WorldWideScience

Sample records for asymptomatic coronary artery

  1. Detecting asymptomatic coronary artery disease using routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... ECG-monitored exercise testing has been proposed as a relatively inexpensive and effective means of screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients presenting for peripheral vascular surgery. Despite the fact that exercise thallium scintigraphy is also dependent on the patient's ability.

  2. Detecting asymptomatic coronary artery disease using routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ECG-monitored exercise testing has been proposed as a relatively inexpensive and effective means of screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients presenting for peripheral vascular surgery. Despite the fact that exercise thallium scintigraphy is also dependent on the patient's ability to exercise, using this ...

  3. Subclinical Coronary Plaque Burden in Asymptomatic Relatives of Patients With Documented Premature Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Jensen, Jesper Møller; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    Introduction: A family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a well-known risk factor for adverse coronary events with age of onset being inversely related to the degree of heritability. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that asymptomatic first degree relatives, of patients with premature...... CAD, suffer a high burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Methods: First degree relatives, aged 30-65 years, of patients with a documented coronary revascularization procedure before the age of 40 years, were invited to participate in the study. Participants were matched by age, sex...... and absence of a family history, with patients referred for coronary CT angiography (CTA) because of atypical angina or non-anginal chest pain. A pooled blinded analysis was performed. The main outcome measure was the number of plaque-affected coronary segments. Results: 88 relatives and 88 symptomatic...

  4. Surgical repair of an asymptomatic giant right coronary artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangeer, Saleem; Anjum, Nadeem; O'Donnell, Aonghus; Doddakula, Kishore

    2013-12-01

    Background Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is a rare finding, being mostly diagnosed on angiography or at autopsies. It is defined as being a dilation of the coronary artery that exceeds the diameter of the patient's largest coronary vessel by 1.5 to 2 times. Case Report We describe the operative correction of a giant right CAA measuring in excess of 10 cm. Conclusion Management of giant CAAs is not standardized and surgical strategy remains controversial. In our case, the patient has a successful surgical repair with no postoperative shunts on follow-up investigations.

  5. Systematic review of guidelines on imaging of asymptomatic coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferket, Bart S.; Genders, Tessa S. S.; Colkesen, Ersen B.; Visser, Jacob J.; Spronk, Sandra; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to critically appraise guidelines on imaging of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Various imaging tests exist to detect CAD in asymptomatic persons. Because randomized controlled trials are lacking, guidelines that address the use of CAD imaging tests may

  6. Screening for coronary artery disease in asymptomatic individuals: Why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrell, Philippe; Sorbets, Emmanuel; Feldman, Laurent J; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Ducrocq, Gregory

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is still the main cause of death in the world, and coronary artery disease is the largest contributor. Screening asymptomatic individuals for coronary artery disease in view of preventive treatment is therefore of crucial interest. Apart from established risk scores based on traditional risk factors such as the Framingham or SCORE risk scores, new biomarkers and imaging methods have emerged (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and secretory phospholipase A2, coronary artery calcium score, carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index). Their added value on top of the classic risk scores varies considerably and the most convincing evidence exists for coronary artery calcium score in intermediate-risk asymptomatic individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease by Ankle-brachial Index in Patients with Concomitant Coronary Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vakili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral arterial disease is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. As such, it is found that screening for peripheral arterial disease (PAD improves risk assessment. Thus, intensive risk factor modification and medical treatment in these patients are necessary. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with concomitant coronary arterial disease. Methods: Asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease was investigated in 400 patients (60% males, 40% females, aged 59.7± 11.3 with a documented coronary arterial disease. Results: Among patients with documented CAD, 12% had asymptomatic PAD with the ABI ratio of less than 0.9. Conclusions: It is advisable to screen for PAD not only as a disease but also as a risk assessment method for atherosclerosis.

  8. Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Young Adults: Its Prevalence According to Coronary Artery Disease Risk Stratification and the CT Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Eun Ju; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cheung, Joo Yeon; Shim, Sung Shine [Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We aimed at evaluating the prevalence and CT characteristics of occult coronary artery disease (CAD) in young Korean adults under 40 years of age by performing coronary CT angiography (CCTA). We retrospectively enrolled 112 consecutive asymptomatic subjects (90 men, mean age: 35.6 {+-} 3.7 years) who underwent CCTA as part of a general health evaluation. We classified the subjects into three National Cholesterol Education Program risk categories and we assessed the plaque characteristics on CCTA according to the number of involved vessels, the location and type of plaques and vascular remodeling. Twelve individuals had CAD (11%, 11 men). The prevalence of CAD was significantly higher in the subgroups with moderate (22%) or high (25%) risk than that in the low risk subgroup (5%) (p < 0.05). Nine patients had single-vessel disease and three patients had two-vessel disease. The most common location for plaque was the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (60%). All the patients had non-significant stenosis and plaque, including the non-calcified (27%), mixed (47%) and calcified (27%) types. Positive vascular remodeling was identified in all the patients with non-calcified or mixed plaques. The prevalence of occult CAD was not negligible in the asymptomatic young adults with moderate to high risk, and this suggests the importance of management and risk factor modification in this population. All the patients had non-significant stenosis, and one fourth of the plaques did not show calcification

  9. Prediction of coronary artery calcium progression by FDG uptake of large arteries in asymptomatic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Park, Ki Seong; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gwang-ju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Jabin, Zeenat; Kim, Young Jae; Jeong, Geum-Cheol; Song, Minchul; Min, Jung-Joon; Bom, Hee-Seung [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Hyun Ju [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of the large arteries can predict coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in asymptomatic individuals. Ninety-six asymptomatic individuals who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and CAC scoring on the same day for health screening and follow-up CAC scoring ≥1 year after baseline studies (mean 4.3 years) were included. Vascular FDG uptake was measured and corrected for blood pool activity to obtain peak and average target-to-blood pool ratios (TBRpeak and TBRavg, respectively) for the carotid arteries, and ascending and abdominal aorta. CAC scores at baseline and follow-up of each individual were measured and absolute CAC change (ΔCAC), annual CAC change (ΔCAC/year), and annual CAC change rate (ΔCAC%/year) were calculated. CAC progression was defined as ΔCAC >0 for individuals with negative baseline CAC; ΔCAC/year ≥10 for those with baseline CAC of 0arteries. TBRpeak of the abdominal aorta was significantly associated with CAC progression in multivariate analysis, with age and baseline CAC. A higher TBRpeak of the abdominal aorta (≥2.11) was associated with CAC progression among subjects with negative baseline CAC only. In subjects with positive baseline CAC, only the amount of baseline CAC was significantly associated with CAC progression. However, the positive predictive value of the TBRpeak of the abdominal aorta was <40 % when age was <58 or baseline CAC was negative. Higher FDG uptake of the large arteries is

  10. [Surgical Treatment of Left Main Trunk Coronary Artery Aneurysm with Asymptomatic Myocardial Ischemia;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okugi, Satoshi; Saito, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Etsuji; Takiguchi, Yoji

    2017-05-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm is rare, and there is no established protocol for surgical indication. On preoperative examination of orthopedic surgery, a 76-year-old male was found with asymptomatic myocardial ischemia. Radiological examinations revealed triple vessel disease and a coronary artery aneurysm, 10 mm in size, at the bifurcation of the left main trunk. Combined with quintuple coronary artery bypass grafting, surgical repair of the aneurysm was peformed under cardiopulmonary bypass on beating heart. Epicardial echocardiography was used to detect the site and the blood flow on the aneurysm. Postoperative course was uneventful. Epicardial echocardiography was useful for detecting the coronary artery aneurysm in the myocardium and the residual aneurysmal blood flow.

  11. Asymptomatic Right Coronary Artery-to-Pulmonary Artery Fistula Incidentally Detected by Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Woo-Hyun; Kang, Si-Hyuck; Jeon, Kihyun; Cho, Iksung; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Hwang, Sung-Wook; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2009-09-01

    In this case report, we describe a 71-year-old woman with right conal coronary artery-to-pulmonary trunk fistula. She visited the outpatient clinic of the nephrology department for long-term management of renal dysfunction. On transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) conducted as a part of cardiac evaluation, an abnormal Doppler color flow taking a course toward echocardiographic probe was incidentally detected outside the main pulmonary trunk, giving an impression of congenital coronary arteriovenous (AV) fistula. Computed tomography coronary angiography confirmed the presence of congenital coronary AV fistula from a conal branch of the right coronary artery to the main pulmonary trunk in the form of a ground cherry. Although the direction of Doppler color flow is not usual (i.e. toward, not away from, echocardiographic probe) in this case, congenital coronary AV fistula should be in the first priority among potential diagnoses when an abnormal Doppler color flow was found near the main pulmonary trunk on TTE.

  12. Relationship between framingham risk score and coronary artery calcium score in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, So Young; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Seong, Su Ok [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We explored the association between Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in asymptomatic Korean individuals. We retrospectively analyzed 2216 participants who underwent routine health screening and CACS using the 64-slice multidetector computed tomography between January 2010 and June 2014. Relationship between CACS and FRS, and factors associated with discrepancy between CACS and FRS were analyzed. CACS and FRS were positively correlated (p < 0.0001). However, in 3.7% of participants with low coronary event risk and high CACS, age, male gender, smoker, hypertension, total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index (BMI; ≥ 35) were associated with the discrepancy. In the diagnostic prediction model for discrepancy, the receiver operating characteristic curve including factors associated with FRS, diastolic blood pressure (≥ 75 mm Hg), diabetes mellitus, and BMI (≥ 35) showed that the area under the curve was 0.854 (95% confidence interval, 0.819–0.890), indicating good sensitivity. Diabetes mellitus or obesity (BMI ≥ 35) compensate for the weakness of FRS and may be potential indicators for application of CACS in asymptomatic Koreans with low coronary event risk.

  13. Systematic review of guidelines on imaging of asymptomatic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferket, Bart S; Genders, Tessa S S; Colkesen, Ersen B; Visser, Jacob J; Spronk, Sandra; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2011-04-12

    The purpose of this study was to critically appraise guidelines on imaging of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Various imaging tests exist to detect CAD in asymptomatic persons. Because randomized controlled trials are lacking, guidelines that address the use of CAD imaging tests may disagree. Guidelines in English published between January 1, 2003, and February 26, 2010, were retrieved using MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, the National Library for Health, the Canadian Medication Association Infobase, and the Guidelines International Network International Guideline Library. Guidelines developed by national and international medical societies from Western countries, containing recommendations on imaging of asymptomatic CAD were included. Rigor of development was scored by 2 independent reviewers using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument. One reviewer performed full extraction of recommendations, which was checked by a second reviewer. Of 2,415 titles identified, 14 guidelines met our inclusion criteria. Eleven of 14 guidelines reported relationship with industry. The AGREE scores varied across guidelines from 21% to 93%. Two guidelines considered cost effectiveness. Eight guidelines recommended against or found insufficient evidence for testing of asymptomatic CAD. The other 6 guidelines recommended imaging patients at intermediate or high CAD risk based on the Framingham risk score, and 5 considered computed tomography calcium scoring useful for this purpose. Guidelines on risk assessment by imaging of asymptomatic CAD contain conflicting recommendations. More research, including randomized controlled trials, evaluating the impact of imaging on clinical outcomes and costs is needed. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Coronary heart disease risk assessment and characterization of coronary artery disease using coronary CT angiography: comparison of asymptomatic and symptomatic groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y., E-mail: yookkim@ewha.ac.k [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, I.-M. [Division of Cardiology in Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, J.; Park, H. [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in relation to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and assess plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Three hundred and ninety consecutive patients [asymptomatic group, n = 138; symptomatic group (atypical or non-anginal chest pain), n = 252] were retrospectively enrolled. They were subsequently classified into three CHD risk categories, based on the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines, and 10 year risks of coronary events were calculated using Framingham risk score. CT was evaluated for stenosis, plaque composition, and coronary calcium scores. Results: CAD was observed in 42% of the asymptomatic group and 62% of the symptomatic group. In the former, the prevalence of CAD in low-, moderate- and high-risk subgroups was 21.4, 47.4 and 65%, respectively, and was 33.3, 74.4, and 72.4% in the symptomatic group. Framingham 10-year risks of coronary events were significantly higher in patients with CAD than in normal participants, and receiver operating characteristics curves showed that discriminatory power was poor in the asymptomatic group and symptomatic men, and good in symptomatic women. Of the participants in the asymptomatic group, 12% exhibited only non-calcified plaques and of the symptomatic group, 7% exhibited only non-calcified plaques. The coronary calcium score was significantly higher for significant stenosis than for non-significant stenosis in both groups. Conclusions: The prevalence of CAD was not negligible even in subgroups with low-to-moderate CHD risk. Additionally, the Framingham risk score was effective for predicting CAD only in symptomatic women. Coronary calcium scores correlated with significant stenosis; however, a sizeable percentage of both groups had only non-calcified plaques.

  15. Cerebral Lesions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Relation to Asymptomatic Carotid and Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Sebastian; Schoos, Mikkel; Sillesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and vertebral artery stenosis (VAS) are associated with cerebral infarction after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). It remains unclear whether this association is causal. We investigated the associations between neurologically asymptomatic CAS...... and VAS and the occurrence of subclinical cerebral lesions after CABG verified by magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: CABG patients were included and CAS and VAS were identified by magnetic resonance angiography. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify new post-operative subclinical...... cerebral lesions. The associations between CAS/VAS post-operative cerebral lesions were investigated. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were included in the study. 13% had significant CAS and 11% had significant VAS. Thirty-five percent had new cerebral infarction postoperatively. We found a significant...

  16. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and coronary artery calcification: Complementary cardiovascular risk predictors in asymptomatic type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrir, Barak; Azaiza, Mohanad; Gaspar, Tamar; Dobrecky-Mery, Idit; Azencot, Mali; Lewis, Basil S; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Halon, David A

    2015-08-01

    Despite its well-established prognostic value, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not incorporated routinely in risk assessment tools. Whether low CRF provides additional predictive information in asymptomatic type 2 diabetics beyond conventional risk scores and coronary artery calcification (CAC) is unclear. We studied 600 type 2 diabetics aged 55-74 years without known coronary heart disease. CRF was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs) by maximal treadmill testing and categorized as tertiles of percent predicted METs (ppMETs) achieved. CAC was calculated by non-enhanced computed tomography scans. The individual and joint association of both measures with an outcome event of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, was determined over a mean follow-up period of 80 ± 16 months. There were 72 (12%) events during follow-up. Low CRF was independently associated with event risk after adjustment for traditional risk factors and CAC (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.41-3.57, p = 0.001). CRF (unfit/fit) allowed further outcome discrimination both amongst diabetics with low CAC scores (9.5% versus 2.0% event rate), and amongst diabetics with high CAC scores (23.5% versus 12.4% event rate), p mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, despite low CAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential association between coronary artery disease and the inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation plays an important role in coronary artery disease from the initiation of endothelial dysfunction to plaque formation to final rupture of the plaque. In this study, we investigated the potential pathophysiological and clinical relevance of novel cytokines secreted from various cells including adipocytes, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells, in predicting coronary artery disease (CAD in asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We enrolled a total of 70 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients without a documented history of cardiovascular disease, and determined serum levels of chemerin, omentin-1, YKL-40, and sCD26. We performed coronary computed tomographic angiography (cCTA in all subjects, and defined coronary artery stenosis ≥ 50 % as significant CAD in this study. Results Subjects were classified into two groups: patients with suspected coronary artery stenosis on cCTA (group I, n = 41 and patients without any evidence of stenosis on cCTA (group II, n = 29. Group I showed significantly higher YLK-40 levels and lower HDL-C levels than group II (p = 0.038, 0.036, respectively. Levels of chemerin, omentin-1, and sCD26 were not significantly different between the two groups. Serum YKL-40 levels were positively correlated with systolic/diastolic BP, fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels, and Framingham risk score. Furthermore, YKL-40 levels showed moderate correlation with the degree of coronary artery stenosis and the coronary artery calcium score determined from cCTA. In multivariate logistic analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, hypertension, and LDL-cholesterol, YLK-40 levels showed only borderline significance. Conclusions YKL-40, which is secreted primarily from inflammatory cells, was associated with several CVD risk factors and was elevated in type 2 diabetic patients with suspected coronary artery stensosis on cCTA. These results suggest

  19. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...... levels are associated with low frequency of coronary artery disease (CAD) and good prognosis. The underlying causes of poor prognosis in patients with elevated NT-proBNP are not known; thus, we investigated the role of putative asymptomatic CAD in type 2 diabetic patients with UAER >30 mg/24 h...

  20. The relation between coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic subjects and both traditional risk factors and living in the city centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechtsen, J; Gerke, Oke; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Objective:  To evaluate the association between the risk factor of living in the city centre as a surrogate for air pollution and the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a population of asymptomatic Danish subjects. Design and subjects:  A random sample of 1825 men and women...... the greatest association with the presence of CAC: the odds ratio (OR) for men compared with women was 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-4.2; P...

  1. Coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhang, Yiyi; Ahn, Jiin; Lima, Joao A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the association between regular coffee consumption and the prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic men and women. This cross-sectional study included 25 138 men and women (mean age 41.3 years) without clinically evident cardiovascular disease who underwent a health screening examination that included a validated food frequency questionnaire and a multidetector CT to determine CAC scores. We used robust Tobit regression analyses to estimate the CAC score ratios associated with different levels of coffee consumption compared with no coffee consumption and adjusted for potential confounders. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 13.4% (n=3364), including 11.3% prevalence for CAC scores 1-100 (n=2832), and 2.1% prevalence for CAC scores >100 (n=532). The mean ±SD consumption of coffee was 1.8±1.5 cups/day. The multivariate-adjusted CAC score ratios (95% CIs) comparing coffee drinkers of coffee drinkers were 0.77 (0.49 to 1.19), 0.66 (0.43 to 1.02), 0.59 (0.38 to 0.93), and 0.81 (0.46 to 1.43), respectively (p for quadratic trend=0.02). The association was similar in subgroups defined by age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, status of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolaemia. In this large sample of men and women apparently free of clinically evident cardiovascular disease, moderate coffee consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Coronary Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every other organ or ... the heart by its own vascular system, called coronary circulation. The aorta (the main blood supplier to the ...

  3. Coronary artery calcium score using electron beam tomography in the patients with acute obstructive coronary arterial disease : comparative study within asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive coronary arterial disease group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seok Jong; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    To compare, through analysis of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the risk factors for atherosclerosis, the characteristics of acute coronary syndrome between an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients and a chronic coronary arterial obstructive disease(CAOD) group. The CAC scores of an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients (group I, n=284), a chronic CAOD croup (group II, n=39) and an acute coronary syndrome group (group III, n=21) were measured by electron beam tomography. Forty-seven patients with CAOD from groups II and III underwent coronary angiography, and we scrutinized age, sex and risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and low high-density lipoproteinemia. The numbers of stenotic coronary arterial branches and degree of stenosis revealed by coronary angiography were also recorded. We determined the differences between the three groups in terms of CAC score and the risk factors, the relationship between CAC score and risk factors, and the characteristic features of each type of CAOD group. The mean CA score of group III (135.1) was not statistically different from that of group I (135.7) or group II (365.8). Among patients aged below 50, the mean CAC score of group III (127.4) was significantly higher than that of group I (6.2), (p=0.0006). The mean CAC score at the sixth decade was also significantly different between group I(81.5) and group II (266.9). The mean age of group III (54.2 years) was significantly lower than that of group I (58.1 years) (p=0.047) and of group II (60.1) (p=0.022). There was significant correlation between the number of stenotic coronary arterial branches and log(CAC +1) (p<.01). The square root of the CAC score and the maximal degree of stenosis was also well correlated (p<.01). There was no difference in the mean number of risk factors among the three groups, though the incidence of smoking in group III was significantly

  4. Cystatin C and asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome and normal glomerular filtration rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All of the components of Metabolic syndrome (MetS have been regarded as risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD. Early detection of CAD in asymptomatic patients with MetS remains a challenge. Cystatin C,which has been proposed as a novel marker of renal dysfunction,is correlated with mortality in CAD, The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether cystatin C is a potential marker of asymptomatic CAD in MetS patients with normal kidney function. Methods A total of 211asymptomatic MetS patients without prior history of CAD patients were included in a cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into MetS with asymptomatic CAD (n = 136 and MetS without CAD (n = 75 groups according to coronary angiograph results. Serum cystatin C levels were measured using particle enhanced immunonephelometric assays. We first assessed whether there is an independent association of cystatin C with the presence and severity of asymptomatic CAD. Then, we investigated the association between cystatin C and other biochemical risk factors for atherosclerosis. Results Serum cystatin C levels in patients with asymptomatic CAD were significantly higher than those without CAD (P = 0.004. A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated cystatin C was independently associated with the presence of asymptomatic CAD (OR = 1.326, 95%CI: 1.086-1.619. On receiver operating characteristics (ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC was 0.622 (95 % CI: 0543–0.701, P = 0.003, and cystatin C showed a moderate predictive value. Furthermore, cystatin C was independently correlated with Gensini score (standardized β = 0.183, P = 0.007, and serum cystatin C levels increased with the increasing of number of disease vessels (P = 0.005. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, uric acid (UA(P P = 0.002, triglyceride(TG(P = 0.03, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR(P (P = 0.001 were independently

  5. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics / Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting What Is Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) ... multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of the ...

  6. Early results after synchronous carotid stent placement and coronary artery bypass graft in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Juan Guillermo; Rojas, Kristin E; Balestrini, Carlos; Espinel, Camilo; Figueredo, Antonio; Saaibi, Jose Federico; Machuca, Santiago; Murcia, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    The optimal management of patients with combined carotid and coronary artery disease requiring cardiac surgery is still unknown. Staged carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting (CAS), each followed by coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), are options frequently employed. However, for patients with severe carotid artery disease in urgent need of open cardiac revascularization, staged operations may not be the most appropriate alternative. The aim of this study was to describe our experience using a synchronous CAS-CABG method with minimal interprocedural time. We used this synchronous combination of procedures in patients with combined carotid and coronary artery disease admitted for urgent CABG. Patients with concomitant severe carotid and coronary artery disease scheduled for synchronous CAS and urgent CABG between December 2006 and January 2010 were included in the study. All procedures were performed at a single center: the Cardiovascular Foundation of Colombia, in Floridablanca, Santander, Colombia. The study cohort was characterized according to demographic and clinical characteristics, which included degree of carotid stenosis, presence/absence of preoperative neurological symptoms, and cardiac operative risk profile. All patients underwent CAS under embolic protection devices and then CABG within the next 2 hours. Patients received aspirin pre- and postprocedure but were started on clopidogrel only after CABG. The primary end point of the study was the composite incidence rate of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death 30 days after CAS-CABG. Fifteen patients with concomitant severe carotid and coronary artery disease underwent synchronous CAS-CABG. Most patients (60%) were men, and mean (± standard deviation) age was 65.2 (± 8.4) years. Most patients (93%) were neurologically asymptomatic. The median (interquartile range) ejection fraction and logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) for the cohort were 55% (36

  7. Arterial ultrasound screening as a tool for coronary risk assessment in asymptomatic men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournot, Maxime; Bura, Alessandra; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Maloizel, Julie; Galinier, Michel; Broutin, Hélène Hanaire; Chamontin, Bernard; Carrié, Didier; Ferrieres, Jean

    2012-05-01

    One of the imaging tests most commonly used to assess cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in daily practice is Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid and femoral arteries. We included 2709 participants with no history or symptoms of CVD; they had a risk factor assessment and a carotid and femoral ultrasonography at baseline. Incident cases of definite coronary events were recorded during a median follow-up of 6 years. Approximately, 63% of the sample presented abnormalities (carotid stenosis >50%, carotid plaque, femoral plaque, increased intima-media thickness [IMT]). A moderately increased IMT (>0.63 mm) or the presence of carotid or femoral artery plaque was related to prognosis. The associations persisted after adjustment for pretest risk, treatment with statins, and other Doppler ultrasonography abnormalities. The hazard ratio increased significantly with the number of abnormalities (varying from 2.35 [1.16-4.74] to 14.83 [6.47-33.9]).

  8. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium among asymptomatic men and women in a developing country: comparison with the USA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakik, Habib A; Skouri, Hadi N; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Sibai, Tarek; Alam, Samir; Sawaya, Jaber; Nasrallah, Antoine; Wehbeh, Chadi; Ayach, Kamal; Abchee, Antoine B

    2005-11-01

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) correlates with atherosclerotic burden and predicts cardiac events. Most of the published data have been derived from the USA population. To study the prevalence of coronary calcium in an asymptomatic population from the eastern Mediterranean region and compare it to data obtained from a large population study in the USA. A total of 1154 asymptomatic men and women from Lebanon underwent EBCT screening because of the presence of one or more CAD risk factors. Mean CACS as well as the percentile cut-points increased consistently with increasing age and, except for those above 74 years of age, were higher in men than women in each age stratum. Age, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and smoking showed significant associations with CACS in men, while only age and hypercholesterolemia were significantly associated with CACS in women. Among men, the 75th and 90th percentile distributions were comparable to what is observed in developed countries such as the USA. Findings, from this first study in the region, suggest that despite a higher rate of diabetes and smokers in our study population, the CACS distribution in Lebanon is similar to that observed in the USA.

  9. Identifying Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Middle-Aged Sportsmen: The Additional Value of Pulse Wave Velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs L Braber

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular screening may benefit middle-aged sportsmen, as coronary artery disease (CAD is the main cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, may help identify sportsmen with subclinical CAD. We examined the additional value of PWV measurements to traditional CAD risk factors for identifying CAD.From the Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC cohort of asymptomatic, middle-aged sportsmen who underwent low-dose Cardiac CT (CCT after routine sports medical examination (SME, 193 consecutive sportsmen (aged 55 ± 6.6 years were included with additional PWV measurements before CCT. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of PWV values (>8.3 and >7.5 m/s assessed by Arteriograph were used to identify CAD (coronary artery calcium scoring ≥ 100 Agatston Units or coronary CT angiography luminal stenosis ≥ 50% and to assess the additional diagnostic value of PWV to established cardiovascular risk factors.Forty-seven sportsmen (24% had CAD on CCT. They were older (58.9 vs. 53.8 years, p8.3m/s respectively >7.5 m/s sensitivity to detect CAD on CT was 43% and 74%, specificity 69% and 45%, positive predictive value 31% and 30%, and negative predictive value 79% and 84%. Adding PWV to traditional risk factor models did not change the area under the curve (from 0.78 (95% CI = 0.709-0.848 to AUC 0.78 (95% CI 0.710-0.848, p = 0.99 for prediction of CAD on CCT.Limited additional value was found for PWV on top of established risk factors to identify CAD. PWV might still have a role to identify CAD in middle-aged sportsmen if risk factors such as cholesterol are unknown.

  10. Incremental benefit of coronary artery calcium score above traditional risk factors for all-cause mortality in asymptomatic Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Gransar, Heidi; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Joon; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Choi, Su-Yeon; Sung, Jidong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a well-recognized marker for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, particularly in asymptomatic populations. To date, however, the added prognostic benefit of CACS compared with traditional risk factors in an Asian population remains unknown. This study therefore investigated the benefit of CACS over traditional risk factors for all-cause mortality in a large multicenter registry of asymptomatic Korean adults. A total of 34,386 individuals were retrospectively enrolled to participate in a general health examination. The Framingham 10-year risk score (FRS) was calculated according to the traditional risk stratification algorithm and CACS was calculated in log(CACS+1) for continuous data and categorized as 0, 1-100, 101-400 and >400. During a median follow-up of 4.9 years (IQR, 3.0-7.1), there were 303 all-cause deaths (0.9%). Following adjustment, CACS was independently associated with all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.17; P<0.001). Notably, CACS added further prognostic value above and beyond FRS (likelihood ratio, χ(2)=75.42, P<0.001; continuous net reclassification improvement=0.40, 95% CI: 0.29-0.51, P≤0.001; improving C-statistic from 0.64, 95% CI: 0.61-0.67 to 0.68, 95% CI: 0.64-0.71; ∆C=0.04, 95% CI: 0.01-0.06, P=0.002). In an asymptomatic Korean population, CACS improved prediction of all-cause mortality over and above that of a conventional risk tool.

  11. The archaeology of uncommon interventions: Articulating the rationale for transcatheter closure of congenital coronary artery fistulas in asymptomatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinney, Doff B

    2016-02-15

    Transcatheter closure of coronary artery fistulas can be executed successfully in infants and children with few serious procedural complications. Indications for and long-term outcomes of closure of coronary artery fistulas remain poorly defined. Registries may offer the best opportunity for advancing our knowledge about uncommon interventions such as coil or device closure of coronary artery fistulas, but to do so, they must include sufficient data and evaluate factors potentially associated with salutary or adverse outcome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessment of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for Statin Treatment Strategy according to ACC/AHA Guidelines in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Lee, Ji Hyun; Rizvi, Asim; Park, Hyo Eun; Choi, Su Yeon; Sung, Jidong; Chang, Hyuk Jae

    2017-01-01

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) cholesterol management guidelines advocate the use of statin treatment for prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the usefulness of coronary artery calcium (CAC) for stratifying potential candidates of statin use among asymptomatic Korean individuals. A total of 31375 subjects who underwent CAC scoring as part of a general health examination were enrolled in the current study. Statin eligibility was categorized as statin recommended (SR), considered (SC), and not recommended (SN) according to ACC/AHA guidelines. Cox regression analysis was employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidential intervals (CI) after stratifying the subjects according to CAC scores of 0, 1-100, and >100. Number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one mortality event during study follow up was calculated for each group. Mean age was 54.4±7.5 years, and 76.3% were male. During a 5-year median follow-up (interquartile range; 3-7), there were 251 (0.8%) deaths from all-causes. A CAC >100 was independently associated with mortality across each statin group after adjusting for cardiac risk factors (e.g., SR: HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.07-2.38; SC: HR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.09-8.13, and SN: HR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.08-9.17). Notably, patients with CAC >100 displayed a lower NNT in comparison to the absence of CAC or CAC 1-100 in SC and SN groups. In Korean asymptomatic individuals, CAC scoring might prove useful for reclassifying patient eligibility for receiving statin therapy based on updated 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines.

  13. [Prevalence and extent of coronary artery calcification in an asymptomatic cardiovascular Mexican population: Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Romero, Carlos; López-Bautista, Fabiola; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Kimura-Hayama, Eric; Juárez-Rojas, Juan G; Medina-Urrutia, Aida X; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban

    The prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a specific marker of atherosclerosis, is unknown in Mexico. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and quantity of CAC and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in a Mexican population. CAC was measured by multidetector computed tomography in asymptomatic subjects who participated in the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease study. Cardiovascular risk factors and medication were recorded. The sample included 1,423 individuals (49.5% men), aged 53.7±8.4 years. Those with CAC showed a higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension, and other risk factors. The prevalence of CAC>0 Agatston units was significantly higher among men (40%) than among women (13%). Mean values of CAC score increased consistently with increasing age and were higher in men than women in each age group. Age and high low density lipoprotein cholesterol were independently associated with prevalence of CAC>0 in men and women, while increasing systolic blood pressure in women and age in both genders showed an independent association with CAC extension. In the Mexican population the prevalence and extent of CAC were much higher in men than in women, and strongly increased with age. Independent predictors of CAC prevalence were age and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Middle-Aged Sportsmen : The Additional Value of Pulse Wave Velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braber, Thijs L.; Prakken, Niek H. J.; Mosterd, Arend; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Doevendans, Pieter A. F. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular screening may benefit middle-aged sportsmen, as coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), may help identify sportsmen with subclinical CAD. We examined the

  15. Identifying coronary artery disease in asymptomatic middle-aged sportsmen : The additional value of pulse wave velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braber, Thijs L.; Prakken, Niek H J; Mosterd, Arend|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156271583; Mali, Willem P Th M; Doevendans, Pieter A F M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164248366; Bots, Michiel L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110610032; Velthuis, Birgitta K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176956301

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular screening may benefit middle-aged sportsmen, as coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), may help identify sportsmen with subclinical CAD. We examined the

  16. Coronary artery anatomy and variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagò, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicolì, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions.

  17. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  18. Impact of Stress Testing for Coronary Artery Disease Screening in Asymptomatic Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Community-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Ruth E; Omer, Mohamed; Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Arruda-Olson, Adelaide M; Scott, Christopher G; Bailey, Kent R; McCully, Robert B; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of screening stress testing for coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients with diabetes in a community-based population. This observational study included 3146 patients from Olmsted County, Minnesota, with no history of coronary artery disease or cardiac symptoms in whom diabetes was newly diagnosed from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2008. With combined all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction as the primary outcome, weighted Cox proportional hazards regression was performed with screening stress testing within 2 years of diabetes diagnosis as the time-dependent covariate. For descriptive analysis, participants were classified by their clinical experience during the first 2 years postdiagnosis as screened (asymptomatic, underwent stress test), unscreened (asymptomatic, no stress test), or symptomatic (experienced symptoms or event). Among the screened and unscreened participants, 54% (1358 of 2538) were men; the mean (SD) age at diabetes diagnosis was 55 years (13.8 years), and 97% (2442 of 2520) had type 2 diabetes. In event-free survival analysis, 292 patients comprised the screened cohort and 2246 patients comprised the unscreened cohort. Death or myocardial infarction occurred in 454 patients (32 patients in the screened cohort and 422 in the unscreened cohort [5-year rate, 1.9% and 5.3%, respectively]) during median (interquartile range) follow-up of 9.1 years (5.3-12.5 years). Screening stress testing was associated with improved event-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.61; P=.004), independent of cardiac risk factors. However, while stress test results were abnormal in 47 of the 292 screened patients (16%), only 6 (2%) underwent coronary revascularization. Although screening cardiac stress testing in asymptomatic patients with diabetes in this community-based population was associated with improvement in long-term event-free survival, this result does not appear to occur by coronary revascularization alone. Copyright

  19. Coronary calcification among 3477 asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvrehus, Kristian A; Jasinskiene, Jurgita; Sand, Niels P

    2015-01-01

    referred for cardiac CT, to assess whether differences in CAC may be explained by symptoms or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: The presence and extent of CAC, gender, family history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes and tobacco were compared in 1220......BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be detected by cardiac computed tomography (CT), is associated to cardiovascular risk, and common in asymptomatic individuals and patients referred for cardiac CT. DESIGN: CAC was evaluated in asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients...... asymptomatic individuals aged 49-61 years and 2257 age-matched symptomatic patients referred for cardiac CT with suspected coronary artery disease. RESULTS: Symptomatic individuals had a higher frequency of a family history of coronary artery disease (46% vs. 23%, p 

  20. The Significance of Carotid Artery Plaques in the Detection of Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charvát, J.; Michalová, K.; Chlumský, J.; Horáčková, M.; Valenta, Zdeněk; Žďárská, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2006), s. 13-20 ISSN 0300-0605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : coronary heart disease * type 2 diabetes mellitus * stress myocardial SPECT * selective coronarography Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.665, year: 2006

  1. Significance of the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with asymptomatic arteriosclerosis affecting the aorta and the cerebral, extra-cranial carotid and coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Tomohide; Takahashi, Wakoh; Ohnuki, Youichi; Kawada, Shiaki; Takizawa, Shunya

    2013-01-01

    The presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with stroke and cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between MetS and the localization of atherosclerosis at various sites remains uncertain. In this study, in order to reveal the relevance of MetS to atherosclerosis at several sites, we investigated the relationships among vascular risk factors, asymptomatic cerebral infarction and atherosclerosis in the aorta and carotid and coronary arteries in adults without overtly symptomatic cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. The subjects in this study included 2,759 Japanese participants (1,845 men and 914 women, mean age: 52 years) with no history of stroke or cardiovascular events. The diagnosis of MetS was made based on modifications to criteria obtained from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. In all subjects, the presence of cerebral infarction in the extra-cranial carotid, coronary and aortic arteries was investigated using MRI, B-mode ultrasonography and CT. Of the 2,759 subjects, 796 (28.9%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The presence of MetS increased the odds ratio (OR) to 1.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.65, p-value arteriosclerosis, 2.07 (95% CI: 1.62-2.27, p-value arteriosclerosis in all regions, including the cerebral small-vessels, extra-cranial carotid arteries, coronary arteries and abdominal aorta. MetS might be a predictor for small and large vessel disease throughout the body.

  2. Coronary artery disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

  3. Optimal ECG Electrode Sites and Criteria for Detection of Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease at Rest and with Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    dimensional studies in the intact conscious man could now be done in compari- son to conventional biplane contrast ventriculograms , and once validated... Ventriculograms in Patients with Proven Coronary Artery Disease, Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Electrocardiography, 1978. 18. Wagner, G.S...such as A-P and lateral dimensions, height, or information from chest x-rays, echos, and ventriculograms . Numerical Experiments with the Model and

  4. Regadenoson-Stress Dynamic Myocardial Perfusion Improves Diagnostic Performance of CT Angiography in Assessment of Intermediate Coronary Artery Stenosis in Asymptomatic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxa, Jan; Hromádka, Milan; Šedivý, Jakub; Štěpánková, Lucie; Moláček, Jiří; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas; Ferda, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The prospective study included 54 asymptomatic high-risk patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA) and regadenoson-induced stress CT perfusion (rsCTP). Diagnostic accuracy of significant stenosis (≥50%) determination was evaluated for CTA alone and CTA + rsCTP in 27 patients referred to ICA due to the positive rsCTP findings. Combined evaluation of CTA + rsCTP had higher diagnostic accuracy over CTA alone (per-segment: specificity 96 versus 68%, p = 0.002; per-vessel: specificity 95 versus 75%, p = 0.012) and high overruling rate of rsCTP was proved in intermediate stenosis (40–70%). Results demonstrate a significant additional value of rsCTP in the assessment of intermediate coronary artery stenosis found with CTA. PMID:26236712

  5. Regadenoson-Stress Dynamic Myocardial Perfusion Improves Diagnostic Performance of CT Angiography in Assessment of Intermediate Coronary Artery Stenosis in Asymptomatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Baxa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospective study included 54 asymptomatic high-risk patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA and regadenoson-induced stress CT perfusion (rsCTP. Diagnostic accuracy of significant stenosis (≥50% determination was evaluated for CTA alone and CTA + rsCTP in 27 patients referred to ICA due to the positive rsCTP findings. Combined evaluation of CTA + rsCTP had higher diagnostic accuracy over CTA alone (per-segment: specificity 96 versus 68%, p=0.002; per-vessel: specificity 95 versus 75%, p=0.012 and high overruling rate of rsCTP was proved in intermediate stenosis (40–70%. Results demonstrate a significant additional value of rsCTP in the assessment of intermediate coronary artery stenosis found with CTA.

  6. Prevalence and Distribution of Coronary Artery Calcification in Asymptomatic United States and Korean Adults - Cross-Sectional Propensity-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Gransar, Heidi; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Su-Yeon; Chun, Eun Ju; Sung, Jidong; Han, Hae-Won; Park, Sung Hak; Callister, Tracy; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2016-10-25

    The incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) varies depending on ethnicity, but the precise differences remain to be firmly established. This study therefore evaluated the disparity in coronary artery calcification (CAC), as a marker of CAD, in asymptomatic US and Korean adults.Methods and Results:CAC score was compared between asymptomatic Korean (n=15,128) and US (n=7,533) adults. Propensity score matching was performed according to age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, which generated 2 cohorts of 5,427 matched pairs. Both cohorts were categorized according to age group: 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years. Overall, the prevalence of CAC score >0, >100, and >400 in Korean adults was lower than in US adults (PKorean adults, especially in Korean women. The odds of having CAC >400 in Korean adults aged 65-74 years was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48-0.91) overall, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.52-1.19) in men, and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.29-0.86) in women, compared with US counterparts. Korean adults have a lower prevalence and severity of atherosclerotic burden as assessed on CAC, compared with US adults, but the disparity in CAC according to ethnicity may decline with older age. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2349-2355).

  7. Systematic preoperative coronary angiography and stenting improves postoperative results of carotid endarterectomy in patients with asymptomatic coronary artery disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Ricco, J-B; Greco, C; Mangieri, E; Calio', F; Ceccanei, G; Pacilè, M A; Schiariti, M; Tanzilli, G; Barillà, F; Paravati, V; Mazzesi, G; Miraldi, F; Tritapepe, L

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of systematic coronary angiography followed, if needed, by coronary artery angioplasty (percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)) on the incidence of cardiac ischaemic events after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients without evidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). From January 2005 to December 2008, 426 patients, candidates for CEA, with no history of CAD and with normal cardiac ultrasound and electrocardiography (ECG), were randomised into two groups. In group A (n=216) all the patients had coronary angiography performed before CEA. In group B, all the patients had CEA without previous coronary angiography. In group A, 66 patients presenting significant coronary artery lesions at angiography received PCI before CEA. They subsequently underwent surgery under aspirin (100 mg day(-1)) and clopidogrel (75 mg day(-1)). CEA was performed within a median delay of 4 days after PCI (range: 1-8 days). Risk factors, indications for CEA and surgical techniques were comparable in both groups (p>0.05). The primary combined endpoint of the study was the incidence of postoperative myocardial ischaemic events combined with the incidence of complications of coronary angiography. Secondary endpoints were death and stroke rates after CEA and incidence of cervical haematoma. Postoperative mortality was 0% in group A and 0.9% in group B (p=0.24). One postoperative stroke (0.5%) occurred in group A, and two (0.9%) in group B (p=0.62). No postoperative myocardial event was observed in group A, whereas nine ischaemic events were observed in group B, including one fatal myocardial infarction (p=0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that preoperative coronary angiography was the only independent variable that predicted the occurrence of postoperative coronary ischaemia after CEA. The odds ratio for coronary angiography (group A) indicated that when holding all other variables constant, a patient having preoperative coronary angiography

  8. Long-term results of a randomized controlled trial analyzing the role of systematic pre-operative coronary angiography before elective carotid endarterectomy in patients with asymptomatic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Schneider, F; Greco, C; Mangieri, E; Schiariti, M; Tanzilli, G; Barillà, F; Paravati, V; Pizzardi, G; Calio', F; Miraldi, F; Macrina, F; Totaro, M; Greco, E; Mazzesi, G; Tritapepe, L; Toscano, M; Vietri, F; Meyer, N; Ricco, J-B

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the potential benefit of systematic preoperative coronary-artery angiography followed by selective coronary-artery revascularization on the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) without a previous history of coronary artery disease (CAD). We randomised 426 patients who were candidates for CEA, with no history of CAD, a normal electrocardiogram (ECG), and a normal cardiac ultrasound. In group A (n = 216) all patients underwent coronary angiography before CEA. In group B (n = 210) CEA was performed without coronary angiography. Patients were not blinded for relevant assessments during follow-up. Primary end-point was the occurrence of MI at 3.5 years. The secondary end-point was the overall survival rate. Median length of follow-up was 6.2 years. In group A, coronary angiography revealed significant coronary artery stenosis in 68 patients (31.5%). Among them, 66 underwent percutaneous Intervention (PCI) prior to CEA and 2 received combined CEA and coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). Postoperatively, no MI was observed in group A, whereas 6 MI occurred in group B, one of which was fatal (p = .01). During the study period, 3 MI occurred in group A (1.4%) and 33 were observed in group B (15.7%), 6 of which were fatal. The Cox model demonstrated a reduced risk of MI for patients in group A receiving coronary angiography (HR,.078; 95% CI, 0.024-0.256; p < .001). In addition, patients with diabetes and patients <70 years presented with an increased risk of MI. Survival analysis at 6 years by Kaplan-Meier estimates was 95.6 ± 3.2% in Group A and 89.7 ± 3.7% in group B (Log Rank = 6.54, p = .01). In asymptomatic coronary-artery patients, systematic coronary angiography prior to CEA followed by selective PCI or CABG significantly reduces the incidence of late MI and increases long-term survival. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02260453). Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular

  9. Asymptomatic giant coronary aneurysm in an adolescent with Behcet's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Behcet's is an idiopathic multi-organ syndrome, which may have onset during childhood. Vascular involvement is uncommon, with rarely reported coronary aneurysm formation. We present a case report of a teenager girl who developed recalcitrant life-threatening Behcet's vasculitis, involving both small and large venous and arterial systems including a giant coronary aneurysm. Case report De-identified data were collected retrospectively in case report format. Although our sixteen year old female with Behcet's vasculitis had resolution of many arterial aneurysms, she had persistent venous thrombosis of large vessels, as well as persistent, giant arterial aneurysms requiring intra-arterial coiling of a lumbar artery and coronary bypass grafting despite intensive immunosuppression including glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide, infliximab, methotrexate, azathioprine and intravenous immunoglobulin. Conclusions Vascular manifestations may be seen in Behcet's syndrome, including asymptomatic coronary aneurysm, which may be refractory to immunosuppression and ultimately require surgical intervention. Increased awareness is essential for prompt diagnosis and management.

  10. The copeptin response after physical activity is not associated with cardiac biomarkers or asymptomatic coronary artery disease: The North Sea Race Endurance Exercise Study (NEEDED) 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Kristin M; Kleiven, Øyunn; Skadberg, Øyvind; Bjørkavoll-Bergseth, Magnus F; Melberg, Tor; Strand, Heidi; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Ørn, Stein

    2017-10-26

    Copeptin concentrations increase both during acute coronary syndrome and following physical exercise. The relationship between copeptin increase following physical exercise and coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncertain. The aim of this study was to 1) describe the copeptin response following strenuous physical exercise, and 2) investigate the determinants of exercise induced copeptin concentrations, particularly in relation to cardiac biomarkers and CAD. Serum samples were collected from 97 recreational cyclists 24h before, and immediately, 3 and 24h after a 91-km bike race. Three subjects were subsequently diagnosed with significant asymptomatic CAD. Delta copeptin concentrations were correlated to patient characteristics and to biomarker concentrations. Participants were 42.8±9.6years, and 76.3% were male. Copeptin concentrations increased to maximal levels immediately after the race and were normalized in >90% after 3h. A total of 53% and 39% exceeded the 95th and 99th percentile of the assay (10 and 19pmol/L) respectively. In multivariate models, race time, serum sodium, creatinine and cortisol were significant predictors of copeptin levels. There was no correlation between changes in copeptin and changes in cardiac biomarkers (hs-cTnI, hs-cTnT and BNP). Copeptin concentrations were normal in the subjects with asymptomatic CAD. The moderate, short-term, exercise induced copeptin increase observed in the present study was not related to hs-cTn or BNP levels. Copeptin was normal in three asymptomatic recreational athletes with significant CAD. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Asymptomatic Subjects With Advanced Vascular Atherosclerosis of the Carotid Artery (Type III and IV b Findings Using Ultrasound) and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ansgar; Bojara, Waldemar; Schunk, Klaus

    2018-02-01

    A study was conducted as to whether the early diagnosis of coronary heart disease in asymptomatic subjects with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery which additionally shows at least one risk factor is successful using ultrasound technology. Within the scope of an occupational screening program using subjects from diverse employment sectors, people were given the opportunity to determine their risk of heart attack. During the study the total plaque area (TPA), the maximum plaque thickness in the carotid artery and the PROCAM-Scores of 3,748 healthy men and 2,260 healthy women between the ages of 20 and 64 years were determined. During the subsequent follow-up study 94 subjects sickened. An ultrasound examination of the carotid artery of 79 patients revealed a type III or IV b finding. In a pilot study 33 asymptomatic subjects with a type III or IV b finding in the ultrasound examination were assessed using a computed tomography (CT) coronary angiogram. Additional 10 asymptomatic subjects were examined independently to undergo further cardiac examinations. In the final analysis only five patients had entirely smooth coronary arteries, six had coronary sclerosis, eight had a 30% stenosis, one had a 30-50% stenosis and 23 patients had a stenosis ≥ 50%; and in extreme case, a left main coronary artery stenosis with three-vessel disease. Asymptomatic subjects with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery (type III and type IV b findings) had a high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Early treatment of the disease improves the patient's prognosis. A screening consisting in the combination of TPA measurement and determining the maximum plaque thickness is recommended.

  12. [Screening strategies for the diagnosis of asymptomatic arterial lesions in patients with atherothrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenne, O; Touzé, E; Collet, J P; Raoux, F; Boissier, C; Carpentier, P H; Alpérovitch, A; Mas, J L; Montalescot, G

    2005-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is a ubiquitous inflammatory disease. Patients presenting an acute atherothrombotic event (acute coronary syndrom, stroke, aortic aneurysm, ...) have an increased risk of events in remote arterial territories affected by atherosclerosis. These patients could benefit from systematic screening of asymptomatic atherosclerotic lesions to avoid these complications. For each atherosclerotic territory (coronary artery, carotid artery, aorta, peripheral arteries including renal arteries), we review the methods for screening asymptomatic atherothrombotic lesions which could justify specific treatments: coronary artery stenosis > or = 50%, carotid artery stenosis > or = 60%, renal artery stenosis > or = 50%, and abdominal aortic aneurysm > or = 30 mm. This review shows that non invasive methods (ie, echography, tomodensitometry) are widely available for diagnosis of asymptomatic lesions in carotid and renal arteries, and in the aorta. Despite its invasive caracteristic, coronarory angiography remains the gold-standard for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, cardiac multi-slices CT-scan appears a promising technique for asymptomatic patients.

  13. Short-term results of a randomized trial examining timing of carotid endarterectomy in patients with severe asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Miraldi, Fabio; Frati, Giacomo; Macrina, Francesco; Toscano, Michele

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the timing of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the prevention of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis >70% receiving a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). From January 2004 to December 2009, 185 patients with unilateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis >70%, candidates for CABG, were randomized into two groups. In group A, 94 patients received a CABG with previous or simultaneous CEA. In group B, 91 patients underwent CABG, followed by CEA. All patients underwent preoperative helical computed tomography scans, excluding significant atheroma of the ascending aorta or aortic arch. Baseline characteristics of the patients, type of coronary artery lesion, and preoperative myocardial function were comparable in the two groups. In group A, all patients underwent CEA under general anesthesia with the systematic use of a carotid shunt, and 79 patients had a combined procedure and 15 underwent CEA a few days before CABG. In group B, all patients underwent CEA, 1 to 3 months after CABG, also under general anesthesia and with systematic carotid shunting. Two patients (one in each group) died of cardiac failure in the postoperative period. Operative mortality was 1.0% in group A and 1.1% in group B (P = .98). No strokes occurred in group A vs seven ipsilateral ischemic strokes in group B, including three immediate postoperative strokes and four late strokes, at 39, 50, 58, and 66 days, after CABG. These late strokes occurred in patients for whom CEA was further delayed due to an incomplete sternal wound healing or because of completion of a cardiac rehabilitation program. The 90-day stroke and death rate was 1.0% (one of 94) in group A and 8.8% (eight of 91) in group B (odds ratio [OR], 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.91; P = .02). Logistic regression analysis showed that only delayed CEA (OR, 14.2; 95% CI, 1.32-152.0; P = .03) and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; P = .004) reliably predicted

  14. Coronary artery calcium score: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The coronary artery calcium score plays an Important role In cardiovascular risk stratification, showing a significant association with the medium- or long-term occurrence of major cardiovascular events. Here, we discuss the following: protocols for the acquisition and quantification of the coronary artery calcium score by multidetector computed tomography; the role of the coronary artery calcium score in coronary risk stratification and its comparison with other clinical scores; its indications, interpretation, and prognosis in asymptomatic patients; and its use in patients who are symptomatic or have diabetes. PMID:28670030

  15. Coronary risk variables in young asymptomatic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S B; Dwivedi, S; Prabhu, K M; Singh, G; Kumar, N; Lal, M K

    2005-09-01

    Smoking plays a dominant role in premature atherosclerosis particularly among males in South Asian countries. It initiates and promotes atherosclerosis by altering cardiac haemodynamics, causing dyslipidaemia and producing oxidative damage. Not much information is available from our country. We therefore undertook this study to see the effect of smoking on electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, lipids, apolipoprotein B level and free radical activity in young asymptomatic male smokers. The study included 100 consecutive male subjects (50 smokers and 50 non smokers) aged 30-40 yr. Smoking profile, detailed cardiovascular assessment including ECG and lipid profile were evaluated in each subject. Of the 50 smokers, 22 (44%) had grade I hypertension as against 5 of 50 non smokers. Sinus tachycardia (10%) and P-pulmonale (8%) were the only notable ECG abnormalities. Dyslipidaemia was detected in 92 per cent smokers and 48 per cent non smokers (Plevels were significantly higher (Psmokers compared to non smokers. LDL-cholesterol was > or =135 mg/dl in 94 per cent dyslipidaemic smokers. However, no significant difference was found in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Smokers had significantly higher serum malondialdehyde levels (Pnon smokers. Our data indicate that young asymptomatic male smokers tend to have hypertension, dyslipidaemia and increased production of free oxygen radicals, perhaps by attenuation of oxidative stress by cigarette smoking. This makes them prone for premature coronary artery disease. However, the findings need to be confirmed on a larger sample.

  16. Associations between elevated resting heart rate and subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic Korean adults undergoing coronary artery calcium scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Lee, Ji Hyun; Rizvi, Asim; Baskaran, Lohendran; Park, Hyo Eun; Choi, Su-Yeon; Chun, Eun Ju; Sung, Jidong; Park, Sung Hak; Han, Hae-Won; Min, James K; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain

    2016-10-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) and the presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) are closely related with inflammatory activity and cardiovascular disease outcomes. To date, however, the relationship between a high RHR and CAC has not been well studied, especially in non-western populations. We therefore aimed to examine the cross-sectional relationship between high RHR and the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by CAC score in a large sample of Korean adults. A total 26,018 subjects were enrolled and underwent CAC screening as part of a broader general health examination. RHR was categorized into four groups as: 0, >100, or >400 based on RHR. Mean age of the study population was 53.9 ± 8.2 years, and 79.7 % were male. After adjustment, each 10 beat per minute increment in RHR was associated with greater odds of having a CAC score above 100 (OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.08-1.18) or 400 (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.13-1.31). Likewise, following adjustment, the odds of having a CAC >100 or >400 for those with a RHR ≥80 beats per minute were 1.42 (95 % CI 1.19-1.69) and 1.86 (95 % CI 1.42-2.47), respectively, compared with those who had a RHR <60 beats per minute. In a large cohort of Korean adults, elevations in the RHR, particularly above 80 beats per minute, were found to be independently associated with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by CAC scoring.

