and recombination events, and so was the proportion of clusterable sequences (Pc) as an index to identify late chronic infections with declined viral genetic diversity. Tested on a dataset containing 398 incident and 163 chronic infection cases collected from the Los Alamos HIV database (last modified 2/8/2012), our SCBD method achieved 99.5% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity, with an overall accuracy of 99.3%. Further analysis and evaluation also suggested its performance was not affected by host factors such as the viral subtypes and transmission routes. The SCBD method demonstrated the potential of sequencing based techniques to become useful for identifying incident infections. Its use may be most advantageous for settings with low to moderate incidence relative to available resources. The online service is available at http://www.bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn:8080/SCBD/index.jsp.

  17. The role of T cell immunity in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, C Mee Ling; Kelleher, Anthony D; Kent, Stephen J; De Rose, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The interplay between the T cell immune response and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 largely determines the outcome of infection. Typically, the virus overcomes the immune defences leading to a gradual decline in function that permits the development of disease. In recent years, a concerted effort in comparing T cell responses between 'controllers' and 'progressors' is beginning to identify the T cell subsets and factors that affect disease progression related to the effector functions of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. These efforts are providing opportunities for development of novel therapies and vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wejse, C; Patsche, C B; Kühle, A; Bamba, F J V; Mendes, M S; Lemvik, G; Gomes, V F; Rudolf, F

    2015-03-01

    HIV-1 infection has been shown to impact the outcome of patients with tuberculosis (TB), but data regarding the impact of HIV-2 on TB outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the predictive ability of the TBscoreII, a clinical score used to assess disease severity. In a prospective follow-up study, we examined the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 co-infection in TB patients in Guinea-Bissau, and the impact on outcomes at 12 months of follow-up. We included all adult TB patients in an observational TB cohort at the Bandim Health Project (BHP) in Guinea-Bissau between 2003 and 2013 and assessed survival status at 12 months after the start of treatment. A total 1312 patients were included; 499 (38%) were female (male/female ratio 1.6). Three hundred and seventy-nine patients were HIV-infected: 241 had HIV-1, 93 had HIV-2, and 45 were HIV-1+2 dual infected. The HIV type-associated risk of TB was 6-fold higher for HIV-1, 7-fold higher for HIV-1+2 dual infection, and 2-fold higher for HIV-2 compared with the HIV-uninfected. Of the patients included, 144 (11%) died, 62 (12%) among females and 82 (9%) among males (hazard ratio (HR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-1.30; p=0.596). Compared to male patients, female patients were younger (1 year younger, 95% CI 0.5-2; p=0.04), reported a longer duration of symptoms (14 days longer, 95% CI 4-25; p=0.003), and had a higher TBscoreII (0.5 points more, 95% CI 0.3-0.7; pHIV-infected (36% vs. 25%; pHIV infection increased the mortality risk, with HIV-1 infection displaying the highest HR (5.0, 95% CI 3.5-7.1), followed by HIV-1+2 (HR 4.2, 95% CI 2.2-7.8) and HIV-2 (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.8). A TBscoreII ≥4 was associated with increased mortality (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.1). Significantly increased HRs were found for signs of wasting; a BMI HIV type-associated risk of TB was much higher for HIV-1 patients and higher but

  19. Immune perturbations in HIV-1-infected individuals who make broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M Anthony; Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Vandergrift, Nathan A; Chui, Cecilia; Lloyd, Krissey E; Parks, Robert; Soderberg, Kelly A; Ogbe, Ane T; Cohen, Myron S; Liao, Hua-Xin; Gao, Feng; McMichael, Andrew J; Montefiori, David C; Verkoczy, Laurent; Kelsoe, Garnett; Huang, Jinghe; Shea, Patrick R; Connors, Mark; Borrow, Persephone; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-07-29

    Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. bnAbs occur in some HIV-1-infected individuals and frequently have characteristics of autoantibodies. We have studied cohorts of HIV-1-infected individuals who made bnAbs and compared them with those who did not do so, and determined immune traits associated with the ability to produce bnAbs. HIV-1-infected individuals with bnAbs had a higher frequency of blood autoantibodies, a lower frequency of regulatory CD4+ T cells, a higher frequency of circulating memory T follicular helper CD4+ cells, and a higher T regulatory cell level of programmed cell death-1 expression compared with HIV-1-infected individuals without bnAbs. Thus, induction of HIV-1 bnAbs may require vaccination regimens that transiently mimic immunologic perturbations in HIV-1-infected individuals. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infection in Tierralta, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucunubá, Zulma Milena; Guerra, Angela Patricia; Rahirant, Sonia Judith; Rivera, Jorge Alonso; Cortés, Liliana Jazmín; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2008-11-01

    With the aim of determining the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infection by thick smear and PCR and its association with demographic and epidemiological characteristics in the village of Nuevo Tay, Tierralta, Córdoba, Colombia, a cross-sectional population study was carried out, using random probabilistic sampling. Venous blood samples were taken from 212 people on day 0 for thick smear and PCR. Clinical follow-up and thick smears were carried out on days 14 and 28. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. infection was 17.9% (38/212; 95% CI: 12.5-23.3%) and the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodiumspp. infection was 14.6% (31/212; 95% CI: 9.6-19.6%). Plasmodium vivax was found more frequently (20/31; 64.5%) than Plasmodium falciparum (9/31; 29%) and mixed infections (2/31; 6.5%). A significantly higher prevalence of asymptomatic infection was found in men (19.30%) than in women (9.18%) (prevalence ratio: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.01-4.34%; p = 0.02). People who developed symptoms had a significantly higher parasitemia on day 0 than those who remained asymptomatic, of 1,881.5 +/- 3,759 versus 79 +/- 106.9 (p = 0.008). PCR detected 50% more infections than the thick smears. The presence of asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infection highlights the importance of carrying out active searches amongst asymptomatic populations residing in endemic areas.

  1. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordanskiy, Sergey [School of Systems Biology, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Van Duyne, Rachel [School of Systems Biology, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao [School of Systems Biology, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Romerio, Fabio [Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Kashanchi, Fatah, E-mail: fkashanc@gmu.edu [School of Systems Biology, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4{sup +} T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4{sup +} T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4{sup +} T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the “Shock and Kill” strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. - Highlights: • X-ray irradiation

  2. Role of raltegravir in the management of HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke NL

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available N Lance Okeke1, Charles Hicks21Duke University Medical Center, Department of Hospital Medicine, Durham Regional Hospital, Durham, North Carolina, USA; 2Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The development of multiple agents with potent antiretroviral activity against HIV has ushered in a new age of optimism in the management of patients infected with the virus. However, the viruses’ dynamic ability to develop resistance against these agents necessitates the investigation of novel targets for viral suppression. Raltegravir represents a first-in-class agent targeting the HIV integrase enzyme, which is responsible for integration of virally encoded DNA into the host genome. Over the last 5 years, clinical trials data has demonstrated an increasing role for raltegravir in the management of both treatment-experienced and treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected patients. This review focuses on the evidence supporting raltegravir’s efficacy in an array of clinical settings. Other HIV-1 integrase inhibitors in development are also briefly discussed.Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, raltegravir 

  3. Gut microbiota diversity predicts immune status in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Piotr; Troseid, Marius; Avershina, Ekatarina; Barqasho, Babilonia; Neogi, Ujjwal; Holm, Kristian; Hov, Johannes R; Noyan, Kajsa; Vesterbacka, Jan; Svärd, Jenny; Rudi, Knut; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2015-11-28

    HIV-1 infection is characterized by altered intestinal barrier, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that changes of the gut microbiota predict immune dysfunction and HIV-1 progression, and that antiretroviral therapy (ART) partially restores the microbiota composition. An observational study including 28 viremic patients, three elite controllers, and nine uninfected controls. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and for 19 individuals at follow-up (median 10 months) during ART. Microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). Soluble markers of microbial translocation and monocyte activation were analyzed by Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay or ELISA. Several alpha-diversity measures, including number of observed bacterial species and Shannon index, were significantly lower in viremic patients compared to controls. The alpha diversity correlated with CD4 T-cell counts and inversely with markers of microbial translocation and monocyte activation. In multivariate linear regression, for every age and sex-adjusted increase in the number of bacterial species, the CD4 T-cell count increased with 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.35-1.41) cells/μl (P = 0.002). After introduction of ART, microbiota alterations persisted with further reduction in alpha diversity. The microbiota composition at the genus level was profoundly altered in viremic patients, both at baseline and after ART, with Prevotella reduced during ART (P Gut microbiota alterations are closely associated with immune dysfunction in HIV-1 patients, and these changes persist during short-term ART. Our data implicate that re-shaping the microbiota may be an adjuvant therapy in patients commencing successful ART.

  4. Enhancement of HIV-1 infection and intestinal CD4+ T cell depletion ex vivo by gut microbes altered during chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Stephanie M; Lee, Eric J; Donovan, Andrew M; Guo, Kejun; Harper, Michael S; Frank, Daniel N; McCarter, Martin D; Santiago, Mario L; Wilson, Cara C

    2016-01-14

    Early HIV-1 infection is characterized by high levels of HIV-1 replication and substantial CD4 T cell depletion in the intestinal mucosa, intestinal epithelial barrier breakdown, and microbial translocation. HIV-1-induced disruption of intestinal homeostasis has also been associated with changes in the intestinal microbiome that are linked to mucosal and systemic immune activation. In this study, we investigated the impact of representative bacterial species that were altered in the colonic mucosa of viremic HIV-1 infected individuals (HIV-altered mucosal bacteria; HAMB) on intestinal CD4 T cell function, infection by HIV-1, and survival in vitro. Lamina propria (LP) mononuclear cells were infected with CCR5-tropic HIV-1BaL or mock infected, exposed to high (3 gram-negative) or low (2 gram-positive) abundance HAMB or control gram-negative Escherichia coli and levels of productive HIV-1 infection and CD4 T cell depletion assessed. HAMB-associated changes in LP CD4 T cell activation, proliferation and HIV-1 co-receptor expression were also evaluated. The majority of HAMB increased HIV-1 infection and depletion of LP CD4 T cells, but gram-negative HAMB enhanced CD4 T cell infection to a greater degree than gram-positive HAMB. Most gram-negative HAMB enhanced T cell infection to levels similar to that induced by gram-negative E. coli despite lower induction of T cell activation and proliferation by HAMB. Both gram-negative HAMB and E. coli significantly increased expression of HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 on LP CD4 T cells. Lipopolysaccharide, a gram-negative bacteria cell wall component, up-regulated CCR5 expression on LP CD4 T cells whereas gram-positive cell wall lipoteichoic acid did not. Upregulation of CCR5 by gram-negative HAMB was largely abrogated in CD4 T cell-enriched cultures suggesting an indirect mode of stimulation. Gram-negative commensal bacteria that are altered in abundance in the colonic mucosa of HIV-1 infected individuals have the capacity to enhance

  5. Dynamics of a stochastic HIV-1 infection model with logistic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Daqing; Liu, Qun; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Xia, Peiyan

    2017-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a stochastic HIV-1 infection model with logistic growth. Firstly, by constructing suitable stochastic Lyapunov functions, we establish sufficient conditions for the existence of ergodic stationary distribution of the solution to the HIV-1 infection model. Then we obtain sufficient conditions for extinction of the infection. The stationary distribution shows that the infection can become persistent in vivo.

  6. HIV-1 vaccine design: Learning from natural infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Kerkhof, T.L.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Het humane immuundeficiëntie virus type 1 (hiv-1) is het virus dat aids veroorzaakt. Er is nog steeds geen bescherming tegen een hiv-1 infectie en de beëindiging van de wereldwijde epidemie kan waarschijnlijk alleen worden bereikt met behulp van een vaccin. Een hiv-1 vaccin zal bescherming moeten

  7. The transcriptome of HIV-1 infected intestinal CD4+ T cells exposed to enteric bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Alyson C; Guo, Kejun; Dillon, Stephanie M; Phang, Tzu; Lee, Eric J; Harper, Michael S; Helm, Karen; Kappes, John C; Ochsenbauer, Christina; McCarter, Martin D; Wilson, Cara C; Santiago, Mario L

    2017-02-01

    Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF) HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a molecular blueprint

  8. The transcriptome of HIV-1 infected intestinal CD4+ T cells exposed to enteric bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Stephanie M.; Phang, Tzu; Lee, Eric J.; Helm, Karen; Kappes, John C.; McCarter, Martin D.

    2017-01-01

    Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF) HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a molecular blueprint

  9. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Animesh; Rathore, Anurag; Vidyant, Sanjukta; Kakkar, Kavita; Dhole, Tapan N

    2012-01-01

    A multitude of host genetic factors plays a crucial role in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS, which is highly variable among individuals and populations. This review focuses on the chemokine-receptor and chemokine genes, which were extensively studied because of their role as HIV co-receptor or co-receptor competitor and influences the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected individuals.

  10. Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection and Progression to AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of host genetic factors plays a crucial role in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS, which is highly variable among individuals and populations. This review focuses on the chemokine-receptor and chemokine genes, which were extensively studied because of their role as HIV co-receptor or co-receptor competitor and influences the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected individuals.

  11. Differences in Clinical Manifestations of Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection between HIV-1 Subtypes in African Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lemonovich, Tracy L.; Watkins, Richard R.; Morrison, Charles S.; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Musoke, Robert; Arts, Eric J.; Nankya, Immaculate; Salata, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in clinical manifestations between women with various HIV-1 subtypes during acute (AI) and early (EI) HIV infection. In a longitudinal cohort study, clinical signs and symptoms among Uganda and Zimbabwe women with AI and EI were compared with HIV-negative controls; symptoms were assessed quarterly for 15 to 24 months. Early HIV infection was defined as the first visit during which a woman tested HIV antibody positive. Women who were HIV negative serologic...

  12. Stochastic modeling for dynamics of HIV-1 infection using cellular automata: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precharattana, Monamorn

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the description of immune response by discrete models has emerged to play an important role to study the problems in the area of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, leading to AIDS. As infection of target immune cells by HIV-1 mainly takes place in the lymphoid tissue, cellular automata (CA) models thus represent a significant step in understanding when the infected population is dispersed. Motivated by these, the studies of the dynamics of HIV-1 infection using CA in memory have been presented to recognize how CA have been developed for HIV-1 dynamics, which issues have been studied already and which issues still are objectives in future studies.

  13. An HIV-1 Infected Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Background: Although HIV-1 infection predisposes an individual to well defined neoplasia, neurofibromas have not been reported as some of the typical ones. The association between HIV-1 infection and neurofibromatosis type 1, a genetic disorder, should be of interest because HIV infection could alter the natural.

  14. An HIV-1 infected patient with Neurofibromatosis type 1: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although HIV-1 infection predisposes an individual to well defined neoplasia, neurofibromas have not been reported as some of the typical ones. The association between HIV-1 infection and neurofibromatosis type 1, a genetic disorder, should be of interest because HIV infection could alter the natural biology ...

  15. HIV-1 and GBV-C co-infection in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Anny Karely; Garzaro, Domingo José; Loureiro, Carmen Luisa; Gutiérrez, Cristina R; Ameli, Gladys; Jaspe, Rossana Celeste; Porto, Leticia; Monsalve, Francisca; Pozada, Ángela; Vázquez, Luzmary; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E; Pujol, Flor Helene; Rangel, Héctor Rafael

    2014-07-14

    Co-infection with GB virus C (GBV-C) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) has been associated with prolonged survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of GBV-C infection among HIV-1-infected patients in Venezuela, and to determine the effects of the co-infection on the levels of relevant cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 270 HIV-1-seronegative and 255 HIV-1-seropositive individuals. GBV-C infection was determined by RT-PCR of the NS5 region and genotyped by sequence analysis of the 5´UTR region. HIV-1 strains were characterized by sequence analysis of pol, vif, env, and nef genes. Selected cytokines were evaluated by ELISA. Ninety-seven of 525 (18.5%) plasma samples tested positive for GBV-C RNA. A significantly higher prevalence of GBV-C was found among HIV-1 patients compared to HIV-1-seronegative individuals (67/255, 26% versus 30/270, 11%; p GBV-C+ and HIV-1+GBV-C- (p = 0.014), although no differences in CD4+ cell counts were found between both groups. TNFα concentration was higher in HIV-1+GBV-C- than in HIV-1+GBV-C+ patients (25.9 pg/mL versus 17.3 pg/mL; p = 0.02); RANTES expression levels were more variable in GBV-C co-infected patients and more frequently elevated in HIV-1 mono-infected patients compared to patients co-infected with GBV-C. The previously observed beneficial effect of co-infection with HIV-1 and GBV-C on disease progression is complex and might be due in part to a change in the cytokine environment. More studies are required to understand the interaction between both viruses.

  16. Clinical performance of the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid test to correctly differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection in screening algorithms using third and fourth generation assays and to identify cross reactivity with the HIV-1 Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eric M; Harb, Socorro; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid serologic method to differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection is required since the confirmatory HIV-1 Western Blot (WB) may demonstrate cross-reactivity with HIV-2 antibodies. To evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid assay as a supplemental test to correctly identify HIV-2 infection and identify HIV-1 WB cross-reactivity with HIV-2 in clinical samples tested at an academic medical center. Between August 2008 and July 2012, clinical samples were screened for HIV using either 3rd- or 4th-generation HIV-1/2 antibody or combination antibody and HIV-1 p24 antigen assays, respectively. All repeatedly reactive samples were reflexed for Multispot rapid testing. Multispot HIV-2 and HIV-1 and HIV-2-reactive samples were further tested using an HIV-2 immunoblot assay and HIV-1 or HIV-2 RNA assays when possible. The HIV-1 WB was performed routinely for additional confirmation and to assess for HIV-2 antibody cross-reactivity. Of 46,061 samples screened, 890 (89.6%) of 993 repeatedly reactive samples were also Multispot-reactive: 882 for HIV-1; three for only HIV-2; and five for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. All three HIV-2-only Multispot-positives along with a single dually reactive HIV-1/2 Multispot-positive were also HIV-2 immunoblot-positive; the latter was HIV-1 RNA negative and HIV-2 RNA positive. The Multispot rapid test performed well as a supplemental test for HIV-1/2 diagnostic testing. Four new HIV-2 infections (0.45%) were identified from among 890 Multispot-reactive tests. The use of HIV-1 WB alone to confirm HIV-1/2 screening assays may underestimate the true prevalence of HIV-2 infection in the United States. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV-1 infection of macrophages is dependent on evasion of innate immune cellular activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Jhen; Chain, Benjamin M; Miller, Robert F; Webb, Benjamin L J; Barclay, Wendy; Towers, Greg J; Katz, David R; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2009-11-13

    The cellular innate immune response to HIV-1 is poorly characterized. In view of HIV-1 tropism for macrophages, which can be activated via pattern recognition receptors to trigger antimicrobial defences, we investigated innate immune responses to HIV-1 by monocyte-derived macrophages. In a model of productive HIV-1 infection, cellular innate immune responses to HIV-1 were investigated, at the level of transcription factor activation, specific gene expression and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. In addition, the viral determinants of macrophage responses and the physiological effect of innate immune cellular activation on HIV-1 replication were assessed. Productive HIV-1 infection did not activate nuclear factor-kappaB and interferon regulatory factor 3 transcription factors or interferon gene expression (IFN) and caused remarkably small changes to the host-cell transcriptome, with no evidence of inflammatory or IFN signatures. Evasion of IFN induction was not dependent on HIV-1 envelope-mediated cellular entry, inhibition by accessory proteins or reverse transcription of ssRNA that may reduce innate immune cellular activation by viral RNA. Furthermore, IFNbeta priming did not sensitize responses to HIV-1. Importantly, exogenous IFNbeta or stimulation with the RNA analogue poly I:C to simulate innate immune activation invoked HIV-1 restriction. We conclude that macrophages lack functional pattern recognition receptors for this virus and that HIV-1 tropism for macrophages helps to establish a foothold in the host without triggering innate immune cellular activation, which would otherwise block viral infection effectively.

  18. Bullous impetigo in homosexual men--a risk marker for HIV-1 infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, B; Rohrsheim, R; Bassett, I; Mulhall, B P

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of bullous impetigo in a group of homosexual men at high risk of HIV-1 infection. DESIGN--A longitudinal descriptive study (1984-9). SETTING--A private primary care and STD clinic in Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS--88 homosexual men documented to seroconvert to HIV-1, and 37 homosexual controls who had practised unprotected anal intercourse with another man known to be HIV-1 positive but who remained HIV-1 negative. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Incidence of bullous impetigo. RESULTS--The crude annual incidence of bullous impetigo was 0.015 in subjects while they remained HIV-1 negative (10 cases) and 0.045 in early HIV-1 positive subjects (2 cases). Overall, 9% of the HIV-1 seroconverters and 9% of the HIV-1 negative controls were documented as suffering bullous impetigo over a mean of 29.2 and 39.3 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS--Bullous impetigo in an adult could prove to be a clinical indication that a person is either infected with HIV-1 or is in close (possibly sexual) contact with a person with HIV-1 infection. If true, the recognition of bullous impetigo could provide an opportunity for behavioural intervention to limit the spread of HIV-1. Images PMID:1607190

  19. Infection of female primary lower genital tract epithelial cells after natural pseudotyping of HIV-1: possible implications for sexual transmission of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyang Tang

    Full Text Available The global AIDS pandemic continues to expand and in some regions of the world, such as southern Africa, the prevalence of HIV-1 infection exceeds 20%. The devastating spread of the virus in young women in these countries appears disproportional to overall risk of infection. Regions with high prevalence of HIV-1 are often also highly endemic for other pathogenic viruses including HSV, CMV and HTLV. We propose that acquisition by HIV-1 of the envelope glycoproteins of other viruses, in a process we call "natural pseudotyping," expands the cellular tropism of HIV-1, enabling it to infect female genital epithelial cells directly and thereby dramatically increasing risk of infection during sexual intercourse. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that when HIV-1 co-infects T cells along with the gammaretrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV, progeny HIV-1 particles are produced capable of infecting primary vaginal, ectocervical and endocervical epithelial cells. These cell types are normally resistant to HIV-1 infection. Infection of primary genital cells was neutralized by antisera against the XMRV glycoprotein, confirming that infection was mediated by the XMRV glycoprotein acquired through pseudotyping of HIV. Inhibition by AZT showed that active replication of HIV-1 occurred in these cells and ruled out non-specific endocytic uptake of the virus. These results demonstrate that natural pseudotyping can expand the tropism of HIV-1 to include genital epithelial cells and have potential implications for sexual transmission of the virus.

  20. Infection of Female Primary Lower Genital Tract Epithelial Cells after Natural Pseudotyping of HIV-1: Possible Implications for Sexual Transmission of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuyang; George, Alvin; Nouvet, Franklin; Sweet, Stephanie; Emeagwali, Nkiruka; Taylor, Harry E.; Simmons, Glenn; Hildreth, James E. K.

    2014-01-01

    The global AIDS pandemic continues to expand and in some regions of the world, such as southern Africa, the prevalence of HIV-1 infection exceeds 20%. The devastating spread of the virus in young women in these countries appears disproportional to overall risk of infection. Regions with high prevalence of HIV-1 are often also highly endemic for other pathogenic viruses including HSV, CMV and HTLV. We propose that acquisition by HIV-1 of the envelope glycoproteins of other viruses, in a process we call “natural pseudotyping,” expands the cellular tropism of HIV-1, enabling it to infect female genital epithelial cells directly and thereby dramatically increasing risk of infection during sexual intercourse. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that when HIV-1 co-infects T cells along with the gammaretrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), progeny HIV-1 particles are produced capable of infecting primary vaginal, ectocervical and endocervical epithelial cells. These cell types are normally resistant to HIV-1 infection. Infection of primary genital cells was neutralized by antisera against the XMRV glycoprotein, confirming that infection was mediated by the XMRV glycoprotein acquired through pseudotyping of HIV. Inhibition by AZT showed that active replication of HIV-1 occurred in these cells and ruled out non-specific endocytic uptake of the virus. These results demonstrate that natural pseudotyping can expand the tropism of HIV-1 to include genital epithelial cells and have potential implications for sexual transmission of the virus. PMID:25010677

  1. Specific elimination of HIV-1 infected cells using Tat/Rev-dependent circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Perdigão, Pedro Ricardo Lucas,

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Molecular e Genética). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Despite the success of antiretroviral cocktails, a cure for HIV-1 remains elusive. This is mainly due to the existence of persistent cellular reservoirs infected with non-transcriptional, latent HIV-1. An effective treatment against HIV-1 would target both active and latent HIV-1-infected cells, and eliminate them without harming non-infected cells. In order to achieve this, we h...

  2. Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Keele, Brandon F.; Giorgi, Elena E.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Decker, Julie M.; Pham, Kimmy T.; Salazar, Maria G.; Sun, Chuanxi; Grayson, Truman; Wang, Shuyi; Li, Hui; Wei, Xiping; Jiang, Chunlai; Kirchherr, Jennifer L; Gao, Feng; Anderson, Jeffery A.

    2008-01-01

    The precise identification of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) responsible for productive clinical infection could be instrumental in elucidating the molecular basis of HIV-1 transmission and in designing effective vaccines. Here, we developed a mathematical model of random viral evolution and, together with phylogenetic tree construction, used it to analyze 3,449 complete env sequences derived by single genome amplification from 102 subjects with acute HIV-1 (clade B) infection. Viral e...

  3. Comparative transcriptomics of extreme phenotypes of human HIV-1 infection and SIV infection in sooty mangabey and rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, Margalida; Dalmau, Judith; Rauch, Andri; McLaren, Paul; Bosinger, Steven E; Martinez, Raquel; Sandler, Netanya G; Roque, Annelys; Liebner, Julia; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Descombes, Patrick; Erkizia, Itziar; Fellay, Jacques; Hirschel, Bernard; Miró, Jose M; Palou, Eduard; Hoffmann, Matthias; Massanella, Marta; Blanco, Julià; Woods, Matthew; Günthard, Huldrych F; de Bakker, Paul; Douek, Daniel C; Silvestri, Guido; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Telenti, Amalio

    2011-06-01

    High levels of HIV-1 replication during the chronic phase of infection usually correlate with rapid progression to severe immunodeficiency. However, a minority of highly viremic individuals remains asymptomatic and maintains high CD4⁺ T cell counts. This tolerant profile is poorly understood and reminiscent of the widely studied nonprogressive disease model of SIV infection in natural hosts. Here, we identify transcriptome differences between rapid progressors (RPs) and viremic nonprogressors (VNPs) and highlight several genes relevant for the understanding of HIV-1-induced immunosuppression. RPs were characterized by a specific transcriptome profile of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells similar to that observed in pathogenic SIV-infected rhesus macaques. In contrast, VNPs exhibited lower expression of interferon-stimulated genes and shared a common gene regulation profile with nonpathogenic SIV-infected sooty mangabeys. A short list of genes associated with VNP, including CASP1, CD38, LAG3, TNFSF13B, SOCS1, and EEF1D, showed significant correlation with time to disease progression when evaluated in an independent set of CD4⁺ T cell expression data. This work characterizes 2 minimally studied clinical patterns of progression to AIDS, whose analysis may inform our understanding of HIV pathogenesis.

  4. Increased iron export by ferroportin induces restriction of HIV-1 infection in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Ammosova, Tatiana; Diaz, Sharmin; Lin, Xionghao; Niu, Xiaomei; Ivanov, Andrey; Jerebtsova, Marina; Dhawan, Subhash; Oneal, Patricia; Nekhai, Sergei

    2016-12-27

    The low incidence of HIV-1 infection in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro under the conditions of low intracellular iron or heme treatment suggests a potential restriction of HIV-1 infection in SCD. We investigated HIV-1 ex vivo infection of SCD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and found that HIV-1 replication was inhibited at the level of reverse transcription (RT) and transcription. We observed increased expression of heme and iron-regulated genes, previously shown to inhibit HIV-1, including ferroportin, IKBα, HO-1, p21, and SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1). HIV-1 inhibition was less pronounced in hepcidin-treated SCD PBMCs and more pronounced in the iron or iron chelators treated, suggesting a key role of iron metabolism. In SCD PBMCs, labile iron levels were reduced and protein levels of ferroportin, HIF-1α, IKBα, and HO-1 were increased. Hemin treatment induced ferroportin expression and inhibited HIV-1 in THP-1 cells, mimicking the HIV-1 inhibition in SCD PBMCs, especially as hepcidin similarly prevented HIV-1 inhibition. In THP-1 cells with knocked down ferroportin, IKBα, or HO-1 genes but not HIF-1α or p21, HIV-1 was not inhibited by hemin. Activity of SAMHD1-regulatory CDK2 was decreased, and SAMHD1 phosphorylation was reduced in SCD PBMCs and hemin-treated THP-1 cells, suggesting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in SCD. Our findings point to ferroportin as a trigger of HIV-1 restriction in SCD settings, linking reduced intracellular iron levels to the inhibition of CDK2 activity, reduction of SAMHD1 phosphorylation, increased IKBα expression, and inhibition of HIV-1 RT and transcription.

  5. Targeted femtosecond laser driven drug delivery within HIV-1 infected cells: In-vitro studies [conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maphanga, Charles P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection still remains one amongst the world’s most challenging infections since its discovery. Antiretroviral therapy is the recommended treatment of choice for HIV-1 infection taken by patients orally...

  6. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Susan; John-Stewart, Grace; Egessa, John J; Mubezi, Sezi; Kusemererwa, Sylvia; Bii, Dennis K; Bulya, Nulu; Mugume, Francis; Campbell, James D; Wangisi, Jonathan; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  7. Rapid Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation for Women in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial Experiencing Primary HIV-1 Infection during Pregnancy or Breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Morrison

    Full Text Available During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART, despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.

  8. Parasitic helminths and HIV-1 infection: the effect of immunomodulatory antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, E.E.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    In many regions of the world co-infection with parasitic helminths and HIV-1 is common. Both pathogens have major implications for the host immune system, helminths possess immunomodulatory properties whilst HIV-1 infects and kills immune cells. Currently very little is known regarding what effects

  9. Mortality in a cohort of children born to HIV-1 infected women from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe mortality in a cohort ofinfants withvertically transmitted HIV-1 infection. Patients and methods. Children of HIV-1 infected. women were' followed up from birth and a record was made at each visit of growth, development and all illnesses. Details surrounding death were obtained from hospital records.

  10. Telomeres and HIV-1 infection: in search of exhaustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K. C.; Miedema, F.

    1998-01-01

    Telomere length analysis could be helpful in determining if exhaustion and replicative senescence are involved in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Evidence that CD8+ T cells have shorter telomeres may point towards an increased turnover of CD8+ T cells and exhaustion of the CD8+ T-cell responses in HIV-1

  11. Raltegravir with optimized background therapy for resistant HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steigbigel, Roy T; Cooper, David A; Kumar, Princy N

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (MK-0518) is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase active against HIV-1 susceptible or resistant to older antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: We conducted two identical trials in different geographic regions to evaluate the safety and efficacy...

  12. Decidual soluble factors participate in the control of HIV-1 infection at the maternofetal interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkane Nadia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternofetal transmission (MFT of HIV-1 is relatively rare during the first trimester of pregnancy despite the permissivity of placental cells for cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection. Invasive placental cells interact directly with decidual cells of the uterine mucosa during the first months of pregnancy, but the role of the decidua in the control of HIV-1 transmission is unknown. Results We found that decidual mononuclear cells naturally produce low levels of IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-γ and CXCL-12 (SDF-1, and large amounts of CCL-2 (MCP1, CCL-3 (MIP-1α, CCL-4 (MIP-1β, CCL-5 (Rantes, CXCL-10 (IP-10, IL-6 and IL-8. CCL-3 and CCL-4 levels were significantly upregulated by in vitro infection with R5 HIV-1 but not X4. Decidual CD14+ antigen presenting cells were the main CCL-3 and CCL-4 producers among decidual leukocytes. R5 and X4 HIV-1 infection was inhibited by decidual cell culture supernatants in vitro. Using HIV-1 pseudotypes, we found that inhibition of the HIV-1 entry step was inhibited by decidual soluble factors. Conclusion Our findings show that decidual innate immunity (soluble factors is involved in the control of HIV-1 infection at the maternofetal interface. The decidua could thus serve as a mucosal model for identifying correlates of protection against HIV-1 infection.

  13. Escherichia coli surface display of single-chain antibody VRC01 against HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Xu [Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States); School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska—Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Mellon, Michael [Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States); School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Lincoln, NE (United States); Bowder, Dane [Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States); School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska—Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Quinn, Meghan [Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States); School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Lincoln, NE (United States); Shea, Danielle; Wood, Charles [Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States); School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska—Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Xiang, Shi-Hua, E-mail: sxiang2@unl.edu [Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States); School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and infection occur mainly via the mucosal surfaces. The commensal bacteria residing in these surfaces can potentially be employed as a vehicle for delivering inhibitors to prevent HIV-1 infection. In this study, we have employed a bacteria-based strategy to display a broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01, which could potentially be used to prevent HIV-1 infection. The VRC01 antibody mimics CD4-binding to gp120 and has broadly neutralization activities against HIV-1. We have designed a construct that can express the fusion peptide of the scFv-VRC01 antibody together with the autotransporter β-barrel domain of IgAP gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which enabled surface display of the antibody molecule. Our results indicate that the scFv-VRC01 antibody molecule was displayed on the surface of the bacteria as demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. The engineered bacteria can capture HIV-1 particles via surface-binding and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell culture. - Highlights: • Designed single-chain VRC01 antibody was demonstrated to bind HIV-1 envelope gp120. • Single-chain VRC01 antibody was successfully displayed on the surface of E. coli. • Engineered bacteria can absorb HIV-1 particles and prevent HIV-1 infection in cell culture.

  14. Necroptosis takes place in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Pan

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is characterized by progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and dysfunction of the immune system. The numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the human body are maintained constantly by homeostatic mechanisms that failed during HIV-1 infection, resulting in progressive loss of CD4+ T cells mainly via apoptosis. Recently, a non-apoptotic form of necrotic programmed cell death, named necroptosis, has been investigated in many biological and pathological processes. We then determine whether HIV-1-infected cells also undergo necroptosis. In this report, we demonstrate that HIV-1 not only induces apoptosis, but also mediates necroptosis in the infected primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD4+ T-cell lines. Necroptosis-dependent cytopathic effects are significantly increased in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells that is lack of Fas-associated protein-containing death domain (FADD, indicating that necroptosis occurs as an alternative cell death mechanism in the absence of apoptosis. Unlike apoptosis, necroptosis mainly occurs in HIV-infected cells and spares bystander damage. Treatment with necrostatin-1(Nec-1, a RIP1 inhibitor that specifically blocks the necroptosis pathway, potently restrains HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect and interestingly, inhibits the formation of HIV-induced syncytia in CD4+ T-cell lines. This suggests that syncytia formation is mediated, at least partially, by necroptosis-related processes. Furthermore, we also found that the HIV-1 infection-augmented tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α plays a key role in inducing necroptosis and HIV-1 Envelope and Tat proteins function as its co-factors. Taken together,necroptosis can function as an alternative cell death pathway in lieu of apoptosis during HIV-1 infection, thereby also contributing to HIV-1-induced cytopathic effects. Our results reveal that in addition to apoptosis, necroptosis also plays an important role in HIV-1-induced pathogenesis.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell derived hematopoietic cells are permissive to HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent, self-renewing cells known for their differentiation potential into cells of mesenchymal lineage. The ability of single cell clones isolated from adipose tissue resident MSCs (ASCs to differentiate into cells of hematopoietic lineage has been previously demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated if the hematopoietic differentiated (HD cells derived from ASCs could productively be infected with HIV-1. Results HD cells were generated by differentiating clonally expanded cultures of adherent subsets of ASCs (CD90+, CD105+, CD45-, and CD34-. Transcriptome analysis revealed that HD cells acquire a number of elements that increase their susceptibility for HIV-1 infection, including HIV-1 receptor/co-receptor and other key cellular cofactors. HIV-1 infected HD cells (HD-HIV showed elevated p24 protein and gag and tat gene expression, implying a high and productive infection. HD-HIV cells showed decreased CD4, but significant increase in the expression of CCR5, CXCR4, Nef-associated factor HCK, and Vpu-associated factor BTRC. HIV-1 restricting factors like APOBEC3F and TRIM5 also showed up regulation. HIV-1 infection increased apoptosis and cell cycle regulatory genes in HD cells. Although undifferentiated ASCs failed to show productive infection, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of several hematopoietic lineage associated genes such as c-Kit, MMD2, and IL-10. Conclusions Considering the presence of profuse amounts of ASCs in different tissues, these findings suggest the possible role that could be played by HD cells derived from ASCs in HIV-1 infection. The undifferentiated ASCs were non-permissive to HIV-1 infection; however, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of some hematopoietic lineage related genes. The findings relate the importance of ASCs in HIV-1 research and facilitate the understanding of the disease process and management strategies.

  16. Differential activity of candidate microbicides against early steps of HIV-1 infection upon complement virus opsonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Thomas W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 in genital secretions may be opsonized by several molecules including complement components. Opsonized HIV-1 by complement enhances the infection of various mucosal target cells, such as dendritic cells (DC and epithelial cells. Results We herein evaluated the effect of HIV-1 complement opsonization on microbicide candidates' activity, by using three in vitro mucosal models: CCR5-tropic HIV-1JR-CSF transcytosis through epithelial cells, HIV-1JR-CSF attachment on immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMDDC, and infectivity of iMDDC by CCR5-tropic HIV-1BaL and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1NDK. A panel of 10 microbicide candidates [T20, CADA, lectines HHA & GNA, PVAS, human lactoferrin, and monoclonal antibodies IgG1B12, 12G5, 2G12 and 2F5], were investigated using cell-free unopsonized or opsonized HIV-1 by complements. Only HHA and PVAS were able to inhibit HIV trancytosis. Upon opsonization, transcytosis was affected only by HHA, HIV-1 adsorption on iMDDC by four molecules (lactoferrin, IgG1B12, IgG2G5, IgG2G12, and replication in iMDDC of HIV-1BaL by five molecules (lactoferrin, CADA, T20, IgG1B12, IgG2F5 and of HIV-1NDK by two molecules (lactoferrin, IgG12G5. Conclusion These observations demonstrate that HIV-1 opsonization by complements may modulate in vitro the efficiency of candidate microbicides to inhibit HIV-1 infection of mucosal target cells, as well as its crossing through mucosa.

  17. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Genital Infection among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the isolates except Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to ampicillin. These results show a high rate of asymptomatic genital tract infections among pregnant women in Benin City, which have implications for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. (Afr J Reprod Health 2002; 6[3]: 93-97) Résumé Prévalence de ...

  18. Prospective Study of Acute HIV-1 Infection in Adults in East Africa and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Merlin L.; Eller, Leigh A.; Kibuuka, Hannah; Rono, Kathleen; Maganga, Lucas; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Kroon, Eugene; Sawe, Fred K.; Sinei, Samuel; Sriplienchan, Somchai; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Malia, Jennifer; Manak, Mark; de Souza, Mark S.; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Rolland, Morgane; Dorsey-Spitz, Julie; Eller, Michael A.; Milazzo, Mark; Li, Qun; Lewandowski, Andrew; Wu, Hao; Swann, Edith; O'Connell, Robert J.; Peel, Sheila; Dawson, Peter; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a major contributor to transmission of HIV-1. An understanding of acute HIV-1 infection may be important in the development of treatment strategies to eradicate HIV-1 or achieve a functional cure. Methods We performed twice-weekly qualitative plasma HIV-1 RNA nucleic acid testing in 2276 volunteers who were at high risk for HIV-1 infection. For participants in whom acute HIV-1 infection was detected, clinical observations, quantitative measurements of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (to assess viremia) and HIV antibodies, and results of immunophenotyping of lymphocytes were obtained twice weekly. Results Fifty of 112 volunteers with acute HIV-1 infection had two or more blood samples collected before HIV-1 antibodies were detected. The median peak viremia (6.7 log10 copies per milliliter) occurred 13 days after the first sample showed reactivity on nucleic acid testing. Reactivity on an enzyme immunoassay occurred at a median of 14 days. The nadir of viremia (4.3 log10 copies per milliliter) occurred at a median of 31 days and was nearly equivalent to the viral-load set point, the steady-state viremia that persists durably after resolution of acute viremia (median plasma HIV-1 RNA level, 4.4 log10 copies per milliliter). The peak viremia and downslope were correlated with the viral-load set point. Clinical manifestations of acute HIV-1 infection were most common just before and at the time of peak viremia. A median of one symptom of acute HIV-1 infection was recorded at a median of two study visits, and a median of one sign of acute HIV-1 infection was recorded at a median of three visits. Conclusions The viral-load set point occurred at a median of 31 days after the first detection of plasma viremia and correlated with peak viremia. Few symptoms and signs were observed during acute HIV-1 infection, and they were most common before peak viremia. (Funded by the Department of Defense and the National

  19. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Van Duyne, Rachel; Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-01-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4+ T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4+ T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4+ T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the “Shock and Kill” strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. PMID:26184775

  20. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Van Duyne, Rachel; Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-11-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4(+) T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4(+) T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4(+) T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the "Shock and Kill" strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis Increases the Risk of HIV-1 Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Scott McClelland; Laura Sangaré; Wisal M. Hassan; Ludo Lavreys; Kishorchandra Mandaliya; James Kiarie; Jeckoniah Ndinya-Achola; Walter Jaoko; Jared M. Baeten

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study among women in Mombasa, Kenya, to determine whether Trichomonas vaginalis infection was associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection...

  2. Vaginal Langerhans Cells Nonproductively Transporting HIV-1 Mediate Infection of T Cells ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ballweber, Lamar; Robinson, Barry; Kreger, Allison; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hladik, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Although implied by other models, proof that Langerhans cells (LCs) in the human vagina participate in dissemination of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been lacking. Here, we show that LCs migrate from HIV-1-exposed vaginal epithelia and pass infectious virus to CD4+ T cells without being productively infected themselves, and we point to a pathway that might enable HIV-1 to avoid degradation in vaginal LCs. Transport by migratory LCs to local lymphatics in a nonprod...

  3. Epidemiological trends of HIV-1 infection in blood donors from Catalonia, Spain (2005-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes, Marta; Piron, Maria; Casamitjana, Natàlia; Gregori, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Ribera, Esteban; Quer, Josep; Puig, Lluís; Sauleda, Sílvia

    2017-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype B is predominant in Spain. However, the recent arrival of immigrant populations has increased the prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and transmitted drug-resistance mutations in blood donors from the Catalonian region (northeastern Spain). HIV-1-positive blood donors identified in Catalonia from 2005 to 2014 were included. Demographic variables and risk factors for HIV-1 acquisition were recorded. HIV-1 subtyping was carried out by HIV-1 DNA polymerase region sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining method. During the study period, 2.8 million blood donations were screened, and 214 HIV-1-positive donors were identified, yielding an overall prevalence of 7.7 per 100,000 donations (89% men; mean age, 34 ± 10 years). Most HIV-1-positive donors were native to Spain (81%), and 61% were regular blood donors. When risk factors were known, 62% reportedly were men who had sex with men. HIV-1 subtyping was possible in 176 HIV-1-positive individuals: 143 (81%) had HIV-1 subtype B, and 33 (19%) had non-B subtypes. Most HIV-1 non-B subtypes were circulating recombinant forms (n = 20; 61%). Factors associated with HIV-1 subtype B were male sex (p = 0.007) and men who had sex with men (p < 0.001). The overall prevalence of transmitted drug-resistance mutations was 14%. Non-B subtypes, circulating recombinant forms, and transmitted drug-resistance mutation sequences circulate among HIV-1-positive blood donors in Catalonia. Continuous local epidemiological surveillance is required to implement optimal prevention strategies for controlling transfusion-transmitted HIV and to improve health policies regarding HIV infection. © 2017 AABB.

  4. Hybrid Spreading Mechanisms and T Cell Activation Shape the Dynamics of HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Borrow, Persephone; Chain, Benjamin M.; Jolly, Clare

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 can disseminate between susceptible cells by two mechanisms: cell-free infection following fluid-phase diffusion of virions and by highly-efficient direct cell-to-cell transmission at immune cell contacts. The contribution of this hybrid spreading mechanism, which is also a characteristic of some important computer worm outbreaks, to HIV-1 progression in vivo remains unknown. Here we present a new mathematical model that explicitly incorporates the ability of HIV-1 to use hybrid spreading mechanisms and evaluate the consequences for HIV-1 pathogenenesis. The model captures the major phases of the HIV-1 infection course of a cohort of treatment naive patients and also accurately predicts the results of the Short Pulse Anti-Retroviral Therapy at Seroconversion (SPARTAC) trial. Using this model we find that hybrid spreading is critical to seed and establish infection, and that cell-to-cell spread and increased CD4+ T cell activation are important for HIV-1 progression. Notably, the model predicts that cell-to-cell spread becomes increasingly effective as infection progresses and thus may present a considerable treatment barrier. Deriving predictions of various treatments’ influence on HIV-1 progression highlights the importance of earlier intervention and suggests that treatments effectively targeting cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread can delay progression to AIDS. This study suggests that hybrid spreading is a fundamental feature of HIV infection, and provides the mathematical framework incorporating this feature with which to evaluate future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25837979

  5. HEPATITIS B, HIV AND SYPHILIS INFECTION IN ASYMPTOMATIC PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Karuna Yadav

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with Hepatitis b, HIV and Syphilis positivity among asymptomatic pregnant women. We also assessed maternal and fetal outcome in HBsAg, HIV and Syphilis pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study of 1000 consecutive apparently healthy asymptomatic pregnant women, who are attending the antenatal clinic of AVBRH Hospital Sawangi (Meghe during September 2014 To August 2016. The blood samples was collected after obtaining their informed written consent from those who were tested for HIV antibodies (NACO guidelines, HBsAg (ELISA test, and Syphilis (RPR SPANCARD latex kit. RESULTS The prevalence of HBsAg (1.7%, HIV (1.0%, Syphilis (0.1%. All the infection was more common in illiterate, multigravida, monogamous women of low socio-economic status, History of blood transfusion, IV/IM drug users and common in multiple sexual partner. CONCLUSION This present study clearly documented a relatively declined prevalence of HBsAg, HIV and Syphilis in pregnant women. The data reinforces the need for establishing effective preventive programs, which could lead to reduction in the prevalence of these infections.

  6. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubert, Monique E; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rivera, Nina T; Wigdahl, Brian; Nonnemacher, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr) have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.

  7. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E Maubert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS. Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART, CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.

