Sample records for asymmetric total synthesis

  1. Asymmetric total synthesis of Apocynaceae hydrocarbazole alkaloids (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. (United States)

    Du, Ji-Yuan; Zeng, Chao; Han, Xiao-Jie; Qu, Hu; Zhao, Xian-He; An, Xian-Tao; Fan, Chun-An


    An unprecedented asymmetric catalytic tandem aminolysis/aza-Michael addition reaction of spirocyclic para-dienoneimides has been designed and developed through organocatalytic enantioselective desymmetrization. A unified strategy based on this key tandem methodology has been divergently explored for the asymmetric total synthesis of two natural Apocynaceae alkaloids, (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. The present studies not only enrich the tandem reaction design concerning the asymmetric catalytic assembly of a chiral all-carbon quaternary stereocenter contained in the densely functionalized hydrocarbazole synthons but also manifest the potential for the application of the asymmetric catalysis based on the para-dienone chemistry in asymmetric synthesis of natural products.

  2. Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-azaspirene, a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. (United States)

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Shoji, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Junichiro; Sato, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shinpei; Mukaiyama, Takasuke; Sakai, Ken; Asami, Yukihiro; Kakeya, Hideaki; Osada, Hiroyuki


    The asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-azaspirene, an angiogenesis inhibitor, has been accomplished, establishing its absolute stereochemistry. The key steps are a MgBr2.OEt2-mediated, diastereoselective Mukaiyama aldol reaction, a NaH-promoted, intramolecular cyclization of an alkynylamide, and the aldol reaction of a ketone containing functionalized gamma-lactam moiety without protection of tert-alcohol and amide functionalities.

  3. Total Synthesis of Enantiopure (+)-γ -Lycorane Using Highly Efficient Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation (United States)

    Chapsal, Bruno D.; Ojima, Iwao


    Highly efficient short total synthesis of γ -lycorane (>99% ee, 41% overall yield) was achieved by using the asymmetric allylic alkylation in the key step catalyzed by palladium complexes with novel chiral biphenol-based monodentate phosphoramidite ligands. PMID:16562900

  4. Total Synthesis of Enantiopure (+)-γ -Lycorane Using Highly Efficient Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation


    Chapsal, Bruno D.; OJIMA, IWAO


    Highly efficient short total synthesis of γ -lycorane (>99% ee, 41% overall yield) was achieved by using the asymmetric allylic alkylation in the key step catalyzed by palladium complexes with novel chiral biphenol-based monodentate phosphoramidite ligands.

  5. Asymmetric total synthesis of an iboga-type indole alkaloid, voacangalactone, newly isolated from Voacanga africana. (United States)

    Harada, Masaya; Asaba, Ken Nunettsu; Iwai, Masumi; Kogure, Noriyuki; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu


    A new hexacyclic iboga-type indole alkaloid, voacangalactone (1), was isolated from Voacanga africana , and its structure including the absolute configuration was established by asymmetric total synthesis involving such key steps as the asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction using an aminodiene and the construction of an isoquinuclidine ring and an indole skeleton.

  6. Catalytic Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)- and (-)-Paeoveitol via a Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction. (United States)

    Li, Tian-Ze; Geng, Chang-An; Yin, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Tong-Hua; Chen, Xing-Long; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yun-Bao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun


    The first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-paeoveitol has been accomplished in 42% overall yield via a biomimetic hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. The chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed hetero-Diels-Alder reaction showed excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (>99:1 dr and 90% ee); two rings and three stereocenters were constructed in a single step to produce (-)-paeoveitol on a scale of 452 mg. This strategy enabled us to selectively synthesize both paeoveitol enantiomers from the same substrates by simply changing the enantiomer of the catalyst.

  7. Asymmetric Construction of All-Carbon Quaternary Stereocenters by Chiral-Auxiliary-Mediated Claisen Rearrangement and Total Synthesis of (+-Bakuchiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-ichi Tadano


    Full Text Available An asymmetric Claisen rearrangement using Oppolzer’s camphorsultam was developed. Under thermal conditions, a geraniol-derived substrate underwent the rearrangement with good stereoselectivity. The absolute configuration of the newly formed all-carbon quaternary stereocenter was confirmed by the total synthesis of (+-bakuchiol from the rearrangement product.