  17. Prevalence of asymptomatic coronary disease in fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassagnes, Lucie; Gaillard, Vianney [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Monge, Emmanuel [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Faivre, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Delhaye, Cédric [Department of Cardiology, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Molinari, Francesco [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Petyt, Grégory; Hossein-Foucher, Claude [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Salengro, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Wallaert, Benoit [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain [Department of Medical Statistics (EA 2694), Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy, Jacques [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy-Jardin, Martine, E-mail: martine.remy@chru-lille.fr [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Because of growing body of interest on the association between fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (f-IIP) and ischaemic heart disease, we initiated this prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with f-IIP. Methods: Forty-two patients with f-IIP underwent noninvasive screening for CAD that included (a) a chest CT examination enabling calculation of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, then depiction of coronary artery stenosis; and (b) stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Patients with significant coronary abnormalities, defined by a CAC score >400 or coronary artery stenosis >50% at CT and/or perfusion defect >5% at MPS, were referred to the cardiologist. Coronary angiography was indicated in presence of a perfusion defect >10% at MPS or significant left main or proximal left anterior descending stenosis whatever MPS findings. Results: Combining CT and MPS, significant abnormalities were detected in 32/42 patients (76%). The cardiologist: (a) did not consider further investigation in 21 patients (CT abnormalities but no ischaemia at MPS: 12/21; false-positive findings at MPS: 3/21; poor respiratory condition: 6/21); (b) proceeded to coronary angiography in 11 patients which confirmed significant stenoses in 5 patients (5/42; 12%). In the worst-case-scenario (i.e., inclusion of 6 patients with significant coronary artery abnormalities who were not investigated due to poor respiratory condition), the prevalence of CAD reached 26% (11/42). Conclusion: In the studied population of patients with f-IIP, asymptomatic CAD ranged between 12% and 26%.

  18. [Single coronary artery and right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography or echocardiography. However, they must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of angina, dyspnea, syncope, acute myocardial infarction or sudden death in young patients. The case is presented of two rare anomalies, single coronary artery originating from right sinus of Valsalva and right aortic arch, in a 65 year-old patient with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease treated percutaneously. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Coronary-to-bronchial artery fistula in a patient with multivessel coronary disease treated by percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigattieri, Stefano; Fedele, Silvio; Sperandio, Massimiliano; Martuscelli, Eugenio; Simonetti, Giovanni; Altamura, Giuliano; Loschiavo, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    We describe the case of a 78-year-old patient, admitted to our hospital with an acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography showed multivessel coronary artery disease and an anomalous coronary vessel branching from the right coronary artery. After successful percutaneous revascularization and discharge, the anomalous vessel was diagnosed by contrast enhanced 64-multidetector computed tomography as a coronary-to-bronchial fistula. Since the patient was asymptomatic, conservative treatment was selected.

  20. Coronary Artery Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ceberut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of neural tumors though rarely seen in the thorax. The combination with coronary artery diseases is also rare. Here we describe a 66 year-old male who had undergone one-stage combined surgery for thoracic ancient schwannomas removal and coronary artery disease. The masses were, respectively, 13 cm in the middle mediastinum and 5 cm in diameter originating from the intercostal nerve. The tumors were successfully removed using sternotomy, and then a coronary artery bypass grafting was performed. Here we discuss this rare tumor in relation to the relevant literature.

  1. Optimal ECG (Electrocardiogram) Electrode Sites and Criteria for Detection of Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease at Rest and with Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    man could now be done in compari- son to conventional biplane contrast ventriculograms , and once validated, using a calibrated cineradiographic system...17. Selvester, R.H., Sanmarco, M.E.: Infarct Size in Hi-gain, Hi-fidelity Serial VCGs and Serial Ventriculograms in Patients with Proven Coronary...specifi- cation of parameters, such as A-P and lateral dimensions, height, or information from chest x-rays, echos, and ventriculograms . Numerical

  2. Coronary artery fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Subbotin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistulas are classified as abnormalities of termination and referred to as major congenital anomalies. Most coronary artery fistulas are small, unaccompanied by clinical symptoms, and diagnosed by echocardiography or coronarography performed for an unrelated cause. Such fistulas usually do not cause any complications and can spontaneously resolve. However, larger fistulas are usually >3 tones the size of a normal caliber of a coronary artery and may give rise to clinical symptoms in these cases. The clinical symptoms of coronary artery fistulas may mimic those of various heart diseases depending on which chamber a fistula drains into. Most fistulas are congenital. Congenital coronary artery fistulas may occur as an isolated malformation or be concurrent with other cardiac anomalies, more frequently with critical pulmonary stenosis or atresia with an intact interventricular septum and pulmonary stenoses, Fallot's tetralogy, aortic coarctation, and left heart hypoplasia. When choosing a treatment modality, one should take into account the number of fistula communications, the feeding vessel, localization of drainage, degree of myocardial damage, and hemodynamic relevance of the shunt caused by the presence of a fistula. The goal of treatment is to obliterate a fistula by preserving normal coronary blood flow. The risk for persisting fistula should be balanced with the potential risk of complications related to a procedure of coronarography and fistula occlusion. Percutaneous transcatheter coil occlusion of coronary artery fistulas is the modality of choice in children with the suitable anatomy of fistula communications and without concomitant congenital heart diseases.

  3. Multivessel coronary artery thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanei, Yumiko; Janardhanan, Rajesh; Fox, John T; Gowda, Ramesh M

    2009-02-01

    Simultaneous thrombosis of multiple epicardial coronary arteries is an uncommon clinical finding in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We describe a 37-year-old male present with inferior wall STEMI who was found to have large thrombi in both the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left anterior descending artery (LAD). We reviewed 23 patients with multivessel thrombosis in acute myocardial infarction in the literature. The mean age of patients was 53 +/- 14 years (32-82 years); 74% were males, and most patients had multiple risk factors for coronary artery disease. The LAD (78%) and RCA (87%) were the arteries involved for most patients. Aspiration thrombectomy was used in 3 cases. Though it is rare, STEMI with multiple culprit arteries can occur, and it is crucial to recognize this condition to determine the proper treatment, since most of these patients are critically ill.

  4. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for ... narrowed area or blockage. This allows blood to bypass (get around) the blockage. Sometimes people need more ...

  5. Coronary artery spasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blocker or a long-acting nitrate long-term. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this problem worse. They should be ...

  6. [Pediatric case of congenital coronary artery fistula; surgical result and late changes in coronary artery aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Masaaki; Oguma, Fumiaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    Congenital coronary artery fistula is an uncommon heart anomaly involving the coronary arteries. We report here a case of a 4-year-old boy who had a coronary fistula from the right coronary artery to the right ventricle, with a coronary aneurysm. He was asymptomatic, but the calculated ratio of pulmonary blood flow to systemic blood flow was shown to be high [pulmonary flow (Qp)/systemic flow(Qs)=1.78]. The coronary angiography showed that the right coronary artery was dilated beginning at the ostium and had an aneurysm at the acute marginal portion. A large spherical aneurysm approximately 20 mm in diameter was found to have been connected with coronary fistula opening into the right ventricle. Surgical repair by closure of the fistula under direct vision, partial resection and suture closure of the aneurysm was performed. Plication of the proximal portion of the right coronary artery was not performed, and the diffusely dilated artery was left untouched. After this operation, he recovered well under anticoagulant treatment with warfarin and aspirin. Postoperative angiography was performed 17 months after the surgery to evaluate morphological changes in the coronary artery. The angiography confirmed the closure of the fistula and the regression of coronary artery dilatation.

  7. Combined coronary artery bypass surgery and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, J J; Desai, J B

    1995-01-01

    The proper management of patients with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms and significant coexistent coronary artery disease is still debatable. The most common approach has been to perform the coronary artery bypass surgery some weeks before the abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the hope of reducing the cardiac morbidity and mortality. We report our initial experience of three consecutive elective cases where the coronary artery bypass surgery and the abdominal aortic aneurysm repair ...

  8. Early Detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Asymptomatic Patients Assessed by Carotid Duplex and Coronary Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsi Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Carotid duplex may detect subclinical vascular atherosclerosis in more than half of asymptomatic patients without coronary artery calcification detected by coronary computed tomography. These findings have important implications for early-stage atherosclerosis screening and implementation of primary preventive intervention.

  9. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  10. Coronariopatia assintomática em chagásicos com insuficiência cardíaca: prevalência e fatores de risco Asymptomatic coronary artery disease in chagasic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A concomitância de doença arterial coronária assintomática em pacientes com cardiomiopatia chagásica em IC é controversa na literatura médica, pois ambas as doenças se mostram prevalentes em algumas regiões do Brasil. Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência da coronariopatia (lesões > 50% em uma população específica de pacientes com cardiomiopatia chagásica em IC classes funcionais III e IV, que não apresentavam eventos coronarianos prévios. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da coronariopatia (lesões > 50% em uma população específica de pacientes com cardiomiopatia chagásica em IC classes funcionais III e IV, que não apresentavam eventos coronarianos prévios. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se cineangiocoronariografia em 61 pacientes consecutivos, portadores de cardiomiopatia chagásica, em IC classes funcionais III e IV, para se excluir coronariopatia. Esses pacientes faziam parte do protocolo do Estudo de Terapia Celular em Cardiopatias, o qual exigia a realização de cineangiocoronariografia antes de se injetarem células-tronco. Os fatores de risco para aterosclerose também analisados nessa população foram: idade, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, dislipidemia, tabagismo e sobrepeso. RESULTADOS: Idade média 51,6 + 9,6 anos, 65,5% (n = 40 homens. A prevalência de coronariopatia encontrada nessa população foi de 1,6% (1. As prevalências dos fatores de risco foram: hipertensão arterial 18% (11, tabagismo 59% (36, diabetes 1,6% (1 e dislipidemia 6,5% (4. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência da coronariopatia assintomática em pacientes com IC grave de etiologia chagásica é baixa e, entre os fatores de risco para doença coronária, o tabagismo foi o mais prevalente.BACKGROUND: Concomitant asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy in heart failure is controversial in the medical literature, as both diseases are prevalent in some regions of Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of

  11. Coronary artery problems late after arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takeshi; Bhat, Abdul M; Robinson, Bradley W; Baffa, Jeanne M; Radtke, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of late coronary artery abnormalities after arterial switch operation (ASO) for d-loop transposition of the great arteries may be underestimated. We retrospectively reviewed coronary artery morphology in 40 of 97 patients who survived the first year after ASO. Seven asymptomatic patients developed significant late coronary artery abnormalities. One patient died suddenly at home with severe left coronary artery (LCA) ostial stenosis at age 3.8 years. The second patient collapsed during exercise at age 9.6 years due to ventricular fibrillation and severe LCA ostial stenosis despite prior negative exercise stress test (EST) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The third patient was found to have moderate ostial stenosis of the LCA with negative EST and MPI. The fourth patient with exercise-induced ST-T depression and myocardial perfusion defect was shown to have complete LCA occlusion with collateral vessel formation. Three other patients had complete proximal obliteration of either of the coronary arteries with collateral supply. An additional 4 asymptomatic patients had trivial-mild narrowing of the LCA on routine selective coronary angiogram. Incidence of late coronary stenosis or occlusion was not infrequent after ASO (11.3%) and presented usually without preceding symptoms and often after negative non-invasive screening. We advocate routine coronary imaging in all patients after ASO before they participate in competitive sports.

  12. Asymptomatic carotid arterial stenosis - population based screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in the general population is discussed in many countries because of the benefits of carotid endarterectomy in the three trials. Many factors influence the cost-effectiveness of screening. These factors are the prevalence of carotid stenosis, the

  13. Multiple Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuku, Hiroki; Kojima, Sunao; Kuyama, Naoto; Hanatani, Shinsuke; Araki, Satoshi; Tsujita, Kenichi; Tsunoda, Ryusuke; Fukui, Toshihiro; Hokimoto, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    A 74-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with chest pain and dyspnea associated with ST elevation in leads II, III and aVF. An echocardiogram showed an enlarged mass lesion measuring nearly 80 mm. Coronary angiography showed two giant coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in the right coronary artery (RCA). CAAs were also seen in the left main trunk and left anterior descending artery. Computed tomography showed the CAA in the RCA was ruptured into the right atrium. We therefore diagnosed this patient with multiple CAAs, myocardial infarction and coronary artery rupture. He underwent successful surgical excision and coronary bypass surgery. PMID:28768966

  14. Nonsustained, asymptomatic ventricular tachycardia in patients with coronary artery disease: prognosis and incidence of sudden death of patients who are noninducible by electrophysiological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H; Hurst, T; Coch, M; Killat, H; Wunn, B; Waldecker, B

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term prognosis and the sudden death risk for patients with coronary artery disease and spontaneous nonsustained ventricular tachycardia who are not inducible by electrophysiological testing. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who have spontaneous or inducible sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) by electrophysiological testing are at increased risk of dying suddenly, and noninducibility is often considered as a favorable prognostic factor in their risk assessment. We studied 120 consecutive patients with CAD and nonsustained VT during Holter monitoring and followed the patients who were noninducible (n = 93) for 3.5 +/- 1.6 years. None of these patients received antiarrhythmic therapy except beta-blockade. Overall mortality and the sudden death risk was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier estimation. Predictors for overall mortality and sudden death were determined by multivariate analysis. During follow-up, 23 of the 93 patients died, including 13 suddenly. Overall mortality was 9% after 1 year, 16% after 2 years, and 21% after 3 years, respectively. The incidence of sudden death was 1% after 1 year, 8% after 2 years, and 13% after 3 years, respectively. Patients with a LVEF < or = 0.35 had an increased overall mortality risk with 15% after 1 year, 29% after 2 years, and 34% after 3 years (P = 0.012) and a risk of dying suddenly of 4% after 1 year, 12% after 2 years, and 18% after 3 years (P = NS), respectively. LVEF was the only independent predictor for overall mortality. In conclusion, patients with coronary artery disease and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia who are not inducible by electrophysiological testing have a moderate long-term overall mortality risk. The risk of dying suddenly in this patient group is small but not negligible, especially in patients with impaired LVEF.

  15. Coronary artery to left ventricle fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vivek

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary cameral fistulas are an uncommon entity, the etiology of which may be congenital or traumatic. They involve abnormal termination of a coronary artery, usually the right coronary, into a cardiac chamber, usually the right ventricle. Case Presentation We describe a case of female patient with severe aortic stenosis and interventricular septal hypertrophy that underwent bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement with concomitant septal myectomy. On subsequent follow-up an abnormal flow traversing the septum into the left ventricle was identified and Doppler interrogation demonstrated a continuous flow, with a predominantly diastolic component, consistent with coronary arterial flow. Conclusion The literature on coronary cameral fistulas is reviewed and the etiology of the diagnostic findings discussed. In our patient, a coronary artery to left ventricle fistula was the most likely explanation secondary to trauma to the septal perforator artery during myectomy. Since the patient was asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis no intervention was recommended and has done well on follow-up.

  16. The proper use of coronary calcium score and coronary computed tomography angiography for screening asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Shee Yen; Chang, Po-Yen; Lao, Wilson T; Lin, Ying Chin; Chung, Yi-Han; Chan, Wing P

    2017-12-15

    Early detection and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) can reduce incidences of acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we determined the proper use of contributing risk factors and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) when screening asymptomatic patients with coronary arterial stenoses using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We reviewed 934 consecutive patients who received CACS and CCTA between December 2013 and November 2016. At least one cardiovascular disease risk factor was present in each of the 509 asymptomatic participants. Patients were grouped based on CACS into "zero," "minimal" (0  400). Males over 45 years old with diabetes mellitus and hypertension had a higher risk of significant coronary stenosis. In multivariate analysis, age, sex, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus remained significant predictors of stenosis. A CACS of zero occurred in 227 patients (44.6%). There were no significant differences between the "zero" and "minimal" groups (p = 0.421), but the "mild," "moderate," and "excessive" groups showed correlations with significant coronary stenosis. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were associated with higher risk of significant coronary stenosis. Asymptomatic patients with CACSs of zero do not require CCTA, and thereby avoid unnecessary radiation exposure.

  17. Multiple coronary-cameral fistulas to the left ventricle arising from both coronary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Pathak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary-cameral fistula (CCF is an anomalous connection between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or major vessel, seen in about 0.8% of the cases undergoing coronary angiography. Most patients are asymptomatic and diagnosis is made incidentally during coronary angiography. We present an image case of CCF which was found incidentally during pre-liver transplantation work up.

  18. Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh

    2017-01-01

    A family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important risk factor for adverse coronary events, in particular if the disease has an early onset. The risk of CAD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors with a greater genetic contribution earlier in life. Through recent years......), and to characterize and quantify subclinical atherosclerosis in their relatives. Furthermore, the aim was to explore the impact of common genetic risk variants on the age of onset, familial clustering and disease severity. In study I, 143 patients with early- onset CAD were recruited from the Western Denmark Heart...... burden compared with late-onset CAD patients and healthy controls; however, the burden did not associate with familial clustering of CAD. Additionally, familial clustering seemed to be stronger associated with CAD disease severity than the polygenetic burden. Our findings emphasize the hereditary...

  19. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium scores and silent myocardial ischaemia was similar in Indian Asians and European whites in a cross-sectional study of asymptomatic subjects from a U.K. population (LOLIPOP-IPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Piyush; Kooner, Jaspal S; Raval, Usha; Lahiri, Avijit

    2011-05-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is 70% higher among Indian Asians (IA) than European whites (EW), the reasons for this excess remain unexplained. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is highly correlated with coronary plaque burden and silent myocardial ischaemia in EW; but fails to identify excess risk in IA. We hypothesised that IA have a higher prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia compared to EW, despite similar CAC, and this may explain their excess CHD mortality. CAC was measured for 2,369 asymptomatic men and women, aged 35 to 75 years, as part of the London Life Sciences Population (LOLIPOP) study. 518 subjects had CAC scores >100 Agatston units and of these 256 (49%) patients underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). CAC scores were similar among IA and EW, after adjustment for conventional risk factors. MPS abnormalities were seen in 56 (22%) subjects. Presence of diabetes (P = .03) and increasing CAC (P < .001) were independent predictors for severity of silent myocardial ischaemia. Ethnicity did not influence the prevalence or the extent of silent myocardial ischaemia. MPS did not identify greater ischaemia among IA compared with EW. This appears incongruent with almost 2-fold higher risk of CHD mortality observed in IA.

  20. Recurrent post-partum coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnic Frederic S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coronary artery dissection is a rare but well-described cause for myocardial infarction during the post-partum period. Dissection of multiple coronary arteries is even less frequent. Here we present a case of recurrent post-partum coronary artery dissections. This unusual presentation poses unique problems for management. A 35 year-old female, gravida 3 para 2, presented with myocardial infarction 9 weeks and 3 days post-partum. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated left anterior descending (LAD dissection but an otherwise normal coronary anatomy. The lesion was treated with four everolimus eluting stents. Initially the patient made an unremarkable recovery until ventricular fibrillation arrest occurred on the following day. Unsynchronized cardioversion restored a normal sinus rhythm and repeat catheterization revealed new right coronary artery (RCA dissection. A wire was passed distally, but it was unclear whether this was through the true or false lumen and no stents could be placed. However, improvement of distal RCA perfusion was noted on angiogram. Despite failure of interventional therapy the patient was therefore treated conservatively. Early operation after myocardial infarction has a significantly elevated risk of mortality and the initial dissection had occurred within 24 hours. This strategy proved successful as follow-up transthoracic echocardiography after four months demonstrated a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction of 55-60% without regional wall motion abnormalities. The patient remained asymptomatic from a cardiac point of view.

  1. Heart Attack Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent or slow the progression of coronary artery disease. A heart-healthy diet, exercise, and other lifestyle choices are the basic steps to keeping your heart strong and healthy. Coronary artery disease begins when fatty deposits (plaques) containing cholesterol build ...

  2. Resistant spontaneous coronary artery spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Şahin, Alparslan; Yıldız, Süleyman Sezai; Aksan, Gökhan

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery spasm should always be suspected in patients who have myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries. This case report presents a 33-year-old woman with anterior myocardial infarction, whose coronary angiograph revealed normal left anterior descending artery and new onset complete occlusion of the circumflex artery at the time of the procedure. Nitroglycerin up to 800 mcg was administered without success. In such resistant cases, when all efforts fail, including prompt recognition and application of vasodilator drugs, retracting the catheter and waiting may play a role.

  3. Screening asymptomatic patients with diabetes for unknown coronary artery disease: Does it reduce risk? An open-label randomized trial comparing a strategy based on exercise testing aimed at revascularization with management based on pharmacological/behavioural treatment of traditional risk factors. DADDY-D Trial (Does coronary Atherosclerosis Deserve to be Diagnosed and treated early in Diabetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Stefania

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease with treatment by means of revascularization seems to be an appealing option for prevention. The utility of such a strategy has never been challenged in a randomized trial. Methods/Design In the present study a cohort of diabetic patients without any symptoms and without known coronary artery disease will be screened at two diabetes outpatients services. Those with intermediate or high risk (equal or greater than 10% according to the Italian risk chart will be asked to participate and enrolled. They will be seen and followed in order to provide the best adherence to medical therapy. Half of the patients will be randomized to undergo an exercise tolerance testing while the other group will continue to be regularly seen at diabetes outpatients services. Best medical/behavioral therapy will be offered to both groups. Those patients with a positive exercise tolerance testing will be studied by coronary angiography and treated according to the severity of coronary lesions by percutaneous stenting or surgery. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of the screening strategy aimed at revascularization. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed at the end of the follow up. Discussion The study will provide useful information about prevention and treatment of diabetic patients at high risk of coronary events. It will be made clearer if detection of silent coronary artery disease has to be recommended and followed by treatment. Given the simplicity of the study protocol, it will be easily transferable to the real world. Trial registration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00547872

  4. Long-Term Prognostic Value of Coronary CT Angiography in Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se Hun; Park, Gyung-Min; Lee, Seung-Whan; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Kim, Young-Hak; Cho, Young-Rak; Park, Hyun Woo; Suh, Jon; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Koh, Eun Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are limited data on the long-term prognostic impact of coronary CTA in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study analyzed clinical outcomes of 591 consecutive asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent coronary CTA (mean age 62.2 ± 8.3 years and 352 men [59.6%]). A cardiac event was defined as a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring hospitalization, or late coronary revascularization. Patients were categorized into 3 groups according to severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) on coronary CTA: normal coronary arteries, nonobstructive CAD (28.4%) had normal coronary arteries, whereas 236 (39.9%) patients had nonobstructive CAD and 187 (31.6%) had obstructive CAD. During the follow-up period (median 5.3 years [interquartile range: 4.7 to 5.8 years]), 37 cardiac events occurred in 29 patents: 10 cardiac deaths, 2 nonfatal myocardial infarctions, 8 cases of unstable angina, and 17 late coronary revascularizations. The 6-year event-free survival rates were 99.3 ± 0.7% in patients with normal coronary arteries, 96.7 ± 1.2% in patients with nonobstructive CAD, and 86.2 ± 3.0% in patients with obstructive CAD (log-rank p type 2 diabetes mellitus with normal coronary arteries or nonobstructive CAD on coronary CTA show excellent clinical outcomes over a follow-up period of more than 5 years, whereas prognosis is worse in patients with obstructive CAD. These findings suggest long-term prognostic value of coronary CTA for asymptomatic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospective Coronary Heart Disease Screening in Asymptomatic Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Using Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: Results and Risk Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girinsky, Theodore, E-mail: girinsky.theodore@orange.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); M’Kacher, Radhia [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Oncology, Institut de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire/Direction des Sciences Vivantes/Commissariat Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Lessard, Nathalie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Koscielny, Serge [Biostatistics and Epidemiology Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Elfassy, Eric; Raoux, François [Department of Radiology, Marie Lannelongue, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Carde, Patrice [Department of Hematology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Santos, Marcos Dos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Margainaud, Jean-Pierre [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Sabatier, Laure [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Oncology, Institut de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire/Direction des Sciences Vivantes/Commissariat Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Ghalibafian, Mithra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paul, Jean-François [Department of Radiology, Marie Lannelongue, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the coronary artery status using coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma treated with combined modalities and mediastinal irradiation. Methods and Materials: All consecutive asymptomatic patients with Hodgkin lymphoma entered the study during follow-up, from August 2007 to May 2012. Coronary CT angiography was performed, and risk factors were recorded along with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measurements. Results: One hundred seventy-nine patients entered the 5-year study. The median follow-up was 11.6 years (range, 2.1-40.2 years), and the median interval between treatment and the CCTA was 9.5 years (range, 0.5-40 years). Coronary artery abnormalities were demonstrated in 46 patients (26%). Coronary CT angiography abnormalities were detected in nearly 15% of the patients within the first 5 years after treatment. A significant increase (34%) occurred 10 years after treatment (P=.05). Stenoses were mostly nonostial. Severe stenoses were observed in 12 (6.7%) of the patients, entailing surgery with either angioplasty with stent placement or bypass grafting in 10 of them (5.5%). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that age at treatment, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, as well as radiation dose to the coronary artery origins, were prognostic factors. In the group of patients with LTL measurements, hypertension and LTL were the only independent risk factors. Conclusions: The findings suggest that CCTA can identify asymptomatic individuals at risk of acute coronary artery disease who might require either preventive or curative measures. Conventional risk factors and the radiation dose to coronary artery origins were independent prognostic factors. The prognostic value of LTL needs further investigation.

  6. Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the right heart; the left coronary artery supplies the left heart. Review Date 6/6/2016 Updated by: Deepak Sudheendra, MD, RPVI, Assistant Professor of Interventional Radiology & Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School ...

  7. Woven Coronary Artery Anomaly Associated with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Selim; Ozturk, Serkan; Tekelioglu, Umit Yasar; Ocak, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    The woven coronary artery anomaly is a rare congenital anomaly in which a coronary artery is divided into thin channels that merge again into the distal lumen. Only a few cases of woven coronary artery have been reported in the literature. This anomaly is accepted as a benign condition. We describe a case of acute coronary syndrome in a patient with woven coronary artery anomaly. PMID:24436585

  8. A large left atrial lipoma combined with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zheng, Xiaomei; Du, Yu; Zhu, Zhicheng; Wang, Tiance; Xu, Rihao; Li, Dan; Liu, Kexiang

    2017-08-22

    Primary benign tumors of the heart are extremely rare and usually difficult to diagnose for their asymptomatic signs. A 66-year-old woman was admitted for shortness of breath caused by a large left atrial lipoma combined with coronary artery disease. Next, we successfully performed simultaneous curative surgery for the large cardiac lipoma and coronary artery bypass grafting with a "starfish" and no cardiopulmonary bypass was used.The patient was discharged on the eighth postoperative day in a good condition, and has remained asymptomatic at the 5-month follow-up. Lipomas are rare and difficult to diagnose, while computed tomography and computed tomography angiography can give us very important clues. Surgery is necessary. We can introduce a "starfish"to the operationand the cardiopulmonary bypass is unnecessary for the left lipoma with coronary artery disease.

  9. The Emerging Roles of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography: Acute Chest Pain Evaluation and Screening for Asymptomatic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ning; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Lin, Po-Chih; Tseng, Yao-Hui; Lee, Yee-Fan; Ko, Wei-Chun; Lee, Bai-Chin; Lee, Wen-Jeng

    2016-03-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has been widely available since 2004. After that, the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA has been extensively validated with invasive coronary angiography for detection of coronary arterial stenosis. In this paper, we reviewed the updated evidence of the role of CCTA in both scenarios including acute chest pain and screening in asymptomatic adults. Several large-scale studies have been conducted to evaluate the diagnostic value of CCTA in the context of acute chest pain patients. CCTA could play a role in delivering more efficient care. For risk stratification of asymptomatic patients using CCTA, latest studies have revealed incremental benefits. Future studies evaluating the totality of plaque characteristics may be useful for determining the role of noncalcified plaque for risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals. Acute chest pain • Computed tomography • Coronary artery disease • Health screening • Stable angina.

  10. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary-artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M-C. Morice (Marie-Claude); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter); A. Colombo (Antonio); D.R. Holmes Jr (David); M.J. Mack (Michael); E. Stahle (Elisabeth); T.E. Feldman (Ted); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); E.J. Bass (Eric); N. van Dyck (Nic); K. Leadly (Katrin); K.D. Dawkins (Keith); F.W. Mohr (Friedrich)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) involving drug-eluting stents is increasingly used to treat complex coronary artery disease, although coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the treatment of choice historically. Our trial compared PCI and CABG for treating

  11. Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery; ALCAPA; ALCAPA syndrome; Bland-White-Garland syndrome; ... children with ALCAPA, the LCA originates from the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary artery is the major blood ...

  12. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Varda, Rajsekhar; Chitimilla, Santosh Kumar; Lalani, Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair) usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 1 4 × 2 8  mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and ...

  13. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajsekhar Varda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 14×28 mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and symptoms.

  14. Microvascular Coronary Artery Spasm Presents Distinctive Clinical Features With Endothelial Dysfunction as Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sumida, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Sugamura, Koichi; Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Morihisa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Background Angina without significant stenosis, or nonobstructive coronary artery disease, attracts clinical attention. Microvascular coronary artery spasm (microvascular CAS) can cause nonobstructive coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical features of microvascular CAS and the therapeutic efficacy of calcium channel blockers. Methods and Results Three hundred seventy consecutive, stable patients with suspected angina presenting nonobstructive coronary arteries (

  15. The association between uric acid levels and different clinical manifestations of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Trine R; Gerke, Oke; Diederichsen, Axel C P

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Uric acid (UA) has been associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease. To further assess the role of UA role in coronary artery disease, we investigated UA levels in both healthy asymptomatic middle-aged individuals and in different subgroups of hospitalized patients...

  16. Coronary Artery Bypass in Octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yen Chien

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD has increased with the expansion of life span among the elderly population in the world. Hence, the issue of the coronary artery bypass in octogenarians has attracted more attention. Recent literature about the topic revealed nearly the same excellent results as those in the younger population under the newly developed operative techniques and improving concept in perioperative management and postoperative care. In this article, we review the current status of the procedure that was thought to be dangerous in the earlier era, including its risk factors, result, and benefit.

  17. Severe asymptomatic coronary obstruction in chronic hemodialysed patient - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculeț, C; Zara, O; Văcăroiu, I; Bogeanu, C; Tiron, T; Turcu, F; Aron, G; Ciocâlteu, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Arterial stiffness and vascular calcifications are independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D population. According to the guidelines, patients on renal replacement therapy represent a very high cardiovascular risk class. Case report. We report the case of a 67-year-old hypertensive male patient, known with CKD stage 5D on hemodialysis (three times per week), secondary bone mineral disease, admitted for progressive right leg pain. The physical examination detected right dorsalis pedis artery pulse absence. Blood biochemistry emphasized hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, iPTH values above upper limits. The X-ray of right shin highlighted a vascular calcification with a "train track" aspect on the tibial-peroneal artery trunk and the thoracic X-ray (performed with low ray regime) showed calcium deposits in coronary arteries walls. Legs arteriography and coronary angiography were performed revealing multiple lesions on investigated vessels with an 80% narrowing of right coronary artery. The particularity of the case lies in the absence of angina in a chronic hemodialysis patient in whom multiple significant angiographically stenosis of the coronary arteries were found and successful endovascular therapy was performed. Conclusion. The broadening of the indication for coronary angiography should be considered in certain asymptomatic CKD stage 5D patients based on a risk score involving calcium, phosphate, PTH and acid-base imbalances, while considering their major influence on the structure and tone of vascular walls thus on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. Abbreviations. ABI = ankle-brachial index,CAD = coronary artery disease,CKD = chronic kidney disease,CT = computed tomography, EBCT = electron-beam computed tomography,ESRD = end-stage renal disease,GFR = glomerular filtration rate,iPTH = intact parathormon

  18. Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McPherson, Ruth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute importantly to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), and in the past decade, there has been major progress in this area. The tools applied include genome-wide association studies encompassing >200,000 individuals complemented by bioinformatic approaches, including...

  19. Coronary artery disease: medical therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one in three for women.1 Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease begins in childhood and the risk factors influence the development of atherosclerosis throughout one's lifetime.2. A standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries, representing every inhabited continent, demonstrated that nine ...

  20. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: an autopsied sudden death case with severe atherosclerotic disease of the left coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, T; Mukai, T; Takahashi, S; Takada, A; Saito, K; Harada, K; Mori, S; Abe, N

    2014-03-01

    Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare anomaly. It may contribute to myocardial ischemia or sudden death, although the lesion is usually asymptomatic. We report a sudden death case of a 58-year-old man with ARCAPA coexisting with severe atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. He had been healthy until he complained of chest pain, several days before death, despite the discovery of heart murmur in childhood and suspicion of valvular heart disease. The autopsy revealed not only typical findings of the right coronary anomaly with well-developed collateral circulations but also severe atherosclerotic lesions of the left coronary artery, and ischemic change of the myocardium in the left and right coronary arterial perfusion territory. In addition to the "coronary steal" phenomenon primarily caused by ARCAPA, the reduced flow of both coronary arteries and further increase of "coronary steal" due to atherosclerotic obstructive coronary disease might have contributed to the patient's death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis.......The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....

  2. Coronary microvascular dysfunction equivalent to left main coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panç, Cafer; Kocaağa, Mehmet; Erdoğan, Onur; Sarıkaya, Remzi; Umman, Sabahattin

    2017-04-01

    Coronary microvascular dysfunction, also known as cardiac syndrome X, is a clinical syndrome presenting with typical angina and evidence of myocardial ischemia in the absence of flow-limiting stenosis on coronary angiography. Of patients undergoing coronary angiography due to suspected myocardial ischemia, 50% are found to have normal or near-normal coronary arteries. Described in this case report is a patient who developed hypotension and ST segment depressions during treadmill exercise test. Left main coronary artery or multivessel disease was suspected. Coronary angiography was normal, but coronary flow reserve measurement revealed severe microvascular dysfunction.

  3. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting versus coronary angioplasty for isolated type C stenosis of the left anterior descending artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariani, MA; Boonstra, PW; Grandjean, JG; Monnink, SHJ; denHeijer, P; Crijns, HJGM

    Background: Isolated stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery can be treated with medication, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass grafting. Recently a new treatment has been developed, which is called minimally invasive direct coronary artery

  4. Carotid artery intima-media thickness, but not coronary artery calcium, predicts vascular resistance in patients evaluated for coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danad, I.; Raijmakers, P.G.; Kamali, P.; Harms, H.J.; de Haan, S.; Lubberink, J.M.; van Kuijk, C.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Smulders, Y.M.; Heijmans, M.W.; Tulevski, I.I.; van Rossum, A.C.; Knaapen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: There is growing evidence that coronary artery disease (CAD) affects not only the conduit epicardial coronary arteries, but also the microvascular coronary bed. Moreover, coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMVD) often precedes the stage of clinically overt epicardial CAD. Coronary artery

  5. Coronary Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents David ... up inside your arteries. One atherosclerosis-related disease, coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common heart disease and ...

  6. Coronary arteries bypass grafting stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is a major global problem. In addition, it is higher risk of mortality for women more than men are when develop in female gender Atherosclerotic plaques consist of deposits of fatty material in the tunica intima. The role of inflammatory process in CAD has been known from 1980’s. Several studies investigated the innate immunity and adaptive immunity roles in atherosclerosis and they concluded that it plays a key role in atherosclerosis. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG is a widely used method for the treatment of CAD. Based on the literature, CABG is the most common surgical operation done worldwide. In During the first 10 years after CABG, up to 50% of saphenous grafts will occlude. Graft restenosis is beginning with acute thrombosis, intima hyperplasia, and plaque formation. In this review, some molecular pathways of graft failure and restenosis such as apoptosis and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ĸB are described.

  7. Prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic healthy subjects: an intravascular ultrasound study of donor hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Cheol-Whan; Han, Seungbong; Park, Duk-Woo; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung; Kim, Jae-Joong

    2013-01-01

    At present, limited in vivo information is available on the prevalence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence, extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in healthy individuals. We performed an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination on 198 heart transplant recipients 4 weeks after transplantation. The donor population consisted of 147 men and 51 women (31.4±11.0 years). The left anterior descending coronary artery was imaged in all patients, and 3 vessel images were obtained for 99 patients. Angiographic appearance was completely normal in 177 of the 198 subjects (89.4%), while atherosclerotic luminal irregularities were observed in the remaining individuals. IVUS revealed that atherosclerotic lesions (defined as intimal thickness ≥0.5 mm at any site) were present in 96 patients (48.5%). The prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis rapidly increased with age (10-19 years, 5.9%; 20-29 years, 31.1%; 30-39 years, 59.0%; 40-49 years, 78.4%). In the diseased subgroup, atherosclerotic lesions were mostly eccentric (92.7%), with maximal intimal thickness of 0.99±0.42 mm (area stenosis, 32.2±11.7%). All coronary arteries were predominantly located in the proximal third of each vessel. Donor age, male sex, and hypertension were the determinants of coronary atherosclerosis measured by IVUS examination. As more risk factors were present, the risk of atherosclerosis increased. Coronary atherosclerosis is common in asymptomatic young healthy adults, supporting the need for preventive cardiology in the early stages of life.

  8. [Coronary artery aneurysm with various clinical course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, A; Kaneda, K; Yoshida, Y; Heima, D; Hirao, S; Nagasaka, S; Yokoyama, S; Nishiwaki, N

    2009-12-01

    Case 1: A 77-year-old woman had effort angina pectoris. Coronary angiography (CAG) revealed a coronary artery aneurysm on the left descending artery. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and patch angioplasty for the aneurysm were performed. Case 2 : A 69-year-old woman had effort dyspnea CAG showed dilation of the left main trunk and beaded aneurysms (maximum 6 cm in diameter) behind the ascending aorta with a fistula to the right atrium. We closed the fistula and performed CABG to the circumflex branch. Case 3 : A 78-year-old woman had had general fatigue for 2 weeks. Previous CAG had revealed coronary artery aneurysms and current chest computered tomography revealed pericardial effusion. She was, therefore, diagnosed with the rupture of the coronary artery aneurysm. We closed the coronary artery aneurysm and performed CABG. Case 4: A 55-year-old man had been diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction and had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention 3 years before. CAG revealed a coronary artery aneurysm on the right coronary artery. We resected the aneurysm and interposed with saphenous vein graft. Although coronary artery aneurysm often has no symptoms, in the cases of angina, myocardial infarction, rupture or large aneurysm more than 3 times larger than the normal diameter, surgical repair should be considered.

  9. New Technologies in Coronary Artery Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taggart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in developed countries. Major recent studies such as SYNTAX and FREEDOM have confirmed that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG remains the gold standard treatment in terms of survival and freedom from myocardial infarction and the need for repeat revascularization. The current review explores the use of new technologies and future directions in coronary artery surgery, through 1 stressing the importance of multiple arterial conduits and especially the use of bilateral mammary artery; 2 discussing the advantages and disadvantages of off-pump coronary artery bypass; 3 presenting additional techniques, e.g. minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting, hybrid, and robotic-assisted CABG; and, finally, 4 debating a novel external stenting technique for saphenous vein grafts.

  10. [Is there a role for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis screening?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Bass, Arie

    2014-08-01

    Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is highly controversial Many surgeons routinely screen their patients for carotid disease prior to major operations, yet the benefit of such practice was never demonstrated. The treatment of symptomatic patients has not changed much during the last twenty years, since the publication of the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET). However, in contrast, the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS) and the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST) failed to get the same acceptance among the multidisciplinary group treating CAS.The prevalence of asymptomatic 60-99% carotid artery stenosis among the general population is about 1%. Neither ACAS nor ACST showed that stenosis severity was associated with increasing stroke risk. The 'realpolitik' is that mass interventions in asymptomatic patients will probably only ever prevent about 1% of all strokes. This is even truer regarding patients scheduLed for major operation, in which the incidence of stroke is less than 1%. Moreover the current evidence in the literature suggests that the best medicaL treatment (BMT) results in 0.5% strokes per year, better than resuLts which can be offered by surgery. According to the current evidence, it seems that asymptomatic carotid artery screening should be discontinued, since it is a major waste of resources.

  11. Atherosclerotic burden in coronary and peripheral arteries in patients with first clinical manifestation of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjec, Igor

    2011-04-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the atherosclerotic burden in patients with the first symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD). The study population consisted of 100 consecutive patients (new-onset severe angina or myocardial infarction) and 70 age and sex matched asymptomatic volunteers. Functional and morphologic atherosclerotic markers were sought in carotid, brachial and femoral arteries of all individuals by means of high-resolution ultrasonography, whereas coronary arteriography was performed in the CAD patients only. A total of 347 coronary lesions [230 (66%) obstructive] were discovered in the CAD patients as well as 105 peripheral plaques [26 (25%) obstructive]. The mean percentage diameter stenosis of the culprit coronary lesion was 83.8 ± 15.8%, the mean vessel score 1.7 (range 0-3), the mean stenosis score 19.8 (range 1.5-89.0), and the mean extent score 49.1% (range 10-65%). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation, as assessed by the brachial flow-mediated response (FMR), was reduced by 50% in the CAD patients (P peripheral arteries of the CAD patients (P arteries of the CAD patients by 43%, in brachial arteries by 20% and in femoral arteries by 57% (P peripheral arteries of our patients with the first clinical presentation of CAD.

  12. Accelerated collagen turnover in women with angina pectoris without obstructive coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe H; Mygind, Naja D; Michelsen, Marie M

    2018-01-01

    Aim Collagens are major cardiac extracellular matrix components, known to be actively remodelled and accumulated during diffuse myocardial fibrosis. We evaluated whether accelerated collagen turnover described by neo-epitope biomarkers reflecting collagen formation and degradation separates......, but without significant obstructive coronary artery disease, showed an imbalanced collagen turnover compared to asymptomatic controls. The examined biomarkers are tools to monitor active collagen remodelling in patients with angina pectoris, in risk of developing myocardial fibrosis....... patients with diffuse myocardial fibrosis from asymptomatic controls. Methods and results Seventy-one women with angina pectoris without significant coronary artery disease assessed by invasive coronary angiogram were included. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) measuring circulating...

  13. Marital Discord and Coronary Artery Disease: A Comparison of Behaviorally Defined Discrete Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Uchino, Bert N.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Marital difficulties can confer risk of coronary heart disease, as in a study of outwardly healthy couples (T. W. Smith et al., 2011) where behavioral ratings of low affiliation and high control during marital disagreements were associated with asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). However, taxometric studies suggest that marital…

  14. Efeito da cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica sobre os episódios isquêmicos assintomáticos Effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery on ischemic asymptomatic episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Pierri

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM sobre episódios isquêmicos assintomáticos (EIA. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 28 homens, com angina estável (idade média 57,3±9,6 anos sem condições relacionadas a alterações de microcirculação e que, após retirada da medicação, apresentaram EIA à eletrocardiografia ambulatorial (ECGA. No pré-operatório e 4 meses após a cirurgia foram analisados os comportamentos dos EIA, segundo sua freqüência, e o de suas freqüências cardíacas (FC. A revascularização miocárdica foi completa em 75% dos casos. RESULTADOS: O número dos EIA foi reduzido de 162 (9 sintomáticos no pré-operatório para, apenas, 4 no pós-operatório (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG on ischemic asymptomatic episodes (IAE. METHODS: Twenty eight males (mean age 57.3±9.6 years with stable angina and no microcirculation abnormalities, who presented with IAE after medication withdrawal, were studied using ambulatory electrocardiography monitoring. Presence of IEA was analyzed before and 4 months after CABG according to its frequency and heart rate (HR response. CAGB was considered complete in 75% of the cases. RESULTS: The number of IAE was reduced from 162 (9 symptomatic in the preoperative period to 4 after surgery (p<0.05. In two patients with IAE in the postoperative period, coronariography confirmed obstruction of aortocoronary grafts. Analysis of HR at the beginning and peak of IAE suggested as mechanisms both reduced blood flow and increased oxygen consumption by the myocardium. CONCLUSION: CABC eliminated IAE regardless of HR. When IAE is present after surgery, graft occlusion should be suspected.

  15. Detecting asymptomatic coronary artery disease using routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    monitored stress testing may result in a greater sensitivity and specificity being achieved. A study was undertaken to determine whether the addition of thallium imaging to conventional exercise stress testing holds any benefits in ...

  16. Right coronary wall cmr in the older asymptomatic advance cohort: positive remodeling and associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Brian K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary wall cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is a promising noninvasive approach to assess subclinical atherosclerosis, but data are limited in subjects over 60 years old, who are at increased risk. The purpose of the study was to evaluate coronary wall CMR in an asymptomatic older cohort. Results Cross-sectional images of the proximal right coronary artery (RCA were acquired using spiral black-blood coronary CMR (0.7 mm resolution in 223 older, community-based patients without a history of cardiovascular disease (age 60-72 years old, 38% female. Coronary measurements (total vessel area, lumen area, wall area, and wall thickness had small intra- and inter-observer variabilities (r = 0.93~0.99, all p Conclusions Right coronary wall CMR in asymptomatic older subjects showed increased coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes as well as coronary calcification. Coronary wall CMR may contribute to the noninvasive assessment of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in older, at-risk patient groups.

  17. Asymptomatic Bilateral Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction due to Supernumerary Renal Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoja Mohammadali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A supernumerary renal artery is a common arterial variation, which warrants consi-derations in a variety of urologic and retroperitoneal operations. Supernumerary renal arteries can be associated with other uro-vascular variations and anomalies such as duplicated renal veins and ureters, aberrant origin of the gonadal arteries, persistence of fetal renal lobulation, and kidney malrotation. The role of crossing supernumerary renal arteries in ureteropelvic junction obstruc-tion (UPJO is controversial. We report a healthy potential renal transplant donor with bilateral UPJO, which appeared to be secondary to supernumerary renal (inferior polar arteries. We believe that the bilateral occurrence of asymptomatic UPJO associated with supernumerary renal arteries has not been previously reported.

  18. Management standards for stable coronary artery disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sundeep; Ray, Saumitra; Dalal, Jamshed J; Sawhney, J P S; Ramakrishnan, S; Nair, Tiny; Iyengar, S S; Bahl, V K

    2016-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the important causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality globally, giving rise to more than 7 million deaths annually. An increasing burden of CAD in India is a major cause of concern with angina being the leading manifestation. Stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) is characterised by episodes of transient central chest pain (angina pectoris), often triggered by exercise, emotion or other forms of stress, generally triggered by a reversible mismatch between myocardial oxygen demand and supply resulting in myocardial ischemia or hypoxia. A stabilised, frequently asymptomatic phase following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is also classified as SCAD. This definition of SCAD also encompasses vasospastic and microvascular angina under the common umbrella. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm Causing Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yanık

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old man with hypertension was admitted to our coronary ICU with acute anterior MI. Emergent primary PCI was planned and coronary angiography was performed. LAD artery was totally occluded in the proximal segment just after a huge 32 × 26 mm sized aneurysm. Emergent CABG operation was performed in 75 minutes because of multivessel disease including the RCA and left circumflex artery. Aneurysm was ligated and coronary bypass was performed using LIMA and saphenous grafts. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. He was discharged with medical therapy including ASA, clopidogrel, and atorvastatin. He was asymptomatic at his polyclinic visit in the first month.

  20. Early results of coronary artery bypass grafting with coronary endarterectomy for severe coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toischer Karl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of controversial debates on the efficiency of coronary endarterectomy (CE, it is still used as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. This is particularly true in patients with endstage coronary artery disease. Given the improvements in cardiac surgery and postoperative care, as well as the rising number of elderly patient with numerous co-morbidities, re-evaluating the pros and cons of this technique is needed. Methods Patient demographic information, operative details and outcome data of 104 patients with diffuse calcified coronary artery disease were retrospectively analyzed with respect to functional capacity (NYHA, angina pectoris (CCS and mortality. Actuarial survival was reported using a Kaplan-Meyer analysis. Results Between August 2001 and March 2005, 104 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG with adjunctive coronary endarterectomy (CE in the Department of Thoracic-, Cardiac- and Vascular Surgery, University of Goettingen. Four patients were lost during follow-up. Data were gained from 88 male and 12 female patients; mean age was 65.5 ± 9 years. A total of 396 vessels were bypassed (4 ± 0.9 vessels per patient. In 98% left internal thoracic artery (LITA was used as arterial bypass graft and a total of 114 vessels were endarterectomized. CE was performed on right coronary artery (RCA (n = 55, on left anterior descending artery (LAD (n = 52 and circumflex artery (RCX (n = 7. Ninety-five patients suffered from 3-vessel-disease, 3 from 2-vessel- and 2 from 1-vessel-disease. Closed technique was used in 18%, open technique in 79% and in 3% a combination of both. The most frequent endarterectomized localization was right coronary artery (RCA = 55%. Despite the severity of endstage atherosclerosis, hospital mortality was only 5% (n = 5. During follow-up (24.5 ± 13.4 months, which is 96% complete (4 patients were lost caused by unknown address 8 patients died (cardiac

  1. Multimodality imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, Liesbeth Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes multiple imaging modalities to examine coronary artery bypass grafts, and the research which was performed to further develop noninvasive imaging techniques to detect stenoses in native coronary arteries and bypass grafts in patients who experienced recurrent chest pain after

  2. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection during cabergoline therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nishaki Kiran; Malkani, Samir; Ockene, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Although spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome, it should be considered during the evaluation of patients who have chest pain. Coronary vasospasm can lead to spontaneous dissection. The dopamine agonist cabergoline is known to cause digital vasospasm. Herein, we report a case of spontaneous right coronary artery dissection in a 43-year-old woman who was taking cabergoline as therapy for prolactinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an apparent relationship between cabergoline therapy and spontaneous coronary artery dissection. The possible association of cabergoline with coronary artery spasm and dissection should be considered in patients who present with chest pain while taking this medication.

  3. Clinical and Angiographic Factors Associated With Asymptomatic Restenosis After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.N. Ruygrok (Peter); M.W.I. Webster (Mark); V. de Valk (Vincent); G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); J.A. Ormiston (John); M-A.M. Morel (Marie-Angèle); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Angiographic restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventional procedures is more common than recurrent angina. Clinical and angiographic factors associated with asymptomatic versus symptomatic restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention were compared. METHODS AND

  4. Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in coronary and brachial arteries in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Kajikawa, Masato; Nakashima, Ayumu; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Iwamoto, Akimichi; Oda, Nozomu; Kishimoto, Shinji; Matsui, Shogo; Higaki, Tadanao; Shimonaga, Takashi; Watanabe, Noriaki; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Goto, Chikara; Aibara, Yoshiki; Noma, Kensuke; Higashi, Yukihito

    2016-09-15

    Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation, an index of endothelium-independent vasodilation, is measured for the assessment of vascular smooth muscle cell function or alterations of vascular structure. Both coronary and brachial artery responses to nitroglycerine have been demonstrated to be independent prognostic markers of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in coronary and brachial arteries in the same patients. We measured nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in coronary and brachial arteries in 30 subjects with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent coronary angiography (19 men and 11 women; mean age, 69.0±8.8years; age range, 42-85years). The mean values of nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in the brachial artery, left anterior descending coronary artery, and left circumflex coronary artery were 12.6±5.2%, 11.6±10.3%, and 11.9±11.0%, respectively. Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in the brachial artery correlated significantly with that in the left anterior descending coronary artery (r=0.43, P=0.02) and that in the left circumflex coronary artery (r=0.49, P=0.006). There was also a significant correlation between nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in the left anterior descending coronary artery and that in the left circumflex coronary artery (r=0.72, Parteries and that in coronary arteries are simultaneously present. Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in the brachial artery could be used as a surrogate for that in a coronary artery and as a prognostic marker for cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biaxial vasoactivity of porcine coronary artery

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Yunlong; Cheng, Yana; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lu, Xiao; Ghassan S. Kassab

    2012-01-01

    The passive mechanical properties of blood vessel mainly stem from the interaction of collagen and elastin fibers, but vessel constriction is attributed to smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction. Although the passive properties of coronary arteries have been well characterized, the active biaxial stress-strain relationship is not known. Here, we carry out biaxial (inflation and axial extension) mechanical tests in right coronary arteries that provide the active coronary stress-strain relationsh...

  6. Giant coronary artery aneurysm after Takeuchi repair for anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlay, Shannon M; Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Dearani, Joseph A; Warnes, Carole A

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman with an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery who had undergone Takeuchi repair at age 7 years presented for evaluation. The Takeuchi procedure creates an aortopulmonary window and an intrapulmonary tunnel that baffles the left coronary artery to the aorta. A mediastinal mass was identified as a giant aneurysm of the left coronary artery resulting in compression of the pulmonary artery and left upper pulmonary vein. The patient underwent open repair with patch closure at the aortic entrance of the left coronary Takeuchi repair and resection and evacuation of the aneurysm. A saphenous vein graft to the left anterior descending artery was performed. Postoperative echocardiography demonstrated normal left ventricular function. This is the first reported case of giant aneurysm formation after Takeuchi repair. The reported complications have included the development of pulmonary artery stenosis at the intrapulmonary baffle, baffle leak, decreased left ventricular function, and mitral regurgitation. In conclusion, late complications of the Takeuchi procedure are common, underscoring the importance of lifelong follow-up at a center with experience in treating coronary anomalies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An unusual case of left main coronary artery aneurysm with right ventricle fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Nathani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old boy presented with repeated respiratory tract infections. Echocardiography showed dilation of the left main coronary artery with flow into the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT. Diagnosis of Left Coronary Artery Aneurysm (LMCA with RVOT fistula was made. A surgical repair of LMCA aneurysm by two-patch technique was performed. The patient had an excellent outcome postoperatively and is asymptomatic on follow-up.

  8. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Keita; Mori, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    To minimize surgical morbidity in coronary artery bypass grafting, minimally invasive cardiac surgery has gained popularity. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting offers unique advantages compared to conventional off-pump coronary artery bypass or minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass in that it enables the surgeon to harvest and graft bilateral internal thoracic arteries via a small thoracotomy while being conducted completely off-pump. This review focuses on current evidence behind off-pump coronary artery bypass, multi-arterial revascularization, patient populations that would most benefit from bilateral internal thoracic artery minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting, the surgical technique, and early outcomes. By overcoming the perceived inability to utilize bilateral internal thoracic arteries in minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting, the new technique further expands the armamentarium of surgeons and cardiologists. Hybrid coronary revascularization with bilateral internal thoracic artery minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting further augments the appeal of the next generation of minimally invasive cardiac surgery.

  9. Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease Past Issues / ... narrows or blocks these arteries—a condition called coronary artery disease (CAD) or coronary heart disease (CHD) occurs. A ...