  8. Galectin-3 promotes caspase-independent cell death of HIV-1-infected macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jing; Fu, Chunyan; Cong, Zhe; Peng, Lingjuan; Peng, Zhuoying; Chen, Ting; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Hong; Wei, Qiang; Qin, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1-infected macrophages are a key contributor to the formation of a viral reservoir and new treatment strategies focus on eliminating this pool of virus. Galectin-3 is a potent apoptosis-inducing protein that regulates diverse cellular activities. In the present study, we investigated whether galectin-3 could induce cell death in HIV-1-infected macrophages using HIV-1-infected THP1 monocytes (THP1-MNs) and THP1-derived macrophages (THP1-MΦs) as in vitro cellular models. We found that THP1-MΦs were more resistant than the THP1-MNs to HIV-1 infection-induced death, and that HIV-1 infection of the THP1-MΦs increased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Additionally, galectin-3 but not FasL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or TNF-α, could induce cell death in HIV-1-infected THP1-MΦs. A similar result was shown for primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. Galectin-3-induced cell death was also significantly increased in macrophages obtained from SIVmac251-infected macaques compared to that of macrophages from healthy macaques. Furthermore, galectin-3-induced cell death in HIV-1-infected THP1-MΦs was caspase independent. Interestingly, endonuclease G (Endo G) was increased in the nucleus and decreased in the cytoplasm of galectin-3-treated cells; thus, galectin-3-induced cell death in HIV-1-infected THP1-MΦs is most likely related to the translocation of Endo G from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These findings suggest that galectin-3 may potentially aid in the eradication of HIV-1/SIV-infected macrophages. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. The good and evil of complement activation in HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qigui; Yu, Richard; Qin, Xuebin

    2010-01-01

    The complement system, a key component of innate immunity, is a first-line defender against foreign pathogens such as HIV-1. The role of the complement system in HIV-1 pathogenesis appears to be multifaceted. Although the complement system plays critical roles in clearing and neutralizing HIV-1 virions, it also represents a critical factor for the spread and maintenance of the virus in the infected host. In addition, complement regulators such as human CD59 present in the envelope of HIV-1 pr...

  10. HIV-1 infection in macrophages and genes involved throughout: Big eaters versus small invaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobos Jiménez, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we have studied the infectious process of HIV-1 in differently polarized macrophages. The purpose of this research was to identify cellular factors that are involved in HIV-1 infection of macrophages, how these factors affect viral replication and whether their function or expression

  11. IFITM Proteins Restrict HIV-1 Infection by Antagonizing the Envelope Glycoprotein

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    Jingyou Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM proteins have been recently shown to restrict HIV-1 and other viruses. Here, we provide evidence that IFITM proteins, particularly IFITM2 and IFITM3, specifically antagonize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env, thereby inhibiting viral infection. IFITM proteins interact with HIV-1 Env in viral producer cells, leading to impaired Env processing and virion incorporation. Notably, the level of IFITM incorporation into HIV-1 virions does not strictly correlate with the extent of inhibition. Prolonged passage of HIV-1 in IFITM-expressing T lymphocytes leads to emergence of Env mutants that overcome IFITM restriction. The ability of IFITMs to inhibit cell-to-cell infection can be extended to HIV-1 primary isolates, HIV-2 and SIVs; however, the extent of inhibition appears to be virus-strain dependent. Overall, our study uncovers a mechanism by which IFITM proteins specifically antagonize HIV-1 Env to restrict HIV-1 infection and provides insight into the specialized role of IFITMs in HIV infection.

  12. Age-related expansion of Tim-3 expressing T cells in vertically HIV-1 infected children.

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    Ravi Tandon

    Full Text Available As perinatally HIV-1-infected children grow into adolescents and young adults, they are increasingly burdened with the long-term consequences of chronic HIV-1 infection, with long-term morbidity due to inadequate immunity. In progressive HIV-1 infection in horizontally infected adults, inflammation, T cell activation, and perturbed T cell differentiation lead to an "immune exhaustion", with decline in T cell effector functions. T effector cells develop an increased expression of CD57 and loss of CD28, with an increase in co-inhibitory receptors such as PD-1 and Tim-3. Very little is known about HIV-1 induced T cell dysfunction in vertical infection. In two perinatally antiretroviral drug treated HIV-1-infected groups with median ages of 11.2 yr and 18.5 yr, matched for viral load, we found no difference in the proportion of senescent CD28(-CD57(+CD8(+ T cells between the groups. However, the frequency of Tim-3(+CD8(+ and Tim-3(+CD4(+ exhausted T cells, but not PD-1(+ T cells, was significantly increased in the adolescents with longer duration of infection compared to the children with shorter duration of HIV-1 infection. PD-1(+CD8(+ T cells were directly associated with T cell immune activation in children. The frequency of Tim-3(+CD8(+ T cells positively correlated with HIV-1 plasma viral load in the adolescents but not in the children. These data suggest that Tim-3 upregulation was driven by both HIV-1 viral replication and increased age, whereas PD-1 expression is associated with immune activation. These findings also suggest that the Tim-3 immune exhaustion phenotype rather than PD-1 or senescent cells plays an important role in age-related T cell dysfunction in perinatal HIV-1 infection. Targeting Tim-3 may serve as a novel therapeutic approach to improve immune control of virus replication and mitigate age related T cell exhaustion.

  13. Loss of memory (CD27) B lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Milito, A; Mörch, C; Sönnerborg, A; Chiodi, F

    2001-05-25

    The mechanisms of B-cell dysfunction during HIV-1 infection, including polyclonal B-cell activation, are poorly understood. We studied the phenotype and the functionality of peripheral memory B cells in HIV-1-infected subjects. The phenotype of B cells and the responsiveness to T-cell dependent activation in vitro were analysed in 36 HIV-1-infected and 34 healthy subjects. Phenotyping of B and T cells was performed by FACS. IgG content was measured in plasma (by nephelometry) and cultures (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) of B lymphocytes activated through CD40 or CD27 ligation. Expression of Fas and Fas ligand was performed by FACS on B-cell subpopulations from five HIV-1-infected and four uninfected subjects. The peripheral memory (CD27) B cells were significantly reduced in HIV-1-infected subjects. The amount of memory B cells was low in both drug-naive subjects and patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy. Ex vivo expression of CD70 (CD27 ligand) on T cells was significantly higher in HIV-1-infected subjects and inversely correlated with the frequency of memory B cells. In spite of the reduced number of memory B cells, in vitro spontaneous and activation-induced IgG secretion was higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in uninfected controls. The hyperactivation status of B lymphocytes in HIV-1-infected patients was further confirmed by the finding of upregulation of Fas and FasL expression on memory B cells. Memory B lymphocytes are depleted from peripheral blood in HIV-1-infected subjects. Our ex vivo findings suggest that persistent T-cell activation may contribute to loss of memory B cells through upregulation of Fas/FasL on these cells and terminal differentiation into plasma cells.

  14. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacaman Rodrigo A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. Results To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Δenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+ by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Conclusion Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  15. Role of hexokinase-1 in the survival of HIV-1-infected macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Satarupa; Kaminiski, Rafal; Deshmane, Satish; Langford, Dianne; Khalili, Kamel; Amini, Shohreh; Datta, Prasun K

    2015-01-01

    Viruses have developed various strategies to protect infected cells from apoptosis. HIV-1 infected macrophages are long-lived and considered reservoirs for HIV-1. One significant deciding factor between cell survival and cell death is glucose metabolism. We hypothesized that HIV-1 protects infected macrophages from apoptosis in part by modulating the host glycolytic pathway specifically by regulating hexokinase-1 (HK-1) an enzyme that converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Therefore, we analyzed the regulation of HK-1 in HIV-1 infected PBMCs, and in a chronically HIV-1 infected monocyte-like cell line, U1. Our results demonstrate that HIV-1 induces a robust increase in HK-1 expression. Surprisingly, hexokinase enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited in HIV-1 infected PBMCs and in PMA differentiated U1 cells. Interestingly, we observed increased levels of mitochondria-bound HK-1 in PMA induced U1 cells and in the HIV-1 accessory protein, viral protein R (Vpr) transduced U937 cell derived macrophages. Dissociation of HK-1 from mitochondria in U1 cells using a pharmacological agent, clotrimazole (CTZ) induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspase-3/7 mediated apoptosis. Dissociation of HK-1 from mitochondria in Vpr transduced U937 also activated caspase-3/7 activity. These observations indicate that HK-1 plays a non-metabolic role in HIV-1 infected macrophages by binding to mitochondria thereby maintaining mitochondrial integrity. These results suggest that targeting the interaction of HK-1 with the mitochondria to induce apoptosis in persistently infected macrophages may prove beneficial in purging the macrophage HIV reservoir.

  16. M-protein-positive chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection: features mimicking HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Azuma, Naoto; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Kasahara, Yoshihito

    2009-09-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a unique and fatal lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), which often shows high serum IgG and/or IgE. The significance of such immunoglobulin abnormalities in CAEBV has not been fully evaluated and discussed. In addition, such clinical features mimic HIV-1 infection. We report here a case of CAEBV with M-protein detected which may shed a new light on the pathogenesis of this disease.

  17. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Events Are Differentially Impacted by Breast Milk and Its Components from HIV-1-Infected Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhong Shen

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a vehicle of infection and source of protection in post-natal mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT. Understanding the mechanism by which breast milk limits vertical transmission will provide critical insight into the design of preventive and therapeutic approaches to interrupt HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, characterization of the inhibitory activity of breast milk in human intestinal mucosa, the portal of entry in postnatal MTCT, has been constrained by the limited availability of primary mucosal target cells and tissues to recapitulate mucosal transmission ex vivo. Here, we characterized the impact of skimmed breast milk, breast milk antibodies (Igs and non-Ig components from HIV-1-infected Ugandan women on the major events of HIV-1 mucosal transmission using primary human intestinal cells and tissues. HIV-1-specific IgG antibodies and non-Ig components in breast milk inhibited the uptake of Ugandan HIV-1 isolates by primary human intestinal epithelial cells, viral replication in and transport of HIV-1- bearing dendritic cells through the human intestinal mucosa. Breast milk HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA, as well as innate factors, blocked the uptake and transport of HIV-1 through intestinal mucosa. Thus, breast milk components have distinct and complementary effects in reducing HIV-1 uptake, transport through and replication in the intestinal mucosa and, therefore, likely contribute to preventing postnatal HIV-1 transmission. Our data suggests that a successful preventive or therapeutic approach would require multiple immune factors acting at multiple steps in the HIV-1 mucosal transmission process.

  18. HIV-1 infection: functional competition between gp41 and interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhadji, Kamel; Tardy, Jean-Claude; Touraine, Jean-Louis

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the gp41 of HIV-1 could adhere to the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor at the surface of target cells in vitro, we analysed in vitro the possible functional competition between various forms of the HIV-1 gp41 molecule (i.e. peptides, trimeric or primary structures) and IL-2. This competition has been analysed in a test involving the proliferation of an IL-2-dependent cell line (CTLL2). The putative interaction between the IL-2 molecule and HIV-1 has also been assayed on MT4 cells (CD4(+) T lymphocytes) in culture. The gp41 trimeric molecule and an HIV-1 gp41 peptide (578-590 aminoacid sequence) dramatically inhibited CTLL2 cell proliferation, despite the presence of IL-2. The addition of serum, containing anti-gp41 antibodies, from HIV-1 patients resulted in a significant abolition of this inhibition. The concomitant incubation of IL-2 and HIV-1 with MT4 cells resulted in a strong decrease (70%) in HIV-1 p24 release. These data suggest that the gp41 of HIV-1 can use the IL-2 receptor during the process of HIV-1 infection and that there is some functional mimesis between gp41 and IL-2. Copyright 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurosyphilis in a clinical cohort of HIV-1-infected patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Khalil G.; Moore, Richard D.; Rompalo, Anne M.; Erbelding, Emily J.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe the risk factors, clinical presentation, and long-term follow up of patients enrolled in a clinical cohort of HIV-infected patients who were diagnosed and treated for neurosyphilis. Methods Comprehensive demographic, clinical, and therapeutic data were collected prospectively on all patients between 1990 and 2006. Patients were diagnosed with neurosyphilis if they had positive syphilis serologies and any of the following: (a) one or more cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities on lumbar puncture [white blood cells >10/μl; protein >50 mg/dl; reactive venereal diseases research laboratory], (b) an otherwise unexplained neurological finding. Results Of 231 newly diagnosed syphilis cases, 41 neurosyphilis cases met entry criteria (median age 38.6 years, 79.1% male). Risk factors for neurosyphilis included a CD4 cell count of less than 350 cells/ml at the time of syphilis diagnosis (odds ratio: 2.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.18–7.02), a rapid plasma regain titer >1:128 (2.83; 1.11–7.26), and male sex (2.46; 1.06–5.70). Use of any highly active antiretroviral therapy before syphilis infection reduced the odds of neurosyphilis by 65% (0.35; 0.14–0.91). Sixty-three percent of cases presented with early neurosyphilis and the median time to neurosyphilis diagnosis was 9 months. Symptomatic patients had more cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities on initial lumbar puncture than asymptomatic patients (P =0.01). Follow-up lumbar puncture within 12 months revealed that only 38% had resolution of all cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities. At 1 year, 38% had persistence of their major symptom despite adequate treatment for neurosyphilis. Twelve of 41 (29%) patients were retreated for syphilis. Conclusion Early neurosyphilis was common in this cohort. Highly active antiretroviral therapy to reverse immunosuppression may help mitigate neurological complications of syphilis. PMID:18525260

  20. Uridine metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients: effect of infection, of antiretroviral therapy and of HIV-1/ART-associated lipodystrophy syndrome.

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    Pere Domingo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uridine has been advocated for the treatment of HIV-1/HAART-associated lipodystrophy (HALS, although its metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients is poorly understood. METHODS: Plasma uridine concentrations were measured in 35 controls and 221 HIV-1-infected patients and fat uridine in 15 controls and 19 patients. The diagnosis of HALS was performed following the criteria of the Lipodystrophy Severity Grading Scale. Uridine was measured by a binary gradient-elution HPLC method. Analysis of genes encoding uridine metabolizing enzymes in fat was performed with TaqMan RT-PCR. RESULTS: Median plasma uridine concentrations for HIV-1-infected patients were 3.80 µmol/l (interquartile range: 1.60, and for controls 4.60 µmol/l (IQR: 1.8 (P = 0.0009. In fat, they were of 6.0 (3.67, and 2.8 (4.65 nmol/mg of protein, respectively (P = 0.0118. Patients with a mixed HALS form had a median plasma uridine level of 4.0 (IC95%: 3.40-4.80 whereas in those with isolated lipoatrophy it was 3.25 (2.55-4.15 µmol/l/l (P = 0.0066. The expression of uridine cytidine kinase and uridine phosphorylase genes was significantly decreased in all groups of patients with respect to controls. A higher expression of the mRNAs for concentrative nucleoside transporters was found in HIV-1-infected patients with respect to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 infection is associated with a decrease in plasma uridine and a shift of uridine to the adipose tissue compartment. Antiretroviral therapy was not associated with plasma uridine concentrations, but pure lipoatrophic HALS was associated with significantly lower plasma uridine concentrations.

  1. Sialoadhesin expressed on IFN-induced monocytes binds HIV-1 and enhances infectivity.

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    Hans Rempel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection dysregulates the immune system and alters gene expression in circulating monocytes. Differential gene expression analysis of CD14(+ monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1, a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic inflammatory diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes by flow cytometry and found significantly higher expression in subjects with elevated viral loads compared to subjects with undetectable viral loads. In cultured CD14(+ monocytes isolated from healthy individuals, sialoadhesin expression was induced by interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Using a stringent binding assay, sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes adsorbed HIV-1 through interaction with the sialic acid residues on the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Furthermore, monocytes expressing sialoadhesin facilitated HIV-1 trans infection of permissive cells, which occurred in the absence of monocyte self-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increased sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes occurred in response to HIV-1 infection with maximum expression associated with high viral load. We show that interferons induce sialoadhesin in primary CD14(+ monocytes, which is consistent with an antiviral response during viremia. Our findings suggest that circulating sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes are capable of binding HIV-1 and effectively delivering virus to target cells thereby enhancing the distribution of HIV-1. Sialoadhesin could disseminate HIV-1 to viral reservoirs during monocyte immunosurveillance or migration to sites of inflammation and then facilitate HIV-1 infection of permissive cells.

  2. Higher sequence diversity in the vaginal tract than in blood at early HIV-1 infection.

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    Katja Klein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of cases, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is transmitted through sexual intercourse. A single founder virus in the blood of the newly infected donor emerges from a genetic bottleneck, while in rarer instances multiple viruses are responsible for systemic infection. We sought to characterize the sequence diversity at early infection, between two distinct anatomical sites; the female reproductive tract vs. systemic compartment. We recruited 72 women from Uganda and Zimbabwe within seven months of HIV-1 infection. Using next generation deep sequencing, we analyzed the total genetic diversity within the C2-V3-C3 envelope region of HIV-1 isolated from the female genital tract at early infection and compared this to the diversity of HIV-1 in plasma. We then compared intra-patient viral diversity in matched cervical and blood samples with three or seven months post infection. Genetic analysis of the C2-V3-C3 region of HIV-1 env revealed that early HIV-1 isolates within blood displayed a more homogeneous genotype (mean 1.67 clones, range 1-5 clones than clones in the female genital tract (mean 5.7 clones, range 3-10 clones (p<0.0001. The higher env diversity observed within the genital tract compared to plasma was independent of HIV-1 subtype (A, C and D. Our analysis of early mucosal infections in women revealed high HIV-1 diversity in the vaginal tract but few transmitted clones in the blood. These novel in vivo finding suggest a possible mucosal sieve effect, leading to the establishment of a homogenous systemic infection.

  3. The Immune Interaction between HIV-1 Infection and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bruyn, Elsa; Wilkinson, Robert John

    2016-12-01

    The modulation of tuberculosis (TB)-induced immunopathology caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 coinfection remains incompletely understood but underlies the change seen in the natural history, presentation, and prognosis of TB in such patients. The deleterious combination of these two pathogens has been dubbed a "deadly syndemic," with each favoring the replication of the other and thereby contributing to accelerated disease morbidity and mortality. HIV-1 is the best-recognized risk factor for the development of active TB and accounts for 13% of cases globally. The advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has considerably mitigated this risk. Rapid roll-out of ART globally and the recent recommendation by the World Health Organization (WHO) to initiate ART for everyone living with HIV at any CD4 cell count should lead to further reductions in HIV-1-associated TB incidence because susceptibility to TB is inversely proportional to CD4 count. However, it is important to note that even after successful ART, patients with HIV-1 are still at increased risk for TB. Indeed, in settings of high TB incidence, the occurrence of TB often remains the first presentation of, and thereby the entry into, HIV care. As advantageous as ART-induced immune recovery is, it may also give rise to immunopathology, especially in the lower-CD4-count strata in the form of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome will continue to impact the HIV-TB syndemic.

  4. RNA-directed gene editing specifically eradicates latent and prevents new HIV-1 infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenhui Hu; Rafal Kaminski; Fan Yang; Yonggang Zhang; Laura Cosentino; Fang Li; Biao Luo; David Alvarez-Carbonell; Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa; Jonathan Karn; Xianming Mo; Kamel Khalili

    2014-01-01

    .... We identified highly specific targets within the HIV-1 LTR U3 region that were efficiently edited by Cas9/gRNA, inactivating viral gene expression and replication in latently infected microglial...

  5. Potential of RNA aptamers in the prevention of HIV-1 subtype C infections

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    London, GM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Compounds that have been used to prevent human immunodeficiency virus type-I (HIV-1) infections include synthetic chemicals, plant extras and monoclonal antibodies. Although most of these compounds have potent antiviral activity, they often fail...

  6. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 predicts myocardial infarction in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Katzenstein, Terese L; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    of seven biomarkers with first-time myocardial infarction (MI) in an HIV-1-infected population. DESIGN: A matched case-control study of 54 cases and 54 controls. METHODS: We compared 54 HIV-1-infected patients with verified first-time MI and 54 HIV-1-infected controls matched for age, duration...... of antiretroviral therapy, sex, smoking and no known cardiovascular disease. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble endothelial selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, matrix metalloprotease 9, myeloperoxidase, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1...... levels of PAI-1 were associated with risk of first-time MI in HIV-1-infected individuals independently of cardiovascular risk factors, HIV parameters and antiretroviral therapy. Therefore PAI-1 may be used for risk stratification and prediction of CHD, but further studies are needed....

  7. Investigation of HIV-1 infected and uninfected cells using the optical trapping technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available pathological information as possible, we use a home-build optical trapping and spectroscopy system for real time probing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infected and uninfected single cells. Briefly, our experimental rig comprises an infrared continuous...

  8. The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Liese Cole

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mucosa and overlying fluid of the female reproductive tract (FRT are portals for the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Toward the ongoing development of topically applied microbicides and mucosal vaccines against HIV-1, it is evermore important to understand how the dynamic FRT mucosa is involved in controlling transmission and infection of HIV-1. Cationic peptides and proteins are the principal innate immune effector molecules of mucosal surfaces, and interact in a combinatorial fashion to modulate HIV-1 infection of the cervix and vagina. While cationic peptides and proteins have historically been categorized as antimicrobial or have other host-benefitting roles, an increasing number of these molecules have been found to augment HIV-1 infection and potentially antagonize host defense. Complex environmental factors such as hormonal fluctuations and/or bacterial and viral co-infections provide additional challenges to both experimentation and interpretation of results. In the context of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, this review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa.

  9. The achilles heel of the trojan horse model of HIV-1 trans-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavrois, Marielle; Neidleman, Jason; Greene, Warner C

    2008-06-27

    To ensure their survival, microbial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to subvert host immune defenses. The human retrovirus HIV-1 has been proposed to hijack the natural endocytic function of dendritic cells (DCs) to infect interacting CD4 T cells in a process termed trans-infection. Although DCs can be directly infected by certain strains of HIV-1, productive infection of DCs is not required during trans-infection; instead, DCs capture and internalize infectious HIV-1 virions in vesicles for later transmission to CD4 T cells via vesicular exocytosis across the infectious synapse. This model of sequential endocytosis and exocytosis of intact HIV-1 virions has been dubbed the "Trojan horse" model of HIV-1 trans-infection. While this model gained rapid favor as a strong example of how a pathogen exploits the natural properties of its cellular host, our recent studies challenge this model by showing that the vast majority of virions transmitted in trans originate from the plasma membrane rather than from intracellular vesicles. This review traces the experimental lines of evidence that have contributed to what we view as the "rise and decline" of the Trojan horse model of HIV-1 trans-infection.

  10. The achilles heel of the trojan horse model of HIV-1 trans-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle Cavrois

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To ensure their survival, microbial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to subvert host immune defenses. The human retrovirus HIV-1 has been proposed to hijack the natural endocytic function of dendritic cells (DCs to infect interacting CD4 T cells in a process termed trans-infection. Although DCs can be directly infected by certain strains of HIV-1, productive infection of DCs is not required during trans-infection; instead, DCs capture and internalize infectious HIV-1 virions in vesicles for later transmission to CD4 T cells via vesicular exocytosis across the infectious synapse. This model of sequential endocytosis and exocytosis of intact HIV-1 virions has been dubbed the "Trojan horse" model of HIV-1 trans-infection. While this model gained rapid favor as a strong example of how a pathogen exploits the natural properties of its cellular host, our recent studies challenge this model by showing that the vast majority of virions transmitted in trans originate from the plasma membrane rather than from intracellular vesicles. This review traces the experimental lines of evidence that have contributed to what we view as the "rise and decline" of the Trojan horse model of HIV-1 trans-infection.

  11. The role of micronutrients in the diet of HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnari, Giuseppe; Coco, Christian; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Pavone, Piero; Berretta, Massimiliano; Di Rosa, Michelino; Schnell, Matthias; Calabrese, Giorgio; Cacopardo, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Vitamins, zinc and selenium are important micronutrients that play crucial functions at the cellular and molecular level. Immune response of several different cell types can be modulated by these micronutrients. Deficiency in micronutrients has been extensively reported in HIV-1-infected individuals and further correlated with CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-1 plasma viral load, disease progression and mortality. Supplementation by micronutrients has had controversial effects. Thorough future investigations and trials are certainly needed to strategically plan evidence-based interventions. Here, we review the available data on use of micronutrients during the course of HIV-1 infection.

  12. HIV-1 envelope sequence-based diversity measures for identifying recent infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Kafando

    Full Text Available Identifying recent HIV-1 infections is crucial for monitoring HIV-1 incidence and optimizing public health prevention efforts. To identify recent HIV-1 infections, we evaluated and compared the performance of 4 sequence-based diversity measures including percent diversity, percent complexity, Shannon entropy and number of haplotypes targeting 13 genetic segments within the env gene of HIV-1. A total of 597 diagnostic samples obtained in 2013 and 2015 from recently and chronically HIV-1 infected individuals were selected. From the selected samples, 249 (134 from recent versus 115 from chronic infections env coding regions, including V1-C5 of gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain of HIV-1, were successfully amplified and sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The ability of the four sequence-based diversity measures to correctly identify recent HIV infections was evaluated using the frequency distribution curves, median and interquartile range and area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC. Comparing the median and interquartile range and evaluating the frequency distribution curves associated with the 4 sequence-based diversity measures, we observed that the percent diversity, number of haplotypes and Shannon entropy demonstrated significant potential to discriminate recent from chronic infections (p<0.0001. Using the AUC of ROC analysis, only the Shannon entropy measure within three HIV-1 env segments could accurately identify recent infections at a satisfactory level. The env segments were gp120 C2_1 (AUC = 0.806, gp120 C2_3 (AUC = 0.805 and gp120 V3 (AUC = 0.812. Our results clearly indicate that the Shannon entropy measure represents a useful tool for predicting HIV-1 infection recency.

  13. Differences in Clinical Manifestations of Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection between HIV-1 Subtypes in African Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Richard R.; Morrison, Charles S.; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Musoke, Robert; Arts, Eric J.; Nankya, Immaculate; Salata, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in clinical manifestations between women with various HIV-1 subtypes during acute (AI) and early (EI) HIV infection. In a longitudinal cohort study, clinical signs and symptoms among Uganda and Zimbabwe women with AI and EI were compared with HIV-negative controls; symptoms were assessed quarterly for 15 to 24 months. Early HIV infection was defined as the first visit during which a woman tested HIV antibody positive. Women who were HIV negative serologically but DNA polymerase chain reaction positive were considered AI. In all, 26 women were classified AI and 192 EI, with 654 HIV-negative controls. Primary HIV infection (AI and EI) was associated with unexplained fever (P <.01), weight loss (P <.01), fatigue (P <.01), inguinal adenopathy (P <.01), and cervical friability (P =.01). More women with subtype C infection had unexplained fever, fatigue, and abnormal vaginal discharge compared to subtype A or D infection. Inguinal adenopathy occurred less often in women with subtype A infection than those with subtype C or D infection. PMID:24106054

  14. Immunological and pharmacological strategies to reactivate HIV-1 from latently infected cells: a possibility for HIV-1 paediatric patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bonet, M; Clemente, M I; Serramía, M J; Moreno, S; Muñoz, E; Muñoz-Fernández, M A

    2015-07-01

    The limitations to establishing a viral reservoir facilitated by early cART in children could play a critical role in achieving natural control of viral replication upon discontinuation of cART, which could be defined as 'functional cure'. Viral reservoirs could provide a persistent source of recrudescent viraemia after withdrawal of cART, despite temporary remission of HIV-1 infection, as observed in the 'Mississippi baby'. Intensification of cART has been proposed as a strategy to control residual replication and to diminish the reservoirs. The effects of cART intensification with maraviroc persisted after discontinuation of the drug in HIV-1-infected adults. However, in HIV-1-infected children, the emergence of CXCR4-using variants occurs very early, and the use of CCR5 antagonists in these children as intensification therapy may not be the best alternative. New treatments to eradicate HIV-1 are focused on the activation of viral production from latently infected cells to purge and clear HIV-1 reservoirs. This strategy involves the use of a wide range of small molecules called latency-reversing agents (LRAs). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as givinostat, belinostat and panobinostat, and class I-selective HDACis that include oxamflatin, NCH-51 and romidepsin, are the most advanced in clinical testing for HIV-1 LRAs. Panobinostat and romidepsin show an efficient reactivation profile in J89GFP cells, a lymphocyte HIV-1 latently infected cell line considered a relevant model to study post-integration HIV-1 latency and reactivation. Clinical trials with panobinostat and romidepsin have been performed in children with other pathologies and it could be reasonable to design a clinical trial using these drugs in combination with cART in HIV-1-infected children.

  15. Brain Microglial Cells Are Highly Susceptible to HIV-1 Infection and Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenker, Jennifer J; Stultz, Ryan D; McDonald, David

    2017-11-01

    Macrophages are a target of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and may serve as an important reservoir of the virus in the body, particularly after depletion of CD4+ T cells in HIV/AIDS. Recently, sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) was identified as the major restriction factor of HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. SAMHD1 is targeted for proteolytic degradation by Vpx, a viral protein encoded by HIV-2 and many simian immunodeficiency viruses but not HIV-1. In this study, we assessed SAMHD1 restriction in in vitro differentiated macrophages and in freshly isolated macrophages from the lungs, abdomen, and brain. We found that infection and spread in in vitro cultured monocyte-derived macrophages were highly limited and that Vpx largely relieved the restriction to initial infection, as expected. We observed nearly identical infection and restriction profiles in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytes, as well as lung (alveolar) and abdominal (peritoneal) macrophages. In contrast, under the same infection conditions, primary brain macrophages (microglia) were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection despite levels of endogenous SAMHD1 comparable to the other macrophage populations. Addition of Vpx further increased HIV-1 infection under conditions of limiting virus input, and viral spread was robust whether or not SAMHD1 was depleted. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection of peripherally circulating macrophages is effectively restricted by SAMHD1; however, microglia are highly susceptible to infection despite SAMHD1 expression. These data may explain the long-standing observation that HIV-1 infection is often detected in macrophages in the brain, but seldom in other tissues of the body.

  16. [HIV-1 infection affects the expression of host cell factor TSG101 and Alix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-liang; Meng, Zhe-feng; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Lu, Jian-xin

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effects of HIV-1 infection on the expression of host factors TSG101 (Tumor Susceptibility Gene 101) and Alix (ALG-2-interacting protein X). HIV-1 infectious clone pNL4-3 was used to infect TZM-bl, PM1, Jurkat cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Twenty-four hours post-infection, the infected or uninfected cells were harvested respectively for extraction of total RNAs and total cellular proteins, which were subsequently used in RT-PCR and Western-blotting respectively to quantify TSG101 and Alix, respectively. Our data showed that HIV-1 infection resulted in various influences on the expression of TSG101 and Alix in the cell lines and the primary PBMC. A down-regulation was mainly observed in the cell lines, whereas an up-regulation of TSG101 was identified in primary PBMC. Three patterns were observed for down-regulation, including dual down-regulation of TSG101 and Alix for Jurkat cells, single down-regulation of Alix for TZM-bl cells and marginal or no influence on PM1 cells. The dual down-regulation of Alix and TSG101 in Jurkat cells coincided with less expression of HIV-1 p24 protein. This is the first-line evidence that HIV-1 infection affects the expression of host factors TSG101 and Alix, the down-regulation of these molecules may influence the HIV-1 replication. The underlying mechanism remains to be addressed.

  17. Selective decrease in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-induced alpha interferon production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells during HIV-1 infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferbas, J; Navratil, J; Logar, A; Rinaldo, C

    1995-01-01

    We previously reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Sendai virus induce higher levels of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) in blood dendritic cells than in monocytes of healthy donors. In the present study, the levels of IFN-alpha induced by T-cell tropic (IIIb and RF) and monocytotropic (BaL) strains of HIV-1 and by HSV were significantly decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from subjects with asymptomatic and symptom...

  18. Tailored enrichment strategy detects low abundant small noncoding RNAs in HIV-1 infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaus Claudia F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The various classes of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs are important regulators of gene expression across divergent types of organisms. While a rapidly increasing number of sncRNAs has been identified over recent years, the isolation of sncRNAs of low abundance remains challenging. Virally encoded sncRNAs, particularly those of RNA viruses, can be expressed at very low levels. This is best illustrated by HIV-1 where virus encoded sncRNAs represent approximately 0.1-1.0% of all sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected cells or were found to be undetected. Thus, we applied a novel, sequence targeted enrichment strategy to capture HIV-1 derived sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes and macrophages that allows a greater than 100-fold enrichment of low abundant sncRNAs. Results Eight hundred and ninety-two individual HIV-1 sncRNAs were cloned and sequenced from nine different sncRNA libraries derived from five independent experiments. These clones represent up to 90% of all sncRNA clones in the generated libraries. Two hundred and sixteen HIV-1 sncRNAs were distinguishable as unique clones. They are spread throughout the HIV-1 genome, however, forming certain clusters, and almost 10% show an antisense orientation. The length of HIV-1 sncRNAs varies between 16 and 89 nucleotides with an unexpected peak at 31 to 50 nucleotides, thus, longer than cellular microRNAs or short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs. Exemplary HIV-1 sncRNAs were also generated in cells infected with different primary HIV-1 isolates and can inhibit HIV-1 replication. Conclusions HIV-1 infected cells generate virally encoded sncRNAs, which might play a role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Furthermore, the enormous capacity to enrich low abundance sncRNAs in a sequence specific manner highly recommends our selection strategy for any type of investigation where origin or target sequences of the sought-after sncRNAs are known.

  19. Humans with chimpanzee-like major histocompatibility complex-specificities control HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoof, Ilka; Kesmir, Can; Lund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Background: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules allow immune surveillance by presenting a snapshot of the intracellular state of a cell to circulating cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The MHC class I alleles of an HIV-1 infected individual strongly influence the level of viremia...... and the progression rate to AIDS. Chimpanzees control HIV-1 viral replication and develop a chronic infection without progressing to AIDS. A similar course of disease is observed in human long-term non-progressors. Objective: To investigate if long-term non-progressors and chimpanzees have functional similarities...... in their MHC class I repertoire. Methods: We compared the specificity of groups of human MHC molecules associated with different levels of viremia in HIV-1 infected individuals with those of chimpanzee. Results and conclusion: We demonstrate that human MHC with control of HIV-1 viral load share binding motifs...

  20. Engineering Cellular Resistance to HIV-1 Infection In Vivo Using a Dual Therapeutic Lentiviral Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Burke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We described earlier a dual-combination anti-HIV type 1 (HIV-1 lentiviral vector (LVsh5/C46 that downregulates CCR5 expression of transduced cells via RNAi and inhibits HIV-1 fusion via cell surface expression of cell membrane-anchored C46 antiviral peptide. This combinatorial approach has two points of inhibition for R5-tropic HIV-1 and is also active against X4-tropic HIV-1. Here, we utilize the humanized bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT mouse model to characterize the in vivo efficacy of LVsh5/C46 (Cal-1 vector to engineer cellular resistance to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC either nonmodified or transduced with LVsh5/C46 vector were transplanted to generate control and treatment groups, respectively. Control and experimental groups displayed similar engraftment and multilineage hematopoietic differentiation that included robust CD4+ T-cell development. Splenocytes isolated from the treatment group were resistant to both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 during ex vivo challenge experiments. Treatment group animals challenged with R5-tropic HIV-1 displayed significant protection of CD4+ T-cells and reduced viral load within peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues up to 14 weeks postinfection. Gene-marking and transgene expression were confirmed stable at 26 weeks post-transplantation. These data strongly support the use of LVsh5/C46 lentiviral vector in gene and cell therapeutic applications for inhibition of HIV-1 infection.

  1. TRIM5 and the Regulation of HIV-1 Infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Luban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The past ten years have seen an explosion of information concerning host restriction factors that inhibit the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Among these factors is TRIM5, an innate immune signaling molecule that recognizes the capsid lattice as soon as the retrovirion core is released into the cytoplasm of otherwise susceptible target cells. Recognition of the capsid lattice has several consequences that include multimerization of TRIM5 into a complementary lattice, premature uncoating of the virion core, and activation of TRIM5 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Unattached, K63-linked ubiquitin chains are generated that activate the TAK1 kinase complex and downstream inflammatory mediators. Polymorphisms in the capsid recognition domain of TRIM5 explain the observed species-specific differences among orthologues and the relatively weak anti-HIV-1 activity of human TRIM5. Better understanding of the complex interaction between TRIM5 and the retrovirus capsid lattice may someday lead to exploitation of this interaction for the development of potent HIV-1 inhibitors.

  2. High FGF21 levels are associated with altered bone homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Escuredo, José M; Lamarca, Maria Karuna; Villarroya, Joan; Domingo, Joan C; Mateo, Ma Gracia; Gutierrez, Ma Del Mar; Vidal, Francesc; Villarroya, Francesc; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta

    2017-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important regulator of glucose, lipid, and body weight homeostasis. However, recent experimental studies have reported that increased FGF21 levels may lead to bone loss. To assess the relationship of serum FGF21 levels and altered bone homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients. Cross-sectional study of 137 HIV-1-infected patients and 35 healthy controls conducted at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona. Among HIV-1-infected patients, 35 were untreated (naïve), 43 were treated with antiretrovirals (HIV-1/ART) with no lipodystrophy, and 59 patients were HIV-1/ART and experienced lipodystrophy. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum levels of FGF21, receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-KB ligand (RANKL), and C-telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were determined using an antibody-linked, fluorescently labeled microsphere bead-based multiplex analysis system. Alterations in bone parameters and bone homeostasis marker levels were consistent with higher turnover and bone loss in HIV-1 infected patients. FGF21 correlated negatively with BMD and BMC. FGF21 correlated positively with serum levels of osteoprotegerin and CTX-1, as well as with the CTX-1/osteocalcin ratio. Elevated FGF21 levels are associated with poor bone homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients. Increases in FGF21 serum level may be an indicator not only of metabolic derangement but it may also serve as a biomarker of altered bone homeostasis in HIV-1 infected patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Absence of XMRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ARV-treatment naive HIV-1 infected and HIV-1/HCV coinfected individuals and blood donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina Gingaras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV has been found in the prostatic tissue of prostate cancer patients and in the blood of chronic fatigue syndrome patients. However, numerous studies have found little to no trace of XMRV in different human cohorts. Based on evidence suggesting common transmission routes between XMRV and HIV-1, HIV-1 infected individuals may represent a high-risk group for XMRV infection and spread. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 179 HIV-1 infected treatment naïve patients, 86 of which were coinfected with HCV, and 54 healthy blood donors. DNA was screened for XMRV provirus with two sensitive, published PCR assays targeting XMRV gag and env and one sensitive, published nested PCR assay targeting env. Detection of XMRV was confirmed by DNA sequencing. One of the 179 HIV-1 infected patients tested positive for gag by non-nested PCR whereas the two other assays did not detect XMRV in any specimen. All healthy blood donors were negative for XMRV proviral sequences. Sera from 23 HIV-1 infected patients (15 HCV(+ and 12 healthy donors were screened for the presence of XMRV-reactive antibodies by Western blot. Thirteen sera (57% from HIV-1(+ patients and 6 sera (50% from healthy donors showed reactivity to XMRV-infected cell lysate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The virtual absence of XMRV in PBMCs suggests that XMRV is not associated with HIV-1 infected or HIV-1/HCV coinfected patients, or blood donors. Although we noted isolated incidents of serum reactivity to XMRV, we are unable to verify the antibodies as XMRV specific.

  4. Diphtheria Antibodies and T lymphocyte Counts in Patients Infected with HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. B. Speranza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the IgG levels anti-diphtheria (D-Ab and T cell counts (CD4+ and CD8+ in HIV-1 infected subjects undergoing or not highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Approximately 70% of all HIV-1 patients were unprotected against diphtheria. There were no differences in D-Ab according to CD4 counts. Untreated patients had higher D-Ab (geometric mean of 0.62 IU/ml than HAART-patients (geometric mean of 0.39 IU/ml. The data indicated the necessity of keeping all HIV-1 patients up-to-date with their vaccination.

  5. Notwithstanding circumstantial alibis, cytotoxic T cells can be major killers of HIV-1 infected cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadhamsetty, Saikrishna; Coorens, Tim; de Boer, Rob J

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments suggest that in the chronic phase of HIV-1 infection CD8(+)cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) contribute very little to the death of productively infected cells. First, the expected life span of productively infected cells is fairly long, i.e., about one day. Second, this life span is

  6. Immunofluorescence assay in India for confirmation of HIV-1 infection using a T-cell line infected with defective HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Arias, Juan F; Deb, Monorama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2010-12-01

    In India, the enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/rapid test is used for screening and confirmatory antibody testing of HIV infection, and all HIV reactive samples are further confirmed by two other rapid tests working on different principles; however, Western blotting (WB) and immunofluorescence (IF) assays are not routinely performed in this country. A total of 2104 sera from Indian subjects were tested for the presence of HIV-1 antibody using EIA/rapid tests, according to the guidelines of the National AIDS Control Organization of India, and were also subjected to IF test using L-2 cells persistently infected with defective HIV-1. WB and a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed on discrepant samples. IF results were 100% concordant with EIA/rapid tests for 212 HIV-1-positive samples and 1889 HIV-1-negative samples. Interestingly, three (0.14%) samples negative by EIA/rapid tests were weakly or moderately positive (1+/2+) by IF test. All three of these samples were confirmed to be negative by WB (reactive with Gag/Pol, but not with Env), but positive by RT-PCR with primers targeting the C2-V5 fragment of the env gene. These three samples were from individuals who voluntarily reported for HIV testing because of high-risk practices, and they may have been at an early stage of HIV infection. These results confirm that the IF test using L-2 cells is a sensitive and specific alternative method for confirmation of HIV-1 infection and could be included in the diagnostic algorithm in reference laboratories in developing countries. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  8. Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Pohlmeyer, Christopher W; Veenhuis, Rebecca T; May, Megan; Luna, Krystle A; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Cox, Andrea L; Carrington, Mary; Bailey, Justin R; Arduino, Roberto C; Blankson, Joel N

    2017-02-01

    HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication. © 2016.

  9. Apoptotic killing of HIV-1-infected macrophages is subverted by the viral envelope glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Swingler

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses have evolved strategies to protect infected cells from apoptotic clearance. We present evidence that HIV-1 possesses a mechanism to protect infected macrophages from the apoptotic effects of the death ligand TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. In HIV-1-infected macrophages, the viral envelope protein induced macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. This pro-survival cytokine downregulated the TRAIL receptor TRAIL-R1/DR4 and upregulated the anti-apoptotic genes Bfl-1 and Mcl-1. Inhibition of M-CSF activity or silencing of Bfl-1 and Mcl-1 rendered infected macrophages highly susceptible to TRAIL. The anti-cancer agent Imatinib inhibited M-CSF receptor activation and restored the apoptotic sensitivity of HIV-1-infected macrophages, suggesting a novel strategy to curtail viral persistence in the macrophage reservoir.

  10. Molecular mechanisms by which HERV-K Gag interferes with HIV-1 Gag assembly and particle infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Kazuaki; Terasawa, Hiromi; Nakano, Yusuke; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Maeda, Yosuke; Ono, Akira

    2017-04-26

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), the remnants of ancient retroviral infections, constitute approximately 8% of human genomic DNA. Since HERV-K Gag expression is induced by HIV-1 Tat in T cells, induced HERV-K proteins could affect HIV-1 replication. Indeed, previously we showed that HERV-K Gag and HIV-1 Gag coassemble and that this appears to correlate with the effect of HERV-K Gag expression on HIV-1 particle release and its infectivity. We further showed that coassembly requires both MA and NC domains, which presumably serve as scaffolding for Gag via their abilities to bind membrane and RNA, respectively. Notably, however, despite possessing these abilities, MLV Gag failed to coassemble with HIV-1 Gag and did not affect assembly and infectivity of HIV-1 particles. It is unclear how the specificity of coassembly is determined. Here, we showed that coexpression of HERV-K Gag with HIV-1 Gag changed size and morphology of progeny HIV-1 particles and severely diminished infectivity of such progeny viruses. We further compared HERV-K-MLV chimeric constructs to identify molecular determinants for coassembly specificity and for inhibition of HIV-1 release efficiency and infectivity. We found that the CA N-terminal domain (NTD) of HERV-K Gag is important for the reduction of the HIV-1 release efficiency, whereas both CA-NTD and major homology region of HERV-K Gag contribute to colocalization with HIV-1 Gag. Interestingly, these regions of HERV-K Gag were not required for reduction of progeny HIV-1 infectivity. Our results showed that HERV-K Gag CA is important for reduction of HIV-1 release and infectivity but the different regions within CA are involved in the effects on the HIV-1 release and infectivity. Altogether, these findings revealed that HERV-K Gag interferes the HIV-1 replication by two distinct molecular mechanisms.

  11. A prospective study of the effect of pregnancy on CD4 counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 infected women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Donnell, Deborah; Kiarie, James; Rees, Helen; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Were, Edwin; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.

    2014-01-01

    Background In HIV-1 infected women, CD4 count declines occur during pregnancy, which has been attributed to hemodilution. However, for women who have not initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is unclear if CD4 declines are sustained beyond pregnancy and accompanied by increased viral levels, which could indicate an effect of pregnancy on accelerating HIV-1 disease progression. Methods In a prospective study among 2269 HIV-1 infected ART-naïve women from 7 African countries, we examined the effect of pregnancy on HIV-1 disease progression. We used linear mixed models to compare CD4 counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations between pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant periods. Results Women contributed 3270 person-years of follow-up, during which time 476 women became pregnant. In adjusted analysis, CD4 counts were an average of 56 (95% CI 39-73) cells/mm3 lower during pregnant compared to non-pregnant periods and 70 (95% CI 53-88) cells/mm3 lower during pregnant compared to postpartum periods; these results were consistent when restricted to the subgroup of women who became pregnant. Plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant periods (p=0.9) or pregnant and postpartum periods (p=0.3). Neither CD4 counts nor plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were significantly different in postpartum compared to non-pregnant periods. Conclusion CD4 count declines among HIV-1 infected women during pregnancy are temporary and not sustained in postpartum periods. Pregnancy does not have a short term impact on plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations. PMID:24442226

  12. A prospective study of the effect of pregnancy on CD4 counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Donnell, Deborah; Kiarie, James; Rees, Helen; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Were, Edwin; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2014-02-01

    In HIV-1-infected women, CD4 count declines occur during pregnancy, which has been attributed to hemodilution. However, for women who have not initiated antiretroviral therapy, it is unclear if CD4 declines are sustained beyond pregnancy and accompanied by increased viral levels, which could indicate an effect of pregnancy on accelerating HIV-1 disease progression. In a prospective study among 2269 HIV-1-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive women from 7 African countries, we examined the effect of pregnancy on HIV-1 disease progression. We used linear mixed models to compare CD4 counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations between pregnant, postpartum, and nonpregnant periods. Women contributed 3270 person-years of follow-up, during which time 476 women became pregnant. In adjusted analysis, CD4 counts were an average of 56 (95% confidence interval: 39 to 73) cells/mm lower during pregnant compared with nonpregnant periods and 70 (95% confidence interval: 53 to 88) cells/mm lower during pregnant compared with postpartum periods; these results were consistent when restricted to the subgroup of women who became pregnant. Plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations were not different between pregnant and nonpregnant periods (P = 0.9) or pregnant and postpartum periods (P = 0.3). Neither CD4 counts nor plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were significantly different in postpartum compared with nonpregnant periods. CD4 count declines among HIV-1-infected women during pregnancy are temporary and not sustained in postpartum periods. Pregnancy does not have a short-term impact on plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations.