  8. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James


    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  9. Asymmetric total synthesis of 6-Tuliposide B and its biological activities against tulip pathogenic fungi. (United States)

    Shigetomi, Kengo; Omoto, Shoko; Kato, Yasuo; Ubukata, Makoto


    The structure-activity relationship was investigated to evaluate the antifungal activities of tuliposides and tulipalins against tulip pathogenic fungi. 6-Tuliposide B was effectively synthesized via the asymmetric Baylis-Hillman reaction. Tuliposides and tulipalins showed antifungal activities against most of the strains tested at high concentrations (2.5 mM), while Botrytis tulipae was resistant to tuliposides. Tulipalin formation was involved in the antifungal activity, tulipalin A showed higher inhibitory activity than 6-tuliposide B and tulipalin B. Both the tuliposides and tulipalins showed pigment-inducing activity against Gibberella zeae and inhibitory activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tulipae. These activities were induced at a much lower concentration (0.05 mM) than the antifungal MIC values.

  10. Asymmetric total synthesis of a putative sex pheromone component from the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, D.; Buter, J.; Beek, van T.A.; Minnaard, A.J.


    Virgin females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce minute amounts of a sex pheromone, the identity of which has not been fully established. The enantioselective synthesis of a putative component of this pheromone, (6S,8S,10S)-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2E,4E-dien-1-ol (2), is

  11. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias


    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of acetomycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinderman, S.S.; Feringa, B.L.


    The synthesis of (-)-acetomycin, a highly functionalized γ-lactone with antitumor activity, was achieved in five steps with nearly complete enantioselectivity. The key step was realized by a large scale lipase R catalyzed esterification of 5-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone providing

  13. Hydroxamic acids in asymmetric synthesis. (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi


    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst's center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Because of their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which uses the titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities.

  14. Total Synthesis of (R, R, R)-gamma-Tocopherol through Cu-Catalyzed Asymmetric 1,2-Addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Zhongtao; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    Based on the asymmetric copper-catalyzed 1,2-addition of Grignard reagents to ketones, (R,R,R)--tocopherol has been synthesized in 36% yield over 12 steps (longest linear sequence). The chiral center in the chroman ring was constructed with 73% ee by the 1,2-addition of a phytol-derived Grignard

  15. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev


    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  16. Total synthesis of chaetoquadrins A-C. (United States)

    Kim, U Bin; Furkert, Daniel P; Brimble, Margaret A


    The first total synthesis of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors chaetoquadrins A-C has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthesis include an aromatic Claisen rearrangement, asymmetric boron aldol reaction and acid-mediated spiroketalization. Comparison of spectral data for the synthetic spiroketals confirmed the proposed structure for these natural products.

  17. Lipase-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of naphtho[2,3-c]furan-1(3H)-one derivatives by a one-pot dynamic kinetic resolution/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction: Total synthesis of (-)-himbacine. (United States)

    Sugiyama, Koji; Kawanishi, Shinji; Oki, Yasuhiro; Kamiya, Marin; Hanada, Ryosuke; Egi, Masahiro; Akai, Shuji


    One-pot sequential reactions using the acyl moieties installed by enzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of alcohols have been little investigated. In this work, the acryloyl moiety installed via the lipase/oxovanadium combo-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution of a racemic dienol [4-(cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)but-3-en-2-ol or 1-(cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)but-2-en-1-ol] with a (Z)-3-(phenylsulfonyl)acrylate underwent an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction in a one-pot procedure to produce an optically active naphtho[2,3-c]furan-1(3H)-one derivative (98% ee). This method was successfully applied to the asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-himbacine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul


    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b...

  19. Asymmetric synthesis and sensory evaluation of sedanenolide. (United States)

    Oguro, Daichi; Watanabe, Hidenori


    The synthesis and sensory evaluation of enantiomeric sets of sedanenolide (1) and 3-butylphthalide (3) are described. The asymmetric synthesis was achieved via the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of chiral propargylester (5) which was prepared from optically active propargyl alcohol (4) and 2,4-pentadienoic acid. The sensory evaluation of these enantiomers revealed that there were distinct differences between their aroma character and odor threshold.