  10. Predictive value of coronary calcifications for future cardiac events in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus: A prospective study in 716 patients over 8 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tittus Janine

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To establish an efficient prophylaxis of coronary artery disease reliable risk stratification is crucial, especially in the high risk population of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. This prospective study determined the predictive value of coronary calcifications for future cardiovascular events in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods We included 716 patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (430 men, 286 women, age 55.2 ± 15.2 years in this study. On study entry all patients were asymptomatic and had no history of coronary artery disease. In addition, all patients showed no signs of coronary artery disease in ECG, stress ECG or echocardiography. Coronary calcifications were determined with the Imatron C 150 XP electron beam computed tomograph. For quantification of coronary calcifications we calculated the Agatston score. After a mean observation period of 8.1 ± 1.1 years patients were contacted and the event rate of cardiac death (CD and myocardial infarction (MI was determined. Results During the observation period 40 patients suffered from MI, 36 patients died from acute CD. The initial Agatston score in patients that suffered from MI or died from CD (475 ± 208 was significantly higher compared to those without cardiac events (236 ± 199, p Conclusion By determination of coronary calcifications patients at risk for future MI and CD could be identified within an asymptomatic high risk group of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. On the other hand future events could be excluded in patients without coronary calcifications.

  11. Transluminal coronary angioplasty complicated by coronary artery perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbiris, D; Iskandrian, A S; Goel, I; Bemis, C E; Gehl, L; Owens, J; Segal, B L

    1982-01-01

    Transluminal coronary angioplasty may be associated with complications resulting from the dilatation catheter and inflation of the balloon. The most common complications are dissection, occlusion, and coronary spasm. We report an unusual complication of coronary artery perforation by the dilatation catheter resulting in acute pericardial tamponade. The complication was immediately recognized and confirmed by dye injection and hemodynamic measurements. Pericardiocentesis was performed, followed by successful coronary bypass surgery. The reasons for the perforation are unclear. We postulate that the acute angle of the perforated vessel was an important factor for this complication. The importance of a standby cardiac surgeon and operating room is emphasized.

  12. Woven coronary artery: differential diagnosis with diffuse intracoronary thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, E; Romeo, F; Giovannini, M; Nigri, A

    2000-04-01

    Woven coronary malformation is characterized by the branching of a major epicardial coronary artery into thin channels which then merge again in a normal conduit. The angiogram can suggest a filling defect instead of a malformation and an undue coronary angioplasty could be performed determining some damage to the arterial wall. In this case report we describe a patient with a stenosis on the left anterior descending coronary artery and a woven coronary artery on the right coronary artery. In 1995 a coronary angioplasty was performed on the left anterior descending coronary artery. Four years later a coronary angiogram did not show any changes in the right coronary artery. In this patient the malformation did not induce any reduction in the coronary reserve as shown at cardiac scintigraphy. We need more information about the natural history of such a malformation.

  13. Rudimentary coronary artery in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A C; Arqué, J M; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; Fernández-Gallego, T; Rodríguez, C; Sans-Coma, V

    2009-08-01

    Congenital underdevelopment of one or more main branches of the coronary arteries has been reported in man, but not in non-human mammals. In man, this defective coronary artery arrangement may cause myocardial ischaemia and even sudden death. The main goal of this study was to describe the coronary artery distribution patterns associated with the presence of a markedly underdeveloped (rudimentary) coronary artery in Syrian hamsters. Moreover, an attempt was made to explain the morphogenesis of these patterns, according to current knowledge on coronary artery development. Eleven affected hamsters belonging to a laboratory inbred family were examined by means of internal casts of the heart, great arterial trunks and coronary arteries. The aortic valve was tricuspid (normal) in seven hamsters and bicuspid in the other four. A rudimentary coronary artery arose from the right side of the aortic valve in four specimens, from the left side of the aortic valve in a further three, and from the dorsal aortic sinus in the remaining four. In all cases, a second, well-developed coronary artery provided for all the coronary blood flow. Except for the existence of a rudimentary coronary artery, the present anomalous coronary artery distribution patterns are similar to coronary artery patterns reported in Syrian hamsters, dogs and humans in association with a solitary coronary ostium in aorta. We suggest that an unusual prolonged time interval in the development of the embryonic coronary stems might be a key factor in the formation of coronary arteries displaying significantly dissimilar developmental degrees.

  14. Updates in management of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Heon; Chae, Shung Chull [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has been increasing during the last decade and is the one of major causes of death. The management of patients with coronary artery disease has evolved considerably. There are two main strategies in the management of CAD, complementary, not competitive, each other; the pharmacologic therapy to prevent and treat CAD and the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore coronary flow. Antiplatelet drugs and cholesterol lowering drugs have central roles in pharmacotherapy. Drug eluting stent (DES) bring about revolutional changes in PCL in the management of patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI), there has been a debate on the better strategy for the restoration of coronary flow. Thrombolytic therapy is widely available and easy to administer, whereas primary PCI is less available and more complex, but more complete. Recently published evidences in the pharmacologic therapy including antiplatelet and statin, and PCI including DES and reperfusion therapy in patients with ST segment elevation AMI were reviewed.

  15. Anomalous left the pulmonary dilemma coronary artery artery from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a continuous murmur associated with angina-like attacks in older patients. Autopsy on these patients reveals a grossly dilated left coronary artery with viable anastomoses between the two coro- nary arteries. Finalll' sudden death is reported in 30% of adults with this anomaly.4, ,10 Characteristically, autopsy shows a large.

  16. Anomalous left the pulmonary dilemma coronary artery artery from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; 8: 787-80I. 6. Wilson CL, Dlabal PW, Holeyfield RW, Akins CW, Knauf DG. Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery: case report and review of. lileralUre concerning teenagers and adults.J Thorac Cardicn'asc SlIrg 1977; ...

  17. Left Atrial Myxoma Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting with Patient Coronary Arterial Grafts: a Rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kartik; Rahul, Kumar; Tarsaria, Malkesh; Malhotra, Amber

    2017-01-01

    The development of left atrial myxoma after coronary artery bypass graft surgery is a rare entity. A 60-year-old man with previous off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting four years ago with patent coronary grafts was diagnosed with left atrial mass. The patient underwent successful resection of the same through minimally invasive right anterolateral thoracotomy. Histopathology of the atrial mass confirmed the diagnosis of atrial myxoma.

  18. [Pregnancy and coronary artery dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause due to an increase in the age of the patients and the association with cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and the existence of family history of coronary disease. However, thrombosis, coronary dissection or coronary vasospasms are other causes that may justify it. We report the case of a 33 weeks pregnant first-time mother, without cardiovascular risk factors, who presented an acute coronary event in the context of atherosclerotic disease and coronary dissection after percutaneous coronary intervention. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Peripheral arterial stenosis and coronary artery disease coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghasemi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic slow-developing condition affecting medium-size and large blood vessels. It is the principal underlying pathology of coronary heart disease and stroke. In some countries, coronary artery disease (CAD is the cause of nearly half (48% of the deaths and, loss of productivity life. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is defined as atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries instead of coronary arteries. CAD and PAD have same risk factors and underlying pathophysiological processes. Therefore, patient with CAD should be considered for PAD. Ankle brachial index (ABI, duplex sonography, and some other non-invasive techniques are recommended for PAD diagnosis in patients with the history of CAD. Pharmacotherapy, endovascular interventions, and surgical management could be chosen according to the patient’s situation. Cardiologists and general practitioners should consider PAD in a patient with CAD or DM as a strong correlated disease.      

  20. Posttraumatic growth in post-surgical coronary artery bypass graft patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Waight

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in posttraumatic growth has been applied to people with life-threatening illnesses to optimise recovery. There is a lack of research exploring posttraumatic growth in coronary artery bypass graft patients. This article describes the recovery experience of 14 coronary artery bypass graft patients (13 males and 1 female at their first outpatient review post-surgery. Grounded theory analysis was used to develop a model of distinct and shared pathways to growth depending on whether patients were symptomatic or asymptomatic pre-coronary artery bypass graft. Outcomes of posttraumatic growth in this sample included action-based healthy lifestyle growth and two forms of cognitive growth: appreciation of life and new possibilities. The model of posttraumatic growth developed in this study may be helpful in guiding future research into promoting posttraumatic growth and behaviour change in coronary artery bypass graft patients.

  1. Posttraumatic growth in post-surgical coronary artery bypass graft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Catherine A; Strodl, Esben; Sheridan, Judith; Tesar, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recent research in posttraumatic growth has been applied to people with life-threatening illnesses to optimise recovery. There is a lack of research exploring posttraumatic growth in coronary artery bypass graft patients. This article describes the recovery experience of 14 coronary artery bypass graft patients (13 males and 1 female) at their first outpatient review post-surgery. Grounded theory analysis was used to develop a model of distinct and shared pathways to growth depending on whether patients were symptomatic or asymptomatic pre-coronary artery bypass graft. Outcomes of posttraumatic growth in this sample included action-based healthy lifestyle growth and two forms of cognitive growth: appreciation of life and new possibilities. The model of posttraumatic growth developed in this study may be helpful in guiding future research into promoting posttraumatic growth and behaviour change in coronary artery bypass graft patients.

  2. Coronary Artery Aneurysmal Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Ostwani MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 70-year-old male with no other atherogenic risk factors who presented with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS of unstable angina subsequently complicated by a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI. The patient’s presentation posed 3 unique features: (1 cardiac catheterization demonstrated nonobstructive 3-vessel multi-aneurysmal coronary artery disease with sluggish antegrade coronary flow; (2 a nonobstructive aneurysmal dissection flap based on contrast staining of the mid left anterior descending artery, which may have led to in situ nonocclusive thrombosis and distal microvascular embolization; and (3 successful conservative medical therapy of coronary artery aneurysmal disease (CAAD complicated with ACS. CAAD has an incidence of 1.5% to 4.9% in adults. The most common etiology of CAAD is atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. There are no guidelines for the management of CAAD complicated by ACS, and controversies exist as to whether conservative, catheter-based, or surgical management should be pursued.

  3. Surgical treatment of aberrant aortic origin of coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, Marlotte; Vliegen, Hubert W; de Graaf, Michiel A; Hazekamp, Mark G

    2015-11-01

    Aberrant origin of the coronary arteries is rare but can be life threatening. It is an important cause of sudden death in athletes and other young adults, and may be treated surgically. Consensus exists that interarterial left coronary artery (LCA) should be surgically repaired. For interarterial right coronary artery (RCA), the discussion remains open. The purpose of this study was to analyse our surgical experience. From 2001 until 2014, 31 patients were operated for interarterial RCA, interarterial LCA or intraseptal course of the LCA. Twenty-six patients had interarterial RCA, 4 patients interarterial LCA and 1 patient an intraseptal course of the LCA. Median age at operation was 38 years (range 9-66 years). Twenty-eight patients had previous or current symptoms. The most important were a life-threatening event with resuscitation in 3 and myocardial infarction in 3 others. Surgical repair of interarterial RCA consisted of unroofing of the ostium with or without reimplantation in 25 patients and CABG on the RCA with a venous graft in 1 patient. Reconstruction of interarterial LCA consisted of ostium reconstruction of the LCA with a venous patch in 4 patients. The patient with an intraseptal course had a complete release of the LCA out of the septum and reimplantation in the correct coronary sinus. Follow-up was done by analysis of outpatient records, direct patient contact, echocardiography, electrocardiography, CT-angiography and an exercise test. Median follow-up was 6 years (range 0-11 years). One patient was lost to follow-up. No early or late mortality occurred. Three patients had ischaemia with ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia shortly after surgery. Two were immediately reoperated, 1 had a stent implantation 1.5 months after release of intraseptal LCA. Two of these patients show a slight dysfunction of the left ventricle at follow-up. All other patients are asymptomatic. Surgery for aberrant origin of coronary arteries is safe. There is

  4. Coronary plaque quantification and composition in asymptomatic patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrini, Olivia; Russo, Vincenzo; Ciavarella, Adolfo; Ceroni, Luana; Montalti, Maurizio; Fattori, Rossella

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the extent and morphology of coronary lesions in asymptomatic patients with type II diabetes mellitus. We enrolled 102 asymptomatic patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 97 patients without diabetes as controls. All individuals had no history of ischemic heart disease. They underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Plaque density and plaque volume were calculated using specific software on axial images. Arterial remodeling was evaluated with semiquantitative assessment on image reconstructions. MDCT angiography revealed the presence of 124 coronary plaques in 46 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 59 plaques in 21 controls (PDiabetic patients had a significantly higher proportion of lesions with impaired adaptive remodeling (56.5 versus 35.6%, Pdiabetic patients and 0.08 cm (0.01-0.33) in controls (P=0.14). The calcium volume was 0.082 cm (0-0.558) in diabetic patients and 0.12 cm (0-0.669) in controls (P=0.21). Plaques with fibrofatty components had a significantly higher density in the diabetic cohort (58.76  ±  9.55  Hounsfield Units), as compared with the control group (47.31  ±  5.42 Hounsfield Units, PII diabetes mellitus (r=0.37, P=0.044), but was independent of age, sex, hypertension and metabolic profile. In the control group, plaque density was independent of any covariate. Coronary plaques in type II diabetes mellitus show a tendency to develop impaired adaptive remodeling and to have a higher tissue density.

  5. Microvascular coronary artery spasm presents distinctive clinical features with endothelial dysfunction as nonobstructive coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sumida, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Sugamura, Koichi; Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Morihisa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Kunihiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2012-10-01

    Angina without significant stenosis, or nonobstructive coronary artery disease, attracts clinical attention. Microvascular coronary artery spasm (microvascular CAS) can cause nonobstructive coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical features of microvascular CAS and the therapeutic efficacy of calcium channel blockers. Three hundred seventy consecutive, stable patients with suspected angina presenting nonobstructive coronary arteries (coronary angiography were investigated with the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test, with simultaneous measurements of transcardiac lactate production and of changes in the quantitative coronary blood flow. We diagnosed microvascular CAS according to lactate production and a decrease in coronary blood flow without epicardial vasospasm during the acetylcholine provocation test. We prospectively followed up the patients with calcium channel blockers for microvascular coronary artery disease. We identified 50 patients with microvascular CAS who demonstrated significant impairment of the endothelium-dependent vascular response, which was assessed by coronary blood flow during the acetylcholine provocation test. Administration of isosorbide dinitrate normalized the abnormal coronary flow pattern in the patients with microvascular CAS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that female sex, a lower body mass index, minor-borderline ischemic electrocardiogram findings at rest, limited-baseline diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio, and attenuated adenosine triphosphate-induced coronary flow reserve were independently correlated with the presence of microvascular CAS. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that the aforementioned 5-variable model showed good correlation with the presence of microvascular CAS (area under the curve: 0.820). No patients with microvascular CAS treated with calcium channel blockers developed cardiovascular events over 47.8±27.5 months. Microvascular CAS causes

  6. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with severe peripheral vascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Mirsharifi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of carotid artery stenosis (CAS in the  eneral population is not high enough to justify screening programs. This study was done to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS among patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD.
    • METHODS: Between March 2005 and February 2006, 54 consecutive  atients with severe PVD admitted at a vascular surgery unit and underwent carotid duplex scanning in a prospective study. A  uestionnaire was used to collect data concerning known risk factors. Significant CAS was defined as a stenosis of 70% or greater.
    • RESULTS: The mean age was 62.5 years (51-72. Out of 54 patients, 2 (3.7% had an occluded internal carotid artery. Significant CAS was found in 9 (16.7% and its presence was correlated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, coronary artery disease, severity of symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and carotid bruit. On multivariate analysis, only hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit seemed to have independent influence.
    • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of significant ACAS is higher among  atients with severe PVD. This patient population may indicate a  uitable subgroup for screening of ACAS, especially when hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit are present.
    • KEYWORDS: Carotid artery stenosis, duplex ultrasound scanning, peripheral vascular disease, carotid endarterectomy,
    • cerebrovascular accident.

  7. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion of right coronary artery in patient with dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Muhammad; Hartono, Beny; Iskandarsyah, Kurniawan; Nguyen, Thach N

    2013-07-01

    Situs inversus with dextrocardia is rare congenital anomaly. Coronary artery disease in such patients is quite rare. We reported a 52-year-old man with dextrocardia and chronic total occlusion at the proximal right coronary artery just after conus branch and severe stenosis at the proximal left anterior descending artery. He underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting of total occluded right coronary artery and simultaneously stenting of the proximal left anterior descending artery.

  8. Symptoms of angina pectoris increase the probability of disability pension and premature exit from the workforce even in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lasse; Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Hvelplund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate probabilities of disability pension (DP) and premature exit from the workforce (PEW) in patients with stable angina symptoms and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) at angiography compared with obstructive CAD and asymptomatic reference individuals.......To evaluate probabilities of disability pension (DP) and premature exit from the workforce (PEW) in patients with stable angina symptoms and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) at angiography compared with obstructive CAD and asymptomatic reference individuals....

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the coronary arteries : anatomy of the coronary arteries and veins in three-dimensional imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geuns, R J; Wielopolski, P A; Rensing, B J; van Ooijen, P M; Oudkerk, M; de Feyter, P J

    Magnetic resonance imaging of coronary arteries will visualize, besides the arteries, the myocardium, blood in the cavities and cardiac veins. This will hamper the application of projectional visualization techniques such as those used in conventional coronary angiography. Volume rendering, a

  10. Branching patterns of left coronary artery among North Indians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The left coronary artery displays variations in pattern, number and distribution of its branches. These variations influence the manifestation and extent of the coronary artery disease affecting the left main branch. A total of 100 North Indian cadaveric hearts were dissected to observe the main trunk of the left coronary artery.

  11. [Anatomy and physiology of the heart and coronary arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The myocardium assures the supply of oxygen to the body. The provision of oxygen to the myocardium by the coronary arteries is dependent on two key parameters: the coronary blood flow and the ability to extract oxygen from the arterial blood. Coronary artery disease is almost always the consequence of atherosclerosis and can lead to myocardial infarction.

  12. Assessment of coronary artery disease and calcified coronary plaque burden by computed tomography in patients with and without diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, Erica; Seitun, Sara [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Nieman, Koen; Weustink, Annick C.; Mollet, Nico R. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Martini, Chiara [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Guaricci, Andrea Igoren [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Foggia, Department of Cardiology, Foggia (Italy); Tedeschi, Carlo [Ospedale San Gennaro, Department of Cardiology, Naples (Italy); Berti, Elena; Grilli, Roberto [Regione Emilia-Romagna, Healthcare and Social Agency, Bologna (Italy); Messalli, Giancarlo [SDN Foundation, IRCCS, Naples (Italy); Cademartiri, Filippo [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria - Parma, Department of Radiology, Parma (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    To compare the coronary atherosclerotic burden in patients with and without type-2 diabetes using CT Coronary Angiography (CTCA). 147 diabetic (mean age: 65 {+-} 10 years; male: 89) and 979 nondiabetic patients (mean age: 61 {+-} 13 years; male: 567) without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CTCA. The per-patient number of diseased coronary segments was determined and each diseased segment was classified as showing obstructive lesion (luminal narrowing >50%) or not. Coronary calcium scoring (CCS) was assessed too. Diabetics showed a higher number of diseased segments (4.1 {+-} 4.2 vs. 2.1 {+-} 3.0; p < 0.0001); a higher rate of CCS > 400 (p < 0.001), obstructive CAD (37% vs. 18% of patients; p < 0.0001), and fewer normal coronary arteries (20% vs. 42%; p < 0.0001), as compared to nondiabetics. The percentage of patients with obstructive CAD paralleled increasing CCS in both groups. Diabetics with CCS {<=} 10 had a higher prevalence of coronary plaque (39.6% vs. 24.5%, p = 0.003) and obstructive CAD (12.5% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.01). Among patients with CCS {<=} 10 all diabetics with obstructive CAD had a zero CCS and one patient was asymptomatic. Diabetes was associated with higher coronary plaque burden. The present study demonstrates that the absence of coronary calcification does not exclude obstructive CAD especially in diabetics. (orig.)

  13. In?vitro evaluation of a new iterative reconstruction algorithm for dose reduction in coronary artery calcium scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Gassenmaier, Tobias; Allmendinger, Thomas; Kunz, Andreas S; Veyhl-Wichmann, Maike; Erg?n, S?leyman; Bley, Thorsten A.; Petritsch, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Background Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring is a widespread tool for cardiac risk assessment in asymptomatic patients and accompanying possible adverse effects, i.e. radiation exposure, should be as low as reasonably achievable. Purpose To evaluate a new iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm for dose reduction of in?vitro coronary artery calcium scoring at different tube currents. Material and Methods An anthropomorphic calcium scoring phantom was scanned in different configurations si...

  14. Clinical and Angiographic Factors Associated With Asymptomatic Restenosis After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Ruygrok, Peter; Webster, Mark; Valk, Vincent; Es, Gerrit Anne; Ormiston, John; Morel, Marie-Angèle; Serruys, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Angiographic restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventional procedures is more common than recurrent angina. Clinical and angiographic factors associated with asymptomatic versus symptomatic restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention were compared. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients with angiographic restenosis from the BENESTENT I, BENESTENT II pilot, BENESTENT II, MUSIC, WEST 1, DUET, FINESS 2, FLARE, SOPHOS, and ROSE studies were analyzed. Multivariat...

  15. An unreported type of coronary artery naomaly in congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Min Kyu; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Gee Won; Lee, Nam Kyung; Choi, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ji Won [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Coronary artery variations are associated anomalies in 45% of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) cases, and it is important to detect any coronary artery anomalies before cardiac surgery. We report a case of a 51-year-old woman with ccTGA and an unreported type of coronary artery anomaly.

  16. Thrombosed aneurysm of saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Rodolfo Mendes; Nastri Filho, Rogerio; Ferez, Marcus Antonio; Costa, Mauro Jose Brandao da; Laguna, Claudio Benedini; Valentin, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento, E-mail: rod_queiroz@hotmail.com [Documenta - Hospital Sao Francisco, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem; Hospital Sao Francisco, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Terapia Intensiva

    2017-06-15

    We describe the case of a male patient, aged 76 years, referred for cardiac investigation due to retrosternal chest pain and dyspnea. He had a history of acute myocardial infarction and angioplasties in the last 30 years, including a saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting (SVCABG). Echocardiogram showed hypoechoic oval formation near the right ventricle, suggesting a pericardial cyst. Computed angiotomography revealed a predominantly fusiform and thrombosed aneurysmal dilation of the SVCABG to the right coronary artery. SVCABG aneurysms are very rare and potentially fatal. They usually appear in the late postoperative period, and patients are often asymptomatic. On radiography, it is frequently presented as enlargement of the mediastinum, with echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging being very useful for diagnosis. Coronary angiography is the gold standard to detect these cases. Our report illustrates a rare situation arising late from a relatively common surgery. Due to its severity, proper recognition in the routine assessment of patients with a similar history is essential. (author)

  17. Influence of the coronary calcium score on the ability to rule out coronary artery stenoses by coronary CT angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Schmid, Jasmin; Zimmer, Thomas; Muschiol, Gerd; Hell, Michaela M; Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Recent guidelines for the workup of patients with chest pain and suspected coronary artery disease include coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). However, its diagnostic value may be limited in patients with severe coronary calcification. We investigated the relationship between the extent of coronary calcium and the ability of coronary CTA to rule out significant stenoses in a series of consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. 2614 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease in whom coronary calcium scoring and coronary CTA had been performed by Dual Source CT were analyzed. The ability of coronary CTA to rule out coronary artery stenoses (fully evaluable coronary arteries and absence of any luminal stenosis >75%) was analyzed relative to the coronary calcium score. The median coronary calcium score was 12, with calcium present in 60.5% of all patients. Coronary CTA ruled out stenoses in 82% of patients, while in 18% of patients at least one stenosis was found or could not be excluded. The threshold above which coronary CTA permitted to rule out stenoses in less than 50% of patients was an "Agatston Score" of 287. This threshold was significantly lower for male patients (213 vs. 330), for patients with a heart rate >65 beats/min (157 vs. 317) and for patients with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) (208 vs. 392). The evaluability of coronary arteries decreased with increasing amounts of calcium and differed significantly between heart rates ≤65 beats/min and >65 beats/min (p coronary CTA permits to rule out coronary artery stenoses in less than 50% of cases. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Epicardial ultrasound in coronary artery bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budde, R.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Chapter 1 Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is traditionally performed via a median sternotomy approach on cardiopulmonary bypass (arrested heart). Since the mid 1990ties, beating heart, minimally invasive and even totally endoscopic CABG are (re)explored. In all approaches to CABG, the

  19. [Robot-assisted Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Watanabe, Go

    2016-07-01

    The application for robot-assisted coronary surgery ranges from internal thoracic artery (ITA) harvesting with hand-sewn anastomoses to totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB), either on- or off-pump. The bilateral IMA can be harvested with the aid of a surgical robot and then multivessel bypass grafting can follow. Such robot-assisted minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting is called "ThoraCAB". Surgical robots cannot only endoscopically harvest the ITA but they can also anastomose the coronary artery in TECAB. But TECAB still has the difficulties, such as narrow surgical field in Japanese patients. Both procedures have the significant advantages of minimizing surgical trauma, such as reduced comlications, faster return back to normal activities and being improved cosmesis, and which have resulted in the development of minimally invasive surgery. Robot-assisted cardiac surgery for structural heart disease has been approved by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) since December 2015, however, robot-assisted cardiac surgery for TECAB has not been approved yet in Japan.

  20. Patient's Perception About Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelminda Maria Bulhões Mendonça

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of coronary artery disease referred for heart surgery has an important psychological component. The purpose of this study was to access the difficulties experienced by individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting and to determine strategies that facilitate adaptation to a new lifestyle, modified by the disease. METHODS: A qualitative, exploratory study involving patients admitted to a university teaching hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting. Semi-structured interviews were performed in accordance with a previously defined script based on the study objective. Each transcription was read in its entirety to verify the representativeness, homogeneity and pertinence of the data obtained (pre-analysis, followed by separation of categories of analysis. RESULTS: The descriptions of this study show that patients admitted to the completion of coronary artery bypass grafting experience a wide range of psychological difficulties, considering that surgery acquires interpretations that vary according to individuals' subjectivity. The patients recognized the benefit of being able to discuss their feelings as a means of diminishing their fear and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Helping patients find resources to confront more positively the daily hospitalization is an important aspect for the health care professionals who assist them. This goal can be achieved through modification of the biomedical model of care for a biopsychosocial view. The investment of time and attention is of fundamental importance and aims to overcome existing deficiencies that interfere with the outcome of patients after cardiac surgery.

  1. Diagnosing coronary artery disease after a positive coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, L; Winther, S; Westra, J

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Perfusion scans after coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) may reduce unnecessary invasive coronary angiographies (ICAs). However, the diagnostic accuracy of perfusion scans after primary CCTA is unknown. The aim...

  2. Anomalous origin of coronary artery: taxonomy and clinical implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anomalous origin of coronary artery is uncommon. The taxonomies of anomalous origin of coronary artery are inconsistent and complex. Conceptual and therapeutic debates remain. The aim of the present study is to reappraise the concept of anomalous origin of coronary artery and to discuss the potential hazards and treatment rationale of this anomaly on basis of literature review. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was made in terms of the taxonomies including “simple”, “multiple” and “complex” types of anomalous origin of coronary artery. Results: Anomalous origin of coronary artery can be simply categorized according to the ectopically originated coronary artery. There are a couple of complex anatomical variants: “multiple” type, involving more than one coronary artery or branch, which can be subdivided into 2 subtypes, A more than one coronary arteries or branches arising from one place; and B two coronary arteries/branches arising from separate ectopic sites; and “complex” type, associated with acquired heart disease, or congenital heart defects. Conclusion: Sudden cardiac death in anomalous origin of coronary artery is associated with the anatomical features including abnormal coursing, acute angle take-off and ostial abnormalities. Atherosclerosis is prone to be in the right-sided ectopic and retroaortic coursing coronary artery. Surgical treatment is a definitive therapy. Simple coronary artery bypass grafting is not recommended due to the potential hazards of coronary steal phenomenon and poor patency of mammary arterial grafts, and modified maneuvers such as coronary ostial reimplantation, impinged coronary segment unroofing and coronary stent deployment are advocated instead.

  3. Coronary artery abnormalities in CREST syndrome revealed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Bratis, Costas; Manoussakis, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    CREST syndrome represents a subset of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Five patients with CREST syndrome and 5 with SSc without cardiac symptoms and with normal routine cardiac examination were investigated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. All CREST patients had ectatic coronary arteries, and in 1 of them, an inferior, transmural myocardial infarction was identified. Furthermore, patchy fibrosis was identified in all the patients with SSc, although their coronary arteries were normal. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance can be a useful, noninvasive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of asymptomatic CREST and SSc patients. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Determinants of radial artery pulse wave analysis in asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Kaiser, Daniel R; Whitwam, Wayne; Finkelstein, Stanley; Belalcazar, Andres; Patterson, Robert; Glasser, Stephen; Cohn, Jay N

    2004-08-01

    Noninvasive techniques to evaluate arterial stiffness include noninvasive radial artery pulse contour analysis. Diastolic pulse contour analysis provides a separate assessment of large (C1) and small artery (C2) elasticity. Analysis of the systolic pulse contour identifies two pressure peaks (P1 and P2) that relate to incident and reflected waves. This study aimed to compare indices from systolic and diastolic pulse contour analysis from the radial pressure waveform and to correlate these indices with traditional risk factors in asymptomatic individuals screened for cardiovascular disease. In 298 consecutive subjects (206 male and 92 female healthy subjects with a mean age of 50 +/- 12 years), noninvasive radial artery pressure waveforms were acquired with a piezoelectric transducer and analyzed for 1) diastolic indices of C1 and C2 from the CR-2000 CVProfiler, and 2) systolic indices of augmentation as defined by augmentation pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx), and systolic reflective index (SRI = P2/P1). These indices were then correlated to each other as well as to individual traditional risk factors and the Framingham Risk Score. Diastolic indices were significantly and inversely correlated to systolic indices with C2 showing a stronger inverse association than C1. C2 and Alx were significantly correlated with height, weight, and body mass index in men but not in women. All indices correlated better to blood pressure in women than men. In women, only systolic indices were significantly correlated to HDL cholesterol and only diastolic indices were significantly correlated to LDL cholesterol. All indices were significantly correlated to the Framingham Risk Score, which was stronger in women then men, but when adjusted for age only diastolic indices remained significant in women. Diastolic and systolic indices of pulse contour analysis correlate differently with traditional risk factors in men and women. Copyright 2004 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

  5. Dextrocardia with situs inversus totalis: coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Salila; Anis, Mariam; Darr, Umer

    2012-01-01

    Dextrocardia with situs inversus is a rare congenital abnormality involving a left-handed mal rotation of the visceral organs. The incidence of coronary artery disease is the same as that in the general population. Performing coronary artery bypass surgery on patients with dextrocardia poses a more challenging task. It is recommended that the right internal mammary artery be the first choice of graft for the anterior descending artery for a "situs inversus" situation. We report 2 cases of patients with Dextrocardia who developed coronary artery disease and underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Also mentioned is the slight difference in our technique.

  6. The resonance theory of coronary arterial wall stress as an explanation for the distribution of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Lindsay C H

    2010-05-01

    The coronary arteries are unique within the arterial system in being subject to a continuous oscillatory displacement. It is hypothesised that oscillatory resonance of the coronary arteries occurs when the heart rate is the same as the arteries' Natural Frequency of oscillation. If resonance were to occur then standing waves would exist along the coronary arteries. The sites of the anti-nodes of such standing waves would be the sites of increased wall stress and therefore be expected to be predisposed to disease. Coronary artery resonance would explain the observed increased incidence of disease in the proximal segments of the arteries. It is proposed that coronary artery resonance is a previously unrecognised aetiological factor for coronary artery disease that contributes to its location. If the hypothesis is true then there are potential important consequences for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  7. Robotically-Assisted Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry A. Folliguet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Robotic surgery enables to perform coronary surgery totally endoscopically. This report describes our experience using the da Vinci system for coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods. Patients requiring single-or-double vessel revascularization were eligible. The procedure was performed without cardiopulmonary bypass on a beating heart. Results. From April 2004 to May 2008, fifty-six patients were enrolled in the study. Twenty-four patients underwent robotic harvesting of the mammary conduit followed by minimal invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB, and twenty-three patients had a totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB grafting. Nine patients (16% were converted to open techniques. The mean total operating time for TECAB was 372±104 minutes and for MIDCAB was 220±69 minutes. Followup was complete for all patients up to one year. There was one hospital death following MIDCAB and two deaths at follow up. Forty-eight patients had an angiogram or CT scan revealing occlusion or anastomotic stenoses (>50% in 6 patients. Overall permeability was 92%. Conclusions. Robotic surgery can be performed with promising results.

  8. Surgical repair for a coronary-pulmonary artery fistula with a saccular aneurysm of the coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kenta; Hisata, Yoichi; Hazam, Shiro

    2009-06-01

    The patient, a 69-year-old woman, had been diagnosed with a heart murmur. A chest X-ray at a local clinic had shown an abnormal shadow. Since CT revealed a 3-cm-diameter mass close to the pulmonary artery, we performed a coronary angiography and diagnosed her as having a coronary artery aneurysm associated with a coronary-pulmonary artery fistula. We incised the aneurysm under cardiac arrest, the wall of which had three openings that were suture closed from the inside and outside. The coronary-pulmonary artery fistula was suture closed. A postoperative angiography confirmed the disappearance of the coronary artery aneurysm and the abnormal blood vessels. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged on postoperative day 15. We report a rare case of coronary-pulmonary artery fistula with a coronary artery aneurysm for which surgery was followed by an uneventful postoperative course.

  9. Moderators of Coronary Vasomotion during Mental Stress in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: Stress Reactivity, Serum Lipoproteins, and Severity of Atherosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howell, Robert H

    1996-01-01

    Impaired coronary artery vasomotion in response to behavioral triggers such as mental stress may be an important pathophysiological process involved in acute manifestations of coronary artery disease...

  10. Unruptured aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva compressing the left main coronary artery: successful percutaneous treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausinger, P; Sasi, V; Volford, G; Bitay, M; Bogáts, G; Thury, A; Palkó, A; Forster, T; Nemes, A

    2014-09-01

    Aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva is an extremely rare entity. It may be asymptomatic and incidentally discovered, or may be symptomatic and manifest acutely with compression of adjacent cardiac structures. Encasement of the left main coronary artery by such an aneurysm is a recognized but infrequent complication that can lead to severe coronary insufficiency. Surgical decompression of the left main coronary artery is the standard treatment for such conditions. We describe a patient presenting with extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by a large unruptured aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva occurring 4 months after unsuccessful surgical repair. Since reoperation was considered high-risk for the patient, successful fractional flow reserve- and intravascular ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment of the left main coronary artery was performed with implantation of one bare-metal stent.

  11. Doppler findings in a rare coronary artery fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Jorns, Carl; Huhta, James

    2007-03-09

    One of the primary forms of congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries is coronary artery fistula (CAF). It is defined as a direct communication between the coronary artery and any surrounding cardiac chamber or vascular structure, which bypasses the myocardial capillary bed. We present a newborn baby with a large coronary artery fistula connecting the left anterior descending (LAD) artery to the left ventricular (LV) apex. Associated cardiac abnormalities were found: a ventricular septal defect (diameter 4 mm), a patent foramen ovale as well as trivial tricuspid and mitral regurgitation. Here we demonstrate the echocardiograms of an extremely rare form of CAF diagnosed within the first days of postnatal life.

  12. Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: intermediate results of coronary elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, William M; Li, Xiao F; Anic, Darko; Baskevitch, Alexander; Sandoval, Nestor; Gilbert, Christian L; Di Sessa, Thomas G

    2009-11-01

    A two coronary system is preferred for correcting anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA); however, translocation is not always possible. In countries where neonatal arterial switch operations have not been perfected coronary transfer can be difficult. The purpose of this report is to describe the intermediate results using the coronary elongation and translocation technique in developing countries. Records of patients undergoing operation by the International Children's Heart Foundation team were reviewed (April 1993-October 2008) for those undergoing ALCAPA repair. All patients received a 2-D echocardiographic-color Doppler examination prior to discharge and at follow-up. A total of 13 patients were identified, age ranged from 9 days to 41 years. All but one patient were operated upon at one of our affiliate hospitals in Croatia, Belarus, China and Colombia. All patients presented with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation and cardiac failure. Follow-up ranged from six months to 9.5 years postoperatively. Color Doppler showed a patent left coronary artery; echocardiography estimated a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and improved mitral regurgitation in all patients. The technique provides an alternative approach to translocation for ALCAPA in countries where routine neonatal coronary transfer techniques may not be perfected. Intermediate results are comparable to translocation.

  13. Functional Information in Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Klaus F; Sørgaard, Mathias H; Linde, Jesper J

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review methodological and logistical aspects of CT myocardial perfusion, current clinical evidence and possible future directions, with specific focus on use in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). RECENT FINDINGS: CT myocardial perfusion imaging may be performed...... as an add-on to standard coronary CT angiography (CCTA), to identify regions of myocardial hypoperfusion, at rest and during adenosine stress. The principle of measurement is well-validated in animal experimental models, and CT myocardial perfusion imaging has a high degree of concordance with already...... clinically available perfusion imaging methods. Combining CCTA and CT myocardial perfusion imaging increases the diagnostic accuracy to identify patients with CAD associated with ischemia. In patients suspected of CAD, CCTA frequently detects coronary atherosclerotic lesions, in which revascularization could...

  14. Concomitant aorto-right subclavian artery bypass with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazume, Hirokazu; Okamoto, Ken; Fukui, Toshihiro

    2017-10-11

    Atherosclerotic stenosis of the brachiocephalic artery sometimes occurs in patients with coronary artery disease, and can cause stroke during the perioperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting. We describe the case of a 77-year old male with severe stenosis of the brachiocephalic artery and severe coronary artery disease. He successfully underwent aorto-right subclavian artery bypass that was performed concomitantly with off-pump coronary artery bypass. Concomitant aorto-subclavian artery bypass with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting is a therapeutic option that minimizes the risk of perioperative stroke in patients with brachiocephalic artery stenosis and coronary artery disease.

  15. Osteoprotegerin and coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Nybo, Mads; Hansen, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Plasma osteoprotegerin (P-OPG) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in diabetic and other populations. OPG is a bone-related glycopeptide produced by vascular smooth muscle cells and increased P-OPG may reflect arterial damage. We investigated the correlation between P-OPG and co......-OPG and coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.......Plasma osteoprotegerin (P-OPG) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in diabetic and other populations. OPG is a bone-related glycopeptide produced by vascular smooth muscle cells and increased P-OPG may reflect arterial damage. We investigated the correlation between P...

  16. Inflammatory mediators of coronary artery ectasia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanisms underlying coronary artery ectasia (CAE) remain uncertain. This study aims to investigate whether and how inflammatory mediators play a role in the pathogenesis of CAE. The data sources of this study were located by literature searches on MEDLINE, Highwire Press and Google search engine for the year range 2000-2013. The most sensitive of the four types of plasma inflammatory mediators were cell adhesion molecules and systemic inflammatory markers followed by cytokines, wh...

  17. Relationship between coronary artery size and ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, C S; Chen, M F; Chen, W J; Lee, C M; Peng, J Y; Lee, Y T

    1989-02-01

    The relationship between coronary blood flow and ventricular hypertrophy has been studied in animal models. But, this relationship in the human body is scarcely evaluated. In this study we measured coronary arterial sizes by coronary arteriograms and correlated them with ventricular hypertrophy. Patients who underwent cardiac catheterization and coronary arteriography and showed no significant coronary arterial lesions were included in this study. There were 131 patients, 75 men and 56 women, with a mean age of 53 +/- 10 years (S.D.). After evaluation with electrocardiograms, echocardiograms and left ventriculograms these patients were divided into 4 groups: (1) the non-hypertrophy (NVH) group, 50 cases; (2) the left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) group, 38 cases; (3) the right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) group, 23 cases; and (4) the biventricular hypertrophy (BVH) group, 20 cases. The proximal portion of the 3 major coronary arteries and the left main stem were measured from coronary arteriograms with the catheter tip as a size reference. The results showed that the left main stem was larger than the 3 major coronary arteries in the NVH, LVH and BVH groups. But in the RVH group, the left main stem was not significantly larger than the right coronary artery. In all 4 groups the left circumflex coronary artery was the smallest while the left anterior descending coronary artery and the right coronary artery were similar in size. Patients with LVH showed dilatation of all 3 left coronary measurements (left main stem, left anterior descending coronary artery and left circumflex coronary artery) as compared with the NVH patients and the RVH patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Leukocyte telomere length and coronary artery calcification in Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Jeremy D; Nassar, Hisham; Shaham, Dorith; Sinnreich, Ronit; Goldberger, Nehama; Aboudi, Vartohi; Bogot, Naama R; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham

    2013-08-01

    Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and increased mortality. We examined the association of LTL with coronary artery calcification (CAC), which reflects the cumulative burden of coronary atherosclerosis, in an urban Arab sample of Palestinians, a population at high risk of CHD. Using a cross-sectional design, a random sample of East Jerusalem residents, comprising 250 men aged 45-77 and women aged 55-76 and free of CHD or past stroke, was drawn from the Israel national population register. LTL was measured by Southern blots. CAC was determined by 16-slice multidetector helical CT scanning using Agatston scoring. We applied multivariable logistic modeling to examine the association between sex-specific tertiles of LTL and CAC (comparing scores >100 vs. education and coronary risk factors. CAC, evident in 65% of men and 52% of women, was strongly associated with age (sex-adjusted Spearman's rho 0.495). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for CAC >100 (found in 30% of men and 29% of women) were 2.92 (95% CI 1.28-6.68) and 2.29 (0.99-5.30) for the lower and mid-tertiles of LTL vs. the upper tertile, respectively (Ptrend = 0.008). Findings were similar for CAC scores in the upper tertile (Ptrend = 0.006), and persisted after the exclusion of patients with diabetes or receiving statins. Shorter LTL was associated with a greater prevalence of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis in an urban Arab population-based sample. Mechanisms underlying this association should be sought. Copyright © 2013 [Author/Employing Institution]. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Echocardiographic evaluation of coronary arteries in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Grace; Miller, Michelle S

    2015-12-01

    Among populations of patients with the congenital heart disease, there is considerable diversity in the anatomy of the coronary arteries. Understanding these anatomical differences is vitally important in directing interventions and surgical repair. In this report, the authors describe the echocardiographic evaluation of the variants of coronary artery anatomy in the following lesions: transposition of the great arteries, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, double-inlet left ventricle, common arterial trunk, tetralogy of Fallot, and double-outlet right ventricle.

  20. Emerging genomic applications in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damani, Samir B; Topol, Eric J

    2011-05-01

    Over the last 4 years, an unprecedented number of studies illuminating the genomic underpinnings of common "polygenic" diseases including coronary artery disease have been published. Notably, these studies have established numerous deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) variants within or near chromosome 9p21.3, the LPA, CXADR, and APOE genes, to name a few, as key coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death susceptibility markers. Most importantly, many of these DNA variants confer over a 2-fold increase in risk for coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and ventricular fibrillation. Additionally, loss-of-function variants in the hepatic cytochrome 2C19 system have now been found to be the predominant genetic mediators of clopidogrel antiplatelet response, with variant carriers having a >3-fold increase in risk for stent thrombosis. In the near future, many additional rare polymorphisms, structural variants, and tissue-specific epigenetic features of the human genome including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin state will emerge as significant contributors to disease pathogenesis and drug response. In aggregate, these findings will have the potential to radically change the practice of cardiovascular medicine. However, only the individual clinician can ultimately enable the translation of these important discoveries to systematic implementation in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aneurisma de arteria coronaria Coronary artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Carvajal

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La dilatación aneurismática, 1,5 veces el diámetro del vaso mayor normal que compromete un segmento de arteria coronaria, es una patología de rara presentación (incidencia 1,5% a 5%. Su etiología es arteriosclerótica y su principal importancia clínica es la posibilidad de producir infartos por trombosis o espasmo y ruptura. No se conoce su evolución y pronóstico y en la literatura no hay material suficiente para realizar recomendaciones sobre el tratamiento. Se reporta un caso de aneurisma del tronco principal y se revisa la literatura con el objetivo de actualizar la información al respecto.Coronary artery aneurysm is defined as the dilation of a segment of the coronary artery that reaches 1.5 times its normal size. It is an infrequent pathology with an incidence varying between 1.5% and 5%. Its main cause is atherosclerosis and from a clinical point of view its importance resides in the possibility of producing infarcts through thrombosis or spasm, and in its rupture. The natural history and prognosis remain obscure and there is not enough evidence respect to its evolution and prognosis as to give the right guidelines for its treatment. We report the case of a patient with left main coronary artery aneurysm and make an update literature review on this subject.

  2. Depression in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Safaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is one of the Common psychological disorders. From the cognitive point of view, the unhealthy attitudes increase the severity of the depression. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and unhealthy attitudes in coronary patients hospitalized at Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center. Methods: One hundred twenty eight hospitalized patients having myocardial Infarctions were studied regarding unhealthy attitudes, severity of depression and demographic data. Results: The study showed a significant relation between unhealthy attitudes, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory and severe depression. Moreover, a significant relation existed between gender and depression (P=0.0001. In addition, the level of education increased the intensity of unhealthy attitudes (P=0.0001. Several researches in both outside and inside Iran support the idea. Conclusion: Based on present study and more other investigations, it can be suggested to provide the necessary elements and parameters such as antidepressant medication, psychologists, complementary treatment for coping with negative mood and its unwanted consequences.

  3. Diabetic retinopathy: A predictor of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia El Demerdash

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy is a good predictor of coronary artery disease that exceeds the conventional risk factors. Diabetics with retinopathy would benefit from early coronary angiography and diabetic retinocoronary clinics are warranted.

  4. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack Updated:Oct 4,2016 Sometimes a heart attack ... Disease Go Red For Women Types of aneurysms Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  5. NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels; Hansen, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    for atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined the interrelationship between P-NT-proBNP, presence of atherosclerosis and/or vascular dysfunction in the coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: P-NT-proBNP was measured in 200 asymptomatic type 2 patients without known cardiac disease that received intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Patients were examined for coronary, carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis, as defined by coronary calcium score=400, carotid intima...

  6. NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels; Hansen, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    for atherosclerosis is unclear. We examined the interrelationship between P-NT-proBNP, presence of atherosclerosis and/or vascular dysfunction in the coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: P-NT-proBNP was measured in 200 asymptomatic type 2 patients without known cardiac disease that received intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Patients were examined for coronary, carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis, as defined by coronary calcium score≥400, carotid intima...

  7. Contrast Media Delivery in the Assessment of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, Charbel; Al-Hamra, Salam; Al-Mohiy, Hussain; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2016-05-01

    A patient with a history of mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation that was corrected with a mitral ring repair 15 years earlier received a diagnosis of anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery and underwent repair. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) was employed to image the patient before surgical intervention. Synchronizing contrast media administration to opacify the right coronary artery in the arterial phase and the left coronary artery in the venous phase required a test-bolus approach. Matching compromised cardiovascular dynamics with patient-specific contrast media administration protocols was improved considerably with the use of a test-bolus technique during electrocardiography-gated coronary CTA.

  8. Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Mick, Stephanie; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Nair, Ravi; Bonatti, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery has emerged as a feasible and efficient alternative to conventional full sternotomy coronary artery bypass graft surgery in selected patients. This minimally invasive approach using the daVinci robotic system allows fine intrathoracic maneuvers and excellent view of the coronary arteries. Both on-pump and off-pump operations can be performed to treat single and multivessel disease. Hybrid approaches have the potential of o...

  9. Utility of quantification of coronary artery calcification using spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Wook; Kang, Myun Sik; Cho, Seung Yun; Shim, Won Heum; Chung, Nam Sik; Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Man Deuk [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of quantification of coronary artery calcification using spiral CT. Spiral CT scans of the heart were obtained in 25 patients with coronary artery disease diagnosed by coronary angiography and in six controls without coronary artery disease. Spiral CT was performed with 3mm collimation at 3mm/sec table speed and the obtained volume data of the heart was reconstructed at 2mm intervals. Total calcium scores of the 30 contiguous slices of the proximal coronary artery were calculated based on the areas and peak density. Two groups were compared for total scores and sensitivity, and specificity and positive predictive values were calculated. The number of subjects with coronary calcification(total calcium score>0) detected by spiral CT were 20(80%) of 25 with coronary artery disease and 2(33%) of 6 without coronary artery disease. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were 80%, 67% and 91% respectively. Sensitivity was 64%, specificity was 80% in patients aged{+-}60. Sensitivity was 76% and specificity was 83%(total calcium score 10). Quantification of coronary artery calcification using spiral CT has low specificity in the older group and low sensitivity in the younger group;the procedure is therefore may not be useful as a noninvase screening test to predict the presence of coronary artery disease. In the younger group, however, a cardiac workup is strongly indicated if calcification is present.

  10. Refractory spasm of coronary arteries and grafted conduits after isolated coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Roberto; Crudeli, Elena; Lucà, Fabiana; De Cicco, Giuseppe; Vizzardi, Enrico; D'Aloia, Antonio; Gelsomino, Sandro

    2012-02-01

    Refractory vascular spasm (RVS) concomitantly involving the entire coronary artery system and grafted conduits after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is a rare, but dreadful event. No consensus exists in terms of appropriate management. Between 1986 and 2009, 5,762 patients underwent isolated CABG at our institution, and 7 patients experienced RVS involving the coronary arteries and implanted conduits. Mean age was 65.6 years and 3 were female. All patients received from 3 to 5 distal anastomoses, including use of the left internal mammary artery. During the same time period, 18 patients experienced perioperative vasospasm of a single coronary artery or of a grafted conduit. All diffuse RVS events occurred between 3 and 8 hours after surgery. All patients had diffuse ischemic-like electrocardiographic changes, and 5 patients rapidly developed cardiogenic shock in the intensive care unit. Angiography was quickly performed in all patients and showed diffuse RVS involving either the native coronary arteries or the anastomosed arterial and venous conduits. The first 5 patients of this series died in the catheterization lab due to rapidly evolving refractory cardiogenic shock and unresponsive cardiac arrest, despite intraaortic counterpulsation and aggressive pharmacologic interventions (selective vasodilators and systemic inotropes). In the last 2 patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was quickly instituted (1 in the catheterization lab, 1 in the operating room) and RVS could be successfully managed with complete resolution of ongoing vasospasm. In the single vascular spasm, there was only 1 death for refractory cardiac arrest, whereas all the other patients were successfully treated with direct infusion of vasodilators. Diffuse RVS after CABG is a rare but lethal condition. Our experience, although limited, indicates that in such cases an aggressive treatment, that is, prompt extracorporeal membrane oxygenation institution and controlled

  11. Subacute narrowing of the left main coronary artery following directional atherectomy for proximal obstructive coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, J. J.; Koch, K. T.; van der Wal, A. C.; Becker, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Directional atherectomy is an alternative device for treatment of highly eccentric or proximal coronary lesions considered less suitable for balloon angioplasty. We report a patient with exuberant neointimal proliferation, extending into the left main coronary artery, following directional

  12. [Is coronary artery disease different in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Florence

    2010-02-01

    Coronary disease is the leading cause of death in women, responsible for 2-4 times more deaths than breast cancer. The clinical picture of coronary heart disease in women is often different than that in men, evidence of a particular pathophysiology: it is most often identified when acute, as non-ST-elevated acute coronary syndrome, and involves a higher frequency than among men of normal coronary arteries, microvascular damage, and endothelial dysfunction. The risk factors for woman are also distinctive: a higher risk profile, older age, and higher frequency of lack of exercise and its consequences (abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes). Smoking is a major risk factor in young women. Stress tests are less useful for diagnosis in women than in men, essentially because of the higher rate of false positives. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of myocardial scintigraphy and stress ultrasound testing differs little from that in men. Coronary revascularization by angioplasty or bypass classically yields poorer results in women than men, probably because of their smaller arteries. These differences are nonetheless fading as techniques improve. The impact of active stents in women remains to be determined. The prognosis of myocardial infarction in women remains poorer than in men, but appropriate and early management, especially by angioplasty, seems to be smoothing out this difference in recent studies. Women on the whole receive less good treatment than men (delayed management and less frequent drug and interventional treatment), which contributes to their poorer prognosis. Simple means of prevention have proved effective in women: regular physical activity thus reduces the risk of infarction by 50% (and also reduces the incidence of diabetes); the effect of aspirin as primary prevention remains controversial. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Acute Thrombotic Coronary Occlusion in a Patient with Coronary Artery Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beganu Elena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with coronary artery anomalies are more susceptible to develop acute thrombotic coronary occlusions due to the abnormal anatomy of these arteries and the disturbance of the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to an accelerated atherosclerosis development. The following article presents the case of a 64-year-old female patient diagnosed with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The patient underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention, which revealed the absence of the right coronary artery and separated origins of the left anterior descending artery and the left circumflex artery from the aorta.

  14. A Case of Double Right Coronary Artery with Separate Ostium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Kheirkhah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are rare, with their incidence varying from 1 to 5%. Angiography is a commonly used modality for the assessment of coronary artery anomalies. Based on previous reports, a majority of coronary artery anomalies are of origin or distribution, with separate ostia of the left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery. Coronary artery anomalies may cause myocardial ischemia secondary to atherosclerosis in the same artery. We present a rare case of duplicated right coronary artery with a separate ostium, which caused myocardial ischemia. Our patient was a 51-year-old diabetic woman with typical chest pain and dyspnea on exertion. Electrocardiography showed left axis deviation, poor R progression, and biphasic T wave in the precordial leads. Echocardiography revealed left ventricular ejection fraction of 30-35% and global hypokinesia. Coronary angiography demonstrated three-vessel disease and a double ostial right coronary artery. We recommended coronary artery bypass graft surgery, but the patient refused it and we continued her treatment with anti-ischemic drugs.