  13. Interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is associated with viremia of early HIV-1 infection in Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SoYong; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Shin, YoungHyun; Kim, SeungHyun; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon

    2015-05-01

    Cytokines/chemokines play key roles in modulating disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although it is known that early HIV-1 infection is associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, the relationship between cytokine levels and HIV-1 pathogenesis is not clear. The concentrations of 18 cytokines/chemokines in 30 HIV-1 negative and 208 HIV-1 positive plasma samples from Korean patients were measured by the Luminex system. Early HIV-1 infection was classified according to the Fiebig stage (FS) based on the characteristics of the patients infected with HIV-1. Concentrations of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) were increased significantly during the early stage of HIV-1 infection (FS II-IV) compared with the HIV-1-negative group. Of these cytokines, an elevated level of IP-10 was the only factor to be correlated positively with a higher viral load during the early stages of HIV-1 infection (FS II-IV) in Koreans (R = 0.52, P IP-10 may be an indicator for HIV-1 viremia and associated closely with viral replication in patients with early HIV-1 infection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. M-protein-positive chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection: features mimicking HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Azuma, Naoto; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Kasahara, Yoshihito

    2009-01-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a unique and fatal lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), which often shows high serum IgG and/or IgE. The significance of such immunoglobulin abnormalities in CAEBV has not been fully evaluated and discussed. In addition, such clinical features mimic HIV-1 infection. We report here a case of CAEBV with M-protein detected which may shed a new light on the pathogenesis of this disease. © 2009 The Japanese Society of Hematology.

  15. The impact of inflammation and immune activation on B cell differentiation during HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eRuffin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection is characterized by continuous antigenic stimulation, chronic immune activation and impaired survival of T and B cells. A decline of resting memory B cells has previously been reported to occur in both children and adults infected with HIV-1; these cells are responsible for mounting and maintaining an adequate serological response to antigens previously encountered in life through natural infection or vaccination. Further understanding of the mechanisms leading to impaired B cell differentiation and germinal center reaction might be essential to design new HIV vaccines and therapies that could improve humoral immune responses in HIV-1 infected individuals. In the present article we summarize the literature and present our view on critical mechanisms of B cell development which are impaired during HIV-1 infection. We also discuss the impact of microbial translocation, a driving force for persistent inflammation during HIV-1 infection, on survival of terminally differentiated B cells and how the altered expression of cytokines/chemokines pivotal for communication between T and B cells in lymphoid tissues may impair formation of memory B cells.

  16. Serotyping and genotyping of HIV-1 infection in residents of Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G B; de Beer, C; Fincham, J E; Adams, V; Dhansay, M A; van Rensburg, E Janse; Engelbrecht, S

    2006-12-01

    It is estimated that between 5.5 and 6.1 million people are infected with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South Africa, with subtype C responsible for the majority of these infections. The Khayelitsha suburb of Cape Town has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in South Africa. Overcrowding combined with unemployment and crime in parts of the area perpetuates high-risk sexual behavior, which increases exposure to infection by HIV. Against this background, the objective of this study was to characterize HIV-1 in residents confirmed to be seropositive. Serotyping was performed through a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cPEIA). Genotyping methods included RNA isolation followed by RT-PCR and sequencing of the gag p24, env gp41 immunodominant region (IDR), and env gp120 V3 genome regions of HIV-1. With the exception of a possible C/D recombinant strain, all HIV-1 strains were characterized as HIV-1 group M subtype C. One individual was shown to harbor multiple strains of HIV-1 subtype C. In Southern Africa, the focus has been to develop a subtype C candidate vaccine, as this is the major subtype found in this geographical area. Therefore, the spread of HIV-1 and its recombinant strains needs to be monitored closely. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Targeting TNF and TNF Receptor Pathway in HIV-1 Infection: from Immune Activation to Viral Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquereau, Sébastien; Kumar, Amit; Herbein, Georges

    2017-03-30

    Several cellular functions such as apoptosis, cellular proliferation, inflammation, and immune regulation involve the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)/TNF receptor (TNFR) pathway. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) interacts with the TNF/TNFR pathway. The activation of the TNF/TNFR pathway impacts HIV-1 replication, and the TNF/TNFR pathway is the target of HIV-1 proteins. A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is immune activation and inflammation with increased levels of TNF in the plasma and the tissues. Therefore, the control of the TNF/TNFR pathway by new therapeutic approaches could participate in the control of immune activation and impact both viral replication and viral persistence. In this review, we will describe the intricate interplay between HIV-1 proteins and TNF/TNFR signaling and how TNF/TNFR activation modulates HIV-1 replication and discuss new therapeutic approaches, especially anti-TNF therapy, that could control this pathway and ultimately favor the clearance of infected cells to cure HIV-infected patients.

  18. HIV-1 persistence following extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV-1 infection: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Timothy J; Hatano, Hiroyu; Bacon, Oliver; Hogan, Louise E; Rutishauser, Rachel; Hill, Alison; Kearney, Mary F; Anderson, Elizabeth M; Buchbinder, Susan P; Cohen, Stephanie E; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Pohlmeyer, Christopher W; Fromentin, Remi; Hoh, Rebecca; Liu, Albert Y; McCune, Joseph M; Spindler, Jonathan; Metcalf-Pate, Kelly; Hobbs, Kristen S; Thanh, Cassandra; Gibson, Erica A; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Siliciano, Robert F; Price, Richard W; Richman, Douglas D; Chomont, Nicolas; Siliciano, Janet D; Mellors, John W; Yukl, Steven A; Blankson, Joel N; Liegler, Teri; Deeks, Steven G

    2017-11-01

    It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male) and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male) after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) following 32 weeks of continuous ART. Colorectal and lymph node tissues, bone marrow, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), plasma, and very large numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained longitudinally from both participants and were studied for HIV persistence in several laboratories using molecular and culture-based detection methods, including a murine viral outgrowth assay (mVOA). Both participants initiated PrEP with tenofovir/emtricitabine during very early Fiebig stage I (detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA, antibody negative) followed by 4-drug ART intensification. Following peak viral loads, both participants experienced full suppression of HIV-1 plasma viremia. Over the following 2 years, no further HIV could be detected in blood or tissue from PrEP Participant A despite extensive sampling from ileum, rectum, lymph nodes, bone marrow, CSF, circulating CD4+ T cell subsets, and plasma. No HIV was detected from tissues obtained from PrEP Participant B, but low-level HIV RNA or DNA was intermittently detected from various CD4+ T cell subsets. Over 500 million CD4+ T cells were assayed from both participants in a humanized mouse outgrowth assay. Three of 8 mice infused with CD4+ T cells from PrEP Participant B developed viremia (50 million input cells/surviving mouse), but only 1 of 10 mice infused with CD4+ T cells from PrEP Participant A (53 million input cells

  19. The impact of pregnancy on the HIV-1-specific T cell function in infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygino, Joana; Vieira, Morgana M; Kasahara, Taissa M; Xavier, Luciana F; Blanco, Bernardo; Guillermo, Landi V C; Filho, Renato G S; Saramago, Carmen S M; Lima-Silva, Agostinho A; Oliveira, Ariane L; Guimarães, Vander; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2012-12-01

    Evidences indicate that pregnancy can alter the Ag-specific T-cell responses. This work aims to evaluate the impact of pregnancy on the in vitro HIV-1-specific immune response. As compared with non-pregnant patients, lower T-cell proliferation and higher IL-10 production were observed in T-cell cultures from pregnant patients following addition of either mitogens or HIV-1 antigens. In our system, the main T lymphocyte subset involved in producing IL-10 was CD4(+)FoxP3(-). Depletion of CD4(+) cells elevated TNF-α and IFN-γ production. Interestingly, the in vitro HIV-1 replication was lower in cell cultures from pregnant patients, and it was inversely related to IL-10 production. In these cultures, the neutralization of IL-10 by anti-IL-10 mAb elevated TNF-α release and HIV-1 replication. In conclusion, our results reveal that pregnancy-related events should favor the expansion of HIV-1-specific IL-10-secreting CD4(+) T-cells in HIV-1-infected women, which should, in the scenario of pregnancy, help to reduce the risk of vertical HIV-1 transmission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Slower decline of plasma HIV-1 RNA following highly suppressive antiretroviral therapy in primary compared with chronic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, H.; Prins, J. M.; Jurriaans, S.; Roos, M.; Ferguson, N. M.; van Praag, R.; van der Hoek, L.; Schuitemaker, H.; Anderson, R. M.; Goudsmit, J.; Lange, J. M.; de Wolf, F.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of highly suppressive antiretroviral therapy on the slopes of HIV-1 RNA decline in primary compared with chronic HIV-1 infection. METHODS: Slopes of HIV-1 RNA decline in plasma were compared before and after the start of highly suppressive antiretroviral therapy from

  1. Relationship between CCR5(WT/Δ32)heterozygosity and HIV-1 reservoir size in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bonet, M; González-Serna, A; Clemente, M I; Morón-López, S; Díaz, L; Navarro, M; Puertas, M C; Leal, M; Ruiz-Mateos, E; Martinez-Picado, J; Muñoz-Fernández, M A

    2017-05-01

    Several host factors contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Among them, the CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is known to be the main co-receptor used by HIV-1 to enter target cells during the early stages of an HIV-1 infection. We evaluated the association of CCR5 (WT/Δ32) heterozygosity with HIV-1 reservoir size, lymphocyte differentiation, activation and immunosenescence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV infection receiving cART. CCR5 genotype was analysed in 242 patients with vertically transmitted HIV-1 infection from Paediatric Spanish AIDS Research Network Cohort (coRISpe). Proviral HIV-1 DNA was quantified by digital-droplet PCR, and T-cell phenotype was evaluated by flow cytometry in a subset of 24 patients (ten with CCR5 (Δ32/WT) genotype and 14 with CCR5 (WT/WT) genotype). Twenty-three patients were heterozygous for the Δ32 genotype but none was homozygous for the mutated CCR5 allele. We observed no difference in the HIV-1 reservoir size (455 and 578 copies of HIV-1 DNA per million CD4 + T cells in individuals with CCR5 (WT/WT) and CCR5 (Δ32/WT) genotypes, respectively; p 0.75) or in the immune activation markers between both genotype groups. However, we found that total HIV-1 DNA in CD4 + T cells correlated with the percentage of memory CD4 + T cells: a direct correlation in CCR5 (WT/Δ32) patients but an inverse correlation in those with the CCR5 (WT/WT) genotype. This finding suggests a differential distribution of the viral reservoir compartment in CCR5 (WT/Δ32) patients with perinatal HIV infection, which is a characteristic that may affect the design of strategies for reservoir elimination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute risk for hepatitis E virus infection among HIV-1-positive pregnant women in central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Mélanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an enterically transmitted pathogen, is highly endemic in several African countries. Pregnant women are at particularly high risk for acute or severe hepatitis E. In Gabon, a central African country, the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women is 14.1%. Recent studies have demonstrated unusual patterns of hepatitis E (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis among immunodeficient patients. Findings We investigated the prevalence of antibodies to HEV among pregnant women infected with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 in Gabon. Of 243 samples collected, 183 were positive for HIV-1 and 60 for HTLV-1; 16 women (6.6% had IgG antibodies to HEV. The seroprevalence was higher among HIV-1-infected women (7.1% than HTLV-1-infected women (5.0%. Moreover, the HIV-1 viral load was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.02 among women with past-HEV exposure (1.3E+05 vs 5.7E+04 copies per ml, whereas no difference was found in HTLV-1 proviral load (9.0E+01 vs 1.1E+03 copies per ml. Conclusions These data provide evidence that HIV-1-infected women are at risk for acute or severe infection if they are exposed to HEV during pregnancy, with an increased viral load.

  3. Lipid profile and body composition of HIV-1 infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. R. Pontes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been associated with the development of a clinical group and metabolic disorders such as peripheral lipodystrophy syndrome in AIDS. The aim of this study was to analyze the lipid profile, the clinical aspects, and the body composition of HIV-1 infected individuals treated with or without protease inhibitor (PI during the highly active antiretroviral therapy. In total, 62 individuals were evaluated in this study; 15 healthy individuals (Control Group: CG, 11 HIV-1 infected individuals treated without antiretroviral therapy (Group 1: G1, 14 HIV-1 infected individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy plus protease inhibitor (Group 2: G2, and 22 HIV-1 infected individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy without protease inhibitor (Group 3: G3, mean age 35 years old. The time interval for G2 and G3 was greater than or equal to nine months. Patients receiving HAART with PI had significantly lower viral loads, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL levels (p<0.05. There were no differences between groups in relation to the lean body mass percentage obtained by mid-arm muscle circumference adequacy or by bioelectrical impedance. The lower percentage of body fat observed in all the HIV-1 infected patients by antropometric assessment and the decreased tricipital skinfold adequacy in the group treated with PI in relation to CG may suggest lipodystrophy in the upper limbs, especially on those treated with PI.

  4. Role of protease inhibitor 9 in survival and replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mononuclear phagocytes from HIV-1-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toossi, Zahra; Wu, Mianda; Liu, Shigou; Hirsch, Christina S.; Walrath, Jessica; van Ham, Marieke; Silver, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Predisposition to opportunistic infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a concomitant of HIV-1 infection and occurrence of tuberculosis is independent of circulating CD4(+) T-cell count in HIV-1-infected patients. Infection of mononuclear phagocytes from healthy individuals by virulent MTB

  5. Urine antibody tests: new insights into the dynamics of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnovitz, H B; Sturge, J C; Gottfried, T D; Murphy, W H

    1999-09-01

    Noninvasive methodologies provide alternatives to diagnostic blood tests and have high patient acceptance, increased safety, and reduced costs. Such tests may supplement or replace blood diagnostic assays currently in use. Using a licensed urine-based test for antibody to HIV-1, we performed 25 991 HIV-1 urine antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening tests [confirmable by HIV-1 Western blot (WB)] on paired urine and blood specimens obtained from high- and low-risk HIV-1 subjects collected at six sites representative of the US population. Using HIV-1 urine EIA tests confirmed by urine Western blot, a compartmentalized immune response (urine positive/serum negative) occurred in 0.24% of a cohort of 11 896 subjects. In the same cohort, specimens that were urine negative/serum positive occurred in 0.17% of subjects. In a second study of 25 991 subjects that included 859 high-risk individuals, the false-positive urine EIA frequency (urine WB negative or indeterminate) was 1.3%. This false-positive frequency in the high-risk cohort was attributed, in part, to an IgA antibody response. We tabulated urine and serum indeterminate reactivities and examined their possible causes. Data are presented showing that antibodies from a seroindeterminate HIV-1vau group O subject were reactive in urine EIA and urine WB tests. An analysis of the HIV-1vau strain group O env nucleotide sequence disclosed a high frequency of homology with human chromosome 7q31, a fragile site implicated in many human malignancies. These results demonstrate the utility of urine for alternative HIV-1 antibody testing and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and into potential application of this approach in investigation of other microbial pathogens and toxic compounds.

  6. Impact of HIV-1 infection on the feto-maternal crosstalk and consequences for pregnancy outcome and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeld, Marcus; Bunders, Madeleine J

    2016-11-01

    Adaptation of the maternal immune system to establish maternal/fetal equilibrium is required for a successful pregnancy. Viral infections, including HIV-1 infection, can alter this maternal/fetal equilibrium, with significant consequences for pregnancy outcome, including miscarriages, impaired fetal growth, and premature delivery. Furthermore, maternal HIV-1 infection has been shown to have a long-term impact on the developing fetal immune system also when the infant is not infected with the virus. In this review, we discuss the consequences of maternal HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy on pregnancy outcome and the health of the uninfected HIV-1-exposed infant.

  7. HIV-1 diversity and drug-resistant mutations in infected individuals in Changchun, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection has been detected in all provinces of China. Although epidemiological and phylogenetic studies have been conducted in many regions, such analyses are lacking from Jilin province in northeastern China. METHOD: Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses, as well as detection of drug-resistant mutations, were conducted on 57 HIV-1 infected patients from Changchun city identified and confirmed through annual surveillance by local Centers for Disease Control in Jilin province of northeastern China in 2012. RESULTS: Sexual contact was determined to be the major pathway for HIV-1 transmission in Jilin, where hetero- and homosexual activities contributed almost equally. Phylogenetic analyses detected multiple subtypes of HIV-1 including subtype G circulating in Jilin, with multiple origins for each of them. Both subtype B and CRF01_AE were dominant, and evidence of subtype B transmitting between different high-risk groups was observed. Mutations in the viral protease at position 71 indicated the presence of a selective pressure. Several drug-resistant mutations were detected, although they were predicted with low-level resistance to antiviral treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Information from this study fills the gap in knowledge of HIV-1 transmission in Changchun city, Jilin province, China. By revealing the origin and evolutionary status of local HIV-1 strains, this work contributes to ongoing efforts in the control and prevention of AIDS.

  8. Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-1 infected women in Catalonia (Spain: implications for prevention of cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Stuardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-risk human Papillomavirus infection is a necessary factor for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. In HIV-1-infected women, HPV infection is more prevalent and a higher risk of cervical cancer has been identified. We aimed to calculate the prevalence of infection by HR-HPV, determine the factors associated with this infection and abnormal cytology findings and to describe the history of cervical cancer screening in HIV-1-infected women. METHODS: We enrolled 479 HIV-1-infected women from the PISCIS cohort. Each patient underwent a gynecological check-up, PAP smear, HPV AND Hybrid capture, HPV genotyping, and colposcopy and biopsy, if necessary. We applied questionnaires to obtain information on sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and cervical screening variables. We present a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS: Median age was 42 years. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 33.2% and that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL was 3.8%. The most common genotypes were 16(23%, 53(20.3%, and 52(16.2%. The factor associated with HR-HPV infection was age 500 cells/mm(3 (OR,8.4; 95%CI,3.7-19.2, HIV-1 viral load >10,000 copies/mL versus <400 copies/mL (OR,2.1; 95%CI,1.0-4.4, and use of oral contraceptives (OR,2.0; 95%CI,1.0-3.9. Sixty percent of HIV-1-infected women had had one Pap smear within the last 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical lesions in the HIV-1-infected population in Catalonia, as well as the low coverage and frequency of screening in this group, means that better preventive efforts are necessary and should include vaccination against HPV, better accessibility to screening programs, training of health care professionals, and specific health education for HIV-1-infected women.

  9. Diabetes and cognitive decline in a French cohort of patients infected with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Richert, Laura; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Bruyand, Mathias; Amieva, Hélène; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Neau, Didier; Morlat, Philippe; Dehail, Patrick; Dabis, François; Bonnet, Fabrice; Chêne, Geneviève

    2015-09-22

    We investigated the relationship of diabetes and prediabetes with cognitive performances, assessed through raw test and z scores and according to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) classification in a cohort of individuals infected with HIV. The ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort is a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients under routine clinical management in 6 public hospitals in southwestern France. Between 2007 and 2009, an ancillary study consisted of a neuropsychological battery of 10 tests at baseline and 2-year follow-up. The severity of NCI (normal, asymptomatic, mild, HIV dementia) was assessed according to international guidelines. At baseline (400 patients, 33 with prediabetes, 39 with diabetes), in cross-sectional multivariable analyses, patients with diabetes performed significantly worse on 9 neuropsychological tests that assessed memory, executive functions, attention, psychomotor speed, language, and manual dexterity. Participants with prediabetes had worse performances compared with those who had normal glycemia in 5 tests. The longitudinal analysis of the association between glycemia status at baseline and change in cognitive performances over 2-year follow-up (n = 283) suggested that patients with diabetes also showed a slightly higher decline on 5 of the 10 tests, those involving executive functions and memory functioning. Glycemia status at baseline was not significantly associated with NCI severity in cross-sectional (p = 0.44) and longitudinal (p = 0.64) analyses. In this hospital-based cohort of people living with HIV, diabetes, but not the other cardiovascular risk factors, is associated with worse cognitive performances in several cognitive domains and with larger decline in fewer domains over the short term. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. CD4+ T cells from elite controllers resist HIV-1 infection by selective upregulation of p21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huabiao; Li, Chun; Huang, Jinghe; Cung, Thai; Seiss, Katherine; Beamon, Jill; Carrington, Mary F.; Porter, Lindsay C.; Burke, Patrick S.; Yang, Yue; Ryan, Bethany J.; Liu, Ruiwu; Weiss, Robert H.; Pereyra, Florencia; Cress, William D.; Brass, Abraham L.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Walker, Bruce D.; Yu, Xu G.; Lichterfeld, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Elite controllers represent a unique group of HIV-1infected persons with undetectable HIV-1 replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. However, the mechanisms contributing to effective viral immune defense in these patients remain unclear. Here, we show that compared with HIV-1 progressors and HIV-1–negative persons, CD4+ T cells from elite controllers are less susceptible to HIV-1 infection. This partial resistance to HIV-1 infection involved less effective reverse transcription and mRNA transcription from proviral DNA and was associated with strong and selective upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (also known as cip-1 and waf-1). Experimental blockade of p21 in CD4+ T cells from elite controllers resulted in a marked increase of viral reverse transcripts and mRNA production and led to higher enzymatic activities of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), which serves as a transcriptional coactivator of HIV-1 gene expression. This suggests that p21 acts as a barrier against HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells from elite controllers by inhibiting a cyclin-dependent kinase required for effective HIV-1 replication. These data demonstrate a mechanism of host resistance to HIV-1 in elite controllers and may open novel perspectives for clinical strategies to prevent or treat HIV-1 infection. PMID:21403397

  11. HIV-1 infection and fertility in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania | Sedgh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of HIV-1 infection with rates of pregnancy and pregnancy loss in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A retrospective cohort study of 1,006 HIV-infected women and 485 uninfected women was employed. In multivariate analyses controlling for other predictors of pregnancy, the ...

  12. Prevalence of recent and long-established HIV-1 infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV enzyme immunoassay [AxSYM HIV1/2gO Avidity Index (AI) assay] to discriminate between recent and long established. AI of ≤ 0.80 indicated recent infection. Results: The prevalence of recent infection was 11%. Age and sex were not ...

  13. Genetic association of IL-10 gene promoter polymorphism and HIV-1 infection in North Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Animesh; Rathore, Anurag; Sivarama, P; Yamamoto, Naohiko; Dhole, Tapan N

    2009-01-01

    Cytokines play a significant role in host immune defense. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory cytokine that can both stimulate and suppress the immune response and inhibits HIV-1 replication in vivo. Interindividual variations in IL-10 production were genetically contributed to polymorphisms within IL-10 promoter region. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IL-10 gene promoter -1082 G/A, -819 C/T, and 592 C/A polymorphism on HIV-1 transmission /progression in North Indian individuals. A total of 180 HIV-1 seropositive (HSP) stratified on the basis of disease severity (stage I, II, and III), 50 HIV-1 exposed seronegative (HES) and 305 HIV-1 seronegative (HSN) individuals were genotyped for IL-10 gene promoter by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A suggestive evidence of association was obtained for IL-10 592 C/A promoter polymorphism at the level of allele and genotype distribution. The frequency of IL-10 592 A allele and genotype was significantly increased in HSP compared to HSN (p = 0.013; OR = 1.412 and p = 0.034; OR = 1.685 respectively). Further comparison in between different clinical stages of HIV-1 infected patients of IL-10 592 A allele and genotype revealed a significant increase in its frequency in the stage III compared with those together in stage I (p = 0.004, OR = 2.181 and p = 0.002, OR = 4.156, respectively). This study reports for the first time that IL-10 gene promoter 592 C/A polymorphism may be a risk factor for HIV-1 transmission/progression in HIV-1 infected North Indian individuals.

  14. Targeted femtosecond laser driven drug delivery within HIV-1 infected cells: in-vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphanga, Charles; Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin; Manoto, Sello; Maaza, Malik; Mthunzi-Kufa, Patience

    2017-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection still remains one amongst the world's most challenging infections since its discovery. Antiretroviral therapy is the recommended treatment of choice for HIV-1 infection taken by patients orally. The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prevents the replication of HIV-1 and further destruction of the immune system, therefore enabling the body to fight opportunistic life-threatening infections, cancers, and also arrest HIV infection from advancing to AIDS. The major challenge with HAART is the inability to reach the viral reservoirs where the HIV-1 remains latent and persistent, leading to inability to fully eradicate the virus. This study is aimed at initially designing and assembling a fully functional optical translocation setup to optically deliver antiretroviral drugs into HIV-1 infected cells in a targeted manner using Gaussian beam mode femtosecond laser pulses in-vitro. The main objective of our study is to define the in-vitro drug photo-translocation parameters to allow future design of an efficient drug delivery device with potential in-vivo drug delivery applications. In our experiments, HEK 293T cells were used to produce HIV-1 enveloped pseudovirus (ZM53) to infect TZM-bl cells which were later treated with laser pulses emitted by a titanium sapphire laser (800 nm, 1KHz, 113 fs, 6.5 μW) to create sub-microscopic pores on the cell membrane enabling influx of extracellular media. Following laser treatment, changes in cellular responses were analysed using cell morphology studies, cytotoxicity, and luciferase assay studies. Controls included laser untreated cells incubated with the drug for 72 hours. The data in this study was statistically analysed using the SigmaPlot software version 13.

  15. Leukotrienes inhibit early stages of HIV-1 infection in monocyte-derived microglia-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertin Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia are one of the main cell types to be productively infected by HIV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes such as LTC4 are some of the proinflammatory molecules produced in infected individuals that contribute to neuroinflammation. We therefore sought to investigate the role of leukotrienes (LTs in HIV-1 infection of microglial cells. Methods To evaluate the role of LTs on HIV-1 infection in the CNS, monocyte-derived microglial-like cells (MDMis were utilized in this study. Leukotriene-treated MDMis were infected with either fully replicative brain-derived HIV-1 isolates (YU2 or R5-tropic luciferase-encoding particles in order to assess viral production and expression. The efficacy of various steps of the replication cycle was evaluated by means of p24 quantification by ELISA, luciferase activity determination and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results We report in this study that virus replication is reduced upon treatment of MDMis with LTB4 and LTC4. Additional experiments indicate that these proinflammatory molecules alter the pH-independent entry and early post-fusion events of the viral life cycle. Indeed, LT treatment induced a diminution in integrated proviral DNA while reverse-transcribed viral products remained unaffected. Furthermore, decreased C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5 surface expression was observed in LT-treated MDMis. Finally, the effect of LTs on HIV-1 infection in MDMis appears to be mediated partly via a signal transduction pathway involving protein kinase C. Conclusions These data show for the first time that LTs influence microglial cell infection by HIV-1, and may be a factor in the control of viral load in the CNS.

  16. Pace of Coreceptor Tropism Switch in HIV-1-Infected Individuals after Recent Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad Shoaib; Hunter, James; Léda, Ana Rachel; Zukurov, Jean Paulo Lopes; Samer, Sadia; Camargo, Michelle; Galinskas, Juliana; Kallás, Esper Georges; Komninakis, Shirley Vasconcelos; Janini, Luiz Mario; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

    2017-10-01

    HIV-1 entry into target cells influences several aspects of HIV-1 pathogenesis, including viral tropism, HIV-1 transmission and disease progression, and response to entry inhibitors. The evolution from CCR5- to CXCR4-using strains in a given human host is still unpredictable. Here we analyzed timing and predictors for coreceptor evolution among recently HIV-1-infected individuals. Proviral DNA was longitudinally evaluated in 66 individuals using Geno2pheno[coreceptor] Demographics, viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, CCR5Δ32 polymorphisms, GB virus C (GBV-C) coinfection, and HLA profiles were also evaluated. Ultradeep sequencing was performed on initial samples from 11 selected individuals. A tropism switch from CCR5- to CXCR4-using strains was identified in 9/49 (18.4%) individuals. Only a low baseline false-positive rate (FPR) was found to be a significant tropism switch predictor. No minor CXCR4-using variants were identified in initial samples of 4 of 5 R5/non-R5 switchers. Logistic regression analysis showed that patients with an FPR of >40.6% at baseline presented a stable FPR over time whereas lower FPRs tend to progressively decay, leading to emergence of CXCR4-using strains, with a mean evolution time of 27.29 months (range, 8.90 to 64.62). An FPR threshold above 40.6% determined by logistic regression analysis may make it unnecessary to further determine tropism for prediction of disease progression related to emergence of X4 strains or use of CCR5 antagonists. The detection of variants with intermediate FPRs and progressive FPR decay over time not only strengthens the power of Geno2pheno in predicting HIV tropism but also indirectly confirms a continuous evolution from earlier R5 variants toward CXCR4-using strains.IMPORTANCE The introduction of CCR5 antagonists in the antiretroviral arsenal has sparked interest in coreceptors utilized by HIV-1. Despite concentrated efforts, viral and human host features predicting tropism switch are still poorly

  17. Demographic processes affect HIV-1 evolution in primary infection before the onset of selective processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Joshua T; Rolland, Morgane; Liu, Yi; McLaughlin, Sherry; McNevin, John; Zhao, Hong; Wong, Kim; Stoddard, Julia N; Raugi, Dana; Sorensen, Stephanie; Genowati, Indira; Birditt, Brian; McKay, Angela; Diem, Kurt; Maust, Brandon S; Deng, Wenjie; Collier, Ann C; Stekler, Joanne D; McElrath, M Juliana; Mullins, James I

    2011-08-01

    HIV-1 transmission and viral evolution in the first year of infection were studied in 11 individuals representing four transmitter-recipient pairs and three independent seroconverters. Nine of these individuals were enrolled during acute infection; all were men who have sex with men (MSM) infected with HIV-1 subtype B. A total of 475 nearly full-length HIV-1 genome sequences were generated, representing on average 10 genomes per specimen at 2 to 12 visits over the first year of infection. Single founding variants with nearly homogeneous viral populations were detected in eight of the nine individuals who were enrolled during acute HIV-1 infection. Restriction to a single founder variant was not due to a lack of diversity in the transmitter as homogeneous populations were found in recipients from transmitters with chronic infection. Mutational patterns indicative of rapid viral population growth dominated during the first 5 weeks of infection and included a slight contraction of viral genetic diversity over the first 20 to 40 days. Subsequently, selection dominated, most markedly in env and nef. Mutants were detected in the first week and became consensus as early as day 21 after the onset of symptoms of primary HIV infection. We found multiple indications of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations while reversions appeared limited. Putative escape mutations were often rapidly replaced with mutually exclusive mutations nearby, indicating the existence of a maturational escape process, possibly in adaptation to viral fitness constraints or to immune responses against new variants. We showed that establishment of HIV-1 infection is likely due to a biological mechanism that restricts transmission rather than to early adaptive evolution during acute infection. Furthermore, the diversity of HIV strains coupled with complex and individual-specific patterns of CTL escape did not reveal shared sequence characteristics of acute infection that could be harnessed for

  18. KI and WU Polyomaviruses and CD4+ Cell Counts in HIV-1infected Patients, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Farchi, Francesca; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Cavallo, Rossana; Adorno, Gaspare; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2010-01-01

    To investigate an association between KI and WU polyomavirus (KIPyV and WUPyV) infections and CD4+ cell counts, we tested HIV-1–positive patients and blood donors. No association was found between cell counts and virus infections in HIV-1–positive patients. Frequency of KIPyV infection was similar for both groups. WUPyV was more frequent in HIV-1–positive patients. PMID:20735940

  19. HIV-1 infection causes a down-regulation of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia L Kleinman

    Full Text Available HIV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T cells, causing fundamental changes that eventually lead to the release of new viral particles and cell death. To investigate in detail alterations in the transcriptome of the CD4+ T cells upon viral infection, we sequenced polyadenylated RNA isolated from Jurkat cells infected or not with HIV-1. We found a marked global alteration of gene expression following infection, with an overall trend toward induction of genes, indicating widespread modification of the host biology. Annotation and pathway analysis of the most deregulated genes showed that viral infection produces a down-regulation of genes associated with the nucleolus, in particular those implicated in regulating the different steps of ribosome biogenesis, such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA transcription, pre-rRNA processing, and ribosome maturation. The impact of HIV-1 infection on genes involved in ribosome biogenesis was further validated in primary CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we provided evidence by Northern Blot experiments, that host pre-rRNA processing in Jurkat cells might be perturbed during HIV-1 infection, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a crosstalk between nucleolar functions and viral pathogenesis.

  20. Alterations in the nuclear proteome of HIV-1 infected T-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBoer, Jason [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Jagadish, Teena; Haverland, Nicole A. [Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Ciborowski, Pawel [Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln 68583 (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln 68583 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Virus infection of a cell involves the appropriation of host factors and the innate defensive response of the cell. The identification of proteins critical for virus replication may lead to the development of novel, cell-based inhibitors. In this study we mapped the changes in T-cell nuclei during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) at 20 hpi. Using a stringent data threshold, a total of 13 and 38 unique proteins were identified in infected and uninfected cells, respectively, across all biological replicates. An additional 15 proteins were found to be differentially regulated between infected and control nuclei. STRING analysis identified four clusters of protein–protein interactions in the data set related to nuclear architecture, RNA regulation, cell division, and cell homeostasis. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the differential expression of several proteins in both C8166-45 and Jurkat E6-1 T-cells. These data provide a map of the response in host cell nuclei upon HIV-1 infection. - Highlights: • We identify changes in the expression of nuclear proteins during HIV-1 infection. • 163 nuclear proteins were found differentially regulated during HIV-1 infection. • Bioinformatic analysis identified several nuclear pathways altered by HIV infection. • Candidate factors were validated in two independent cell lines.

  1. Differential susceptibility of human thymic dendritic cell subsets to X4 and R5 HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Scott-Algara, Daniel; Cumont, Marie-Christine; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Pancino, Gianfranco; Israël, Nicole

    2006-02-28

    Human thymus can be infected by HIV-1 with potential consequences on immune regeneration and homeostasis. We previously showed that CD4 thymocytes preferentially replicate CXCR4 tropic (X4) HIV-1 dependently on interleukin (IL)-7. Here we addressed the susceptibility of thymic dendritic cells (DC) to HIV-1 infection. We investigated the replication ability of CXCR4 or CCR5 (R5) tropic HIV-1 in thymic micro-explants as well as in isolated thymic CD11clowCD14- DC, CD11chighCD14+ DC and plasmacytoid DC subsets. Thymic tissue was productively infected by both X4 and R5 viruses. However, X4 but not R5 HIV-1 replication was enhanced by IL-7 in thymic micro-explants, suggesting that R5 virus replication occurred in cells other than thymocytes. Indeed, we found that R5 HIV-1 replicated efficiently in DC isolated from thymic tissue. The replicative capacity of X4 and R5 viruses differed according to the different DC subsets. R5 but not X4 HIV-1 efficiently replicated in CD11chighCD14+ DC. In contrast, no HIV-1 replication was detected in CD11clowCD14- DC. Both X4 and R5 viruses efficiently replicated in plasmacytoid DC, which secreted interferon-alpha upon HIV-1 exposure. Productive HIV-1 infection also caused DC loss, consistent with different permissivity of each DC subset. Thymic DC sustain high levels of HIV-1 replication. DC might thus be the first target for R5 HIV-1 infection of thymus, acting as a Trojan horse for HIV-1 spread to thymocytes. Furthermore, DC death induced by HIV-1 infection may affect thymopoiesis.

  2. Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichuhi, Stephen; Bosire, Rose; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Gichuhi, Christine; Wamalwa, Dalton; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Farquhar, Carey; Wariua, Grace; Otieno, Phelgona; John-Stewart, Grace C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers. Methods This was a nested case-control study within a perinatal HIV-1 cohort. HIV-1 seropositive mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and mother-infant pairs followed after delivery with assessment for neonatal conjunctivitis at 48 hours and up to 4 weeks after birth. Genital infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and candida) were screened for at 32 weeks gestation. Mothers received treatment for genital infections diagnosed during pregnancy and short-course zidovudine. Newborns did not receive ocular prophylaxis at hospital deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine cofactors for neonatal conjunctivitis overall and stratified for infant HIV-1 status. Results Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis (adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91, 95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis. Conclusions Despite detection and treatment of genital infections during pregnancy, neonatal conjunctivitis was frequently diagnosed in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers suggesting a need for increased vigilance and prophylaxis for conjunctivitis in these infants. Neonatal sepsis, birth before arrival to hospital, and higher birthweight are factors that may predict higher risk of neonatal conjunctivitis in this population. PMID:19995198

  3. In vitro replication kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants in relation to virus load in long-term survivors of HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, H.; Brouwer, M.; Ran, L. J.; de Wolf, F.; Schuitemaker, H.

    1998-01-01

    In 7 long-term survivors (LTS) and 8 progressors, all carrying solely non-syncytium-inducing variants, a possible correlation between in vitro virus replicative capacity, virus load, and clinical course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was analyzed. Late in infection, 3 LTS

  4. Pegylated IFN-α-induced NK cell activation is associated with HIV-1 DNA decline in ART-treated HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Stéphane; Vigano, Selena; Tse, Samantha; Zhengyu, Ouyang; Harrington, Sean; Negron, Jordi; Garcia-Broncano, Pilar; Marchetti, Giulia; Genebat, Miguel; Leal, Manuel; Resino, Salvador; Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Yu, Xu G

    2017-12-20

    IFN-α can potently reduce HIV-1 replication in tissue culture and animal models, but may also modulate residual viral reservoirs that persist despite suppressive antiretroviral combination therapy. However, mechanisms leading to viral reservoir reduction during IFN-α treatment are unclear. We analyzed HIV-1 gag DNA levels in CD4 T cells by digital droplet PCR and CD8 T and NK cell phenotypes by flow cytometry in a cohort of ART-treated HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients (n=67) undergoing treatment for Hepatitis C infection with pegylated IFN-α and Ribavirin for an average of 11 months. We observed that IFN-α treatment induced a significant decrease in CD4 T cells counts (p<0.0001), in CD4 T cell-associated HIV-1 DNA copies (p=0.002) and in HIV-1 DNA copies per microliter of blood (p<0.0001) in our study patients. Notably, HIV-1 DNA levels were unrelated to HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells responses. In contrast, proportions of total NK cells, of CD56brightCD16- NK cells and of CD56brightCD16+ NK cells were significantly correlated with reduced levels of CD4 T cell-associated HIV-1 DNA during IFN-α treatment, especially when co-expressing the activation markers NKG2D and NKp30. These data suggest that the reduction of viral reservoir cells during treatment with IFN-α is primarily attributable to antiviral activities of NK cells.

  5. Frequency of class I anti-HLA alloantibodies in patients infected by HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Elza Regina Manzolli; Lima, Oswaldo Luiz Luz; Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli; Costa, Paulo Inácio da

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of class I anti-HLA alloantibodies in patients infected by HIV-1 and relate it with the different clinical courses of the disease. Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes from 145 individuals. HIV-1 infection was confirmed by ELISA test. The presence of class I anti-HLA alloantibodies and HLA allele's were determined. Clinical evolution was set as fast (3 years). Class I anti-HLA alloantibodies presence was lower in healthy individuals tha...

  6. SAMHD1 controls cell cycle status, apoptosis and HIV-1 infection in monocytic THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifati, Serena; Daly, Michele B; St Gelais, Corine; Kim, Sun Hee; Hollenbaugh, Joseph A; Shepard, Caitlin; Kennedy, Edward M; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Schinazi, Raymond F; Kim, Baek; Wu, Li

    2016-08-01

    SAMHD1 limits HIV-1 infection in non-dividing myeloid cells by decreasing intracellular dNTP pools. HIV-1 restriction by SAMHD1 in these cells likely prevents activation of antiviral immune responses and modulates viral pathogenesis, thus highlighting a critical role of SAMHD1 in HIV-1 physiopathology. Here, we explored the function of SAMHD1 in regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in monocytic THP-1 cells. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated THP-1 cells with stable SAMHD1 knockout. We found that silencing of SAMHD1 in cycling cells stimulates cell proliferation, redistributes cell cycle population in the G1/G0 phase and reduces apoptosis. These alterations correlated with increased dNTP levels and more efficient HIV-1 infection in dividing SAMHD1 knockout cells relative to control. Our results suggest that SAMHD1, through its dNTPase activity, affects cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, and emphasize a key role of SAMHD1 in the interplay between cell cycle regulation and HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. SAMHD1 controls cell cycle status, apoptosis and HIV-1 infection in monocytic THP-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifati, Serena [Center for Retrovirus Research, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Daly, Michele B. [Center for Drug Discovery, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); St Gelais, Corine; Kim, Sun Hee [Center for Retrovirus Research, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Hollenbaugh, Joseph A.; Shepard, Caitlin [Center for Drug Discovery, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kennedy, Edward M. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Kim, Dong-Hyun [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Schinazi, Raymond F. [Center for Drug Discovery, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Baek, E-mail: baek.kim@emory.edu [Center for Drug Discovery, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Li, E-mail: wu.840@osu.edu [Center for Retrovirus Research, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-08-15

    SAMHD1 limits HIV-1 infection in non-dividing myeloid cells by decreasing intracellular dNTP pools. HIV-1 restriction by SAMHD1 in these cells likely prevents activation of antiviral immune responses and modulates viral pathogenesis, thus highlighting a critical role of SAMHD1 in HIV-1 physiopathology. Here, we explored the function of SAMHD1 in regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in monocytic THP-1 cells. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated THP-1 cells with stable SAMHD1 knockout. We found that silencing of SAMHD1 in cycling cells stimulates cell proliferation, redistributes cell cycle population in the G{sub 1}/G{sub 0} phase and reduces apoptosis. These alterations correlated with increased dNTP levels and more efficient HIV-1 infection in dividing SAMHD1 knockout cells relative to control. Our results suggest that SAMHD1, through its dNTPase activity, affects cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, and emphasize a key role of SAMHD1 in the interplay between cell cycle regulation and HIV-1 infection.

  8. Different pattern of immunoglobulin gene usage by HIV-1 compared to non-HIV-1 antibodies derived from the same infected subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liuzhe; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Banerjee, Sagarika; Volsky, Barbara; Williams, Constance; Virland, Diana; Nadas, Arthur; Seaman, Michael S; Chen, Xuemin; Spearman, Paul; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gorny, Miroslaw K

    2012-01-01

    A biased usage of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes is observed in human anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) resulting probably from compensation to reduced usage of the VH3 family genes, while the other alternative suggests that this bias usage is due to antigen requirements. If the antigen structure is responsible for the preferential usage of particular Ig genes, it may have certain implications for HIV vaccine development by the targeting of particular Ig gene-encoded B cell receptors to induce neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies. To address this issue, we have produced HIV-1 specific and non-HIV-1 mAbs from an infected individual and analyzed the Ig gene usage. Green-fluorescence labeled virus-like particles (VLP) expressing HIV-1 envelope (Env) proteins of JRFL and BaL and control VLPs (without Env) were used to select single B cells for the production of 68 recombinant mAbs. Ten of these mAbs were HIV-1 Env specific with neutralizing activity against V3 and the CD4 binding site, as well as non-neutralizing mAbs to gp41. The remaining 58 mAbs were non-HIV-1 Env mAbs with undefined specificities. Analysis revealed that biased usage of Ig genes was restricted only to anti-HIV-1 but not to non-HIV-1 mAbs. The VH1 family genes were dominantly used, followed by VH3, VH4, and VH5 among anti-HIV-1 mAbs, while non-HIV-1 specific mAbs preferentially used VH3 family genes, followed by VH4, VH1 and VH5 families in a pattern identical to Abs derived from healthy individuals. This observation suggests that the biased usage of Ig genes by anti-HIV-1 mAbs is driven by structural requirements of the virus antigens rather than by compensation to any depletion of VH3 B cells due to autoreactive mechanisms, according to the gp120 superantigen hypothesis.

  9. Different pattern of immunoglobulin gene usage by HIV-1 compared to non-HIV-1 antibodies derived from the same infected subject.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuzhe Li

    Full Text Available A biased usage of immunoglobulin (Ig genes is observed in human anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs resulting probably from compensation to reduced usage of the VH3 family genes, while the other alternative suggests that this bias usage is due to antigen requirements. If the antigen structure is responsible for the preferential usage of particular Ig genes, it may have certain implications for HIV vaccine development by the targeting of particular Ig gene-encoded B cell receptors to induce neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies. To address this issue, we have produced HIV-1 specific and non-HIV-1 mAbs from an infected individual and analyzed the Ig gene usage. Green-fluorescence labeled virus-like particles (VLP expressing HIV-1 envelope (Env proteins of JRFL and BaL and control VLPs (without Env were used to select single B cells for the production of 68 recombinant mAbs. Ten of these mAbs were HIV-1 Env specific with neutralizing activity against V3 and the CD4 binding site, as well as non-neutralizing mAbs to gp41. The remaining 58 mAbs were non-HIV-1 Env mAbs with undefined specificities. Analysis revealed that biased usage of Ig genes was restricted only to anti-HIV-1 but not to non-HIV-1 mAbs. The VH1 family genes were dominantly used, followed by VH3, VH4, and VH5 among anti-HIV-1 mAbs, while non-HIV-1 specific mAbs preferentially used VH3 family genes, followed by VH4, VH1 and VH5 families in a pattern identical to Abs derived from healthy individuals. This observation suggests that the biased usage of Ig genes by anti-HIV-1 mAbs is driven by structural requirements of the virus antigens rather than by compensation to any depletion of VH3 B cells due to autoreactive mechanisms, according to the gp120 superantigen hypothesis.

  10. Alpha-Fetoprotein in Asymptomatic Hepatitis B Virus Infected Subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high in sub-Saharan Africa. A great number of the infected individuals are asymptomatic and are commonly diagnosed by chance. Alpha-fetoprotein and liver function tests were evaluated in asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive subjects to ascertain ...