  20. Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic etherification using chiral biphenol-based diphosphinite ligands and its application for the formal total synthesis of (-)-galanthamine. (United States)

    Zang, Yang; Ojima, Iwao


    A library of novel chiral biphenol-based diphosphinite (BOP) ligands was designed and created. These BOP ligands were applied to a Pd-catalyzed intermolecular allylic etherification reaction, which provided a key intermediate for the formal total synthesis of (-)-galanthamine with 97% ee in 97% yield.

  1. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates. (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L


    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of α,β-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good yields and high enantiomeric excess. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated through stereospecific transformations into multifunctional optically active compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Total synthesis of aquatolide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saya, J.M.; Vos, K.; Klein Nijenhuis, R.A.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Ingemann, S.; Hiemstra, H.


    A total synthesis of the sesquiterpene lactone aquatolide has been accomplished. The central step is an intramolecular [2 + 2]-photocycloaddition of an allene onto an alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactone. Other key steps are an intramolecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to close the lactone and

  3. Asymmetric catalysis in organic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, S.D.; Click, D.R.; Grumbine, S.K.; Scott, B.L.; Watkins, J.G.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of the project was to prepare new catalyst systems, which would perform chemical reactions in an enantioselective manner so as to produce only one of the possible optical isomers of the product molecule. The authors have investigated the use of lanthanide metals bearing both diolate and Schiff-base ligands as catalysts for the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones to secondary alcohols. The ligands were prepared from cheap, readily available starting materials, and their synthesis was performed in a ''modular'' manner such that tailoring of specific groups within the ligand could be carried out without repeating the entire synthetic procedure. In addition, they have developed a new ligand system for Group IV and lanthanide-based olefin polymerization catalysts. The ligand system is easily prepared from readily available starting materials and offers the opportunity to rapidly prepare a wide range of closely related ligands that differ only in their substitution patterns at an aromatic ring. When attached to a metal center, the ligand system has the potential to carry out polymerization reactions in a stereocontrolled manner.

  4. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of enantiopure isoprenoid building blocks : application in the synthesis of apple leafminer pheromones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Summeren, RP; Reijmer, SJW; Feringa, BL; Minnaard, AJ


    The first catalytic asymmetric procedure capable of preparing all 4 diastereoisomers (ee > 99%, de > 98%) of a versatile saturated isoprenoid building block was developed and the value of this new method was demonstrated in its application to the concise total synthesis of two pheromones.

  5. Catalytic asymmetric access to alpha,beta unsaturated delta-lactones through a vinylogous aldol reaction: application to the total synthesis of the Prelog-Djerassi lactone. (United States)

    Bluet, G; Bazán-Tejeda, B; Campagne, J M


    [reaction--see text] A one-step catalytic asymmetric access to alpha,beta unsaturated delta-lactones is described, using a vinylogous Mukaiyama-aldol reaction between a gamma-substituted dienolate and various aldehydes in the presence of Carreira catalyst CuF.(S)-tolBinap. This methodology has been further applied to a straightforward access to the Prelog-Djerassi lactone.

  6. Total synthesis of the indolizidine alkaloid tashiromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElhinney Alison D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tashiromine 1 is a naturally occurring indolizidine alkaloid. It has been the subject of thirteen successful total syntheses to date. Our own approach centres on the stereoselective construction of the indolizidine core by capture of an electrophilic acyliminium species by a pendant allylsilane. The key cyclisation precursor is constructed using olefin cross-metathesis chemistry, which has the potential to facilitate both racemic and asymmetric approaches, depending upon the choice of the allylsilane metathesis partner. Results The use of the allyltrimethylsilane cross-metathesis approach enables the rapid construction of the key cyclisation precursor 3 (3 steps from commercial materials, which undergoes acid-induced cyclisation to give the desired bicyclic indolizidine skeleton as a 96:4 mixture of diastereomers. Simple functional group interconversions allowed the completion of the total synthesis of racemic tashiromine in six steps (19% overall yield. Three chiral α-alkoxyallylsilanes (12,14 and 15 were prepared in enantioenriched form and their cross-metathesis reactions studied as part of a putative asymmetric approach to tashiromine. In the event, α-hydroxysilane 12 underwent isomerisation under the reaction conditions to acylsilane 17, while silanes 14 and 15 were unreactive towards metathesis. Conclusion A concise, stereoselective total synthesis of racemic tashiromine has been developed. Attempts to translate this into an asymmetric synthesis have thus far been unsuccessful.