  15. Particularities of Coronary Artery Disease in Hypertensive Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANGHEL, Larisa; ARSENESCU GEORGESCU, Catalina

    2014-01-01

    context suggestive of acute coronary syndrome have an elevated risk of coronary artery disease, especially one and two coronary lesions. The association of hypertension with left bundle branch block is a high probability criterion for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, even in asymptomatic patients. PMID:25705301

  16. Non-invasive assessment of microcirculation by sidestream dark field imaging as a marker of coronary artery disease in diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaberi, R.; Schuijf, J.D.; Koning, E.J. de; Wijewickrama, D.C.; Pereira, A.M.; Smit, J.W.A.; Kroft, L.J.; Roos, A. de; Bax, J.J.; Rabelink, T.J.; Jukema, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: In diabetes, generalised microvascular disease and coronary artery disease (CAD) are likely to occur in parallel. We used a sidestream dark field (SDF) handheld imaging device to determine the relation between the labial microcirculation parameters and CAD in asymptomatic patients with

  17. Coronary artery thrombus resulting in sudden cardiac death in an infant with Kawasaki disease and giant coronary artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakumaran Ponniah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a six-month-old Hispanic male infant who had Kawasaki disease and coronary artery aneurysms on echocardiography. He died suddenly five months later in spite of aggressive medical therapy. Autopsy showed extensive coronary artery thrombosis. Giant coronary artery aneurysms need diligent follow up as they pose significant risks including risk of thrombus, myocardial infarction and sudden death.

  18. Percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with anomalous origin of coronary artery presenting with acute coronary syndrome: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karur, Satish; Patra, Soumya; Shankarappa, Ravindranath K; Agrawal, Navin; Math, Ravi S; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2013-09-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are found in 0.6%-1.5% of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiogram. Intervention in these patients poses a particular technical challenge secondary to the aberrancies in the vessel origin and course. From March 2011 to February 2013, 13 cases with complex coronary artery anomalies were observed among 2482 patients undergoing CAG (0.52%) at our cath lab. Only three patients had severe stenosis in the anomalous artery sufficient to require an intervention and had presented with myocardial infarction. PCI was performed successfully in these 3 patients two of which had anomalous left circumflex artery and the other having an anomalous right coronary artery.

  19. [Is coronary artery disease different in women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, François; Chopard, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the primary cause of death in women. Although acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is relatively infrequent in young women, failure to recognize ACS in this population can incur a major risk and registry data show that there is still plenty of room for improvement in this area. Women may suffer from "classical" CAD with development of atherosclerosis with a delay of about 10 years as compared to men, reflecting hormonal protection in women. Besides this classical presentation, angina in women often corresponds to impaired microcirculation, a syndrome known to associate typical angina, demonstrable myocardial ischemia, but no lesions on the coronary angiography. Finally, spasm, spontaneous dissection or coronary thrombosis through endothelial rupture are more frequent in women. The influence of risk factors on the development of CAD is comparable in both women and men. Recent registry studies show that in France, in particular, diabetes, obesity, and smoking are all risk factors that are on the rise in women. In addition, certain other risk factors are more specific to women, namely psycho-social stress. The methods to evaluate risk and detect CAD were mainly developed in male study populations, and these tools thus perform less well in female patients. In case of ACS, women benefit just as much from invasive management, but are at greater risk of iatrogenic complications, particularly with anti-thrombotic therapy or during revascularization procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in an elderly patient, football player in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Lanna, Pompeo; Vigna, Carlo; Massaro, Raimondo; Stanislao, Mario; Santoro, Tiberio; Valle, Guido; Carbone, Carmine; Grilli, Gian Paolo; Fanelli, Raffaele

    2008-10-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital defect. Without surgical treatment, approximately 90% of infants die within the first year of life. Late presentation in the adult or elderly is rare. Factors that may lead to survival in advanced age include the development of intercoronary collaterals. Furthermore, the risk of sudden cardiac death due to ischaemic malignant ventricular dysrhythmias exists even in asymptomatic adult patients and, classically, is precipitated by exercise. We report the case of a 67-year-old man, a football player in his youth, always asymptomatic until presentation at our centre for symptomatic sustained ventricular tachycardia and shortness of breath on exertion. We show the features of the ECG, transthoracic echocardiography, angiography study of the coronary and the pulmonary system, myocardial basal and stress gated single photon emission computed tomography with Tc-tetrofosmin and cardiac CT 64 slices. The patient was referred to cardiac surgery. We believe that this patient's favourable course may be ascribed to the large network of collaterals from the right coronary artery supplying the entire heart. However, the exact reason why these favourable evolutions (both vascular and clinical) occur only in some individuals remains largely unknown.

  1. Single coronary artery; extremely rare coronary anomaly successfully treated surgically in young adult male.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, A R

    2010-05-01

    Single coronary artery arising from aortic root, is a rare congenital anomaly. A 30-year-old male presented with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complaining of chest pain and raised troponin levels. Emergency angiography showed no coronary lesions but both left and right coronary arteries arising from single ostium. Patient was operated electively and perioperative findings confirmed the diagnosis of single coronary artery, as left coronary artery after taking origin from right sinus of valsalva runs through the septum, before dividing into left anterior descending and circumflex branches. The single coronary ostium opened with a slit like incision over the course of left main coronary, making the size of ostium three to four times bigger than the native one. In addition left internal mammary artery was harvested and grafted to the left anterior descending branch distally. Patient made successful recovery. Four months follow up dobutamine stress echo showed no inducible ischemia.

  2. DECT evaluation of noncalcified coronary artery plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravanfar Haghighi, Rezvan [Medical Imaging Research Center and Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 719 363 5899 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chatterjee, S. [BGVS Chemical Engineering Building (Old), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Tabin, Milo; Singh, Rishi P.; Sharma, Munish; Krishna, Karthik [Department of Forensic Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Sharma, Sanjiv; Jagia, Priya [Department of Cardiac-Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Ray, Ruma; Arava, Sudhir [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Yadav, Rakesh [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Vani, V. C. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmi, R.; Kumar, Pratik, E-mail: drpratikkumar@gmail.com [Department of Cardiac-Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Mandal, Susama R. [Department of Medical Physics Unit IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Composition of the coronary artery plaque is known to have critical role in heart attack. While calcified plaque can easily be diagnosed by conventional CT, it fails to distinguish between fibrous and lipid rich plaques. In the present paper, the authors discuss the experimental techniques and obtain a numerical algorithm by which the electron density (ρ{sub e}) and the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) can be obtained from the dual energy computed tomography (DECT) data. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques. Methods: For the purpose of calibration of the CT machine, the authors prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) lie in the range of (2.65 × 10{sup 23} ≤ ρ{sub e} ≤ 3.64 × 10{sup 23}/cm{sup 3}) and (6.80 ≤ Z{sub eff} ≤ 8.90). The authors fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(V{sub 1}) and HU(V{sub 2}), with V{sub 1},V{sub 2} = 100 and 140 kVp, for the same pixels and thus determine the coefficients of inversion that allow us to determine (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) from the DECT data. The HU(100) and HU(140) for the coronary artery plaque are obtained by filling the channel of the coronary artery with a viscous solution of methyl cellulose in water, containing 2% contrast. These (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) values of the coronary artery plaque are used for their characterization on the basis of theoretical models of atomic compositions of the plaque materials. These results are compared with histopathological report. Results: The authors find that the calibration gives ρ{sub e} with an accuracy of ±3.5% while Z{sub eff} is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%. The HU(100) and HU(140) are found to be considerably different for the same plaque at the same position and there is a linear trend between these two HU values. It is noted that pure lipid type plaques

  3. Coronary artery disease: Which degree of coronary artery stenosis is indicative of ischemia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, Olivio F. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Stolzmann, Paul [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Kozerke, Sebastian [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Plass, Andre [Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Wyss, Christophe [Cardiovascular Center, Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Falk, Volkmar [Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Scheffel, Hans, E-mail: hans.scheffel@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the best cut-off value of stenosis degree for low-dose computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) to predict the hemodynamic significance of coronary artery stenoses compared to catheter angiography (CA) using a cardiac magnetic resonance based approach as standard of reference. Materials and methods: Fifty-two patients (mean age, 64 {+-} 10 years) scheduled for CA underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) at 1.5-T and dual-source CTCA using prospective ECG-triggering the same day. Diagnostic performance of CTCA and CA to detect myocardial ischemia was evaluated with CMR as the standard of reference. The diagnostic performance and best cut-off values to predict the hemodynamic significance of coronary were determined from receiver operating characteristics analysis (ROC). Results: CA revealed >50% stenoses in 131/832 segments (15.7%) in 78/156 (50.0%) coronary arteries in 32/52 (62%) patients. CTCA revealed >50% stenoses in 148/807 (18.3%) segments, corresponding to 83/156 (53.2%) coronary arteries in 34/52 (65.4%) patients. CMR revealed ischemia in 118/832 (14.2%) myocardial segments corresponding to the territories of 60/156 (38.5%) coronary arteries in 29/52 (56%) patients. ROC analysis showed equal diagnostic performance for low-dose CTCA and CA with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.82 and 0.83 (P = 0.64). The optimal cut-off value was determined at stenosis of >60% for the prediction of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis by CTCA. Using this cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV to predict hemodynamic significance by CTCA were 100%, 83%, 100%, and 88% on a per-patient basis and 88%, 73%, 83% and 81% on a per-artery analysis, respectively. Conclusion: By considering coronary stenosis >60%, diagnostic performance for predicting the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis by CTCA is optimal and equals that of CA.

  4. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children: diagnostic use of multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Quanli; Yao, Qiong; Hu, Xihong [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2016-09-15

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly. It is important to demonstrate the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery and its course before surgery. To explore the clinical diagnostic use of multidetector CT coronary angiography in detecting anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children. Nine children (2 boys, 7 girls) ages 2 months to 9 years with surgically confirmed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery were studied. Clinical data, transthoracic echocardiography and CT coronary angiography images were retrospectively analyzed. Transthoracic echocardiography correctly diagnosed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in 7 of 9 patients (95% CI: 40-97%). CT coronary angiography revealed the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery in all children (95% CI: 66-100%). In a 4-year-old girl and a 9-year-old girl, CT coronary angiography showed dilation of the right coronary artery and collateral circulation between the right and the left coronary arteries. CT coronary angiography is a useful method to show the anomalous origin of the coronary artery in children with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, especially for patients in whom origin of the left coronary artery cannot be detected by transthoracic echocardiography. (orig.)

  5. Haemostatic function in coronary artery disease (CAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Sikka, M; Madan, N; Dwidedi, S; Rusia, U; Sharma, S

    1997-04-01

    Tests to evaluate haemostatic function bleeding time (BT), prothrombin time (PT) partial thromboplastin time with kaolin (PTTK), thrombin time (TT), platelet count, platelet function tests (platelet adhesiveness and microthrombus index) and plasma fibrinogen levels were performed in 30 patients of coronary artery disease (14 myocardial infarction, 16 angina pectoris) and 20 age and sex matched controls. There was no statistically significant difference in platelet adhesiveness and mean microthrombus index in patients and controls. The BT, PT, PTTK and TT were normal in all patients and controls. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that plasma fibrinogen was an independent risk factor in the production of CAD.

  6. Markers of inflammation and coronary artery calcification: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamirani, Yasmin S; Pandey, Shivda; Rivera, Juan J; Ndumele, Chiadi; Budoff, Matthew J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this systematic review is to assess the cross-sectional relationship of inflammatory markers with the presence and extent of coronary artery calcium (CAC) to identify asymptomatic individuals with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Markers of subclinical inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis have both been used to improve detection of individuals at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. CAC has emerged as a surrogate maker for underlying coronary atherosclerosis, and has been shown to predict future CHD events. Although inflammation is intimately associated with atherosclerosis, and levels of inflammatory markers predict cardiovascular risk, the relationship of subclinical inflammatory markers with the burden of coronary atherosclerosis is not clear. Medline and Pub Med databases were searched for all studies assessing the relationship of inflammatory markers with CAC published till July 2007. We found 12 studies that met our criteria. CRP, fibrinogen, metallic metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), resistin, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and beta-fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were used as inflammatory markers. There was a wide variation among studies with regards to population size, inclusion criterias, age range and techniques. It was observed that in almost all studies the relationship between inflammatory markers and CAC was weak, and was mostly found upon univariate analysis in women. However, this association was lost after correction for obesity and BMI. The data on the relationship of inflammation and CAC with progression of atherosclerosis is scarce and did not show any predictive benefits for future CHD. Variable associations between CAC and inflammatory markers were identified. In most studies where a positive relationship was found, this relationship disappeared after appropriate correction for the presence of

  7. Coronary artery calcium in breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takx, Richard A P; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U Joseph; Pilz, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Morris, Pamela B; Henzler, Thomas; Apfaltrer, Paul

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate whether breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy have a higher burden of coronary artery calcium as a potential surrogate of radiation-induced accelerated coronary artery disease. 333 patients were included. 54 patients underwent chest CT ae

  8. Change in patient nutritional knowledge following coronary artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Change in patient nutritional knowledge following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. L van Rooy, Yoga Coopoo. Abstract. Introduction: In order to reduce coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, moderate physical activity should be combined with other lifestyle modifications, such as proper nutrition, to have a dramatic impact.

  9. Musings on genome medicine: cholesterol and coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, David G.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol levels and not inflammatory markers are the major variables that pose a risk of coronary artery disease. Diabetes greatly increases the risk at any cholesterol level. Coronary artery disease and cancer are linked by a common protein - an apoptotic protein that also functions as a regulator of insulin secretion.

  10. Combined Open-Heart Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CASE DETAILS: A 54-year-old woman suffering from dyspnea, chest pain and decreased left ventricular function (EF=40%) was diagnosed with coronary artery disease (3 vessel disease) and became candidate for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Also, she had multinodular goiter with normal thyroid function test.

  11. Coronary flow velocity reserve in three major coronary arteries by transthoracic echocardiography for the functional assessment of coronary artery disease: a comparison with fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Teruaki; Hirata, Kumiko; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Orii, Makoto; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Tanimoto, Takashi; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Kitabata, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) measurement in three major coronary arteries by transthoracic echocardiography is a promising and non-invasive method for detecting myocardial ischaemia. Its value when compared with fractional flow reserve (FFR) is unknown. Our aim was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CFVR in three major coronary arteries for detecting ischaemia compared with FFR. This is a prospective study in 172 vessels of 140 patients with at least one ≥50% stenosis in a major epicardial artery as determined by visual assessment on computed tomography coronary angiography. We performed CFVR measurement by transthoracic echocardiography within 48 h before coronary angiography and FFR measurement. The cut-off value of CFVR was estimated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve based on that of FFR ≤0.75. The CFVR was 1.86 ± 0.36 in coronary arteries with FFR ≤0.75 (n = 79) and 2.54 ± 0.48 in those with FFR >0.75 (n = 93, P coronary artery with FFR ≤0.75 in three major vessels. In each vessel, the sensitivity and specificity were 85 and 78% (left anterior descending coronary artery), 94 and 83% (right coronary artery), and 88 and 88% (left circumflex coronary artery). CFVR was indirect proportional to FFR (r = 0.56, P coronary arteries.

  12. Unusually Looped and Muzzled Branches of Right Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Guru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death in developed countries as it accounts on an average for 1 of every 5 deaths. Morphological variations of coronary arterial system is one of the causative factor for CAD. Anatomical knowledge of all possible variant patterns of coronary arterial system is imperative in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of CAD. We report here a rare branching pattern of right coronary artery (RCA. The origin of RCA was normal but the course and branching pattern of it were atypical. RCA was not occupying its usual position in atrioventricular (coronary sulcus and its course was incomplete. It gave a ventricular branch to right ventricle, which presented an unusual looping pattern. It terminated as right marginal artery following its muzzled appearance within the musculature of the ventricle.

  13. Technical Considerations of Giant Right Coronary Artery Aneurysm Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Barr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant coronary artery aneurysms are rare clinical entities. We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with dyspnoea and exertional chest pain. Investigations confirmed an aneurysmal right coronary artery measuring 4 cm with a fistulous communication to the right atrium. Following right atriotomy, the fistula was oversewn and the aneurysmal right coronary artery ligated at its origin and at several points along its course. A saphenous vein graft was anastomosed to the posterior descending artery. Persistent ventricular fibrillation occurred upon chest closure, attributed to ischaemia following ligation of the aneurysmal coronary artery. Emergent resternotomy and internal defibrillation were successfully performed. The sternum was stented open to reduce right ventricular strain and closed the following day. The patient made an unremarkable recovery. We here address the technical challenges associated with surgical repair of right coronary aneurysms and the physiology and management of potential complications.

  14. Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Mick, Stephanie; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Nair, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery has emerged as a feasible and efficient alternative to conventional full sternotomy coronary artery bypass graft surgery in selected patients. This minimally invasive approach using the daVinci robotic system allows fine intrathoracic maneuvers and excellent view of the coronary arteries. Both on-pump and off-pump operations can be performed to treat single and multivessel disease. Hybrid approaches have the potential of offering complete revascularization with the “best of both worlds” from surgery (internal mammary artery anastomosis in less invasive fashion) and percutaneous coronary intervention (least invasive approach). In this article we review the indications, techniques, short and long term results, as well as current developments in totally endoscopic robotic coronary artery bypass operations. PMID:24251021

  15. Role of 320-slice multislice computed tomography coronary angiography in the assessment of coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Youssef

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, MSCT coronary angiography is a very helpful and rapid non-invasive coronary imaging modality that was able to detect and grade coronary artery stenosis better than other noninvasive examinations used to detect CAD, such as exercise stress testing. Due to its very high negative predictive value, it may eliminate the need for invasive coronary procedures in the presence of normal coronary imaging.

  16. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Louise Hawkes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Louise Hawkes1,3, Madeleine Nowak1, Benjamin Bidstrup2, Richard Speare11School of Public Health, Tropical, Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia (3Currently Queensland Cancer Fund; 2John Flynn Hospital, Gold Coast, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: This review article summarizes the major studies that have investigated the outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG. The article includes a review of the literature in the areas of: history of CABG; indications for CABG; and measurement of quality of life following CABG, including prolongation of life, physical functioning (ie, relief from angina and dyspnea, physical activity, as well as complications of surgery and re-hospitalization, psychological functioning, and social functioning. Overall, the literature demonstrates that the outcomes of CABG have historically been measured in terms of mortality and morbidity; however, it has now been well recognized that adjustment to CABG is a multidimensional phenomenon that is not fully explained by medical factors. Therefore, in addition to studying mortality and morbidity outcomes following CABG, many recent studies have identified that it is important to investigate various physical, psychological, and social variables that have a significant impact on post-operative adjustment to CABG. Keywords: coronary artery bypass graft surgery, outcomes, quality of life, recovery

  17. Extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Chantal M; Loyer, Xavier; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amabile, Nicolas

    2017-05-01

    Membrane vesicles released in the extracellular space are composed of a lipid bilayer enclosing soluble cytosolic material and nuclear components. Extracellular vesicles include apoptotic bodies, exosomes, and microvesicles (also known previously as microparticles). Originating from different subcellular compartments, the role of extracellular vesicles as regulators of transfer of biological information, acting locally and remotely, is now acknowledged. Circulating vesicles released from platelets, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and endothelial cells contain potential valuable biological information for biomarker discovery in primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Extracellular vesicles also accumulate in human atherosclerotic plaques, where they affect major biological pathways, including inflammation, proliferation, thrombosis, calcification, and vasoactive responses. Extracellular vesicles also recapitulate the beneficial effect of stem cells to treat cardiac consequences of acute myocardial infarction, and now emerge as an attractive alternative to cell therapy, opening new avenues to vectorize biological information to target tissues. Although interest in microvesicles in the cardiovascular field emerged about 2 decades ago, that for extracellular vesicles, in particular exosomes, started to unfold a decade ago, opening new research and therapeutic avenues. This Review summarizes current knowledge on the role of extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease, and their emerging potential as biomarkers and therapeutic agents.

  18. Harmonic skeleton guided evaluation of stenoses in human coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen R; Giddens, Don P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that three-dimensionally visualizes and evaluates stenoses in human coronary arteries by using harmonic skeletons. A harmonic skeleton is the center line of a multi-branched tubular surface extracted based on a harmonic function, which is the solution of the Laplace equation. This skeletonization method guarantees smoothness and connectivity and provides a fast and straightforward way to calculate local cross-sectional areas of the arteries, and thus provides the possibility to localize and evaluate coronary artery stenosis, which is a commonly seen pathology in coronary artery disease.

  19. Biaxial vasoactivity of porcine coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yunlong; Cheng, Yana; Zhao, Xuefeng; Lu, Xiao; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-05-15

    The passive mechanical properties of blood vessel mainly stem from the interaction of collagen and elastin fibers, but vessel constriction is attributed to smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction. Although the passive properties of coronary arteries have been well characterized, the active biaxial stress-strain relationship is not known. Here, we carry out biaxial (inflation and axial extension) mechanical tests in right coronary arteries that provide the active coronary stress-strain relationship in circumferential and axial directions. Based on the measurements, a biaxial active strain energy function is proposed to quantify the constitutive stress-strain relationship in the physiological range of loading. The strain energy is expressed as a Gauss error function in the physiological pressure range. In K(+)-induced vasoconstriction, the mean ± SE values of outer diameters at transmural pressure of 80 mmHg were 3.41 ± 0.17 and 3.28 ± 0.24 mm at axial stretch ratios of 1.3 and 1.5, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those in Ca(2+)-free-induced vasodilated state (i.e., 4.01 ± 0.16 and 3.75 ± 0.20 mm, respectively). The mean ± SE values of the inner and outer diameters in no-load state and the opening angles in zero-stress state were 1.69 ± 0.04 mm and 2.25 ± 0.08 mm and 126 ± 22°, respectively. The active stresses have a maximal value at the passive pressure of 80-100 mmHg and at the active pressure of 140-160 mmHg. Moreover, a mechanical analysis shows a significant reduction of mean stress and strain (averaged through the vessel wall). These findings have important implications for understanding SMC mechanics.

  20. Mean platelet volume in patients with coronary artery ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Nihat; Tavil, Yusuf; Yazici, Hüseyin Ugur; Hizal, Fatma; Açikgöz, Sadik Kadri; Abaci, Adnan; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-08-01

    Mean platelet volume (MPV) is an indicator of platelet activation, a central process in the pathophysiology of coronary heart disease. The importance of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) lies in the fact that in 85% of cases it is accompanied by atherosclerotic coronary disease. The present study was designed to investigate MPV values in CAE patients in comparison with individuals with normal coronary angiograms. MPV was measured in 67 consecutive patients (mean age: 55.3+/-9.7 years) with isolated CAE and 55 control subjects (mean age: 53.6+/-10.1 years). Coronary artery ectasia was defined as without any stenotic lesion, on visual assessment, of the coronary arteries with a luminal dilatation 1.5-fold or more of the adjacent normal coronary segments. Four subgroups were composed according to the extension of CAE in coronary arteries. MPV was significantly higher in patients with CAE than in the control group (9.27+/-1.32 vs. 8.40+/-0.95, p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in MPV among the subgroups with different CAE severity. It was shown for the first time that patients with CAE have higher MPVs than control subjects with normal coronary angiograms. Hence MPV might be used as a follow-up marker in patients with CAE with or without coronary artery disease.

  1. Coexistence of Single Coronary Artery Anomaly and Aortic Arch Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Omur Otlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of recent onset atypical chest pain. His medical history included hypertension, dislipidemia and smoking. Physical examination was unremarkable. The resting electrocardiogram was demonstrated biphasic T waves on lateral derivations. Transthoracic echocardiography showed normal left and right ventricular dimensions and functions. Coronary angiography was planned for the patient. First, right transradial approach tried; but guidewire could not be advanced to ascendig aorta. Coronary angiography was performed through the right femoral artery. Multiple attempts to cannulate the left coronary ostium were unsuccessful. The right coronary artery cannulated from its normal ostium in the right sinus of Valsalva. After a very short common main stem, the artery divided into a right coronary artery, and separate left anterior descending artery and circumflex artery (Figure A. The coronary arteries were normal without any significant stenosis and any extrinsic compression. An aortic root injection confirmed the absence of left coronary ostium. Also, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery originating from the left aortic arch (arteria lusoria was detected as the last branch of aortic arch on contrast enhanced computerized tomography (Figure B-C. The patient discharged with medical teraphy.

  2. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Gangadharan MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old woman was seen with complaints of exertional chest pain and shortness of breath. Her medical history included atrial fibrillation and diabetes. Physical examination was unremarkable except for an irregular cardiac rhythm. Myocardial perfusion imaging revealed the presence of a large area of infarction involving the entire anterior and apical walls and part of the anteroseptal wall with minimal periinfarct ischemia. Computed tomography coronary angiogram revealed an anomalous left main coronary artery arising from the main pulmonary artery. Right and left heart catheterizations demonstrated moderate pulmonary hypertension with a slight step-up in oxygen saturation between the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery. Coronary angiography showed a large tortuous right coronary artery with collaterals to the left anterior descending artery that drained into the main pulmonary artery. She was referred for surgery. This case demonstrates a rare coronary artery anomaly in an adult where survival is dependent on collateral circulation.

  3. Burden of Hospital Admission and Repeat Angiography in Angina Pectoris Patients with and without Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lasse; Abildstrom, Steen Z; Hvelplund, Anders

    2014-01-01

    -, and 3-vessel disease, respectively (all Prepeat CAG with multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries being 2.3(1.9-2.9), for angiographically diffuse non-obstructive CAD 5.5(4.4-6.8) and for obstructive CAD...... 6.6-9.4(range)(all Pnon-obstructive CAD suffer from considerably greater CVD burdens in terms of hospitalization for CVD and repeat CAG compared with asymptomatic reference......AIMS: To evaluate risk of hospitalization due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and repeat coronary angiography (CAG) in stable angina pectoris (SAP) with no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) versus obstructive CAD, and asymptomatic reference individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed 11...

  4. Off-Pump Triple Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a Patient with Situs Inversus Totalis: Case Presentation and a Brief Review of the Brazilian and the International Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Junior Toshiyuki Karigyo

    Full Text Available Abstract A 76-year-old man with situs inversus totalis underwent a successful off-pump three-vessel coronary artery bypass surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 8 days later. At 9-month follow-up a coronary computed tomography angiography confirmed the viability of all of the grafts, and one year after the operation the patient remained asymptomatic. It comprises the fifth Brazilian case of a coronary surgery in a patient with situs inversus totalis and the first one of the country of a coronary artery bypass surgery without the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass in this condition.

  5. Morphometry of the coronary ostia and the structure of coronary arteries in the shorthair domestic cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Barszcz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the area of the coronary ostia, assess their localization in the coronary sinuses and to determine the morphology of the stem of the left and right coronary arteries in the domestic shorthair cat. The study was conducted on 100 hearts of domestic shorthair cats of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, with an average body weight of 4.05 kg. A morphometric analysis of the coronary ostia was carried out on 52 hearts. The remaining 48 hearts were injected with a casting material in order to carry out a morphological assessment of the left and right coronary arteries. In all the studied animals, the surface of the left coronary artery ostium was larger than the surface of the right coronary artery ostium. There were four types of the left main coronary artery: type I (23 animals, 49%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch, type II (12 animals, 26%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch without the septal branch, type III (11 animals, 23%-triple-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch, interventricular branch and the septal branch, type IV (1 animal, 2%-double-branched left main stem (giving off the interventricular paraconal branch and the left circumflex branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch. The left coronary artery ostium is greater than the right one. There is considerable diversity in the branches of proximal segment of the left coronary artery, while the right coronary artery is more conservative. These results can be useful in defining the optimal strategies in the endovascular procedures involving the coronary arteries or the aortic valve in the domestic shorthair cat.

  6. Morphometry of the coronary ostia and the structure of coronary arteries in the shorthair domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszcz, Karolina; Kupczyńska, Marta; Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Janeczek, Maciej; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Dzierzęcka, Małgorzata; Janczyk, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the area of the coronary ostia, assess their localization in the coronary sinuses and to determine the morphology of the stem of the left and right coronary arteries in the domestic shorthair cat. The study was conducted on 100 hearts of domestic shorthair cats of both sexes, aged 2–18 years, with an average body weight of 4.05 kg. A morphometric analysis of the coronary ostia was carried out on 52 hearts. The remaining 48 hearts were injected with a casting material in order to carry out a morphological assessment of the left and right coronary arteries. In all the studied animals, the surface of the left coronary artery ostium was larger than the surface of the right coronary artery ostium. There were four types of the left main coronary artery: type I (23 animals, 49%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch), type II (12 animals, 26%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch and the interventricular paraconal branch without the septal branch), type III (11 animals, 23%)–triple-branched left main stem (giving off the left circumflex branch, interventricular branch and the septal branch, type IV (1 animal, 2%)–double-branched left main stem (giving off the interventricular paraconal branch and the left circumflex branch, which in turn gave off the septal branch). The left coronary artery ostium is greater than the right one. There is considerable diversity in the branches of proximal segment of the left coronary artery, while the right coronary artery is more conservative. These results can be useful in defining the optimal strategies in the endovascular procedures involving the coronary arteries or the aortic valve in the domestic shorthair cat. PMID:29020103

  7. Coronary artery rupture during high-pressure post-dilatation of coronary stent in a heavily calcified lesion of an ectatic right coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery perforation (CAP is a rare but feared complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. With the use of novel instruments, including hydrophilic and ultrarigid guidewires, rotablator devices, and cutting balloons, the success rate of intervention for coronary artery chronic total occlusion (CTOs and calcified lesions has increased. Along with these changes, the risk of CAP has also increased. In this case report, we present a tip III CAP due to high-pressure postdilatation of coronary stent in a heavily calcified lesion of an ectatic right coronary artery.

  8. Relationship between epicardial adipose tissue and subclinical coronary artery disease in patients with extra-cardiac arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Dekker, M A M; Takashima, R; van den Heuvel, E R; van den Dungen, J J A M; Tio, R A; Oudkerk, M; Vliegenthart, R

    2014-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT) are linked to coronary artery disease (CAD). The association between EAT, MAT, and severity of CAD in known extra-cardiac arterial disease was investigated. Sixty-five cardiac asymptomatic patients (mean age 65 ± 8 years, 69% male) with peripheral arterial disease, carotid stenosis, or aortic aneurysm underwent coronary computed tomography angiography. Patients were divided into non-significant (cardiovascular risk factors. Median EAT was 99.5, 98.0, and 112.0 cm(3) (P = 0.38) and median MAT was 66.0, 90.0, and 81.0 cm(3) (P = 0.53) for non-significant, single vessel, and multi-vessel CAD, respectively. In age- and gender-adjusted analysis, only EAT was significantly associated with CAD (odds ratio [OR] 1.12 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.25] per 10 cm(3) increase in EAT; P = 0.04). This remained in multivariate-adjusted analysis (OR 1.21 [1.04-1.39]; P = 0.01). In patients with known extra-cardiac arterial disease, CAD is correlated with EAT, but not with MAT. These results suggest that EAT has a local effect on coronary atherosclerosis, apart from the endocrine effect of visceral fat. © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. Diagnosis Using CCTA and Management of Anomalous Right Coronary Artery from the Opposite Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Mursleen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary anomalies can be observed in 1–1.2% of all angiograms performed. Majority of coronary anomalies are benign and do not lead to cardiac ischemia; however anomalous coronary arteries from the opposite sinus (ACAOS are often associated with sudden cardiac deaths, typically in 0.11–0.35% of individuals who participate in vigorous physical activity (Peñalver et al., 2012. Left and right ACAOS have an incidence of 0.15% and 0.92%, respectively. Left ACAOS are often associated with higher incidence of sudden cardiac death; this could be secondary to greater territory of myocardial perfusion by the left coronary artery. ACAOS are often asymptomatic and initially present as sudden death following exertion in young athletes. The management of left ACAOS is clear and surgery is usually indicated. However there is a lack of consensus on the management of certain cases of right ACAOS. In this paper a case of 20 yo M with right coronary artery from left sinus is going to be presented with a discussion on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management.

  10. Prognostic Value of Gai′s Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang Zhang; Shuang Yang; Lu-Yue Gai; Zhi-Qi Han; Qian Xin; Xiao-Bo Yang; Jun-Jie Yang; Qin-Hua Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, us...

  11. Coronary Artery Disease and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naomi Mitsuhashi; Tomio Onuma; Sayaka Kubo; Naoko Takayanagi; Motoe Honda; Ryuzo Kawamori

    2002-01-01

    Coronary Artery Disease and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients Naomi Mitsuhashi , MD , Tomio Onuma , MD , Sayaka Kubo , MD , Naoko Takayanagi , MD , Motoe Honda...

  12. Woven Coronary Artery Disease Successfully Managed with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A New Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Alsancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Woven coronary artery is relatively rare and can be complicated in both acute and chronic phases. A few case reports have been published until now. Herein we report a case with right woven coronary artery managed with drug-eluted stent implantation without complication.

  13. Repair of an Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Aneurysm by Implantation of a Coronary Covered Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antenor Portela

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available An atherosclerotic aneurysm of the right coronary artery complicated by a recent myocardial infarction was successfully treated with coronary artery stenting, using a device consisting of 2 stents with a layer of expandable polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE placed between them. A follow-up angiograph 5 months after the procedure showed sustained initial results.

  14. Repair of an Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Aneurysm by Implantation of a Coronary Covered Stent

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Antenor; Bastos, Raldir; Costa, Itamar; Paiva, Jayro

    2002-01-01

    An atherosclerotic aneurysm of the right coronary artery complicated by a recent myocardial infarction was successfully treated with coronary artery stenting, using a device consisting of 2 stents with a layer of expandable polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) placed between them. A follow-up angiograph 5 months after the procedure showed sustained initial results.

  15. Coronary collateral circulation: clinical significance and influence on survival in patients with coronary artery occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J F

    1989-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 96 patients with coronary artery occlusion, 67 had good and 29 had no or poor collateral circulation. Patients with good collaterals had the severest degree of coronary artery disease. Good collaterals are associated with a higher incidence of angina pectoris and normal...

  16. Early Post-Operative Coronary Thrombosis Following Repair of a Proximal Coronary Artery Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Yashasvi; Lau, Bryan; Taub, Cynthia C

    2016-12-01

    Patients with aneurysmal coronary artery fistulas are often a treatment challenge. We hereby, report a case of aneurysmal left main coronary artery to coronary sinus fistula repair, complicated by an early post-operative thrombosis of the left main coronary artery, necessitating an orthotropic heart transplant. Routine use of peri-procedural and long-term anti-coagulation is usually not a standard recommendation in these cases; however, early institution of the same may prevent flow stasis, thrombus formation and unfavourable outcomes pre- or post-operatively.

  17. Assessment of Coronary Artery Calcium on Low-Dose Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography With Iterative Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braber, Thijs L; Willemink, Martin J; Bohté, Elzemiek H; Mosterd, Arend; Leiner, Tim; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate whether coronary calcium scoring (CCS) is also feasible using low-radiation-dose coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in combination with iterative reconstruction. METHODS: Forty-three individuals without known coronary artery disease underwent both

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography according to pre-test probability of coronary artery disease and severity of coronary arterial calcification. The CORE-64 (Coronary Artery Evaluation Using 64-Row Multidetector Computed Tomography Angiography) International Multicenter Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Miller, Julie M; Rochitte, Carlos E; Dewey, Marc; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Gottlieb, Ilan; Paul, Narinder; Clouse, Melvin E; Shapiro, Edward P; Hoe, John; Lardo, Albert C; Bush, David E; de Roos, Albert; Cox, Christopher; Brinker, Jeffrey; Lima, Joăo A C

    2012-01-01

    ...) to detect obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). The ability of CTA to exclude obstructive CAD in patients of different pre-test probabilities and in presence of coronary calcification remains uncertain. For the CORE-64...

  19. [Aftermaths of lesions of coronary arteries in Kawasaki disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostokova, A A; Grunina, E A; Klemenov, A V

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease, also known as cutaneous-mucous-glandular mucocutaneous glandular syndrome, is acute systemic vasculitis of small-to-medium calibre arteries, frequently involving coronary arteries, affect almost exceptionally children, with reports concerning cases of Kawasaki syndrome in 20-to-30-year-old adults being extremely rare. The most serious manifestation of Kawasaki disease is coronaritis and formation of coronary artery aneurysms. The dynamics of the formed coronary aneurysms and, consequently, the fate of patients may be different. Thrombosis of an aneurysm in the early period of the disease and stenosing of the affected coronary artery later on present possible complications of Kawasaki disease and potential causes of myocardial infection in young adults. Increased risk of coronary artery thromboses in Kawasaki disease is conditioned by a decrease in velocity of blood flow and its turbulent pattern in the aneurysms, endothelial dysfunction due to currently existing or endured coronaritis and thrombocytosis typical of this pathology. Predisposing factors of coronary artery stenosing are unfavourable haemodynamic conditions appearing at the sites of the "entry" and "exit" of the aneurysm. Described herein are two case reports of myocardial infarction, one of which being a complication of an acute case of Kawasaki disease in a 29-year-old patient, with the second one being a consequence of coronary artery stenosing in a 25-year-old patient who had endured Kawasaki disease in his childhood.

  20. Relation between bone mineral density and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Tohodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are the two important life threatening factors that cause morbidity and mortality. Previous studies had showed that bone mineral density is decreased with progression of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease is more common in the osteoporotic patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between bone mineral density and coronary artery stenosis in patients who underwent coronary angiography . Materials and Methods: In this study 197 patients (111female and 86 male that underwent coronary angiography and bone mineral densitometry were evaluated. According to angiographic data ,patients were divided to two group :first group had coronary stenosis in ≥50% in one or more major coronary arteries and second group with normal coronary artery or stenosis -1 as normal , T-score -1 to -2.5 as osteopenia, and T-score <-2.5 as osteoporosis were described. Finally the relationship between coronary artery stenosis and bone mineral density was evaluated by SPSS statistical software version 15 with using suitable statistical test. Results: The mean age of sample was 57±11.32. 33% of patients had osteoporosis in lumbar spine and 24.2% of them in femoral neck.Significant coronary artery stenosis were seen in 67.9% of patients. There were no significant difference between lumbar and hip bone mineral density in patients with significant coronary disease and subjects without coronary artery disease. Conclusion: There were no associations between coronary artery disease and osteoporosis. Further studies are recommended for confirmation of this relationship.

  1. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year-old female who developed two spontaneous coronary dissections while on topical hormonal replacement therapy. The patient had no other risk factors for coronary dissection. After withdrawal from topical hormonal therapy, our patient has done well and has not had recurrent coronary artery dissections over a one-year follow-up period. The potential contributory role of topical hormonal therapy as a cause of spontaneous coronary dissection should be recognized.

  2. Doppler findings in a rare Coronary Artery Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorns Carl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the primary forms of congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries is coronary artery fistula (CAF. It is defined as a direct communication between the coronary artery and any surrounding cardiac chamber or vascular structure, which bypasses the myocardial capillary bed. We present a newborn baby with a large coronary artery fistula connecting the left anterior descending (LAD artery to the left ventricular (LV apex. Associated cardiac abnormalities were found: a ventricular septal defect (diameter 4 mm, a patent foramen ovale as well as trivial tricuspid and mitral regurgitation. Here we demonstrate the echocardiograms of an extremely rare form of CAF diagnosed within the first days of postnatal life.

  3. Design Optimisation of Coronary Artery Stent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Neil W; Ragkousis, Giorgos; Curzen, Nick

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, advances in computing power and computational methods have made it possible to perform detailed simulations of the coronary artery stenting procedure and of related virtual tests of performance (including fatigue resistance, corrosion and haemodynamic disturbance). Simultaneously, there has been a growth in systematic computational optimisation studies, largely exploiting the suitability of surrogate modelling methods to time-consuming simulations. To date, systematic optimisation has focussed on stent shape optimisation and has re-affirmed the complexity of the multi-disciplinary, multi-objective problem at hand. Also, surrogate modelling has predominantly involved the method of Kriging. Interestingly, though, optimisation tools, particularly those associated with Kriging, haven't been used as efficiently as they could have been. This has especially been the case with the way that Kriging predictor functions have been updated during the search for optimal designs. Nonetheless, the potential for future, carefully posed, optimisation strategies has been suitably demonstrated, as described in this review.

  4. "Obesity paradox" in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ibrahim; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-10-26

    Obesity used to be among the more neglected public health problems, but has unfolded as a growing medical and socioeconomic burden of epidemic proportions. Morbid obesity is linked to traditional cardiovascular risk factors like, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes, and suspected to incur increased morbidity and mortality in the Western and even third world populations. This patient cohort is also at greater risk to develop coronary artery disease. Recent population-based registries revealed that 43% and 24% of all cases of coronary revascularization were carried out in overweight and obese patients, respectively. However, despite evidence of a positive correlation between obesity and increased cardiovascular morbidity, some authors have described a better clinical outcome in overweight and obese patients, a phenomenon they coined "obesity paradoxon". Thus, there is an ongoing debate in light of conflicting data and the possibility of confounding bias causing misconception and challenging the "obesity paradox". In this review article we present the current evidence and throughly discuss the validity of the "obesity paradoxon" in a variety of clinical settings.

  5. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with Gilbert syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Korkmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Here in we present a case of a postoperative jaundicedue to Gilbert’s syndrome in a patient who was sufferingfrom coronary artery disease and undergone coronaryartery bypass grafting operation. Signs and symptoms ofjaundice developed on the postoperative first day andresolved spontaneously after 7 days. The diagnosis andcharacteristics of Gilbert’s syndrome and other relatedabnormalities and factors relevant to anesthesia and cardiopulmonaryby-pass, which affect bilirubin metabolism,are discussed. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 555-557Key words: Coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypassgrafting, Gilbert’s syndrome

  6. Prognostic Value of Gai's Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yang, Shuang; Gai, Lu-Yue; Han, Zhi-Qi; Xin, Qian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Jun-Jie; Jin, Qin-Hua

    2016-12-05

    The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the gold standard. We retrospectively analyzed 107 visually assessed significant coronary lesions in 88 patients (mean age, 59.6 ± 10.2 years; 76.14% of males) who underwent CCTA, invasive coronary angiography, and invasive FFR measurement. An FFR significant coronary stenosis. Lesions were divided into two groups using an FFR cutoff value of 0.80. We compared Gai's plaque scores and CACS between the two groups and evaluated the correlations of these scores with FFR. The statistical methods included unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Coronary lesions with FFR Gai's scores than those with FFR ≥0.80. Gai's score had the strongest correlation with FFR (r = -0.48, P arteries and a single artery. Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  7. Carotid versus coronary atherosclerosis burdens in acute compared with chronic symptomatic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Stéphanie; Bibeau, Karine; Bertrand, Olivier F; Lévesque, Valérie; Deschênes St-Pierre, Béatrice; Pibarot, Philippe; Després, Jean-Pierre; Larose, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Prediction of coronary events remains elusive. Carotid atherosclerosis may be a surrogate for coronary risk, as carotid and coronary diseases occur simultaneously - albeit at times with a weak association - depending on clinical presentation. We investigated carotid and coronary atherosclerosis in men with new-onset unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) vs. long-standing severe chronic stable angina (CSA). Bilateral carotid artery and 3-vessel coronary artery atherosclerosis burdens were measured within 1 month, respectively, by 3D-volumetric carotid magnetic resonance imaging and coronary angiography-derived modified CASS-50 score. Men with STEMI (n = 50) and long-standing CSA (n = 50), matched for age, were enrolled (58.6 ± 8.8 years). All of them had carotid atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis burden was greater in the carotid arteries of STEMI vs. CSA (wall volume: 196.2 ± 44.4 vs. 169.2 ± 38.0 mm3/4 mm, p = 0.002), but greater in the coronary arteries of CSA vs. STEMI (modified CASS-50 score: 3 vs. 1, p < 0.0001). Normalized wall index (NWI) of internal carotid was associated with modified CASS-50 score in STEMI (ρ = 0.40, p = 0.022) and in CSA (ρ = -0.39, p = 0.031). Carotid atherosclerosis was observed in all CAD patients, and atherosclerosis burden in carotid and in coronary arteries varied according to clinical presentation.

  8. Outcome of coronary endarterectomy with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redoy Ranjan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the outcome of surgical revascularization technique, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG with or without coronary endarterectomy for patients with diffuse coronary artery disease in a single surgeon’s practice on 2,189 patients from January 2009 and December 2016. The variables like intubation time, ICU stay, postoperative myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, renal impairment, stroke and ICU mortality were compared. Among these patients, 1,000 patients required coronary endarterectomy in addition to off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG. Initially, the mortality and incidence of postoperative blood transfusion were higher in the group of patients who had coronary endarterectomy in addition to CABG. However, postoperative combined use of heparin, warfarin and double anti-platelet agent was associated with decreased mortality significantly in our study. In comparison to other group, the patients in the combined coronary endarterectomy with CABG group had a higher incidence of male sex, past myocardial infarction and poor left ventricular function. Total myocardial revascularization is attainable when coronary endarterectomy is performed in addition to off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery in diffuse coronary artery disease.

  9. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) screening in the asymptomatic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik; Falk, Erling

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI) was developed to assess peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with symptoms of peripheral ischemia being present at rest or only functionally dependent (intermittent claudication). Reduced ABI is caused by arterial obstruction between the aortic arch...

  10. Surgical revascularization of posterior coronary arteries without cardiopulomonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Filho J. Glauco

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the results observed during the early postoperative period in patients who had the posterior coronary arteries revascularized without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, in regard to the following parameters: age, sex,bypass grafts types, morbidity and mortality. METHODS: From January 1995 to June 1998, 673 patients underwent myocardial revascularization (MR. Of this total, 607 (90.20% MR procedures were performed without CPB. The posterior coronary arteries (PCA were revascularized in 298 (44.27% patients, 280 (93.95% without CPB. The age of the patients ranged from 37 to 88 years (mean, 61 years. The male gender predominated, with 198 men (70.7%. The revascularization of the posterior coronary arteries had the following distribution: diagonalis artery (31 patients, 10%; marginal branches of the circumflex artery (243 patients, 78.7%; posterior ventricular artery (4 patients, 1.3%; and posterior descending artery (31 patients, 10%. RESULTS: Procedure-related complications without death occurred in 7 cases, giving a morbidity of 2.5%. There were 11 deaths in the early postoperative period (mortality of 3.9%. CONCLUSION: Similarly to the anterior coronary arteries, the posterior coronary arteries may benefit from myocardial revascularization without CPB.

  11. Accuracy of the screening physical examination to identify subclinical atherosclerosis and peripheral arterial disease in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournot, Maxime; Boccalon, Henri; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Guilloux, Jérôme; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Hanaire-Broutin, Hélène; Chamontin, Bernard; Galinier, Michel; Ferrières, Jean

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of the screening vascular physical examination for predicting asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic and apparently healthy subjects. A standardized physical examination and a carotid and femoral ultrasonography were administered to 2736 men and women aged 20 to 90 years old, with no personal history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and no complaint of neurologic, coronary, or lower limb symptom. We assessed the accuracy of auscultation for bruits and pulse palpation for identifying the presence of significant carotid stenosis, carotid plaque, femoral plaque, and ankle-brachial index (ABI) factors. The absence of both pedal pulses also provided additional information, beyond risk factors, on the presence of an ABI <0.9 (+LR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.93 to 6.60). The presence of a carotid bruit did not affect the likelihood of carotid stenosis, plaque, or intima-media thickness above the median. Unlike carotid auscultation, pulse palpation and auscultation for femoral bruits provided valuable information on the presence of asymptomatic PAD and underlying atherosclerosis in apparently healthy subjects.

  12. Imaging markers of stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Prabhakaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid stenosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke. While symptomatic carotid stenosis requires prompt revascularization, there is significant debate about the management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS, especially in light of recent advances in medical therapy. As a result, there is an even greater need for reliable predictors of stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. Besides clinical factors and stenosis grade, plaque morphology and cerebral hemodynamics may be suitable prognostic tools. High-risk features, using Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI suggest that subpopulations at sufficiently high risk (10% annually can be identified and in whom revascularization would be most beneficial. In this review, imaging tools to aid in stroke risk stratification in patients with ACS are discussed.

  13. Safety of Simultaneous Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Carotid Endarterectomy Versus Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimar, Christian; Bilbilis, Konstantinos; Rekowski, Jan; Holst, Torulv; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Breuer, Martin; Dahm, Manfred; Diegeler, Anno; Kowalski, Arne; Martens, Sven; Mohr, Friedrich W; Ondrášek, Jiri; Reiter, Beate; Roth, Peter; Seipelt, Ralf; Siggelkow, Markus; Steinhoff, Gustav; Moritz, Anton; Wilhelmi, Mathias; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Jakob, Heinz; Ose, Claudia; Scherag, Andre; Knipp, Stephan C

    2017-10-01

    The optimal operative strategy in patients with severe carotid artery disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is unknown. We sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of synchronous combined carotid endarterectomy and CABG as compared with isolated CABG. Patients with asymptomatic high-grade carotid artery stenosis ≥80% according to ECST (European Carotid Surgery Trial) ultrasound criteria (corresponding to ≥70% NASCET [North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial]) who required CABG surgery were randomly assigned to synchronous carotid endarterectomy+CABG or isolated CABG. To avoid unbalanced prognostic factor distributions, randomization was stratified by center, age, sex, and modified Rankin Scale. The primary composite end point was the rate of stroke or death at 30 days. From 2010 to 2014, a total of 129 patients were enrolled at 17 centers in Germany and the Czech Republic. Because of withdrawal of funding after insufficient recruitment, enrolment was terminated early. At 30 days, the rate of any stroke or death in the intention-to-treat population was 12/65 (18.5%) in patients receiving synchronous carotid endarterectomy+CABG as compared with 6/62 (9.7%) in patients receiving isolated CABG (absolute risk reduction, 8.8%; 95% confidence interval, -3.2% to 20.8%; PWALD=0.12). Also for all secondary end points at 30 days and 1 year, there was no evidence for a significant treatment-group effect although patients undergoing isolated CABG tended to have better outcomes. Although our results cannot rule out a treatment-group effect because of lack of power, a superiority of the synchronous combined carotid endarterectomy+CABG approach seems unlikely. Five-year follow-up of patients is still ongoing. URL: https://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN13486906. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Multidetector computed tomography imaging of coronary artery anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Güray, Yeşim; Altınsoy, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of coronary artery anomalies and to demonstrate in which cases multidetector computed tomography has an additional clinical value compared with the conventional angiography. A total of 2375 multidetector computed tomography studies were retrospectively reviewed to determine the dominance of the coronary artery anomalies. The classification of coronary artery anomalies was made according to anatomical criteria--origin, course, intrinsic anatomy, and termination--and clinical relevance--benign versus malignant. The coronary artery system was right dominant in 83.99%, left dominant in 8.0%, and co-dominant in 9.01% of the cases. The incidence of the origin and/or course anomalies was 1.76%, that of fistulas was 0.42%, and that of myocardial bridges was 10.82%. Multidetector computed tomography was performed after conventional angiography in 23 cases and it provided additional information regarding its origin and proximal course, as well as its relationship with the aortic root and main pulmonary trunk in 100% of the cases; eight malignant cases were found. In addition, in all of (100%) the six cases with coronary artery fistulas, conventional angiography failed to detect their terminations, which were clearly depicted by multidetector computed tomography. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography is superior to conventional angiography in delineating the ostial origin and proximal course of anomalous coronary arteries. Furthermore, it reveals the exact relationship of anomalous coronary arteries with the aorta and the pulmonary artery. Anomalies of the intrinsic anatomy and the termination of coronary arteries are also better visualised with multidetector computed tomography.

  15. Clinical outcomes after hybrid coronary revascularization versus coronary artery bypass surgery: a meta-analysis of 1,190 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Bagai, Akshay; Halkos, Michael E.; Rao, Sunil V.; Bachinsky, William B.; Patel, Manesh R.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Alexander, John H.; Lopes, Renato D.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) represents a minimally invasive revascularization strategy in which the durability of the internal mammary artery to left anterior descending artery graft is combined with percutaneous coronary intervention to treat remaining lesions. We performed a systematic

  16. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients at High Risk Without Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedic, Admir; Ten Kate, Gert-Jan R; Roos, Cornelis J; Neefjes, Lisan A; de Graaf, Michiel A; Spronk, Angela; Delgado, Victoria; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Moelker, Adriaan; Ouhlous, Mohamed; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Boersma, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Nieman, Koen; Bax, Jeroen J; de Feijter, Pim J

    2016-03-01

    At present, traditional risk factors are used to guide cardiovascular management of asymptomatic subjects. Intensified surveillance may be warranted in those identified as high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to determine the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) next to the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in patients at high CVD risk without symptoms suspect for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 665 patients at high risk (mean age 56 ± 9 years, 417 men), having at least one important CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, familial hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease, or severe hypertension) or a calculated European systematic coronary risk evaluation of >10% were included from outpatient clinics at 2 academic centers. Follow-up was performed for the occurrence of adverse events including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. During a median follow-up of 3.0 (interquartile range 1.3 to 4.1) years, adverse events occurred in 40 subjects (6.0%). By multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and CACS, obstructive CAD on CCTA (≥50% luminal stenosis) was a significant predictor of adverse events (hazard ratio 5.9 [CI 1.3 to 26.1]). Addition of CCTA to age, gender, plus CACS, increased the C statistic from 0.81 to 0.84 and resulted in a total net reclassification index of 0.19 (p value and risk reclassification benefit beyond CACS in patients without CAD symptoms but with high risk of developing CVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of plasma osteoprotegerin and adiponectin with arterial function, cardiac function and metabolism in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerre Mette

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoprotegerin (OPG, a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is linked to cardiovascular disease. Negative associations exist between circulating OPG and cardiac function. The adipocytokine adiponectin (ADPN is downregulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and coronary artery disease and shows an inverse correlation with insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease risk. We assessed the relationship of plasma OPG and ADPN and arterial function, cardiac function and myocardial glucose metabolism in T2DM. Methods We included 78 asymptomatic men with uncomplicated, well-controlled T2DM, without inducible ischemia, assessed by dobutamine-stress echocardiography, and 14 age-matched controls. Cardiac function was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, myocardial glucose metabolism (MMRglu by 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. OPG and ADPN levels were measured in plasma. Results T2DM patients vs. controls showed lower aortic distensibility, left ventricular (LV volumes, impaired LV diastolic function and MMRglu (all P P Conclusions OPG was inversely associated with aortic distensibility, LV volumes and LV diastolic function, while ADPN was positively associated with MMRglu. These findings indicate that in asymptomatic men with uncomplicated T2DM, OPG and ADPN may be markers of underlying mechanisms linking the diabetic state to cardiac abnormalities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN53177482

  18. An Interesting Anomalous Coronary Artery: Right Coronary Artery Arising from the mid Part of the Left Anterior Descending Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Golabchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of typical chest pain, cold sweat, and dyspnea of 24 hours’ duration. She had a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for many years. On admission, her electrocardiogram (ECG revealed normal sinus rhythm and dynamic T inversion in the precordial leads. Her enzyme levels were normal. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60%, with mild mitral regurgitation. Because of ST depression during the peak exercise test, cardiac catheterization was suggested and then performed. Coronary angiography demonstrated normal left main coronary artery courses with normal dominant left circumflex artery and left anterior descending artery (LAD. An anomalous right coronary artery (RCA was seen, with a nondominant separate branch arising from the mid part of the LAD. It then coursed anteriorly down on the right atrioventricular groove (Figure 1. Attempts for the cannulation of the RCA were unsuccessful. Aortic root angiography did not show the presence of an independent-origin RCA from the ascending aorta (Figure 2 and Figure 3. We selected medical management of X syndrome (microvascular disease and followed up the patient because of the nondominancy of the RCA. There was no need for revascularization or surgery.  She was discharged in good condition.