  11. Incidence and Risk Factors for Incident Syphilis among HIV-1-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Tokyo, 2008−2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Teruya, Katsuji; Shibata, Satoshi; Yanagawa, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Mizushima, Daisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Kinai, Ei; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Genka, Ikumi; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of incident syphilis infection among HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) largely remains unknown. Methods The incidence and risk factors for incident syphilis (positive TPHA and RPR> = 1:8) among HIV-1-infected MSM who visited a large HIV clinic in Tokyo for the first time between 2008 and 2013 were determined, using clinical data and stored blood samples taken every three months for screening and determination of the date of incident syphilis. Poisson regression compared the incidence of syphilis at different observation periods. Results Of 885 HIV-1-infected MSM with baseline data, 34% either presented with active syphilis at baseline (21%) or became infected with syphilis during follow-up (13%). After excluding 214 patients (MSM with syphilis at baseline (n = 190) and no follow-up syphilis test (n = 24)), of 671 men, 112 (17%) developed incident syphilis with an incidence of 43.7/1,000 person-years [95% CI, 36.5–52.3]. The incidence decreased slightly during observation period although the trend was not significant (2008–2009: 48.2/1,000 person-years, 2010–2011: 51.1/1,000 person-years, 2012–2013: 42.6/1,000 person-years, 2014 to 2015: 37.9/1,000 person-years, p = 0.315). Multivariable analysis identified young age (40, HR 4.0, 95%CI 2.22–7.18, psyphilis at baseline (HR 3.0, 95%CI 2.03–4.47, psyphilis. Incidence of syphilis was particularly high among young patients (age syphilis were asymptomatic. Conclusions Although incidence of syphilis did not increase during the observation period, it was high among HIV-1-infected MSM, especially among young HIV-1-infected MSM and those with history of syphilis, in Tokyo. Regular screening for syphilis needs to be strictly applied to this population. PMID:27992604

  12. De novo generation of cells within human nurse macrophages and consequences following HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Gartner

    Full Text Available Nurse cells are defined as those that provide for the development of other cells. We report here, that in vitro, human monocyte-derived macrophages can behave as nurse cells with functional capabilities that include de novo generation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and a previously unknown small cell with monocytoid characteristics. We named these novel cells "self-renewing monocytoid cells" (SRMC, because they could develop into nurse macrophages that produced another generation of SRMC. SRMC were not detectable in blood. Their transition to nurse behavior was characterized by expression of CD10, a marker of thymic epithelium and bone marrow stroma, typically absent on macrophages. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling and immunostaining for cdc6 expression confirmed DNA synthesis within nurse macrophages. T-cell excision circles were detected in macrophages, along with expression of pre-T-cell receptor alpha and recombination activating gene 1, suggesting that genetic recombination events associated with generation of the T-cell receptor were occurring in these cells. SRMC expressed CCR5, the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 isolates, and were highly susceptible to HIV-1 entry leading to productive infection. While expressing HIV-1, SRMC could differentiate into nurse macrophages that produced another generation of HIV-1-expressing SRMC. The infected nurse macrophage/SRMC cycle could continue in vitro for multiple generations, suggesting it might represent a mechanism whereby HIV-1 can maintain persistence in vivo. HIV-1 infection of nurse macrophages led to a decline in CD4+ T-cell production. There was severe, preferential loss of the CCR5+ CD4+ T-cell subpopulation. Confocal microscopy revealed individual HIV-1-expressing nurse macrophages simultaneously producing both HIV-1-expressing SRMC and non-expressing CD3+ cells, suggesting that nurse macrophages might be a source of latently infected CD4+ T-cells. Real-time PCR experiments confirmed this by demonstrating 10

  13. Reconstitution and characterization of antibody repertoires of HIV-1-infected "elite neutralizers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zehua; Li, Jingjing; Hu, Xintao; Shao, Yiming; Zhang, Mei-Yun

    2015-06-01

    Around 3-5% HIV-1-infected individuals develop high titers of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) during chronic infection. However, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from such "elite neutralizers" do not, in most cases, depict the serum IgGs in neutralizing the virus. We hypothesize that HIV-1-specific antibodies in infected subjects may work in a population manner in containing the virus in vivo, and in vitro reconstituted antibody repertoires of "elite neutralizers" may mimic the sera in binding and neutralizing the virus. This study aims to investigate the antibody repertoires of three such "elite neutralizers" by reconstituting the immune antibody repertories in vitro followed by a comparative study of the recombinant library IgGs with the corresponding serum IgGs. We found that the recombinant library IgGs were much weaker than the serum IgGs in binding to envelope glycoproteins (Envs) and in neutralizing the virus and inhibiting Env-mediated cell-cell fusion. However, the sorted libraries composing of HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in the three recombinant libraries exhibited comparable binding and inhibitory activities, as well as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), to the serum IgGs. The sorted library IgGs further showed neutralization profiles which are similar to those of the serum IgGs, but they were overall less potent than the serum IgGs. The sorted library IgGs and the serum IgGs bound weakly to the resurfaced Env gp120, RSC3, and did not bind to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) knock-out mutant, ΔRSC3. Profiling with VRC01 binding site knock-out site mutants of gp120BaL indicates that, if there are any CD4bs bnAbs in these sera, they are more likely b12-like, but not VRC01-class bnAbs. Our results suggest that HIV-1-specific Ab-expressing B cells, especially potent nAb-expressing B cells may not be rich in the B cell repertoires of "elite neutralizers", but they may be highly active in producing nAbs in

  14. Exosomes Derived from HIV-1-infected Cells Contain Trans-activation Response Element RNA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Aarthi; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Das, Ravi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Santos, Steven; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Guendel, Irene; Sampey, Gavin; Dalby, Elizabeth; Iglesias-Ussel, Maria; Popratiloff, Anastas; Hakami, Ramin; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Young, Mary; Subra, Caroline; Gilbert, Caroline; Bailey, Charles; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles produced by healthy and virus-infected cells. Exosomes derived from infected cells have been shown to contain viral microRNAs (miRNAs). HIV-1 encodes its own miRNAs that regulate viral and host gene expression. The most abundant HIV-1-derived miRNA, first reported by us and later by others using deep sequencing, is the trans-activation response element (TAR) miRNA. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of TAR RNA in exosomes from cell culture supernatants of HIV-1-infected cells and patient sera. TAR miRNA was not in Ago2 complexes outside the exosomes but enclosed within the exosomes. We detected the host miRNA machinery proteins Dicer and Drosha in exosomes from infected cells. We report that transport of TAR RNA from the nucleus into exosomes is a CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1)-dependent active process. Prior exposure of naive cells to exosomes from infected cells increased susceptibility of the recipient cells to HIV-1 infection. Exosomal TAR RNA down-regulated apoptosis by lowering Bim and Cdk9 proteins in recipient cells. We found 104–106 copies/ml TAR RNA in exosomes derived from infected culture supernatants and 103 copies/ml TAR RNA in the serum exosomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients or long term nonprogressors. Taken together, our experiments demonstrated that HIV-1-infected cells produced exosomes that are uniquely characterized by their proteomic and RNA profiles that may contribute to disease pathology in AIDS. PMID:23661700

  15. Prevalence of XMRV Nucleic Acid and Antibody in HIV-1-Infected Men and in Men at Risk for HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Spindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus (XMRV was recently reported to be associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Infection was also reported in 3.7% of healthy individuals. These highly reported frequencies of infection prompted concerns about the possibility of a new, widespread retroviral epidemic. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS provides an opportunity to assess the prevalence of XMRV infection and its association with HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men. Reliable detection of XMRV infection requires the application of multiple diagnostic methods, including detection of human antibodies to XMRV and detection of XMRV nucleic acid. We, therefore, tested 332 patient plasma and PBMC samples obtained from recent visits in a subset of patients in the MACS cohort for XMRV antibodies using Abbott prototype ARCHITECT chemiluminescent immunoassays (CMIAs and for XMRV RNA and proviral DNA using a XMRV single-copy qPCR assay (X-SCA. Although 9 of 332 (2.7% samples showed low positive reactivity against a single antigen in the CMIA, none of these samples or matched controls were positive for plasma XMRV RNA or PBMC XMRV DNA by X-SCA. Thus, we found no evidence of XMRV infection among men in the MACS regardless of HIV-1 serostatus.

  16. Origin and dynamics of HIV-1 subtype C infection in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengli Shen

    Full Text Available To investigate the geographical origin and evolution dynamics of HIV-1 subtype C infection in India.Ninety HIV-1 subtype C env gp120 subtype C sequences from India were compared with 312 env gp120 reference subtype C sequences from 27 different countries obtained from Los Alamos HIV database. All the HIV-1 subtype C env gp120 sequences from India were used for the geographical origin analysis and 61 subtype C env gp120 sequences with known sampling year (from 1991 to 2008 were employed to determine the origin of HIV infection in India.Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 env sequences was used to investigate the geographical origin and tMRCA of Indian HIV-1 subtype C. Evolutionary parameters including origin date and demographic growth patterns of Indian subtype C were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent-based approach under relaxed molecular clock models.The majority of the analyzed Indian and South African HIV-1 subtype C sequences formed a single monophyletic cluster. The most recent common ancestor date was calculated to be 1975.56 (95% HPD, 1968.78-1981.52. Reconstruction of the effective population size revealed three phases of epidemic growth: an initial slow growth, followed by exponential growth, and then a plateau phase approaching present time. Stabilization of the epidemic growth phase correlated with the foundation of National AIDS Control Organization in India.Indian subtype C originated from a single South African lineage in the middle of 1970s. The current study emphasizes not only the utility of HIV-1 sequence data for epidemiological studies but more notably highlights the effectiveness of community or government intervention strategies in controlling the trend of the epidemic.

  17. Rheumatologic manifestations of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, D; Calabrese, L H

    1998-09-01

    HIV infection is the new "great mimic." Although its more common signs and symptoms are well known, HIV infection sometimes presents with rheumatologic manifestations, as does human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV-I), the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia. This review briefly describes these manifestations and presents a logical clinical approach to their diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Lack of enhancing effect of human anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody on HIV-1 infection of human blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Shadduck, P P; Weinberg, J B; Haney, A. F.; Bartlett, J. A.; Langlois, A J; Bolognesi, D P; Matthews, T J

    1991-01-01

    The influence of human anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody on HIV-1 infection of freshly isolated normal human peritoneal macrophages and blood monocytes was examined. Each of 14 HIV antibody-positive human serum samples was found to block the infection of four virus isolates (human T-cell lymphotropic virus type IIIBa-L [HTLV-IIIBa-L], HTLV-IIIB, D.U. 6587-7, and D.U. 7887-8) at serum dilutions ranging from 10(-1) to 10(-2). Three of these isolates (HTLV-IIIBa-L, D.U. 6...

  19. Dysfunctional HDL and progression of atherosclerosis in HIV-1-infected and -uninfected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Yang, Otto O; Kendall, Michelle A; Hodis, Howard N; Currier, Judith S

    2013-03-05

    HDL function rather than absolute level may be a more accurate indicator for risk of developing atherosclerosis. Dysfunctional HDL has increased redox activity and reduced antioxidant properties, but it is unknown whether abnormal HDL function is associated with progression of atherosclerosis in HIV-1-infected subjects. We retrospectively measured serum HDL function in 91 subjects from a prospective 3-year study of carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), which enrolled triads of risk factor-matched persons that were HIV-1-uninfected (n=36) or HIV-1+ with (n=29) or without (n=26) protease inhibitor (PI)-based therapy for ≥ 2 years. HDL function was assessed using a biochemical assay that measures the oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR oxidation rate, DOR), in which higher DOR readout corresponds to dysfunctional HDL phenotype.There were no significant associations between DOR and HIV-1 infection. In univariate analysis of 55 HIV-1-infected subjects, greater waist circumference and lower serum HDL were significantly associated with higher baseline levels of DOR (p=0.01). These subjects had significant increases in levels of DOR over time (3 years) that were associated with white race (p=0.03), higher nadir CD4 count (p0.1) (DOR), were significantly associated (p=0.02) with progression of CIMT. In a small matched cohort study of HIV-1-infected subjects who had a low cardiovascular risk profile, HDL function changed over time and was independently associated with anthropometric parameters of obesity but not with progression of CIMT.

  20. miRNA-1236 inhibits HIV-1 infection of monocytes by repressing translation of cellular factor VprBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Shen, Chan-Juan; Cohen, Éric A; Xiong, Si-Dong; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Primary monocytes are refractory to HIV-1 infection and become permissive upon differentiation into monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) or macrophages. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to interpret HIV-1 restriction in monocytes. Human cellular miRNAs can modulate HIV-1 infection by targeting either conserved regions of the HIV-1 genome or host gene transcripts. We have recently reported that the translation of host protein pur-alpha is repressed by abundant cellular miRNAs to inhibit HIV-1 infection in monocytes. Here, we report that the transcript of another cellular factor, VprBP [Vpr (HIV-1)-binding protein], was repressed by cellular miRNA-1236, which contributes to HIV-1 restriction in monocytes. Transfection of miR-1236 inhibitors enhanced translation of VprBP in monocytes and significantly promoted viral infection; exogenous input of synthesized miR-1236 mimics into MDDCs suppressed translation of VprBP, and, accordingly, significantly impaired viral infection. Our data emphasize the role of miRNA in modulating differentiation-dependent susceptibility of the host cell to HIV-1 infection. Understanding the modulation of HIV-1 infection by cellular miRNAs may provide key small RNAs or the identification of new important protein targets regulated by miRNAs for the development of antiviral strategies.

  1. Of Mice and Monkeys: Can Animal Models Be Utilized to Study Neurological Consequences of Pediatric HIV-1 Infection?

    OpenAIRE

    Carryl, Heather; Swang, Melanie; Lawrence, Jerome; Curtis, Kimberly; Kamboj, Herman; Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; De Paris, Kristina; Burke, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection remains a global health crisis. Children are much more susceptible to HIV-1 neurological impairments than adults, which can be exacerbated by coinfections. Neurological characteristics of pediatric HIV-1 infection suggest dysfunction in the frontal cortex as well as the hippocampus; limited MRI data indicate global cerebral atrophy, and pathological data suggest accelerated neuronal apoptosis in the cortex. An obstacle to pediatric HIV-...

  2. Type I interferons suppress viral replication but contribute to T cell depletion and dysfunction during chronic HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Yu, Haisheng; Li, Guangming; Li, Feng; Ma, Jianping; Li, Jingyun; Chi, Liqun; Zhang, Liguo

    2017-01-01

    The direct link between sustained type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling and HIV-1–induced immunopathogenesis during chronic infection remains unclear. Here we report studies using a monoclonal antibody to block IFN-α/β receptor 1 (IFNAR1) signaling during persistent HIV-1 infection in humanized mice (hu-mice). We discovered that, during chronic HIV-1 infection, IFNAR blockade increased viral replication, which was correlated with elevated T cell activation. Thus, IFN-Is suppress HIV-1 replication during the chronic phase but are not essential for HIV-1–induced aberrant immune activation. Surprisingly, IFNAR blockade rescued both total human T cell and HIV-specific T cell numbers despite elevated HIV-1 replication and immune activation. We showed that IFNAR blockade reduced HIV-1–induced apoptosis of CD4+ T cells. Importantly, IFNAR blockade also rescued the function of human T cells, including HIV-1–specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. We conclude that during persistent HIV-1 infection, IFN-Is suppress HIV-1 replication, but contribute to depletion and dysfunction of T cells. PMID:28614789

  3. Phenotype and envelope gene diversity of nef-deleted HIV-1 isolated from long-term survivors infected from a single source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan John S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sydney blood bank cohort (SBBC of long-term survivors consists of multiple individuals infected with attenuated, nef-deleted variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 acquired from a single source. Long-term prospective studies have demonstrated that the SBBC now comprises slow progressors (SP as well as long-term nonprogressors (LTNP. Convergent evolution of nef sequences in SBBC SP and LTNP indicates the in vivo pathogenicity of HIV-1 in SBBC members is dictated by factors other than nef. To better understand mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of nef-deleted HIV-1, we examined the phenotype and env sequence diversity of sequentially isolated viruses (n = 2 from 3 SBBC members. Results The viruses characterized here were isolated from two SP spanning a three or six year period during progressive HIV-1 infection (subjects D36 and C98, respectively and from a LTNP spanning a two year period during asymptomatic, nonprogressive infection (subject C18. Both isolates from D36 were R5X4 phenotype and, compared to control HIV-1 strains, replicated to low levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. In contrast, both isolates from C98 and C18 were CCR5-restricted. Both viruses isolated from C98 replicated to barely detectable levels in PBMC, whereas both viruses isolated from C18 replicated to low levels, similar to those isolated from D36. Analysis of env by V1V2 and V3 heteroduplex tracking assay, V1V2 length polymorphisms, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed distinct intra- and inter-patient env evolution. Conclusion Independent evolution of env despite convergent evolution of nef may contribute to the in vivo pathogenicity of nef-deleted HIV-1 in SBBC members, which may not necessarily be associated with changes in replication capacity or viral coreceptor specificity.

  4. Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Infection aiguë et précoce par le VIH-1 chez les femmes durant la grossesse et la période post-partum en Tanzanie, en Zambie et au Botswana. Les programmes nationaux de prévention du VIH en Tanzanie, en Zambie et au Botswana doivent s'attaquer de manière efficace au taux d'infection des femmes durant la ...

  5. Infection and depletion of CD4+ group-1 innate lymphoid cells by HIV-1 via type-I interferon pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are severely depleted during chronic HIV-1 infection by unclear mechanisms. We report here that human ILC1s comprising of CD4+ and CD4- subpopulations were present in various human lymphoid organs but with different transcription programs and functions. Importantly, CD4+ ILC1s expressed HIV-1 co-receptors and were productively infected by HIV-1 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, chronic HIV-1 infection activated and depleted both CD4+ and CD4- ILC1s, and impaired their cytokine production activity. Highly active antiretroviral (HAART therapy in HIV-1 patients efficiently rescued the ILC1 numbers and reduced their activation, but failed to restore their functionality. We also found that blocking type-I interferon (IFN-I signaling during HIV-1 infection in vivo in humanized mice prevented HIV-1 induced depletion or apoptosis of ILC1 cells. Therefore, we have identified the CD4+ ILC1 cells as a new target population for HIV-1 infection, and revealed that IFN-I contributes to the depletion of ILC1s during HIV-1 infection.

  6. Acute Appendicitis as the Initial Clinical Presentation of Primary HIV-1 Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimann, Mariane H; Leth, Steffen; Krarup, Astrid R

    2018-01-01

    We report a case of an adolescent who presented at our emergency department with acute abdominal pain. While the initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis, a secondary and coincidental diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection was made. Concurrent and subsequent clinical and molecular biology findings...

  7. Dyslipidemia in HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Short Term Usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidemia in HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Short Term Usage of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Benin City, Nigeria. O. G. Igharo, T.L. Olawoye, H.B. Osadolor, F. A. Idomeh, O. J. Osunbor, A. O. Osagie, O.C. Iyamu ...

  8. Experimental Leishmania major infection suppresses HIV-1 DNA vaccine induced cellular immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tara M; Nelson, Robin; Artis, David; Scott, Phillip; Boyer, Jean D

    2004-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic in the developing world represents a major global crisis and an effective vaccine is imperative. However, many parasites are common in developing countries and can result in a state of chronic immune activation that is polarized towards a Th2 profile and which can potentially impair responses to vaccines or other infectious challenges. In this study we demonstrate that experimental Leishmania major infection of BALB/c mice inhibits responses to a DNA-based HIV-1 gag vaccine. L. major infection in BALB/c results in a polarized Th2 immune response. In this study naïve BALB/c mice immunized with the HIV-1 gag DNA vaccine mounted a cellular immune response against the vaccine antigen, HIV-1 gag. CD8+ T lymphocytes were able to respond in vitro to HIV-1 gag stimulation and secrete interferon (IFN)-gamma. However, L. major-infected, vaccinated BALB/c mice had a significantly reduced number of IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ T cells following in vitro stimulation with gag antigen. These data suggest that parasitic infection, which results in a Th2 profile, reduces the efficacy of DNA vaccines that are designed to induce antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Acute HIV-1 Infection in Antigen/Antibody-negative Blood Donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute HIV-1 Infection in Antigen/Antibody-negative Blood Donors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... Fourth generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen (Ag)/antibody (Ab) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test used in the current screening of blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Service ...

  10. Profile of HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-TB co-infected patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlapping epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) is expected in Nigeria that is ranked 10th amongst the 22 countries that bears the burden of TB worldwide. This study aims to estimate the HIV-1 RNA viral load and impact of anti TB therapy (ATT) in a CD4 cell count ...

  11. Impact of CCR5 Delta32/+ deletion on herpes zoster among HIV-1-infected homosexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Anneke; Lensen, Ruud; Veenstra, Jan; Prins, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Coutinho, Roel A.

    2006-01-01

    The association between the presence of CCR5 Delta32 heterozygosity and incidence of clinical herpes zoster was studied among 296 homosexual men from the Amsterdam cohort study (ACS) infected with human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) with an estimated date of seroconversion. Of them 63 were

  12. Fluconazole for ketoconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-1 infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of fluconazole in doses ranging from 50 to 200 mg/day in controlling oropharyngeal candidiasis was retrospectively evaluated in 16 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients. 13 patients received fluconazole due to failure of treatment with ketoconazole, and among these 11 (84%) initially...

  13. HIV-1 Encephalopathy among Perinatally Infected Children: Neuropathogenesis and Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Charles D.

    2006-01-01

    HIV-1 encephalopathy among perinatally infected children in the United States was initially defined by a classic triad of findings that included: (1) developmental delay, (2) secondary or acquired microcephaly, and (3) pyramidal tract neuromotor deficits. The most severe form of this disorder typically occurred among young children who developed…

  14. Safeguard against DNA sensing: The role of TREX1 in HIV-1 infection and autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan eYan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune recognition is crucial for host responses against viral infections, including infection by human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1. Human cells detect such invading pathogens with a collection of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that activate the production of antiviral proteins, such as the cytokine interferon-type I, to initiate antiviral responses immediately as well as the adaptive immune response for long-term protection. To establish infection in the host, many viruses have thus evolved strategies for subversion of these mechanisms of innate immunity. For example, acute infection by HIV-1 and other retroviruses have long been thought to be non-immunogenic, signifying suppression of host defenses by these pathogens. Studies in the past few years have begun to uncover a multifaceted scheme of how HIV-1 evades innate immune detection, especially of its DNA, by exploiting host proteins. This review will discuss the host mechanisms of HIV-1 DNA sensing and viral immune evasion, with a particular focus on TREX1, a host 3’ to 5’ exodeoxyribonuclease (also known as DNase III.

  15. LILRB2 interaction with HLA class I correlates with control of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman A Bashirova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural progression of HIV-1 infection depends on genetic variation in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I locus, and the CD8+ T cell response is thought to be a primary mechanism of this effect. However, polymorphism within the MHC may also alter innate immune activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 by changing interactions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR, a group of immunoregulatory receptors mainly expressed on myelomonocytic cells including dendritic cells (DCs. We used previously characterized HLA allotype-specific binding capacities of LILRB1 and LILRB2 as well as data from a large cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals (N = 5126 to test whether LILR-HLA class I interactions influence viral load in HIV-1 infection. Our analyses in persons of European descent, the largest ethnic group examined, show that the effect of HLA-B alleles on HIV-1 control correlates with the binding strength between corresponding HLA-B allotypes and LILRB2 (p = 10(-2. Moreover, overall binding strength of LILRB2 to classical HLA class I allotypes, defined by the HLA-A/B/C genotypes in each patient, positively associates with viral replication in the absence of therapy in patients of both European (p = 10(-11-10(-9 and African (p = 10(-5-10(-3 descent. This effect appears to be driven by variations in LILRB2 binding affinities to HLA-B and is independent of individual class I allelic effects that are not related to the LILRB2 function. Correspondingly, in vitro experiments suggest that strong LILRB2-HLA binding negatively affects antigen-presenting properties of DCs. Thus, we propose an impact of LILRB2 on HIV-1 disease outcomes through altered regulation of DCs by LILRB2-HLA engagement.

  16. Humanized mouse models for HIV-1 infection of the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jenna B; Sheridan, Patricia A; Matsushima, Glenn K; Garcia, J Victor

    2015-06-01

    Since the onset of the HIV epidemic, there has been a shift from a deadly diagnosis to the management of a chronic disease. This shift is the result of the development of highly effective drugs that are able to suppress viral replication for years. The availability of these regimens has also shifted the neurocognitive pathology associated with infection from potentially devastating to a much milder phenotype. As the disease outcome has changed significantly with the availability of antiretroviral therapy, there is an opportunity to re-evaluate the currently available models to address the neurocognitive pathology seen in suppressed patients. In the following, we seek to summarize the current literature on humanized mouse models and their utility in understanding how HIV infection leads to changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Also, we identify some of the unanswered questions regarding HIV infection of the CNS as well as the opportunities and limitations of currently existing models to address those questions. Finally, our conclusions indicate that the earlier humanized models used to study HIV infection in the CNS provided an excellent foundation for the type of work currently being performed using novel humanized mouse models. We also indicate the potential of some humanized mouse models that have not been used as of this time for the analysis of HIV infection in the brain.

  17. Adjuvanted HLA-supertype restricted subdominant peptides induce new T-cell immunity during untreated HIV-1-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Brandt, Lea; Vinner, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential of inducing additional T-cell immunity during chronic HIV-1 infection directed to subdominant HIV-1 epitopes from common HLA-supertypes. Ten treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals were immunized with peptides in the adjuvant CAF01. One individual received placebo...... responses specific for one or more vaccine epitopes were induced in 10/10 vaccinees. The responses were dominated by CD107a and MIP1β expression. There were no significant changes in HIV-1 viral load or CD4 T-cell counts. Our study demonstrates that the peptide/CAF01 vaccine is safe and that it is possible...... to generate new HIV-1 T-cell responses to defined epitopes in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals....

  18. Increased Levels of HIV-1Infected Cells in Endocervical Secretions After the Luteinizing Hormone Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benki, Sarah; Mostad, Sara B.; Richardson, Barbra A.; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Kreiss, Joan K.; Overbaugh, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Summary Levels of HIV-1 RNA in endocervical specimens fluctuate with the menstrual cycle, suggesting that cell-free HIV-1 levels may vary during the cycle, which could influence infectivity. Here, we examined daily changes in endocervical HIV-1infected cells during 1 cycle. There were significant positive associations between the number of days from the luteinizing hormone surge and the number of HIV-1 DNA copies/swab (P = 0.001) and the number of total cells/swab (P < 0.001) in endocervical specimens. These data suggest that sampling of cell-associated endocervical HIV-1 increases after the periovulatory period, which could result in increased exposure to HIV-1infected cells during sexual contact. PMID:18209681

  19. HIV-1 Infection in adults with haematological malignancies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although B-lineage-derived malignancies are more often associated with the HIV infection, other malignant proliferations of the haematopoietic system may not be coincidental. Résumé Pour determiner l'association entre les maladies hématologiques malignes et le VIH-1 à Yaoundé, Cameroun, les adultes ages de plus de ...

  20. Discordant HIV-1 Infection in Dizygotic Twins: Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First-born twins are at a four-fold risk of acquiring HIV infection if delivered by caesarean section. A female second twin delivered by caesarean section presented at the age of 14 months with features of HIV/AIDS. She died four months later of full blown AIDS. The first twin, a male, who was delivered vaginally, ...

  1. Frequency of Cryptococcal Meningitis in HIV-1 Infected Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the most common severe life threatening fungal infection in AIDS patients. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of data on the prevalence of CM in Nigeria. We aimed to determine the frequency of CM, the clinical presentation and immunological ...

  2. Inhibition of HIV-1 lentiviral particles infectivity by Gynostemma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These claims motivated the study in which the inhibition of viral vector infectivity of HeLa cells was assessed flow cytometrically by measuring the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene incorporated in the lentiviral vector construct. An infectious VSV-G-pseudotyped, human immunodeficiency virus type ...

  3. Prolonged elevation of viral loads in HIV-1-infected children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cqq1a

    2010-11-09

    Nov 9, 2010 ... Severe cutaneous drug reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis) in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:740-1. This article on PubMed. 24. White NJ. Intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria: A better understanding of the pharmacodynamics ...

  4. Chalmydia trachomatis infection among asymptomatic males in an infertility clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania - Pramanik J

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to a variety of complications including tubal infertility. Similarly asymptomatic infection in male partner can also hinder conception. The prevalence of this infection among the infertile female in the Institute′s Infertility Clinic was observed to be 34%. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out these infection among the asymptomatic male partners of these infected women. Fifteen asymptomatic males who were not treated with any antibiotics in recent past were enrolled. First voided urine, semen and blood were collected from each individual for diagnosis of this infection. Chlamydia antigen was detected in 33.3% while Chlamydia antibody was detected in seven (46.7% of these cases. Of these seven, three cases were positive for antigen. This preliminary observation suggests that amongst the infertile couple a sizable percentage (60% of asymptomatic male partners remain infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

  5. Drug resistance in the HIV-1-infected paediatric population worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Sánchez, Patricia; Holguín, Africa

    2014-08-01

    Drug resistance monitoring of the paediatric HIV-1-infected population is required to optimize treatment success and preserve future treatment options. To explore the current knowledge of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in naive and pretreated HIV-1-infected paediatric populations across diverse settings and sampling time periods. PubMed database screened until May 2013. We selected publications including data on transmitted (TDR) and acquired drug resistance mutation (DRM) rates and/or pol sequences for HIVDR testing in paediatric patients. We recorded the children's country, age, study period, number of children with pol sequences, presence or absence of antiretroviral treatment (ART) at sampling time, viral region sequenced, HIVDR rate to the three main drug classes (single, double or triple), the considered resistance mutation list and performed assay, specimen type, HIV-1 variants and subtyping methodology when available. Forty-one selected studies showed HIVDR data from 2538 paediatric HIV-1-infected patients (558 naive and 1980 pretreated) from 30 countries in Africa (11), Asia (6), America (10) and Europe (3). Both TDR and DRM prevalence were reported in 9 studies, only TDR in 6 and only DRM in 26. HIVDR prevalence varied across countries and periods. Most studies used in-house resistance assays using plasma or infected cells. HIV-1 non-B variants were prevalent in 18 paediatric cohorts of the 24 countries with reported subtypes. Only five countries (Uganda, Spain, the UK, Brazil and Thailand) presented resistance data in ≥200 patients. Systematic and periodic studies among infected children are crucial to design a more suitable first- or second-line therapy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Noninvasive micromanipulation of live HIV-1 infected cells via laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mthunzi, Patience [National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2015-12-31

    Live mammalian cells from various tissues of origin can be aseptically and noninvasively micromanipulated via lasers of different regimes. Laser-driven techniques are therefore paving a path toward the advancement of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) investigations. Studies aimed at the interaction of laser light, nanomaterials, and biological materials can also lead to an understanding of a wealth of disease conditions and result in photonics-based therapies and diagnostic tools. Thus, in our research, both continuous wave and pulsed lasers operated at varying wavelengths are employed, as they possess special properties that allow classical biomedical applications. This paper discusses photo-translocation of antiretroviral drugs into HIV-1 permissive cells and preliminary results of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in HIV-1 infected cells.

  7. Noninvasive micromanipulation of live HIV-1 infected cells via laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthunzi, Patience

    2015-12-01

    Live mammalian cells from various tissues of origin can be aseptically and noninvasively micromanipulated via lasers of different regimes. Laser-driven techniques are therefore paving a path toward the advancement of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) investigations. Studies aimed at the interaction of laser light, nanomaterials, and biological materials can also lead to an understanding of a wealth of disease conditions and result in photonics-based therapies and diagnostic tools. Thus, in our research, both continuous wave and pulsed lasers operated at varying wavelengths are employed, as they possess special properties that allow classical biomedical applications. This paper discusses photo-translocation of antiretroviral drugs into HIV-1 permissive cells and preliminary results of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in HIV-1 infected cells.

  8. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Jin

    Full Text Available Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed.We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects.Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5.Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  9. Relationship between Functional Profile of HIV-1 Specific CD8 T Cells and Epitope Variability with the Selection of Escape Mutants in Acute HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Nilu; Liu, Michael K. P.; Turnbull, Emma L.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Hawkins, Natalie; Self, Steve; Watson, Sydeaka; Betts, Michael R.; Gay, Cynthia; McGhee, Kara; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Haynes, Barton F.; Gray, Clive M.; Borrow, Persephone; Roederer, Mario; McMichael, Andrew J.; Weinhold, Kent J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the functional profile of CD8+ T-cell responses directed against autologous transmitted/founder HIV-1 isolates during acute and early infection, and examined whether multifunctionality is required for selection of virus escape mutations. Seven anti-retroviral therapy-naïve subjects were studied in detail between 1 and 87 weeks following onset of symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection. Synthetic peptides representing the autologous transmitted/founder HIV-1 sequences were used in multiparameter flow cytometry assays to determine the functionality of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T memory cells. In all seven patients, the earliest T cell responses were predominantly oligofunctional, although the relative contribution of multifunctional cell responses increased significantly with time from infection. Interestingly, only the magnitude of the total and not of the poly-functional T-cell responses was significantly associated with the selection of escape mutants. However, the high contribution of MIP-1β-producing CD8+ T-cells to the total response suggests that mechanisms not limited to cytotoxicity could be exerting immune pressure during acute infection. Lastly, we show that epitope entropy, reflecting the capacity of the epitope to tolerate mutational change and defined as the diversity of epitope sequences at the population level, was also correlated with rate of emergence of escape mutants. PMID:21347345

  10. Association of osteonecrosis and osteoporosis in HIV-1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessel, W Jeffrey; Chau, Quyen; Leong, Davis

    2011-09-24

    We questioned whether heightened impairment of regenerative capacity of osteoblasts might account for the excess of osteonecrosis and osteoporosis seen in HIV-infected patients. Were that the case, patients with osteonecrosis would have more osteoporosis than the patients without osteonecrosis. Eleven thousand, five hundred and six patients with HIV infection were studied for the presence of osteonecrosis and osteoporosis and for confounding factors. Depending upon whether dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was before or after the diagnosis of osteonecrosis, osteoporosis was between 6.3 and 18 times more frequent in those with than in those without osteonecrosis. Those who received DEXA were similar to those who did not in median CD4 level at the time of DEXA or at a comparable time after their first recorded CD4 cell count in our system; in nadir CD4 level; and in use and amount of corticosteroids. Those with osteonecrosis and osteoporosis did not use more corticosteroids than those with osteoporosis without osteonecrosis. Alcohol abuse had not been diagnosed more often before the occurrence of osteonecrosis than in those without osteonecrosis. Tenofovir was not more used by those with than by those without osteoporosis. Osteonecrosis and osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients were concurrent more often than expected.

  11. HLA-C increases HIV-1 infectivity and is associated with gp120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beretta Alberto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recently identified genetic polymorphism located in the 5' region of the HLA-C gene is associated with individual variations in HIV-1 viral load and with differences in HLA-C expression levels. HLA-C has the potential to restrict HIV-1 by presenting epitopes to cytotoxic T cells but it is also a potent inhibitor of NK cells. In addition, HLA-C molecules incorporated within the HIV-1 envelope have been shown to bind to the envelope glycoprotein gp120 and enhance viral infectivity. We investigated this last property in cell fusion assays where the expression of HLA-C was silenced by small interfering RNA sequences. Syncytia formation was analyzed by co-cultivating cell lines expressing HIV-1 gp120/gp41 from different laboratory and primary isolates with target cells expressing different HIV-1 co-receptors. Virus infectivity was analyzed using pseudoviruses. Molecular complexes generated during cell fusion (fusion complexes were purified and analyzed for their HLA-C content. Results HLA-C positive cells co-expressing HIV-1 gp120/gp41 fused more rapidly and produced larger syncytia than HLA-C negative cells. Transient transfection of gp120/gp41 from different primary isolates in HLA-C positive cells resulted in a significant cell fusion increase. Fusion efficiency was reduced in HLA-C silenced cells compared to non-silenced cells when co-cultivated with different target cell lines expressing HIV-1 co-receptors. Similarly, pseudoviruses produced from HLA-C silenced cells were significantly less infectious. HLA-C was co-purified with gp120 from cells before and after fusion and was associated with the fusion complex. Conclusion Virionic HLA-C molecules associate to Env and increase the infectivity of both R5 and X4 viruses. Genetic polymorphisms associated to variations in HLA-C expression levels may therefore influence the individual viral set point not only by means of a regulation of the virus-specific immune response but also

  12. Cognitive Consequences of a Sustained Monocyte Type 1 IFN Response in HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pulliam, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1-infected subjects can achieve undetectable peripheral viral loads and immune homeostasis. However, in a subset of individuals on therapy, peripheral monocytes have a gene expression profile characteristic of a type 1 interferon α (IFN) response. This type 1 IFN response correlates with a number of pathogenic conditions including neural cell injury and in combination with HCV infection, cognitive impairment. Lessons from the non-human primate model...

  13. Chronic renal failure among HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to antiretrovirals in chronic renal failure (CRF) is not well understood. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) are estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. METHODS: Baseline was arbitrarily defined as the first...... of Europe, age, prior AIDS, CD4 cell count nadir, viral load, hypertension and use of nephrotoxic anti-infective therapy). RESULTS: Using CG, the median GFR at baseline (n = 4474) was 94.4 (interquartile range, 80.5-109.3); 158 patients (3.5%) had CRF. Patients with CRF were older (median, 61.9 versus 43...

  14. Plasma proteomic profiling in HIV-1 infected methamphetamine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenael Pottiez

    Full Text Available We wanted to determine whether methamphetamine use affects a subset of plasma proteins in HIV-infected persons. Plasma samples from two visits were identified for subjects from four groups: HIV+, ongoing, persistent METH use; HIV+, short-term METH abstinent; HIV+, long term METH abstinence; HIV negative, no history of METH use. Among 390 proteins identified, 28 showed significant changes in expression in the HIV+/persistent METH+ group over the two visits, which were not attributable to HIV itself. These proteins were involved in complement, coagulation pathways and oxidative stress. Continuous METH use is an unstable condition, altering levels of a number of plasma proteins.

  15. Potential yoga modules for treatment of hematopoietic inhibition in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Rao, Nagendra Hongasandra Rama; Tekur, Padmini; Koka, Prasad S

    2010-01-01

    This article is expected to contribute towards understanding the therapeutic benefits of specific yoga modules on the inhibition of replication and enhancement to normal levels of hematopoiesis in HIV-1 infected subjects. More unique could be the effects of yoga on the indirect effects of HIV-1 induced hematopoietic inhibition of the CD34+ progenitor stem cells, via the CD4+ T lymphocytes. Such indirect effects may be caused by host cellular factors. Yoga practices may also improve the self renewal capacity (a step that precedes commitment of CD34+ progenitor cells to terminal differentiation), via STAT5 gene regulation. This may eliminate the need for constitutive STAT5 gene expression through gene therapy. In this article recent research and ancient Indian literature are reviewed to devise yoga modules for the potential treatment of hematopoietic inhibition in HIV-1 infection. The possible mechanisms through which hematopoietic inhibition may occur in HIV-1 infected patients are first described followed by the role of stress in the progression of HIV where probable involvement of psycho-neuro-immunological axis (PNI) is highlighted. Yoga therapy is introduced and its effectiveness in terms of evidence in relevant area is reviewed. Further, the basic principles of Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy [IAYT] are described and depending on the potential mechanisms through which yoga therapy may act, both modern scientific research and ancient "scriptural" evidence are provided at all the five levels of existence (body, life force, emotional, intellectual and bliss). This will enable to design comprehensive yoga modules that may intervene in this indirect inhibition of haematopoiesis in HIV-1 infected individuals and potentially restore normal levels of haematopoiesis.

  16. KIF5B and Nup358 Cooperatively Mediate the Nuclear Import of HIV-1 during Infection.

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    Adarsh Dharan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Following envelope mediated fusion, the HIV-1 core is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell and undergoes a series of trafficking and replicative steps that result in the nuclear import of the viral genome, which ultimately leads to the integration of the proviral DNA into the host cell genome. Previous studies have found that disruption of microtubules, or depletion of dynein or kinesin motors, perturb the normal uncoating and trafficking of the viral genome. Here, we show that the Kinesin-1 motor, KIF5B, induces a relocalization of the nuclear pore component Nup358 into the cytoplasm during HIV-1 infection. This relocalization of NUP358 is dependent on HIV-1 capsid, and NUP358 directly associates with viral cores following cytoplasmic translocation. This interaction between NUP358 and the HIV-1 core is dependent on multiple capsid binding surfaces, as this association is not observed following infection with capsid mutants in which a conserved hydrophobic binding pocket (N74D or the cyclophilin A binding loop (P90A is disrupted. KIF5B knockdown also prevents the nuclear entry and infection by HIV-1, but does not exert a similar effect on the N74D or P90A capsid mutants which do not rely on Nup358 for nuclear import. Finally, we observe that the relocalization of Nup358 in response to CA is dependent on cleavage protein and polyadenylation factor 6 (CPSF6, but independent of cyclophilin A. Collectively, these observations identify a previously unappreciated role for KIF5B in mediating the Nup358 dependent nuclear import of the viral genome during infection.

  17. Exhaustion of Activated CD8 T Cells Predicts Disease Progression in Primary HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Stephen; Hurst, Jacob; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Christian B.; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Kinloch, Sabine; Babiker, Abdel; Nwokolo, Nneka; Fox, Julie; Fidler, Sarah; Phillips, Rodney; Frater, John

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which HIV-1 infected individuals progress to AIDS is highly variable and impacted by T cell immunity. CD8 T cell inhibitory molecules are up-regulated in HIV-1 infection and associate with immune dysfunction. We evaluated participants (n = 122) recruited to the SPARTAC randomised clinical trial to determine whether CD8 T cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Lag-3 and Tim-3 were associated with immune activation and disease progression. Expression of PD-1, Tim-3, Lag-3 and CD38 on CD8 T cells from the closest pre-therapy time-point to seroconversion was measured by flow cytometry, and correlated with surrogate markers of HIV-1 disease (HIV-1 plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 T cell count) and the trial endpoint (time to CD4 count exhaustion markers, expression of CD38 on CD8 T cells increased the strength of associations. In Cox models, progression to the trial endpoint was most marked for PD-1/CD38 co-expressing cells, with evidence for a stronger effect within 12 weeks from confirmed diagnosis of PHI. The effect of PD-1 and Lag-3 expression on CD8 T cells retained statistical significance in Cox proportional hazards models including antiretroviral therapy and CD4 count, but not pVL as co-variants. Expression of ‘exhaustion’ or ‘immune checkpoint’ markers in early HIV-1 infection is associated with clinical progression and is impacted by immune activation and the duration of infection. New markers to identify exhausted T cells and novel interventions to reverse exhaustion may inform the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27415828

  18. Human rhinovirus infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of rhinovirus asymptomatic infections in the transmission among close contacts subjects is unknown. We tested health care workers, a pair of one child and a family member and immunocompromised patients (n =191. HRV were detected on 22.9% symptomatic and 3.6% asymptomatic cases suggesting lower transmission among contacts.

  19. Antigen-presenting cells represent targets for R5 HIV-1 infection in the first trimester pregnancy uterine mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Marlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the first trimester of pregnancy, HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission is relatively rare despite the permissivity of placental cells to cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection. The placenta interacts directly with maternal uterine cells (decidual cells but the physiological role of the decidua in the control of HIV-1 transmission and whether decidua could be a source of infected cells is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To answer to this question, decidual mononuclear cells were exposed to HIV-1 in vitro. Decidual cells were shown to be more susceptible to infection by an R5 HIV-1, as compared to an X4 HIV-1. Infected cells were identified by flow cytometry analysis. The results showed that CD14(+ cells were the main targets of HIV-1 infection in the decidua. These infected CD14(+ cells expressed DC-SIGN, CD11b, CD11c, the Fc gamma receptor CD16, CD32 and CD64, classical MHC class-I and class-II and maturation and activation molecules CD83, CD80 and CD86. The permissivity of decidual tissue was also evaluated by histoculture. Decidual tissue was not infected by X4 HIV-1 but was permissive to R5 HIV-1. Different profiles of infection were observed depending on tissue localization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of HIV-1 target cells in the decidua in vitro and the low rate of in utero mother-to-child transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy suggest that a natural control occurs in vivo limiting cell-to-cell infection of the placenta and consequently infection of the fetus.

  20. Effect of acquisition and treatment of cervical infections on HIV-1 shedding in women on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Ruth W; Graham, Susan M; Masese, Linnet N; Overbaugh, Julie; Chohan, Vrasha; Peshu, Norbert; Richardson, Barbra A; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; McClelland, R Scott

    2010-11-13

    Cervicitis increases the quantity of HIV-1 RNA in cervical secretions when women are not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART), and successful treatment of cervicitis reduces HIV-1 shedding in this setting. To determine the effect of acquisition and treatment of cervical infections on genital HIV-1 shedding in women receiving ART. Prospective cohort study. We followed 147 women on ART monthly for incident nonspecific cervicitis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Cervical swabs for HIV-1 RNA quantitation were collected at every visit. The lower limit for linear quantitation was 100 copies per swab. We compared the prevalence of HIV-1 RNA detection before (baseline) versus during and after treatment of cervical infections. Thirty women contributed a total of 31 successfully treated episodes of nonspecific cervicitis (N = 13), gonorrhea (N = 17), and chlamydia (N = 1). HIV-1 RNA was detected in cervical secretions before, during, and after cervicitis at one (3.2%), five (16.1%), and three (9.7%) visits, respectively. Compared with baseline, detection of HIV-1 RNA was increased when cervical infections were present (adjusted odds ratio 5.7, 95% confidence interval 1.0-30.3, P = 0.04). However, even in the subset of women with cervical HIV-1 RNA levels above the threshold for quantitation, most had low concentrations during cervical infections (median 115, range 100-820 copies per swab). Although these data show a statistically significant increase in cervical HIV-1 RNA detection when cervical infections are present, most cervical HIV-1 RNA concentrations were near the threshold for detection, suggesting that infectivity remains low. Antiretroviral therapy appears to limit increases in genital HIV-1 shedding caused by cervical infections.

  1. HIV-1 Trans Infection of CD4+ T Cells by Professional Antigen Presenting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s we have known of the fascinating ability of a complex set of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs; dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, and B lymphocytes) to mediate HIV-1 trans infection of CD4+ T cells. This results in a burst of virus replication in the T cells that is much greater than that resulting from direct, cis infection of either APC or T cells, or trans infection between T cells. Such APC-to-T cell trans infection first involves a complex set of virus subtype, attachment, entry, and replication patterns that have many similarities among APC, as well as distinct differences related to virus receptors, intracellular trafficking, and productive and nonproductive replication pathways. The end result is that HIV-1 can sequester within the APC for several days and be transmitted via membrane extensions intracellularly and extracellularly to T cells across the virologic synapse. Virus replication requires activated T cells that can develop concurrently with the events of virus transmission. Further research is essential to fill the many gaps in our understanding of these trans infection processes and their role in natural HIV-1 infection. PMID:24278768

  2. Cognitive consequences of a sustained monocyte type 1 IFN response in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1-infected subjects can achieve undetectable peripheral viral loads and immune homeostasis. However, in a subset of individuals on therapy, peripheral monocytes have a gene expression profile characteristic of a type 1 interferon α (IFN) response. This type 1 IFN response correlates with a number of pathogenic conditions including neural cell injury and in combination with HCV infection, cognitive impairment. Lessons from the non-human primate models of pathogenic and nonpathogenic SIV suggest that returning the initial IFN spike in acute SIV infection to normal allows the immune system to control infection and return to homeostasis. An IFN "alarm" signature, defined as monocyte activation with overexpression of the type1 IFN genes IFI27 and CD169, would be useful for identifying a subset of subjects with HIV-1 infection that could progress to a number of pathologies associated with immune activation including cognitive dysfunction. This strategy is being actively pursued for autoimmune diseases that are characterized by an IFN signature. Therapies to block the IFN signature are under investigation as a means to reset the immune system and in a subset of HIV-1-infected subjects may be an adjuvant to standard antiviral therapy to return cognitive function.

  3. Characterization of the longitudinal HIV-1 quasispecies evolution in HIV-1 infected individuals co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Leulebirhan, Tsigereda Biru

    2010-01-01

    One of the earliest and most striking observations made about HIV is the extensive genetic variation that the virus has within individual hosts, particularly in the hypervariable regions of the env gene which is divided into 5 variable regions (V1-V5) and 5 more constant (C1-C5) regions. HIV evolves at any time over the course of an individual’s infection and infected individuals harbours a population of genetically related but non-identical viruses that are under constant change and ready to...