  7. Total synthesis of aeruginazole A


    Bruno, Paolo; Peña, Stella; Just Baringo, Xavier; Albericio Palomera, Fernando; Álvarez Domingo, Mercedes


    The first total synthesis of Aeruginazole A, prepared via a convergent strategy that involved both solid-phase peptide synthesis and solution phase chemistry and that enabled conservation of the stereochemistry of the intermediates, is reported.

  8. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Butenolides and Butyrolactones. (United States)

    Mao, Bin; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    γ-Butenolides, γ-butyrolactones, and derivatives, especially in enantiomerically pure form, constitute the structural core of numerous natural products which display an impressive range of biological activities which are important for the development of novel physiological and therapeutic agents. Furthermore, optically active γ-butenolides and γ-butyrolactones serve also as a prominent class of chiral building blocks for the synthesis of diverse biological active compounds and complex molecules. Taking into account the varying biological activity profiles and wide-ranging structural diversity of the optically active γ-butenolide or γ-butyrolactone structure, the development of asymmetric synthetic strategies for assembling such challenging scaffolds has attracted major attention from synthetic chemists in the past decade. This review offers an overview of the different enantioselective synthesis of γ-butenolides and γ-butyrolactones which employ catalytic amounts of metal complexes or organocatalysts, with emphasis focused on the mechanistic issues that account for the observed stereocontrol of the representative reactions, as well as practical applications and synthetic potentials.

  9. Total Synthesis of Codeine. (United States)

    Li, Qilin; Zhang, Hongbin


    In this paper, a new strategy towards the synthesis of codeine and morphine is reported. This new approach features a cascade cyclization to construct the dihydrofuran ring, and an intramolecular palladium catalyzed C-H olefination of unactivated aliphatic alkene to install the morphinan ring system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Total Synthesis of Astellatol. (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Yin, Shuqiang; Xie, Shengling; Yan, Hao; Ren, Pan; Chen, Gui; Chen, Fang; Xu, Jing


    A nearly-30-year-old unanswered synthetic puzzle, astellatol, has been solved in an enantiospecific manner. The highly congested pentacyclic skeleton of this rare sesterterpenoid, which possesses a unique bicyclo[4.1.1]octane motif, ten stereocenters, a cyclobutane that contains two quaternary centers, an exo-methylene group, and a sterically encumbered isopropyl trans-hydrindane motif, makes astellatol arguably one of the most challenging targets for sesterterpenoid synthesis. An intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction was exploited to construct the right-hand side scaffold of this sesterterpenoid. An unprecedented reductive radical 1,6-addition, mediated by SmI 2 , forged the cyclobutane motif. Last, a strategic oxidation/reduction step provided not only the decisive solution for the remarkably challenging late-stage transformations, but also a highly valuable unravelling of the notorious issue of trans-hydrindane synthesis. Importantly, the synthesis of astellatol showcases a rapid, scalable strategy to access diverse complex isopropyl trans-hydrindane sesterterpenoids. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Total synthesis of the proposed structure of astakolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Tonoi


    Full Text Available The first total synthesis of the proposed structure of astakolactin, a sesterterpene metabolite isolated from the marine sponge Cacospongia scalaris, has been achieved, mainly featuring Johnson–Claisen rearrangement, asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction and MNBA-mediated lactonization.