  19. Antiplatelet therapy at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremke, Michael; Jensen, Mariann Tang; Bak, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this multicentre cohort study was to examine the relationship between antiplatelet therapy (APT) at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and postoperative bleeding complications, transfusion requirements and adverse cardiovascular events. METHODS: A matched...

  20. Two-layer model of coronary artery vasoactivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yunlong Huo; Xuefeng Zhao; Yana Cheng; Xiao Lu; Ghassan S. Kassab

    2013-01-01

    .... Here, we performed biaxial mechanical tests in the intima-media layer of right coronary artery to determine the passive and active properties in conjunction with the passive properties of adventitia...

  1. Acute Simvastatin Inhibits KATP Channels of Porcine Coronary Artery Myocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seto, Sai Wang; Au, Alice Lai Shan; Poon, Christina Chui Wa; Zhang, Qian; Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Yeung, John Hok Keung; Kong, Siu Kai; Ngai, Sai Ming; Wan, Song; Ho, Ho Pui; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Kwan, Yiu Wa

    2013-01-01

    ...]o uptake measurements. Results The cromakalim (10 nM to 10 µM)- and pinacidil (10 nM to 10 µM)-induced concentration-dependent relaxation of porcine coronary artery was inhibited by simvastatin...

  2. Stressors and anxiety in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Robyn; McKinley, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery who have increased anxiety levels have poorer outcomes than patients with lower levels, yet few studies have identified the concerns associated with this anxiety...

  3. Stents versus coronary-artery bypass grafting for left main coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Duk-Woo; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Seung-Whan; Lee, Cheol Whan; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Park, Seong-Wook; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Kim, Pum Joon; Seong, In-Whan; Park, Hun Sik; Ahn, Taehoon; Chae, In-Ho; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Chung, Wook-Sung; Park, Seung-Jung

    2008-04-24

    Several studies have compared the treatment effects of coronary stenting and coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, there are limited data regarding the long-term outcomes of these two interventions for patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease. We evaluated 1102 patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease who underwent stent implantation and 1138 patients who underwent CABG in Korea between January 2000 and June 2006. We compared adverse outcomes (death; a composite outcome of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or stroke; and target-vessel revascularization) with the use of propensity-score matching in the overall cohort and in separate subgroups according to type of stent. In the overall matched cohort, there was no significant difference between the stenting and CABG groups in the risk of death (hazard ratio for the stenting group, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.80) or the risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio for the stenting group, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.62). The rates of target-vessel revascularization were significantly higher in the group that received stents than in the group that underwent CABG (hazard ratio, 4.76; 95% CI, 2.80 to 8.11). Comparisons of the group that received bare-metal stents with the group that underwent CABG and of the group that received drug-eluting stents with the group that underwent CABG produced similar results, although there was a trend toward higher rates of death and the composite end point in the group that received drug-eluting stents. In a cohort of patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease, we found no significant difference in rates of death or of the composite end point of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or stroke between patients receiving stents and those undergoing CABG. However, stenting, even with drug-eluting stents, was associated with higher rates of target-vessel revascularization than was CABG. Copyright 2008

  4. Fatal right coronary artery rupture following blunt chest trauma: detection by postmortem selective coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2016-05-01

    Coronary artery injury is a rare complication following blunt chest trauma (BCT), and can be fatal. Here we report findings on postmortem selective coronary angiography of right coronary artery rupture after an assault involving blunt trauma to the chest. A woman in her 60s died after her son stomped on her chest. There were no appreciable signs of injury on external examination, and cause of death could not be determined by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). Internal findings indicated that an external force had been applied to the anterior chest, as evidenced by subcutaneous hemorrhage and pericardial and cardiac contusions. Postmortem coronary angiography revealed irregularity of the intima and of the fat tissue surrounding the proximal part of the right coronary artery associated with a local filling defect. Histopathological examination suggested coronary rupture with dissection of the tunica media and compression of the lumen cavity. The key points in the present case are that no fatal injuries could be determined on external examination, and the heart and coronary artery injuries were not evident on PMCT. Criminality might be overlooked in such cases, as external investigation at the crime scene would be inadequate and could result in a facile diagnosis of cause of death. This is the first report of coronary artery rupture with dissection that was detected by CT coronary angiography, and provides helpful findings for reaching an appropriate decision both forensically and clinically.

  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting for proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, Derk Jan

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes and discusses the results of a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial comparing percutaneous coronary angioplasty with stenting (stenting) and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting with a left internal mammary artery (surgery) in patients with a high-grade stenosis

  6. Acute myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Pedro; Ferreira, Pedro; Correia, Emanuel; dos Santos, Luís Ferreira; Nunes, Luis; Pipa, João; Dionísio, Odete; Santos, Jorge Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    The authors present the case of a 51-year-old woman, with no known cardiovascular risk factors, admitted with anterior acute myocardial infarction complicated by primary ventricular fibrillation, who underwent reperfusion therapy with tenecteplase. Left heart catheterization on the sixth day showed left ventricular anteroapical akinesia and normal coronary arteries. The causes of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries and its differential diagnosis are discussed.

  7. Atrophic gastritis is associated with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Kuroda, Masaaki; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Naito, Yuji; Hasegawa, Goji; Toda, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis is characterized by chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori infection and other factors. Helicobacter pylori infection has been linked to coronary artery disease. To our knowledge, however, no reports are available on the relationship between atrophic gastritis and coronary artery disease. In this study, we investigated the relationship between atrophic gastritis, which is diagnosed based on serum pepsinogen levels (pepsinogen I ≤ 70 ng/mL and pepsinog...

  8. Low prevalence of significant carotid artery disease in Iranian patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass grafting ranks as one of the most frequent operations worldwide. The presence of carotid artery stenosis may increase the stroke rate in the perioperative period. Routine preoperative noninvasive assessment of the carotid arteries are recommended in many institutions to reduce the stroke rate. Methods 271 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting at Shaheed Madani hospital of Tabriz, Iran (age, 58.5 Y; 73.1% male underwent preoperative ultrasonography for assessment of carotid artery wall thickness. Results Plaque in right common, left common, right internal and left internal carotid arteries was detected in 4.8%, 7.4%, 43.2% and 42.1% of patients respectively. 5 patients (1.8% had significant ( Conclusion Consecutive Iranian patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery show a very low prevalence of significant carotid artery disease.

  9. Dual antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Degrauwe, Sophie; Pilgrim, Thomas; Aminian, Adel; Noble, Stephane; Meier, Pascal; Iglesias, Juan F

    2017-01-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) combining aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor has been consistently shown to reduce recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with aspirin monotherapy, but at the expense of an increased risk of major bleeding. Nevertheless, the optimal duration of DAPT for secondary prevention of CAD remains unce...

  10. Association of alcohol consumption with coronary artery disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Patricia; Mazocco, Leticia; Piccoli, Jacqueline da Costa Escobar; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Badimon, Lina; Caramori, Paulo Ricardo Avancini; Pellanda, Lucia; Gomes, Irênio; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin

    2017-08-01

    The ingestion of small to moderate alcohol consumption amounts has been associated to cardiovascular protection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and coronary artery disease severity. Cross-sectional Study with patients undergoing coronary angiography. Age, cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) and alcohol drinking habit were investigated. Alcohol consumption was divided in three categories: nondrinker, moderate alcohol consumption (less than 15 g ethanol/day for women or 30 g ethanol/day for men) and heavy alcohol consumption. Coronary artery disease severity was assessed through the Friesinger Score (FS) in the coronary angiography, by interventional cardiologists blinded to alcohol consumption. The final sample included 363 adults; of those, 228 were men (62.81%). Mean age was 60.5 ± 10.9 y. Unadjusted analyses identified sex, age, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and alcohol consumption as the main covariates associated with the Friesinger score. Lower Friesinger scores were also observed in moderate alcohol consumption when comparing to those who do not drink (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79-0.95). Among patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing coronary angiography, moderate alcohol consumption is associated to a lower coronary artery disease severity than heavy drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Eosinophilic Arteritis Related Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden Çengel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous dissection of coronary arteries is accepted as one of the rare reasons of myocardial infarction. Spontaneous non-traumatic coronary artery dissection occurs rarely. Eosinophilic periarteritis of coronary artery may cause coronary artery dissection. Coronary eosinophilic periarteritis is put forward as predisposing factor of intimai impairment and dissection. In the literature; 1/3 of women with eosinophilic periarteritis is pregnant or in postpartum stage. In our case, 35 aged postpartum woman, who was deteriorated at home is brought hospital as dead. In the histopathological examination of tissue samples taken by the autopsy, made in The Council of Forensic Medicine, dissection in the left descending branch of coronary artery related to eosinophilic periarteritis and thyroiditis in the thyroid tissue samples is observed. In the literature, there is a few death case, related eosinophilic periarteritis with, autoimmune thyroiditis. It is found important because of that it i s one of the pathologies, which must come to mind firstly in postpartum period women deaths. Keywords: Postpartum, Arteritis, Eosinophilic, Coronary, Dissection.

  12. Recurrent Syncope Attributed to Left Main Coronary Artery Severe Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS rarely manifest as recurrent syncope due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia. We report a case of a 56-year-old Chinese male with complaints of paroxysmal chest burning sensation and distress for 2 weeks as well as loss of consciousness for 3 days. The electrocardiogram (ECG revealed paroxysmal multimorphologic ventricular tachycardia during attack and normal heart rhythm during intervals. Coronary angiograph showed 90% stenosis in left main coronary artery and 80% stenosis in anterior descending artery. Two stents sized 4.0*18 mm and 2.75*18 mm were placed at left main coronary artery and anterior descending artery, respectively, during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. The patient was discharged and never had ventricular arrhythmia again during a 3-month follow-up since the PCI. This indicated that ventricular tachycardia was correlated with persistent severe myocardial ischemia. Coronary vasospasm was highly suspected to be the reason of the sudden attack and acute exacerbation. PCI is recommended in patients with both severe coronary artery stenosis and ventricular arrhythmia. Removing myocardial ischemia may stop or relieve ventricular arrhythmia and prevent cardiac arrest.

  13. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: complete angiographic resolution without stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Abizaid

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a 49-year-oldwoman is presented. She did not present the classical cardiovascular riskfactors. Etiology and treatment are discussed. She underwent primarypercutaneous coronary intervention of the left anterior descendingartery with no stenting and had complete angiographic resolution.

  14. Risk stratification of patients suspected of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Møller; Voss, Mette; Hansen, Vibeke B

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of five risk models (Diamond-Forrester, the updated Diamond-Forrester, Morise, Duke, and a new model designated COronary Risk SCORE (CORSCORE) in predicting significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with chest pain suggestive of stable angina pectoris....

  15. Association of ACP1 gene polymorphisms and coronary artery ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of death in most countries including China (He et al. 2005). A num- ber of susceptible variants of candidate genes have been recognized as genetic risk factors that are associated with pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (Wu et al. 2001;. Achour et al. 2011; Zhou et al.

  16. Knowledge about coronary artery disease among patients admitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Our cardiac patients have poor knowledge about their disease and improvement on this level of education is needed. Keywords: Coronary artery disease, Knowledge, Acute coronary syndrome. Résumé Introduction: La maladie d'artère coronaire est une maladie meurtère grave partout dans le monde entire.

  17. Frequency and characteristics of coronary thrombosis in the epicardial coronary arteries after cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbustini, E; Dal Bello, B; Morbini, P; Grasso, M; Diegoli, M; Fasani, R; Pilotto, A; Bellini, O; Pellegrini, C; Martinelli, L; Campagna, C; Gavazzi, A; Specchia, G; Viganò, M; Roberts, W C

    1996-10-01

    We investigated at autopsy or at retransplantation the frequency and characteristics of coronary thrombosis in 76 cardiac allografts: 37 in place for 2 to 99 months (late). The 76 allografts were inserted in 69 patients: a single 1 in 56 patients and 2 allografts in 13 patients, 7 of whom subsequently died and had an autopsy. An average of 140 sections from 70 5-mm-long segments of 8 epicardial coronary arteries were examined from each of the 76 allografts with both hematoxylin-eosin and Movat pentachrome stains. Thrombus was found in only 1 coronary artery (3%) (the right one) of the 37 early allografts, and in 24 of 39 late allografts (61%). Of the latter 39 grafts, 29 (79%) had allograft vascular disease (AVD) and 24 (83%) of them had coronary thrombosis. Of the 312 epicardial coronary arteries (4 major and 4 minor) examined in the 39 late cases, 66 arteries (21%) contained thrombus. Of the 24 late cases with thrombus in at least 1 artery, thrombus was present in 66 (34%) of the 192 epicardial coronary arteries examined: in 6 of the 8 arteries in 3 patients; in 5 arteries in 2 patients; in 4 arteries in 1 patient; in 3 arteries in 5 patients; in 2 arteries in 6 patients, and in a single artery in 7 patients. In all 66 arteries with thrombus (24 patients) the thrombus was longer than 5 mm. The thrombus in the late cases was entirely nonocclusive (mural) in 51 (77%) of the 66 epicardial coronary arteries containing thrombus and entirely occlusive in 10 arteries (15%). It consisted exclusively of multiluminal channels in 6 arteries (9%) and combinations in 1 artery (2%). Acute myocardial infarcts were present in 3 patients, all of whom had occlusive thrombi. In all 10 arteries with occlusive thrombi, the thrombus was larger than the underlying plaque and no occlusive thrombi were located over ulcerated plaques. These observations demonstrate that thrombus is common in epicardial coronary arteries >2 months after cardiac transplantation.

  18. Risk of coronary artery involvement in Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ramos, María; Martínez-Del Val, Elena; Negreira Cepeda, Sagrario; González-Tomé, María I; Cedena Romero, Pilar; Fernández-Cooke, Elisa; Albert de la Torre, Leticia; Blázquez-Gamero, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Kawasaki disease refers to systemic vasculitis with risk of coronary artery disease. Our objective is to identify risk factors associated with coronary artery disease in patients with complete and incomplete Kawasaki disease. Descriptive, retrospective study conducted in patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease in a tertiary-care hospital between 2008 and 2014. The American Heart Association diagnostic criteria were used to define complete and incomplete Kawasaki disease. Thirty-one children were diagnosed with Kawasaki disease; 24 met the criteria for the complete form, and 7, for the incomplete form of this condition. Five had coronary artery disease. One of them had incomplete Kawasaki disease (1/7= 14.3%), and the remaining four had the complete form (4/24= 16.7%). No significant differences were found between both groups (p= 1.0). Patients with coronary artery involvement had a higher C-reactive protein level (median: 16.2 mg/dL versus 8.4 mg/dL, p= 0.047) and lower albuminemia (median: 3.2 mg/dL versus 3.99 mg/dL, p= 0.002). The risk of coronary artery involvement in incomplete Kawasaki disease is similar to that in complete Kawasaki disease; therefore, in patients with the incomplete form, immunoglobulin therapy should not be delayed. In our population, C-reactive protein and albumin levels were related to a higher risk of coronary artery involvement. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  19. CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN INDIAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Umar Farooque

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women regardless of race or ethnicity accounting for deaths of 1 in 3 women. The aim of the study is to identify the important risk factors contributing to the coronary artery disease in Indian women. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study conducted on 120 women patients of age >40 yrs. visiting a female outpatient department of Jawahar Lal Nehru Medical College, Bhagalpur, who presented with complaints related to CAD cases diagnosed from the electrocardiogram findings, clinical features and biochemical marker as per World Health Organization guidelines. RESULTS 50-59 years age group is most effected group in study with 44.2%. Most of the women are of postmenopausal age group. The maximum number of cases was seen in upper lower socioeconomic status (37.5% followed by lower (19.2%. CAD incidence was minimum in upper class. Chest pain was the main complaint in patients, next in frequency was sweating and followed by breathlessness. The major risk factors in the study group were hypertension (74.1, diabetes (63.3, sedentary habits (49.1, stress (34.2, family history (29.2 and tobacco consumption (21.8. 25 patients had obesity and 54 peoples were overweight. In our study, 48 patients had 3 children, 19 had more than 3 children. 61.7% of the patients are with hypercholesterolaemia, which most of the patients found with 2 vessel block is most common blocks observed. CONCLUSION Despite this delay in onset, mortality from coronary heart disease is increasing more rapidly among women than men.

  20. Global metabolic optimality in the structure of the coronary arteries

    CERN Document Server

    Keelan, Jonathan; Hague, James P

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the large coronary arteries is both heritable and reasonably consistent between individuals, but the extent to which this results from evolutionary pressure towards an energy-efficient, globally-optimal, structure is unknown. We present an algorithm for the determination of an energetically globally optimal arterial tree in arbitrary tissue geometries. We demonstrate through application of the algorithm that it is possible to generate in-silico vasculatures that closely match porcine anatomical data on all length scales. We therefore conclude that evolutionary pressure has resulted in a near globally optimal structure of the larger coronary arteries. We also examine the effect of changing length scales, predicting that the structures of the coronary arteries can change from a meandering form for small animals to very straight vessels for large animals. The method presented here is not limited to hearts, and represents a major advance in modeling the arterial vasculature, that could have impor...

  1. Detection of malignant right coronary artery anomaly by multi-slice CT coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirksen, M.S.; Roos, A. de; Lamb, H.J. [Department of Radiology, C2-S, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Bax, J.J.; Schalij, M.J.; Jukema, W.J.; Vliegen, H.W.; Wall, E.E. van der [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Blom, N.A. [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    Coronary artery anomalies occur in 0.3-0.8% of the population and infer a high risk for sudden cardiac death in young adults. Diagnosis is usually established during coronary angiography, which is hampered by poor spatial visualization. Magnetic resonance imaging is an alternative, but it is not feasible in the presence of metal objects or claustrophobia. In this report, a 15-year-old boy experienced ventricular fibrillation and was successfully resuscitated. Cardiac catheterization was inconclusive, and pacemaker implantation prohibited the use of MR imaging. Multi-slice CT coronary angiography revealed a malignant anomalous right coronary artery. (orig.)

  2. Prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis according to age and sex systematic review and metaregression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, M.; Greving, J.P.; de Jong, A.W.F.; Buskens, E.; Bots, M.L.

    Background and Purpose-In the discussion on the value of population-wide screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS), reliable prevalence estimates are crucial. We set out to provide reliable age- and sex-specific prevalence estimates of ACAS through a systematic literature review and

  3. Superior epigastric artery pseudoaneurysm- a rare complication of chest drain insertion in coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Nick

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chest drain insertion during coronary artery bypass grafting is a fairly standard procedure, however it may result in extremely rare complications. Case presentation This is the first case being reported that demonstrates a pseudoaneurysm of superior epigastric artery resulting from chest drain insertion following coronary artery bypass grafting. Conclusion Adequate caution should be used along with good understanding of the anatomical landmarks during apparently simple and standard operative procedures.

  4. Computerized analysis of coronary artery disease: performance evaluation of segmentation and tracking of coronary arteries in CT angiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella A; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun

    2014-08-01

    The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in analysis of coronary artery disease in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). This study evaluated the accuracy of the authors' coronary artery segmentation and tracking method which are the essential steps to define the search space for the detection of atherosclerotic plaques. The heart region in cCTA is segmented and the vascular structures are enhanced using the authors' multiscale coronary artery response (MSCAR) method that performed 3D multiscale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. Starting from seed points at the origins of the left and right coronary arteries, a 3D rolling balloon region growing (RBG) method that adapts to the local vessel size segmented and tracked each of the coronary arteries and identifies the branches along the tracked vessels. The branches are queued and subsequently tracked until the queue is exhausted. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 cCTA were collected retrospectively from the authors' patient files. Three experienced cardiothoracic radiologists manually tracked and marked center points of the coronary arteries as reference standard following the 17-segment model that includes clinically significant coronary arteries. Two radiologists visually examined the computer-segmented vessels and marked the mistakenly tracked veins and noisy structures as false positives (FPs). For the 62 cases, the radiologists marked a total of 10191 center points on 865 visible coronary artery segments. The computer-segmented vessels overlapped with 83.6% (8520/10191) of the center points. Relative to the 865 radiologist-marked segments, the sensitivity reached 91.9% (795/865) if a true positive is defined as a computer-segmented vessel that overlapped with at least 10% of the reference center points marked on the segment. When the overlap threshold is increased to 50% and 100%, the sensitivities were 86.2% and 53.4%, respectively. For

  5. Computerized analysis of coronary artery disease: Performance evaluation of segmentation and tracking of coronary arteries in CT angiograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chuan, E-mail: chuan@umich.edu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in analysis of coronary artery disease in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). This study evaluated the accuracy of the authors’ coronary artery segmentation and tracking method which are the essential steps to define the search space for the detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Methods: The heart region in cCTA is segmented and the vascular structures are enhanced using the authors’ multiscale coronary artery response (MSCAR) method that performed 3D multiscale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. Starting from seed points at the origins of the left and right coronary arteries, a 3D rolling balloon region growing (RBG) method that adapts to the local vessel size segmented and tracked each of the coronary arteries and identifies the branches along the tracked vessels. The branches are queued and subsequently tracked until the queue is exhausted. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 cCTA were collected retrospectively from the authors’ patient files. Three experienced cardiothoracic radiologists manually tracked and marked center points of the coronary arteries as reference standard following the 17-segment model that includes clinically significant coronary arteries. Two radiologists visually examined the computer-segmented vessels and marked the mistakenly tracked veins and noisy structures as false positives (FPs). For the 62 cases, the radiologists marked a total of 10191 center points on 865 visible coronary artery segments. Results: The computer-segmented vessels overlapped with 83.6% (8520/10191) of the center points. Relative to the 865 radiologist-marked segments, the sensitivity reached 91.9% (795/865) if a true positive is defined as a computer-segmented vessel that overlapped with at least 10% of the reference center points marked on the segment. When the overlap threshold is increased to 50% and 100%, the sensitivities were 86

  6. Klebsiella pneumoniae Pseudoaneurysm of the Ascending Aorta after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Khalil Forouzannia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nMycotic pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta is rare in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG and usually caused by staphylococcus aureus. We describe a patient with a mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta at the proximal vein graft anastomosis site after CABG. Culture from the sinus tract of the sternum and from the aneurysm sac was Klebsiella pneumoniae. Surgical technique was patch repair of aorta under hypothermic circulatory arrest. He is asymptomatic at 24 months follow-up.

  7. Diagnosis of coronary artery disease in persons with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Nima; Wong, Nathan D; Malik, Shaista

    2012-06-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Asymptomatic CHD in these patients is elusive and carries a poor prognosis given the fact that an unheralded acute myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death frequently constitutes its first presentation. Because effective screening for asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes for both the presence and severity of CHD is intuitively appealing, we have summarized the utility and prognostic value of various diagnostic modalities (both functionally and anatomically) in enhancing risk stratification and leading to improved and more aggressive management of the risk factors. There exist some evidence and recommendations for screening of asymptomatic persons with diabetes using certain modalities. More research is needed to define potential subsets of patients with diabetes who may benefit from additional testing for asymptomatic CHD.

  8. Coronary artery bypass grafts: assessment of graft patency and native coronary artery lesions using 16-slice MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauder, Norbert I.; Drosch, Tanja; Claussen, Claus D.; Kopp, Andreas F. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Kuettner, Axel [Friedrich-Alexander-University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Schroeder, Stephen; Beck, Torsten [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Internal Medicine, Division Cardiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Stauder, Heidrun [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Tuebingen (Germany); Blumenstock, Gunnar [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Medical Information Processing, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of electrocardiography (ECG)-gated 16-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in detection of stenosis of bypass grafts and native coronary arteries in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). ECG-gated contrast-enhanced MDCT using 12 x 0.75-mm collimation was performed in 20 patients with recurrent angina 4.75 years after undergoing CABG. A total of 50 grafts, 16 arterial and 34 venous, were examined. All graft and coronary segments were evaluated for stenosis in comparison with conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Among the 80 arterial graft segments, 62 could be assessed (77.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for stenosis were 96.2%, 97.2%, 96.2%, and 97.2%, respectively. In a total of 180 venous graft segments, 167 could be assessed. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for stenosis were 98.5%, 93.9%, 91.8%, and 98.9%, respectively. MDCT could assess 179 of 260 native coronary artery segments (68.8%).Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for stenosis were 92.1%, 76.9%, 87.5%, and 84.7%, respectively. Sixteen-slice MDCT provides excellent image quality and diagnostic accuracy in detection of graft and coronary artery lesions in patients with suspected graft dysfunction. (orig.)

  9. Genetically determined height and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher P; Hamby, Stephen E; Saleheen, Danish; Hopewell, Jenna C; Zeng, Lingyao; Assimes, Themistocles L; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Burgess, Stephen; Amouyel, Phillipe; Anand, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehm, Bernhard O; Clarke, Robert J; Collins, Rory; Dedoussis, George; Farrall, Martin; Franks, Paul W; Groop, Leif; Hall, Alistair S; Hamsten, Anders; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hovingh, G Kees; Ingelsson, Erik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; König, Inke R; Kooner, Jaspal; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winifred; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Nieminen, Markku S; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Palmer, Colin N A; Peters, Annette; Perola, Markus; Reilly, Muredach P; Ripatti, Samuli; Roberts, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; Shah, Svati H; Schreiber, Stefan; Siegbahn, Agneta; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Veronesi, Giovani; Wareham, Nicholas; Willer, Cristen J; Zalloua, Pierre A; Erdmann, Jeanette; Deloukas, Panos; Watkins, Hugh; Schunkert, Heribert; Danesh, John; Thompson, John R; Samani, Nilesh J

    2015-04-23

    The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested the association between a change in genetically determined height of 1 SD (6.5 cm) with the risk of CAD in 65,066 cases and 128,383 controls. Using individual-level genotype data from 18,249 persons, we also examined the risk of CAD associated with the presence of various numbers of height-associated alleles. To identify putative mechanisms, we analyzed whether genetically determined height was associated with known cardiovascular risk factors and performed a pathway analysis of the height-associated genes. We observed a relative increase of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4 to 22.1; Pheight. There was a graded relationship between the presence of an increased number of height-raising variants and a reduced risk of CAD (odds ratio for height quartile 4 versus quartile 1, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.84; Pheight and an increased risk of CAD, a link that is partly explained by the association between shorter height and an adverse lipid profile. Shared biologic processes that determine achieved height and the development of atherosclerosis may explain some of the association. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.).

  10. Psoriasis and ischemic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiques-Santos, L; Soriano-Navarro, C J; Perez-Pastor, G; Tomas-Cabedo, G; Pitarch-Bort, G; Valcuende-Cavero, F

    2015-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with an increased risk of ischemic coronary artery disease (CAD) in some populations. We aimed to determine the association between these 2 diseases in our geographic area. We performed a cross-sectional study of patient records between 2005 and 2012 in the database (Abucacis, Datamart) that contains all medical case histories in the province of Castellón, Spain. Patients diagnosed with psoriasis were compared with a control group of patients diagnosed with melanocytic nevus. The prevalence of CAD and the presence or absence of the main cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in each group. A total of 9181 patients with psoriasis and 21925 with melanocytic nevus were studied. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that CAD was significantly associated with psoriasis, age (in years), sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity (P<.05). On adjustment for age, sex, and the other cardiovascular risk factors, multivariate regression analysis established that psoriasis was independently associated with CAD (P<.029). Our findings in a large sample of patients in a Mediterranean area support the hypothesis that patients in this population have an increased risk of ischemic CAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. Coronary artery bypass grafting in octogenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, S; Matsubara, J; Matsubara, T; Nagayoshi, Y; Nishizawa, H; Shouno, S; Kouno, M; Takeuchi, K; Nonaka, T

    2001-10-01

    Preoperative profiles, postoperative complications, and the early and late results in 32 patients 80 yrs. of age and older (elderly group) who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting were compared with those in patients under 80 yrs. of age (control group). In the elderly group, the prevalence of patients with preoperative creatinine clearance (Ccr.) <50 l/day (34.4%), unstable angina pectoris (78.1%) and left main trunk disease (40.1%) was significantly higher than those in the control group. The incidences of arrhythmia and intensive care unit(ICU) syndrome were also significantly higher in the elderly group than in the control group, however, there was no death due to these complications. In the elderly group, one patient (3.1%) died in the hospital due to low cardiac output syndrome (LOS), while three patients (2.4%) of the control group died in the hospital. As for the long-term results, the 5-yr. survival rates for the elderly group and the control group were 82.6% and 85.2%, respectively, and the effectiveness of surgery was remarkable, with improved postoperative activity in 96.9% of the elderly group. These findings indicate that although the elderly patients have higher risks by undergoing surgery and have a disadvantage in the rate of postoperative complications, the postoperative improvement in activity and survival rate can be similar to those in the younger patients.

  12. Trans fatty acids and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne R Benatar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jocelyne R BenatarGreen Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: There has been a significant increased consumption of trans fats in the developed world as we have embraced processed and take away foods in our diet in the last 40 years. These fatty acids are not essential for human nutrition and are hazardous to health. They increase the risk of cardiovascular disease more than any other macronutrient including saturated fat, through multiple mechanisms including adverse effects on lipids, endothelial function and inflammation. They are readily incorporated into cell structures such as cell membranes and the Golgi apparatus, resulting in unintended effects on multiple biological pathways. The majority of trans fats in our diet are artificially manufactured by a process of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oil with little coming from natural sources. It should be possible to replace these harmful fats in the food chain at source with concerted efforts from food manufacturers and legislators.Keywords: trans fats, coronary artery disease, hydrogenated vegetable oils

  13. Premature coronary artery disease in Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Meenakshi Sharma, Nirmal Kumar GangulyIndian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Of particular concern to India is not only the high burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, but also the effects of these diseases on the productive workforce aged 35–65 years. Heart diseases are rising in Asian Indians 5–10 years earlier than in other populations around the world. The mean age for first presentation of acute myocardial infarction in Indians is 53 years. Coronary artery disease (CAD that manifests at a younger age can have devastating consequences for an individual, the family, and society. Prevention of these deaths in young people is a nation’s moral responsibility. A strategy involving prevention of CVDs long before their onset will be more cost-effective than providing interventions at a stage when the disease is well established. We review the rising trends in CAD with particular emphasis on prevalence of premature CAD and the associated risk factors in young Indian CAD patients. Action strategies to reduce the risk are suggested.Keywords: premature CAD, prevalence, risk factors

  14. Giant Right Coronary Artery Aneurysm Associated with a Fistula Draining into the Superior Vena Cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolapoglu, Ahmet; Ott, David A

    2016-08-01

    Giant coronary artery aneurysm associated with a coronary-cameral fistula is an uncommon condition. Such aneurysms are usually associated with other cardiac diseases, such as coronary atherosclerosis, and therefore might augment myocardial ischemia in adults. The main indications for surgical intervention are severe coexisting coronary artery disease, evidence of embolization, and aneurysmal enlargement or rupture. We describe a large right coronary artery aneurysm and a coronary-cameral fistula that drained into the superior vena cava. The surgical repair was successful.

  15. Peripheral Arteries May Be Reliable Indicators of Coronary Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehmann, Christopher L; Futterman, Bennett; Beatty, Brian Lee

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a stronger predictor for ischemic cardiovascular events than traditional risk factors such as race, age, sex, history, and metabolic profile. Previous research had primarily used ultrasound; however, we performed a study using histopathology to more accurately grade atherosclerosis development using the American Heart Association's grading scale. We cross-sectioned 13 different arteries from 48 cadavers and placed them into three separate groups based on anatomic location: central arteries, peripheral arteries, and carotid arteries. The central artery group included arteries that are non-palpable and commonly lead to ischemic diseases when occluded. The peripheral artery group included arteries that are accessible to palpation. The carotid artery group included branches of the carotid artery. We investigated whether a centrally located atherosclerotic vessel was associated with atherosclerosis of a specific peripheral artery. We hypothesized a correlation between carotid, peripheral and central arteries that may point to specific arteries that are more effective to analyze clinically when assessing cardiovascular risk. We observed a correlation between pathology in the left coronary artery and bifurcation of the carotid artery (r = 0.37 P ≤ 0.016), two arteries known to be implicated in ischemic stroke and ischemic heart disease. Importantly, our study demonstrates that the radial artery, a peripheral vessel, exhibited a positive correlation between both the pathologic left coronary (r = 0.33 P ≤ 0.041) and bifurcation of the carotid arteries (r = 0.34 P ≤ 0.025). Therefore, we propose investigating the radial artery as a clinically accessible location to monitor with ultrasound when assessing a patient's risk for ischemic cardiovascular disease. Anat Rec, 300:1230-1239, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Coronary artery bypass grafting following simultaneous treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm and peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizkan, Veysel; Ugur, Murat; Alp, Ibrahim; Ucak, Alper; Yedekci, Erturk; Yilmaz, Ahmet Turan

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis might affect all arterial segments of the vascular system, thus peripheral arterial disease (PAD) accompanying coronary artery disease (CAD) is not uncommon. In addition to this coexistence, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is frequently associated with CAD. Although treatment strategies of CAD and PAD or CAD and AAA has been reported previously, treatment of these three pathologies has not been reported. The management of a therapeutic strategy is important for avoiding perioperative mortality and morbidity in CAD associated with AAA and PAD. We are reporting our simultaneous treatment strategy of three pathologies with endovascular AAA repair, stent implantation into the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

  17. Total Arterial Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Facilitated by the Trinity Clip Connector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, David; Bronkers, Glenn; Hoefer, Imo E; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Buijsrogge, Marc P

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of total arterial minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery by using the Trinity Clip anastomotic connector in an acute porcine model. In 3 pigs, the left and right internal thoracic arteries (LITA and RITA) were harvested conventionally and the chest closed subsequently. After a left lateral thoracotomy, the coronary target was positioned and stabilized by an endo-starfish and octopus. A free RITA-to-LITA y-graft, with a LITA-to-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and a free RITA-to-obtuse marginal or posterolateral or posterior descending artery, was constructed using the Trinity Clip. Patency was assessed with angiography (n = 3 anastomoses). The anastomotic procedure was feasible via a small lateral thoracotomy, with a fast construction of the y-graft, and successful application of the mounted complex (ie, graft, connector, and laser, temporarily fixated by a fixation clip) onto the LAD. Access to the obtuse marginal artery, posterolateral artery, and posterior descending artery was possible, with successful construction, resulting in patent anastomoses. This experimental pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of the anastomotic technique in a total arterial minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass approach. Revascularization of the anterior, lateral, and inferoposterior regions of the heart is possible. However, visibility during the introduction of the connector was limited, and videoscopic assistance is essential to allow for successful construction. The anastomotic technique has potential to facilitate minimally invasive coronary bypass surgery.

  18. Total Arterial Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Facilitated by the Trinity Clip Connector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stecher, David; Bronkers, Glenn; Höfer, Imo E.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Buijsrogge, Marc P

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of total arterial minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery by using the Trinity Clip anastomotic connector in an acute porcine model. METHODS: In 3 pigs, the left and right internal thoracic arteries (LITA and RITA) were harvested

  19. Prevalence, impact, and predictive value of detecting subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Sartori, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    performed in a single cohort. OBJECTIVES: The BioImage Study (A Clinical Study of Burden of Atherosclerotic Disease in an At-Risk Population) sought to identify imaging biomarkers that predict near-term (3-year) atherothrombotic events. METHODS: The BioImage Study enrolled 5,808 asymptomatic U.S. adults......PB). The primary endpoint was the composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke). A broader secondary MACE endpoint also included all-cause death, unstable angina, and coronary revascularization. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 2.7 years...

  20. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery: Diagnosis with CT Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guray Oncel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA is a rare congenital anomaly. It is associated with early infant mortality and sudden death in adults. Traditionally, ALCAPA has been diagnosed by angiography or autopsy; however, the development of cardiac computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has allowed noninvasive evaluation of the coronary anatomy by direct visualization of the origin of the left coronary artery (LCA from the pulmonary artery. We report a case of 10-year-old girl who has been on follow up for dilated cardiomyopathy for 4 years. The definitive diagnosis of ALCAPA is reached by multislice computed tomography (MSCT. The MSCT scan showed an anomalous origin of LCA from the pulmonary trunk, with a tortuous and dilated right coronary artery and right-to-left collateralization. Consequently, the patient was successfully treated with surgery.

  1. High-resolution coronary MR angiography for evaluation of patients with anomalous coronary arteries: visualization of the intramural segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, David M. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chung, Claudia; Chung, Taylor [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Hitt, David M. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States); Kurio, Gregory [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Cardiology, Oakland, CA (United States); Reinhartz, Olaf [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the contralateral coronary sinus is a rare coronary anomaly associated with sudden death. The inter-arterial course is most closely associated with sudden death, but it has been suggested that the presence of an intramural segment of a right anomalous coronary is associated with more symptoms and therefore may be an important criterion for intervention in these patients. To demonstrate that MR angiography can accurately determine the presence or absence of an intramural segment in an anomalous coronary artery. All studies of children who underwent MR angiography for the evaluation of an anomalous coronary artery were retrospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists in consensus. Criteria for an intramural anomalous coronary artery were the presence of a small or slit-like ostium and the relative smaller size of the proximal intramural portion of the coronary artery in relation to the more distal epicardial coronary artery. The anomalous coronary artery was classified as not intramural if these two findings were absent. These findings were correlated with operative reports confirming the presence or absence of an intramural segment. Twelve patients (86%) met MR angiography criteria for the presence of an intramural course. Only 2 patients (14%) met MR angiography criteria for a non-intramural course. When correlating with intraoperative findings, MR angiography was successful in distinguishing between intramural and non-intramural anomalous coronary arteries in all cases (P = 0.01). MR angiography may be able to reliably identify the intramural segment of an anomalous coronary artery in older children using the imaging criteria of a small or slit-like ostium and relative decrease in size of the proximal portion of the anomalous coronary artery compared to the distal portion of the anomalous coronary artery. Determining the presence of the intramural segment may help with surgical planning and may be an important

  2. Giant aneurysm of the left anterior descending coronary artery in a pediatric patient with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amanda L; Rouster-Stevens, Kelly; Williams, Derek A; Hines, Michael H

    2010-07-01

    Behcet's disease is a rare autoimmune vasculitis characterized by oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, and ocular and cutaneous lesions. Vascular involvement usually affects the veins more commonly than the arteries, and coronary arterial involvement is extremely rare. We report an adolescent with Behcet's disease who developed a large pseudoaneurysm of the left anterior descending coronary artery requiring a coronary arterial bypass graft.

  3. The cristal (right superior septal) coronary artery and its relationship to anomalous left coronary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, J B; Ridley, L J

    2011-10-01

    The cristal artery is an occasional finding, being visible in around 3% of coronary angiograms, arising from the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and passing downwards and forwards through the muscle of the crista superventricularis. It supplies a variable volume of the superior interventricular septum, and can contribute to collateralization of the other septal vessels. When part or all of the left coronary artery (LCA) arises anomalously from the right coronary sinus, its passage to the left may be in the same pathway as a cristal artery, bearing a tell-tale septal vessel arising from its proximal segment. This helps to differentiate it from one that has a higher pathway, running between the great vessels, and which may have a greater correlation with sudden cardiac death. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Noninvasive Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease: Fractional Flow Reserved Derived from Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (FFRCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rațiu Mihaela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive coronary angiography (ICA completed by fractional flow reserve (FFR assessment represents the main procedure that is performed in the decision process for coronary revascularization. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA is an effective method used in the noninvasive anatomic assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD. However, CCTA tends to overestimate and does not offer hemodynamic data about the coronary lesions. Recent progresses made in the research involving computational fluid dynamics and image modeling permit the evaluation of FFRCT noninvasively, using data obtained in a standard CCTA. Studies have shown an improved precision and discrimination of FFRCT compared to CCTA for the diagnosis of significant coronary artery stenosis. In this review, we aimed to summarize the role of CCTA in CAD evaluation, the impact of FFRCT, the scientific basis of this novel method and its potential clinical applications.

  5. Non-obstructive coronary artery disease assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.; Bøtker, H. E.; Sorensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary CT angiography (CTA) detects non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) that may not be recognized by functional testing, but the prognostic impact is not well understood. This study aimed to compare the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and all-cause mortality...... in patients without or with non-obstructive and obstructive CAD assessed by coronary CTA. Methods: Consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) and with chest pain who underwent coronary CTA (>64-detector row) between January 2007 and December 2012 in the 10 centers participating...... in the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry were included. The endpoints were 3-year MI or all-cause mortality. The coronary CTA result was defined as normal (0% luminal stenosis), non-obstructive CAD (1%-49% luminal stenosis) or obstructive CAD (>50% luminal stenosis; 1-vessel, 2-vessel, or 3...

  6. Association of ischemic stroke to coronary artery disease using computed tomography coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Møller; Medina, Hector; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease share similar risk factor profiles, data on whether IS can be considered a "CAD equivalent" are limited. We aimed to determine whether ischemic stroke is an independent predictor of CAD by using cardiac...... increase odds of having coronary artery plaque (odds ratio [OR] 4.9, P4 segments of plaque than 0-4 segments as compared to patients without stroke (OR 18.3, P...

  7. Prognostic Value of Gai′s Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR <0.80. Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  8. Incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score for the prediction of coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.S.S. Genders (Tessa); F. Pugliese (Francesca); N.R.A. Mollet (Nico); W.B. Meijboom (Willem Bob); A.C. Weustink (Annick); C.A.G. van Mieghem (Carlos); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjectives:: To validate published prediction models for the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with new onset stable typical or atypical angina pectoris and to assess the incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score (CTCS). Methods:: We searched the

  9. Detection of malignant right coronary artery anomaly by multi-slice CT coronary angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, M. S.; Bax, J. J.; Blom, N. A.; Schalij, M. J.; Jukema, W. J.; Vliegen, H. W.; van der Wall, E. E.; de Roos, A.; Lamb, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies occur in 0.3-0.8% of the population and infer a high risk for sudden cardiac death in young adults. Diagnosis is usually established during coronary angiography, which is hampered by poor spatial visualization. Magnetic resonance imaging is an alternative, but it is not

  10. Pregnancy risks in women with pre-existing coronary artery disease, or following acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchill, Luke J.; Lameijer, Heleen; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Grewal, Jasmine; Ruys, Titia P. E.; Kulikowski, Julia D.; Burchill, Laura A.; Oudijk, M. A.; Wald, Rachel M.; Colman, Jack M.; Siu, Samuel C.; Pieper, Petronella G.; Silversides, Candice K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine outcomes in pregnant women with pre-existing coronary artery disease (CAD) or following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) including myocardial infarction (MI). Background The physiological changes of pregnancy can contribute to myocardial

  11. Is carotid artery evaluation necessary for primary prevention in asymptomatic high-risk patients without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim GH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available GeeHee Kim,1 Ho-Joong Youn,2 Yun-Seok Choi,2 Hae Ok Jung,2 Wook Sung Chung,2 Chul-Min Kim1 1Department of Internal Medicine, St Vincent’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objective: Routine measurement of the carotid intima–media thickness is not recommended in recent clinical practice guidelines for risk assessment of the first atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD event (the definition of which includes acute coronary syndromes, a history of myocardial infarction, stable or unstable angina, coronary or other arterial revascularization, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or peripheral arterial disease presumed to be of atherosclerotic origin. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of carotid artery evaluation for primary prevention of ASCVD in asymptomatic high-risk patients visiting a teaching hospital.Methods: Eight hundred seventy-three patients (487 male [55.8%], mean age 59.4±11.5 years who were statin-naive and without ASCVD, which was proven by coronary angiography or coronary CT angiography, were enrolled in this study. The patients underwent carotid scanning in the Medical Department of St Mary’s Hospital from September 2003 to March 2009. ASCVD outcomes were evaluated for median follow-up of 1,402 days.Results: A total of 119 participants experienced ASCVD events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR] =1.026, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.002–1.050, P=0.033, history of smoking (HR =1.751, 95% CI =1.089–2.815, P=0.021, statin therapy (HR =0.388, 95% CI =0.205–0.734, P=0.004, and carotid plaques (HR =1.556, 95% CI =1.009–2.400, P=0.045 were associated with ASCVD events. In middle-aged group (45≤ age <65, n=473, history of smoking (HR =1.995, 95% CI =1.142–3.485, P=0.015, statin therapy (HR =0.320, 95% CI =0.131

  12. Computed tomography for the measurement of coronary calcification in asymptomatic risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichlbauer, Ernest

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2003 nearly 20% of deaths in Germany were caused by coronary heart disease (CHD. Risk models are used to estimate the ten-year-risk of a coronary event. Coronary calcification may be seen as an additional risk factor. The amount of calcium is correlated with atherosclerotic lesions, but there is no direct correlation with the probability of a plaque rupture. Coronary calcification may be measured either by electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT. Objectives: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate the diagnostic validity and cost effectiveness of computed tomography techniques in measuring coronary calcification of asymptomatic risk patients. Ethical aspects are discussed. Methods: A systematic literature research was performed in 35 international databases which yielded 1080 articles. Overall 43 publications were included for assessment, according to predefined selection criteria. Results: Measuring coronary calcification offers additional information compared with traditional risk factors. Yet at present it cannot be said - according to published literature - which population groups gain most. For determining adequate calcium score thresholds standardisation for age and sex is important. When comparing the reference standard EBCT with MDCT results are inconsistent and depend on the calcium-score value as well as on the scoring method. EBCT as a triage instrument in diagnosing CHD appears to be cost-effective. Yet it is rather not cost-effective as a refinement tool for risk stratification. Discussion: Most of the literature was published in the United States and discusses the use of EBCT as well as (traditional risk stratification by the Framingham Score. Regarding coronary calcification measured by MDCT (which is more widespread in Germany than EBCT and a risk model applicable for European populations clear recommendations based on published literature cannot be made at present

  13. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: Insights from the Arterial Revascularization Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Umberto; Altman, Douglas G; Gerry, Stephen; Gray, Alastair; Lees, Belinda; Flather, Marcus; Taggart, David P

    2017-12-23

    The long-term effects of off-pump coronary artery bypass continue to be controversial because some studies have reported increased adverse event rates with off-pump coronary artery bypass when compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass. The Arterial Revascularization Trial compared survival after bilateral versus single internal thoracic artery grafting. The choice of off-pump coronary artery bypass versus on-pump coronary artery bypass was based on the surgeon's discretion. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Arterial Revascularization Trial to compare 5-year outcomes with 2 strategies. Among 3102 patients enrolled in the Arterial Revascularization Trial, we selected 1260 patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass versus 1700 patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass with cardioplegic arrest for the present comparison. Primary outcomes were 5-year mortality and incidence of major cardiac and cerebrovascular events, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and revascularization after index procedure. Propensity score matching selected 1260 pairs for final comparison. Stratified Cox models were used for treatment effect estimate. Hospital mortality was comparable between off-pump coronary artery bypass and on-pump coronary artery bypass groups (12 [1.0%] vs 15 [1.2%]; P = .7). Conversion rate to on-pump during off-pump coronary artery bypass was 29 of 1260 (2.3%). When compared with off-pump coronary artery bypass not converted, off-pump coronary artery bypass converted to on-pump presented a remarkably higher hospital mortality (10.3% vs 0.7%; P pump coronary artery bypass and on-pump coronary artery bypass groups, respectively, with no significant difference (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.52; P = .35). Incidence of major cardiac and cerebrovascular events was 175 (14.3) versus 169 (13.8) in the off-pump coronary artery bypass and on-pump coronary artery bypass groups

  14. Cardiac rehabilitation after spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Taryn C; Tweet, Marysia S; Bowman, Melissa J; Hayes, Sharonne N; Squires, Ray W

    2015-01-01

    Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves outcomes in patients after atherosclerotic myocardial infarctions, little is known of the CR benefit among patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), who are primarily young, otherwise healthy women. The purpose of this study was to describe SCAD patient outcomes in phase 2 outpatient CR. Patients with SCAD who enrolled in CR were retrospectively identified. Patients participated in standard CR, which included supervised and independent flexibility, stretching, aerobic, and strength training exercises. Patients received counseling regarding nutrition, weight and stress management. Assessments at baseline and program completion included cardiopulmonary exercise testing or 6-Minute Walk Test, body composition using plethysmography, depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and stress (a scale of 1-10) scores. Nine patients, all women, enrolled in CR an average of 12.3 days (range, 7-21 days) after their SCAD event, with one enrolling again after a recurrence. Cardiac rehabilitation was well received, with participants completing an average of 28 CR sessions (range, 5-39 sessions). Patients did not report cardiac symptoms and there were no adverse events during exercise testing or training. Peak oxygen uptake increased by an average of 18% (n = 4) and 6-minute walk distance increased 22% (n = 4). Average body mass decreased 1.1 kg, fat mass decreased 1.6 kg, and lean mass increased 0.4 kg. Depression and stress scores improved by an average of 2.3 and 1.3 points, respectively. Standard CR beginning 1 to 2 weeks after SCAD seems to be feasible and safe and results in improved aerobic capacity, body composition, and measures of depression and stress. Because of these benefits, we recommend that patients with SCAD participate in CR.

  15. Carotid Artery End-Diastolic Velocity and Future Cerebro-Cardiovascular Events in Asymptomatic High Risk Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyemoon; Jung, Young Hak; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Min, Pil-Ki; Yoon, Young Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Choi, Eui-Young

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic value of additional carotid Doppler evaluations to carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque has not been completely evaluated. A total of 1119 patients with risk factors for, but without, overt coronary artery disease (CAD), who underwent both carotid ultrasound and Doppler examination were included in the present study. Parameters of interest included peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities, resistive indices of the carotid arteries, IMT, and plaque measurements. The primary end-point was all-cause cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization therapy, heart failure admission, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Model 1 covariates comprised age and sex; Model 2 also included hypertension, diabetes and smoking; Model 3 also had use of aspirin and statin; and Model 4 also included IMT and plaque. The mean follow-up duration was 1386±461 days and the mean age of the study population was 60±12 years. Amongst 1119 participants, 43% were women, 57% had a history of hypertension, and 23% had diabetes. During follow-up, 6.6% of patients experienced CVEs. Among carotid Doppler parameters, average common carotid artery end-diastolic velocity was the independent predictor for future CVEs after adjustments for all models variables (HR 0.95 per cm/s, 95% confident interval 0.91-0.99, p=0.034 in Model 4) and significantly increased the predictive value of Model 4 (global χ(2)=59.0 vs. 62.8, p=0.029). Carotid Doppler measurements in addition to IMT and plaque evaluation are independently associated with future CVEs in asymptomatic patients at risk for CAD.

  16. Coronary artery atherosclerosis associated with shift work in chemical plant workers by using coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, WonYang; Park, Won-Ju; Jang, Keun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Gwon, Do-Hyeong; Lim, Hyeong-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sung; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work is related to elevated risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) by determining the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the presence of coronary artery stenosis by using coronary artery CT angiography (CCTA). In this study, 110 male workers participated and underwent a CCTA examination for CAC scoring, which represents coronary artery plaque, and were evaluated for luminal stenosis. All of the participants were working in the same chemical plant, of whom 70 worked day shifts and 40 worked rotating shifts. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise and waist circumference, shift work was associated with a 2.89-fold increase in the odds of developing coronary plaque compared with day work (OR, 2.89; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.82). The association between shift work and coronary plaque was strong after adjustment for age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.92; 95% CI 1.02 to 8.33). In addition, the number of years of shift work employment was associated with coronary plaque. However, no association was found between shift work and coronary artery stenosis. Shift work could induce CAD onset via the atherosclerotic process, and shift work employment duration was associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis in male workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Screening for coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: An evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. CAD is often asymptomatic in these patients, until the onset of myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death. Consequently, proper screening and diagnosis of CAD is crucial for the prevention and early treatment of coronary events. This review deals with selection of the sub group of patients who have type 2 diabetes, who are at high risk for developing CAD and need to be screened for the same. The various diagnostic modalities which can be used in the screening process for enhancing risk stratification and management are also discussed.

  18. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting with Coronary Artery and Pericardial Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Rohit; Trejo Bittar, Humberto E.; Lacomis, Joan; Ocak, Iclal

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a systemic disease resulting in necrotizing vasculitis of small- and medium-sized vessels. Cardiac involvement is rare and when present usually manifests with pericarditis and coronary artery vasculitis. We report here a case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis involving the native coronary arteries, bypass graft, and pericardium with interesting imaging findings on contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. A 57-year-old man with a history of chronic headaches presented to the emergency room with syncope. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated extensive soft tissue attenuation around the native coronary arteries and bypass graft. Contrast-enhanced MRI demonstrated enhancing nodular soft tissue surrounding the coronary arteries, bypass graft, and pericardium. Pericardial biopsy revealed a necrotizing granulomatous pericarditis with vasculitis concerning for granulomatosis with polyangiitis. The patient demonstrated MPO-positive and PR-3 negative serologies. After being discharged on rituximab and prednisone, follow-up CT 3 years later showed significant improvement of the soft tissue thickening surrounding the coronary arteries, bypass graft, and pericardium. PMID:26798536

  19. Kawasaki syndrome: Risk factors for coronary artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Torbyak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kawasaki syndrome is a childhood systemic vasculitis that may affect coronary arteries, further leading to myocardial ischemia or myocardi-al infarction. This investigation is our country's first experience with regression analysis to find risk factors for coronary artery involvement in Kawasaki syndrome. The outpatient and inpatient medical records of 168 KD patients aged 1 month 13 days to 13 years 6 months were retrospectively analyzed. Results. The investigators revealed risk factors for coronary artery involvement: persistent fever; prolonged fever prior to immunoglobulin infusion; low hemoglobin in acute phase; leukocytosis more than 17* 109/l in acute phase; thrombocytosis more than 790-109/! and obviously increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate; a more than 5-fold rise in normal C-reactive protein; immunoglobulin administration after day 10; and no immunoglobulin therapy. The dose of immunoglobulin of 2 g/kg reduces the risk of coronary artery aneurysms, but its effect depends on the day of administration. Cervical lymphadenopathy and immunoglobulin resistance may be risk factors for coronary artery aneurysms, but further investigations are needed to solve this problem.