  4. Preferential infection and depletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cells after HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldmacher, Christof; Ngwenyama, Njabulo; Schuetz, Alexandra; Petrovas, Constantinos; Reither, Klaus; Heeregrave, Edwin J.; Casazza, Joseph P.; Ambrozak, David R.; Louder, Mark; Ampofo, William; Pollakis, Georgios; Hill, Brenna; Sanga, Erica; Saathoff, Elmar; Maboko, Leonard; Roederer, Mario; Paxton, William A.; Hoelscher, Michael; Koup, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 infection results in the progressive loss of CD4 T cells. In this study, we address how different pathogen-specific CD4 T cells are affected by HIV infection and the cellular parameters involved. We found striking differences in the depletion rates between CD4 T cells to two common

  5. Lipodystrophy and insulin resistance in combination antiretroviral treated HIV-1-infected patients: implication of resistin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoté, Xavier; Miranda, Merce; Veloso, Sergi; Domingo, Pere; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Peraire, Joaquim; Viladés, Consuelo; Alba, Verónica; Olona, Montserrat; Castro, Antoni; López-Dupla, Miguel; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; Vicente, Vicente; Vendrell, Joan; Richart, Cristóbal; Vidal, Francesc

    2011-05-01

    Little information is available with respect to the involvement of resistin in lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbances in HIV-1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We determined whether the resistin (rest) -420C>G single-nucleotide polymorphism and plasma resistin are associated with the development of lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbances in HIV-1-infected patients treated with cART. The study group comprised 299 HIV-1-infected patients treated with a stable cART for at least 1 year (143 with lipodystrophy and 156 without) and 175 uninfected controls. Anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic variables were determined. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was used to evaluate insulin resistance. Plasma resistin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The rest -420C>G was assessed using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Student t test, 1-way and 2-way analysis of variance, χ2 test, and Pearson and Spearman correlations were performed for statistical analysis. Genotypes containing the rest -420G variant allele were significantly more common in HIV-1-infected patients without lipodystrophy compared with those with lipodystrophy (P = 0.037). Infected patients had significantly greater plasma resistin levels than uninfected controls (P lipodystrophy with respect to those without (P = 0.034). In infected patients, plasma resistin levels had a significant positive correlation with insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance: P lipodystrophy subset and P = 0.002 and P = 0.03 in the nonlipodystrophy subset, respectively. In our cohort of white Spaniards, the rest -420C>G single-nucleotide polymorphism may be associated with cART-related lipodystrophy. Plasma resistin correlates with insulin resistance in infected patients with and without lipodystrophy.

  6. Reconciling Longitudinal Naive T-Cell and TREC Dynamics during HIV-1 Infection.

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    Julia Drylewicz

    Full Text Available Naive T cells in untreated HIV-1 infected individuals have a reduced T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC content. Previous mathematical models have suggested that this is due to increased naive T-cell division. It remains unclear, however, how reduced naive TREC contents can be reconciled with a gradual loss of naive T cells in HIV-1 infection. We performed longitudinal analyses in humans before and after HIV-1 seroconversion, and used a mathematical model to investigate which processes could explain the observed changes in naive T-cell numbers and TRECs during untreated HIV-1 disease progression. Both CD4+ and CD8+ naive T-cell TREC contents declined biphasically, with a rapid loss during the first year and a much slower loss during the chronic phase of infection. While naive CD8+ T-cell numbers hardly changed during follow-up, naive CD4+ T-cell counts continually declined. We show that a fine balance between increased T-cell division and loss in the peripheral naive T-cell pool can explain the observed short- and long-term changes in TRECs and naive T-cell numbers, especially if T-cell turnover during the acute phase is more increased than during the chronic phase of infection. Loss of thymic output, on the other hand, does not help to explain the biphasic loss of TRECs in HIV infection. The observed longitudinal changes in TRECs and naive T-cell numbers in HIV-infected individuals are most likely explained by a tight balance between increased T-cell division and death, suggesting that these changes are intrinsically linked in HIV infection.

  7. Chronic renal failure among HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to antiretrovirals in chronic renal failure (CRF) is not well understood. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) are estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. METHODS: Baseline was arbitrarily defined as the first...... of Europe, age, prior AIDS, CD4 cell count nadir, viral load, hypertension and use of nephrotoxic anti-infective therapy). RESULTS: Using CG, the median GFR at baseline (n = 4474) was 94.4 (interquartile range, 80.5-109.3); 158 patients (3.5%) had CRF. Patients with CRF were older (median, 61.9 versus 43.......1 years), had lower CD4 cell count nadirs (median, 80 versus 137 cells/microl), and were more likely to be diagnosed with AIDS (44.3 versus 30.4%), diabetes (16.5 versus 4.3%) or hypertension (53.8 versus 26.4%), all P

  8. A Peptide Derived from the HIV-1 gp120 Coreceptor-Binding Region Promotes Formation of PAP248-286 Amyloid Fibrils to Enhance HIV-1 Infection.

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    Jinquan Chen

    Full Text Available Semen is a major vehicle for HIV transmission. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP fragments, such as PAP248-286, in human semen can form amyloid fibrils to enhance HIV infection. Other endogenous or exogenous factors present during sexual intercourse have also been reported to promote the formation of seminal amyloid fibrils.Here, we demonstrated that a synthetic 15-residue peptide derived from the HIV-1 gp120 coreceptor-binding region, designated enhancing peptide 2 (EP2, can rapidly self-assemble into nanofibers. These EP2-derivated nanofibers promptly accelerated the formation of semen amyloid fibrils by PAP248-286, as shown by Thioflavin T (ThT and Congo red assays. The amyloid fibrils presented similar morphology, assessed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM, in the presence or absence of EP2. Circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy revealed that EP2 accelerates PAP248-286 amyloid fibril formation by promoting the structural transition of PAP248-286 from a random coil into a cross-β-sheet. Newly formed semen amyloid fibrils effectively enhanced HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl cells and U87 cells by promoting the binding of HIV-1 virions to target cells.Nanofibers composed of EP2 promote the formation of PAP248-286 amyloid fibrils and enhance HIV-1 infection.

  9. Desensitization to type I interferon in HIV-1 infection correlates with markers of immune activation and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Gareth A D; Sieg, Scott F; Rodriguez, Benigno; Jiang, Wei; Asaad, Robert; Lederman, Michael M; Harding, Clifford V

    2009-05-28

    Type I interferon (IFNalpha/beta) plays a complex role in HIV-1 infection and has been proposed alternately to have roles in either disease protection or progression. Although IFNalpha/beta plays crucial roles in regulating monocytes and dendritic cells, responsiveness of these cells to IFNalpha/beta in HIV-1 infection is poorly understood. We report significant defects in IFNalpha/beta receptor (IFNalpha/betaR) expression, IFNalpha signaling, and IFNalpha-induced gene expression in monocytes from HIV-1-infected subjects. IFNalpha/betaR expression correlated directly with CD4+ T-cell count and inversely with HIV-1 RNA level and expression of CD38 by memory (CD45RO+) CD8+ T cells, a measure of pathologic immune activation in HIV-1 infection associated with disease progression. In addition, monocytes from HIV-1-infected persons showed diminished responses to IFNalpha, including decreased induction of phosphorylated STAT1 and the classical interferon-stimulated gene produces MxA and OAS. These IFNalpha responses were decreased regardless of IFNalpha/betaR expression, suggesting that regulation of intracellular signaling may contribute to unresponsiveness to IFNalpha/beta in HIV-1 disease. Defective monocyte responses to IFNalpha/beta may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, and decreased IFNalpha/betaR expression may serve as a novel marker of disease progression.

  10. Oxidized lipoproteins are associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Jackson, Nicholas; McComsey, Grace A; Wang, Xiaoyan; Elashoff, David; Dube, Michael P; Brown, Todd T; Yang, Otto O; Stein, James H; Currier, Judith S

    2016-11-13

    The pathogenesis of immune dysfunction in chronic HIV-1 infection is unclear, and a potential role for oxidized lipids has been suggested. We hypothesize that both oxidized HDL and LDL (HDLox and LDLox) contribute to HIV-1-related immune dysfunction. In the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5260, 234 HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants were randomized to receive tenofovir-emtricitabine and protease inhibitors or raltegravir and had HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/ml by week 24 and thereafter. Associations between biomarkers of inflammation (IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and D-dimer), immune activation (sCD163, sCD14, soluble IL-2 receptor, CD38 and HLA-DR), inflammatory monocytes (CD14CD16), T-cell senescence (CD28 and CD57) and exhaustion (PD1), and HDLox, LDLox were assessed at entry and after ART (week 96) with Spearman (partial) correlations. HDLox declined and LDLox increased over 96 weeks of ART. Positive associations were observed at baseline and over time between HDLox (but not consistently for LDLox) and most markers of inflammation and immune activation (but not senescence/exhaustion), even after adjustment for multiple comparisons, demographics, entry CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA. HDLox was positively associated with IL-6 (r = 0.19 - 0.29, P lipoproteins may contribute to persistent immune activation on ART.

  11. Virologic effects of broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 administration during chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Rebecca M; Boritz, Eli; Coates, Emily E; DeZure, Adam; Madden, Patrick; Costner, Pamela; Enama, Mary E; Plummer, Sarah; Holman, Lasonji; Hendel, Cynthia S; Gordon, Ingelise; Casazza, Joseph; Conan-Cibotti, Michelle; Migueles, Stephen A; Tressler, Randall; Bailer, Robert T; McDermott, Adrian; Narpala, Sandeep; O'Dell, Sijy; Wolf, Gideon; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Freemire, Brandie A; Gorelick, Robert J; Pandey, Janardan P; Mohan, Sarumathi; Chomont, Nicolas; Fromentin, Remi; Chun, Tae-Wook; Fauci, Anthony S; Schwartz, Richard M; Koup, Richard A; Douek, Daniel C; Hu, Zonghui; Capparelli, Edmund; Graham, Barney S; Mascola, John R; Ledgerwood, Julie E

    2015-12-23

    Passive immunization with HIV-1-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is being considered for prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. As therapeutic agents, mAbs could be used to suppress active virus replication, maintain suppression induced by antiretroviral therapy (ART), and/or decrease the size of the persistent virus reservoir. We assessed the impact of VRC01, a potent human mAb targeting the HIV-1 CD4 binding site, on ART-treated and untreated HIV-1-infected subjects. Among six ART-treated individuals with undetectable plasma viremia, two infusions of VRC01 did not reduce the peripheral blood cell-associated virus reservoir measured 4 weeks after the second infusion. In contrast, six of eight ART-untreated, viremic subjects infused with a single dose of VRC01 experienced a 1.1 to 1.8 log10 reduction in plasma viremia. The two subjects with minimal responses to VRC01 were found to have predominantly VRC01-resistant virus before treatment. Notably, two subjects with plasma virus load pressure for the outgrowth of less neutralization-sensitive viruses. In summary, a single infusion of mAb VRC01 significantly decreased plasma viremia and preferentially suppressed neutralization-sensitive virus strains. These data demonstrate the virological effect of this neutralizing antibody and highlight the need for combination strategies to maintain virus suppression. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Role of Interferon-Gamma (Ifn-γ) in Immune Response Regulation in Hiv-1 and Hiv-1 + Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Tb) Infected Patients / Interferona-gamma (Ifn-γ) Loma Imūnās Atbildes Regulēšanā Pacientiem Ar HIV-1 un HIV-1 + mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inga Januškevica; Baiba Rozentāle; Elvīra Hagina; Jeīena Eglīte; Tatjana Kolupajeva; Jeīena Storozenko; Ludmila Guseva; Aivars Lejnieks

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the role of IFN-γ in interaction between IL-10, IL-18, IL-1b, CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA viral load in the development of HIV-1 in patients co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB...

  13. Productive HIV-1 infection is enriched in CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells at pleural sites of dual infection with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglai; Canaday, David H; McDonald, David J; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Baseke, Joy; Toossi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    A higher human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) viral load at pleural sites infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) than in peripheral blood has been documented. However, the cellular source of productive HIV infection in HIV-1/MTB-coinfected pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMCs) remains unclear. In this study, we observed significant quantities of HIV-1 p24(+) lymphocytes in PFMCs, but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). HIV-1 p24(+) lymphocytes were mostly enriched in DN T cells. Intracellular CD4 expression was detectable in HIV-1 p24(+) DN T cells. HIV-1 p24(+) DN T cells showed lower surface expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-ABC and tetherin than did HIV-1 p24(+) CD4 T cells. Upon in vitro infection of PFMC CD4 T cells from TB mono-infected subjects, Nef- and/or Vpu-deleted HIV mutants showed lower generation of HIV-1 p24(+) DN T cells than the wild-type virus. These data indicate that productively HIV-1-infected DN T cells, generated through down-modulation of surface CD4, likely by HIV-1 Nef and Vpu, are the predominant source of HIV-1 at pleural sites of HIV/MTB coinfection.

  14. Amebiasis in HIV-1-infected Japanese men: clinical features and response to therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Watanabe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive amebic diseases caused by Entamoeba histolytica are increasing among men who have sex with men and co-infection of ameba and HIV-1 is an emerging problem in developed East Asian countries. To characterize the clinical and epidemiological features of invasive amebiasis in HIV-1 patients, the medical records of 170 co-infected cases were analyzed retrospectively, and E. histolytica genotype was assayed in 14 cases. In this series of HIV-1-infected patients, clinical presentation of invasive amebiasis was similar to that described in the normal host. High fever, leukocytosis and high CRP were associated with extraluminal amebic diseases. Two cases died from amebic colitis (resulting in intestinal perforation in one and gastrointestinal bleeding in one, and three cases died from causes unrelated to amebiasis. Treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole was successful in the other 165 cases. Luminal treatment was provided to 83 patients following metronidazole or tinidazole treatment. However, amebiasis recurred in 6 of these, a frequency similar to that seen in patients who did not receive luminal treatment. Recurrence was more frequent in HCV-antibody positive individuals and those who acquired syphilis during the follow-up period. Various genotypes of E. histolytica were identified in 14 patients but there was no correlation between genotype and clinical features. The outcome of metronidazole and tinidazole treatment of uncomplicated amebiasis was excellent even in HIV-1-infected individuals. Luminal treatment following metronidazole or tinidazole treatment does not reduce recurrence of amebiasis in high risk populations probably due to amebic re-infection.

  15. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The mint family (Lamiaceae) produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), sage (Salvia spp.), peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum spp.) and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.). To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1. PMID:21513560

  16. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoy Joe-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mint family (Lamiaceae produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., sage (Salvia spp., peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., basil (Ocimum spp. and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1.

  17. HIV-1 variability and viral load technique could lead to false positive HIV-1 detection and to erroneous viral quantification in infected specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Patricia; Martín, Leticia; Prieto, Luis; Obiang, Jacinta; Vargas, Antonio; Avedillo, Pedro; Rojo, Pablo; Fernández McPhee, Carolina; Benito, Agustín; Ramos, José Tomás; Holguín, África

    2015-09-01

    Viral load (VL) testing is used for early HIV diagnosis in infants (EID) and for detecting early therapeutic failure events, but can be affected by HIV genetic variability. Dried blood samples (DBS) increase VL access and EID in remote settings and when low blood volume is available. This study compares VL values using Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 1.0 kPCR assay (kPCR) and Roche CAP/CTM Quantitative test v2.0 (CAP/CTM v2.0) in 176 DBS carrying different HIV-1 variants collected from 69 Equatoguinean mothers and their infants with known HIV-1 status (71 infected, 105 uninfected). CAP/CTM v2.0 provided false positive VLs in 11 (10.5%) cases. VL differences above 0.5 log10 were observed in 42/49 (87.5%) DBS, and were above 1 log10 in 18 cases. CAP/CTM v2.0 quantified all the 41 specimens with previously inferred HIV-1 variant by phylogenetic analysis (68.3% recombinants) whereas kPCR only identified 90.2% of them, and was unable to detect 14.3% of 21 CRF02_AG viruses. CAP/CTM v2.0 showed higher sensitivity than kPCR (95.8% vs. 70.1%), quantifying a higher rate of viruses in infected DBS from subjects under antiretroviral exposure at sampling time compared to kPCR (94.7% vs. 96.2%, p-valueHIV-1 quantifications, which could be interpreted as virological failure events, or false negative diagnostic results due to genetic variability. We recommend using the same VL technique for each patient during antiretroviral therapy monitoring. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Large Isoform of Mammalian Relative of DnaJ is a Major Determinant of Human Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Chiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection have been of interest for decades. We aimed to determine the contribution of large isoform of Mammalian DnaJ (MRJ-L, a HIV-1 Vpr-interacting cellular protein, to this natural variation. Expression of MRJ-L in monocyte-derived macrophages was significantly higher in HIV-infected individuals (n = 31 than their uninfected counterparts (n = 27 (p = 0.009. Fifty male homosexual subjects (20 of them are HIV-1 positive were further recruited to examine the association between MRJ-L levels and occurrence of HIV infection. Bayesian multiple logistic regression revealed that playing a receptive role and increased levels of MRJ-L in macrophages were two risk factors for HIV-1 infection. A 1% rise in MRJ-L expression was associated with a 1.13 fold (95% CrI 1.06–1.29 increase in odds of contracting HIV-1 infection. Ex vivo experiments revealed that MRJ-L facilitated Vpr-dependent nuclear localization of virus. Infection of macrophage-tropic strain is a critical step in HIV-1 transmission. MRJ-L is a critical factor in this process; hence, subjects with higher macrophage MRJ-L levels are more vulnerable to HIV-1 infection.

  19. Expression of HLA-E molecules in the placental tissue of women infected with HIV-1 and uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Juliana; Santiago, Mariana Rodrigues; Martelli-Palomino, Gustavo; Souza, Diego Agra de; Silva, Társia Giabardo Alves; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros; Chahud, Fernando; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Fernandes, Ana Paula Morais

    2017-01-01

    Expression of HLA-E molecule in the placental extravillous trophoblast is associated with immune system cell inhibition, resulting in immune tolerance to fetus during pregnancy. HIV-1 can infect trophoblast cells and modify the expression of HLA-E, which may inhibit the cytotoxic activity of the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate HLA-E expression in third trimester placental tissue of women infected with HIV-1 and uninfected women. We performed an immunohistochemistry assay to evaluate HLA-E staining in the placental tissue of 99 HIV-1 infected and 85 uninfected women. A pathologist analyzed and classified the HLA-E expression in the placental cells. Irrespective of the HIV status, HLA-E staining was observed in the extravillous trophoblast cells, endothelial cells and Hofbauer cells, but not in the syncytiotrophoblast. HLA-E staining showed no significant difference between the placental tissue of women infected with HIV-1 and uninfected women (P = 0.76). Considering HIV-1 infected women, HLA-E staining was not influenced by HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.48), CD4+ T-cell count (P = 0.10) and antiretroviral therapy used during pregnancy (P = 0.54). Despite the presence of HIV-1 infection, the expression of HLA-E molecules in the placental tissue was not modified when the infection was under antiretroviral therapy control. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Comparisons of Primary HIV-1 Drug Resistance between Recent and Chronic HIV-1 Infection within a Sub-Regional Cohort of Asian Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul

    Full Text Available The emergence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR has raised concerns after rapid global antiretroviral therapy (ART scale-up. There are limited data on the epidemiology of primary HIVDR in resource-limited settings in Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and compare the distribution of HIVDR in a cohort of ART-naïve Asian patients with recent and chronic HIV-1 infection.Multicenter prospective study was conducted in ART-naïve patients between 2007 and 2010. Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs were assessed using the World Health Organization 2009 list for surveillance of primary HIVDR.A total of 458 patients with recent and 1,340 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of primary HIVDR was 4.6%. Recently infected patients had a higher prevalence of primary HIVDR (6.1% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.065 and frequencies of RAMs to protease inhibitors (PIs; 3.9% vs. 1.0%, p<0.001. Among those with recent infection, the most common RAMs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs were M184I/V and T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (1.1%, to non-NRTIs was Y181C (1.3%, and to PIs was M46I (1.5%. Of patients with chronic infection, T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (0.8%; NRTI, Y181C (0.5%; non-NRTI, and M46I (0.4%; PI were the most common RAMs. K70R (p = 0.016 and M46I (p = 0.026 were found more frequently among recently infected patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with chronic infection, heterosexual contact as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection was less likely to be associated with primary HIVDR compared to other risk categories (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.59, p<0.001.The prevalence of primary HIVDR was higher among patients with recent than chronic HIV-1 infection in our cohort, but of borderline statistical significance. Chronically infected patients with non-heterosexual risks for HIV were more likely to have primary HIVDR.

  1. Self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection and virologic treatment response - A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Oort, Frans J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-1 infection is essential for plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression. Self-report is the most frequently used measure of adherence to HAART, but its validity is controversial. Studies on the relation between self-reported adherence

  2. HIV-1 viral DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from seroconverters and long-term infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurriaans, S.; Dekker, J. T.; de Ronde, A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine viral DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV-1 copy numbers were determined using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the PCR-aided template titration assay (PATTY). PATTY utilizes an internal plasmid control DNA, which is

  3. High exposure to nevirapine in plasma is associated with an improved virological response in HIV-1-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A. I.; Weverling, G. J.; Lange, J. M.; Montaner, J. S.; Reiss, P.; Cooper, D. A.; Vella, S.; Hall, D.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hoetelmans, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore relationships between exposure to nevirapine and the virological response in HIV-1-infected individuals participating in the INCAS trial. METHODS: The elimination rate constant of plasma HIV-1 RNA (k) was calculated during the first 2 weeks of treatment with nevirapine,

  4. Outcome of protease inhibitor substitution with nevirapine in HIV-1 infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez M Luisa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protease inhibitors (PIs have been associated with metabolic complications. There is a trend to switch to simpler therapy to improve these disturbances. We report a case-series describing the effects in metabolic abnormalities in seven HIV-infected children, previously treated with protease inhibitor (PI after switching to nevirapine. Methods Seven children with stable PI-containing regimen and a long lasting HIV-1 RNA Results Seven HIV-infected children were enrolled. Median age: 130 months (99,177. Median baseline CD4%: 32%. All had HIV-1 RNA Conclusion PI substitution with nevirapine improved lipid profile in our patients, although this strategy did not show significant changes in body fat or lipodystrophy.

  5. Homogenous HIV-1 subtype B quasispecies in Brazilian men and women recently infected via heterosexual transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nancy Lima; Camargo, Michelle; Caseiro, Marcos Montani; Janini, Luiz Mario Ramos; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia Araripe; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

    2014-06-01

    HIV has extraordinary genetic mutability, both among individuals and at the population level. However, studies of primary HIV-1 infection and serum-converters indicate that the viral population is homogeneous at the sequence level, which suggests clonal HIV transmission. It remains unclear whether this feature applies to the female population. Ten single genome amplification sequences were generated from ten individuals (five females) with recent heterosexually acquired HIV infection as determined by the serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion. Intra-individual genetic diversity was equally low in both genders (selection for sexual transmission of HIV-1 in both genders. Future studies that generate a larger number of clones, preferably by next generation deep sequencing, are needed to confirm these results.

  6. Low level of regulatory T cells and maintenance of balance between regulatory T cells and TH17 cells in HIV-1-infected elite controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Lea; Benfield, Thomas Lars; Mens, Helene

    2011-01-01

    A subgroup of HIV-1-infected individuals, elite controllers, have spontaneous viral control and offer an exceptional opportunity to study virological and immunolocigal factors of possible involvement in control of HIV-1 infection.......A subgroup of HIV-1-infected individuals, elite controllers, have spontaneous viral control and offer an exceptional opportunity to study virological and immunolocigal factors of possible involvement in control of HIV-1 infection....

  7. Frequency of class I anti-HLA alloantibodies in patients infected by HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Regina Manzolli Leite

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of class I anti-HLA alloantibodies in patients infected by HIV-1 and relate it with the different clinical courses of the disease. Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes from 145 individuals. HIV-1 infection was confirmed by ELISA test. The presence of class I anti-HLA alloantibodies and HLA allele's were determined. Clinical evolution was set as fast (3 years. Class I anti-HLA alloantibodies presence was lower in healthy individuals than in those infected by HIV-1 (4.2% against 32.4%. However, an equal distribution of these alloantibodies was found among the individuals infected, independent on the clinical evolution. Thus, class I anti-HLA alloantibodies was not a determinant factor for patient worsening.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de aloanticorpos anti-HLA classe I em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1 e relacioná-la aos diferentes cursos clínicos da doença. Amostras de sangue de 145 indivíduos HIV positivo foram coletadas em tubos com EDTA. A infecção pelo HIV-1 foi confirmada por teste ELISA e a presença de aloanticorpos anti-HLA classe I determinada em seguida. A evolução clínica foi definida como rápida (3 anos. A presença de aloanticorpos anti-HLA classe I foi menor em indivíduos saudáveis em relação aos infectados pelo HIV-1 (4,2% contra 32,4%. Porém, a distribuição destes aloanticorpos entre os indivíduos infectados foi igual, independente da evolução clínica. Deste modo, a presença de aloanticorpos anti-HLA classe I não é um fator determinante na piora clínica do paciente.

  8. Asymptotic behavior of a stochastic delayed HIV-1 infection model with nonlinear incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Hayat, Tasawar; Ahmad, Bashir

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a stochastic delayed HIV-1 infection model with nonlinear incidence is proposed and investigated. First of all, we prove that there is a unique global positive solution as desired in any population dynamics. Then by constructing some suitable Lyapunov functions, we show that if the basic reproduction number R0 ≤ 1, then the solution of the stochastic system oscillates around the infection-free equilibrium E0, while if R0 > 1, then the solution of the stochastic system fluctuates around the infective equilibrium E∗. Sufficient conditions of these results are established. Finally, we give some examples and a series of numerical simulations to illustrate the analytical results.

  9. Lipid Metabolism and Cardiovascular Risk in HIV-1 Infection and HAART: Present and Future Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Melzi

    2010-01-01

    use of statins and fibrates in HIV-1 infected subjects, and finally the switch strategies, that balance effectiveness and toxicity to move the decision to change HIV drugs. Early treatment might reduce the negative effect of HIV on overall cardiovascular risk but may also evidence the impact of drugs, and the final balance (reduction or increase in CHD and lipid abnormalities is not known up to date.

  10. Residual viraemia in HIV-1-infected patients with plasma viral load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S.R.; Katzenstein, T.L.; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2008-01-01

    Despite undetectable viral load in conventional assays, probably all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected patients have residual viraemia (RV) detectable by ultra-sensitive assays. To study this issue, this study investigated virologic and immunologic consequences of RV in highly active...... was associated with higher pre-HAART plasma viral load suggests that RV is linked to pre-HAART disease progression Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  11. Polymorphisms in the IFNγ, IL-10, and TGFβ Genes May Be Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bonfim Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated possible associations between the TNFα-308G/A, IFN+874A/T, IL-6-174C/G, IL-10-1082A/G, and TGFβ-509C/T polymorphisms with HIV-1 infection, in addition to correlation of the polymorphisms with clinical markers of AIDS progression, such as levels of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and plasma viral load. Methods. A total of 216 individuals who were infected with HIV-1 and on antiretroviral therapy (ART and 294 individuals from the uninfected control group were analyzed. Results. All individuals evaluated were negative for total anti-HBc, anti-HCV, anti-T. pallidum, and anti-HTLV-1/2. The polymorphisms were identified by PCR-RFLP. Individuals presenting the IFN+874A allele as well as the AA genotype were more frequent in the HIV-1 infected group compared to the control group (P<0.05, in addition to having lower levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes. The CD8+ T lymphocytes count was significantly lower in individuals with the IL-10-1082 GG genotype. The TGFβ-509TT genotype was associated with higher plasma viral load. Conclusions. The results suggest that the presence of the IFN+874A allele confers susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and a decrease in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, the genotype associated with high serum levels of TGFβ may be associated with an increase in plasma viral load.

  12. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8{sup +} T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Masakazu, E-mail: masa3k@ucla.edu [Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, Patrick Y. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ng, Hwee L. [Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ringpis, Gene-Errol E.; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O' Connor, Sean [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yang, Otto O. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); AIDS Healthcare Foundation, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chen, Irvin S.Y. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8{sup +} T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8{sup +} T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24{sup Gag} in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance. - Highlights: • Ectopic expression of CD4ζ CAR in CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection. • Co-expression of two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection. • Protecting CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection suppresses its cytopathic effect.

  13. Mitochondrial Haplogroup Influences Motor Function in Long-Term HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

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    Ashley Azar

    Full Text Available Evolutionary divergence of the mitochondrial genome has given rise to distinct haplogroups. These haplogroups have arisen in specific geographical locations and are responsible for subtle functional changes in the mitochondria that may provide an evolutionary advantage in a given environment. Based on these functional differences, haplogroups could define disease susceptibility in chronic settings. In this study, we undertook a detailed neuropsychological analysis of a cohort of long-term HIV-1-infected individuals in conjunction with sequencing of their mitochondrial genomes. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the best model for predicting both working memory and declarative memory were age and years since diagnosis. In contrast, years since diagnosis and sub-haplogroup were significantly predictive of psychomotor speed. Consistent with this, patients with haplogroup L3e obtained better scores on psychomotor speed and dexterity tasks when compared to the remainder of the cohort, suggesting that this haplogroup provides a protective advantage when faced with the combined stress of HIV-1 infection and long-term antiretroviral therapies. Differential performance on declarative memory tasks was noted for individuals with other sub-L haplogroups, but these differences were not as robust as the association between L3e and psychomotor speed and dexterity tasks. This work provides evidence that mitochondrial haplogroup is related to neuropsychological test performance among patients in chronic disease settings such as HIV-1 infection.

  14. Detection of Early Sero-Conversion HIV Infection Using the INSTITM HIV-1 Antibody Point-of-Care Test

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Darrel; Gilbert, Mark; DiFrancesco, Lillo; Krajden, Mel

    2010-01-01

    We compared the INSTITM HIV-1 Antibody Point-of-Care (POC) Test to laboratory-based tests for detection of early sero-conversion (i.e. acute) HIV infections. Fifty-three (53) individuals with early HIV infection, (i.e. 3rd generation anti-HIV EIA non-reactive or reactive, HIV-1 Western Blot non-reactive or indeterminate and HIV-1 p24 antigen reactive) were tested by INSTITM. The INSTITM test was reactive for 34/49 (sensitivity 69.4%; 95% confidence interval 54.6-81.8%) early-infected individu...

  15. Classical and alternative macrophages have impaired function during acute and chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão-Lima, Leonardo J; Espíndola, Milena S; Soares, Luana S; Zambuzi, Fabiana A; Cacemiro, Maira; Fontanari, Caroline; Bollela, Valdes R; Frantz, Fabiani G

    Three decades after HIV recognition and its association with AIDS development, many advances have emerged - especially related to prevention and treatment. Undoubtedly, the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the future of the syndrome that we know today. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on macrophage function and its relevance to HIV pathogenesis. PBMCs were isolated from blood samples and monocytes (CD14+ cells) were purified. Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (MDMs) were activated on classical (MGM-CSF+IFN-γ) or alternative (MIL-4+IL13) patterns using human recombinant cytokines for six days. After this period, Monocyte-Derived Macrophages were stimulated with TLR2/Dectin-1 or TLR4 agonists and we evaluated the influence of HIV-1 infection and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on the release of cytokines/chemokines by macrophages. The data were obtained using Monocyte-Derived Macrophages derived from HIV naïve or from patients on regular Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Classically Monocyte-Derived Macrophages obtained from HIV-1 infected patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy released higher levels of IL-6 and IL-12 even without PAMPs stimuli when compared to control group. On the other hand, alternative Monocyte-Derived Macrophages derived from HIV-1 infected patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy released lower levels of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IP-10 and RANTES after LPS stimuli when compared to control group. Furthermore, healthy individuals have a complex network of cytokines/chemokines released by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages after PAMP stimuli, which was deeply affected in MDMs obtained from naïve HIV-1 infected patients and only partially restored in MDMs derived from HIV-1 infected patients even on regular Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Our therapy protocols were not effective in restoring the functional alterations induced by

  16. High Multiplicity Infection by HIV-1 in Men Who Have Sex with Men.

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    Hui Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating virus-host interactions responsible for HIV-1 transmission is important for advancing HIV-1 prevention strategies. To this end, single genome amplification (SGA and sequencing of HIV-1 within the context of a model of random virus evolution has made possible for the first time an unambiguous identification of transmitted/founder viruses and a precise estimation of their numbers. Here, we applied this approach to HIV-1 env analyses in a cohort of acutely infected men who have sex with men (MSM and found that a high proportion (10 of 28; 36% had been productively infected by more than one virus. In subjects with multivariant transmission, the minimum number of transmitted viruses ranged from 2 to 10 with viral recombination leading to rapid and extensive genetic shuffling among virus lineages. A combined analysis of these results, together with recently published findings based on identical SGA methods in largely heterosexual (HSX cohorts, revealed a significantly higher frequency of multivariant transmission in MSM than in HSX [19 of 50 subjects (38% versus 34 of 175 subjects (19%; Fisher's exact p = 0.008]. To further evaluate the SGA strategy for identifying transmitted/founder viruses, we analyzed 239 overlapping 5' and 3' half genome or env-only sequences from plasma viral RNA (vRNA and blood mononuclear cell DNA in an MSM subject who had a particularly well-documented virus exposure history 3-6 days before symptom onset and 14-17 days before peak plasma viremia (47,600,000 vRNA molecules/ml. All 239 sequences coalesced to a single transmitted/founder virus genome in a time frame consistent with the clinical history, and a molecular clone of this genome encoded replication competent virus in accord with model predictions. Higher multiplicity of HIV-1 infection in MSM compared with HSX is consistent with the demonstrably higher epidemiological risk of virus acquisition in MSM and could indicate a greater challenge for HIV-1

  17. Initial antibodies binding to HIV-1 gp41 in acutely infected subjects are polyreactive and highly mutated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Munshaw, Supriya; Zhang, Ruijun; Marshall, Dawn J.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Whitesides, John F.; Lu, Xiaozhi; Yu, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Gao, Feng; Markowitz, Martin; Heath, Sonya L.; Bar, Katharine J.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Montefiori, David C.; Shaw, George C.; Alam, S. Munir; Margolis, David M.; Denny, Thomas N.; Boyd, Scott D.; Marshal, Eleanor; Egholm, Michael; Simen, Birgitte B.; Hanczaruk, Bozena; Fire, Andrew Z.; Voss, Gerald; Kelsoe, Garnett; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kepler, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    The initial antibody response to HIV-1 is targeted to envelope (Env) gp41, and is nonneutralizing and ineffective in controlling viremia. To understand the origins and characteristics of gp41-binding antibodies produced shortly after HIV-1 transmission, we isolated and studied gp41-reactive plasma cells from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1. The frequencies of somatic mutations were relatively high in these gp41-reactive antibodies. Reverted unmutated ancestors of gp41-reactive antibodies derived from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1 frequently did not react with autologous HIV-1 Env; however, these antibodies were polyreactive and frequently bound to host or bacterial antigens. In one large clonal lineage of gp41-reactive antibodies, reactivity to HIV-1 Env was acquired only after somatic mutations. Polyreactive gp41-binding antibodies were also isolated from uninfected individuals. These data suggest that the majority of gp41-binding antibodies produced after acute HIV-1 infection are cross-reactive responses generated by stimulating memory B cells that have previously been activated by non–HIV-1 antigens. PMID:21987658

  18. Epstein-Barr virus infects B and non-B lymphocytes in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Vincent; Scherpbier, Henriëtte; Beld, Marcel; Piriou, Erwan; van Breda, Alex; Lange, Joep; van Leth, Frank; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Alders, Sophie; Wertheim-van Dillen, Pauline; van Baarle, Debbie; Kuijpers, Taco

    2006-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widespread, persistent herpesvirus that can transform B cells and that is associated with malignant lymphomas. EBV dynamics and specific immunity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children are unknown. We found that, in 74% of EBV-seropositive,

  19. Prevalence and impact of minority variant drug resistance mutations in primary HIV-1 infection.

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    Joanne D Stekler

    Full Text Available To evaluate minority variant drug resistance mutations detected by the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA but not consensus sequencing among subjects with primary HIV-1 infection.Observational, longitudinal cohort study. Consensus sequencing and OLA were performed on the first available specimens from 99 subjects enrolled after 1996. Survival analyses, adjusted for HIV-1 RNA levels at the start of antiretroviral (ARV therapy, evaluated the time to virologic suppression (HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/mL among subjects with minority variants conferring intermediate or high-level resistance.Consensus sequencing and OLA detected resistance mutations in 5% and 27% of subjects, respectively, in specimens obtained a median of 30 days after infection. Median time to virologic suppression was 110 (IQR 62-147 days for 63 treated subjects without detectable mutations, 84 (IQR 56-109 days for ten subjects with minority variant mutations treated with ≥3 active ARVs, and 104 (IQR 60-162 days for nine subjects with minority variant mutations treated with <3 active ARVs (p = .9. Compared to subjects without mutations, time to virologic suppression was similar for subjects with minority variant mutations treated with ≥3 active ARVs (aHR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-2.4, p = .6 and subjects with minority variant mutations treated with <3 active ARVs (aHR 1.0, 95% CI 0.4-2.4, p = .9. Two subjects with drug resistance and two subjects without detectable resistance experienced virologic failure.Consensus sequencing significantly underestimated the prevalence of drug resistance mutations in ARV-naïve subjects with primary HIV-1 infection. Minority variants were not associated with impaired ARV response, possibly due to the small sample size. It is also possible that, with highly-potent ARVs, minority variant mutations may be relevant only at certain critical codons.

  20. Impact of HIV-1 Membrane Cholesterol on Cell-Independent Lytic Inactivation and Cellular Infectivity.

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    Kalyana Sundaram, Ramalingam Venkat; Li, Huiyuan; Bailey, Lauren; Rashad, Adel A; Aneja, Rachna; Weiss, Karl; Huynh, James; Bastian, Arangaserry Rosemary; Papazoglou, Elisabeth; Abrams, Cameron; Wrenn, Steven; Chaiken, Irwin

    2016-01-26

    Peptide triazole thiols (PTTs) have been found previously to bind to HIV-1 Env spike gp120 and cause irreversible virus inactivation by shedding gp120 and lytically releasing luminal capsid protein p24. Since the virions remain visually intact, lysis appears to occur via limited membrane destabilization. To better understand the PTT-triggered membrane transformation involved, we investigated the role of envelope cholesterol on p24 release by measuring the effect of cholesterol depletion using methyl beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD). An unexpected bell-shaped response of PTT-induced lysis to [MβCD] was observed, involving lysis enhancement at low [MβCD] vs loss of function at high [MβCD]. The impact of cholesterol depletion on PTT-induced lysis was reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol and other sterols that support membrane rafts, while sterols that do not support rafts induced only limited reversal. Cholesterol depletion appears to cause a reduced energy barrier to lysis as judged by decreased temperature dependence with MβCD. Enhancement/replenishment responses to [MβCD] also were observed for HIV-1 infectivity, consistent with a similar energy barrier effect in the membrane transformation of virus cell fusion. Overall, the results argue that cholesterol in the HIV-1 envelope is important for balancing virus stability and membrane transformation, and that partial depletion, while increasing infectivity, also makes the virus more fragile. The results also reinforce the argument that the lytic inactivation and infectivity processes are mechanistically related and that membrane transformations occurring during lysis can provide an experimental window to investigate membrane and protein factors important for HIV-1 cell entry.

  1. Characterization of drug resistance mutations in ART-naïve HIV-1 infected children in Northern Vietnam

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    Thuy Thi Bich Phung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the profile of drug resistance-associated mutations in pol gene of antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-1 infected children enrolled in National Hospital Pediatrics in Northern Vietnam. Methods: Genotyping was performed on 134 antiretroviral therapy-naïve plasma samples from HIV-1 infected children. HIV-1 pol gene was amplified using primers for protease and reverse transcriptase and sequenced using the BigDye chemistry. The mutations were analyzed based on the Stanford University HIV-1 Drug Resistance Database and ISA-USA list. Results: All the children were infected with HIV-1 CRF01_AE subtype. Major protease inhibitor resistance mutations were found in 2 children (2.3% and reverse-transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations were found in 5 children (7.7%. The protease inhibitor mutations were observed M46L and L90M and reverse-transcriptase inhibitor mutations were M184I, K65R, Q151M, T69N, L210W, Y181C, M230L and K101E. Conclusions: This is the first study reporting the prevalence of drug resistance-associated mutation in naïve HIV-1 infected children in Northern Vietnam. These data also emphasize the importance of genotypic resistance testing of HIV-1 infected children before initiating treatment in order to achieve better clinical outcome.

  2. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) restores HIV-1 infection-mediated impairment of JAK-STAT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhao, Min; Kong, Wen-Hua; Tang, Li; Wang, Fang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Wang, Xia; Qiu, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Wang, Xu; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Zhou, Wang

    2017-04-04

    JAK-STAT signaling pathway has a crucial role in host innate immunity against viral infections, including HIV-1. We therefore examined the impact of HIV-1 infection and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Compared to age-matched healthy donors (n = 18), HIV-1-infected subjects (n = 18) prior to cART had significantly lower expression of toll-like receptors (TLR-1/4/6/7/8/9), the IFN regulatory factors (IRF-3/7/9), and the antiviral factors (OAS-1, MxA, A3G, PKR, and Tetherin). Three months' cART partially restores the impaired functions of JAK-STAT-mediated antiviral immunity. We also found most factors had significantly positive correlations (p HIV-1-infected subjects (43.86%, 75/171), and stably increased during the cART (57.31%, 98/171 after 6 months' cART). With regard to the restoration of some HIV-1 restriction factors, HIV-1-infected subjects who had CD4+ T cell counts > 350//μl responded better to cART than those with the counts HIV-1 disease.

  3. Investigation of HIV-1 infected and uninfected cells using the optical trapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombinda-Lemboumba, S.; Malabi, R.; Lugongolo, M. Y.; Thobakgale, S. L.; Manoto, S.; Mthunzi-Kufa, P.

    2017-02-01

    Optical trapping has emerged as an essential tool for manipulating single biological material and performing sophisticated spectroscopy analysis on individual cell. The optical trapping technique has been used to grab and immobilize cells from a tightly focused laser beam emitted through a high numerical aperture objective lens. Coupling optical trapping with other technologies is possible and allows stable sample trapping, while also facilitating molecular, chemical and spectroscopic analysis. For this reason, we are exploring laser trapping combined with laser spectroscopy as a potential non-invasive method of interrogating individual cells with a high degree of specificity in terms of information generated. Thus, for the delivery of as much pathological information as possible, we use a home-build optical trapping and spectroscopy system for real time probing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infected and uninfected single cells. Briefly, our experimental rig comprises an infrared continuous wave laser at 1064 nm with power output of 1.5 W, a 100X high numerical aperture oil-immersion microscope objective used to capture and immobilise individual cell samples as well as an excitation source. Spectroscopy spectral patterns obtained by the 1064 nm laser beam excitation provide information on HIV-1 infected and uninfected cells. We present these preliminary findings which may be valuable for the development of an HIV-1 point of care detection system.

  4. Enhanced Th17 phenotype in uninfected neonates born from viremic HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygino, Joana; Vieira, Morgana M; Guillermo, Landi V; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Saramago, Carmen; Lima-Silva, Agostinho A; Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Arnaldao F B; Brindeiro, Rodrigo M; Tanuri, Amilcar; Guimarães, Vander; de Melo Bento, Cleonice Alves

    2011-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the in vitro functional profile of T cells from uninfected neonates born from HIV-1-infected pregnant women who controlled (G1) or not (G2) the virus replication. We demonstrated that the lymphoproliferation of T cell to polyclonal activators was higher in the G2 as compared with G1. Nevertheless, no detectable proliferative response was observed in response to HIV-1 antigens in both neonate groups. Cytokine dosage in the supernatants of these polyclonally activated T cell cultures demonstrated that, while IL-10 was the dominant cytokine produced in G1, Th17-related cytokines were significantly higher in G2 neonates. The higher Th17 phenotype tendency in G2 was related to high production of IL-23 by lipopolysaccharide-activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells from these neonates. Our results demonstrated immunological disorders in uninfected neonates born from viremic HIV-1-infected mothers that can help to explain why some of these children have elevated risk of clinical morbidity and mortality due to pathological hypersensitivity.

  5. The trinity of the cortical actin in the initiation of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Mark; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao

    2012-05-28

    For an infecting viral pathogen, the actin cortex inside the host cell is the first line of intracellular components that it encounters. Viruses devise various strategies to actively engage or circumvent the actin structure. In this regard, the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) exemplifies command of cellular processes to take control of actin dynamics for the initiation of infection. It has becomes increasingly evident that cortical actin presents itself both as a barrier to viral intracellular migration and as a necessary cofactor that the virus must actively engage, particularly, in the infection of resting CD4 blood T cells, the primary targets of HIV-1. The coercion of this most fundamental cellular component permits infection by facilitating entry, reverse transcription, and nuclear migration, three essential processes for the establishment of viral infection and latency in blood T cells. It is the purpose of this review to examine, in detail, the manifestation of viral dependence on the actin cytoskeleton, and present a model of how HIV utilizes actin dynamics to initiate infection.

  6. Colorectal Mucus Binds DC-SIGN and Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection of CD4+ T-Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfort, Thijs; Sanders, Rogier W.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Dekker, Henk L.; Herrera, Carolina; Speijer, Dave; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily secretions, including breast milk and semen, contain factors that modulate HIV-1 infection. Since anal intercourse caries one of the highest risks for HIV-1 transmission, our aim was to determine whether colorectal mucus (CM) also contains factors interfering with HIV-1 infection and replication. CM from a number of individuals was collected and tested for the capacity to bind DC-SIGN and inhibit HIV-1 cis- or trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. To this end, a DC-SIGN binding ELISA, a gp140 trimer competition ELISA and HIV-1 capture/ transfer assays were utilized. Subsequently we aimed to identify the DC-SIGN binding component through biochemical characterization and mass spectrometry analysis. CM was shown to bind DC-SIGN and competes with HIV-1 gp140 trimer for binding. Pre-incubation of Raji-DC-SIGN cells or immature dendritic cells (iDCs) with CM potently inhibits DC-SIGN mediated trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes with CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains, while no effect on direct infection is observed. Preliminary biochemical characterization demonstrates that the component seems to be large (>100kDa), heat and proteinase K resistant, binds in a α1–3 mannose independent manner and is highly variant between individuals. Immunoprecipitation using DC-SIGN-Fc coated agarose beads followed by mass spectrometry indicated lactoferrin (fragments) and its receptor (intelectin-1) as candidates. Using ELISA we showed that lactoferrin levels within CM correlate with DC-SIGN binding capacity. In conclusion, CM can bind the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and block HIV-1 trans-infection of both CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains. Furthermore, our data indicate that lactoferrin is a DC-SIGN binding component of CM. These results indicate that CM has the potential to interfere with pathogen transmission and modulate immune responses at the colorectal mucosa. PMID:25793526

  7. Sialoadhesin (CD169 expression in CD14+ cells is upregulated early after HIV-1 infection and increases during disease progression.

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    Antoinette C van der Kuyl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sialoadhesin (CD169, siglec-1 or Sn is an activation marker seen on macrophages in chronic inflammatory diseases and in tumours, and on subsets of tissue macrophages. CD169 is highly expressed by macrophages present in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. It is also increased on blood monocytes of HIV-1 infected patients with a high viral load despite antiretroviral treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated expression of sialoadhesin in untreated HIV-1 and HHV-8 infected patients, by real-time PCR and FACS analysis to establish its expression in relation to infection and disease progression. Patients analysed were either HIV-1 seroconverters (n = 7, in the chronic phase of HIV-1 infection (n = 21, or in the AIDS stage (n = 58. Controls were HHV-8 infected, but otherwise healthy individuals (n = 20, and uninfected men having sex with men (n = 24. Sialoadhesin mRNA was significantly elevated after HIV-1, but not HHV-8 infection, and a further increase was seen in AIDS patients. Samples obtained around HIV-1 seroconversion indicated that sialoadhesin levels go up early in infection. FACS analysis of PBMCs showed that sialoadhesin protein was expressed at high levels by approximately 90% of CD14(+ and CD14(+CD16(+cells of HIV-1(+ patients with a concomitant 10-fold increase in sialoadhesin protein/cell compared with uninfected controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that sialoadhesin is induced to high levels on CD14(+ cells early after HIV-1 infection in vivo. The phenotype of the cells is maintained during disease progression, suggesting that it could serve as a marker for infection and probably contributes to the severe dysregulation of the immune system seen in AIDS.

  8. Molecular characterisation of newly identified HIV-1 infections in Curitiba, Brazil: preponderance of clade C among males with recent infections

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    João Leandro de Paula Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As in many areas of Brazil, the AIDS epidemic in Curitiba is relatively stable, but surveillance is important to support public policy. The molecular characteristics of HIV may be instrumental for monitoring epidemic trends. We evaluated plasma HIV-1 RNA (n = 37 from 38 cases presenting with positive serology, who were among 820 consenting volunteers visiting the downtown counselling and serology testing centre. Seroprevalence was 4.6% (CI 95% 3.2-6.3 and the estimated HIV incidence, as defined by the BED assay, was 2.86 persons/years (CI 95% 1.04-4.68. An additional set of contemporaneous, anonymous samples from a local laboratory was also analysed (n = 20. Regions of the HIV-1 polymerase (n = 57 and envelope (n = 34 were evaluated for subtyping, determination of mosaic structure, primary drug resistance mutations (pDRM, envelope V3 loop motifs and amino acid signatures related to viral tropism. HIV-1 clade B was observed in 53% of cases; HIV-1C in 30% and BC mosaics in 14%, with one F genome and one CF mosaic. Clade C infection was associated with recent infections among males (p < 0.03. Stanford surveillance pDRM was observed in 8.8% of sequences, with 7% showing high level resistance to at least one antiretroviral drug. Tropism for CXCR4 co-receptor was predicted in 18% of envelope sequences, which were exclusively among clade B genomes and cases with serological reactivity to chronic infection.

  9. Inter-laboratory assessment of a prototype multiplex kit for determination of recent HIV-1 infection.

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    Kelly A Curtis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate and reliable laboratory-based assays are needed for estimating HIV-1 incidence from cross-sectional samples. We recently described the development of a customized, HIV-1-specific Bio-Plex assay that allows for the measurement of HIV-specific antibody levels and avidity to multiple analytes for improved HIV-1 incidence estimates. METHODS: To assess intra- and inter-laboratory assay performance, prototype multiplex kits were developed and evaluated by three distinct laboratories. Longitudinal seroconversion specimens were tested in parallel by each laboratory and kit performance was compared to that of an in-house assay. Additionally, the ability of the kit to distinguish recent from long-term HIV-1 infection, as compared to the in-house assay, was determined by comparing the reactivity of known recent (infected 12 months drug naïve specimens. RESULTS: Although the range of reactivity for each analyte varied between the prototype kit and in-house assay, a measurable distinction in reactivity between recent and long-term specimens was observed with both assays in all three laboratories. Additionally, kit performance was consistent between all three laboratories. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV, between sample replicates for all laboratories, ranged from 0.5% to 6.1%. The inter-laboratory CVs ranged from 8.5% to 21.3% for gp160-avidity index (a and gp120-normalized mean fluorescent intensity (MFI value (n, respectively. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the feasibility of producing a multiplex kit for measuring HIV antibody levels and avidity, with the potential for improved incidence estimates based on multi-analyte algorithms. The availability of a commercial kit will facilitate the transfer of technology among diverse laboratories for widespread assay use.

  10. [Application progress of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in the treatment of HIV-1 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying-lun; Li, Qing-wei

    2016-01-01

    The goal of gene therapy is to introduce foreign genes into human target cells in a certain way to correct or compensate diseases caused by defective or abnormal genes. Therefore, gene therapy has great practical significance in studying the treatment of persistent or latent HIV-1 infection. At present, the existing methods of gene therapy have some major defects such as limited target site recognition and high frequency of off-targets. The latest research showed that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) /CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system from bacteria and archaea has been successfully reformed to a targeted genome editing tool. Thus, how to achieve the goal of treating HIV-1 infection by modifying targeted HIV-1 virus genome effectively using the CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a current research focus. Here we review the latest achievements worldwide and briefly introduce applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, including CCR5 gene editing, removal of HIV-1 virus and activation of HIV-1 virus, in order to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  11. The epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in urban areas, roadside settlements and rural villages in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barongo, L R; Borgdorff, M W; Mosha, F F; Nicoll, A; Grosskurth, H; Senkoro, K P; Newell, J N; Changalucha, J; Klokke, A H; Killewo, J Z

    1992-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV-1 infection and to identify the most important risk factors for infection. A cross-sectional population survey carried out in 1990 and 1991 in Mwanza Region, Tanzania. Adults aged 15-54 years were selected from the region (population, 2 million) by stratified random cluster sampling: 2434 from 20 rural villages, 1157 from 20 roadside settlements and 1554 from 20 urban wards. Risk factor information was obtained from interviews. All sera were tested for HIV-1 antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); sera non-negative on ELISA were also tested by Western blot. The response rate was 81%. HIV-1 infection was 1.5 times more common in women than in men; 2.5% of the adult population in rural villages, 7.3% in roadside settlements and 11.8% in town were infected. HIV-1 infection occurred mostly in women aged 15-34 years and men aged 25-44 years. It was associated with being separated or widowed, multiple sex partners, presence of syphilis antibodies, history of genital discharge or genital ulcer, travel to Mwanza town, and receiving injections during the previous 12 months, but not with male circumcision. This study confirms that HIV-1 infection in this region in East Africa is more common in women than in men. The results are consistent with the spread of HIV-1 infection along the main roads. There is no evidence that lack of circumcision is a risk factor in this population.

  12. Morbidity in HIV-1-Infected children treated or not treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, 2000-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenda, Carsten; Kouakoussui, Alain; Rouet, François; Wemin, Louise; Anaky, Marie-France; Msellati, Philippe

    2009-06-01

    In the 2008 UNAIDS epidemic update, 33 million people worldwide were estimated infected with HIV, including 2.2 million children. In Côte d'Ivoire, 480,000 adults and 60,000 children were HIV-infected. Studies in developed countries have shown an improvement of children's morbidity under HAART treatment. The objective of this study is to describe and compare morbidity in relation to evolution of the disease in HIV-1-infected children in Côte d'Ivoire, according to symptoms and the presence or absence of HAART treatment. A total of 273 HIV-1-infected children from age 18 months to 18 years were included from October 2000 until December 2003. Follow-up was continued until 30 September 2004. The study population was divided in three groups. Group 1 included symptomatic children treated under HAART. Group 2 included asymptomatic children who did not need HAART treatment. Group 3 included children who met criteria to be treated at inclusion but were not treated. The three most common diseases in Group 1 before treatment were bronchitis, diarrhoea and ear nose and throat (ENT) diseases. Under treatment, the three most common diseases in Group 1 were bronchitis, ENT diseases and diarrhoea. The three most occurring diseases in Group 2 were bronchitis, ENT diseases and skin infectious diseases. The three most occurring diseases in Group 3 were bronchitis, diarrhoea and ENT diseases. The incidence of diseases was significantly lower among asymptomatic children than among symptomatic untreated children (p symptomatic children who received treatment was similar to that encountered in asymptomatic children. The main reason for death in all of the groups was tuberculosis.

  13. Detection of acute HIV-1 infections utilizing NAAT technology in Dallas, Texas.

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    Emerson, Brian; Plough, Kelly

    2013-12-01

    The detection of an acute human immunodeficiency virus infection (AHI) is vital in the fight against the spread of HIV to uninfected partners. Detection early after transmission is critical because the virus is replicating at a high level and is undetectable by serological markers. Nucleic acid amplification testing can detect HIV-1 RNA 10-12 days after exposure. Provide Dallas County Public Health Department the ability to detect an AHI and maintain a three day turn-around-time for a reactive specimen. The population includes patients requesting HIV testing at various clinics throughout the state of Texas. Analyze various pool sizes for the pooling of specimens with the Aptima HIV-1 RNA qualitative assay to detect an acute HIV infection. Modify the HIV testing algorithm to include the detection of an acute HIV infection without delaying reporting results to original submitters. Perform a study to compare the detection of HIV in various HIV assays (3rd generation EIA assay, 4th generation EIA assay, HIV-1 RNA NAAT). Perform public health follow-up on patients who are confirmed to have an acute HIV infection with a goal of preventing the spread to uninfected partners. A pooling protocol was validated and performed concurrently with the EIA to maintain a reactive result released after three days of collection. Of the 148,888 (2009-2012) specimens screened for HIV, 161 AHIs were detected and the public health follow-up identified an additional 13 new HIV infections that had been a contact to one of the AHIs. Without the advancement in technology, patients could have received a negative or indeterminate test prior to implementing the NAAT, resulting in a delay in diagnosis and potential spread to uninfected partners. Improving the detection of an AHI is crucial in preventing the spread of the virus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Multiple HIV-1 infection of cells and the evolutionary dynamics of cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape mutants.

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    Wodarz, Dominik; Levy, David N

    2009-09-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are an important branch of the immune system, killing virus-infected cells. Many viruses can mutate so that infected cells are not killed by CTL anymore. This escape can contribute to virus persistence and disease. A prominent example is HIV-1. The evolutionary dynamics of CTL escape mutants in vivo have been studied experimentally and mathematically, assuming that a cell can only be infected with one HIV particle at a time. However, according to data, multiple virus particles frequently infect the same cell, a process called coinfection. Here, we study the evolutionary dynamics of CTL escape mutants in the context of coinfection. A mathematical model suggests that an intermediate strength of the CTL response against the wild-type is most detrimental for an escape mutant, minimizing overall virus load and even leading to its extinction. A weaker or, paradoxically, stronger CTL response against the wild-type both lead to the persistence of the escape mutant and higher virus load. It is hypothesized that an intermediate strength of the CTL response, and thus the suboptimal virus suppression observed in HIV-1 infection, might be adaptive to minimize the impact of existing CTL escape mutants on overall virus load.

  15. Interferon-α Subtypes in an Ex Vivo Model of Acute HIV-1 Infection: Expression, Potency and Effector Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Michael S.; Guo, Kejun; Gibbert, Kathrin; Lee, Eric J.; Dillon, Stephanie M.; Barrett, Bradley S.; McCarter, Martin D.; Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Dittmer, Ulf; Wilson, Cara C.; Santiago, Mario L.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces and rapidly spreads within the intestinal mucosa during acute infection. The type I interferons (IFNs) likely serve as a first line of defense, but the relative expression and antiviral properties of the 12 IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection of mucosal tissues remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the expression of all IFNα subtypes in HIV-1-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells by next-generation sequencing. We then determined the relative antiviral potency of each IFNα subtype ex vivo using the human intestinal Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture model. IFNα subtype transcripts from the centromeric half of the IFNA gene complex were highly expressed in pDCs following HIV-1 exposure. There was an inverse relationship between IFNA subtype expression and potency. IFNα8, IFNα6 and IFNα14 were the most potent in restricting HIV-1 infection. IFNα2, the clinically-approved subtype, and IFNα1 were both highly expressed but exhibited relatively weak antiviral activity. The relative potencies correlated with binding affinity to the type I IFN receptor and the induction levels of HIV-1 restriction factors Mx2 and Tetherin/BST-2 but not APOBEC3G, F and D. However, despite the lack of APOBEC3 transcriptional induction, the higher relative potency of IFNα8 and IFNα14 correlated with stronger inhibition of virion infectivity, which is linked to deaminase-independent APOBEC3 restriction activity. By contrast, both potent (IFNα8) and weak (IFNα1) subtypes significantly induced HIV-1 GG-to-AG hypermutation. The results unravel non-redundant functions of the IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection, with strong implications for HIV-1 mucosal immunity, viral evolution and IFNα-based functional cure strategies. PMID:26529416

  16. Inhibition of highly productive HIV-1 infection in T cells, primary human macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes by Sargassum fusiforme

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    Veille Jean-Claude

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high rate of HIV-1 mutation and increasing resistance to currently available antiretroviral (ART therapies highlight the need for new antiviral agents. Products derived from natural sources have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication during various stages of the virus life cycle, and therefore represent a potential source of novel therapeutic agents. To expand our arsenal of therapeutics against HIV-1 infection, we investigated aqueous extract from Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme for ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection in the periphery, in T cells and human macrophages, and for ability to inhibit in the central nervous system (CNS, in microglia and astrocytes. Results S. fusiforme extract blocked HIV-1 infection and replication by over 90% in T cells, human macrophages and microglia, and it also inhibited pseudotyped HIV-1 (VSV/NL4-3 infection in human astrocytes by over 70%. Inhibition was mediated against both CXCR4 (X4 and CCR5 (R5-tropic HIV-1, was dose dependant and long lasting, did not inhibit cell growth or viability, was not toxic to cells, and was comparable to inhibition by the nucleoside analogue 2', 3'-didoxycytidine (ddC. S. fusiforme treatment blocked direct cell-to-cell infection spread. To investigate at which point of the virus life cycle this inhibition occurs, we infected T cells and CD4-negative primary human astrocytes with HIV-1 pseudotyped with envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, which bypasses the HIV receptor requirements. Infection by pseudotyped HIV-1 (VSV/NL4-3 was also inhibited in a dose dependant manner, although up to 57% less, as compared to inhibition of native NL4-3, indicating post-entry interferences. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating S. fusiforme to be a potent inhibitor of highly productive HIV-1 infection and replication in T cells, in primary human macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes. Results with VSV/NL4-3 infection, suggest inhibition

  17. HIV-1 Vpr Accelerates Viral Replication during Acute Infection by Exploitation of Proliferating CD4+ T Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kei; Misawa, Naoko; Iwami, Shingo; Satou, Yorifumi; Matsuoka, Masao; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Ito, Mamoru; Aihara, Kazuyuki; An, Dong Sung; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The precise role of viral protein R (Vpr), an HIV-1-encoded protein, during HIV-1 infection and its contribution to the development of AIDS remain unclear. Previous reports have shown that Vpr has the ability to cause G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. In addition, vpr is highly conserved in transmitted/founder HIV-1s and in all primate lentiviruses, which are evolutionarily related to HIV-1. Although these findings suggest an important role of Vpr in HIV-1 pathogenesis, its direct evidence in vivo has not been shown. Here, by using a human hematopoietic stem cell-transplanted humanized mouse model, we demonstrated that Vpr causes G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis predominantly in proliferating CCR5+ CD4+ T cells, which mainly consist of regulatory CD4+ T cells (Tregs), resulting in Treg depletion and enhanced virus production during acute infection. The Vpr-dependent enhancement of virus replication and Treg depletion is observed in CCR5-tropic but not CXCR4-tropic HIV-1-infected mice, suggesting that these effects are dependent on the coreceptor usage by HIV-1. Immune activation was observed in CCR5-tropic wild-type but not in vpr-deficient HIV-1-infected humanized mice. When humanized mice were treated with denileukin diftitox (DD), to deplete Tregs, DD-treated humanized mice showed massive activation/proliferation of memory T cells compared to the untreated group. This activation/proliferation enhanced CCR5 expression in memory CD4+ T cells and rendered them more susceptible to CCR5-tropic wild-type HIV-1 infection than to vpr-deficient virus. Taken together, these results suggest that Vpr takes advantage of proliferating CCR5+ CD4+ T cells for enhancing viremia of CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Because Tregs exist in a higher cycling state than other T cell subsets, Tregs appear to be more vulnerable to exploitation by Vpr during acute HIV-1 infection. PMID:24339781

  18. Prevalence and determinants of unemployment among ageing HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals

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    P Reiss

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: People living with HIV (PLWH appear to be at increased risk for earlier onset of age-associated non-communicable co-morbidity (AANCC and declines in physical and mental capacities, compared to the general population [1]. This earlier onset of AANCC in the setting of HIV infection is likely to negatively affect work participation and quality of life. Present study investigates prevalence and determinants of unemployment among older HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected participants of the AGEhIV Cohort Study. Methods: Data were collected (Oct. 2010–Jan. 2012 within the ongoing prospective AGEhIV Cohort Study, recruiting HIV-1-infected patients >45 years from a tertiary care HIV outpatient clinic, and HIV-uninfected Public Health Service attendants, comparable regarding age, gender and ethnicity. Data on socio-demographics, lifestyle, quality of life, AANCC and unemployment were collected, using a self-administered questionnaire and through medical examination. Current analysis was restricted to participants in the working age (45–65 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to study determinants of unemployment. Summary of results: The majority from the first enrolled 277 HIV-1-infected and 251 HIV-uninfected subjects was male (88%, Dutch (76% and homosexual (74%. About 50% was highly educated and the median age was 52 [IQR: 48–57]. Almost all (94% HIV-1-infected individuals were on cART, median time since first ART was 11 years [IQR: 4–15], median time since HIV-diagnosis was 12 years [IQR: 7–18] and they had been diagnosed with more AANCC than HIV-uninfected individuals (p<0.01. Unemployment was higher among HIV-1-infected (36.5% compared to HIV-uninfected participants (21.9% (p<0.01. In multivariate analysis, being HIV-infected (ORadj 2.0 [95% CI: 1.3–3.3], experiencing >2 AANCC (ORadj 3.1 [95% CI: 1.4–6.8], lower physical health status (ORadj 2.0 [95% CI: 1.6–2.6], being unmarried (ORadj 2.1 [95% CI: 1.3

  19. Highly activated p53 contributes to selectively increased apoptosis of latently HIV-1 infected cells upon treatment of anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, YoungHyun; Lim, Hoyong; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Chang; Kang, Chun; Bae, Yong-Soo; Yoon, Cheol-Hee

    2016-08-16

    Despite the successful inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by combination antiretroviral therapy, cells latently infected with HIV-1 remaining in patients are a major obstacle for eradication of HIV-1 infection. The tumor suppressor factor p53 is activated by HIV-1 infection, and restricts HIV-1 replication. However, a therapeutic strategy based on p53 activity has not been considered for elimination of latently infected cells. Apoptotic cells were analyzed using flow cytometry with anti-annexin A5-FITC Ab and PI staining upon treatment of anticancer drugs. The expression and activation of p53 and apoptotic molecules in latently HIV-1-infected T cells were compared using Western blot analysis. The role of p53 in the anticancer drug treatment-induced apoptosis of cells latently infected with HIV-1 was determined by knock-down experiment using siRNA against p53. Upon treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), apoptosis was increased in latently infected ACH2 cells encoding competent p53 compared with uninfected parent A3.01 cells, while the apoptosis of latently infected p53 null J1.1 cells was less than that of uninfected cells. Treatment with 5-FU increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP in ACH2 cells compared with uninfected and latently infected p53 null J1.1 cells. The levels of expression and activation of p53 were higher in both latently infected ACH2 and NCHA2 cells than in uninfected cells. Furthermore, the activation levels of p53 in both cells were further increased upon 5-FU treatment. Consistent with p53 status, apoptosis was markedly increased in ACH2 and NCHA2 cells compared with uninfected and latently infected J1.1 cells upon treatment with other anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin and etoposide. Inhibition of p53 in cells with latent HIV-1 infection diminished apoptosis upon 5-FU treatment. Evidence described here indicate that when treated with anticancer drugs, apoptosis of cells with latent HIV-1 infection

  20. Human TOP1 residues implicated in species specificity of HIV-1 infection are required for interaction with BTBD2, and RNAi of BTBD2 in old world monkey and human cells increases permissiveness to HIV-1 infection

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    Cutler Mary

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host determinants of HIV-1 viral tropism include factors from producer cells that affect the efficiency of productive infection and factors in target cells that block infection after viral entry. TRIM5α restricts HIV-1 infection at an early post-entry step through a mechanism associated with rapid disassembly of the retroviral capsid. Topoisomerase I (TOP1 appears to play a role in HIV-1 viral tropism by incorporating into or otherwise modulating virions affecting the efficiency of a post-entry step, as the expression of human TOP1 in African Green Monkey (AGM virion-producing cells increased the infectivity of progeny virions by five-fold. This infectivity enhancement required human TOP1 residues 236 and 237 as their replacement with the AGM counterpart residues abolished the infectivity enhancement. Our previous studies showed that TOP1 interacts with BTBD1 and BTBD2, two proteins which co-localize with the TRIM5α splice variant TRIM5δ in cytoplasmic bodies. Because BTBD1 and BTBD2 interact with one HIV-1 viral tropism factor, TOP1, and co-localize with a splice variant of another, we investigated the potential involvement of BTBD1 and BTBD2 in HIV-1 restriction. Results We show that the interaction of BTBD1 and BTBD2 with TOP1 requires hu-TOP1 residues 236 and 237, the same residues required to enhance the infectivity of progeny virions when hu-TOP1 is expressed in AGM producer cells. Additionally, interference with the expression of BTBD2 in AGM and human 293T target cells increased their permissiveness to HIV-1 infection two- to three-fold. Conclusions These results do not exclude the possibility that BTBD2 may modestly restrict HIV-1 infection via colocation with TRIM5 variants in cytoplasmic bodies.

  1. Higher viral load and genetic diversity of HIV-1 in seminal compartments than in blood of seven Chinese men who have sex with men and have early HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yan-Mei; Chen, Guang-Lei; Zhu, Wei-Jun; Huang, Hui-Huang; Fu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Wei; Shi, Ming; Zhang, Tong; Wu, Hao; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To date, there have been no reports characterizing HIV-1 in the semen of Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) with early infection. In this study, genetic diversity and viral load of HIV-1 in the seminal compartments and blood of Chinese MSM with early HIV-1 infection were examined. Viral load and genetic diversity of HIV-1 in paired samples of semen and blood were analyzed in seven MSM with early HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 RNA and DNA were quantitated by real-time PCR assays. Through sequencing the C2-V5 region of the HIV-1 env gene, the HIV-1 genotype and genetic diversity based on V3 loop amino acid sequences were determined by using Geno2pheno and PSSM programs co-receptor usage. It was found that there was more HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma than in blood plasma and total, and more 2-LTR circular and integrated HIV-1 DNA in seminal cells than in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all seven patients with early HIV-infection. There was also greater HIV-1 genetic diversity in seminal than in blood compartments. HIV-1 in plasma displayed higher genetic diversity than in cells from the blood and semen. In addition, V3 loop central motifs, which present some key neutralizing antibody epitopes, varied between blood and semen. Thus, virological characteristics in semen may be more representative when evaluating risk of transmission in persons with early HIV infection. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. HIV-1 coinfection profoundly alters intrahepatic chemokine but not inflammatory cytokine profiles in HCV-infected subjects.

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    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of accelerated liver damage in subjects coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 remains largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that ongoing chronic liver inflammation is responsible for the liver injury in HCV-infected patients. We aimed to determine whether HIV-1 coinfection altered intrahepatic inflammatory profiles in HCV infection, thereby hastening liver damage. We used a real-time RT-PCR-based array to comparatively analyze intrahepatic inflammation gene profiles in liver biopsy specimens from HCV-infected (n = 16, HCV/HIV-1-coinfected (n = 8 and uninfected (n = 8 individuals. We then used human hepatocytes to study the molecular mechanisms underlying alternations of the inflammatory profiles. Compared with uninfected individuals, HCV infection and HCV/HIV-1 coinfection markedly altered expression of 59.5% and 50.0% of 84 inflammation-related genes tested, respectively. Among these genes affected, HCV infection up-regulated the expression of 24 genes and down-regulated the expression of 26 genes, whereas HCV/HIV-1 coinfection up-regulated the expression of 21 genes and down-regulated the expression of 21 genes. Compared with HCV infection, HCV/HIV-1 coinfection did not dramatically affect intrahepatic gene expression profiles of cytokines and their receptors, but profoundly altered expression of several chemokine genes including up-regulation of the CXCR3-associated chemokines. Human hepatocytes produced these chemokines in response to virus-related microbial translocation, viral protein stimulation, and antiviral immune responses.HIV-1 coinfection profoundly alters intrahepatic chemokine but not cytokine profiles in HCV-infected subjects. The altered chemokines may orchestrate the tissue-specific and cell-selective trafficking of immune cells and autoimmunity to accelerate liver disease in HCV/HIV-1 coinfection.

  3. Differential effects of sex in a West African cohort of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients: men are worse off.

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    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Medina, Candida; da Silva Té, David; Correira, Faustino Gomes; Laursen, Alex Lund; Østergaard, Lars; Andersen, Andreas; Aaby, Peter; Erikstrup, Christian; Wejse, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have reported conflicting effects of sex on HIV-1 infection. We describe differences in baseline characteristics and assess the impact of sex on HIV progression among patients at a clinic with many HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. This study utilised a retrospective cohort of treatment-naïve adults at the largest HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau from 6 June 2005 to 1 December 2013. Baseline characteristics were assessed and the patients followed until death, transfer, loss to follow-up, or 1 June 2014. We estimated the time from the first clinic visit until initiation of ART, death or loss to follow-up using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 5694 patients were included in the study, 3702 women (65%) and 1992 men (35%). Women were more likely than men to be infected with HIV-2 (19% vs. 15%, P < 0.01) or dually infected with HIV-1/2 (11% vs. 9%, P = 0.02). For all HIV types, women were younger (median 35 vs. 40 years), less likely to have schooling (55% vs. 77%) or to be married (46% vs. 67%), and had higher baseline CD4 cell counts (median 214 vs. 178 cells/μl). Men had a higher age-adjusted mortality rate (hazard rate ratio (HRR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.52) and were more often lost to follow-up (HRR 1.27, 95% CI 1.17-1.39). Significant differences exist between HIV-infected men and women regardless of HIV type. Men seek treatment at a later stage and, despite better socio-economic status, have higher mortality and loss to follow-up than women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing using Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a New Technique for Detecting HIV-1 Infection

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    Alex Willyandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of HIV-1 infection by individuals in window period who are tested negative in conventional HIV-1 detection would pose the community with serious problems. Several diagnostic tools require specific labora-tory equipment, perfect timing of diagnosis, antibody to HIV-1, and invasive technique to get sample for examination, until high amount of time to process the sample as well as accessibility of remote areas. Many attempts have been made to solve those problems to come to a new detection technique. This review aims to give information about the current development technique for detection of HIV infection. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing is currently introduced for detection of HIV-1 infection. This review also cover the possible usage of gingival crevicular fluid as sample specimen that could be taken noninvasively from the individual.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.63

  5. Mucosal immunity and HIV-1 infection: applications for mucosal AIDS vaccine development.

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    Belyakov, Igor M; Ahlers, Jeffrey D

    2012-01-01

    Natural transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) occurs through gastrointestinal and vaginal mucosa. These mucosal tissues are major reservoirs for initial HIV replication and amplification, and the sites of rapid CD4(+) T cell depletion. In both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected macaques, massive loss of CD4(+) CCR5(+) memory T cells occurs in the gut and vaginal mucosa within the first 10-14 days of infection. Induction of local HIV-specific immune responses by vaccines may facilitate effective control of HIV or SIV replication at these sites. Vaccines that induce mucosal responses, in particular CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), have controlled viral replication at mucosal sites and curtailed systemic dissemination. Thus, there is strong justification for development of next generation vaccines that induce mucosal immune effectors against HIV-1 including CD8(+) CTL, CD4(+) T helper cells and secretory IgA. In addition, further understanding of local innate mechanisms that impact early viral replication will greatly inform future vaccine development. In this review, we examine the current knowledge concerning mucosal AIDS vaccine development. Moreover, we propose immunization strategies that may be able to elicit an effective immune response that can protect against AIDS as well as other mucosal infections.

  6. Systemic Immune Activation Profiles of HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Children and Their Mothers

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    Tinyiko G. Makhubele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about immune activation profiles of children infected with HIV-1 subtype C. The current study compared levels of selected circulating biomarkers of immune activation in HIV-1 subtype C-infected untreated mothers and their children with those of healthy controls. Multiplex bead array, ELISA, and immunonephelometric procedures were used to measure soluble CD14 (sCD14, beta-2 microglobulin (β2M, CRP, MIG, IP-10, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1. Levels of all 6 biomarkers were significantly elevated in the HIV-infected mothers and, with the exception of MIG, in their children (P<0.01–P<0.0001. The effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART and maternal smoking on these biomarkers were also assessed. With the exception of TGF-β1, which was unchanged in the children 12 months after therapy, initiation of ART was accompanied by decreases in the other biomarkers. Regression analysis revealed that although most biomarkers were apparently unaffected by smoking, exposure of children to maternal smoking was associated with a significant increase in IP-10. These findings demonstrate that biomarkers of immune activation are elevated in HIV-infected children pre-ART and decline, with the exception of TGF-β1, after therapy. Although preliminary, elevation of IP-10 in smoke-exposed infants is consistent with a higher level of immune activation in this group.

  7. High resolution human leukocyte antigen class I allele frequencies and HIV-1 infection associations in Chinese Han and Uyghur cohorts.

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    Yanhou Liu

    Full Text Available Host immunogenetic factors such as HLA class I polymorphism are important to HIV-1 infection risk and AIDS progression. Previous studies using high-resolution HLA class I profile data of Chinese populations appeared insufficient to provide information for HIV-1 vaccine development and clinical trial design. Here we reported HLA class I association with HIV-1 susceptibility in a Chinese Han and a Chinese Uyghur cohort.Our cohort included 327 Han and 161 Uyghur ethnic individuals. Each cohort included HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative subjects. Four-digit HLA class I typing was performed by sequencing-based typing and high-resolution PCR-sequence specific primer. We compared the HLA class I allele and inferred haplotype frequencies between HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative groups. A neighbor-joining tree between our cohorts and other populations was constructed based on allele frequencies of HLA-A and HLA-B loci. We identified 58 HLA-A, 75 HLA-B, and 32 HLA-Cw distinct alleles from our cohort and no novel alleles. The frequency of HLA-B*5201 and A*0301 was significantly higher in the Han HIV-1 negative group. The frequency of HLA-B*5101 was significantly higher in the Uyghur HIV-1 negative group. We observed statistically significant increases in expectation-maximization (EM algorithm predicted haplotype frequencies of HLA-A*0201-B*5101 in the Uyghur HIV-1 negative group, and of Cw*0304-B*4001 in the Han HIV-1 negative group. The B62s supertype frequency was found to be significantly higher in the Han HIV-1 negative group than in the Han HIV-1 positive group.At the four-digit level, several HLA class I alleles and haplotypes were associated with lower HIV-1 susceptibility. Homogeneity of HLA class I and Bw4/Bw6 heterozygosity were not associated with HIV-1 susceptibility in our cohort. These observations contribute to the Chinese HLA database and could prove useful in the development of HIV-1 vaccine candidates.

  8. Resistance to HIV-1 infection in caucasian individuals bearing mutant alleles of the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, M; Libert, F; Doranz, B J; Rucker, J; Liesnard, C; Farber, C M; Saragosti, S; Lapoumeroulie, C; Cognaux, J; Forceille, C; Muyldermans, G; Verhofstede, C; Burtonboy, G; Georges, M; Imai, T; Rana, S; Yi, Y; Smyth, R J; Collman, R G; Doms, R W; Vassart, G; Parmentier, M

    1996-08-22

    HIV-1 and related viruses require co-receptors, in addition to CD4, to infect target cells. The chemokine receptor CCR-5 (ref.1) was recently demonstrated to be a co-receptor for macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strains, and the orphan receptor LESTR (also called fusin) allows infection by strains adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines (T-tropic strains). Here we show that a mutant allele of CCR-5 is present at a high frequency in caucasian populations (allele frequency, 0.092), but is absent in black populations from Western and Central Africa and Japanese populations. A 32-base-pair deletion within the coding region results in a frame shift, and generates a non-functional receptor that does not support membrane fusion or infection by macrophage- and dual-tropic HIV-1 strains. In a cohort of HIV-1 infected caucasian subjects, no individual homozygous for the mutation was found, and the frequency of heterozygotes was 35% lower than in the general population. White blood cells from an individual homozygous for the null allele were found to be highly resistant to infection by M-tropic HIV-1 viruses, confirming that CCR-5 is the major co-receptor for primary HIV-1 strains. The lower frequency of heterozygotes in seropositive patients may indicate partial resistance.

  9. Socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics associated with human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-explosed but uninfected individuals, and in HIV-1-infected patients from a southern brasilian population Características sociodemográficas e epidemiológicas associadas com a infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana tipo 1 (HIV-1 em indivíduos expostos ao HIV-1 mas não infectados e em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1, provenientes da população da região Sul do Brasil

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    Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and progression of the disease is regulated by host and viral factors. This cross-sectional study describes the socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics associated with HIV-1 infection in 1,061 subjects attended in Londrina and region, south of Brazil: 136 healthy individuals (Group 1, 147 HIV-1-exposed but uninfected individuals (Group 2, 161 HIV-1-infected asymptomatic patients (Group 3, and 617 patients with AIDS (Group 4. Data were obtained by a standardized questionnaire and serological tests. The age of the individuals ranged from 15.1 to 79.5 years, 54.0% and 56.1% of the Groups 3 and 4 patients, respectively, were men. The major features of groups 2, 3, and 4 were a predominance of education level up to secondary school (55.8%, 60.2% and 62.4%, respectively, sexual route of exposure (88.4%, 87.0% and 82.0%, respectively, heterosexual behavior (91.8%, 75.2% and 83.7%, respectively, and previous sexually transmitted diseases (20.4%, 32.5%, and 38.1%, respectively. The patients with AIDS showed the highest rates of seropositivity for syphilis (25.6%, of anti-HCV (22.3%, and anti-HTLV I/II obtained by two serological screening tests (6.2% and 6.8%, respectively. The results documenting the predominant characteristics for HIV-1 infection among residents of Londrina and region, could be useful for the improvement of current HIV-1 prevention, monitoring and therapeutic programs targeted at this population.Este estudo transversal descreve as principais características sociodemográficas e epidemiológicas associadas com a infecção pelo HIV-1 em 1.061 indivíduos atendidos em Londrina e região, Sul do Brasil: 136 indivíduos saudáveis (Grupo 1, 147 indivíduos expostos ao HIV-1 mas não infectados (Grupo 2, 161 pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1 assintomáticos (Grupo 3 e 617 pacientes com aids (Grupo 4. Os dados foram obtidos pela aplicação de um

  10. Short Communication: Failures in Detecting HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in Patients Infected with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2017-04-01

    Changes in retrovirus acquisition/transmission behaviors have been reported in Brazil, with a concerning increase in HIV-1-infected individuals aged 15-39 years. In São Paulo, HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections have been associated with intravenous drug use and failure to detect HTLV-1/2 (human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2) with immunosuppression and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Negative results for HTLV serologic [western blotting (WB)] and molecular [real-time PCR pol (qPCR)] confirmatory assays have been reported, whereas the best sensitivity has been found for INNO-LIA (LIA). In this study, we expand our previous data by analyzing a group of young patients (n = 1,383; median age 35.6 years) who recently acquired HIV by sexual contact, the majority of whom were HAART naïve, and comparing the performances of four HTLV confirmatory assays: LIA, WB, qPCR, and PCR-RFLP (tax). We confirmed HTLV infection in 58 (4.2%) blood samples: 29 HTLV-1, 24 HTLV-2, 1 HTLV-1+HTLV-2, and 4 HTLV. LIA, WB, qPCR, and PCR-RFLP sensitivities were 94.8%, 82.8%, 79.2%, and 74.5%, respectively. Associations of HTLV infection with female gender (OR = 2.28, 1.31-4.00) and age >40 years (p PCR results are due to the presence of defective provirus and/or low proviral load circulating in such patients, with inconclusive WB coinciding with the seroconversion period. Corroborating the associations obtained, repeated exposure is required for HTLV sexual transmission/acquisition, which is more efficient from male to female.

  11. Contribution of intestinal barrier damage, microbial translocation and HIV-1 infection status to an inflammaging signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Steele

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation is a characteristic of both HIV-1 infection and aging ("inflammaging". Intestinal epithelial barrier damage (IEBD and microbial translocation (MT contribute to HIV-associated inflammation, but their impact on inflammaging remains unclear.Plasma biomarkers for IEBD (iFABP, MT (LPS, sCD14, T-cell activation (sCD27, and inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 were measured in 88 HIV-1 uninfected (HIV(neg and 83 treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV(pos adults from 20-100 years old.Age positively correlated with iFABP (r = 0.284, p = 0.008, sCD14 (r = 0.646, p = <0.0001 and LPS (r = 0.421, p = 0.0002 levels in HIV(neg but not HIV(pos subjects. Age also correlated with sCD27, hsCRP, and IL-6 levels regardless of HIV status. Middle-aged HIV(pos subjects had elevated plasma biomarker levels similar to or greater than those of elderly HIV(neg subjects with the exception of sCD14. Clustering analysis described an inflammaging phenotype (IP based on iFABP, sCD14, sCD27, and hsCRP levels in HIV(neg subjects over 60 years of age. The IP in HIV(neg subjects was used to develop a classification model that was applied to HIV(pos subjects to determine whether HIV(pos subjects under 60 years of age were IP+. HIV(pos IP+ subjects were similar in age to IP- subjects but had a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD based on Framingham risk score (p =  0.01.We describe a novel IP that incorporates biomarkers of IEBD, MT, immune activation as well as inflammation. Application of this novel IP in HIV-infected subjects identified a group at higher risk of CVD.

  12. BST-2 Expression Modulates Small CD4-Mimetic Sensitization of HIV-1-Infected Cells to Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jonathan; Prévost, Jérémie; von Bredow, Benjamin; Ding, Shilei; Brassard, Nathalie; Medjahed, Halima; Coutu, Mathieu; Melillo, Bruno; Bibollet-Ruche, Frédéric; Hahn, Beatrice H; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Smith, Amos B; Sodroski, Joseph; Sauter, Daniel; Kirchhoff, Frank; Gee, Katrina; Neil, Stuart J; Evans, David T; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-06-01

    Antibodies recognizing conserved CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env and able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been shown to be present in sera from most HIV-1-infected individuals. These antibodies preferentially recognize Env in its CD4-bound conformation. CD4 downregulation by Nef and Vpu dramatically reduces exposure of CD4i HIV-1 Env epitopes and therefore reduce the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV-positive (HIV+) sera. Importantly, this mechanism of immune evasion can be circumvented with small-molecule CD4 mimetics (CD4mc) that are able to transition Env into the CD4-bound conformation and sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera. However, HIV-1 developed additional mechanisms to avoid ADCC, including Vpu-mediated BST-2 antagonism, which decreases the overall amount of Env present at the cell surface. Accordingly, BST-2 upregulation in response to alpha interferon (IFN-α) was shown to increase the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC despite the activity of Vpu. Here we show that BST-2 upregulation by IFN-β and interleukin-27 (IL-27) also increases the surface expression of Env and thus boosts the ability of CD4mc to sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC by sera from HIV-1-infected individuals.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 evolved sophisticated strategies to conceal Env epitopes from ADCC-mediating antibodies present in HIV+ sera. Vpu-mediated BST-2 downregulation was shown to decrease ADCC responses by limiting the amount of Env present at the cell surface. This effect of Vpu was shown to be attenuated by IFN-α treatment. Here we show that in addition to IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-27 also affect Vpu-mediated BST-2 downregulation and greatly enhance ADCC responses against HIV-1-infected cells in the presence of CD4mc. These findings may inform strategies aimed at HIV prevention and eradication. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  13. Fluconazole for ketoconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-1 infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of fluconazole in doses ranging from 50 to 200 mg/day in controlling oropharyngeal candidiasis was retrospectively evaluated in 16 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients. 13 patients received fluconazole due to failure of treatment with ketoconazole, and among these 11 (84%) initially...... showed complete or partial remission of oropharyngeal candidiasis. 3 (27%) of these subsequently developed failure of treatment within a median observation period of 38 days. No major toxicities were observed. Fluconazole appears promising in the therapy of ketoconazole-resistant candidiasis....

  14. Intracellular immunity to HIV-1: newly defined retroviral battles inside infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterlin B Matija

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 continue to enrich eukaryotic biology and immunology. Recent advances have defined factors that function after viral entry and prevent the replication of proviruses in the infected cell. Some of these attack directly viral structures whereas others edit viral genetic material during reverse transcription. Together, they provide strong and immediate intracellular immunity against incoming pathogens. These processes also offer a tantalizing glimpse at basic cellular mechanisms that might restrict the movement of mobile genetic elements and protect the genome.

  15. Asymptotic behaviors of a cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection model perturbed by white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze a mathematical model of cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection to CD4+ T cells perturbed by stochastic perturbations. First of all, we investigate that there exists a unique global positive solution of the system for any positive initial value. Then by using Lyapunov analysis methods, we study the asymptotic property of this solution. Moreover, we discuss whether there is a stationary distribution for this system and if it owns the ergodic property. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  16. Early infant diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in Luanda, Angola, using a new DNA PCR assay and dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francisco; Palladino, Claudia; Mateus, Rita; Bolzan, Anna; Gomes, Perpétua; Brito, José; Carvalho, Ana Patrícia; Cardoso, Yolanda; Domingos, Cristovão; Lôa Clemente, Vanda Sofia; Taveira, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment reduces HIV-1-related mortality, morbidity and size of viral reservoirs in infants infected perinatally. Commercial molecular tests enable the early diagnosis of infection in infants but the high cost and low sensitivity with dried blood spots (DBS) limit their use in sub-Saharan Africa. To develop and validate a sensitive and cheap qualitative proviral DNA PCR-based assay for early infant diagnosis (EID) in HIV-1-exposed infants using DBS samples. Chelex-based method was used to extract DNA from DBS samples followed by a nested PCR assay using primers for the HIV-1 integrase gene. Limit of detection (LoD) was determined by Probit regression using limiting dilutions of newly produced recombinant plasmids with the integrase gene of all HIV-1 subtypes and ACH-2 cells. Clinical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated on 100 HIV-1 infected adults; 5 infected infants; 50 healthy volunteers; 139 HIV-1-exposed infants of the Angolan Pediatric HIV Cohort (APEHC) with serology at 18 months of life. All subtypes and CRF02_AG were amplified with a LoD of 14 copies. HIV-1 infection in infants was detected at month 1 of life. Sensitivity rate in adults varied with viral load, while diagnostic specificity was 100%. The percentage of HIV-1 MTCT cases between January 2012 and October 2014 was 2.2%. The cost per test was 8-10 USD which is 2- to 4-fold lower in comparison to commercial assays. The new PCR assay enables early and accurate EID. The simplicity and low-cost of the assay make it suitable for generalized implementation in Angola and other resource-constrained countries.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii antibody profile in HIV-1-infected and uninfected pregnant women and the impact on congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,Márcia Antunes; Batista, Giovanni Inácio; da Costa Silveira Carlos, Juliano; Gomes, Ivete Martins; Lopes de Azevedo, Kátia Martins; Setúbal,Sérgio; OLIVEIRA Solange Artimos de; Coca Velarde, Luis Guilhermo; Araújo Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Compare the anti-T. gondii IgG titer between HIV-1 infected and non HIV-1 infected pregnant women and report three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis resulting from reactivation of infection during pregnancy of HIV-1 infected women. METHODS: This study was conducted among 2,270 pregnant women with chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection (absence of IgM and presence of IgG), including 82 HIV-1 infected and 2,188 non-infected women. RESULTS: The average anti-T. gondii IgG titer was 127 fo...

  18. Leptin and adiponectin, but not IL18, are related with insulin resistance in treated HIV-1-infected patients with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Sergi; Escoté, Xavier; Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria; López-Dupla, Miguel; Peraire, Joaquim; Viladés, Consuelo; Domingo, Pere; Castro, Antoni; Olona, Montserrat; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; Leal, Manuel; Vendrell, Joan; Richart, Cristóbal; Vidal, Francesc

    2012-05-01

    Leptin, adiponectin and IL18 are adipokines related with obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in the general population. Treated HIV-1-infected patients with lipodystrophy may develop insulin resistance and proatherogenic dyslipidemia. We assessed the relationship between plasma adipokine levels, adipokine genetics, lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbances. Plasma leptin, adiponectin and IL18 levels were assessed in 446 individuals: 282 HIV-1-infected patients treated with antiretroviral drugs (132 with lipodystrophy and 150 without) and 164 uninfected controls (UC). The LEP2410A>G, LEPRQ223R, ADIPQ276G>T, ADIPOR2-Intron5A>G and IL18-607C>A polymorphisms were validated by sequencing. Leptin levels were higher in UC than in HIV-1-infected, either with or without lipodystrophy (plipodystrophy compared with those without lipodystrophy (p=0.006). In patients with lipodystrophy, leptin had a positive correlation with insulin and with HOMA-IR. Adiponectin levels were non-significantly different in UC and HIV-1-infected patients. Patients with lipodystrophy had lower adiponectin levels than non-lipodystrophy subjects (plipodystrophy, adiponectin was negatively correlated with insulin, HOMA-IR and triglycerides. Plasma IL18 levels were higher in HIV-1-infected patients compared with UC (plipodystrophy. In patients with lipodystrophy there was a negative correlation between IL18 levels and LDLc. Genetic analyses indicated no significant associations with lipodystrophy nor with insulin resistance or with lipid abnormalities. In conclusion, HIV-1-infected patients have reduced plasma leptin levels. This reduction is magnified in patients with lipodystrophy whose adiponectin levels were lower than that of non-lipodystrophy subjects. Plasma IL18 levels are increased in infected patients irrespective of the presence of lipodystrophy. The polymorphisms assessed are not associated with lipodystrophy or metabolic disturbances in treated HIV-1-infected patients. Copyright

  19. Rapid selection of escape mutants by the first CD8 T cell responses in acute HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The recent failure of a vaccine that primes T cell responses to control primary HIV-1 infection has raised doubts about the role of CD8+ T cells in early HIV-1 infection. We studied four patients who were identified shortly after HIV-1 infection and before seroconversion. In each patient there was very rapid selection of multiple HIV-1 escape mutants in the transmitted virus by CD8 T cells, including examples of complete fixation of non-synonymous substitutions within 2 weeks. Sequencing by single genome amplification suggested that the high rate of virus replication in acute infection gave a selective advantage to virus molecules that contained simultaneous and gained sequential T cell escape mutations. These observations show that whilst early HIV-1 specific CD8 T cells can act against virus, rapid escape means that these T cell responses are unlikely to benefit the patient and may in part explain why current HIV-1 T cell vaccines may not be protective.

  20. CD4-gp120 interaction interface - a gateway for HIV-1 infection in human: molecular network, modeling and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Deeksha; Podder, Avijit; Pandit, Mansi; Latha, Narayanan

    2017-09-01

    The major causative agent for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 is a predominant subtype of HIV which counts on human cellular mechanism virtually in every aspect of its life cycle. Binding of viral envelope glycoprotein-gp120 with human cell surface CD4 receptor triggers the early infection stage of HIV-1. This study focuses on the interaction interface between these two proteins that play a crucial role for viral infectivity. The CD4-gp120 interaction interface has been studied through a comprehensive protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analysis and highlighted as a useful step towards identifying potential therapeutic drug targets against HIV-1 infection. We prioritized gp41, Nef and Tat proteins of HIV-1 as valuable drug targets at early stage of viral infection. Lack of crystal structure has made it difficult to understand the biological implication of these proteins during disease progression. Here, computational protein modeling techniques and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to generate three-dimensional models of these targets. Besides, molecular docking was initiated to determine the desirability of these target proteins for already available HIV-1 specific drugs which indicates the usefulness of these protein structures to identify an effective drug combination therapy against AIDS.