  20. Moyamoya Disease with Peripheral Pulmonary Artery Stenoses and Coronary Artery Fistulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Reardon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya is a progressive disorder of the cerebral vasculature. Our report describes a rare case of Moyamoya disease with distal peripheral pulmonary artery stenoses and coronary fistulae in a 12-year-old Caucasian female patient.

  1. Giant coronary artery aneurysms in a 58-year-old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All giant Kawasaki aneurysms may not regress fully; some may eventually calcify, undergo thrombosis, and get detected in asymptomatic adults at later age. Tomisaku Kawasaki initially described this illness as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome in childhood in 1967 and coronary arteritis was recognized later. We present a 58-year-old male, possibly one of the oldest surviving patients with giant coronary aneurysms who presented with large secundum atrial septal defect (ASD with heart failure. This indicates that the disease was perhaps prevalent outside Japan even before the first Kawasaki′s description.

  2. PROLONGED MULTIPLE SPASMS OF SMOOTH CORONARY ARTERIES PRESENTING AS ACUTE MIOCARDIAL INFARCTION, COMPLETE AV BLOCK AND SYNCOPE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franci Cesar; Igor Kranjec; Andrej Pernat

    2004-01-01

    ... with inferoanterior acute myocardial infarction. Urgent selective coronary angiography revealed spasms in right coronary artery and in left circumflex artery that were relieved by intracoronary injection of nitroglycerin...

  3. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Enhances Accelerative Wave Intensity in Coronary Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Narayan

    Full Text Available The systolic forward travelling compression wave (sFCW and diastolic backward travelling decompression waves (dBEW predominantly accelerate coronary blood flow. The effect of a coronary stenosis on the intensity of these waves in the distal vessel is unknown. We investigated the relationship between established physiological indices of hyperemic coronary flow and the intensity of the two major accelerative coronary waves identified by Coronary Wave Intensity analysis (CWIA.Simultaneous intracoronary pressure and velocity measurement was performed during adenosine induced hyperemia in 17 patients with pressure / Doppler flow wires positioned distal to the target lesion. CWI profiles were generated from this data. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR and Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve (CFVR were calculated concurrently. The intensity of the dBEW was significantly correlated with FFR (R = -0.70, P = 0.003 and CFVR (R = -0.73, P = 0.001. The intensity of the sFCW was also significantly correlated with baseline FFR (R = 0.71, p = 0.002 and CFVR (R = 0.59, P = 0.01. Stenting of the target lesion resulted in a median 178% (interquartile range 55-280% (P<0.0001 increase in sFCW intensity and a median 117% (interquartile range 27-509% (P = 0.001 increase in dBEW intensity. The increase in accelerative wave intensity following PCI was proportionate to the baseline FFR and CFVR, such that stenting of lesions associated with the greatest flow limitation (lowest FFR and CFVR resulted in the largest increases in wave intensity.Increasing ischemia severity is associated with proportionate reductions in cumulative intensity of both major accelerative coronary waves. Impaired diastolic microvascular decompression may represent a novel, important pathophysiologic mechanism driving the reduction in coronary blood flow in the setting of an epicardial stenosis.

  4. [Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: An exceptional cause of acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H; Ekou, A; N'Djessan, J J; Zoumenou, A; Angoran, I; N'Guetta, R

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or sudden death, which typically affects young women. We reported two cases of black Africans patients, aged 56 and 52 years old, who presented to Abidjan Heart Institute for ACS. Coronary angiography showed spontaneous dissection of the right coronary artery in the first case, and dissection of the distal left anterior descending artery in the second. A conservative approach was preferred. Both patients received antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and statins, with a favorable in-hospital course. These cases highlight SCAD as a possible cause of ACS. Implementation of interventional cardiology in Sub-Saharan Africa will help identify this uncommon cause of ACS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Dysregulation of coronary microvascular reactivity in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuru; Neverve, Jodi; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Schwaiger, Markus; Bengel, Frank M. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Abletshauser, Claudia [Department of Medicine, Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Standl, Eberhard [Institut fuer Diabetesforschung, Munich (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    In diabetic patients, a number of studies have suggested an impairment of vascular reactivity in response to vasodilatory stimuli. The pattern of dysregulation at the coronary microcirculatory level, however, has not been clearly defined. Thus, it was the aim of this study to characterise coronary microvascular function non-invasively in a homogeneous group of asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients. In 46 patients with type 2 diabetes, myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified at baseline, in response to cold pressor test (CPT) and during adenosine-mediated vasodilation using positron emission tomography and nitrogen-13 ammonia. None of the patients had been treated with insulin, and none had symptoms of cardiac disease. Decreased MBF during CPT, indicating microvascular dysregulation, was observed in 16 patients (CPT-), while 30 patients demonstrated increased MBF during CPT (CPT+). Response to CPT was mildly, but significantly correlated with response to adenosine (r=0.44, P=0.0035). There was no difference in HbA1c, serum lipid levels or serum endothelial markers between the groups. Microvascular dysregulation in the CPT- group was associated with elevated baseline MBF (P<0.0001), reduced baseline vascular resistance (P=0.0026) and an abnormal increase in resistance during CPT (P=0.0002). In conclusion, coronary microvascular dysregulation is present in approximately one-third of asymptomatic, non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Elevated baseline blood flow and reduced microvascular resistance at rest are characteristics of this dysregulation. These data suggest a state of activation of endothelial-dependent vasodilation at baseline which appears to limit the flow response to stress conditions. (orig.)

  6. Absence of Left Circumflex Artery: A Rare Congenital Disorder of Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of left circumflex artery is a rare occurrence and very few cases have been reported in literature. It is a benign incidental finding; however some patients present with sudden onset chest pain mimicking acute coronary syndrome often resulting in detection of this rare anatomy on coronary angiography. Coronary computed tomography angiography is a relatively new noninvasive imaging modality which can be used to confirm this suspicion and diagnose this unique morphology reliably.

  7. [Application of MSCT's coronary artery calcification score in evaluation of sudden death caused by coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lei; Ying, Chong-Liang; Liu, Ning-Guo; Xia, Wen-Tao; Wang, Ya-Hui; Wei, Hua; Zhu, Guang-You

    2013-12-01

    To access application value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) in investigation the coronary artery disease (CAD), and to explore the effective way of virtual autopsy to evaluate the sudden death due to CAD. Nine cases of sudden cardiac death were collected to analyze MSCT before the autopsy. The quantitative analysis of the degree of coronary artery calcium was made by Agatston's method. The CACS of all the subjects were calculated based on the diagnostic criteria for CAD, in which calcium scoring was more than 400. The results of CACS were compared with that of the autopsy. Only 2 cases got the high calcium scoring which were more than 400 in the 9 cases died of CAD confirmed by the autopsy. The prediction rate of CACS for CAD was only 22.2%. Pulmonary edema of different severity was found in both autopsy and MSCT. There was a higher morbidity rate in the left anterior descending of coronary artery than the other branches. Obvious calcification of coronary artery can be detected by MSCT and calculating CACS. To detect subtle calcification needs other technologies such as postmortem angiography.

  8. Diagnosis & Treatment | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Diagnosis Your healthcare provider diagnoses coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis) based on your medical and family histories, ...

  9. What You Need to Know If You Have Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What You Need to Know If You Have Coronary Artery Disease Joseph S. Alpert Download PDF https://doi.org/10. ... your doctor has told you that you have coronary artery disease, or if your doctor has told you that ...

  10. Tibolone and its metabolites acutely relax rabbit coronary arteries in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Susan Helene

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the acute effects of estradiol, tibolone and its metabolites on coronary arteries in vitro and to investigate possible vascular mechanisms. METHODS: Coronary artery ring segments from female rabbits were mounted in myographs for isometric tension recordings. Concentration...

  11. History and Current Status of Robotic Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jeffrey D; Srivastava, Mukta; Bonatti, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) is a minimally invasive endoscopic surgical approach using the daVinci robotic telemanipulation system to perform coronary artery bypass grafting on the arrested or beating heart...

  12. Gene therapy and angiogenesis in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Not all patients with severe coronary artery disease can be treated satisfactorily with current recommended medications and revascularization techniques. Various vascular growth factors have the potential to induce angiogenesis in ischemic tissue. Clinical trials have only evaluated the effect...... of VEGF and FGF in patients with coronary artery disease. The initial small and unblinded studies with either recombinant growth factor proteins or genes encoding growth factors were encouraging, demonstrating both clinical improvement and evidence of angiogenesis. However, subsequent larger double...... an improvement in clinical results can be obtained with a cocktail of growth factors or by a combination of gene and stem cell therapy in patients with severe coronary artery disease, which cannot be treated effectively with current treatment strategies....

  13. Successful stenting of catheter-induced unprotected left main coronary artery dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ertaş; E. Ural (E.); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCatheter-induced left main coronary artery (LMCA) dissection is a dramatic, although uncommon complication of diagnostic coronary angiography and requires prompt treatment. We describe a case of iatrogenic occlusive dissection of the LMCA during coronary angiography, treated by

  14. Diabetes does not influence treatment decisions regarding revascularization in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Breeman (Arno); H. Boersma (Eric); M.E. Bertrand (Michel); J.P. Ottervanger (Jan Paul); S.E. Hoeks (Sanne); M.J. Lenzen (Mattie); U. Sechtem (Udo); V.M.G. Legrand (Victor); M.J. de Boer (Menko Jan); W. Wijns (William)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - To evaluate whether in stable angina preference for coronary revascularization by either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is influenced by diabetes status and whether this has prognostic implications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  15. The relationship between elevated magnesium levels and coronary artery ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Mustafa; Ipek, Emrah; Turkmen, Serdar; Ozen, Yücel; Yildirim, Erkan; Sertcelik, Alper; Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) without specific symptoms is the localised or diffuse swelling of the epicardial coronary arteries. Magnessium (Mg) plays an important role in cardiac excitability, vascular tonus, contractibility, reactivity and vasodilatation. In our research, we aimed to study the vasodilatory effect of Mg in the aetiopathogenesis of ectasia. Patients identified during routine coronary angiograms in our clinic between January 2010 and 2013 were included in the study. Sixty-two patients with isolated CAE, 57 with normal coronary angiograms (NCA), 73 with severe coronary artery disease (CAD), and 95 with stenosis of at least one coronary artery and CAE (CAD + CAE) were included in the study. Serum Mg levels were measured in mg/dl after 12 hours of fasting. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of age, hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, family history of coronary artery disease and medications used. Serum glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), urea, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, sodium and potassium levels were similar in all groups. Serum Mg levels were 1.90 ± 0.19 mg/dl in patients with isolated CAE, 1.75 ± 0.19 mg/dl in those with CAD, 1.83 ± 0.20 mg/dl in those with CAD + CAE, and 1.80 ± 0.16 mg/dl in the NCA group. These results show that Mg levels were higher in ectasia patients with or without CAD. The histopathological characteristics of patients with CAE were similar to those with CAD. The specific mechanism of abnormal luminal dilatation seen in CAE however remains to be elucidated. Mg is a divalent cation with powerful vasodilatory effects. In our study, serum Mg levels were found to be statistically higher in ectasia patients with or without CAD.

  16. Coronary artery aneurysm following drug-coated balloon treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonica, Amir; Musallam, Anees; Roguin, Ariel

    2015-12-01

    Drug-coated balloons are an effective treatment option for stent restenosis. Because of their potential benefits, the use of drug-coated balloons is predicted to increase in the future and expand further for the treatment of de novo lesions as well. We hereby present a case in which a patient developed a coronary artery aneurysm following the treatment of a de novo native coronary narrowing with a drug-coated balloon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Doença arterial coronariana em diabéticas do tipo 2 assintomáticas: estudo comparativo entre o teste ergométrico, o teste cardiopulmonar e a cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica com dipiridamol na identificação de isquemia Coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type-2 diabetic women: a comparative study between exercise test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, and dipyridamole myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the identification of ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Emanuela Poggio Smanio

    2007-11-01

    diagnosis and worse prognosis. Diabetic women are known to have a cardiovascular death risk higher than that in men. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD in asymptomatic diabetic women. To compare the results of exercise test (ET, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET, and dipyridamole myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS with the findings of coronary angiography, (ANGI in order of identify the most accurate method in the detection of significant CAD. METHODS: A total of 104 diabetic women were assessed with ET, CPET and MPS in the period within two months from the ANGI. MIBI-99mTc scintigraphy was performed using the gated-SPECT technique. Pearson's chi-square, Student's t tests were used for the statistical analysis and also the logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAD in the group studied was 32.7%. For the ET, an effective test (p=0.045, the chronotropic incompetence (p=0.031, and the exercise time performed (p=0.022 showed a significant association with DAC. For CPET, peak VO2 and HR achieved were associated with CAD (p=0.004 and p=0.025, respectively. Most of the MPS variables showed a significant association with CAD (p=0.001, for all. CONCLUSION: The results obtained may suggest a high prevalence of CAD in diabetic women. Thus, this population should be investigated from the cardiovascular point of view even without cardiac symptom. Of the noninvasive diagnostic methods used, dipyridamole MPS was the one that showed the highest discrimination power in relation to diabetic women with CAD.

  18. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Versus Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation for Left Main or Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease A Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Cheol Whan; Ahn, Jung-Min; Cavalcante, Rafael; Sotomi, Yohei; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Park, Seong-Wook; Serruys, Patrick W.; Park, Seung-Jung

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The authors undertook a patient-level meta-analysis to compare long-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) versus percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) in 3,280 patients with left main or multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD).

  19. Depression and Coronary Artery Disease: The Association, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Khawaja, Imran Shuja; Westermeyer, Joseph J.; Gajwani, Prashant; Feinstein, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to determine whether or not a relationship between depression and coronary artery disease exists. Our literature search supports the following: Depression and coronary artery disease have a bidirectional relationship, i.e., coronary artery disease can cause depression and depression is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and its complications; depression may contribute to sudden cardiac death and increase all causes of c...

  20. Mendelian randomization studies in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Henning; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert

    2014-08-01

    Epidemiological research over the last 50 years has discovered a plethora of biomarkers (including molecules, traits or other diseases) that associate with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. Even the strongest association detected in such observational research precludes drawing conclusions about the causality underlying the relationship between biomarker and disease. Mendelian randomization (MR) studies can shed light on the causality of associations, i.e whether, on the one hand, the biomarker contributes to the development of disease or, on the other hand, the observed association is confounded by unrecognized exogenous factors or due to reverse causation, i.e. due to the fact that prevalent disease affects the level of the biomarker. However, conclusions from a MR study are based on a number of important assumptions. A prerequisite for such studies is that the genetic variant employed affects significantly the biomarker under investigation but has no effect on other phenotypes that might confound the association between the biomarker and disease. If this biomarker is a true causal risk factor for CAD, genotypes of the variant should associate with CAD risk in the direction predicted by the association of the biomarker with CAD. Given a random distribution of exogenous factors in individuals carrying respective genotypes, groups represented by the genotypes are highly similar except for the biomarker of interest. Thus, the genetic variant converts into an unconfounded surrogate of the respective biomarker. This scenario is nicely exemplified for LDL cholesterol. Almost every genotype found to increase LDL cholesterol level by a sufficient amount has also been found to increase CAD risk. Pending a number of conditions that needed to be fulfilled by the genetic variant under investigation (e.g. no pleiotropic effects) and the experimental set-up of the study, LDL cholesterol can be assumed to act as the functional component that links genotypes and CAD risk and

  1. Haemodynamic assessment of human coronary arteries is affected by degree of freedom of artery movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Yong, Andy S C; Chang, Michael; Ng, Martin K C; Behnia, Masud; Kritharides, Leonard

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal haemodynamic parameters are associated with atheroma plaque progression and instability in coronary arteries. Flow recirculation, shear stress and pressure gradient are understood to be important pathogenic mediators in coronary disease. The effect of freedom of coronary artery movement on these parameters is still unknown. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations were carried out in 25 coronary artery models derived from authentic human coronaries in order to investigate the effect of degree of freedom of movement of the coronary arteries on flow recirculation, wall shear stress (WSS) and wall pressure gradient (WPG). Each FSI model had distinctive supports placed upon it. The quantitative and qualitative differences in flow recirculation, maximum wall shear stress (MWSS), areas of low wall shear stress (ALWSS) and maximum wall pressure gradient (MWPG) for each model were determined. The results showed that greater freedom of movement was associated with lower MWSS, smaller ALWSS, smaller flow recirculation zones and lower MWPG. With increasing percentage diameter stenosis (%DS), the effect of degree of freedom on flow recirculation and WSS diminished. Freedom of movement is an important variable to be considered for computational modelling of human coronary arteries, especially in the setting of mild to moderate stenosis. 3D: Three-dimensional; 3DR: Three-dimensional Reconstruction; 3D-QCA: Three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography; ALWSS: Areas of low wall shear stress; CAD: Coronary artery disease; CFD: Computational fluid dynamics; %DS: Diameter stenosis percentage; EPCS: End point of counter-rotating streamlines; FSI: Fluid-structure interaction; IVUS: Intravascular ultrasound; LAD: Left anterior descending; MWSS: Maximum wall shear stress; SST: Shear stress transport; TAWSS: Time-averaged wall shear stress; WSS: wall shear stress; WPG: Wall pressure gradient; MWPG: Maximum wall pressure gradient; FFR: Fractional flow reserve; i

  2. Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction Accompanied by Acute Inferior Myocardial Infarction: A Very Rare Coronary Artery Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alsancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are rare and mostly silent in clinical practice. First manifestation of this congenital abnormality can be devastating as syncope, acute coronary syndrome, and sudden cardiac death. Herein we report a case with coronary artery anomaly complicated with ST segment myocardial infarction in both inferior and anterior walls simultaneously diagnosed during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

  3. The Coronary Artery Disease-Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS): Prognostic and Clinical Implications Associated With Standardized Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Joe X; Cury, Ricardo C; Leipsic, Jonathon; Crim, Matthew T; Berman, Daniel S; Gransar, Heidi; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Callister, Tracy Q; Marques, Hugo; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Andreini, Daniele; Pontone, Gianluca; Cademartiri, Filippo; Maffei, Erica; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Raff, Gilbert; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Dunning, Allison; DeLago, Augustin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Villines, Todd C; Chow, Benjamin J W; Hindoyan, Niree; Gomez, Millie; Lin, Fay Y; Jones, Erica; Min, James K; Shaw, Leslee J

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to assess clinical outcomes associated with the novel Coronary Artery Disease-Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) scores used to standardize coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) reporting and their potential utility in guiding post-coronary CTA care. Clinical decision support is a major focus of health care policies aimed at improving guideline-directed care. Recently, CAD-RADS was developed to standardize coronary CTA reporting and includes clinical recommendations to facilitate patient management after coronary CTA. In the multinational CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) registry, 5,039 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent coronary CTA and were stratified by CAD-RADS scores, which rank CAD stenosis severity as 0 (0%), 1 (1% to 24%), 2 (25% to 49%), 3 (50% to 69%), 4A (70% to 99% in 1 to 2 vessels), 4B (70% to 99% in 3 vessels or ≥50% left main), or 5 (100%). Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were used to estimate all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare CAD-RADS to the Duke CAD Index and traditional CAD classification. Referrals to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) after coronary CTA were also assessed. Cumulative 5-year event-free survival ranged from 95.2% to 69.3% for CAD-RADS 0 to 5 (p CAD-RADS, which was noninferior to the Duke Index (0.7073; p = 0.893) and traditional CAD classification (0.7095; p = 0.783). ICA rates were 13% for CAD-RADS 0 to 2, 66% for CAD-RADS 3, and 84% for CAD-RADS ≥4A. For CAD-RADS 3, 58% of all catheterizations occurred within the first 30 days of follow-up. In a patient subset with available medication data, 57% of CAD-RADS 3 patients who received 30-day ICA were either asymptomatic or not receiving antianginal therapy at baseline, whereas only 32% had angina and were receiving medical therapy. CAD-RADS effectively

  4. Association of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity with Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis in Hypertension Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Qain, Yuesheng; Tang, Xiaofeng; Ling, Huawei; Chen, Kemin; Li, Yan; Gao, Pingjin; Zhu, Dingliang

    2016-08-01

    Intracranial arterial stenosis is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians. We therefore sought to explore the relationship of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and intracranial arterial stenosis in 834 stroke-free hypertensive patients. Intracranial arterial stenosis was evaluated through computerized tomographic angiography. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured by an automated cuff device. The top decile of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was significantly associated with intracranial arterial stenosis (P = .027, odds ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.10). The patients with the top decile of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity showed 56% higher risk for the presence of intracranial arterial stenosis to the whole population, which was more significant in patients younger than 65 years old. We also found that brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity related to both intracranial arterial stenosis and homocysteine. Our study showed the association of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity with asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis in hypertension patients, especially in relative younger subjects. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity might be a relatively simple and repeatable measurement to detect hypertension patients in high risk of intracranial arterial stenosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Multi-detector CT coronary angiographic findings of coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Seok; Park, Eun Ah; Lim, Ji Yeon; Lee, Whal [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate multi-detector CT (MDCT) coronary angiographic findings of coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula (CPAF). We retrospectively reviewed images of patients with CPAF from the coronary CT angiography (CCTA) database obtained with a 64-channel MDCT between January 2008 and March 2011. We analyzed the CCTA findings for feeding arteries, fistula, association with peripulmonary arterial aneurysms, and the presence of communication between the CPAF and bronchial arteries. Fifty-five of the 15042 (0.37%) patients were diagnosed with CPAFs. The feeding artery was single (n = 18) or multiple (n = 37). The fistula had a single drainage site (n = 54) or multiple drainage sites (n = 1). The mean diameter of the fistulous opening was 2.7 ± 1.4 mm. A peripulmonary arterial aneurysm was present in 24 (44%) patients. Communication between CPAF and bronchial arteries was present in eight (14.5%) patients. MDCT coronary angiography can provide comprehensive morphologic details on CPAF and may help in presurgical or preinterventional planning.

  6. The effects of remote ischaemic preconditioning on coronary artery function in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Corcoran, D.; Young, R.; Cialdella, P.; McCartney, P.; Bajrangee, A.; Hennigan, B.; Collison, D.; Carrick, D.; Shaukat, A.; Good, R.; Watkins, S.; McEntegart, M.; Watt, J.; Welsh, P.; Sattar, N.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a cardioprotective intervention invoking intermittent\\ud periods of ischaemia in a tissue or organ remote from the heart. The mechanisms of this effect are incompletely\\ud understood. We hypothesised that RIPC might enhance coronary vasodilatation by an endothelium-dependent\\ud mechanism.\\ud Methods: We performed a prospective, randomised, sham-controlled, blinded clinical trial. Patients with stable\\ud coronary artery disease (CAD) under...

  7. Acute coronary artery occlusion during and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Frequency, prediction, clinical course, management, and follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); G-J. Laarman (GertJan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Suryapranata (Harry); G. Jaarman; P.J. de Feyter (Pim); R.T. van Domburg (Ron)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Acute coronary artery occlusion after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) continues to remain a serious complication despite significant improvement in operator performance and technological advancements. This retrospective study was performed to ascertain

  8. Vascular remodeling in coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. di Mario (Carlo); P.N. Ruygrok (Peter); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTraditionally, the diagnosis of significant coronary atherosclerotic disease has relied on angiographic techniques. Both histologic analyses and, more recently, intravascular ultrasonography techniques have revealed that a significant atherosclerotic plaque load may be present in

  9. Evolving role of platelet function testing in coronary artery interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy HK

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rakesh K Sharma1, Donald J Voelker1, Rohit Sharma1, Hanumanth K Reddy1, Harvinder Dod1, James D Marsh21Medical Center of South Arkansas, 2Division of Cardiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USAAbstract: The substantial reduction in ischemic events provided by the dual antiplatelet regimen with aspirin and clopidogrel is well documented in patients with acute coronary syndrome and patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Recently the variable response to the antiplatelet agents has received considerable attention after several “boxed warnings” on clopidogrel. This led to intense controversy on pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacogenomic issues of antiplatelet drugs, especially clopidogrel. Research use of platelet function testing has been successfully validated in identifying new antiplatelet drugs like prasugrel and ticagrelor. These platelet function assays are no longer regarded just as a laboratory phenomenon but rather as tools that have been shown to predict mortality in several clinical trials. It is believed that suboptimal response to an antiplatelet regimen (pharmacodynamic effect may be associated with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial events. There has been intense controversy about this variable response of antiplatelet drugs and the role of platelet function testing to guide antiplatelet therapy. While the importance of routine platelet function testing may be uncertain, it may be useful in high-risk patients such as those with diabetes mellitus, diffuse three vessels coronary artery disease, left main stenosis, diffuse atherosclerotic disease, and those with chronic renal failure undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. It could also be useful in patients with suspected pharmacodynamic interaction with other drugs to assure the adequacy of platelet inhibition. While we wait for definitive trials, a predictive prognostic algorithm is

  10. Coronary Artery PET/MR Imaging: Feasibility, Limitations, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Philip M; Dweck, Marc R; Trivieri, Maria Giovanna; Abgral, Ronan; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Contreras, Johanna; Gidwani, Umesh; Narula, Jagat P; Fuster, Valentin; Kovacic, Jason C; Fayad, Zahi A

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the authors' initial experience with combined coronary artery positron emission tomographic (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) radiotracers, describe common problems and their solutions, and demonstrate the feasibility of coronary PET/MR imaging in appropriate patients. Recently, PET imaging has been applied to the aortic valve and regions of atherosclerosis. 18F-FDG PET imaging has become established for imaging inflammation in atherosclerosis in the aorta and carotid arteries. Moreover, 18F-NaF has emerged as a novel tracer of active microcalcification in the aortic valve and coronary arteries. Coronary PET imaging remains challenging because of the small caliber of the vessels and their complex motion. Currently, most coronary imaging uses combined PET and computed tomographic imaging, but there is increasing enthusiasm for PET/MR imaging because of its reduced radiation, potential to correct for motion, and the complementary information available from cardiac MR in a single scan. Twenty-three patients with diagnosed or documented risk factors for coronary artery disease underwent either 18F-FDG or 18F-NaF PET/MR imaging. Standard breath-held MR-based attenuation correction was compared with a novel free-breathing approach. The impact on PET image artifacts and the interpretation of vascular uptake were evaluated semiquantitatively by expert readers. Moreover, PET reconstructions with more algorithm iterations were compared visually and by target-to-background ratio. Image quality was significantly improved by novel free-breathing attenuation correction. Moreover, conspicuity of coronary uptake was improved by increasing the number of algorithm iterations from 3 to 6. Elevated radiotracer uptake could be localized to individual coronary lesions using both 18F-FDG (n = 1, maximal target-to-background ratio = 1.61) and 18F-NaF (n = 7

  11. Carotid Stenting Versus Endarterectomy for Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresoli, Paola; Habib, Bettina; Reynier, Pauline; Secrest, Matthew H; Eisenberg, Mark J; Filion, Kristian B

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus on the comparative efficacy and safety of carotid artery stenting (CAS) versus carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. To evaluate CAS versus CEA in asymptomatic patients, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing CAS to CEA in asymptomatic patients using a pre-specified protocol. Two independent reviewers identified randomized controlled trials meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria, extracted relevant data, and assessed quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Random effects models with inverse-variance weighting were used to estimate pooled risk ratios (RRs) comparing the incidences of periprocedural and long-term outcomes between CAS and CEA. We identified 11 reports of 5 randomized controlled trials for inclusion (n=3019) asymptomatic patients. The pooled incidences of any periprocedural stroke (RR, 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-3.40), periprocedural nondisabling stroke (RR, 1.95; 95% CI, 0.98-3.89), and any periprocedural stroke or death (RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.95-3.11) trended toward an increased risk after CAS. We could not rule out clinically significant differences between treatments for long-term stroke (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.76-2.03) and the composite outcome of periprocedural stroke, death or myocardial infarction, or long-term ipsilateral stroke (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.70-1.21). Although uncertainty surrounds the long-term outcomes of CAS versus CEA, the potential for increased risks of periprocedural stroke and periprocedural stroke or death with CAS suggests that CEA is the preferred option for the management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Associations of atherosclerosis in the descending thoracic aorta on CTA with arterial stiffness and chronic kidney disease in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Cornelis J; Delgado, V; de Koning, Eelco J; Rabelink, Ton J; Jukema, J Wouter; Bax, Jeroen J; Scholte, Arthur J

    2014-08-01

    The relation between atherosclerosis in the descending thoracic aortic (DTA), arterial stiffness and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unclear. The current aim was to evaluate associations of DTA atherosclerosis with arterial stiffness and parameters of CKD in asymptomatic patients with DM. A total of 213 asymptomatic patients with diabetes (mean age 52 years, 56% men) underwent cardiovascular risk assessment including multi-slice computed tomography (for non-invasive coronary angiography, from which DTA atherosclerosis can be derived), non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness with applanation tonometry and assessment of renal function. Measurements of DTA atherosclerosis included assessment of DTA thickening and calcium score. Arterial stiffness was determined by the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), parameters of CKD included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR). DTA atherosclerosis was present in 180 (84%) patients. Patients with DTA atherosclerosis had increased arterial stiffness, lower eGFR and higher UACR values. After multivariate correction, DTA calcium score was independently associated with PWV (β = 0.18, p = 0.04). Furthermore, both DTA maximal wall thickness and DTA calcium score were independently associated with eGFR (β = -7.37, p < 0.001 and β = -1.99, p < 0.003, respectively), but not with UACR. The increase in arterial stiffness by atherosclerosis seemed to be mediated by arterial calcification, while the DTA calcium score was independently associated with arterial stiffness, but not DTA maximal wall thickness. Furthermore, parameters of CKD in patients with DM had a distinct relationship with DTA atherosclerosis: DTA atherosclerosis was associated with eGFR but not with UACR.

  13. Aborted sudden cardiac death in a young male with anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Han Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA is a rare type of congenital coronary abnormality that may be associated with early infant mortality and sudden adult cardiac death. We report a case regarding a 23-year-old male who collapsed during a marathon race and was resuscitated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Subsequent workups verified the diagnosis of ALCAPA. The patient underwent surgical intervention with obliteration of the ALCAPA orifice and coronary artery bypass grafting with left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending coronary artery. The procedure was done smoothly, and he was discharged uneventfully.

  14. Is asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease associated with walking endurance in patients with COPD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kuo-Shao; Lin, Ming-Shian; Chen, Yi-Jen; Chen, Yih-Yuan; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with impaired walking endurance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unknown whether asymptomatic PAD is associated with impaired walking endurance in patients with COPD. This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 200 COPD patients (mean age: 70.9 years) who volunteered to perform ankle-brachial index (ABI) and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) consecutively. Demographic data, lung function, dyspnea scales, and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. The ABI was used to detect PAD (ABI <0.90). All patients were free of PAD symptoms at enrollment. Of the 200 COPD patients, 17 (8.5%) were diagnosed with asymptomatic PAD. The COPD patients without asymptomatic PAD did not walk significantly further on the 6MWT than the COPD patients with asymptomatic PAD (439±86 m vs 408±74 m, P=0.159). The strongest correlation with the distance walked on the 6MWT was Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (r (2)=-0.667, P<0.001), followed by oxygen-cost diagram (r (2)=0.582, P<0.001) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r (2)=0.532, P<0.001). In multivariate linear regression analysis, only age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and baseline pulse oximetry were independently correlated with the distance covered on the 6MWT (P<0.05). However, body mass index, baseline heart rate, and ABI were not correlated with the distance covered on the 6MWT. Asymptomatic PAD is not associated with walking endurance in patients with COPD. Therefore, it is important to detect and treat asymptomatic PAD early so that COPD patients do not progress to become exercise intolerant. Limited by the small sample size and predominantly male (99%) population in the study, further large-scale prospective studies are needed to verify the results.

  15. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) presenting as a complete heart block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Ravi S; Parakh, Neeraj; Sarin, Simarjot S; Tyagi, Sanjay

    2010-05-01

    A 51-year-old previously asymptomatic man presented with complete heart block (CHB). During pacemaker implantation, fluoroscopy showed a peculiar pattern of cardiac calcification. Coronary angiography, performed to determine the origin of calcification, demonstrated an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA). A left ventriculogram showed normal ventricular contraction. Echocardiography demonstrated normal systolic function without any regional wall motion abnormality. The endocardium of the mid and basal portions of the anteroseptal, anterior and anterolateral walls as well as both of the papillary muscles were calcified. Specifically noted was a calcific bar extending across the base of the interventricular septum (IVS) on both the echocardiogram and the left ventricle angiogram. The development of CHB in the absence of transmural myocardial infarction is intriguing. It is likely that endocardial fibroelastosis during infancy led to endocardial fibrosis and scarring subsequent calcium deposition. Extension of this calcification into the conduction system may have led to CHB. This is the first report of an adult patient with ALCAPA presenting with CHB.

  16. Correlations between geriatric nutritional risk index and peripheral artery disease in elderly coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamiya, Toshiki; Suzuki, Susumu; Ishii, Hideki; Hirayama, Kenshi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Yohei; Tatami, Yosuke; Harata, Shingo; Kawashima, Kazuhiro; Kunimura, Ayako; Takayama, Yohei; Shimbo, Yusaku; Osugi, Naohiro; Yamamoto, Dai; Ota, Tomoyuki; Kono, Chikao; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-07-01

    Malnutrition is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in elderly patients. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), a simple nutritional assessment tool, and the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in elderly coronary artery disease patients. We evaluated 228 elderly coronary artery disease patients (mean age 74.0 ± 5.7 years). Ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurements were routinely carried out to investigate the prevalence of lower extremity PAD. Patients showing ABI risk of having PAD than those with high GNRI and low C-reactive protein levels. GNRI values showed a strong relationship with PAD in elderly coronary artery disease patients. These data reinforce the utility of GNRI as a screening tool in clinical practice. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1057-1062. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm treated with surgical correction and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutakis, George; Nwakanma, Lois; Conte, John

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm is a rare clinical entity, and therefore the natural course and clinical management are not well established. We present the case of an elderly woman with a symptomatic idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm who underwent surgical repair along with simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting. With long-term follow-up presented in this report, we describe the safety and durability of surgical repair.

  18. Hybrid coronary artery revascularization: logistics and program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Guy J; Jonetzko, Patricja; Bonaros, Nikos; Schachner, Thomas; Danzmayr, Michael; Kofler, Ruth; Laufer, G; Pachinger, O; Bonatti, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Planning hybrid coronary artery revascularization--a combination of cardiac surgery with percutaneous procedures--requires, at first sight, a very complex logistical setup. Technical and equipment related details should be defined as early as possible in order to have time for training of all OR personnel involved. The most challenging aspect in OR-located hybrid coronary revascularization remains a very close cooperation of cardiac surgeons and interventional cardiologists. This teamwork does include indication findings and subsequent referral of multivessel coronary artery disease patients to hybrid procedures, as well as high individual flexibility of interventionalists and surgeons. The major prerequisite for this cooperation is a mutual acceptance of different revascularization approaches and the intent to combine their most striking advantages. Intraoperative graft angiography during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures is one important step toward simultaneous hybrid coronary revascularization procedures. We describe our experience with on table angiography using a mobile C-arm for intraoperative imaging. This fluoroscopy system can in selected cases be used for simultaneous hybrid procedures.

  19. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in coronary arteries requires magnesium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altura, B. T.; Altura, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    A great deal of interest has recently focused upon the mechanism(s) associated with the generation and action of endothelium-derived relaxant factors (EDRFs) in blood vessels. Since we have shown that extracellular magnesium ions ([Mg2+]o) are important in control of coronary vascular tone and reactivity, we wondered whether these divalent cations play any role in the generation or action of EDRF in coronary arterial smooth muscle. Using isolated canine coronary arterial rings, we have now found that removal of [Mg2+]o inhibits the ability of these vascular preparations to relax when challenged with acetylcholine; in the absence of [Mg2+]o, the relaxation concentration-response curves for acetylcholine are shifted markedly to higher concentrations with small maxima. It, thus, appears that [Mg2+]o is an important co-factor for acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in canine coronary arteries. These findings support our previous hypothesis that dietary deficiency of Mg may be an important factor in aetiology of coronary vasospasm. PMID:3496933

  20. CCR2 and coronary artery disease: a woscops substudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Ian C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of evidence support a role for CCL2 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and its receptor CCR2 in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of the CCR2 Val64Ile polymorphism with the development of coronary artery disease in the WOSCOPS study sample set. Findings A total of 443 cases and 1003 controls from the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS were genotyped for the Val64Ile polymorphism in the CCR2 gene. Genotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls. The CCR2 Val64Ile polymorphism was found not to be associated with coronary events in this study population (odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.82-1.61, p = 0.41. Conclusions This case-control study does not support an association of the CCR2 Val64Ile polymorphism with coronary artery disease in the WOSCOPS sample set and does not confirm a possible protective role for CCR2 Val64Ile in the development of coronary artery disease.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of coronary artery anomalies in children with congenital heart disease diagnosed with coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Münevver Tuğba; Coşkun, Mehmet Enes; Başpınar, Osman; Demiryürek, Abdullah Tuncay

    2017-09-01

    Aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of coronary artery anomalies in children with congenital heart disease. Data of 1138 consecutive patients who were referred for cardiac catheterization and angiography for assessment of coronary anomaly between January 2005 and December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Total of 515 patients whose coronary arteries could be examined through left ventricle and aortic root injection were included in the study. Of 515 angiograms with visible coronaries, 42 patients (20 males, 22 females; mean age: 5.3±2.0 years) were found to have final diagnosis of coronary anomaly. Prevalence of coronary artery anomalies was 8.16% in this study. It was determined that 38 (90.4%) were anomalies of origination, 2 (4.8%) were anomalies of intrinsic coronary arterial anatomy, and 2 (4.8%) were anomalies of coronary termination. Most common coronary artery abnormality was anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left aortic sinus (16 patients; 38.1%), and the most common congenital heart disease was tetralogy of Fallot (18 patients; 42.9%). Recognizing variability of coronary artery anomalies is critical when considering surgical or interventional therapies in children with congenital heart disease.

  2. Atrial tachycardia treated by coil embolization of a giant coronary artery fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihanoglu, Yusuf Izzettin; Uludag, Burcu; Kilic, Ismail Dogu; Yildiz, Bekir Serhat; Kocyigit, Ali; Evrengul, Harun

    2014-10-01

    Coronary artery fistulas are the second most frequently seen coronary anomaly following abnormalities of coronary artery origin and distribution. A coronary fistula is defined as a direct communication between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber or vessel. Treatment options include percutaneous embolization and surgical intervention. Herein, we present a case of a giant coronary artery fistula and right atrial tachycardia that was induced during a diagnostic electrophysiologic study but was not inducible after the successful treatment of the fistula. This is the first case indicating this association. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Coronary CT angiography in clinical triage of patients at high risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Hove, Jens D; Kristensen, Thomas S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test if cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) can be used in the triage of patients at high risk of coronary artery disease. DESIGN: The diagnostic value of 64-detector CCTA was evaluated in 400 patients presenting with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction using...... in patients with high likelihood of coronary artery disease and could, in theory, be used to triage high risk patients. As many obstacles remain, including logistical and safety issues, our study does not support the use of CCTA as an additional diagnostic test before ICA in an all-comer NSTEMI population....... invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference method. The relation between the severity of disease by CCTA and a combined endpoint of death, re-hospitalization due to new myocardial infarction, or symptom-driven coronary revascularization was assessed. RESULTS: CCTA detects significant (>50...

  4. Prognostic assessment of stable coronary artery disease as determined by coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene H; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To examine the 3.5 year prognosis of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in real-world clinical practice, overall and within subgroups of patients according to age, sex, and comorbidity. Methods and results: This cohort study......, and comorbidity. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease determined by CCTA in real-world practice predicts the 3.5 year composite risk of late revascularization, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death across different groups of age, sex, or comorbidity burden....... included 16,949 patients (median age 57 years; 57% women) with new-onset symptoms suggestive of CAD, who underwent CCTA between January 2008 and December 2012. The endpoint was a composite of late coronary revascularization procedure >90 days after CCTA, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death...

  5. Association between uric acid and coronary collateral circulation in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Onur Kadir; Sahin, Durmus Yildiray; Duran, Mustafa; Turkoglu, Caner; Yildirim, Arafat; Elbasan, Zafer; Ozkan, Bugra; Tekin, Kamuran; Kunak, Aysegul Ulgen; Yilmaz, Yucel; Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Gur, Mustafa; Cayli, Murat

    2014-03-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) levels have been proposed as a biomarker of coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary collateral circulation (CCC). We investigated the association between SUA levels and development of CCC in patients with stable CAD. Consecutive patients (n = 480) with stable CAD who underwent coronary angiography and documented total occlusion in 1 of the major coronary arteries were included in this study. Levels of fasting blood glucose, white blood cell (WBC), creatinine, platelet count, and SUA were significantly higher in patients with poor CCC than in those with good CCC. After multivariate analysis, high levels of SUA were an independent predictor of CCC together with levels of fasting blood glucose and WBC. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 5.65 mg/dL for SUA to predict poor CCC with 60% sensitivity and 66% specificity. High levels of SUA may be associated with poor CCC in patients with stable CAD.

  6. Screening for anxiety disorders in patients with coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunevicius, A.; Staniute, M.; Brozaitiene, J.; Pop, V.J.M.; Neverauskas, J.; Bunevicius, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are prevalent and associated with poor prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, studies examining screening of anxiety disorders in CAD patients are lacking. In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of anxiety disorders in patients with

  7. Return to the workforce following coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H; Rørth, Rasmus; Kragholm, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Returning to the workforce after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) holds important socioeconomic consequences not only for patients, but the society as well. Yet data on this issue are limited. We examined return to the workforce and associated factors in patients of working age...

  8. Automatic prediction of coronary artery disease from clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Kevin; Filannino, Michele; Uzuner, Özlem

    2017-08-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is not only the most common form of heart disease, but also the leading cause of death in both men and women (Coronary Artery Disease: MedlinePlus, 2015). We present a system that is able to automatically predict whether patients develop coronary artery disease based on their narrative medical histories, i.e., clinical free text. Although the free text in medical records has been used in several studies for identifying risk factors of coronary artery disease, to the best of our knowledge our work marks the first attempt at automatically predicting development of CAD. We tackle this task on a small corpus of diabetic patients. The size of this corpus makes it important to limit the number of features in order to avoid overfitting. We propose an ontology-guided approach to feature extraction, and compare it with two classic feature selection techniques. Our system achieves state-of-the-art performance of 77.4% F1 score. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. RESEARCH GST polymorphisms and early-onset coronary artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mechanisms in coronary artery disease (CAD), a major health ... GSTM1 0/0 with heart failure.11,12 Black carbon and particulate matter ..... Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS.

  10. Genetic contribution of the leukotriene pathway to coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the genetic contribution of the leukotriene (LT) pathway to risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in 4,512 Caucasian and African American subjects ascertained through elective cardiac evaluation. Of the three previously associated variants, the shorter "3" and "4" alleles of a promoter ...

  11. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  12. Haptoglobin phenotypes as a risk factor for coronary artery disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Diabetes has long been known to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recognition of diabetic individuals at greatest risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) would have important public health importance by allowing the distribution of limited resources to be directed on those who ...

  13. Childhood Antecedents to Adult Coronary Artery Diseases. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the childhood antecedents to atherosclerosis and hypertension. While diet is related to the development of coronary artery diseases, there is some disagreement about what dietary changes are necessary or desirable in children to prevent their development, and at what age such changes should be made. Fifty-five…

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...... disease (CAD)....

  15. GST polymorphisms and early-onset coronary artery disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) detoxify environmental agents which influence the onset and progression of disease. Dysfunctional detoxification enzymes are responsible for prolonged exposure to reactive molecules and can contribute to endothelial damage, an underlying factor in coronary artery disease ...

  16. Comparison of modifiable coronary artery disease risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of the following coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in urban (westernised) Black and White females: physical inactivity, hypertension, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and multiple risk factors. Subjects: Subjects for this study were ...

  17. Understanding gene expression in coronary artery disease through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Molecular mechanism underlying the patho-physiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) is complex. We used global expression profiling combined with analysis of biological network to dissect out potential genes and pathways associated with CAD in a representative case–control Asian Indian cohort. We initially ...

  18. Adherence of Sudanese Coronary Artery Disease Patients to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD), worldwide, is the most common type of heart disease. Adherence to the evidence-based medications for secondary prevention is associated with further improvement in the outcomes. Objectives: To identify level of adherence towards secondary prevention medications among ...

  19. Patients with coronary artery disease – Maintaining planned lifestyle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to describe how patients with coronary artery disease, who have had one or more cardiac interventions, were maintaining their planned lifestyle adaptations at four months after the intervention. Furthermore, the study aimed to develop guidelines to further assist patients in maintaining lifestyle ...

  20. Genetic epidemiology of coronary artery disease: an Asian Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent findings on the role of genetic factors in the aetiopathology of CAD have implicated novel genes and variants in addition to those involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, our present knowledge is ...

  1. The coronary arteries of the agouti (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the coronary arteries in the agouti. Twelve hearts set, in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution, were used. The presence of left and right coronary arteries was observed in all hearts. The fi rst arose from the aorta, between the left auricle and the pulmonary trunk, and gave off into a circumfl ex branch, whichever was directed to the right surface of this viscerae, and an interventricular paraconal branch that went through the cardiac apex, on the left atrioventricular sulcus. In 91.6% of the cases, at its origin, the paraconal branch gave off a thick side branch to the left ventricle wall, and in 100% of the cases, went deep, characterizing a large myocardial bridge. In 8.4% of the cases, this thick side branch to the left ventricle wall originated directly from the left coronary artery and not from the paraconal branch, and alterations such those to the circumfl ex branch did not occur. Regarding the right coronary artery, the origin of this vessel was from the aorta, on the atrial surface, in the direction of the right ventricular border, going through the subsinuous interventricular sulcus as an interventricular subsinuous branch.

  2. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. ... History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) or its treatment was recorded after observing their medical reports. Results: The proportion of females and males was 65.53 and 34.46 %, respectively. Of the 200 patients, the mean age of ...

  3. Coronary artery angioplasty with a helical autoperfusion balloon catheter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurbel, PA; Anderson, RD; vanBoven, AJ; denHeijer, P

    The initial in-hospital and long-term clinical experience with a helical autoperfusion balloon catheter in the treatment of coronary artery disease is reported, This new catheter design allows blood to flow passively around the inflated balloon through a protected helical channel molded into the

  4. RESEARCH GST polymorphisms and early-onset coronary artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysfunctional detoxification enzymes are responsible for prolonged exposure to reactive molecules and can contribute to endothelial damage, an underlying factor in coronary artery disease (CAD). Objectives. We aimed to assess 2 common polymorphic variant isoforms in GSTM1 and GSTP1 of GST in young CAD patients ...

  5. Haptoglobin phenotypes as a risk factor for coronary artery disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gehan Hamdy

    2014-04-22

    Apr 22, 2014 ... Abstract Objective: Diabetes has long been known to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recognition of diabetic individuals at greatest risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) would have important public health importance by allowing the distribution of limited resources to ...

  6. Renal artery stenosis in patients with established coronary artery disease: Prevalence and predicting factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khatami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between renal artery stenosis (RAS and other atherosclerotic diseases (particularly coronary artery diseases is well known. In general, the risk factors for atherosclerosis have been clarified, but whether these risk factors operate equally in all forms of atherosclerotic diseases is not known. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of RAS in patients with established coronary artery diseases and then to define the most important risk factors that may help to predict the RAS in this population. In this cross-sectional study, 146 patients with established coronary artery stenosis by angiography simultaneously underwent renal angiography; RAS >50% was considered significant. We found that 25.3% of patients with coronary artery diseases had RAS. The prevalence of significant stenosis was 17.1%. Females were more vulnerable to this disorder than males (47.1% vs. 13.7%, P = 0.001. There was no relationship between the severity and number of stenosed coronary arteries and those of stenosed renal arteries (P = 0.716. Multi-variate logistic regression analysis revealed that among the risk factors for atherosclerosis, female sex (P = 0.001, duration of hypertension (P = 0.032, age (P = 0.046 and serum creatinine (P = 0.018 were strong predictors of the presence of RAS. We concluded that RAS is a common finding in patients with coronary artery disease. We suggest that all older females with deteriorating renal function and long-standing hypertension should be carefully evaluated for early detection of the RAS.

  7. Simulation of Blood Flow Coronary Artery with Consecutive Stenosis and Coronary-Coronary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Arjmandi-Tash

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this research the behavior of coronary arteries has been studied with symmetric and asymmetric consecutive stenosis, and grafted vessels. Methods: The incompressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations were discretized with second-order upwind method. Assumptions such as Newtonian fluid, wall rigidity and steady-flow were used. Results: All the calculations showed the same results with Newtonians and non-Newtonian fluids. It was found that the possibility of stenosis be reduced by increasing the graft angle. However, there exists further stenosis possibility. Among the three graft angles 20, 30 ̊ and 40, the 30 ̊ was found to be the reliable ones. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it can be deduced that there would be a high risk of further atherosclerosis when the first stenose has the maximum percentage.

  8. Intracranial cerebral artery stenosis with associated coronary artery and extracranial carotid artery stenosis in Turkish patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Ozlem [Department of Radiology, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: yalinozlem@hotmail.com; Kizilkilic, Osman; Yildirim, Tulin [Department of Radiology, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Atalay, Hakan [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: Although it has been demonstrated that there is a high prevalence of extracranial carotid artery stenosis (ECAS) in patients with severe coronary artery disease, intracranial cerebral artery stenosis (ICAS) is rarely mentioned. We evaluated the prevalence of ICAS in patients with ECAS having elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery to determine the relations between ICAS, ECAS and atherosclerotic risk factors. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the digital subtraction angiography findings of 183 patients with ECAS {>=} 50% preparing for CABG surgery. The analyses focused on the intracranial or extracranial location and degree of the stenosis. The degree of extracranial stenoses were categorized as normal, <50%, 50-69%, 70-89%, and 90-99% stenosis and occluded. The degree of intracranial stenosis was classified as normal or {<=}25%, 25-49%, and {>=}50% stenosis and occluded. Traditional atherosclerotic risk factors were recorded. Results: ECAS < 70% in 42 patients and ECAS {>=} 70% in 141 patients. ICAS was found in 51 patients and ICAS {>=} 50% in 30 patients. Regarding risk factors, we found hypertension in 135 patients, diabetes mellitus in 91 patients, hyperlipidemia in 84 patients, and smoking in 81 patients. No risk factor was significant predictors of intracranial atherosclerosis. The severity of ICAS was not significantly associated with that of the ECAS. Conclusions: We found ICAS in 27.8% of the patients with ECAS > 50% on digital subtraction angiography preparing for CABG. Therefore a complete evaluation of the neck vessels with magnetic resonance or catheter angiography seems to be indicated as well as intracranial circulation for the risk assessment of CABG.

  9. The Artery of Percheron Infarction after Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Mazek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary angiography is the golden choice for coronary artery disease evaluation and management. However, as with any invasive procedures, there is a risk of complications. We are reporting a case of 69-year-old male with past medical history of cardiac bypass surgery, CHF, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia who was admitted to the hospital to evaluate his chest pain. He had treadmill stress test that showed ischemic induced exercise. Patient underwent coronary angiography that showed proximal complete occlusion of the RCA with a patent graft. At the end of the procedure, the patient did not wake up and remained minimally responsive. An urgent brain MRI was ordered and showed infarctions consistent with an artery of Percheron infarction. Later, patient has improved slowly and was discharged home. We briefly here discuss this rare complication including the risk factor, clinical presentation, and the management.

  10. Allicin improves carotid artery intima-media thickness in coronary artery disease patients with hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De-Shan; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Jun-Mei; Liang, Er-Shun; Yan, Ming-Zhong; Gao, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an important and independent risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases, such as coronary artery disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is a non-invasive marker of systemic atherosclerosis. Allicin treatment may decrease serum Hcy levels and improve impaired endothelial function in rats with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). The present study hypothesized that allicin has an anti-atherosclerotic effect in coronary heart disease and tested the effects of allicin treatment on carotid artery IMT and plasma Hcy levels in coronary heart disease patients with HHcy. Sixty-two coronary heart disease patients with HHcy were randomly divided into an allicin group and a control group. All patients underwent diagnostic assessment, plasma Hcy assay, blood lipid measurement and B-mode ultrasound of the carotid artery prior to and after treatment. Plasma Hcy levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Carotid artery IMT was calculated using an automated algorithm based on a validated edge-detection technique. After 12 weeks, significant decreases in carotid artery IMT, plasma Hcy levels, total cholesterol and triglycerides were observed in the allicin group (all Pallicin group were significantly greater than those in the control group (all PAllicin was able to decrease Hcy levels, total cholesterol and triglycerides as well as carotid artery IMT.

  11. Association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass with asymptomatic cerebral artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youxin; Zhou, Bin; Zhou, Pingan; Yao, Yan; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Yingping; Yang, Jichun; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan; Zhou, Yong

    2018-02-09

    Cerebral artery stenosis (CAS) is the most important causes of ischaemic stroke. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) plays 2 diverse roles in atherosclerosis (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory), and the association between Lp-PLA2 mass and cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events is inconsistent among previous studies. A cross-sectional study including 2012 North Chinese adults aged ≥40 years was performed in 2010-2011 to investigate whether Lp-PLA2 mass is associated with asymptomatic cerebral artery stenosis (ACAS). Serum Lp-PLA2 mass was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All participants underwent transcranial Doppler (TCD) and bilateral carotid duplex ultrasound to evaluate intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS) and extracranial arterial stenosis (ECAS). The median serum Lp-PLA2 mass of the participants was 140.74 ng/mL (interquartile range: 131.79-158.07 ng/mL). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) when comparing the 4th quartile to the 1st quartile of Lp-PLA2 was 1.98 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42-2.78), 1.79 (95% CI: 1.08-2.94) and 1.87 (95% CI: 1.28-2.73) for the occurrence of ACAS, asymptomatic ECAS and asymptomatic ICAS, respectively, after controlling for vascular risk factors. These independently significant associations remained statistically significant in the male or elderly subgroups, but not in females or middle-aged participants. Lp-PLA2 mass is positively correlated with subclinical atherosclerosis determined by ACAS, ICAS and ECAS in North Chinese, particularly in male and older participants, suggesting that serum Lp-PLA2 mass might be potential biomarker for the detection of ACAS in the adults. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  12. Repair of a Mycotic Coronary Artery Aneurysm with an Intact Prosthetic Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mitsugu; Bell, David; Marshman, David

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 75-year-old man with a mycotic right coronary artery aneurysm without evidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Eight years previously he had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery and aortic valve replacement. He presented with methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus septicaemia after a prolonged hospital admission. Further investigation revealed a large mycotic right coronary artery aneurysm prompting urgent surgical repair. This case, of a mycotic coronary artery aneurysm in an atherosclerotic native coronary artery, is an extremely rare entity, which is further complicated by the presence of a prosthetic aortic valve. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Superdominant Right Coronary Artery with Absence of Left Circumflex and Anomalous Origin of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary from the Right Sinus: An Unheard Coronary Anomaly Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Danillo Peixoto Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are congenital changes in their origin, course, and/or structure. Most of them are discovered as incidental findings during coronary angiographic studies or at autopsies. We present herein the case of a 70-year-old man with symptomatic severe aortic valvar stenosis whose preoperative coronary angiogram revealed a so far unreported coronary anomaly circulation pattern.

  14. YKL-40 a new biomarker in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y.Z.; Ripa, R.S.; Johansen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. YKL-40 is involved in remodelling and angiogenesis in non-cardiac inflammatory diseases. Aim was to quantitate plasma YKL-40 in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or stable chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), and YKL-40 gene activation in human myocardium....... Methods and results. We included 73 patients: I) 20 patients with STEMI; II) 28 patients with stable CAD; III) 15 CAD patients referred for coronary by-pass surgery. YKL-40 mRNA expression was measured in myocardium subtended by stenotic or occluded arteries and areas with no apparent disease; and IV) 10...

  15. Surgical Treatment of Anomalous Origin of Right Coronary Artery in a Patient with Mitral Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refatllari, Ali; Likaj, Ermal; Dumani, Selman; Hasimi, Endri; Goda, Artan

    2016-03-15

    An anomalous origin of the right coronary artery is rarely observed, with a reported incidence between 0.026% and 0.25%. This condition is often completely asymptomatic and is found incidentally during angiographic evaluation for other cardiac diseases. However some patients present with exertion angina or sudden death. Surgical treatment in patients with anomalous RCA is still controversial. Treatment can be conservative, angioplasty or surgery. A 59-year-old man was admitted with severe mitral stenosis. He complained exertion and rest dyspnea, NYHA III class. He had sequels of embolic stroke, results of left atrial thrombus. Echocardiography showed calcified severe mitral stenosis with mitral orifice area of 1.1 square centimeters with PSPAP 60 mmHg and normal LV function. Routine coronary angiography before surgery showed aberrant origin of RCA from the left sinus of Valsalva with 90% stenosis at his origin. Multi-slice computed tomography proved the diagnosis of anomalous RCA arising from the left sinus of Valsalva and taking an inter-arterial course between the aorta and pulmonary artery. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement with mechanical St. Jude prosthesis No 29 and saphenous vein graft to RCA. We chose by-pass grafting techniques because after aortotomy, RCA was too close to LMCA, intramural course was too short and stenosis of RCA was outside of aortic wall. The patient's perioperative course was without complications and patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. Correction of anomalous of the origin of right coronary artery is mandatory in cases where patient has to be operated for other cardiac causes.

  16. [Current percutaneous coronary intervention technology for management of coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Akiyoshi; Kozuma, Ken

    2011-02-01

    Enormous advance was obtained in the field of percutaneous coronary intervention, treatment for coronary artery disease. Drug eluting stent (DES) offers advantages over bare metal stent (BMS) such as reduction in restenosis rates. However, several concerns were proposed when compared with BMS. Currently, numerous technologies are under development to avert the complications of DES, such as stent thrombosis, or to challenge complex lesion, such as left main trunk/bifurcation. We summarized some of the development that is emerging on current management of coronary intervention.

  17. Coronary artery rupture in blunt thoracic trauma: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hmeidan, Jareer Heider; Arrowaili, Arief Ismael; Yousef, Raid Said; Alasmari, Sami; Kassim, Yasser M; Aldakhil Allah, Hamad Hamad; Aljenaidel, Abdullah Mohammed; Alabdulqader, Abdullah Abdulmohsen; Alrashed, Muath Hamad; Alkhinjar, Mulfi Ibrahim; Al-Shammari, Nawwaf Rahi

    2016-08-02

    Blunt thoracic trauma can rarely result in coronary artery injury. Blunt trauma can result in occlusion of any of the coronary arteries or can lead to its rupture and bleeding. Traumatic coronary artery occlusion can lead to myocardial infarction, while its rupture and bleeding can result in hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade, and can be rapidly fatal. Survival after coronary artery rupture in blunt thoracic trauma is exceedingly rare. We present a case of a young male who sustained a blunt thoracic trauma in a motor vehicle collision, that resulted in rupture of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and subsequent cardiac tamponade. Prompt surgical intervention with pericardiotomy and ligation of the artery has resulted in survival of the patient. In cases of traumatic coronary artery rupture, early surgical intervention is crucial to avoid mortality. Ligation of the injured coronary is a viable option in selected cases, and can be the most expeditious option in patients in extremis.

  18. Coronary artery anatomy before and after direct revascularization surgery: clinical and cinearteriographic studies in 67 selected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J A; Bechtel, D J; Gorlin, R; Cohn, R F; Herman, M V; Cohn, L H; Collins, J J

    1975-05-01

    This report relates the postoperative clinical and cineangiographic status of 67 patients selected from a total of 202 patients who underwent coronary artery surgery at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital from July, 1970, to July, 1972. The mean interval after operation was 12.6 months. Ninety-one per cent of the 67 patients were improved from their preoperative status. Forty-eight patients (71 per cent) were studied to evaluate recurrence of mild to moderate angina or occurrence of interval myocardial infarction, and 19 patients (29 per cent) were entirely asymptomatic. In the 67 patients studied, 112 coronary arteries received a total of 115 grafts. (There were 89 ungrafted coronary arteries.) Total graft patency rate for the 58 patients in whom angina was totally or significantly relieved was 65 per cent. However, one or more grafts were patent in 52 (90 per cent) of these 58 patients. In grafted arteries, progression was found in segments proximal to the graft in 37 per cent of arteries, at the site of anastomosis in 10 per cent, and distal to the site of anastomosis in 17 per cent. The frequency of obstruction distal to the site of anastomosis was not significantly different from the frequency of progression in nongrafted arteries, in contrast to preliminary data from this laboratory. Overall and regional progression in grafted arteries appeared to occur primarily within the first four months after surgery and was found, thereafter, in a constand percentage of vessels studied. Progression in coronary arteries was independent of patency or occlusion of the graft to the vessel. It is hypothesized that while proximal progression is probably a consequence of altered hydraulic factors, distal lesions seem to represent natural progression of atherosclerotic disease.

  19. Non-invasive imaging for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in patients with peripheral artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Kjaer, Andreas; Hesse, Birger

    2014-01-01

    of subclinical coronary artery disease varies widely in patients with peripheral artery disease, it could include more than half of patients. No consensus exists to date on either the rationale for screening patients with peripheral artery disease for coronary atherosclerosis or the optimal algorithm and method......Patients with peripheral artery disease are at high risk of coronary artery disease. An increasing number of studies show that a large proportion of patients with peripheral artery disease have significant coronary atherosclerosis, even in the absence of symptoms. Although the reported prevalence...

  20. Anxiety and adverse coronary artery disease outcomes in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaofeng; Cui, Jianguo; Wang, Yanping; Deng, Biyong; Liang, Xiaofang; Bai, Jianling; Guo, Suwan; Yang, Zhijian; Huang, Lin; Li, Chunjian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the impact of anxiety on the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients of Chinese Han ethnicity and to explore the correlation between anxiety and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Between June 2007 and May 2009, 1007 hospitalized patients with CAD diagnosed by coronary angiography were recruited. The anxiety symptoms were investigated within 2 days after coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention, using the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed using the modified Gensini score. One and a half years after discharge, the participants were evaluated at the outpatient clinic or by telephone. The primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 917 (91.1%) patients were evaluated during a mean follow-up period of 17 months. Thirty-five deaths (26 of cardiovascular and 9 of other causes) and 5 nonfatal MIs occurred. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale score assessed during hospitalization was significantly and independently associated with the Gensini score (β = 1.35, p anxiety symptoms predicted all-cause death and nonfatal MI (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-4.75, p = .009). Anxiety was independently associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis and predicted worse outcome in patients with CAD of Chinese Han ethnicity.

  1. Coronary artery stent mimicking intracardiac thrombus on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging due to signal loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Vejlstrup, Niels Grove; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary artery disease, thousands of patients have been treated with the implantation of coronary stents. Moreover, several of the patients with coronary stent undergo cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging every year. This case ...... the signal loss on MRI associated with implanted metallic devices is known, we report a case where an implanted coronary stent in the left circumflex artery led to an intracardiac signal loss mimicking intracardiac thrombus/tumor....

  2. Is asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease associated with walking endurance in patients with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun KS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Shao Sun,1,2* Ming-Shian Lin,1,2* Yi-Jen Chen,1,2 Yih-Yuan Chen,3 Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen,4 Wei Chen1,5,6 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 2Department of Respiratory Care, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, 3Department of Internal Medicine, 4Department of Medical Research, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, 5College of Nursing, Dayeh University, Changhua, 6Department of Respiratory Therapy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD is associated with impaired walking endurance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, it is unknown whether asymptomatic PAD is associated with impaired walking endurance in patients with COPD. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 200 COPD patients (mean age: 70.9 years who volunteered to perform ankle-brachial index (ABI and 6-minute walk test (6MWT consecutively. Demographic data, lung function, dyspnea scales, and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. The ABI was used to detect PAD (ABI <0.90. All patients were free of PAD symptoms at enrollment. Results: Of the 200 COPD patients, 17 (8.5% were diagnosed with asymptomatic PAD. The COPD patients without asymptomatic PAD did not walk significantly further on the 6MWT than the COPD patients with asymptomatic PAD (439±86 m vs 408±74 m, P=0.159. The strongest correlation with the distance walked on the 6MWT was Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (r2=-0.667, P<0.001, followed by oxygen-cost diagram (r2=0.582, P<0.001 and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r2=0.532, P<0.001. In multivariate linear regression analysis, only age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and baseline pulse oximetry were independently correlated with the distance covered on the 6MWT (P<0.05. However, body mass index, baseline heart rate, and

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with COPD in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shian Lin

    Full Text Available AIM: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD and the associated risk factors for patients with COPD. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 427 COPD patients (mean age: 70.0 years without PAD symptoms consecutively. Demographic data, lung function and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. The ankle-brachial index (ABI was used to detect PAD (ABI<0.90. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of asymptomatic PAD in the COPD patients was 8% (2.5% in the younger participants (<65 years of age, n = 118 and 10% in the elderly participants (≥65 years of age, n = 309. The COPD patients with asymptomatic PAD had a significantly higher rate of hyperlipidemia (47.1% vs. 10.4% and hypertension (79.4% vs. 45.8% than those without asymptomatic PAD (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in lung function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second between the two groups. In multivariate logistic regression, hyperlipidemia was the strongest independent factor for PAD (odds ratio (OR: 6.89, p<0.005, followed by old age (OR: 4.80, hypertension (OR: 3.39 and smoking burden (pack-years, OR: 1.02. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of asymptomatic PAD among COPD patients in Taiwan is lower than in Western countries. Hyperlipidemia, old age, hypertension, and smoking burden were the associated cardiovascular risk factors. However, there was no association between lung function and PAD in the COPD patients.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with COPD in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Shian; Hsu, Kun-Yen; Chen, Yi-Jen; Chen, Cheng-Ren; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the associated risk factors for patients with COPD. This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 427 COPD patients (mean age: 70.0 years) without PAD symptoms consecutively. Demographic data, lung function and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) was used to detect PAD (ABI<0.90). The overall prevalence of asymptomatic PAD in the COPD patients was 8% (2.5% in the younger participants (<65 years of age, n = 118) and 10% in the elderly participants (≥65 years of age, n = 309). The COPD patients with asymptomatic PAD had a significantly higher rate of hyperlipidemia (47.1% vs. 10.4%) and hypertension (79.4% vs. 45.8%) than those without asymptomatic PAD (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in lung function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second) between the two groups. In multivariate logistic regression, hyperlipidemia was the strongest independent factor for PAD (odds ratio (OR): 6.89, p<0.005), followed by old age (OR: 4.80), hypertension (OR: 3.39) and smoking burden (pack-years, OR: 1.02). The prevalence of asymptomatic PAD among COPD patients in Taiwan is lower than in Western countries. Hyperlipidemia, old age, hypertension, and smoking burden were the associated cardiovascular risk factors. However, there was no association between lung function and PAD in the COPD patients.

  5. Correlation Between Aortic Valve Sclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease: A Cross - Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsoon Fazlinezhad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aortic valve sclerosisis considered as a manifestation of coronary atherosclerosis. Recent studies demonstrated an association between aortic valve sclerosis and obstructive coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe correlation betweenaortic valve sclerosis andobstructive coronary artery disease and the extent of coronary artery disease in patients hospitalized for chest pain. Materials and Methods: A total of 230 consecutive patients were referred to the coronary angiography of GhaemMedical Center and were subjected to transthorasic echocardiography for screening of aortic valve sclerosis and coronary risk assessment. The diagnostic value of obstructive coronary artery disease for aortic valve sclerosis was calculated. Results: The patients with obstructive coronary artery disease had a higher prevalence of aortic valve sclerosis compared to those with no coronary artery disease (P< 0.05. Aortic valve sclerosis was an independent predictor for obstructive coronary artery disease by multivariate analysis (P< 0.05. Aortic valve sclerosis had sensitivity of 47% and specificity of 79% and positive predictor value of 92%. Conclusions: Aortic valve sclerosis was an independent predictor for obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain and was strongly interrelated with the extent of coronary artery disease in these patients.

  6. Endoscopic Radial Artery Harvest for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ming Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: Endoscopic harvest of the radial artery is technically demanding, but excellent results can be achieved. The endoscopic approach can provide suitable conduits in a less invasive way than the open harvest technique.

  7. Combined transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass with right gastroepiploic artery and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Onur; Haberal, Ismail; Ozsoy, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Male, 74 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) Symptoms: Palpable abdominal mass Medication: - Clinical Procedure: Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair Specialty: Surgery. Rare disease. Coronary artery disease is common in elderly patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Here we report a case of the combination of surgical repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm and off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery. A 74-year-old man who presented at our clinic with chest pain was diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. His medical history included right coronary artery stenting. Physical examination revealed a pulsatile abdominal mass on the left side and palpable peripheral pulses. Computed tomography scans showed an infrarenal abdominal aneurysm with a 61-mm enlargement. Coronary angiography revealed 80% stenosis in the stent within the right coronary artery and 20% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. The patient underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimal invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with right gastroepiploic artery were performed simultaneously in a single surgery. We report this case to emphasize the safety and effectiveness of transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. This combined approach shortens hospital stay and decreases cost.

  8. Surgical management of coronary arterial disease in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, E A; Aronow, W S

    1998-01-01

    Coronary artery angioplasty or bypass is being performed for increasing numbers of patients in their seventh, eighth, ninth and even tenth decades of life. Because of the cost involved, justification for performing these procedures in the elderly has become a topic of daily discussion among those responsible for funding healthcare. Both silent and overt coronary artery disease (CAD) are more common in the population over 65 years of age. Because CAD in the elderly often presents in an atypical manner, diagnosis of the disease is frequently delayed. Partly because of the delayed diagnosis and partly because of cost considerations, coronary arterial bypass (CABG) is more often performed as an emergency procedure in the elderly with the results that both operative mortality and costs are increased over those observed in a younger population. Nevertheless, it is clear that performance of coronary revascularization procedures in the elderly can both prolong life and improve the quality of life beyond what can be achieved using alternative methods of treatment. Greater efforts directed toward detection of ischemic heart disease in the these patients and earlier, elective surgery could significantly reduce both the mortality and disability associated with CAD in the elderly.

  9. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: A Rare Manifestation of Alport Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuwatworn, Amornpol; Sethi, Prince; Steffen, Kelly; Jonsson, Orvar; Petrasko, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder due to inheritance of genetic mutations which lead to production of abnormal type IV collagen. AS has been associated with renal, auditory, and ocular diseases due to the presence of abnormal alpha chains of type IV collagen in the glomerulus, cochlea, cornea, lens, and retina. The resulting disorder includes hereditary nephritis, corneal opacities, anterior lenticonus, fleck retinopathy, temporal retinal thinning, and sensorineural deafness. Aortic and aortic valve pathologies have been described as extrarenal manifestations of AS in multiple case reports. One case report described intramural hematoma of the coronary artery. We report the first case of true spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) with an intimal flap as a very rare manifestation of AS. The patient is a 36-year-old female with history of AS with chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and obesity who presented to the emergency room with acute onset of substernal chest pain radiating to her neck and arms. Troponin was elevated, and ECG showed transient 1 mm ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads. Subsequent coronary angiography revealed localized dissection of the left circumflex artery. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty was performed and her symptoms improved. This case illustrates that SCAD may be a manifestation of AS patients with chest pain.

  10. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: A Rare Manifestation of Alport Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpol Anuwatworn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alport syndrome (AS is a genetic disorder due to inheritance of genetic mutations which lead to production of abnormal type IV collagen. AS has been associated with renal, auditory, and ocular diseases due to the presence of abnormal alpha chains of type IV collagen in the glomerulus, cochlea, cornea, lens, and retina. The resulting disorder includes hereditary nephritis, corneal opacities, anterior lenticonus, fleck retinopathy, temporal retinal thinning, and sensorineural deafness. Aortic and aortic valve pathologies have been described as extrarenal manifestations of AS in multiple case reports. One case report described intramural hematoma of the coronary artery. We report the first case of true spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD with an intimal flap as a very rare manifestation of AS. The patient is a 36-year-old female with history of AS with chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and obesity who presented to the emergency room with acute onset of substernal chest pain radiating to her neck and arms. Troponin was elevated, and ECG showed transient 1 mm ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads. Subsequent coronary angiography revealed localized dissection of the left circumflex artery. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty was performed and her symptoms improved. This case illustrates that SCAD may be a manifestation of AS patients with chest pain.

  11. Association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Uğur; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Balcioğlu, Serhat; Tavil, Yusuf; Karakan, Tarkan; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-09-01

    To demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). Ninety-two consecutive patients who planned to undergo coronary angiographies (CAG) without known CAD, other than findings of acute coronary syndrome, were enrolled in this study. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed before the CAG to detect NAFLD. CAD was defined as a stenosis of at least 50% in at least one major coronary artery. The extent of CAD was measured according to the number of major coronary artery/arteries affected by CAD. All the risk factors for CAD were included in a binary logistic regression model. Forward, backward, or step-wise selections were not used. P<0.05 was accepted as being significant. Sixty-five of the 92 patients (70.7%) were detected, by abdominal ultrasonography, to have fatty liver and 43 patients out of 92 (46.7%) were detected, by CAG, to have significant CAD. According to the results of logistic regression analysis, the presence of NAFLD independently increased the risk for CAD, as seen in CAG [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.73 (1.14-39.61); P=0.035]; this was despite factoring in the other risk factors for CAD and the components of metabolic syndrome. NAFLD was more commonly found in patients as the extent of CAD increased (P=0.001). The presence of NAFLD is independently associated with the presence and extent of CAD. Future studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of this relationship.

  12. Clinical features, management, and prognosis of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Hayes, Sharonne N; Pitta, Sridevi R; Simari, Robert D; Lerman, Amir; Lennon, Ryan J; Gersh, Bernard J; Khambatta, Sherezade; Best, Patricia J M; Rihal, Charanjit S; Gulati, Rajiv

    2012-07-31

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an acute coronary event of uncertain origin. Clinical features and prognosis remain insufficiently characterized. A retrospective single-center cohort study identified 87 patients with angiographically confirmed SCAD. Incidence, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, in-hospital outcomes, and long-term risk of SCAD recurrence or major adverse cardiac events were evaluated. Mean age was 42.6 years; 82% were female. Extreme exertion at SCAD onset was more frequent in men (7 of 16 versus 2 of 71; P<0.001), and postpartum status was observed in 13 of 71 women (18%). Presentation was ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 49%. Multivessel SCAD was found in 23%. Initial conservative management (31 of 87) and coronary artery bypass grafting (7 of 87) were associated with an uncomplicated in-hospital course, whereas percutaneous coronary intervention was complicated by technical failure in 15 of 43 patients (35%) and 1 death. During a median follow-up of 47 months (interquartile range, 18-106 months), SCAD recurred in 15 patients, all female. Estimated 10-year rate of major adverse cardiac events (death, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and SCAD recurrence) was 47%. Fibromuscular dysplasia of the iliac artery was identified incidentally in 8 of 16 femoral angiograms (50%) undertaken before closure device placement and in the carotid arteries of 2 others with carotid dissection. SCAD affects a young, predominantly female population, frequently presenting as ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Although in-hospital mortality is low regardless of initial treatment, percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with high rates of complication. Risks of SCAD recurrence and major adverse cardiac events in the long term emphasize the need for close follow-up. Fibromuscular dysplasia is a novel association and potentially causative factor.

  13. Modern antiplatelet agents in coronary artery disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Rachel F

    2012-10-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy is well recognized in the prevention of thrombotic complications of acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary interventions. Despite clinical benefits of aspirin and clopidogrel therapy, a number of limitations curtail their efficacy: slow onset of action, variability in platelet inhibitory response and potential drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, the single platelet-activation pathway targeted by these agents allows continued platelet activation via other pathways, ensuring incomplete protection against ischemic events, thus, underscoring the need for alternate antiplatelet treatment strategies. A number of novel antiplatelet agents are currently in advance development and many have established superior effects on platelet inhibition, clinical outcomes and safety profile than clopidogrel in high-risk patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current status of P2Y12 receptor inhibition and PAR-1 antagonists in determining a future strategy for individualized antiplatelet therapy.

  14. Circumferential strain of carotid arteries does not differ between patients with advanced coronary artery disease and group without coronary stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbowska-Drabik, Karina; Cygulska, Kamila; Cieślik-Guerra, Urszula; Uznańska-Loch, Barbara; Rechciński, Tomasz; Trzos, Ewa; Kurpesa, Małgorzata; Kasprzak, Jarosław D

    2016-09-01

    Speckle tracking echocardiography is widely used for the analysis of myocardial function. Recently, circumferential strain (CS) of carotid arteries was postulated as novel indicator of vascular function. Our aim was to characterize and compare CS of carotid arteries in patients with advanced coronary artery disease and controls without significant coronary stenoses. We compared CS of both common carotid arteries (CCA) in the 25 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease (3VD) (mean age 69±9 years, 9 male) and in 16 age-matched subjects without significant coronary lesions (C) (69±8 years, 7 male). Additionally in 11 patients we estimated pulse wave velocity (PWV) and assessed the correlation between PWV and CS. Short-axis images of arteries were acquired for strain analysis with linear probe of echocardiograph. The assessment of CS was performed off-line by two observers. The intraobserver variability for the CS (coefficient of variation) were 4.9 and 5.4% for left and right CCA and interobserver variability were 11.7% and 12.5%, respectively. The mean CS for left and right CCA did not differ between compared groups. We did not find correlation between CS strain and PWV. The only difference was related to the more prevalent plaque presence and thicker intima-media complex (IMT) in 3VD (p=0.0039 for IMT of left CCA and p=0.016 for IMT of right CCA). The global CS of CCA, contrary to IMT, did not allow for differentiation between 3VD and C subjects. Despite good feasibility and concordance of CS measurements its clinical significance remains to be established. Copyright © 2016 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Coronary artery bypass surgery in the diabetic patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, M

    2012-02-03

    Coronary artery and peripheral occlusive arterial disease frequently complicate diabetes mellitus, with death due to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease being three times more likely in diabetic compared to non-diabetic patients. The profile of 32 diabetic patients and 32 matched controls who underwent coronary artery bypass (CABG) is studied and their early and late postoperative outcomes are described. The mean age was 61 +\\/- 1 year in both groups. The diabetic group comprised 26 non-insulin dependent and 6 insulin dependent diabetics, who had a mean duration of diabetes of 8.5 years (range 2 months--35 years). The median number of grafts per patient performed in the diabetic group and the control group was 3.5 and 3 respectively. There was no mortality in the series, however considerably greater wound morbidity rates were encountered in the diabetic group when compared to matched controls. One renal transplant patient in the diabetic group suffered irreversible acute tubular necrosis and became dialysis dependent post-operatively. Longterm follow-up showed no longterm mortality in either group, with full relief of angina achieved in 75% of diabetic patients compared with 87.5% of matched controls. In addition diabetic patients suffered greater longterm cardiac morbidity than the control group (21.8% versus 12.5%). The results of this study suggest that CABG is a safe operation for the diabetic patient. Diabetic patients receive satisfactory symptomatic relief of angina, but suffer increased perioperative wound complications and greater incidence of longterm cardiac morbidity.

  16. Association between coronary microvascular function and the vasa vasorum in patients with early coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Ha; Sun, Tao; Diez-Delhoyo, Felipe; Liu, Zhi; Yang, Shi-Wei; Lennon, Ryan J; Herrmann, Joerg; Gulati, Rajiv; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2016-10-01

    The vasa vasorum (VV) plays a role in the initial phase of atherosclerosis, and abnormalities in microvascular function may be sensitive measures of the early development of atherosclerosis. The current study was designed to access the association between coronary microvascular function and VV density in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Twenty-four patients with early coronary artery disease underwent endothelium-dependent (coronary blood flow, CBF) and endothelium-independent (coronary flow velocity reserve, CFVR) coronary microvascular function testing, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Using an intracoronary Doppler guidewire, CBF was examined by evaluating changes in blood flow in response to acetylcholine and CFVR in response to adenosine. VV density (VV volume/vessel volume × 100, %VV) of the proximal 10 mm of the LAD was quantified by OCT. The median values (Q1, Q3) of CFVR, % changes in CBF in response to acetylcholine, and the %VV were 2.70 (2.30, 2.90), -16.82 (-42.34, 54.52), and 2.62 (2.35, 3.35), respectively. %VV correlated inversely with CBF (r = -0.614, p = 0.001) and directly with CFVR (r = 0.423, p = 0.040). Multivariate analysis showed that only %VV was significantly correlated with CBF and the association was independent of other clinical variables, Framingham risk score, body mass index, and a family history of coronary heart disease. This study demonstrates that VV density has negative correlation with endothelium-dependent microvascular function in patients with early coronary atherosclerosis. These observations link adventitial VV structure and function to microvascular dysfunction in early coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolated Unilateral Absent Branch Pulmonary Artery with Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis and Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Abhishek B

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated Unilateral Absent Pulmonary Artery (UAPA is a rare congenital anomaly. It is usually associated with congenital heart defects. A 45 year old male patient presented with complaints of fever with cough and expectoration for 15 days and retrosternal chest discomfort for the previous 2 days. ECG showed diffuse ST segment depression with T wave inversion in the inferior and lateral leads. Coronary Angiogram done through the right femoral approach revealed diffusely diseased Left Anterior Descending (LAD artery that was totally cut off at the mid segment. The Left Circumflex (LCx artery was providing blood supply to the right middle and lower lung areas. There was another collateral arising from the Left Subclavian Artery supplying the right middle and lower lung areas. The left pulmonary artery was normal, but branches supplying the middle and lower lobes of the right lung were absent and the upper lobe branch had pulmonary stenosis. UAPA is a rare clinical entity; collaterals from coronaries are extremely rare in this condition and till now there has not been any case report of unilateral absent branch pulmonary artery with peripheral stenosis of other branches, on the affected side and associated coronary artery disease.

  18. Iatrogenic giant coronary artery pseudoaneurysm with "daughter aneurysm" formation: serial imaging findings and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarrus, Miguel; Yang, Bo; Schiller, Nelson; Miller, D Craig; Ordovas, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Coronary pseudoaneurysms rarely occur spontaneously; rather, they are more commonly seen as a complication of coronary intervention. We present a case of a giant right coronary artery pseudoaneurysm with partial thrombosis after arterial perforation during percutaneous intervention for acute myocardial infarction and formation of a "daughter aneurysm" due to a contained rupture 12 years later. Right coronary pseudoaneurysm repair and coronary artery bypass grafting were eventually performed 16 years after the acute event. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, coronary computed tomography angiography, and autopsy findings are shown.

  19. Revascularisation versus medical treatment in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windecker, Stephan; Stortecky, Stefan; Stefanini, Giulio G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether revascularisation improves prognosis compared with medical treatment among patients with stable coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Bayesian network meta-analyses to combine direct within trial comparisons between treatments with indirect evidence from other trials...... stent, early generation paclitaxel eluting stent, sirolimus eluting stent, and zotarolimus eluting (Endeavor) stent, and new generation everolimus eluting stent, and zotarolimus eluting (Resolute) stent among patients with stable coronary artery disease. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Embase from 1980......: Among patients with stable coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass grafting reduces the risk of death, myocardial infarction, and subsequent revascularisation compared with medical treatment. All stent based coronary revascularisation technologies reduce the need for revascularisation...

  20. Functional and structural adaptations of coronary microvessels distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Sorop (Oana); D. Merkus (Daphne); V.J. de Beer (Vincent Jacob); B. Houweling (Birgit); A. Pistea (Adrian); E.O. McFalls (Edward); F. Boomsma (Frans); H.M.M. van Beusekom (Heleen); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim); E. VanBavel (Ed); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDistal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis, structural remodeling of the microvasculature occurs. The microvascular functional changes distal to the stenosis have not been studied in detail. We tested the hypothesis that microvascular structural remodeling is accompanied by altered

  1. Prognosis of non-significant coronary atherosclerotic disease detected by coronary artery tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; Siqueira, Bruna Pinto; Guimaraes, Carolina Camargos Braichi; Cruz, David Filipe Silva; Guimaraes, Leiziane Assuncao Alves; Lima, Maicom Marcio Perigolo, E-mail: marciovlbarros@gmail.com [Faculdade de Saude e Ecologia Humana, Vespasiano, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira [Universidade de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Siqueira, Maria Helena Albernaz [Hospital Materdei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Introduction: Although studies have shown high diagnostic accuracy of coronary tomography (CT) in detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), data on the prognostic value of this method in patients with no significant coronary obstruction are limited. Objective: To evaluate the value of CT in predicting adverse events in patients with suspected CAD and no significant coronary obstruction. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 440 patients between January 2008 and July 2013 by MDCT, diagnosed with no significant obstruction or no atherosclerotic coronary obstruction with an average follow-up of 33 months. The outcomes evaluated were: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina associated with hospitalization or coronary artery bypass grafting. Results: Of the 440 patients studied, 295 (67%) were men with mean age 55.9 ± 12.0 years. Non-significant obstruction was found in 152 (35%) of the patients and there were 49 (11%) outcomes. In the multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model, the predictors of clinical outcomes were non-significant obstruction on CT (hazard ratio 3.51; 95% CI 1.73 - 7.8; p <0.01), age and hypertension. Non-significant obstruction on CT was associated with adverse clinical outcomes and survival analysis showed a significant difference (log-rank 24.6; p <0.01) in predicting these outcomes. Conclusion: The detection of non-significant atherosclerotic obstruction by CT was associated with the presence of adverse events in patients with suspected CAD, which may prove useful in the risk stratification of these patients. (author)

  2. [Surgical Repair of Coronary-pulmonary Artery Fistulae with Giant Coronary Aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiyama, Naoki; Katayama, Yusuke; Mo, Makoto; Masuda, Munetaka

    2017-03-01

    A 69-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to dyspnea on exertion and a heart murmur. A chest X-ray showed a bulge at the left 3rd arch and chest computed tomography( CT) revealed a giant mass adjacent to the right ventricular outflow. Multidetector-row CT and coronary angiography showed a giant coronary aneurysm (55×45 mm) and fistulae arising from the left main coronary trunk and entering into the main pulmonary artery (PA). The pulmonary to systemic flow ratio was 1.84. She was diagnosed with coronary-pulmonary artery fistulae with giant coronary aneurysm. Aneurysmorrhaphy and closure of the fistula outlet from the PA were performed under cardiopulmonary bypass with cardiac arrest. After declamping the aorta, residual shunt flow was found at several sites of abnormal vessels in the right ventricular outflow using a Doppler flowmeter. The vessels were ligated with pledgeted sutures, but did not disappear completely. Postoperative coronary angiography and transthoracic echocardiogram showed a small residual shunt flow into the PA. The postoperative course was uneventful;she was discharged on postoperative day 18. Six months later, the residual shunt flow had disappeared. No recurrence has been detected for 7 years.

  3. Prevalence of Carotid Artery Disease among Ambulatory Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazum, Shirit; Eisen, Alon; Lev, Eli I; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Solodky, Alejandro; Hasdai, David; Kornowski, Ran; Mager, Aviv

    2016-02-01

    Concomitant carotid artery disease (CaAD) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with worse cardiac and neurologic outcomes. The reported prevalence and risk factors for concomitant CaAD in CAD patients varied among previous studies. To examine these factors in ambulatory patients with CAD and well-documented cholesterol levels treated with cholesterol-lowering medications. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data from 325 unselected patients with CAD (89 women, mean age 68.8 ± 9.9 years) undergoing routine evaluation at the coronary clinic of our hospital. The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was < 100 mg/dl in 292 patients (90%). Age at onset of CAD symptoms was 59.4 ± 10.8 years. Carotid stenosis ≥ 50% was seen in 83 patients (25.5%) and between 30% and 49% in 55 patients (17%) (duplex method). Carotid stenosis was significantly associated with hypertension (P = 0.032), peripheral arterial disease (P = 0.002) and number of coronary arteries with ≥ 50% stenosis (P = 0.002), and showed a borderline association with age at CAD onset (P = 0.062) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.053). On linear regression analysis, independent predictors of CaAD were peripheral vascular disease (OR 3.186, 95% CI 1.403-7.236, P = 0.006), number of coronary arteries with ≥ 50% stenosis (OR 1.543, 95% CI 1.136-2.095, P = 0.005), and age at CAD onset (OR 1.028, 95% CI 1.002-1.054, P = 0.003). None of the variables studied predicted freedom from CaAD. Carotid atherosclerosis is very common in stable ambulatory patients with CAD regularly taking statins. The risk is higher in patients with peripheral arterial disease, a greater number of involved coronary arteries, and older age at onset of CAD.

  4. Elevated oxidative stress among coronary artery disease patients on statin therapy: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Palazhy

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: Though coronary artery disease subjects had healthy lipid profile, oxidative stress, a recognized risk factor for coronary events, was still elevated among this patient group. Novel risk factors were not found to be major predictors for coronary artery disease among the study subjects.

  5. Metabolic coronary-flow regulation and exogenous nitric oxide in human coronary artery disease: assessment by intravenous administration of nitroglycerin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kal, J. E.; van Wezel, H. B.; Porsius, M.; Vergroesen, I.; Spaan, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the effect of intravenous administration of the nitric oxide--donor substance nitroglycerin (NTG) on metabolic coronary-flow regulation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In 12 patients with stable CAD, we measured coronary sinus blood flow and myocardial oxygen

  6. Estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association of three established single nucleotide polymorphisms, IVS1-397T>C, IVS1-351A>G, and +261G>C, in the ESR1 gene with the prevalence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a southern Brazilian population of European ancestry. Three hundred and forty-one subjects (127 women and 214 men with coronary artery disease (CAD were classified as having significant disease (CAD+ patient group when they showed 60% or more luminal stenosis in at least one coronary artery or major branch segment at angiography; patients with 10% or less luminal stenosis were considered to have minimal CAD (CAD- patient group. The control sample consisted of 142 subjects (79 women and 63 men without significant disease, in whom coronary angiography to rule out the presence of asymptomatic CAD was not performed. The polymorphisms were investigated by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction analyses. In the male sample, the +261G>C*C allele was more frequent in CAD+ than CAD- subjects (8 versus 1%, P = 0.024. Homozygosity for the C allele of the IVS1-397T>C polymorphism was also significantly associated with increased CAD severity (OR: 2.99; 95% CI = 1.35-6.63; P = 0.007. In agreement with previous findings, these results suggest that the IVS1-397T>C*C allele was associated with CAD severity independent of gender, whereas the association of the +261G>C variant with CAD was observed in males only. The relation between ESR1 variation and CAD may influence clinical decisions such as the use of hormone therapy, and additionally will be helpful to identify the genetic susceptibility determinants of cardiovascular disease development.

  7. Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery presenting with aborted sudden death in an octogenarian: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Separham Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a rare coronary anomaly presenting with aborted sudden death in an octogenarian. An anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare coronary anomaly which usually presents in the first year of life. Survival into adulthood and the elderly years is extremely rare. Case presentation An 85-year-old Caucasian woman was brought to our hospital following cardiopulmonary arrest. After prolonged resuscitation and stabilization of our patient, further evaluation revealed an anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery syndrome. She was discharged on medication. Conclusion An anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery can present in elderly and even octogenarian patients. Careful history, physical examination and an appropriate invasive study are needed to confirm the diagnosis.

  8. A systematic review of outcomes in patients with staged carotid artery stenting and coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Luis A; Costa, Marco A; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Zenni, Martin; Wludyka, Peter; Silliman, Scott; Bass, Theodore A

    2008-02-01

    Although current guidelines state that carotid endarterectomy is probably recommended before or concomitant to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with carotid stenosis, significant controversies to this recommendation still persist. Carotid artery stenting has been recently introduced as an alternative revascularization modality in high-risk patients. The aim of this study was to define, based on the published information, if carotid artery stenting is beneficial in this setting. A search of MEDLINE and a manual search of the literature from selected articles were performed. A total of 6 studies with 277 patients reporting carotid stenting followed by staged CABG were available for this clinical outcome analysis. All were retrospective and single-center studies. The mean age was 69 years; 78% were males. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis was present in 76% of patients. The mean time to CABG was 32 days. The incidence of stroke and death associated with the stent procedure was 4.7%. Only 6 patients (2.2%) developed stroke associated with CABG. The overall combined 30-day event rate after CABG, including all events during carotid artery stenting, were as follows: minor stroke, 2.9%; major stroke, 3.2%; mortality, 7.6%; and combined death and any stroke, 12.3%. In this pooled analysis, the combined incidence of death and stroke in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting and staged CABG remains elevated. These results confirm that the presence of carotid stenosis is per se a marker of risk that might persists independent of its treatment. A systematic or randomized evaluation appears warranted.

  9. Dutch survey of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults: coronary artery-left ventricular multiple micro-fistulas multi-center observational survey in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Said, S.A.M.; Werf, T. van der

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congenital coronary artery-left ventricular multiple micro-fistulas (CA-LVMMFs) in adults are rare anomalies. They may cause angina pectoris and myocardial infarction in association with normal coronary arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the medical databases of a Dutch Survey of

  10. A case report of combined radical pericardiectomy and beating heart coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with tubercular chronic constrictive pericarditis with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauranga Majumdar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We here report a successful midterm outcome following combined off-pump radical pericardiectomy and coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG in a 65-year-old male patient who was suffering from chronic constrictive calcified tubercular pericarditis with coronary artery disease. Simultaneous off-pump CABG and radical pericardiectomy for nonsurgical constrictive pericarditis is reported very rarely in English literature.

  11. Re-implant of the right coronary artery: a surgical technique for the treatment of ostial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongiovani Hércules Lisboa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously described surgical treatment for ostial coronary artery stenosis relied on either venous or arterial bypasses or ostial patch angioplasty. These surgical procedures are performed with bovine pericardium, saphenous vein or internal thoracic artery. We describe a technique of right coronary artery re-implantation into the aorta. The procedure was performed in four patients with right coronary artery ostial stenosis along with other left coronary artery lesions.

  12. Functional and structural adaptations of coronary microvessels distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorop, Oana; Merkus, Daphne; de Beer, Vincent J; Houweling, Birgit; Pistea, Adrian; McFalls, Edward O; Boomsma, Frans; van Beusekom, Heleen M; van der Giessen, Wim J; VanBavel, Ed; Duncker, Dirk J

    2008-04-11

    Distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis, structural remodeling of the microvasculature occurs. The microvascular functional changes distal to the stenosis have not been studied in detail. We tested the hypothesis that microvascular structural remodeling is accompanied by altered regulation of coronary vasomotor tone with increased responsiveness to endothelin-1. Vasomotor tone was studied in coronary microvessels from healthy control swine and from swine 3 to 4 months after implantation of an occluder that causes a progressive coronary narrowing, resulting in regional left ventricular dysfunction and blunted myocardial vasodilator reserve. Arterioles (approximately 200-microm passive inner diameter at 60 mm Hg) were isolated from regions perfused by the stenotic left anterior descending and normal left circumflex coronary arteries and studied in vitro. Passive pressure-diameter curves demonstrated reduced distensibility of subendocardial left anterior descending compared with subendocardial left circumflex or control arterioles, suggestive of structural remodeling. Myogenic responses were blunted in subendocardial left anterior descending compared with left circumflex arterioles, reflecting altered smooth muscle function. However, vasodilator responses to nitroprusside and bradykinin were not different in the endocardium, suggesting preserved endothelium and smooth muscle responsiveness. Finally, vasoconstrictor responses to endothelin-1 were enhanced in left anterior descending arterioles compared with left circumflex or control arterioles. Regional myocardial vascular conductance responses to bradykinin and endothelin in vivo confirmed the in vitro observations. In conclusion, inward remodeling of coronary microvessels distal to a stenosis is accompanied by exaggerated vasoconstrictor responses to endothelin-1. These structural and functional alterations may aggravate flow abnormalities distal to a chronic coronary artery stenosis.

  13. Functional Testing or Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads E; Andersson, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Bjarne L

    2017-01-01

    electrocardiography or nuclear stress testing) from 2009 to 2015. Further use of noninvasive testing, invasive procedures, medications, and medical costs within 120 days were evaluated. Risks of long-term mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) were analyzed using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS....... 9.1%), aspirin (12.7% vs. 8.5%), invasive coronary angiography (14.7% vs. 10.1%), and percutaneous coronary intervention (3.8% vs. 2.1%); all p ....05), and a lower risk of MI (hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.61 to 0.82). CONCLUSIONS: In stable patients undergoing initial evaluation for suspected coronary artery disease, coronary CTA was associated with greater use of statins, aspirin, and invasive procedures, and higher costs than functional...

  14. ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction as a Result of Coronary Artery Ectasia-Related Intracoronary Thrombus in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Woong Roh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery ectasia (CAE is a rare condition defined as the dilatation of coronary artery to at least 1.5 times larger than the normal adjacent coronary artery. Clinical manifestations of CAE vary, ranging from asymptomatic to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Because of its rarity and clinical diversity, the best treatment strategy and prognosis for CAE remain unclear. We describe a case of STEMI caused by intracoronary thrombus formation within an ectatic area in a patient with liver cirrhosis (LC. The patient was successfully managed by thrombus aspiration only, without balloon angioplasty or stent implantation, and maintained by dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and ticagrelor, a potent new P2Y12 inhibitor.

  15. Two Invasive Thymomas Incidentally Found during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Omidifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymoma, the most common neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum, is a rare tumor of thymic epithelium that can be locally invasive. We reported 2 cases of invasive thymoma incidentally found during routine coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery at Faghihee Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences of Iran in a period of about 6 months. The 2 patients were male and above 60 years old. They had no clinical symptoms and radiological evidence of mediastinal mass before detection of the tumor during operation. For both patients mass was completely excised and sent to the laboratory. The ultimate pathological diagnosis of both masses was invasive thymoma (stage 2. There are few reports in which thymomas were found incidentally during cardiac surgery. In spite of rare coincidence, due to being asymptomatic and possibly invasive, special attention to thymus gland during cardiac surgery or other mediastinal surgery and preoperative imaging studies seem to be reasonable approach.

  16. Ivabradine in stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Kim; Ford, Ian; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An elevated heart rate is an established marker of cardiovascular risk. Previous analyses have suggested that ivabradine, a heart-rate-reducing agent, may improve outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction, and a heart rate of 70 beats per...... minute or more. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ivabradine, added to standard background therapy, in 19,102 patients who had both stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure and a heart rate of 70 beats per minute or more (including 12...... without activity-limiting angina (P=0.02 for interaction). The incidence of bradycardia was higher with ivabradine than with placebo (18.0% vs. 2.3%, Pdisease without clinical heart failure, the addition of ivabradine to standard...

  17. Single coronary artery presenting as acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Román, Alfonso; Sánchez-Pérez, Ignacio; Lozano-Ruíz-Poveda, Fernando; Pinilla-Echeverri, Natalia; López-Lluva, María T; Moreno-Arciniegas, Andrea; Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Piqueras-Flores, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    A single coronary artery is one of the most rarely seen coronary artery anomalies. In addition, the specific subtype (Lipton RII-A) that our patient presented is one of the least common, and its clinical presentation as myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest has not been described in the literature. The case shows that although it is essential to exclude a malignant interarterial course of the vessel, cardiac arrest is a possible clinical presentation produced by myocardial ischemia in the context of acute myocardial infarction and should be managed according to clinical practice guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene therapy and angiogenesis in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    -blind placebo-controlled trials could not confirm the initial high efficacy of either the growth factor protein or the gene therapy approaches observed in earlier small trials. The clinical studies so far have all been without any gene-related serious adverse events. Future trials will focus on whether...... an improvement in clinical results can be obtained with a cocktail of growth factors or by a combination of gene and stem cell therapy in patients with severe coronary artery disease, which cannot be treated effectively with current treatment strategies....... of VEGF and FGF in patients with coronary artery disease. The initial small and unblinded studies with either recombinant growth factor proteins or genes encoding growth factors were encouraging, demonstrating both clinical improvement and evidence of angiogenesis. However, subsequent larger double...

  19. Nutritional status and coronary artery disease: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Khaleghparast, Shiva; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition is among the most important factors influencing coronary artery disease. Here we aimed to study the nutritional status of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). We performed a cross-sectional study on 600 patients referred to a cardiology clinic with the signs of ACS. The patients were then classified in to two groups (CAD group and the normal group) based on angiographic findings. The amount of nutritional profile was questioned from all participants. Men were more often diagnosed with CAD compared to women (198/362 vs. 102/238; P nutritional factors predicting CAD. White mean and type of tea were the most important predictors of CAD. Dietary prevention strategies from childhood could prevent early CAD.

  20. Coronary artery disease and lunar catecholamine cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, William J

    2017-03-15

    Show how lunar catecholamine cardiomyopathy alone, exemplified by Neil Armstrong's single space walk, prior to exposure to inhalation of fine particulate matter, can trigger " Neil Armstrong Syndrome" or by Irwin with coronary, possibly hypertensive heart disease, and catecholamine cardiomyopathy. With space flight, invariably magnesium ion deficits, catecholamine elevations, vicious cycles. Design Use lunar heart rates while configuring rover to show severe tachycardia component of the syndrome. Use Irwin's stress test-" cyanotic fingernails" to support Apollo 15 Space Syndrome. Use Irwin's autobiography to compensate for often incomplete data. Results Paper shows that both Irwin as well as Armstrong meet criteria of my 2nd. Space Syndrome: severe thirst, severe shortness of breath, severe tachycardia, the latter, corrected by replenishing plasma volume. Conclusions Irwin, with a history of hypertension prior to the Apollo 15 mission and classical angina during Earth reentry, may have had coronary as well as hypertensive heart disease whereas there was no evidence that Armstrong had these conditions prior or during his mission. However both, on return to Earth, had abnormal stress tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Angina pectoris with normal coronary arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rubí, D E; Nava López, G; López Cuéllar, M; Kadlubik, D S

    1981-01-01

    Twelve patients 8 females and 4 males, whose ages varied from 33 to 60 years (median 50.6 years), were seen at the Hospital for Cardiology and Neurology of the Mexican Institute for Social Security. All were diagnosed as having angor pectoris, through the clinical history and physical exam. Three patients had stable angor and in nine it was of an unstable type. The resting ECG showed signs of subepicardial ischemia in five cases. In eight the stress ECG according to the Bruce technic showed depression of the ST segment over 1 mm. In one patient atrial stimulation was performed with a pacemaker and ischemic changes of the ST segment were normal in all cases; in two however, coronary spasm that reversed with nitroglycerin appeared. The left ventriculogram was normal in all but one that revealed diaphragmatic hypokinesia associated with right coronary spasm. All patients were followed from two to fifty six months (median 19.4), and only in one case the angor pectoris remained unchanged. In all others it decreased or disappeared. During this time there were no deaths, myocardial infarctions or severe arrhythmias.

  2. Separate origin of the main components of the left coronary artery in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A C; Arqué, J M; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; Fernández-Gallego, T; Sans-Coma, V

    2007-08-01

    This study describes a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly in the Syrian hamster; namely, the separate origin of the obtuse marginal and left circumflex arteries which are the main components of the left coronary artery. The hearts of nine affected animals were examined by means of a corrosion-cast technique and histology. The hamsters belonged to a laboratory inbred family with a high incidence of coronary artery anomalies and bicuspid aortic valve. The aortic valve was tricuspid in three hamsters and bicuspid in the other six hamsters. In all cases, the right coronary artery was normal, whereas the left coronary artery main trunk was absent. The present anomalous coronary artery patterns could be classified into two main entities: (i) ectopic origin of the obtuse marginal artery from the right aortic sinus or from the right coronary artery, with the left circumflex artery arising from the left side of the aortic valve; and (ii) ectopic origin of both the obtuse marginal artery from the right aortic sinus or from the right coronary artery and left circumflex artery from the dorsal aortic sinus. In all cases, the obtuse marginal artery coursed to the right side of the heart through the ventral wall of the right ventricular outflow tract. When the left circumflex artery arose from the dorsal aortic sinus, it formed an acute angle with the aortic wall. This report seems to be the first to describe the separate origin of the main components of the left coronary artery in a non-human mammalian species. In man, the congenital coronary artery and aortic valve defects reported herein may entail the risk of clinical complications. However, none of the affected hamsters showed signs of disease.

  3. The Prognosis of Patients With Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease Versus Normal Arteries Determined by Invasive Coronary Angiography or Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang-Yang; Huang, Bao-Tao; Lv, Wen-Yu; Liu, Wei; Peng, Yong; Xia, Tian-Li; Wang, Peng-Ju; Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Liu, Rui-Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Gui, Yi-Yue; Liao, Yan-Biao; Chen, Mao; Zhu, Ye

    2016-03-01

    Limited data exist regarding the outcomes of patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) detected by computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) or invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Our aim was to compare the prognosis of patients with nonobstructive coronary artery plaques with that of patients with entirely normal arteries. The MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched. Studies comparing the prognosis of individuals with nonobstructive CAD versus normal coronary arteries detected by CTCA or ICA were included. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization due to unstable angina or revascularization. A fixed effects model was chosen to pool the estimates of odds ratios (ORs). Forty-eight studies with 64,905 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Patients in the nonobstructive CAD arm had a significantly higher risk of MACE compared to their counterparts in the normal artery arm (pooled OR, 3.17, 95% confidence interval, 2.77-3.63). When excluding revascularization as an endpoint, hard cardiac composite outcomes were also more frequent among patients with nonobstructive CAD (pooled OR, 2.10; 95%CI, 1.79-2.45). All subgroups (age, sex, follow-up duration, different outcomes, diagnostic modality, and CAD risk factor) consistently showed a poorer prognosis with nonobstructive CAD than with normal arteries. When dividing the studies into a CTCA and ICA group for further analysis based on the indications for diagnostic tests, we also found nonobstructive CAD to be associated with a higher risk of MACE in both stable and acute chest pain. Patients with nonobstructive CAD had a poorer prognosis compared with their counterparts with normal arteries.

  4. Sudden death as a late sequel of Kawasaki disease: postmortem CT demonstration of coronary artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Naoki; Okuda, Takahisa; Shiotani, Seiji; Kohno, Mototsugu; Hayakawa, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Atsuko; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2013-02-10

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown etiology that primarily affects the coronary artery (CA) and presents during childhood. The characteristic coronary arterial lesion of KD is an aneurysm. Ischemic heart disease derived from a CA aneurysm is experienced approximately two decades after the onset of acute KD. In recent years, the primary issue of concern has been asymptomatic adults with a CA aneurysm caused by undiagnosed KD. We present a case of sudden death as a late KD sequel in a young adult. A postmortem CT scan revealed a coarse calcification of a left anterior descending CA aneurysm, which was confirmed at the time of autopsy. A postmortem CT scan is useful in cases of sudden death where the detection of a calcified CA aneurysm would suggest to the forensic pathologist that the deceased suffered from a late sequel of KD. The use of screening postmortem CT scans for young people may detect cases of unsuspected CA aneurysms, raising the possibility of untreated KD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with coronary calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Rampal, Sanjay; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Zhao, Di; Cho, Juhee; Choi, Yuni; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lim, So Yeon; Bruguera, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a convenient, non-radiating, readily available measurement of arterial stiffness, and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a reliable marker of coronary atherosclerosis, in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults; and to assess the incremental value of baPWV for detecting prevalent CAC beyond traditional risk factors. Cross-sectional study of 15,185 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily underwent a comprehensive health screening program including measurement of baPWV and CAC. BaPWV was measured using an oscillometric method with cuffs placed on both arms and ankles. CAC burden was assessed using a multi-detector CT scan and scored following Agatston's method. The prevalence of CAC > 0 and CAC > 100 increased across baPWV quintiles. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC > 0 comparing baPWV quintiles 2-5 versus quintile 1 were 1.06 (0.87-1.30), 1.24 (1.02-1.50), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.60 (1.31-1.96), respectively (P trend  100 were 1.30 (0.74-2.26), 1.59 (0.93-2.71), 1.74 (1.03-2.94) and 2.59 (1.54-4.36), respectively (P trend  100, the area under the ROC curve for baPWV alone was 0.71 (0.68-0.74), and the addition of baPWV to traditional risk factors significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of models for detecting prevalent CAC > 0 and CAC > 100. BaPWV was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAC in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. BaPWV may be a valuable tool for identifying apparently low-risk individuals with increased burden of coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ranching pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Branching pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery is important in explaining variations in occurrence of coronary atherosclerosis, informing management strategies for coronary heart disease and interventional cardiology. Data on African populations are, however, scarce. Since coronary heart disease is ...