  1. Effect of humoral immunity on HIV-1 dynamics with virus-to-target and infected-to-target infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaiw, A. M.; Raezah, A. A.; Alofi, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    We consider an HIV-1 dynamics model by incorporating (i) two routes of infection via, respectively, binding of a virus to a receptor on the surface of a target cell to start genetic reactions (virus-to-target infection), and the direct transmission from infected cells to uninfected cells through the concept of virological synapse in vivo (infected-to-target infection); (ii) two types of distributed-time delays to describe the time between the virus or infected cell contacts an uninfected CD4+ T cell and the emission of new active viruses; (iii) humoral immune response, where the HIV-1 particles are attacked by the antibodies that are produced from the B lymphocytes. The existence and stability of all steady states are completely established by two bifurcation parameters, R 0 (the basic reproduction number) and R 1 (the viral reproduction number at the chronic-infection steady state without humoral immune response). By constructing Lyapunov functionals and using LaSalle's invariance principle, we have proven that, if R 0 ≤ 1 , then the infection-free steady state is globally asymptotically stable, if R 1 ≤ 1 1 , then the chronic-infection steady state with humoral immune response is globally asymptotically stable. We have performed numerical simulations to confirm our theoretical results.

  2. In Vivo and in Vitro Proteome Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1-infected, Human CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Johannes; Vongrad, Valentina; Metzner, Karin J; Strouvelle, Victoria P; Weber, Rainer; Pedrioli, Patrick; Aebersold, Ruedi; Günthard, Huldrych F; Collins, Ben C

    2017-04-01

    Host-directed therapies against HIV-1 are thought to be critical for long term containment of the HIV-1 pandemic but remain elusive. Because HIV-1 infects and manipulates important effectors of both the innate and adaptive immune system, identifying modulations of the host cell systems in humans during HIV-1 infection may be crucial for the development of immune based therapies. Here, we quantified the changes of the proteome in human CD4+ T cells upon HIV-1 infection, both in vitro and in vivo A SWATH-MS approach was used to measure the proteome of human primary CD4+ T cells infected with HIV-1 in vitro as well as CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected patients with paired samples on and off antiretroviral treatment. In the in vitro experiment, the proteome of CD4+ T cells was quantified over a time course following HIV-1 infection. 1,725 host cell proteins and 4 HIV-1 proteins were quantified, with 145 proteins changing significantly during the time course. Changes in the proteome peaked 24 h after infection, concomitantly with significant HIV-1 protein production. In the in vivo branch of the study, CD4+ T cells from viremic patients and those with no detectable viral load after treatment were sorted, and the proteomes were quantified. We consistently detected 895 proteins, 172 of which were considered to be significantly different between the viremic patients and patients undergoing successful treatment. The proteome of the in vitro-infected CD4+ T cells was modulated on multiple functional levels, including TLR-4 signaling and the type 1 interferon signaling pathway. Perturbations in the type 1 interferon signaling pathway were recapitulated in CD4+ T cells from patients. The study shows that proteome maps generated by SWATH-MS indicate a range of functionally significant changes in the proteome of HIV-infected human CD4+ T cells. Exploring these perturbations in more detail may help identify new targets for immune based interventions. © 2017 by The American

  3. Recombination-mediated escape from primary CD8+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Adam John; Cai, Fangping; Smith, Nicola M G; Chen, Sheri; Song, Hongshuo; Brackenridge, Simon; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Korber, Bette T; McMichael, Andrew J; Gao, Feng; Goonetilleke, Nilu

    2014-09-12

    A major immune evasion mechanism of HIV-1 is the accumulation of non-synonymous mutations in and around T cell epitopes, resulting in loss of T cell recognition and virus escape. Here we analyze primary CD8+ T cell responses and virus escape in a HLA B*81 expressing subject who was infected with two T/F viruses from a single donor. In addition to classic escape through non-synonymous mutation/s, we also observed rapid selection of multiple recombinant viruses that conferred escape from T cells specific for two epitopes in Nef. Our study shows that recombination between multiple T/F viruses provide greater options for acute escape from CD8+ T cell responses than seen in cases of single T/F virus infection. This process may contribute to the rapid disease progression in patients infected by multiple T/F viruses.

  4. Tetherin restricts direct cell-to-cell infection of HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bar-Magen Tamara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24 is an interferon (IFN-inducible factor of the innate immune system, recently shown to exert antiviral activity against HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by tethering nascent viral particles to the cell surface, thereby inhibiting viral release. In HIV-1 infection, the viral protein U (Vpu counteracts this antiviral action by down-modulating tetherin from the cell surface. Viral dissemination between T-cells can occur via cell-free transmission or the more efficient direct cell-to-cell route through lipid raft-rich virological synapses, to which tetherin localizes. Results We established a flow cytometry-based co-culture assay to distinguish viral transfer from viral transmission and investigated the influence of tetherin on cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1. Sup-T1 cells inducible for tetherin expression were used to examine the impact of effector and target cell tetherin expression on virus transfer and transmission. Using this assay, we showed that tetherin inhibits direct cell-to-cell virus transfer and transmission. Viral Vpu promoted viral transmission from tetherin-expressing cells by down-modulating tetherin from the effector cell surface. Further, we showed that tetherin on the target cell promotes viral transfer and transmission. Viral infectivity in itself was not affected by tetherin. Conclusion In addition to inhibiting viral release, tetherin also inhibits direct cell-to-cell spread. Viral protein Vpu counteracts this restriction, outweighing its possible cost of fitness in cell-to-cell transmission. The differential role of tetherin in effector and target cells suggest a role for tetherin in cell-cell contacts and virological synapses.

  5. Elevated risk for HIV-1 infection in adolescents and young adults in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Bassichetto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have sought to describe HIV infection and transmission characteristics around the world. Identification of early HIV-1 infection is essential to proper surveillance and description of regional transmission trends. In this study we compare people recently infected (RI with HIV-1, as defined by Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS, to those with chronic infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were identified from 2002-2004 at four testing sites in São Paulo. Of 485 HIV-1-positive subjects, 57 (12% were defined as RI. Of the participants, 165 (34.0% were aware of their serostatus at the time of HIV-1 testing. This proportion was statistically larger (p59 years-old age strata (p<0.001. The majority of study participants were male (78.4%, 25 to 45 years-old (65.8%, white (63.2%, single (61.7%, with family income of four or more times the minimum wage (41.0%, but with an equally distributed educational level. Of those individuals infected with HIV-1, the predominant route of infection was sexual contact (89.4%, with both hetero (47.5% and homosexual (34.5% exposure. Regarding sexual activity in these individuals, 43.9% reported possible HIV-1 exposure through a seropositive partner, and 49.4% reported multiple partners, with 47% having 2 to 10 partners and 37.4% 11 or more; 53.4% of infected individuals reported condom use sometimes; 34.2% reported non-injecting, recreational drug use and 23.6% were reactive for syphilis by VDRL. Subjects younger than 25 years of age were most vulnerable according to the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we evaluated RI individuals and discovered that HIV-1 has been spreading among younger individuals in São Paulo and preventive approaches should, therefore, target this age stratum.

  6. Outcome and reinfection after Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in individuals with and without HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stammler Jaliff, Bianca; Dahl-Knudsen, Jenny; Petersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Individuals infected with HIV-1 are at an increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rate and risk of reinfection associated with SAB in HIV-1-infected individuals compared to individuals without HIV-1 infection. SETTI...... and Pitt score predicted outcome. For patients infected with HIV, neither CD4 T-lymphocyte counts nor plasma HIV RNA levels were associated with 30-day outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (record no. 2007-41-1196)....... not associate to mortality. During follow-up, there were 43 episodes of reinfection; in individuals with HIV infection at an incidence rate of 7.8 (95% CI 4.7 to 10.9)/100 person-years compared with 2.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.2)/100 person-years for individuals without HIV. In multivariate analysis, HIV status (OR 2...

  7. The Prevalence and Outcome of Asymptomatic Chlamydial Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of those with HSG result (64), the accuracy of the test kit showed low sensitivity - 44.2% (19/43) and negative predictive value 40.0% (16/40) (but, high specificity - 76.2%(16/21), and positive predictive value - 79.2% (19/24). Conclusion: Asymptomatic Chlamydial infection is common among infertile women and it positively ...

  8. Human giardiasis in Serbia: asymptomatic vs symptomatic infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, A.; Klun, I.; Bobić, B.; Ivović, V.; Vujanić, M.; Živković, T.; Djurković-Djaković, O.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animalto- person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed. PMID:21678797

  9. Asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women in Sagamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Untreated genital tract infections in pregnancy may be associated with adverse effects on foetal and maternal health leading to poor pregnancy outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and microbial isolates associated with asymptomatic genital infectionsin pregnancy. Methodology: ...

  10. Studies On the Incidence of Asymptomatic Plasmodium Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection among orphans between age groups, gender and blood groups was investigated. Standard microscopic methods were used to screen for malaria parasites in the blood specimens obtained from eighty-five (85) subjects in three orphanages in Kaduna and ...

  11. Cross-sectional and longitudinal investigation of human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence in HIV-1-infected individuals in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Dai; Yamamoto, Yudai; Suzuki, Sachiko; Ashida, Misa; Matsumoto, Erina; Yukawa, Satomi; Hirota, Kazuyuki; Ikuma, Motoko; Ueji, Takashi; Kasai, Daisuke; Nishida, Yasuharu; Uehira, Tomoko; Shirasaka, Takuma

    2017-04-01

    High human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) seroprevalence has been reported in men who have sex with men (MSM) and are infected with HIV-1. However, it is unclear when they become infected with HHV-8. Thus, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations of HHV-8 seroprevalence in HIV-1-infected individuals in Osaka, Japan. Plasma was collected from 121 individuals infected with HIV-1 and the anti-HHV-8 antibody titer was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with whole virus lysate. Subjects were classified into those with and without a past medical history of HHV-8-associated disease; the latter group was then classified into 3 subgroups based on the assumed route of HIV-1 infection: blood products, homosexual contact, and other routes. HHV-8 seroprevalence was compared among the groups and measured again approximately 3 years after the baseline measurement. The relationship between HHV-8 seropositivity and possible associated factors was also investigated. All 15 subjects with HHV-8-associated disease were seropositive, and all 11 subjects in the blood product group were seronegative. In the MSM group, 25 (30%) of 79 subjects were HHV-8 seropositive and, in the non-MSM group, 1 (6%) of 16 subjects was (p HIV-1-infected MSM, suggesting that, currently, HHV-8 is an epidemic pathogen in this population. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of viral DNA during HIV-1 infection: A review of relevant clinical uses and laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidjinou, E K; Bocket, L; Hober, D

    2015-02-01

    Effective antiretroviral therapy usually leads to undetectable HIV-1 RNA in the plasma. However, the virus persists in some cells of infected patients as various DNA forms, both integrated and unintegrated. This reservoir represents the greatest challenge to the complete cure of HIV-1 infection and its characteristics highly impact the course of the disease. The quantification of HIV-1 DNA in blood samples constitutes currently the most practical approach to measure this residual infection. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the most common method used for HIV-DNA quantification and many strategies have been developed to measure the different forms of HIV-1 DNA. In the literature, several "in-house" PCR methods have been used and there is a need for standardization to have comparable results. In addition, qPCR is limited for the precise quantification of low levels by background noise. Among new assays in development, digital PCR was shown to allow an accurate quantification of HIV-1 DNA. Total HIV-1 DNA is most commonly measured in clinical routine. The absolute quantification of proviruses and unintegrated forms is more often used for research purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Infection of monkeys by simian-human immunodeficiency viruses with transmitted/founder clade C HIV-1 envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmal, Mohammed; Luedemann, Corinne; Lavine, Christy L; Mach, Linh V; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Brinkley, Christie; Denny, Thomas N; Lewis, Mark G; Anderson, Hanne; Pal, Ranajit; Sok, Devin; Le, Khoa; Pauthner, Matthias; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Seaman, Michael S; Letvin, Norman L; Burton, Dennis R; Sodroski, Joseph G; Haynes, Barton F; Santra, Sampa

    2015-01-15

    Simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that mirror natural transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses in man are needed for evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates in nonhuman primates. Currently available SHIVs contain HIV-1 env genes from chronically-infected individuals and do not reflect the characteristics of biologically relevant HIV-1 strains that mediate human transmission. We chose to develop clade C SHIVs, as clade C is the major infecting subtype of HIV-1 in the world. We constructed 10 clade C SHIVs expressing Env proteins from T/F viruses. Three of these ten clade C SHIVs (SHIV KB9 C3, SHIV KB9 C4 and SHIV KB9 C5) replicated in naïve rhesus monkeys. These three SHIVs are mucosally transmissible and are neutralized by sCD4 and several HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, like natural T/F viruses, they exhibit low Env reactivity and a Tier 2 neutralization sensitivity. Of note, none of the clade C T/F SHIVs elicited detectable autologous neutralizing antibodies in the infected monkeys, even though antibodies that neutralized a heterologous Tier 1 HIV-1 were generated. Challenge with these three new clade C SHIVs will provide biologically relevant tests for vaccine protection in rhesus macaques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV-1 infection in rural Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania: Implications for prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyna Germana H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability in stages of the HIV-1 epidemic and hence HIV-1 prevalence exists in different areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude of HIV-1 infection and identify HIV-1 risk factors that may help to develop preventive strategies in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May of 2005 involving all individuals aged between 15–44 years having an address in Oria Village. All eligible individuals were registered and invited to participate. Participants were interviewed regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and medical history. Following a pre-test counseling, participants were offered an HIV test. Results Of the 2 093 eligible individuals, 1 528 (73.0% participated. The overall age and sex adjusted HIV-1 prevalence was 5.6%. Women had 2.5 times higher prevalence (8.0% vs. 3.2% as compared to men. The age group 25–44 years, marriage, separation and low education were associated with higher risk of HIV-1 infection for both sexes. HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with >2 sexual partners in the past 12 months (women: Adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.5 (95%CI: 1.3–4.7, and past 5 years, [(men: AOR, 2.2 (95%CI:1.2–5.6; women: AOR, 2.5 (95%CI: 1.4–4.0], unprotected casual sex (men: AOR,1.8 95%CI: 1.2–5.8, bottled alcohol (Men: AOR, 5.9 (95%CI:1.7–20.1 and local brew (men: AOR, 3.7 (95%CI: 1.5–9.2. Other factors included treatment for genital ulcers and genital discharge in the past 1 month. Health-related complaints were more common among HIV-1 seropositive as compared to seronegative participants and predicted the presence of HIV-1 infection. Conclusion HIV-1 infection was highly prevalent in this population. As compared to our previous findings, a shift of the epidemic from a younger to an older age group and from educated to uneducated individuals was observed. Women and married or

  15. Immune control of HIV-1 infection after therapy interruption: immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaschi Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal stage for initiating antiretroviral therapies in HIV-1 bearing patients is still a matter of debate. Methods We present computer simulations of HIV-1 infection aimed at identifying the pro et contra of immediate as compared to deferred Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART. Results Our simulations highlight that a prompt specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes response is detected when therapy is delayed. Compared to very early initiation of HAART, in deferred treated patients CD8+ T cells manage to mediate the decline of viremia in a shorter time and, at interruption of therapy, the virus experiences a stronger immune pressure. We also observe, however, that the immunological effects of the therapy fade with time in both therapeutic regimens. Thus, within one year from discontinuation, viral burden recovers to the value at which it would level off in the absence of therapy. In summary, simulations show that immediate therapy does not prolong the disease-free period and does not confer a survival benefit when compared to treatment started during the chronic infection phase. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, since there is no therapy to date that guarantees life-long protection, deferral of therapy should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects, the occurrence of drug resistances and the costs of treatment.

  16. Dynamics of an HIV-1 infection model with cell mediated immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pei; Huang, Jianing; Jiang, Jiao

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of an improved mathematical model on HIV-1 virus with cell mediated immunity. This new 5-dimensional model is based on the combination of a basic 3-dimensional HIV-1 model and a 4-dimensional immunity response model, which more realistically describes dynamics between the uninfected cells, infected cells, virus, the CTL response cells and CTL effector cells. Our 5-dimensional model may be reduced to the 4-dimensional model by applying a quasi-steady state assumption on the variable of virus. However, it is shown in this paper that virus is necessary to be involved in the modeling, and that a quasi-steady state assumption should be applied carefully, which may miss some important dynamical behavior of the system. Detailed bifurcation analysis is given to show that the system has three equilibrium solutions, namely the infection-free equilibrium, the infectious equilibrium without CTL, and the infectious equilibrium with CTL, and a series of bifurcations including two transcritical bifurcations and one or two possible Hopf bifurcations occur from these three equilibria as the basic reproduction number is varied. The mathematical methods applied in this paper include characteristic equations, Routh-Hurwitz condition, fluctuation lemma, Lyapunov function and computation of normal forms. Numerical simulation is also presented to demonstrate the applicability of the theoretical predictions.

  17. HIV-1 nef protein structures associated with brain infection and dementia pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lamers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The difference between regional rates of HIV-associated dementia (HAD in patients infected with different subtypes of HIV suggests that genetic determinants exist within HIV that influence the ability of the virus to replicate in the central nervous system (in Uganda, Africa, subtype D HAD rate is 89%, while subtype A HAD rate is 24%. HIV-1 nef is a multifunctional protein with known toxic effects in the brain compartment. The goal of the current study was to identify if specific three-dimensional nef structures may be linked to patients who developed HAD. HIV-1 nef structures were computationally derived for consensus brain and non-brain sequences from a panel of patients infected with subtype B who died due to varied disease pathologies and consensus subtype A and subtype D sequences from Uganda. Site directed mutation analysis identified signatures in brain structures that appear to change binding potentials and could affect folding conformations of brain-associated structures. Despite the large sequence variation between HIV subtypes, structural alignments confirmed that viral structures derived from patients with HAD were more similar to subtype D structures than to structures derived from patient sequences without HAD. Furthermore, structures derived from brain sequences of patients with HAD were more similar to subtype D structures than they were to their own non-brain structures. The potential finding of a brain-specific nef structure indicates that HAD may result from genetic alterations that alter the folding or binding potential of the protein.

  18. HIV-1 nef protein structures associated with brain infection and dementia pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L; Poon, Art F Y; McGrath, Michael S

    2011-02-09

    The difference between regional rates of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in patients infected with different subtypes of HIV suggests that genetic determinants exist within HIV that influence the ability of the virus to replicate in the central nervous system (in Uganda, Africa, subtype D HAD rate is 89%, while subtype A HAD rate is 24%). HIV-1 nef is a multifunctional protein with known toxic effects in the brain compartment. The goal of the current study was to identify if specific three-dimensional nef structures may be linked to patients who developed HAD. HIV-1 nef structures were computationally derived for consensus brain and non-brain sequences from a panel of patients infected with subtype B who died due to varied disease pathologies and consensus subtype A and subtype D sequences from Uganda. Site directed mutation analysis identified signatures in brain structures that appear to change binding potentials and could affect folding conformations of brain-associated structures. Despite the large sequence variation between HIV subtypes, structural alignments confirmed that viral structures derived from patients with HAD were more similar to subtype D structures than to structures derived from patient sequences without HAD. Furthermore, structures derived from brain sequences of patients with HAD were more similar to subtype D structures than they were to their own non-brain structures. The potential finding of a brain-specific nef structure indicates that HAD may result from genetic alterations that alter the folding or binding potential of the protein.

  19. DETERMINATION OF VIRAL TROPISM BY GENOTYPING AND PHENOTYPING ASSAYS IN BRAZILIAN HIV-1-INFECTED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liã Bárbara Arruda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical application of CCR5 antagonists involves first determining the coreceptor usage by the infecting viral strain. Bioinformatics programs that predict coreceptor usage could provide an alternative method to screen candidates for treatment with CCR5 antagonists, particularly in countries with limited financial resources. Thus, the present study aims to identify the best approach using bioinformatics tools for determining HIV-1 coreceptor usage in clinical practice. Proviral DNA sequences and Trofile results from 99 HIV-1-infected subjects under clinical monitoring were analyzed in this study. Based on the Trofile results, the viral variants present were 81.1% R5, 21.4% R5X4 and 1.8% X4. Determination of tropism using a Geno2pheno[coreceptor] analysis with a false positive rate of 10% gave the most suitable performance in this sampling: the R5 and X4 strains were found at frequencies of 78.5% and 28.4%, respectively, and there was 78.6% concordance between the phenotypic and genotypic results. Further studies are needed to clarify how genetic diversity amongst virus strains affects bioinformatics-driven approaches for determining tropism. Although this strategy could be useful for screening patients in developing countries, some limitations remain that restrict the wider application of coreceptor usage tests in clinical practice.

  20. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Devadas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death.

  1. Asymptomatic carriers contribute to nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixt, Thomas; Gradel, Kim Oren; Homann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nosocomial infection with Clostridium difficile pose a considerable problem despite numerous attempts by health care workers to reduce risk of transmission. Asymptomatic carriers of C difficile might spread their infection to other patients. We investigated the effects...... of of asymptomatic carriers on nosocomial C difficile infections. METHODS: We performed a population-based prospective cohort study at 2 university hospitals in Denmark, screening all patients for toxigenic C difficile in the intestine upon admittance, from October 1, 2012, to January 31, 2013. Screening results...... were blinded to patients, staff, and researchers. Patients were followed during their hospital stay by daily registration of wards and patient rooms. The primary outcomes were rate of C difficile infection in exposed and unexposed patients and factors associated with transmission. RESULTS: C difficile...

  2. HIV-1Infected Individuals in Antiretroviral Therapy React Specifically With Polyfunctional T-Cell Responses to Gag p24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Lea; Benfield, Thomas; Kronborg, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Still no effective HIV-1 prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines are available. However, as the proportion of HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment is increasing, knowledge about the residual immune response is important for the possible development of an HIV-1 vaccine....

  3. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  4. Lipidomic dataset of plasma from patients infected with wild type and nef-deficient HIV-1 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Meikle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that HIV protein nef plays a key role in impairing cellular and systemic cholesterol metabolism in HIV disease, but clinical support for these findings is lacking. Here we present the data of comparative lipidomic analysis (330 lipid species of plasma samples from HIV-negative subjects, patients infected with WT HIV-1 strain and patients infected with nef-deficient strain of HIV-1. We determine which effects of HIV on plasma lipidome are explained by the presence of nef. The data can be used to evaluate cardiovascular risk in HIV disease and to assess the role of nef in HIV-induced disturbances in systemic lipid metabolism. The full impact of nef deficiency on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in HIV-infected patients is presented in the accompanying study “Lipid Metabolism in Patients Infected with Nef-deficient HIV-1 Strain” [1].

  5. Resistance to HIV-1 infection: lessons learned from studies of highly exposed persistently seronegative (HEPS) individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad S; Butera, Salvatore T; Duerr, Ann C

    2003-01-01

    The medical, social, and economic impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has underscored the need to quickly develop effective control strategies. Vigorous efforts to develop a vaccine and therapeutic agents have not yet succeeded in containing the spread of the virus. Studies of persons who remain uninfected despite extensive exposure to HIV continue to provide valuable information on mechanisms of natural protection, which can then be applied to vaccine design. Natural resistance to infection has been studied in multiple high-risk cohorts, with resistance attributed to a combination of innate, genetic, and acquired immune system-mediated mechanisms. The relative contributions of these factors to natural resistance to HIV-1 infection and possible ways in which they can be applied to vaccine design are discussed.

  6. A method for assessing the global spread of HIV-1 infection based on air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, A; Valleron, A

    1992-01-01

    "The paper presents a methodology aimed at quantifying the impact of regular air traffic on the global spread of AIDS. A compartmental approach is used to represent the fluxes of infective passengers between 52 major cities. The impact of these fluxes on the pandemic is assessed by using a methodology which has been applied in the past for studying the dynamic of an influenza pandemic. In its present version, under simplified assumptions, the model reproduces qualitatively the three world patterns of HIV-1 infection in 1988. The methodology developed in this paper does not provide a detailed past history of the virus, and does not take into account the possibility of multifoci sporadic cases in the past. However it provides evidence that the significant start of the pandemic...was by the end of the 60's in Central Africa." (SUMMARY IN FRE) excerpt

  7. Acute HIV-1 infection in the Southeastern United States: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Mehri S; Cope, Anna B; Gay, Cynthia L; McGee, Kara S; Kuruc, Joann D; Kerkau, Melissa G; Hurt, Christopher B; Fiscus, Susan A; Ferrari, Guido; Margolis, David M; Eron, Joseph J; Hicks, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    In 1998 a collaboration between Duke University and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (UNC) was founded to enhance identification of persons with acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). The Duke-UNC AHI Research Consortium Cohort consists of patients ≥18 years old with a positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and either a negative enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test or a positive EIA with a negative/indeterminate Western blot. Patients were referred to the cohort from acute care settings and state-funded HIV testing sites that use NAAT testing on pooled HIV-1 antibody-negative samples. Between 1998 and 2010, 155 patients with AHI were enrolled: 81 (52%) African-Americans, 63 (41%) white, non-Hispanics, 137 (88%) males, 108 (70%) men who have sex with men (MSM), and 18 (12%) females. The median age was 27 years (IQR 22-38). Most (n=138/155) reported symptoms with a median duration of 17.5 days. The median nadir CD4 count was 408 cells/mm(3) (IQR 289-563); the median observed peak HIV-1 level was 726,859 copies/ml (IQR 167,585-3,565,728). The emergency department was the most frequent site of initial presentation (n=55/152; 3 missing data). AHI diagnosis was made at time of first contact in 62/137 (45%; 18 missing data) patients. This prospectively enrolled cohort is the largest group of patients with AHI reported from the Southeastern United States. The demographics reflect the epidemic of this geographic area with a high proportion of African-Americans, including young black MSM. Highlighting the challenges of diagnosing AHI, less than half of the patients were diagnosed at the first healthcare visit. Women made up a small proportion despite increasing numbers in our clinics.

  8. Brugia malayi Antigen (BmA Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection but Neither BmA nor ES-62 Alter HIV-1 Infectivity of DC Induced CD4+ Th-Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E I M Mouser

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62 from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs.

  9. HIV-1 infection as a risk factor for the development of tuberculosis: a case-control study in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broek, J; Borgdorff, M W; Pakker, N G; Chum, H J; Klokke, A H; Senkoro, K P; Newell, J N

    1993-12-01

    A population-based case-control study was carried out in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, to determine the relative and population attributable risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection for developing active tuberculosis. Cases were 441 consecutively diagnosed patients with tuberculosis (all types), aged 15-54 years. Controls were a representative population sample of 4161 people, drawn in a stratified cluster sample from urban areas, roadside settlements, and rural villages. HIV-1 infection was determined by ELISA and if the ELISA result was indeterminate by Western Blot. The HIV-1 prevalence in cases was 23.0% in rural, 32.1% in roadside, and 54.1% in urban areas, while in controls these prevalences were 3.4%, 7.2% and 12.1% respectively. The relative risk (RR) of HIV-1 infection for the development of active tuberculosis was estimated to be 8.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.4-11.0). This risk varied little by sex or residence, but appeared to be more pronounced in the age group 25-34 years. The case detection rate of tuberculosis in those aged 15-54 years was 125/100,000 people per year. The population attributable risk was 36/100,000 people per year, implying that 29% of tuberculosis cases at present may be attributable to HIV-1 infection. It is concluded that HIV-1 infection is a major contributing factor to the increased case detection rate of tuberculosis observed over the past 10 years in Mwanza Region. If the prevalence of HIV-1 continues to increase, the incidence of tuberculosis will continue to rise as well.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. HIV-1 infection of a nurse from a newborn with an unknown HIV infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibellini, Davide; Borderi, Marco; Bon, Isabella; Biagetti, Carlo; De Crignis, Elisa; Re, Maria Carla

    2009-12-01

    HIV infection of healthcare workers by injury is an important issue in the management and prophylaxis of HIV-related disease. To describe a case where a nurse has been HIV-1 infected by needle-stick whilst taking blood from a newborn with an unknown HIV infection. Virological, immunological and clinical analysis of a peculiar case of HIV transmission from newborn to nurse has been reported. The nurse has been infected by needle-stick injury whilst taking blood from a newborn with an unknown HIV infection. The delayed declaration of accident by nurse and the inaccurate medical management of pregnant woman determined the subsequent absence of correct prophylaxis measures and then the impossibility to tackle the HIV transmission. This case indicates that HIV serological screening of pregnant women and prompt accident notification by health-care workers represent basic preventive measures that should effectively tackle the spread of HIV infection.

  11. Stimulation of the primary anti-HIV antibody response by IFN-{alpha} in patients with acute HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Godot, Véronique; Colin, Céline; Krzysiek, Roman; Tran, Thi; Poignard, Pascal; Venet, Alain; Hosmalin, Anne; Lebon, Pierre; Rouzioux, Christine; Chêne, Geneviève; Emilie, Dominique; The Interprim Anrs 112 Study Group,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Type I IFNs are needed for the production of antiviral antibodies in mice; whether they also stimulate primary antibody responses in vivo during human viral infections is unknown. This was assessed in patients acutely infected with HIV-1 and treated with IFN-alpha2b. Patients with acute HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive antiretroviral therapy alone (Group A, n=60) or combined for 14 weeks with pegylated-IFN-alpha2b (Group B, n=30). Emergence of anti-HIV antibo...

  12. T follicular helper cells and antibody response to Hepatitis B virus vaccine in HIV-1 infected children receiving ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Yonas; Yibeltal, Desalegn; Bobosha, Kidist; Andargie, Temesgen E; Lemma, Mahlet; Gebre, Meseret; Mekonnen, Eyasu; Habtewold, Abiy; Nilsson, Anna; Aseffa, Abraham; Howe, Rawleigh; Chiodi, Francesca

    2017-08-21

    HBV vaccine has 95% efficacy in children to prevent HBV infection and related cancer. We conducted a prospective study in HIV-1 infected children receiving ART (n = 49) and controls (n = 63) to assess humoral and cellular responses to HBV vaccine provided with three doses under an accelerated schedule of 4 weeks apart. At 1 month post-vaccination all children, except 4 HIV-1 infected, displayed protective antibody (ab) titers to HBV vaccine; ab titers were lower in infected children (P < 0.0001). Ab titers decreased (P < 0.0001) in both HIV-1 infected and control children at 6 months. The frequency of circulating Tfh (cTFh) cells was 20.3% for controls and 20.8% for infected children prior to vaccination and remained comparable post-vaccination. Cytokine expression by cTfh cells upon activation with HBV antigen was comparable in the two groups at baseline and 1 month post-vaccination. Higher plasma levels (P < 0.0001) of CXCL13 were found in infected children which correlated with cTfh cell frequency at baseline. In conclusion, a lower ab response to HBV vaccine was measured in HIV-1 infected children. The frequency and activation profile of cTfh cells was comparable in infected children and controls suggesting that cells other than Tfh cells are responsible for impaired ab response to HBV vaccine.

  13. Multivalent dendrimeric compounds containing carbohydrates expressed on immune cells inhibit infection by primary isolates of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andrew Rosa; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Johnson, Benitra; Benesi, Alan J.; Brown, Bruce K.; Kensinger, Richard D.; Krebs, Fred C.; Wigdahl, Brian; Blumenthal, Robert; Puri, Anu; McCutchan, Francine E.; Birx, Deborah L.; Polonis, Victoria R.; Schengrund, Cara-Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Specific glycosphingolipids (GSL), found on the surface of target immune cells, are recognized as alternate cell surface receptors by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) external envelope glycoprotein. In this study, the globotriose and 3’-sialyllactose carbohydrate head groups found on two GSL were covalently attached to a dendrimer core to produce two types of unique multivalent carbohydrates (MVC). These MVC inhibited HIV-1 infection of T cell lines and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by T cell line-adapted viruses or primary isolates, with IC50s ranging from 0.1 – 7.4 µg/ml. Inhibition of Env-mediated membrane fusion by MVC was also observed using a dye-transfer assay. These carbohydrate compounds warrant further investigation as a potential new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. The data presented also shed light on the role of carbohydrate moieties in HIV-1 virus-host cell interactions. PMID:20880566

  14. Characteristics of HPV infection over time in European women who are HIV-1 positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, I; Cubie, H A; Mesher, D; Sasieni, P

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and type distribution in women infected with HIV-1, and to determine the relevance of HR-HPV positivity and persistence/loss to the development of high-grade cervical disease. A total of 518 European women infected with HIV attending for routine gynaecological care consented to 6-monthly follow-up visits over 3 years, with surveillance of cytology, colposcopy and histopathology, where relevant, and longer follow-up, where possible. European women infected with HIV attending for routine gynaecological care. 518 European women infected with HIV attending for gynaecological care in 6 hospital-based European centres - Dublin, Edinburgh, London, Milan, Paris, and Warsaw. Cervical screening was achieved by liquid-based cytology (LBC) of brush samples in PreservCyt® medium. The HPV testing of residual samples was performed by Hybrid-Capture II, with genotyping of positives using the HPV Line Blot Assay. Histology results were accessed where available. Description of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and type distribution in HIV-1 infected women. The estimated prevalence at baseline of any HR-HPV type was 49.5% (46.3-52.8%): 10.2% for HPV 16 and 4.3% for HPV 18. The prevalence increased with increasing immunosuppression. Multiple infections were detected in 26.8%. HR-HPV genotypes were detected in 34.9% of cases with normal cytology, in 77.2% of cases with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) and in 90.8% of cases with high-grade SIL (HSIL). The prevalence of HPV 16 in HSIL was 38.5%, with the three most common types thereafter having prevalence rates of 19.2% (HPV 58), 19.2% (HPV 53) and 16.6% (HPV 52). The overall persistence of any high-risk type was 55.8%. We found that 6 months persistence of HPV 16 occurred in 24 women. Seven cases of high-grade cervical disease developed, and all

  15. AIDS vaccines that allow HIV-1 to infect and escape immunologic control - A mathematic analysis of mass vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ballegooijen, Marijn; Bogaards, Johannes A.; Weverling, Gerrit-Jan; Boerlijst, Maarten C.; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-based HIV vaccine concepts shown to reduce viremia and postpone disease but not to prevent infection in monkeys are currently in human phase I trials. To evaluate the potential efficacy of vaccines that cannot prevent HIV-1 to infect and escape immunologic control, we

  16. Postepizootic Persistence of Asymptomatic Mycoplasma conjunctivae Infection in Iberian Ibex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Granados, José Enrique; Frey, Joachim; Serrano, Emmanuel; Velarde, Roser; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Fandos, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The susceptibility of the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to Mycoplasma conjunctivae ocular infection and the changes in their interaction over time were studied in terms of clinical outcome, molecular detection, and IgG immune response in a captive population that underwent a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) outbreak. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was detected in the Iberian ibex, coinciding with the IKC outbreak. Its prevalence had a decreasing trend in 2013 that was consistent with the clinical resolution (August, 35.4%; September, 8.7%; November, 4.3%). Infections without clinical outcome were, however, still detected in the last handling in November. Sequencing and cluster analyses of the M. conjunctivae strains found 1 year later in the ibex population confirmed the persistence of the same strain lineage that caused the IKC outbreak but with a high prevalence (75.3%) of mostly asymptomatic infections and with lower DNA load of M. conjunctivae in the eyes (mean quantitative PCR [qPCR] cycle threshold [CT], 36.1 versus 20.3 in severe IKC). Significant age-related differences of M. conjunctivae prevalence were observed only under IKC epizootic conditions. No substantial effect of systemic IgG on M. conjunctivae DNA in the eye was evidenced with a linear mixed-models selection, which indicated that systemic IgG does not necessarily drive the resolution of M. conjunctivae infection and does not explain the epidemiological changes observed. The results show how both epidemiological scenarios, i.e., severe IKC outbreak and mostly asymptomatic infections, can consecutively occur by entailing mycoplasma persistence. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma infections are reported in a wide range of epidemiological scenarios that involve severe disease to asymptomatic infections. This study allows a better understanding of the transition between two different Mycoplasma conjunctivae epidemiological scenarios described in wild host populations and highlights the ability of M

  17. Thermosensitive Gel Containing Cellulose Acetate Phthalate-Efavirenz Combination Nanoparticles for Prevention of HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Abhijit A; Shibata, Annemaria; McMullen, Emily; La Bruzzo, Krista; Bruck, Patrick; Belshan, Michael; Zhou, You; Destache, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop and evaluate a nano-microbicide containing a combination of cellulose acetate phthalate (HIV-1 entry inhibitor) and efavirenz (anti-HIV agent) for HIV prophylaxis. Cellulose acetate phthalate-efavirenz combination nanoparticles (CAP-EFV-NPs) were fabricated by the nanoprecipitation method and were characterized for particle size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency of efavirenz. CAP-EFV-NPs were incorporated into a thermosensitive gel (CAP-EFV-NP-Gel). CAP-EFV-NPs, CAP-EFV-NP-Gel and efavirenz solution were evaluated for cytotoxicity to HeLa cells and for in vitro short-term (1-day) and long-term (3-day) prophylaxis against HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl cells. CAP-EFV-NPs had size 98%. CAP-EFV-NPs and CAP-EFV-NP-Gel were significantly less toxic (P EFV-NPs showed significantly higher prophylactic activity (P EFV-NP-Gel can be a promising nano-microbicide for long-term HIV prophylaxis.

  18. Genotypic resistance and immunologic outcomes among HIV-1-infected women with viral failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gange, Stephen J; Schneider, Michael F; Grant, Robert M; Liegler, Teri; French, Audrey; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Wilson, Tracey E; Ponath, Claudia; Greenblatt, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of specific protease inhibitor (PI) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations and the relationship between the presence of these mutations and immunologic outcomes following PI/NNRTI initiation among a cohort of HIV-1-infected women. Viral genotypic resistance testing was done for 366 women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study at the visit immediately prior to 1st reported use of PI or NNRTI (baseline) and at the visit approximately 1 year after PI/NNRTI initiation. We modeled the changes in CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV RNA levels approximately 1 year after therapy initiation as a function of baseline and follow-up markers, type of antiretroviral therapy used, and resistance mutations. At baseline, 52% of women showed only nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutations, 38% showed no mutations, and 10% showed PI or NNRTI mutations. Only 40% of women showed viral response (HIV-1 RNA resistance mutations were associated with better CD4+ cell count changes (mean increase of 118 cells/mm3 and 64 cells/mm3, respectively, as compared with viral nonresponders with no PI or NNRTI mutations). In this population-based cohort, virologic failure with PI or NNRTI resistance was common. Viremia with these resistance mutations was associated with preserved CD4+ T-cell count responses, providing evidence of reduced virulence or viral fitness.

  19. HIV-1 Infection of Macrophages Dysregulates Innate Immune Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Inhibition of Interleukin-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Gillian S.; Bell, Lucy C. K.; Walker, Naomi F.; Tsang, Jhen; Brown, Jeremy S.; Breen, Ronan; Lipman, Marc; Katz, David R.; Miller, Robert F.; Chain, Benjamin M.; Elkington, Paul T. G.; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) both target macrophages, which are key cells in inflammatory responses and their resolution. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 may modulate macrophage responses to coinfection with M. tuberculosis. HIV-1 caused exaggerated proinflammatory responses to M. tuberculosis that supported enhanced virus replication, and were associated with deficient stimulus-specific induction of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)–10 and attenuation of mitogen-activated kinase signaling downstream of Toll-like receptor 2 and dectin-1 stimulation. Our in vitro data were mirrored by lower IL-10 and higher proinflammatory IL-1β in airway samples from HIV-1infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis compared with those with non-tuberculous respiratory tract infections. Single-round infection of macrophages with HIV-1 was sufficient to attenuate IL-10 responses, and antiretroviral treatment of replicative virus did not affect this phenotype. We propose that deficient homeostatic IL-10 responses may contribute to the immunopathogenesis of active tuberculosis and propagation of virus infection in HIV-1/M. tuberculosis coinfection. PMID:24265436

  20. Plasma levels of intact and cleaved urokinase receptor decrease in HIV-1-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Katzenstein, T L; Pedersen, M

    2006-01-01

    Elevated blood levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) measured by ELISA decrease in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As the suPAR ELISA measures both three- and two-domain suPAR [suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III)] an......Elevated blood levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) measured by ELISA decrease in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As the suPAR ELISA measures both three- and two-domain suPAR [suPAR(I-III), su...... correlation with sTNFrII suggests that the individual plasma suPAR forms are linked to immune activation in HIV-1 infection....

  1. HIV-1 with multiple CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptor use is predictive of immunological failure in infected children.

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    Mariangela Cavarelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 R5 viruses are characterized by a large phenotypic variation, that is reflected by the mode of coreceptor use. The ability of R5 HIV-1 to infect target cells expressing chimeric receptors between CCR5 and CXCR4 (R5(broad viruses, was shown to correlate with disease stage in HIV-1 infected adults. Here, we ask the question whether phenotypic variation of R5 viruses could play a role also in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV-1 and pediatric disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Viral isolates obtained from a total of 59 HIV-1 seropositive women (24 transmitting and 35 non transmitting and 28 infected newborn children, were used to infect U87.CD4 cells expressing wild type or six different CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors. HIV-1 isolates obtained from newborn infants had predominantly R5(narrow phenotype (n = 20, but R5(broad and R5X4 viruses were also found in seven and one case, respectively. The presence of R5(broad and R5X4 phenotypes correlated significantly with a severe decline of the CD4+ T cells (CDC stage 3 or death within 2 years of age. Forty-three percent of the maternal R5 isolates displayed an R5(broad phenotype, however, the presence of the R5(broad virus was not predictive for MTCT of HIV-1. Of interest, while only 1 of 5 mothers with an R5X4 virus transmitted the dualtropic virus, 5 of 6 mothers carrying R5(broad viruses transmitted viruses with a similar broad chimeric coreceptor usage. Thus, the maternal R5(broad phenotype was largely preserved during transmission and could be predictive of the phenotype of the newborn's viral variant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that R5(broad viruses are not hampered in transmission. When transmitted, immunological failure occurs earlier than in children infected with HIV-1 of R5(narrow phenotype. We believe that this finding is of utmost relevance for therapeutic interventions in pediatric HIV-1 infection.

  2. Pyogenic Brain Abscess Caused by Peptostreptococcus in a Patient with HIV-1 Infection

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    Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the setting of HIV, cerebral lesions are usually secondary to lymphoma and opportunistic infections; however, in patients with CD4 counts above 200 cells/uL, other pathologies such as pyogenic brain abscess could gain importance. The microbiology of pyogenic brain abscess has Staphylococcus and Streptococcus as the leading etiologic pathogens in immunocompetent individuals. Peptostreptococcus is also recognized as a common cause of brain abscess in this patient population. In HIV-infected individuals, there have been sporadic reports of Peptostreptococcus infections but none of brain abscess. We describe the case of a 43-years-old HIV-infected patient with a CD4 count of 350 cells/uL that developed a Peptostreptococcus brain abscess presumably from hematogenous spread of an odontogenic source. Treatment with stereotactic needle aspiration in two opportunities and four weeks of intravenous antibiotics led to a complete resolution of this infection. This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach for an effective treatment of pyogenic brain abscess in HIV-1 patients.

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Mycobacterium leprae co-infection: HIV-1 subtypes and clinical, immunologic, and histopathologic profiles in a Brazilian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gisner A S; Stefani, Mariane M A; Araújo Filho, João A; Souza, Luís Carlos S; Stefani, Germana P; Martelli, Celina M T

    2004-11-01

    Co-infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium leprae represent unique opportunities to investigate the interaction of both pathogens. We determined the immunologic, virologic, and histopathologic characteristics of 22 co-infected Brazilian patients (median age = 38 years, 81.8% males, 72.2% with paucibacillary leprosy, and 95.4% with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The HIV-1 subtypes B and BF predominated in envelope and gag heteroduplex mobility analysis. Borderline tuberculoid (BT), tuberculoid, lepromatous, and indeterminate morphology with CD3+, CD8+, and CD68+ cell distributions compatible with leprosy patients not infected with HIV were observed. Histologic evidence of nerve damage was observed in BT lesions. IgM antibody to M. leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid I was not detected. Two of six co-infected patients monitored during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) developed a leprosy type 1 reaction after an increase in CD4+ cells, suggesting an immune restoration phenomenon. Clinical, immunologic, histopathologic, and virologic features among these HIV-leprosy co-infected patients indicate that each disease progressed as in single infection. However, HAART immune reconstitution may trigger potential adverse effects, such as leprosy acute inflammatory episodes.

  5. 2B4 expression on natural killer cells increases in HIV-1 infected patients followed prospectively during highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Ullum, H; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2005-01-01

    by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), low-level viraemia, proviral-DNA or immune activation in HIV-1 infected patients. A total of 101 HAART-treated HIV-1 infected patients with ...4+ NK cells normalizes during long-term HAART in HIV-1 infected patients. The finding that proviral-DNA and sTNFrII were associated negatively with the concentration of 2B4+ NK cells suggests that immune activation in HIV-1 infected patients receiving HAART influences the target cell recognition...

  6. Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Both Contribute to Pathological CD4 T Cell Activation in HIV-1 Infected Ugandans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    well U-bottom plates with Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) hexon peptides (Miltenyi Biotec Inc., Auburn, CA) at 1 mg/ml, Candida albicans allergenic extract...effector memory CD4 T cell subset elevated in HIV-1 infection. (A) Identification of CD4 T cells co-expressing PD-1, HLA-DR and CD38 in HIV-1 infected and...particular CMV and Candida antigens, provoked significant expansions of triple- positive CD4 T cells (Figure 6B). In a second approach, we assessed CD4 T

  7. Serum neutralizing activities from a Beijing homosexual male cohort infected with different subtypes of HIV-1 in China.

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    Mingshun Zhang

    Full Text Available Protective antibodies play a critical role in an effective HIV vaccine; however, eliciting antibodies to block infection by viruses from diverse genetic subtypes remains a major challenge. As the world's most populous country, China has been under the threat of at least three major subtypes of circulating HIV-1 viruses. Understanding the cross reactivity and specificities of serum antibody responses that mediate broad neutralization of the virus in HIV-1 infected Chinese patients will provide valuable information for the design of vaccines to prevent HIV-1 transmission in China. Sera from a cohort of homosexual men, who have been managed by a major HIV clinical center in Beijing, China, were analyzed for cross-sectional neutralizing activities against pseudotyped viruses expressing Env antigens of the major subtype viruses (AE, BC and B subtypes circulating in China. Neutralizing activities in infected patients' blood were most capable of neutralizing viruses in the homologous subtype; however, a subset of blood samples was able to achieve broad neutralizing activities across different subtypes. Such cross neutralizing activity took 1-2 years to develop and CD4 binding site antibodies were critical components in these blood samples. Our study confirmed the presence of broadly neutralizing sera in China's HIV-1 patient population. Understanding the specificity and breadth of these neutralizing activities can guide efforts for the development of HIV vaccines against major HIV-1 viruses in China.

  8. Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller

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    Victoria E. Walker-Sperling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of <100 copies/mL. She did not have any known protective HLA alleles, but significant immune activation of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK cells was present, and both cell types inhibited viral replication. Virus cultured from this patient replicated as well in vitro as virus isolated from her partner, a patient with AIDS who was the source of transmission. Virologic breakthrough occurred 9 months after her initial presentation and was associated with an increase in CD4+ T cell activation levels and a significant decrease in NK cell inhibitory capacity. Remarkably, CD8+ T cell inhibitory capacity was preserved and there were no new escape mutations in targeted Gag epitopes. These findings suggest that fully replication-competent virus can be controlled in acute HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication.