  7. 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Luo; Huan Chen; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The 3D geometry of individual vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which are essential for understanding the mechanical function of blood vessels, are currently not available. This paper introduces a new 3D segmentation algorithm to determine VSMC morphology and orientation. Methods and Results A total of 112 VSMCs from six porcine coronary arteries were used in the analysis. A 3D semi-automatic segmentation method was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs from cell clumps as well a...

  8. Constitutive modeling of coronary artery bypass graft with incorporated torsion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horný, L.; Chlup, Hynek; Žitný, R.; Adámek, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2009), s. 273-277 ISSN 0543-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/08/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : coronary artery bypass graft * constitutive model * digital image correlation Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2009 http://web.tuke.sk/sjf-kamam/mmams2009/contents.pdf

  9. Quantitative analysis of regional myocardial performance in coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. K.; Dodge, H. T.; Frimer, M.

    1975-01-01

    Findings from a group of subjects with significant coronary artery stenosis are given. A group of controls determined by use of a quantitative method for the study of regional myocardial performance based on the frame-by-frame analysis of biplane left ventricular angiograms are presented. Particular emphasis was placed upon the analysis of wall motion in terms of normalized segment dimensions, timing and velocity of contraction. The results were compared with the method of subjective assessment used clinically.

  10. Regadenoson in the detection of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Buhr; Mario Gössl; Raimund Erbel; Holger Eggebrecht

    2008-01-01

    Christiane Buhr1, Mario Gössl2, Raimund Erbel1, Holger Eggebrecht11Department of Cardiology, West-German Heart Center Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USAAbstract: Myocardial perfusion studies use either physical exercise or pharmacologic vasodilator stress to induce maximum myocardial hyperemia. Adenosine and dipyridamole are the most commonly used agents to induce coronary arterial v...

  11. Pictorial essay: Uncommon causes of coronary artery encasement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yan Rong; Lath, Narayan; Cheah, Foong Koon; Ng, Yuen Li

    2016-01-01

    This pictorial essay presents cases of non-atherosclerotic coronary artery encasement which were encountered in our institution, including malignant lymphoma, Erdheim-Chester disease, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease and Polyarteritis Nodosa. These conditions usually have multisystemic involvement which aid in the diagnosis. Awareness of these uncommon disorders and their ancillary findings can facilitate early, accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hybrid revascularization for multivessel coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Michael Oscar; Tajstra, Mateusz; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Gierlotka, Marek; Hrapkowicz, Tomasz; Hawranek, Michał; Poloński, Lech; Zembala, Marian

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MVCAD) referred for standard coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Conventional CABG is still the treatment of choice in patients with MVCAD. However, the limitations of standard CABG and the unsatisfactory long-term patency of saphenous grafts are commonly known. A total of 200 patients with MVCAD involving the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and a critical (>70%) lesion in at least 1 major epicardial vessel (except the LAD) amenable to both PCI and CABG and referred for conventional surgical revascularization were randomly assigned to undergo HCR or CABG (in a 1:1 ratio). The primary endpoint was the evaluation of the safety of HCR. The feasibility was defined by the percent of patients with a complete HCR procedure and the percent of patients with conversions to standard CABG. The occurrence of major adverse cardiac events such as death, myocardial infarction, stroke, repeated revascularization, and major bleeding within the 12-month period after randomization was also assessed. Most of the pre-procedural characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. Of the patients in the hybrid group, 93.9% had complete HCR and 6.1% patients were converted to standard CABG. At 12 months, the rates of death (2.0% vs. 2.9 %, p = NS), myocardial infarction (6.1% vs. 3.9%, p = NS), major bleeding (2% vs. 2%, p = NS), and repeat revascularization (2% vs. 0%, p = NS) were similar in the 2 groups. In both groups, no cerebrovascular incidents were observed. HCR is feasible in select patients with MVCAD referred for conventional CABG. (Safety and Efficacy Study of Hybrid Revascularization in Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease [POL-MIDES]; NCT01035567). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of prenatally administered vaginal progesterone on uterine artery Doppler in asymptomatic twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Isabela K R; Brizot, Maria L; Miyadahira, Mariana Y; Carvalho, Mário H B; Francisco, Rossana P V; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of vaginal progesterone on uterine circulation in asymptomatic twin gestations. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of twin pregnancies exposed to vaginal progesterone or placebo. We included all trial participants who had undergone uterine artery pulsatility index evaluation at the time of randomization. During each ultrasound examination, the uterine artery pulsatility index was evaluated transabdominally. The mean uterine artery pulsatility index between the progesterone and placebo groups were compared for each gestational age, starting between 18 to 34 weeks and 6days and were analyzed at three (Time 1), six (Time 2) and nine (Time 3) weeks after randomization. The final analysis included 128 women in the progesterone group and 122 women in the placebo group. The baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. No difference in the mean uterine artery pulsatility index was observed between the progesterone and placebo groups at each week of gestation or throughout gestation. In twin pregnancies, the use of vaginal progesterone in the second half of pregnancy does not influence uterine circulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: revascularization versus conservative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Eleid, Mackram F; Best, Patricia J M; Lennon, Ryan J; Lerman, Amir; Rihal, Charanjit S; Holmes, David R; Hayes, Sharonne N; Gulati, Rajiv

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome for which optimal management remains undefined. We performed a retrospective study of 189 patients presenting with a first SCAD episode. We evaluated outcomes according to initial management: (1) revascularization versus conservative therapy and (2) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus conservative therapy stratified by vessel flow at presentation. Demographics were similar in revascularization versus conservative (mean age, 44±9 years; women 92% both groups), but vessel occlusion was more frequent in revascularization (44/95 versus 18/94). There was 1 in-hospital death (revascularization) and 1 late death (conservative). Procedural failure rate was 53% in those managed with PCI. In the subgroup of patients presenting with preserved vessel flow, rates of PCI failure were similarly high (50%), and 6 (13%) required emergency coronary artery bypass grafting. In the conservative group, 85 of 94 (90%) had an uneventful in-hospital course, but 9 (10%) experienced early SCAD progression requiring revascularization. Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year rates of target vessel revascularization and recurrent SCAD were no different in revascularization versus conservative therapy (30% versus 19%; P=0.06 and 23% versus 31%; P=0.7). PCI for SCAD is associated with high rates of technical failure even in those presenting with preserved vessel flow and does not protect against target vessel revascularization or recurrent SCAD. A strategy of conservative management with prolonged observation may be preferable. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Evolving role of platelet function testing in coronary artery interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh K; Voelker, Donald J; Sharma, Rohit; Reddy, Hanumanth K; Dod, Harvinder; Marsh, James D

    2012-01-01

    The substantial reduction in ischemic events provided by the dual antiplatelet regimen with aspirin and clopidogrel is well documented in patients with acute coronary syndrome and patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Recently the variable response to the antiplatelet agents has received considerable attention after several "boxed warnings" on clopidogrel. This led to intense controversy on pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacogenomic issues of antiplatelet drugs, especially clopidogrel. Research use of platelet function testing has been successfully validated in identifying new antiplatelet drugs like prasugrel and ticagrelor. These platelet function assays are no longer regarded just as a laboratory phenomenon but rather as tools that have been shown to predict mortality in several clinical trials. It is believed that suboptimal response to an antiplatelet regimen (pharmacodynamic effect) may be associated with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial events. There has been intense controversy about this variable response of antiplatelet drugs and the role of platelet function testing to guide antiplatelet therapy. While the importance of routine platelet function testing may be uncertain, it may be useful in high-risk patients such as those with diabetes mellitus, diffuse three vessels coronary artery disease, left main stenosis, diffuse atherosclerotic disease, and those with chronic renal failure undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. It could also be useful in patients with suspected pharmacodynamic interaction with other drugs to assure the adequacy of platelet inhibition. While we wait for definitive trials, a predictive prognostic algorithm is necessary to individualize antiplatelet therapy with P2Y12 inhibitors based on platelet function assays and genetic testing.

  16. Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc; Kivelitz, Dietmar; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Hamm, Bernd [Department of Radiology, Charite Medical School, Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20/21, P.O. Box 10098, 10117, Berlin (Germany); Borges, Adrian C.; Baumann, Gert [Division of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Medical Department and Outpatient Centre, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) diminishes local, regional, or global blood supply to the heart and is most commonly caused by coronary atherosclerosis. New insights into the etiology of atherosclerosis suggest that CAD is an inflammatory disorder that responds well to modulation rather than an unchangeable chronic process. Since 75% of all acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of atherosclerotic plaques, factors causing rupture have a crucial role. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT have the potential to visualize the composition of coronary artery plaques and thus to identify plaques at risk. Considering the new insights into stunning and hibernation, myocardial late enhancement on MRI might provide pivotal information for therapeutic decision making among lysis therapy, catheter intervention, and bypass surgery. Exercise electrocardiography without or with right precordial leads, stress echocardiography, and stress scintigraphy are simple clinical procedures to identify CAD with high sensitivities of 67, 92, 76, and 88%, respectively. The MRI and CT have to be compared with these good results. Nevertheless, we are expecting that MRI and CT will replace the conventional diagnostic modalities, gain a central role in diagnosing patients with suspected CAD, and prove to be cost-effective in this regard. (orig.)

  17. Usefulness of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography for evaluation of circumflex coronary artery fistula with ruptured aneurysm draining into coronary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Toshiyuki; Nakahira, Junko; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-12-01

    A coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is defined as dilatation of a coronary artery to a diameter >1.5 times that of the adjoining normal coronary artery. Giant CAAs with a diameter ≥ 50 mm are quite rare. Coronary artery fistulas are also uncommon, and affected patients require prompt diagnosis and treatment. Coronary angiography is the most common method of diagnosing coronary artery fistulas; however, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) can also be a key intraoperative tool. In the present report, we describe the case of an 83-year-old man urgently admitted to our hospital with pericardial tamponade. Enhanced computed tomography and coronary angiography revealed a bulging left main and circumflex artery that was connected to a 50-mm diameter CAA. Emergency intraoperative TEE clearly showed a CAA with a surrounding hematoma, bulging circumflex artery, and a fistulous connection to the coronary sinus; the fistulous vessel contained a thrombus. Surgical repair was successful. This case demonstrates that CAA can rupture because of spontaneous closure of a thrombus-containing fistula and that intraoperative TEE could help to clearly identify the location of the CAA and fistulous connection.

  18. The effect of iterative model reconstruction on coronary artery calcium quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilveszter, Bálint; Elzomor, Hesham; Károlyi, Mihály; Kolossváry, Márton; Raaijmakers, Rolf; Benke, Kálmán; Celeng, Csilla; Bartykowszki, Andrea; Bagyura, Zsolt; Lux, Árpád; Merkely, Béla; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring with computed tomography (CT) is an established tool for quantifying calcified atherosclerotic plaque burden. Despite the widespread use of novel image reconstruction techniques in CT, the effect of iterative model reconstruction on CAC score remains unclear. We sought to assess the impact of iterative model based reconstruction (IMR) on coronary artery calcium quantification as compared to the standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR). In addition, we aimed to simulate the impact of iterative reconstruction techniques on calcium scoring based risk stratification of a larger asymptomatic population. We studied 63 individuals who underwent CAC scoring. Images were reconstructed with FBP, HIR and IMR and CAC scores were measured. We estimated the cardiovascular risk reclassification rate of IMR versus HIR and FBP in a larger asymptomatic population (n = 504). The median CAC scores were 147.7 (IQR 9.6-582.9), 107.0 (IQR 5.9-526.6) and 115.1 (IQR 9.3-508.3) for FBP, HIR and IMR, respectively. The HIR and IMR resulted in lower CAC scores as compared to FBP (both p < 0.001), however there was no difference between HIR and IMR (p = 0.855). The CAC score decreased by 7.2 % in HIR and 7.3 % in IMR as compared to FBP, resulting in a risk reclassification rate of 2.4 % for both HIR and IMR. The utilization of IMR for CAC scoring reduces the measured calcium quantity. However, the CAC score based risk stratification demonstrated modest reclassification in IMR and HIR versus FBP.

  19. Anomalous Origin of the Right Coronary Artery from the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in a Patient with Ascending Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuk Gürkan; Yiğit Çanga; Kazım Serhan Özcan

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of coronary artery anomalies has been reported between 0.6 to 1.3% in angiographic series and 0.3% in autopsy series. An isolated single coronary artery (SCA) is even a rarer congenital anomaly occurring in approximately 0.02% of the population. The ectopic origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) from the left anterior descending (LAD) artery is relatively rare and more benign than other types of anomalous origin of the RCAs. We report a case of an adult male patient with SCA ...

  20. HDL signaling and protection against coronary artery atherosclerosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigatti, Bernardo L; Fuller, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading underlying factor in cardiovascular disease and stroke, important causes of morbidity and mortality across the globe. Abundant epidemiological studies demonstrate that high levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis and preclinical, animal model studies demonstrate that this association is causative. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of HDL will allow more strategic approaches to development of HDL based therapeutics. Recent evidence suggests that an important aspect of the ability of HDL to protect against atherosclerosis is its ability to trigger signaling responses in a variety of target cells including endothelial cells and macrophages in the vessel wall. These signaling responses require the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1), an adaptor protein (PDZK1) that binds to the cytosolic C terminus of SR-B1, Akt1 activation and (at least in endothelial cells) activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Mouse models of atherosclerosis, exemplified by apolipoprotein E or low density lipoprotein receptor gene inactivated mice (apoE or LDLR KO) develop atherosclerosis in their aortas but appear generally resistant to coronary artery atherosclerosis. On the other hand, inactivation of each of the components of HDL signaling (above) in either apoE or LDLR KO mice renders them susceptible to extensive coronary artery atherosclerosis suggesting that HDL signaling may play an important role in protection against coronary artery disease. © 2016 by the Journal of Biomedical Research. All rights reserved.

  1. Depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Mendonça da Cunha

    Full Text Available Objective.To assess the presence of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease in the preoperative period for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 63 hospitalized patients prior to CABG. Two instruments were used for data collection; one for the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and the other to evaluate the presence of depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results. The mean age was 58 years; most were male (60.3%; with a partner (81% low educational level (71.4% attended school through elementary school. Among the patients, 36.5% were classified with dysphoria, and 25.4% had some degree of depression (6.3% mild, 17.5% moderate, and 1.6% severe. The group of patients with lower educational level presented higher depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Six of every ten patients with coronary artery disease showed dysphoria or some degree of depression. The results of this study can support the planning of nursing care for patients before and after CABG, as well as the development of public health policies to ensure complete, quality care for these patients, understanding depression as a variable that can interfere with recovery after cardiac surgery.

  2. Unipolar Depression and the Progression of Coronary Artery Disease : Toward an Integrative Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; de Jonge, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research on the relationship between depression and coronary artery disease (CAD) after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), causal interpretations are still difficult. This uncertainty has led to much confusion regarding screening and treatment for depression in CAD

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study for Coronary Artery Calcification With Follow-Up in Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Kavousi, Maryam; Smith, Albert V.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Sun, Yan V.; Province, Michael A.; Aspelund, Thor; Dehghan, Abbas; Hoffmann, Udo; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Fox, Caroline S.; de Andrade, Mariza; Kraja, Aldi T.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Elias-Smale, Suzette E.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Launer, Lenore J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Kathiresan, Sekar; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Herrington, David M.; Howard, Timothy D.; Liu, Yongmei; Post, Wendy S.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Shen, Haiqing; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Altshuler, David; Elosua, Roberto; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David S.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Bis, Joshua C.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Heiss, Gerardo; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp S.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Muenzel, Thomas; White, Charles C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Nalls, Michael; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Johnson, Andrew D.; Newman, Anne B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Cunningham, Julie; Harris, Tamara B.; Hofman, Albert; Peyser, Patricia A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background-Coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by computed tomography is a noninvasive measure of coronary atherosclerosis, which underlies most cases of myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to identify common genetic variants associated with CAC and further investigate their associations

  4. Effect of nicorandil on the coronary artery microcirculation and hemodynamics in patients with coronary slow flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Qiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of nicorandil on the coronary artery microcirculation and hemodynamics in patients with coronary slow flow (CSF. Methods: A total of 86 patients with CSF who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and randomized into the treatment group and the control group with 43 cases in each group. The patients in the control group were given aspirin, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, and ACEI. On this basis, the patients in the treatment group were given nicorandil. The patients in the two groups were continuously treated for 6 months. The coronary artery microcirculation and hemodynamic indicators before and after treatment in the two groups were detected and compared. Results: TAT, ET-1, and hs-CRP levels, LAD, LCX, RCA, TIMI average blood flow frame count value, and IMR after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05. The above indicators after treatment in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. FMD after treatment in the two groups was significantly elevated when compared with before treatment (P<0.05. FMD after treatment in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Nicorandil in the treatment of CSF can effectively improve the coronary artery microcirculation and hemodynamics, with a significant efficacy.

  5. The effects of fenoldopam on coronary conduit blood flow after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effects of fenoldopam, 0.1 microg\\/kg\\/min, on left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and saphenous vein blood flow after coronary anastomosis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: University teaching hospital, single institution. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one American Society of Anesthesiologists III patients undergoing elective coronary revascularization. INTERVENTIONS: A perivascular ultrasonic flow probe (Linton Instrumentation, Norfolk, UK) was placed around the LIMA and saphenous vein graft after coronary anastomosis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Immediately before and at 5-minute intervals for 15 minutes after starting the infusion, blood flow was measured in the LIMA and one saphenous vein graft using a transit time ultrasonic flow probe. Heart rate, blood pressure, and central venous pressure were documented at these time points. Administration of fenoldopam, 0.1 microg\\/kg\\/min, did not alter heart rate or blood pressure. A small, nonsignificant increase in LIMA blood flow occurred during the 15-minute study period (30 +\\/- 12 to 35 +\\/- 10 mL\\/min) in patients who received fenoldopam. No significant changes occurred in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that fenoldopam, 0.1 microg\\/kg\\/min, did not influence coronary conduit blood flow to a clinically significant extent. The small increase in LIMA blood flow may be of greater importance in high-risk patients or in the prevention of coronary arterial spasm.

  6. Transcatheter Closure of Congenital Coronary Artery Fistulas with a Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm in Children: Experiences from a Single Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Shu-Shui; Xie, Zhao-Feng; Zhang, Xu; Li, Yu-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transcatheter closure of congenital coronary artery fistulas (CCAFs) is an alternative therapy to surgery; however, data regarding transcatheter closure for CCAF with a giant coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) in pediatric patients are still limited due to the rarity of the disease. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter closure for CCAF with a giant CAA in a pediatric population at a single center. Methods: Medical records of pediatric patients (aneurysm dilation after the second intervention. One patient experienced thrombus formation within the CAA after the procedure. Among those with closure at the entry point of the CAA, a mild-to-moderate residual shunt was detected in three patients. Conclusions: Transcatheter closure appears to be a safe and effective alternative therapy for CCAF with a giant CAA in the pediatric population. Closure at the entry point of the CAA, and closure at both the entry and exit points when feasible, may reduce the risk of postinterventional complications. PMID:28776543

  7. Ventricular Septal Defect in an Octogenarian: A Case Report of VSD Surgical Repair Concomitant with Coronary Artery Bypass and Valvular Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiki Tayama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding an untreated or asymptomatic large ventricular septal defect (VSD in an elderly patient is uncommon. The present case was an 81-year-old man who suffered from acute myocardial infarction due to three-vessel coronary disease, mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency, and high-flow perimembranous VSD (Qp/Qs 2.3. Although the patient was elderly and the VSD had been asymptomatic for a long time, we considered that high-flow VSD and valve diseases should be repaired simultaneously with coronary disease. Then, he underwent elective surgery, namely, VSD patch repair concomitant with coronary artery bypass grafting, and mitral and tricuspid annuloplasty. His postoperative course was uneventful. We conclude that, even for an octogenarian, surgical repair of VSD is recommendable, if surgical indications are appropriate.

  8. Ventricular Septal Defect in an Octogenarian: A Case Report of VSD Surgical Repair Concomitant with Coronary Artery Bypass and Valvular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayama, Eiki; Fujita, Satoshi; Ueda, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Ken-Ich; Enomoto, Naofumi; Onitsuka, Hirofumi; Tomita, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    Finding an untreated or asymptomatic large ventricular septal defect (VSD) in an elderly patient is uncommon. The present case was an 81-year-old man who suffered from acute myocardial infarction due to three-vessel coronary disease, mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency, and high-flow perimembranous VSD (Qp/Qs 2.3). Although the patient was elderly and the VSD had been asymptomatic for a long time, we considered that high-flow VSD and valve diseases should be repaired simultaneously with coronary disease. Then, he underwent elective surgery, namely, VSD patch repair concomitant with coronary artery bypass grafting, and mitral and tricuspid annuloplasty. His postoperative course was uneventful. We conclude that, even for an octogenarian, surgical repair of VSD is recommendable, if surgical indications are appropriate.

  9. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: A retrospective analysis of 19,676 coronary angiograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesha Basavanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a rare cause of angina, myocardial infarction (MI, and sudden cardiac death (SCD and may frequently manifest as acute coronary syndrome (ACS. The diagnosis of SCAD relies on angiographic visualization of a radiolucent intimal flap. Therapeutic options include medical therapy, percutaneous coronary interventions, and bypass surgery. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical profile, inhospital outcomes, management, and follow-up of patients with angiographic SCAD. Methods: About 19,676 diagnostic coronary angiograms (CAGs were reviewed retrospectively during a 2-year period; 64 patients had SCAD and were included in the study. Complete medical histories before and during the event as well as treatment regimens were obtained from patients' hospital files. Results: A total of 64 cases of SCAD were considered for the study within an age range of 25–70 years. Fifty-eight patients presented with ACS, two patients presented with unstable angina, one patient presented with rheumatic mitral stenosis in atrial fibrillation, one patient presented with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, one patient with dilated cardiomyopathy with left ventricular dysfunction, and one patient with effort. Out of 64 patients, four patients died and the average hospital stay is 3–5 days. Conclusion: SCAD occurs in 0.32% of patients undergoing CAG for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Majority of SCAD occurs in men. The left coronary artery is most commonly affected. The inhospital outcomes are good. Most of the patients with SCAD have good prognosis following optimal medical therapy.

  10. Right coronary artery from the left sinus of valsalva: Multislice CT and transradial PCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagur, Rodrigo; Gleeton, Onil; Bataille, Yoann; Bilodeau, Sylvie; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Bertrand, Olivier F

    2011-01-01

    A 42-year-old-woman presented with de novo crescendo angina. Thallium-scintigraphy showed inferior ischemia. Coronary angiogram revealed a right coronary artery (RCA), originating from the left sinus of Valsalva with a severe proximal systolic compression. She underwent successful transradial percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. Multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) is usually used to evaluate coronary artery anomalies and can effectively show the anomalous RCA and the inter-arterial trajectory between the aorta and pulmonary arteries. Anomalies of the origin of the coronary arteries are rare, but can produce specific clinicopathological entities that should be diagnosed with accuracy. This case report illustrates the role of MSCT in the detailed description of an abnormal coronary artery and the use of stenting for symptoms relief. PMID:21390197

  11. Serum protein profiles predict coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFramboise William A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no significant coronary lesions or do not require mechanical or surgical revascularization. Consequently, the ability to rule out clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD using low cost, low risk tests of serum biomarkers in even a small percentage of patients with normal coronary arteries could be highly beneficial. Methods Serum from 359 symptomatic subjects referred for catheterization was interrogated for proteins involved in atherogenesis, atherosclerosis, and plaque vulnerability. Coronary angiography classified 150 patients without flow-limiting CAD who did not require percutaneous intervention (PCI while 209 required coronary revascularization (stents, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Continuous variables were compared across the two patient groups for each analyte including calculation of false discovery rate (FDR ≤ 1% and Q value (P value for statistical significance adjusted to ≤ 0.01. Results Significant differences were detected in circulating proteins from patients requiring revascularization including increased apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100, C-reactive protein (CRP, fibrinogen, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO, resistin, osteopontin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and N-terminal fragment protein precursor brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pBNP and decreased apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1. Biomarker classification signatures comprising up to 5 analytes were identified using a tunable scoring function trained against 239 samples and validated with 120 additional samples. A total of 14 overlapping signatures classified patients without significant coronary disease (38% to 59% specificity while maintaining 95% sensitivity for patients requiring

  12. Congenital coronary artery anomalies in adults: review of 111 cases from a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çanga, Yiğit; Güvenç, Tolga S; Karataş, Mehmet B; Çalık, Ali N; Onuk, Tolga; Tanık, Veysel O; Güngör, Barış; Bolca, Osman

    2017-08-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are a heterogeneous group of congenital disorders presenting with a wide spectrum of symptoms, ranging from vague chest pain to sudden cardiac death. Despite available data, there is no consensus about the classification, nomenclature, and outcomes of coronary anomalies in the normally connected heart. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical and angiographic characteristics of coronary arterial anomalies, as well as the frequency of atherosclerotic involvement in anomalous coronaries, diagnosed at a tertiary referral centre. We retrospectively reviewed coronary angiograms performed between 2011 and 2015 for the presence of a coronary anomaly. A total of 111 patients with a final diagnosis of coronary anomaly were included in the study group. We also recruited 110 age- and sex-matched patients who underwent coronary angiography because of symptomatic coronary artery disease as controls. Among 36,893 coronary angiograms, 111 (0.30%) major coronary anomalies were found. Compared with controls, the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic coronary disease was lower in patients with coronary anomalies and stable symptoms (p=0.02); however, the prevalence of significant coronary atherosclerosis was similar among patients admitted with unstable angina or myocardial infarction (p>0.05). Compared with controls, patients with an anomalous left anterior descending coronary artery had significantly less atherosclerotic involvement than those in whom the left anterior descending artery was not anomalous (p=0.005). Although coronary artery anomalies are cited as a cause for myocardial ischaemia, atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is also frequent and may offer an alternative explanation to ischaemic symptoms. No predisposition to accelerated atherosclerosis was found, however, and atherosclerotic involvement was less frequent in some anomalous vessels.

  13. Prognostic Value of Coronary Artery Calcium Score in Acute Chest Pain Patients Without Known Coronary Artery Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikriangkrai, Kongkiat; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Jhun, Hye Yeon; Ungprasert, Patompong; Sigurdsson, Gardar; Nabi, Faisal; Mahmarian, John J; Chang, Su Min

    2016-12-01

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a well-established test for risk stratifying asymptomatic patients. Recent studies also indicate that CACS may accurately risk stratify stable patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain; however, many were underpowered. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the prognostic value and accuracy of a zero (normal) CACS for identifying patients at acceptable low risk for future cardiovascular events who might be safely discharged home from the ED. We searched multiple databases for longitudinal studies of CACS in symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease that reported major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death and myocardial infarction. Pooled risk ratios, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were analyzed. Eight studies evaluated 3,556 patients, with a median follow-up of 10.5 months. Pooled prevalence of zero CACS was 60%. Patients with CACS=0 had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular events compared with those with CACS greater than 0 (MACEs: relative risk 0.06, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.11, I(2)=0%; death/myocardial infarction: relative risk 0.19; 95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.47, I(2)=0%). The pooled event rates for CACS=0 (MACEs 0.8%/year; death/myocardial infarction 0.5%/year) were significantly lower than for CACS greater than 0 (MACEs 14.6%/year; death/myocardial infarction 3.5%/year). Analysis of summary testing parameters showed a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 60%, positive likelihood ratio of 2.36, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.07. Acute chest pain patients without history of coronary artery disease, ischemic ECG changes, or increased cardiac enzyme levels commonly have a CACS of zero, with a very low subsequent risk of MACEs or death or myocardial infarction. This meta-analysis proffers the potential role of initial CACS testing for avoiding unnecessary hospitalization and further

  14. Fused Segmentation of Geometric Models for Myocardium and Coronary Artery via Medial Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Chaa, Jehyun; Ryub, Joonghyun; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Deok-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Coronary arteries and their branches supply blood to myocardium. The obstruction of coronary arteries results in significant loss of myocardium, called acute myocardial infarction, and the number one cause of death globally. Hence, quantification of the regional amount of heart muscle subtended by obstructed coronary arteries is of critical value in clinical medicine. However, the conventional methods are inaccurate and frequently disagree with clinical practices. This study proposes a novel ...

  15. Traumatic Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery-Right Ventricle Fistula: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sheikhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic coronary artery-cameral fistulas (TCAF are rare and may present secondary to penetrating injuries (80% or iatrogenic traumas. Early operative intervention remains the recommended treatment modality for accidental traumatic coronary artery fistulas. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who presented with left anterior descending coronary artery-right ventricle fistula following penetrating cardiac trauma, which was successfully repaired surgically.

  16. Traumatic Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery-Right Ventricle Fistula: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic coronary artery-cameral fistulas (TCAF are rare and may present secondary to penetrating injuries (80%or iatrogenic traumas. Early operative intervention remains the recommended treatment modality for accidental traumatic coronary artery fistulas. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who presented with left anterior descending coronary artery-right ventricle fistula following penetrating cardiac trauma, which was successfully repaired surgically.

  17. Surgical Repair of Bland-White-Garland Syndrome With Giant Right Coronary Artery Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zheng, Xiaomei; Liu, Kexiang

    2017-11-01

    A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with adult-type anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (or Bland-White-Garland syndrome) and a giant right coronary artery aneurysm. He underwent a thorough anatomic correction to excise the aneurysm and reconstruct a coronary system of two vessels. The postoperative period of this patient was uneventful. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ARTERIA ANASTOMOTICA INFUNDIBULARIS MAGNA- AN ABNORMAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN ANTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR ARTERY AND RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadachalam Kittu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Knowledge of coronary artery branching pattern and their anomalies that occur during foetal development is essential for clinicians. They are associated with high incidence of morbidity and mortality due to congenital heart diseases. Failure to recognise them can lead to inadequate or prolonged procedures and may also lead to misdiagnosis and complications such as accidental ligation. MATERIALS AND METHODS A properly embalmed and stored 50 human heart specimens were dissected in the age group of 20-65 years to study the course and distribution of coronary arteries. The study was conducted in dissection hall, Department of Anatomy, Rajah Muthiah Medial College and Hospital (RMMC and H, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India, from August 2010 to July 2013. RESULTS We found a very rare incidence of anomalous branching pattern in the coronary circulation out of 50 heart specimens. The anterior interventricular artery was found giving off one communicating branch to Right Coronary Artery (RCA on the anterior aspect of infundibulum, which after taking sinuous course to join RCA. We coined this anomalous communication as arteria anastomotica infundibularis magna. To our knowledge, this is a very rare incidence and it is not reported elsewhere. CONCLUSION Due to excessive stress and strain of day-to-day modern life, the incidence of death due to myocardial ischaemia also increases. To treat medically and surgically, the basic knowledge of the coronary arteries and its branching pattern with any anomalous is essential for cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, radiologists and especially anatomists for teaching of undergraduate and postgraduate students of anatomy.

  19. The effect of incentive spirometry on arterial blood gases after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Bollbanabad, Hiva Mohammadi; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Mohsen; Khalifezade, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    After coronary artery bypass surgery, pulmonary complications and oxygenation disorders are common, which have an important role in mortality and morbidity. Different methods are used for the improvement of pulmonary function and oxygenation, of which incentive spirometry (IS) has been investigated here. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of IS on arterial blood gases after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This was a clinical trial. Fifty patients who were candidates for CABG were chosen. The patients had been allocated to two random groups of intervention and control. The intervention was done through IS. These two groups were compared for the arterial blood gases' preoperative level, and the levels on first (after extubation), second, and third postoperative days. The study findings showed that on the third postoperative day, there was a significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the mean amount of arterial blood oxygen (82.3 ± 4.7 vs. 72.7 ± 7.1, respectively, P = 0.02), arterial blood carbon dioxide (36.8 ± 2 vs. 43.7 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.007), and oxygen saturation (96.8 ± 1.4 vs. 90.5 ± 1.4, respectively, P = 0.03). This investigation shows that using IS is significantly effective in the improvement of blood arterial gas parameters.

  20. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection complicated by pseudoaneurysm formation in pregnancy: role of CT coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weintraub Nealw F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of a 26-year-old female, who presented at 34 weeks of an uncomplicated pregnancy with an acute ST elevation anterior wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization suggested a left main coronary artery dissection with pseudoaneurysm formation. The patient's course was complicated by congestive heart failure. She was initially managed conservatively by a multidisciplinary team including heart failure specialists, obstetricians, and cardiovascular surgeons. 4 days after admission, her LMC was imaged by dual-source 64 slice Cardiac computed tomography, coronary dissection was identified extending to the lumen, and the presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed. She underwent subsequently a staged procedure, which included placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump, cesarean section, and coronary artery bypass grafting. This case illustrates the utility of coronary artery CT imaging to assess the complexity and stability of coronary artery dissections, thereby helping to determine the need for, and timing of revascularization procedures.

  1. Impact of Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation on the Presentation of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Hei Chan

    Full Text Available Little is known about whether atrial fibrillation is a presentation of coronary disease. There is a paucity of knowledge about their causal relationship and also the impact of different antithrombotic strategies on the subsequent presentation of symptomatic coronary disease.We studied 7,526 Chinese patients diagnosed with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and no documented history of coronary artery disease. The primary endpoint was the new occurrence of coronary artery disease--either stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome. After a mean follow-up of 3.2±3.5 years (24,071 patient-years, a primary endpoint occurred in 987 patients (13.1%. The overall annual incidence of coronary artery disease was 4.10%/year. No significant differences in age, sex, and mean CHA2DS2-VASc score were observed between patients with and without the primary endpoint. When stratified according to the antithrombotic strategies applied for stroke prevention, the annual incidence of coronary artery disease was 5.49%/year, 4.45%/year and 2.16%/year respectively in those prescribed no antithrombotic therapy, aspirin, and warfarin. Similar trends were observed in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Diabetes mellitus, smoking history and renal failure requiring dialysis were predictors for primary endpoint in all antithrombotic therapies.In patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, there is a modest association with coronary artery disease. Patients prescribed warfarin had the lowest risk of new onset coronary artery disease.

  2. Left main coronary artery atresia and associated cardiac defects: report on concomitant surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatene, Marcelo; Juaneda, Ignacio; Miranda, Rogerio Dos Anjos; Gato, Rafaella; Marcial, Miguel Lorenzo Barbero

    2011-10-01

    A 9-year-old boy with congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery underwent myocardial revascularization. Coarctation of the aorta and ventricular septal defect were diagnosed at the age of 1 year. At age 7 years, the child presented with syncope while exercising. Preoperative evaluation included cardiac catheterization which revealed the unexpected finding of congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery with origin of the circumflex artery from the right coronary artery. Surgical correction included myocardial revascularization by means of left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery, coarctation resection, and ventricular septal defect repair. The patient recovered uneventfully. We report the details of this extremely rare case with successful concomitant surgical management of the congenital coronary artery anomaly and the associated structural heart disease.

  3. Usefulness of detecting atherosclerosis by computed tomography. A relation to coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasu, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Rie; Yokoyama, Kenichi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1999-06-01

    Reports evaluating coronary artery calcification detection by nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) have verified the usefulness for diagnosis of coronary artery disease. In the condition of a mobile CT scanning at a public health examination, however, determination of coronary calcification remains unclear. We investigated, under this scanning condition, a relation between the characteristic of coronary artery calcification determined by conventional CT and coronary disease on arteriogram. The quantification of aortic wall thickening by enhanced CT was examined on the usefulness of detecting coronary artery disease. The CT density score and the characteristics of aortic atherosclerosis for 159 male patients 30 year-old or more (average age 60.7 years) were examined the relation to coronary artery stenoses. The CT density score was the strongest independent variable for determining the existence of coronary disease. The CT density cutoff score for detection of coronary disease was 50 equal to 50 HU the maximal CT density in the coronary arteries. The maximal aortic wall thickness was the strongest significant variable independent of the noted coronary risk factors for the severity of coronary stenosis on arteriogram. (author)

  4. Relation of anthropometric variables to coronary artery disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra C Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and abdominal volume index (AVI. Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16% males and 103 (83.73% females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.

  5. Coronary artery anatomy in complete transposition with situs solitus and dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hui; Chiu, Ing-Sh; Chang, Chien-Chih; Wu, Shye-Jao; Chen, Chun-An; Chiu, Hsin-Hui

    2010-07-01

    The coronary artery anatomy of complete transposition with situs solitus/levocardia (CTSSL) has been well elucidated in the current era of arterial switch operation. However, coronary artery for complete transposition with situs solitus/dextrocardia (CTSSD) has never been documented. Coronary anatomy of transposition and aortopulmonary rotation were identified by angiography or surgical intervention from 1988 to 2007 at our hospital. The degree of aortopulmonary rotation was defined by the aortic sinus pattern on lateral angiogram. Apicocaval ipsilaterality was defined as situs solitus/dextrocardia or situs inversus/levocardia. The coronary artery anatomy in 3 cases of CTSSD was analyzed and correlated with those patients having transposition with the same coronary pattern but without apicocaval ipsilaterality, i.e., 276 cases with CTSSL and 8 cases with complete transposition with situs inversus/dextrocardia (CTSID). Fisher's exact test was used to determine statistical significance. All three cases with CTSSD (with apicocaval ipsilaterality) had a single coronary artery piercing into the left-hand sinus with a right coronary artery in the posterior atrioventricular groove, whereas all 284 cases without apicocaval ipsilaterality (CTSSL or CTSID) had the left circumflex artery in the posterior atrioventricular groove. The aorta was significantly less left laterally rotated in CTSSD than the other 2 cases of CTSSL and 3 cases of CTSSD with a similar coronary pattern (p < 0.05). One may anticipate coronary artery anatomy in the posterior atrioventricular groove based on apicocaval ipsilaterality, which in turn decreases aortopulmonary rotation to predict the central coronary pattern.

  6. Assessment of coronary artery disease using coronary computed tomography angiography in patients with aortic valve stenosis referred for surgical aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Kofoed, K Fuglsang; Dalsgaard, M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients referred for aortic valve replacement (AVR) a pre-surgical assessment of coronary artery disease is mandatory to determine the possible need for additional coronary artery bypass grafting. The diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA) w...... with low age, no chronic obstructive lung disease, NYHA function class...

  7. Coronary Artery Circumferential Stress: Departure from Laplace Expectations with Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal, youthful arteries generally maintain constant radius/wall thickness ratios, with the relationship being described by the Laplace Law. Whether this relationship is maintained during aging is unclear. This study first examines the Laplace relationships in postmortem coronary arteries using a novel method to correct measurements for postmortem artifacts, uses data from the literature to provide preliminary validation, and then describes histology associated with low circumferential stress. Measurements of radius and wall thickness, taken at sites free from atheromas, were used with national population estimates of age-, gender-, and race-specific blood pressure data to calculate average circumferential stress within demographic groups. The estimated circumferential stress at ages 55-74 years was about half that at ages 18-24 years because of a disproportionate increase of wall thickness relative to artery radius at older ages, violating the expected relationships described by the Laplace Law. Arteries with low circumferential stress (estimated at sites distant from atherosclerosis had more necrotic atheromas than arteries with high stress. At sites with low stress and intimal thickening, smooth muscle cells (SMCs were spread apart, thereby diminishing their density within both the intima and media. Thus, older arteries displayed both low circumferential stress and abundant matrix of low cellularity microscopically. Such changes might alter SMC-matrix interactions.

  8. Prevalence and pattern of lipid disorders in Saudi patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al-Shehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and patterns of dyslipidemia in Saudi patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, hospital-based study, which was conducted on all Saudi patients who underwent coronary angiography under the author′s personal care and were found to have > 50% coronary stenosis. Fasting lipid profile was measured in all patients during the admission for the coronary angiography. Results: Two hundred and ninety-five patients were included in the study. The mean age (±Standard deviation was 55.1 ± 11, ranging from 17 to 86 years. The majority of patients were males: 229 (77.6%. Mean total cholesterol was 175.6 ± 47.6 mg/dl, mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was 111.3 ± 40.3 mg/dl, mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was 38.27 ± 9.5 mg/dl and mean triglyceride level was 141.8 ± 74.8 mg/dl. 21 (7.1% patients had normal coronary arteries, 107 (36.3% had one vessel disease, 78 (26.4% had two vessel disease and 89 (30.2% had three vessel disease. There was a significant correlation between the extent of CAD and age (P = 0.003, sex (P = 0.0002, total cholesterol (P = 0.02 and low HDL-C (P < 0.001. 21 (7.1% patients were asymptomatic, 110 (37.3% had stable angina, 127 (43.1% had none ST elevation acute coronary syndrome, 20 (6.8% had ST elevation myocardial infarction and 17 (5.7% had heart failure. There was also a significant correlation between age (P = 0.03, sex (P < 0.001, LDL-C (P = 0.005 and low HDL-C (P < 0.001 and the severity of CAD. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is a very prevalent risk factor in Saudi patients with CAD. Low HDL-C was the most frequent lipid abnormality, which significantly impacts on the extent of the CAD.

  9. Takayasu Arteritis of the Coronary Arteries Presenting as Sudden Death in a White Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavaty, Leigh; Diaz, Francisco; Sung, LokMan

    2015-09-01

    Takayasu arteritis is a rare disease that expresses chronic, large vessel inflammation. The etiology remains unclear and its presentation depends on the affected arteries. With coronary artery involvement, manifestations range from chest pain and shortness of breath to sudden death. We report a case of a 15-year-old white girl who presented with syncope immediately before passing. On autopsy, all 3 major coronary arteries grossly contained multiple proximal lesions that were consistent with Takayasu arteritis, microscopically. Takayasu arteritis solely affecting multiple coronary arteries is exceedingly rare. This report discusses the significance of coronary involvement in Takayasu arteritis at autopsy and sudden death.

  10. Functional Testing or Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mads E; Andersson, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Abdulla, Jawdat; Shreibati, Jacqueline B; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H; Shaw, Richard E; Hlatky, Mark A

    2017-04-11

    The choice of either anatomical or functional noninvasive testing to evaluate suspected coronary artery disease might affect subsequent clinical management and outcomes. This study analyzed the association of initial noninvasive cardiac testing in outpatients with stable symptoms, with subsequent use of medications, invasive procedures, and clinical outcomes. We studied patients enrolled in a Danish nationwide register who underwent initial noninvasive cardiac testing with either coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) or functional testing (exercise electrocardiography or nuclear stress testing) from 2009 to 2015. Further use of noninvasive testing, invasive procedures, medications, and medical costs within 120 days were evaluated. Risks of long-term mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) were analyzed using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 86,705 patients underwent either functional testing (n = 53,744, mean age 57.4 years, 49% males) or coronary CTA (n = 32,961, mean age 57.4 years, 45% males), and were followed for a median of 3.6 years. Compared with functional testing, there was significantly higher use of statins (15.9% vs. 9.1%), aspirin (12.7% vs. 8.5%), invasive coronary angiography (14.7% vs. 10.1%), and percutaneous coronary intervention (3.8% vs. 2.1%); all p testing, invasive procedures, and medications were higher after coronary CTA ($995 vs. $718; p mortality (2.1% vs. 4.0%) and MI hospitalization (0.8% vs. 1.5%) were lower after coronary CTA than functional testing (both p mortality (hazard ratio: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.88 to 1.05), and a lower risk of MI (hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.61 to 0.82). In stable patients undergoing initial evaluation for suspected coronary artery disease, coronary CTA was associated with greater use of statins, aspirin, and invasive procedures, and higher costs than functional testing. Coronary CTA was associated with a lower risk of MI, but a similar risk

  11. Estrogens and Coronary Artery Disease: New Clinical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M R; Barton, M

    2016-01-01

    In premenopausal women, endogenous estrogens are associated with reduced prevalence of arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Clinical trials conducted in the 1990s such as HERS, WHI, and WISDOM have shown that postmenopausal treatment with horse hormone mixtures (so-called conjugated equine estrogens) and synthetic progestins adversely affects female cardiovascular health. Our understanding of rapid (nongenomic) and chronic (genomic) estrogen signaling has since advanced considerably, including identification of a new G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), which like the "classical" receptors ERα and ERβ is highly abundant in the cardiovascular system. Here, we discuss the role of estrogen receptors in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and review natural and synthetic ligands of estrogen receptors as well as their effects in physiology, on cardiovascular risk factors, and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Data from preclinical and clinical studies using nonselective compounds activating GPER, which include selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen or raloxifene, selective estrogen receptor downregulators such as Faslodex™ (fulvestrant/ICI 182,780), vitamin B3 (niacin), green tea catechins, and soy flavonoids such as genistein or resveratrol, strongly suggest that activation of GPER may afford therapeutic benefit for primary and secondary prevention in patients with or at risk for coronary artery disease. Evidence from preclinical studies suggest similar efficacy profiles for selective small molecule GPER agonists such as G-1 which are devoid of uterotrophic activity. Further clinical research in this area is warranted to provide opportunities for future cardiovascular drug development. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical trials and graft patency data in coronary artery surgery--a 30-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Brian F; Fuller, John

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of coronary artery disease, initially by medical and surgical and subsequently using percutaneous interventions, has evolved rapidly over the last 50 years. Randomized controlled clinical trials and observational studies of large cohorts have been instrumental in the evolution of the current practice of coronary artery revascularisation. This paper traces some of the historic trials of medical versus surgical therapy, surgical versus percutaneous intervention and graft patency studies. Medical therapy and percutaneous intervention are now the primary therapeutic modalities. However, there was an early recurrence rate with percutaneous intervention which has decreased with the use of drug-eluting stents. Coronary artery bypass surgery remains a major option for treating advanced coronary artery disease. Furthermore, it remains the treatment of first choice in most patients with left main coronary artery disease and those with extensive three-vessel proximal coronary artery disease, especially when associated with poor left ventricular function. The choice of a coronary artery bypass conduit is of major importance in developing a single long-term strategy for the surgical treatment of coronary artery disease. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting is now accepted as the treatment of choice, although not universally practiced. The role of other arterial conduits is being defined.

  13. Prevalence of Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction Among Patients With Chest Pain and Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Jaskanwal D; Widmer, R Jay; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Lennon, Ryan J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of coronary microvascular abnormalities in patients presenting with chest pain and nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary microvascular abnormalities mediate ischemia and can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Using an intracoronary Doppler guidewire, endothelial-dependent microvascular function was examined by evaluating changes in coronary blood flow in response to acetylcholine, whereas endothelial-independent microvascular function was examined by evaluating changes in coronary flow velocity reserve in response to intracoronary adenosine. Patients were divided into 4 groups depending on whether they had a normal (+) or abnormal (-) coronary blood flow (CBF) in response to acetylcholine (Ach) and a normal (+) or abnormal (-) coronary flow velocity reserve (CFR) in response to adenosine (Adn): CBFAch+, CFRAdn+ (n = 520); CBFAch-, CFRAdn+ (n = 478); CBFAch+, CFRAdn- (n = 173); and CBFAch-, CFRAdn- (n = 268). Two-thirds of all patients had some sort of microvascular dysfunction. Women were more prevalent in each group (56% to 82%). Diabetes was uncommon in all groups (7% to 12%), whereas hypertension and hyperlipidemia were relatively more prevalent in each group, although rates for most conventional cardiovascular risk factors did not differ significantly between groups. There were no significant differences in the findings of noninvasive functional testing between groups. In a multivariable analysis, age was the only variable that independently predicted abnormal microvascular function. Patients with chest pain and nonobstructive CAD have a high prevalence of coronary microvascular abnormalities. These abnormalities correlate poorly with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and are dissociated from the findings of noninvasive functional testing. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical management for achalasia after coronary artery bypass graft using the right gastroepiploic artery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranushi, Ryo; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Saito, Hideyuki; Kuriyama, Kengo; Yoshida, Tomonori; Kumakura, Yuji; Honjyo, Hiroaki; Yokobori, Takehiko; Sakai, Makoto; Sohda, Makoto; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    The right gastroepiploic artery is commonly used in coronary artery bypass grafting. Appropriate strategies are required when performing upper abdominal surgeries after the right gastroepiploic artery has been used in coronary artery bypass grafting because compressing or injuring the graft may cause myocardial ischemia and fatal arrhythmias. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of surgery for achalasia performed after coronary artery bypass grafting using the right gastroepiploic artery. We have discussed the surgical procedure and particular intraoperative considerations. A 62-year-old man who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting using the right gastroepiploic artery presented with achalasia. Because medication and balloon dilation had been ineffective and he was having difficulty ingesting food, we performed a Heller-Dor procedure via laparotomy. The right gastroepiploic artery was not damaged during this surgery, and there were no perioperative cardiovascular complications. Adequate control of symptoms was achieved. When performing upper abdominal surgeries after coronary artery bypass grafting with the right gastroepiploic artery, it is necessary to investigate the patient carefully preoperatively and adapt the intraoperative procedure to minimize risk of injury to the graft and consequent cardiovascular complications.

  15. Obesity and coronary artery disease: evaluation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Labbé, David; Ruka, Emmeline; Bertrand, Olivier F; Voisine, Pierre; Costerousse, Olivier; Poirier, Paul

    2015-02-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity, clinicians are now facing a growing population of patients with specific features of clinical presentation, diagnostic challenges, and interventional, medical, and surgical management. After briefly discussing the effect of obesity on atherosclerotic burden in this review, we will focus on strategies clinicians might use to ensure better outcomes when performing revascularization in obese and severely obese patients. These patients tend to present comorbidities at a younger age, and their anthropometric features might limit the use of traditional cardiovascular risk stratification approaches for ischemic disease. Alternative techniques have emerged, especially in nuclear medicine. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography might be the diagnostic imaging technique of choice. When revascularization is considered, features associated with obesity must be considered to guide therapeutic strategies. In percutaneous coronary intervention, a radial approach should be favoured, and adequate antiplatelet therapy with new and more potent agents should be initiated. Weight-based anticoagulation should be contemplated if needed, with the use of drug-eluting stents. An "off-pump" approach for coronary artery bypass grafting might be preferable to the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. For patients who undergo bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting, harvesting using skeletonization might prevent deep sternal wound infections. In contrast to percutaneous coronary intervention, lower surgical bleeding has been observed when lean body mass is used for perioperative heparin dose determination. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of Big Endothelin-1 with Coronary Artery Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Ping; Li, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Yi-Lin; Xu, Rui-Xia; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Li, Sha; Wu, Na-Qiong; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The coronary artery calcification (CAC) is clinically considered as one of the important predictors of atherosclerosis. Several studies have confirmed that endothelin-1(ET-1) plays an important role in the process of atherosclerosis formation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether big ET-1 is associated with CAC. A total of 510 consecutively admitted patients from February 2011 to May 2012 in Fu Wai Hospital were analyzed. All patients had received coronary computed tomography angiography and then divided into two groups based on the results of coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The clinical characteristics including traditional and calcification-related risk factors were collected and plasma big ET-1 level was measured by ELISA. Patients with CAC had significantly elevated big ET-1 level compared with those without CAC (0.5 ± 0.4 vs. 0.2 ± 0.2, Panalysis, big ET-1 (Tertile 2, HR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.66-5.74, P predictive factor of the presence of CAC. There was a positive correlation of the big ET-1 level with CACS (r = 0.567, p0 and the highest tertile of big ET-1 (Pbig ET-1 level in predicting CAC was 0.83 (95% CI 0.79-0.87, pdata firstly demonstrated that the plasma big ET-1 level was a valuable independent predictor for CAC in our study.

  17. Association of Big Endothelin-1 with Coronary Artery Calcification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Qing

    Full Text Available The coronary artery calcification (CAC is clinically considered as one of the important predictors of atherosclerosis. Several studies have confirmed that endothelin-1(ET-1 plays an important role in the process of atherosclerosis formation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether big ET-1 is associated with CAC.A total of 510 consecutively admitted patients from February 2011 to May 2012 in Fu Wai Hospital were analyzed. All patients had received coronary computed tomography angiography and then divided into two groups based on the results of coronary artery calcium score (CACS. The clinical characteristics including traditional and calcification-related risk factors were collected and plasma big ET-1 level was measured by ELISA. Patients with CAC had significantly elevated big ET-1 level compared with those without CAC (0.5 ± 0.4 vs. 0.2 ± 0.2, P0 and the highest tertile of big ET-1 (P<0.01. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the big ET-1 level in predicting CAC was 0.83 (95% CI 0.79-0.87, p<0.001, with a sensitivity of 70.6% and specificity of 87.7%.The data firstly demonstrated that the plasma big ET-1 level was a valuable independent predictor for CAC in our study.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L.N. Dalepiane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the pathology underlying the majority of coronary artery disease (CAD. In this study we tested the hypothesis that polymorphic variation in the MMP genes influences the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We analyzed functional polymorphisms in the promoter of the MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-12 genes in 183 Brazilian Caucasian individuals submitted to coronary angiography, of which 67 (37% had normal coronary arteries (control group and 116 (63% had CAD (CAD patient group. The -1607 1G/2G MMP-1, -1171 5A/6A MMP-3, -1562 C/T MMP-9, -82 A/G MMP-12 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR followed by restriction digestion. No significant differences were observed in allele frequencies between the CAD patients and controls. Haplotype analysis showed no differences between the CAD patients and controls. There was a significant difference in the severity of CAD, as assessed by the number of diseased vessels, in MMP-1 1G/1G homozygous individuals and in those homozygous for the 6A allele of the MMP-3 polymorphism. However, multivariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus was the only variable independently associated with CAD severity. Our findings indicated that MMP polymorphisms have no significant impact on the risk and severity of CAD.

  19. Coronary artery disease and its association with Vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD has become the latest scourge of humankind and referred to in this article as CAD, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of coronary arteries that supply the myocardium, a process also known as atherosclerosis and manifests mostly in the form of chronic stable angina or acute coronary syndrome. Vitamin D has attracted considerable interest recently due to its role in a number of extraskeletal disease processes including multiple sclerosis, malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and CAD. It is also known as sunshine vitamin due to its production in the body following exposure to ultraviolet rays, and it is a unique vitamin as it acts like a hormone with its receptor present in a wide range of tissues including endothelium, which is the important mediator of atherosclerosis and subsequent CAD. A large number of studies conducted in the past have provided the basic scientific framework and this article attempts to explore the role of Vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of CAD and stresses the need for further research to fill up gap in our knowledge.

  20. Passive and Active Triaxial Wall Mechanics in a Two-Layer Model of Porcine Coronary Artery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuan Lu; Hao Wu; Jiahang Li; Yanjun Gong; Jiahui Ma; Ghassan S Kassab; Yong Huo; Wenchang Tan; Yunlong Huo

    2017-01-01

    (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae and/or non-USASCII text omitted; see image) Triaxial active and passive mechanical properties of coronary arteries are needed for understanding arterial mechanics in health and disease...