  9. Plasma and saliva concentrations of abacavir, tenofovir, darunavir, and raltegravir in HIV-1-infected patients
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Eiko; Takagi, Ritsuo; Tanabe, Yoshinari; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Naoki; Kato, Shingo

    2017-07-01

    We studied the relationships between plasma and saliva concentrations of antiretroviral drugs to explore whether saliva can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Abacavir (ABC), tenofovir (TFV), darunavir (DRV), and raltegravir (RAL) in plasma and saliva from 30 HIV-1-infected patients were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mean saliva-to-plasma concentration ratios were 0.623 (ABC), 0.024 (TFV), 0.065 (DRV), and 0.0135 (RAL), which agree with the plasma protein binding rates except TFV. Significant correlations were evident between saliva and plasma concentrations of ABC, DRV, and RAL. This study suggests that plasma concentrations of ABC, DRV, and RAL can be estimated from their saliva concentrations and that the saliva concentration of some antiretroviral drugs reflects the unbound drug concentration in plasma.
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  10. IL-7 and CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells in HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Chiodi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IL-7 was previously shown to upregulate the expression of molecules important for interaction of CD4+ T cells with B cells. It is poorly studied whether IL-7 has a role in the biology of T follicular helper (Tfh cells and whether IL-7 dysregulates the expression of B-cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells. We review the literature and provide arguments in favor of IL-7 being involved in the biology of human Tfh cells. The CD127 IL-7 receptor is expressed on circulating Tfh and non-Tfh cells, and we show that IL-7, but not IL-6 or IL-21, upregulates the expression of CD70 and PD-1 on these cells. We conclude that IL-7, a cytokine whose level is elevated during HIV-1 infection, may have a role in increased expression of B cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells and lead to abnormal B cell differentiation.

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Infection among Men who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan in 2012.

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    Szu-Wei Huang

    Full Text Available The number of men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV-1 in Taiwan has increased rapidly in the past few years. The goal of this study was to conduct a molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 infection among MSM in Taiwan to identify risk factors for intervention. Voluntary counseling program and anonymous testing were provided to patrons at 1 gay bar, 7 night clubs and 3 gay saunas in Taipei and New Taipei Cities in 2012. HIV-1 subtypes were determined using gag subtype-specific PCR and phylogenetic analysis by env sequences. Recent HIV-1 infection was determined using LAg-Avidity EIA. In-depth interviews and questionnaires were used to identify risk factors. The prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 among MSM in Taiwan were 4.38% (53/1,208 and 3.29 per 100 person-years, respectively. Of 49 cases genotyped, 48 (97.9% were infected with subtype B and 1 with CRF01_AE (2%. Phylogenetic analysis of 46 HIV-1 strains showed that 25 (54.4% subtype B strains formed 9 clusters with each other or with other local strains. The CRF01_AE case clustered with a reference strain from a Thai blood donor with bootstrap value of 99. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors associated with HIV-1 infection included use of oil-based solution as lubricant (vs. saliva or water-based lubricants, OR= 4.23; p <0.001; exclusively receptive role (vs. insertive role, OR= 9.69; p <0.001; versatile role (vs. insertive role, OR= 6.45; p= 0.003; oral sex (vs. insertive role, OR= 11.93; p= 0.044; times of sexual contact per week (2-3 vs. zero per week, OR= 3.41; p= 0.021; illegal drug use (OR= 4.12; p <0.001; and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR= 3.65; p= 0.002. In conclusion, there was no new HIV-1 subtype or circulating recombinant form responsible for the increase of HIV-1 among MSM in Taiwan in 2012. Misuse of oil-based solution as lubricant is a new risk factor identified among MSM in Taiwan. The Taiwan's Centers for Disease

  12. GBV-C coinfection is negatively correlated to Fas expression and Fas-mediated apoptosis in HIV-1 infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenkemeyer, Maren; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Tillmann, Hans L; Heiken, Hans

    2008-11-01

    Persistent coinfection with the apathogenic GB virus C (GBV-C) is associated with slower disease progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Aim of this study was to investigate whether Fas plays a role in this beneficial effect. Fas expression and susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis (FMA) was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-1 patients coinfected and non-coinfected with GBV-C. Fas expression and function was evaluated in 42 GBV-C coinfected and 101 non-coinfected HIV-1 patients. Thirteen healthy and 11 Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected individuals were analyzed as controls. Cell surface Fas expression was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Apoptosis was evaluated by staining with Annexin V and Viaprobe followed by multiparameter flow cytometry analysis. In untreated HIV-1 patients GBV-C coinfection was associated with significantly lower percentage of Fas expressing cells as compared to GBV-C non-coinfected individuals. Expression of Fas was directly correlated with sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Sensitivity to FMA was unchanged in GBV-C coinfected patients. PBMCs of patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) did not show such a difference. Untreated HIV-1 patients with GBV-C coinfection have reduced cell surface Fas expression. Lower FMA of T-cells might contribute to prolonged survival of GBV-C coinfected HIV-1 patients. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Total and unbound darunavir (DRV pharmacokinetics (PK in HIV-1-infected pregnant women

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    C Zorrilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral (ARV therapy during pregnancy is recommended to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Physiologic changes during pregnancy can affect PK. We present the PK of total and unbound (pharmacologically active DRV in HIV-1-infected pregnant women receiving twice-daily (bid DRV/ritonavir (rtv. This Phase IIIb study enrolled HIV-1-infected pregnant women≥18 years old in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy receiving DRV/rtv 600/100 mg bid and other ARVs. DRV (total and unbound and rtv (total plasma concentrations were obtained predose and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 hours postdose during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters and postpartum. Total DRV and rtv plasma concentrations were determined using a previously validated HPLC-MS/MS assay (lower limit of quantification 5.00 ng/mL. Unbound DRV was determined by fortifying plasma samples with 14-C DRV and separating total and unbound DRV using ultrafiltration. Total and unbound 14-C DRV were measured using liquid scintillation counting. Total and unbound PK parameters were derived using a noncompartmental analysis. Safety and efficacy were investigated at each visit and summarized using descriptive statistics. Sixteen women (10 black, 4 Hispanic, 2 white were enrolled; 11 had evaluable PK data. Total DRV AUC12h was 24% and 17% lower during 2nd and 3rd trimesters, respectively, vs postpartum (Table. Unbound DRV AUC12h was unchanged during 2nd and 3rd trimesters vs postpartum. Total and unbound DRV Cmin increased by 43% and 10%, respectively, during 2nd trimester and by 86% and 14%, respectively, during 3rd trimester vs postpartum. Unbound DRV was above the EC50 (27.5 ng/mL for PI-resistant HIV in all patients. Albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG concentrations were 22%–29% lower during pregnancy vs postpartum. Viral load decreased and CD4+ count increased over time. One serious adverse event was reported (increased transaminase. Three of 12 infants were born prior to 37 weeks (30, 36 and

  14. PD-1 blockade in chronically HIV-1-infected humanized mice suppresses viral loads.

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    Edward Seung

    Full Text Available An estimated 34 million people are living with HIV worldwide (UNAIDS, 2012, with the number of infected persons rising every year. Increases in HIV prevalence have resulted not only from new infections, but also from increases in the survival of HIV-infected persons produced by effective anti-retroviral therapies. Augmentation of anti-viral immune responses may be able to further increase the survival of HIV-infected persons. One strategy to augment these responses is to reinvigorate exhausted anti-HIV immune cells present in chronically infected persons. The PD-1-PD-L1 pathway has been implicated in the exhaustion of virus-specific T cells during chronic HIV infection. Inhibition of PD-1 signaling using blocking anti-PD-1 antibodies has been shown to reduce simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV loads in monkeys. We now show that PD-1 blockade can improve control of HIV replication in vivo in an animal model. BLT (Bone marrow-Liver-Thymus humanized mice chronically infected with HIV-1 were treated with an anti-PD-1 antibody over a 10-day period. The PD-1 blockade resulted in a very significant 45-fold reduction in HIV viral loads in humanized mice with high CD8(+ T cell expression of PD-1, compared to controls at 4 weeks post-treatment. The anti-PD-1 antibody treatment also resulted in a significant increase in CD8(+ T cells. PD-1 blockade did not affect T cell expression of other inhibitory receptors co-expressed with PD-1, including CD244, CD160 and LAG-3, and did not appear to affect virus-specific humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that inhibiting PD-1 signaling can reduce HIV viral loads in vivo in the humanized BLT mouse model, suggesting that blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of patients already infected with the AIDS virus.

  15. From dendritic cells to B cells dysfunctions during HIV-1 infection: T follicular helper cells at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Nicolas; Hani, Lylia; Seddiki, Nabila

    2017-06-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for B-cell differentiation and the subsequent antibody responses. Their numbers and functions are altered during human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infections. In lymphoid tissues, Tfh cells are present in germinal centre, where they are the main source of replicative HIV-1 and represent a major reservoir. Paradoxically, Tfh cell numbers are increased in chronically infected individuals. Understanding the fate of Tfh cells in the course of HIV-1 infection is essential for the design of efficient strategies toward a protective HIV vaccine or a cure. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent advance in our understanding of Tfh cell dynamics during HIV/SIV infection. In particular, to explore the possible causes of their expansion in lymphoid tissues by discussing the impact of HIV-1 infection on dendritic cells, to identify the molecular players rendering Tfh cells highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, and to consider the contribution of regulatory follicular T cells in shaping Tfh cell functions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fluorescently-labeled RNA packaging into HIV-1 particles: Direct examination of infectivity across central nervous system cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruqiang; El-Hage, Nazira; Dever, Seth M.

    2015-01-01

    HIV penetrates the central nervous system (CNS), and although it is clear that microglia and to a lesser extent astrocytes are infected, whether certain other cell types such as neurons are infected remains unclear. Here, we confirmed the finding that RNAs of both cellular and viral origins are present in native HIV-1 particles and exploited this phenomenon to directly examine HIV-1 infectivity of CNS cell types. Using in vitro transcribed mRNAs that were labeled with a fluorescent dye, we showed that these fluorescent mRNAs were packaged into HIV-1 particles by directly examining infected cells using fluorescence microscopy. Cells in culture infected with these labeled HIV-1 particles showed the fluorescent signals of labeled mRNAs by a distinct pattern of punctate, focal signals within the cells which was used to demonstrate that the CXCR4-tropic NL4-3 strain was able to enter microglia and to a lesser extent astrocytes, but not neurons. The strategy used in the present study may represent a novel approach of simplicity, robustness and reliability for versatile applications in HIV studies, such as the determination of infectivity across a broad range of cell types and within subpopulations of an individual cell type by direct visualization of viral entry into cells. PMID:26272129

  17. In Vivo HIV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission Promotes Multicopy Micro-compartmentalized Infection

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    Kenneth M. Law

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection is enhanced by adhesive structures that form between infected and uninfected T cells called virological synapses (VSs. This mode of transmission results in the frequent co-transmission of multiple copies of HIV-1 across the VS, which can reduce sensitivity to antiretroviral drugs. Studying HIV-1 infection of humanized mice, we measured the frequency of co-transmission and the spatiotemporal organization of infected cells as indicators of cell-to-cell transmission in vivo. When inoculating mice with cells co-infected with two viral genotypes, we observed high levels of co-transmission to target cells. Additionally, micro-anatomical clustering of viral genotypes within lymphoid tissue indicates that viral spread is driven by local processes and not a diffuse viral cloud. Intravital splenic imaging reveals that anchored HIV-infected cells induce arrest of interacting, uninfected CD4+ T cells to form Env-dependent cell-cell conjugates. These findings suggest that HIV-1 spread between immune cells can be anatomically localized into infectious clusters.

  18. Role of mannose-binding lectin deficiency in HIV-1 and schistosoma infections in a rural adult population in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutendo B L Zinyama-Gutsire

    Full Text Available Polymorphism in the MBL2 gene lead to MBL deficiency, which has been shown to increase susceptibility to various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. We assessed role of MBL deficiency in HIV-1 and schistosoma infections in Zimbabwean adults enrolled in the Mupfure Schistosomiasis and HIV Cohort (MUSH Cohort.HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections were determined at baseline. Plasma MBL concentration was measured by ELISA and MBL2 genotypes determined by PCR. We calculated and compared the proportions of plasma MBL deficiency, MBL2 structural variant alleles B (codon 54A>G, C (codon 57A>G, and D (codon 52T>C as well as MBL2 promoter variants -550(H/L, -221(X/Y and +4(P/Q between HIV-1 and schistosoma co-infection and control groups using Chi Square test.We assessed 379 adults, 80% females, median age (IQR 30 (17-41 years. HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni prevalence were 26%, 43% and 18% respectively in the MUSH baseline survey. Median (IQR plasma MBL concentration was 800μg/L (192-1936μg/L. Prevalence of plasma MBL deficiency was 18% with high frequency of the C (codon 57G>A mutant allele (20%. There was no significant difference in median plasma MBL levels between HIV negative (912μg/L and HIV positive (688μg/L, p = 0.066. However plasma MBL levels at the assay detection limit of 20μg/L were more frequent among the HIV-1 infected (p = 0.007. S. haematobium and S. mansoni infected participants had significantly higher MBL levels than uninfected. All MBL2 variants were not associated with HIV-1 infection but promoter variants LY and LL were significantly associated with S. haematobium infection.Our data indicate high prevalence of MBL deficiency, no evidence of association between MBL deficiency and HIV-1 infection. However, lower plasma MBL levels were protective against both S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections and MBL2 promoter and variants LY and LL increased susceptibility to S. haematobium infection.

  19. Impact of HIV-1 infection pathways on susceptibility to antiviral drugs and on virus spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Kazuya; Miyazato, Paola; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Matsuoka, Masao

    2015-10-01

    The infection routes of HIV-1 can affect several viral properties, including dissemination, pathogenesis, and immune evasion. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory activity of a wide variety of anti-HIV drugs, focusing on the impact that different infection pathways have on their efficacy. Compared to cell-free infection, inhibitory activities were reduced in cell-to-cell productive transmission for all drugs tested. We detected weak reporter-expressing target cells after cell-to-cell transmission in the presence of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). Further analysis revealed that this expression was mainly due to unintegrated circular HIV (cHIV) DNAs, consisting of 1-LTR and 2-LTR circles. When in vitro-constructed cHIV DNAs were introduced into cells, the production of infectious and intercellular transmittable virions was observed, suggesting that cHIV DNA could be a source of infectious virus. These results highlight some advantages of the cell-to-cell infection mode for viral expansion, particularly in the presence of anti-retroviral drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV-1 latency and virus production from unintegrated genomes following direct infection of resting CD4 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi N; Trinité, Benjamin; Lee, Caroline S; Mahajan, Saurabh; Anand, Akanksha; Wodarz, Dominik; Sabbaj, Steffanie; Bansal, Anju; Goepfert, Paul A; Levy, David N

    2016-01-05

    HIV-1 integration is prone to a high rate of failure, resulting in the accumulation of unintegrated viral genomes (uDNA) in vivo and in vitro. uDNA can be transcriptionally active, and circularized uDNA genomes are biochemically stable in non-proliferating cells. Resting, non-proliferating CD4 T cells are prime targets of HIV-1 infection and latently infected resting CD4 T cells are the major barrier to HIV cure. Our prior studies demonstrated that uDNA generates infectious virions when T cell activation follows rather than precedes infection. Here, we characterize in primary resting CD4 T cells the dynamics of integrated and unintegrated virus expression, genome persistence and sensitivity to latency reversing agents. Unintegrated HIV-1 was abundant in directly infected resting CD4 T cells. Maximal gene expression from uDNA was delayed compared with integrated HIV-1 and was less toxic, resulting in uDNA enrichment over time relative to integrated proviruses. Inhibiting integration with raltegravir shunted the generation of durable latency from integrated to unintegrated genomes. Latent uDNA was activated to de novo virus production by latency reversing agents that also activated latent integrated proviruses, including PKC activators, histone deacetylase inhibitors and P-TEFb agonists. However, uDNA responses displayed a wider dynamic range, indicating differential regulation of expression relative to integrated proviruses. Similar to what has recently been demonstrated for latent integrated proviruses, one or two applications of latency reversing agents failed to activate all latent unintegrated genomes. Unlike integrated proviruses, uDNA gene expression did not down modulate expression of HLA Class I on resting CD4 T cells. uDNA did, however, efficiently prime infected cells for killing by HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T cells. These studies demonstrate that contributions by unintegrated genomes to HIV-1 gene expression, virus production, latency and immune responses

  1. The Prevalence and Outcome of Asymptomatic Chlamydial Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of those with HSG result (64), the accuracy of the test kit showed low sensitivity ‑ 44.2% (19/43) and negative predictive value 40.0% (16/40) (but, high specificity. ‑ 76.2%(16/21), and positive predictive value ‑ 79.2% (19/24). Conclusion: Asymptomatic. Chlamydial infection is common among infertile women and it positively ...

  2. Expansion and productive HIV-1 infection of Foxp3 positive CD4 T cells at pleural sites of HIV/TB co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Christina S; Baseke, Joy; Kafuluma, John Lusiba; Nserko, Mary; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Toossi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    CD4 T-cells expressing Foxp3 are expanded systemically during active tuberculosis (TB) regardless of HIV-1 co-infection. Foxp3+ CD4 T cells are targets of HIV-1 infection. However, expansion of HIV-1 infected Foxp3+ CD4 T cells at sites of HIV/TB co-infection, and whether they contribute to promotion of HIV-1 viral activity is not known. Pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMC) from HIV/TB co-infected patients with pleural TB were characterized by immune-staining and FACS analysis for surface markers CD4, CD127, CCR5, CXCR4, HLA-DR and intracellular expression of Foxp3, HIVp24, IFN-γ and Bcl-2. Whole PFMC and bead separated CD4+CD25+CD127- T cells were assessed for HIV-1 LTR strong stop (SS) DNA by real-time PCR, which represents viral DNA post cell entry and initiation of reverse transcription. High numbers of HIV-1 p24 positive Foxp3+ and Foxp3+CD127- CD4 T cells were identified in PFMC from HIV/TB co-infected subjects. CD4+Foxp3+CD127- T cells displayed high expression of the cellular activation marker, HLA-DR. Further, expression of the HIV-1 co-receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, were higher on CD4+Foxp3+T cells compared to CD4+Foxp3- T cells. Purified CD4+CD25+CD127- T cells isolated from PFMC of HIV/TB co-infected patients, were over 90% CD4+Foxp3+T cells, and exhibited higher HIV-1 SS DNA as compared to whole PFMC, and as compared to CD4+CD25+CD127- T cells from an HIV-infected subject with pleural mesothelioma. HIV-1 p24+ Foxp3+ CD4+T cells from HIV/TB patients higher in Bcl-2 expression as compared to both HIV-1 p24+ Foxp3- CD4 T cells, and Foxp3+ CD4+T cells without HIV-p24 expression. Foxp3+ CD4 T cells in PFMC from HIV/TB co-infected subjects are predisposed to productive HIV-1 infection and have survival advantage as compared to Foxp3 negative CD4 T cells.

  3. Diagnostic performance of line-immunoassay based algorithms for incident HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüpbach Jörg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serologic testing algorithms for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS provide important information for HIV surveillance. We have previously demonstrated that a patient's antibody reaction pattern in a confirmatory line immunoassay (INNO-LIA™ HIV I/II Score provides information on the duration of infection, which is unaffected by clinical, immunological and viral variables. In this report we have set out to determine the diagnostic performance of Inno-Lia algorithms for identifying incident infections in patients with known duration of infection and evaluated the algorithms in annual cohorts of HIV notifications. Methods Diagnostic sensitivity was determined in 527 treatment-naive patients infected for up to 12 months. Specificity was determined in 740 patients infected for longer than 12 months. Plasma was tested by Inno-Lia and classified as either incident ( Results The 10 best algorithms had a mean raw sensitivity of 59.4% and a mean specificity of 95.1%. Adjustment for overrepresentation of patients in the first quarter year of infection further reduced the sensitivity. In the preferred model, the mean adjusted sensitivity was 37.4%. Application of the 10 best algorithms to four annual cohorts of HIV-1 notifications totalling 2'595 patients yielded a mean IIR of 0.35 in 2005/6 (baseline and of 0.45, 0.42 and 0.35 in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The increase between baseline and 2008 and the ensuing decreases were highly significant. Other adjustment models yielded different absolute IIR, although the relative changes between the cohorts were identical for all models. Conclusions The method can be used for comparing IIR in annual cohorts of HIV notifications. The use of several different algorithms in combination, each with its own sensitivity and specificity to detect incident infection, is advisable as this reduces the impact of individual imperfections stemming primarily from relatively low sensitivities and

  4. Two-year outcome of first-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-1 vertically-infected children in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, H V; Ishizaki, A; Nguyen, L V; Phan, C T T; Phung, T T B; Takemoto, K; Pham, A N; Bi, X; Khu, D T K; Ichimura, H

    2015-10-01

    A retrospective analysis of 86 HIV-1 vertically-infected Vietnamese children with a follow-up period >24 months after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) was performed from 2008 to 2012, to assess the outcome of first-line ART in resource-limited settings. Of the 86 children, 68 (79.1%) were treated successfully (plasma HIV-1 viral load [VL] failure groups was observed in VL, CD4(+) T-cell count or clinical stage at baseline; age at ART start; or ART regimen. All 14 children with VL >5000 copies/ml, one of four children with VL 1000-5000 copies/ml and none with VL failures among HIV-1 vertically-infected children in resource-limited settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Acute HIV-1 infection is associated with increased plasma levels of heme oxygenase-1 and presence of heme oxygenase-1-specific regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angin, Mathieu; Fathi, Anahita; King, Melanie; Ledoux, Mary B; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Altfeld, Marcus; Addo, Marylyn M

    2017-03-13

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible stress response protein with potent anti-inflammatory activity and recent data suggest a potentially beneficial role in HIV pathogenesis. We investigated the impact of HO-1 and a novel subset of HO-1-specific CD8 regulatory T cells on virus-specific T-cell immunity in HIV-1-infected individuals. HO-1 protein levels were quantified in plasma from individuals at different stages of HIV-1 disease and longitudinally following primary HIV infection. HO-1-specific CD8 T cells were investigated by flow cytometry using human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I pentamers. Flow-sorted HO-1-specific CD8 T cells were cultured and tested for suppressive activity on HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-cell clones clones. HO-1 gene expression was determined in sorted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets from individuals with acute HIV-1 infection. HO-1 plasma levels were significantly increased in HIV-1 infection, with the highest levels in individuals with acute HIV-1 infection, and gradually declined over time. The frequency of CD8 T cells specific for HO-1 was elevated in study participants with primary HIV-1 infection and flow-sorted HO-1-specific CD8 T cells were capable of suppressing HIV-1-specific lysis of cytotoxic T-cell clones clones. HO-1 gene expression was upregulated in multiple immune cell subsets during acute HIV-1 infection and HO-1 overexpression modulated anti-HIV immunity in vitro. Our data suggest that HO-1 is induced during acute HIV-1 infection, likely mediating anti-inflammatory effects and driving expansion of HO-1-specific CD8 regulatory T cells capable of suppressing HIV-1-specific immune responses in vitro. The investigation of HO-1 and the novel CD8 regulatory cell type described here provide further insight into immune regulation in HIV-1 infection and may hold potential for future immunotherapeutic intervention.

  6. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) pathway: genetic variants and outcomes of HIV-1 infection in African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W; Aissani, Brahim; Song, Wei; Shendre, Aditi; Wilson, Craig M; Kaslow, Richard A; Tang, Jianming

    2010-10-14

    Immunological and clinical outcomes can vary considerably at the individual and population levels during both treated and untreated HIV-1 infection. Cytokines encoded by the interleukin-10 gene (IL10) family have broad immunomodulatory function in viral persistence, and several SNPs in the IL10 promoter sequence have been reported to influence pathogenesis or acquisition of HIV-1 infection. We examined 104 informative SNPs in IL10, IL19, IL20, IL24, IL10RA and IL10RB among 250 HIV-1 seropositive and 106 high-risk seronegative African American adolescents in the REACH cohort. In subsequent evaluation of five different immunological and virological outcomes related to HIV-1 infection, 25 SNPs were associated with a single outcome and three were associated with two different outcomes. One SNP, rs2243191 in the IL19 open reading frame (Ser to Phe substitution) was associated with CD4(+) T-cell increase during treatment. Another SNP rs2244305 in IL10RB (in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs443498) was associated with an initial decrease in CD4(+) T-cell by 23 ± 9% and 29 ± 9% every 3 months (for AA and AG genotypes, respectively, compared with GG) during ART-free period. These associations were reversed during treatment, as CD4(+) T-cell increased by 31 ± 0.9% and 17 ± 8% every 3 months for AA and AG genotype, respectively. In African Americans, variants in IL10 and related genes might influence multiple outcomes of HIV-1 infection, especially immunological response to HAART. Fine mapping coupled with analysis of gene expression and function should help reveal the immunological importance of the IL10 gene family to HIV-1/AIDS.

  7. Class-Sparing Regimens for Initial Treatment of HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddler, Sharon A.; Haubrich, Richard; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Peeples, Lynne; Powderly, William G.; Klingman, Karin L.; Garren, Kevin W.; George, Tania; Rooney, James F.; Brizz, Barbara; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Murphy, Robert L.; Swindells, Susan; Havlir, Diane; Mellors, John W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The use of either efavirenz or lopinavir–ritonavir plus two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is recommended for initial therapy for patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but which of the two regimens has greater efficacy is not known. The alternative regimen of lopinavir–ritonavir plus efavirenz may prevent toxic effects associated with NRTIs. METHODS In an open-label study, we compared three regimens for initial therapy: efavirenz plus two NRTIs (efavirenz group), lopinavir–ritonavir plus two NRTIs (lopinavir–ritonavir group), and lopinavir–ritonavir plus efavirenz (NRTI-sparing group). We randomly assigned 757 patients with a median CD4 count of 191 cells per cubic millimeter and a median HIV-1 RNA level of 4.8 log10 copies per milliliter to the three groups. RESULTS At a median follow-up of 112 weeks, the time to virologic failure was longer in the efavirenz group than in the lopinavir–ritonavir group (P = 0.006) but was not significantly different in the NRTI-sparing group from the time in either of the other two groups. At week 96, the proportion of patients with fewer than 50 copies of plasma HIV-1 RNA per milliliter was 89% in the efavirenz group, 77% in the lopinavir–ritonavir group, and 83% in the NRTI-sparing group (P = 0.003 for the comparison between the efavirenz group and the lopinavir–ritonavir group). The groups did not differ significantly in the time to discontinuation because of toxic effects. At virologic failure, antiretroviral resistance mutations were more frequent in the NRTI-sparing group than in the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS Virologic failure was less likely in the efavirenz group than in the lopinavir–ritonavir group. The virologic efficacy of the NRTI-sparing regimen was similar to that of the efavirenz regimen but was more likely to be associated with drug resistance. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00050895.) PMID:18480202

  8. Poor functional immune recovery in aged HIV-1-infected patients following successfully treatment with antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Taissa M; Hygino, Joana; Andrade, Regis M; Monteiro, Clarice; Sacramento, Priscila M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2015-10-01

    Aging is now a well-recognized characteristic of the HIV-infected population and both AIDS and aging are characterized by a deficiency of the T-cell compartment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in recovering functional response of T cells to both HIV-1-specific ENV peptides (ENV) and tetanus toxoid (TT), in young and aged AIDS patients who responded to ARV therapy by controlling virus replication and elevating CD4(+) T cell counts. Here, we observed that proliferative response of T-cells to either HIV-1-specific Env peptides or tetanus toxoid (TT) was significantly lower in older antiretroviral (ARV)-treated patients. With regard to cytokine profile, lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-21, associated with elevated IL-10 release, were produced by Env- or TT-stimulated T-cells from older patients. The IL-10 neutralization by anti-IL-10 mAb did not elevate IFN-γ and IL-21 release in older patients. Finally, even after a booster dose of TT, reduced anti-TT IgG titers were quantified in older AIDS patients and it was related to both lower IL-21 and IFN-γ production and reduced frequency of central memory T-cells. Our results reveal that ARV therapy, despite the adequate recovery of CD4(+) T cell counts and suppression of viremia, was less efficient in recovering adequate immune response in older AIDS patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Mannose-Binding Lectin Deficiency in HIV-1 and Schistosoma Infections in a Rural Adult Population in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L; Chasela, Charles; Madsen, Hans O

    2015-01-01

    and HIV Cohort (MUSH Cohort). METHODS: HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections were determined at baseline. Plasma MBL concentration was measured by ELISA and MBL2 genotypes determined by PCR. We calculated and compared the proportions of plasma MBL deficiency, MBL2 structural variant alleles B...

  10. Maintenance therapy after quadruple induction therapy in HIV-1 infected individuals: Amsterdam Duration of Antiretroviral Medication (ADAM) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, M. H.; Weverling, G. J.; Jurriaans, S.; Wit, F. W.; Weigel, H. M.; ten Kate, R. W.; Mulder, J. W.; Frissen, P. H.; van Leeuwen, R.; Reiss, P.; Schuitemaker, H.; de Wolf, F.; Lange, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to health benefits for patients infected with HIV-1. However, long-term use of multidrug regimens is difficult to sustain. Simplifying antiretroviral treatment regimens would increase patients' adherence and minimise toxicity. We

  11. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of twice-daily dosing of saquinavir plus ritonavir in HIV-1-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A. I.; van Heeswijk, R. P.; Mulder, J. W.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Schreij, G.; van der Geest, S.; Lange, J. M.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hoetelmans, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    To compare the steady state plasma pharmacokinetics of 1000 mg of saquinavir (SQV) in a soft-gel capsule (SGC) formulation in combination with 100 mg of ritonavir (RTV) (capsules) in a twice-daily dosing regimen in HIV-1-infected individuals with historical controls who used 400 mg of SQV in a

  12. Ritonavir-boosted darunavir combined with raltegravir or tenofovir-emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive adults infected with HIV-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffi, François; Babiker, Abdel G; Richert, Laura

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standard first-line antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection includes two nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), but these drugs have limitations. We assessed the 96 week efficacy and safety of an NtRTI-sparing regimen. METHODS: Between August, 2010, and...

  13. The brain-specific factor FEZ1 is a determinant of neuronal susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haedicke, Juliane

    2009-08-18

    Neurons are one of the few cell types in the human body that do not support HIV type-1 (HIV-1) replication. Although the lack of key receptors is a major obstacle to infection, studies suggest that additional functions inhibit virus replication to explain the exquisite resistance of neurons to HIV-1. However, specific neuronal factors that may explain this resistance remain to be discovered. In a screen for antiviral factors using a fibroblast line chemically mutagenized and selected for resistance to retroviral infection, we recently identified induction of rat FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1), a brain-specific protein, as the cause of this resistance. When exogenously expressed in nonneuronal cell lines rat FEZ1 blocked nuclear entry of retroviral DNA. Here, we demonstrate that among human brain cells, neurons naturally express high levels of FEZ1 compared to astrocytes or microglia cells and are correspondingly less susceptible to infection with pseudotyped HIV-1 that bypasses receptor-mediated viral entry. Demonstrating that endogenous FEZ1 was functionally important in the resistance of neurons to HIV-1 infection, siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous FEZ1 increased the infectivity of neurons while sensitive brain cell types like microglia became more resistant upon FEZ1 overexpression. In addition, FEZ1 expression was not induced in response to IFN treatment. As such, in contrast to other widely expressed, IFN-inducible antiviral factors, FEZ1 appears to represent a unique neuron-specific determinant of cellular susceptibility to infection in a cell type that is naturally resistant to HIV-1.

  14. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed saliva proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Nawei; Zhang, Zhenyu [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Feng, Shan [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Qingtao [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Malamud, Daniel [NYU College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Deng, Haiteng, E-mail: dht@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-24

    Highlights: ► A high-throughput method for profiling and quantification of the differentially expressed proteins in saliva samples was developed. ► Identified that DMBT1, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and alpha defensin were up-regulated in saliva from HIV-1 seropositive patients. ► Established analytical strategies are translatable to the clinical setting. -- Abstract: In the present study, we have established a new methodology to analyze saliva proteins from HIV-1-seropositive patients before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and seronegative controls. A total of 593 and 601 proteins were identified in the pooled saliva samples from 5 HIV-1 subjects and 5 controls, respectively. Forty-one proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed salivary proteins showed an increase of antimicrobial proteins and decrease of protease inhibitors upon HIV-1 infection. To validate some of these differentially expressed proteins, a high-throughput quantitation method was established to determine concentrations of 10 salivary proteins in 40 individual saliva samples from 20 seropositive patients before HAART and 20 seronegative subjects. This method was based on limited protein separation within the zone of the stacking gel of the 1D SDS PAGE and using isotope-coded synthetic peptides as internal standards. The results demonstrated that a combination of protein profiling and targeted quantitation is an efficient method to identify and validate differentially expressed salivary proteins. Expression levels of members of the calcium-binding S100 protein family and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein (DMBT1) were up-regulated while that of Mucin 5B was down-regulated in HIV-1 seropositive saliva samples, which may provide new perspectives for monitoring HIV-infection and understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 infectivity.

  15. Efficacy of etravirine combined with darunavir or other ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingerhoets, J; Calvez, V; Flandre, P

    2015-01-01

    data. METHODS: Two international (EuroSIDA; EUResist Network) and five national (France, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and UK) cohorts provided data (collected in 2007-2012). Stratum-adjusted (for confounding factors) Mantel-Haenszel differences in virological responses (viral load HIV-1 RNA copies......OBJECTIVES: This observational study in antiretroviral treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected adults explored the efficacy of etravirine plus darunavir/ritonavir (DRV group; n = 999) vs. etravirine plus an alternative boosted protease inhibitor (other PI group; n = 116) using pooled European cohort...

  16. Association of TRIM22 with the type 1 interferon response and viral control during primary HIV-1 infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Ravesh; Gaiha Gaurav; Werner Lise; McKim Kevin; Mlisana Koleka; Luban Jeremy; Walker Bruce D; Karim Salim S Abdool; Brass Abraham L; Ndung'u Thumbi; CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Study Team

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of the tripartite interaction motif (TRIM) family of E3 ligases but the contribution of these antiviral factors to HIV pathogenesis is not completely understood. We hypothesized that the increased expression of select type 1 IFN and TRIM isoforms is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of HIV 1 acquisition and viral control during primary HIV 1 infection. We measured IFN a IFN ß myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) human TRIM5a (huTR...

  17. Syphilis and HIV-1 co-infection: influence on CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load and treatment response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Gerstoft, Jan; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and syphilis coinfection on HIV-ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load, CD4 cell count, and the response in rapid plasmin reagin (RPR) to treatment of the syphilis infection. STUDY DESIGN: Cases of syphilis diagnosed during 1 year...... in HIV-infected patients in Copenhagen were included. HIV-RNA, CD4 cell counts, and RPR-serology were measured before, during, and after syphilis. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were included. CD4 cell count decreased significantly during infection in patients with primary and secondary stages of syphilis...... (mean 106 cells/mm, P = 0.03). Treatment of syphilis was associated with an increase in the CD4 cell count and a decrease in HIV-RNA in the overall group (mean 66 cells/mm and -0.261 RNA log10 copies/ml, P = 0.02 and 0.04). The serological response rates for 15 patients treated with penicillin and 25...

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genotyping in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: assessing subtype and drug-resistance associated mutations in HIV-1 infected individuals failing highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Couto-Fernandez

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 drug resistance mutation profiles and evaluate the distribution of the genetic subtypes in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, blood samples from 547 HIV-1 infected patients failing antiretroviral (ARV therapy, were collected during the years 2002 and 2003 to perform the viral resistance genotyping at the Renageno Laboratory from Rio de Janeiro (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Viral resistance genotyping was performed using ViroSeqTM Genotyping System (Celera Diagnostic-Abbott, US. The HIV-1 subtyping based on polymerase (pol gene sequences (protease and reverse transcriptase-RT regions was as follows: subtype B (91.2%, subtype F (4.9%, and B/F viral recombinant forms (3.3%. The subtype C was identified in two patients (0.4% and the recombinant CRF_02/AG virus was found infecting one patient (0.2%. The HIV-1 genotyping profile associated to the reverse transcriptase inhibitors has shown a high frequency of the M184V mutation followed by the timidine-associated mutations. The K103N mutation was the most prevalent to the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor and the resistance associated to protease inhibitor showed the minor mutations L63P, L10F/R, and A71V as the more prevalent. A large proportion of subtype B was observed in HIV-1 treated patients from Rio de Janeiro. In addition, we have identified the circulation of drug-resistant HIV-1 subtype C and are presenting the first report of the occurrence of an African recombinant CRF_02/AG virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A clear association between HIV-1 subtypes and protease resistance mutations was observed in this study. The maintenance of resistance genotyping programs for HIV-1 failing patients is important to the management of ARV therapies and to attempt and monitor the HIV-1 subtype prevalence in Brazil.

  19. Claudin-1 gene variants and susceptibility to hepatitis C infection in HIV-1 infected intravenous drug users (an ANRS case-control study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Jade; Fouquet, Baptiste; Quertainmont, Yann; Salmon, Dominique; Sahali, Sabrinel; Rioux, Christophe; Duvivier, Claudine; Mole, Martine; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Misrahi, Micheline

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence is highly diverse among human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients, ranging between 10% of HIV-1 infected homo-bisexuel men, to >92% in patients infected with HIV-1 who acquired HIV-1 through intravenous drug use. Thus, being HCV-free while having acquired HIV-1 via intravenous drug use is a rare situation. Claudin-1 is a protein involved in intracellular tight-junctions and has been identified as a major cellular co-receptor for HCV infection. Our objective was to determine whether Claudin-1 gene (CLDN1) mutations might be involved in natural resistance to HCV infection. We conducted a case-control study. All recruited patients acquired HIV-1 infection via intravenous drug use route before 1995. The case study patients remained free from HCV infection (negative anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA). The control study patients was co-infected with HCV (positive anti-HCV antibodies). Direct genomic sequencing of the CLDN1 gene coding region and adjacent intron/exons junctions was performed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A total of 138 Caucasian patients were enrolled. Twenty-two patients (cases) were free from HCV infection and 116 (controls) were co-infected with HCV. We found single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) described previously with no significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls. In conclusion, despite being a major cellular co-receptor for HCV entry in vitro, we did not identify any specific substitution in CLDN1 gene coding region in our study patients highly exposed but resistant to HCV infection in vivo. Other cellular co-factors involved in HCV infection should be investigated in this highly-exposed intravenous drug users patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. CD8+ T-cell receptor bias and immundominance in HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløverpris, Henrik N.; McGregor, Reuben; McLaren, James E.; Ladell, Kristin; Harndahl, Mikkel; Stryhn, Anette; Carlson, Jonathan; Koofhethile, Catherine; Gerritsen, Bram; Kesmir, Can; Chen, Fabian; Riddell, Lynn; Luzzi, Graz; Leslie, Alasdair; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Buus, Søren; Price, David A.; Goulder, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Immunodominance describes a phenomenon whereby the immune system consistently targets only a fraction of the available antigen pool derived from a given pathogen. In the case of CD8+ T-cells, these constrained epitope targeting patterns are linked to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I expression and determine disease progression. Despite the biological importance of these predetermined response hierarchies, however, little is known about the factors that control immunodominance in vivo. In this study, we conducted an extensive analysis of CD8+ T-cell responses restricted by a single HLA class-I molecule to evaluate the mechanisms that contribute to epitope targeting frequency and antiviral efficacy in HIV-1 infection. A clear immunodominance hierarchy was observed across 20 different epitopes restricted by HLA-B*42:01, which is highly prevalent in populations of African origin. Moreover, in line with previous studies, Gag-specific responses and targeting breadth were associated with lower viral load set-points. However, peptide-HLA-B*42:01 binding affinity and stability were not significantly linked with targeting frequencies. Instead, immunodominance correlated with epitope-specific usage of public TCRs, defined as amino acid residue-identical TRB sequences that occur in multiple individuals. Collectively, these results provide the first insights into a potential link between shared TCR recruitment, immunodominance and antiviral efficacy in a major human infection. PMID:25911754

  1. Lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of HIV-1 infection: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chandwani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ashish Chandwani1, Jonathan Shuter21Division of Infectious Diseases, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2AIDS Center and Division of Infectious Diseases, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: Lopinavir/ritonavir is the first and only coformulated HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI. Large clinical trials have demonstrated lopinavir/ritonavir’s clinical efficacy in both antiretroviral-naïve and -experienced patients. The immunologic and virologic benefits of treatment with this agent have been proven in HIV-infected adults, adolescents, and children. Smaller studies support the use of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a therapeutic option in certain patients. The drug is characterized by a high genetic barrier to resistance, and appears to be more forgiving of non-adherence than earlier, unboosted PIs. The most frequent side effects observed are diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. These gastrointestinal adverse effects are generally mild to moderate. Metabolic derangements, including hyperlipidemia and glucose intolerance, have also been observed in lopinavir/ritonavir recipients. As the menu of available antiretroviral agents continues to expand, lopinavir/ritonavir remains a proven and effective drug for the treatment of HIV infection.Keywords: lopinavir/ritonavir, protease inhibitor, HIV, antiretroviral, Kaletra®

  2. Raltegravir for HIV-1 infected children and adolescents: efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson KB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Kajal B Larson, Jennifer R King, Edward P Acosta Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Raltegravir was the first HIV integrase strand-transfer inhibitor to be approved by the US FDA, in October 2007, for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Raltegravir can be used in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients, as well as for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infection. Raltegravir exists in two formulations: a film-coated tablet administered orally at 400 mg twice daily, and a chewable tablet administered orally at 300 mg twice daily. In 2011, raltegravir was also approved for the treatment of children and adolescents, ages 2–18 years. For adolescents (ages 12–18 years, the recommended dose is 400 mg twice daily (film-coated tablet. If children (ages 6–12 years weigh at least 25 kg, the film-coated tablet is recommended at 400 mg twice daily. Otherwise, patients receive the chewable tablet according to weight-based dosing at approximately 6 mg/kg/dose. Studies are ongoing for children ages 4 weeks to 2 years, and preliminary efficacy and safety data are promising. This article reviews current studies on the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in the pediatric population and the challenges of treating HIV in children and adolescents. Keywords: raltegravir, pediatrics, pharmacokinetics, safety, efficacy

  3. Impact of gender on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Impact of gender on time to initiation, response to and risk of modification of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1 infected individuals is still controversial. METHODS: From a nationwide cohort of Danish HIV infected individuals we identified all...... counts (adjusted p=0.21). We observed no delay in time to initiation of HAART in women compared to men (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.79-1.06). There were no gender differences in risk of treatment modification of the original HAART regimen during the first year of therapy for either toxicity (IRR 0.97 95% CI 0.......66-1.44) or other/unknown reasons (IRR 1.18 95% CI 0.76-1.82). Finally, CD4 counts and the risk of having a detectable viral load at 1, 3 and 6 years did not differ between genders. CONCLUSIONS: In a setting with free access to healthcare and HAART, gender does neither affect time from eligibility to HAART...

  4. Comparison of indinavir + ritonavir 600 + 100 mg vs. 400 + 100 mg BID combinations in HIV1-infected patients guided by therapeutic drug monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasmuth, J.C.; Rodermann, E.; Voigt, E.; Vogel, M.; Lauenroth-Mai, E.; Jessen, A.; Burger, D.M.; Rockstroh, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two reduced dose indinavir (IDV) + ritonavir (RTV) combinations guided by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in treatment-naive HIV1-infected patients. METHODS: HIV1-infected treatment naive patients were prospectively randomized to treatment with IDV 600 mg or 400 mg BID each

  5. The prognostic value of the suPARnosticTM ELISA assay in HIV-1 infected individuals is not affected by uPAR promoter polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Uffe; Nielsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Court

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: High blood levels of soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) are associated with poor outcomes in human immunodeficiency-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals. Research on the clinical value of suPAR in HIV-1 infection led to the development of the suPARnosticTM as...

  6. Recalibration of the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA to Determine Mean Duration of Recent Infection in Divergent HIV-1 Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Yen T.; Kassanjee, Reshma; Welte, Alex; Morgan, Meade; De, Anindya; Dobbs, Trudy; Rottinghaus, Erin; Nkengasong, John; Curlin, Marcel E.; Kittinunvorakoon, Chonticha; Raengsakulrach, Boonyos; Martin, Michael; Choopanya, Kachit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Jiang, Yan; Qiu, Maofeng; Yu, Haiying; Hao, Yan; Shah, Neha; Le, Linh-Vi; Kim, Andrea A.; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Ampofo, William; Parekh, Bharat S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) and misclassification of long-term HIV-1 infections, as proportion false recent (PFR), are critical parameters for laboratory-based assays for estimating HIV-1 incidence. Recent review of the data by us and others indicated that MDRI of LAg-Avidity EIA estimated previously required recalibration. We present here results of recalibration efforts using >250 seroconversion panels and multiple statistical methods to ensure accuracy and consensus. Methods A total of 2737 longitudinal specimens collected from 259 seroconverting individuals infected with diverse HIV-1 subtypes were tested with the LAg-Avidity EIA as previously described. Data were analyzed for determination of MDRI at ODn cutoffs of 1.0 to 2.0 using 7 statistical approaches and sub-analyzed by HIV-1 subtypes. In addition, 3740 specimens from individuals with infection >1 year, including 488 from patients with AIDS, were tested for PFR at varying cutoffs. Results Using different statistical methods, MDRI values ranged from 88–94 days at cutoff ODn = 1.0 to 177–183 days at ODn = 2.0. The MDRI values were similar by different methods suggesting coherence of different approaches. Testing for misclassification among long-term infections indicated that overall PFRs were 0.6% to 2.5% at increasing cutoffs of 1.0 to 2.0, respectively. Balancing the need for a longer MDRI and smaller PFR (HIV-1 incidence should facilitate application of the LAg-Avidity EIA for worldwide use. PMID:25710171

  7. A Spirulina maxima-derived peptide inhibits HIV-1 infection in a human T cell line MT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Seung Jang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. Anti-HIV agents targeting various steps in HIV life cycle have been developed; however, so far, no effective drugs have been found. We show here that a peptide isolated from Spirulina maxima (SM-peptide inhibits HIV-1 infection in a human T cell line MT4. SM-peptide inhibited HIV-1IIIB-induced cell lysis with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 0.691 mM, while its 50 % cytotoxic concentration (CC50 was greater than 1.457 mM. Furthermore, the SM-peptide inhibited the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity and p24 antigen production. This suggests that SM-peptide is a novel candidate peptide, which may be developed as a therapeutic agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.

  8. Prevalence and distribution of the GBV-C/HGV among HIV-1-infected patients under anti-retroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Rosana; Nishiya, Anna; Casseb, Jorge; Inocêncio, Lilian; Fonseca, Luiz A M; Duarte, Alberto J S

    2010-08-01

    Infection with GB virus C (GBV-C) or hepatitis G virus (HGV) is highly prevalent among HIV/AIDS patients. GBV-C/HGV viremia has not been associated with liver disease and seems to slow HIV disease progression. To study the GBV-C/HGV genotypes prevalence among HIV/AIDS patients and its association with HIV viral load (VL) and CD4+ lymphocyte counts. From February 2003 to February 2004, we