  12. Total Synthesis of Mycalolides A and B through Olefin Metathesis. (United States)

    Kita, Masaki; Oka, Hirotaka; Usui, Akihiro; Ishitsuka, Tomoya; Mogi, Yuzo; Watanabe, Hidekazu; Tsunoda, Masaki; Kigoshi, Hideo


    An asymmetric total synthesis of the trisoxazole marine macrolides mycalolides A and B is described. This synthesis involves the convergent assembly of highly functionalized C1-C19 trisoxazole and C20-C35 side-chain segments through the use of olefin metathesis and esterification as well as Julia-Kocienski olefination and enamide formation as key steps. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Novel Asymmetric Wittig Reaction: Synthesis of Chiral Allenic Esters


    Melo, Teresa M. V. D. Pinho e; Cardoso, Ana L.; Gonsalves, António M. D'A Rocha; Pessoa, João Costa; José A. Paixão; Beja, Ana M


    Wittig reactions between 10-(phenylsulfonyl)isobornyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetates (1 and 6) and ketenes resulted in asymmetric induction, with the selective synthesis of allenes with axial chirality. Use of the (1R)-(-)-10-(phenylsulfonyl)isoborneol unit allows the synthesis of allenes with S configuration, whereas use of the (1S)-(+)-10-(phenylsulfonyl)isoborneol unit produces allenes with R configuration. The structure of (1R)-(-)-10-(phenylsulfonyl)isobornyl (S)-5,5-dimethylhexa-2...

  14. A Catalytic, Asymmetric Formal Synthesis of (+)-Hamigeran B

    KAUST Repository

    Mukherjee, Herschel


    A concise asymmetric, formal synthesis of (+)-hamigeran B is reported. A Pd-catalyzed, decarboxylative allylic alkylation, employing a trifluoromethylated derivative of t-BuPHOX, is utilized as the enantioselective step to form the critical quaternary carbon center in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. The product is converted in three steps to a late-stage intermediate previously used in the synthesis of hamigeran B.

  15. The catalystic asymmetric synthesis of optically active epoxy ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Bertha Gerda


    In this thesis the use of catalytic asymmetric synthesis to prepare optically active epoxy ketones is described. This means that the auxiliary chirality, necessary to obtain an optically active product, is added in a catalytic quantity . In principle this is a very efficient way to make opticlly

  16. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Dihydrofurans and Cyclopentenols with Tertiary Stereocenters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Zhongtao; Madduri, Ashoka V.R.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    A new asymmetric synthesis of dihydrofurans and cyclopentenols has been developed and is based on the copper-catalyzed 1,2-addition of Grignard reagents to enones in combination with Sonogashira coupling/cyclization or ring-closing metathesis. By this approach, dihydrofurans with an

  17. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 645-648. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Asymmetric synthesis of amines using tert-butanesulfinamide. (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Chao; Chowdhury, Somenath; Ellman, Jonathan A


    Chiral amines are prevalent in many bioactive molecules, including amino acids and pharmaceutical agents. tert-Butanesulfinamide (tBS) is a chiral amine reagent that has enabled the reliable asymmetric synthesis of a very broad range of different amine structures from simple, readily available starting materials. Three steps are commonly applied to the asymmetric synthesis of amines: (i) condensation of tBS with a carbonyl compound, (ii) nucleophile addition and (iii) tert-butanesulfinyl group cleavage. Here we demonstrate these steps with the preparation of a propargylic tertiary carbinamine, one of a class of amines that have been used for many different biological purposes, including click chemistry applications, diversity-oriented synthesis, the preparation of peptide isosteres and the development of protease inhibitors as drug candidates and imaging agents. The process described here can be performed in 3-4 d.

  19. Total synthesis of (-)-salinosporamide A. (United States)

    Kaiya, Yuji; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Momose, Takayuki; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka


    A detailed description of our second-generation total synthesis of salinosporamide A is presented. Three contiguous stereocenters in the γ-lactam structure seen in the natural product were established by stereoselective functionalization of a D-arabinose scaffold, including an Overman rearrangement to generate a highly congested tetrasubstituted carbon center. One of the definitive reactions in the synthesis was a Lewis acid mediated skeletal rearrangement of a pyranose structure, which enabled the practical conversion of the carbohydrate scaffold to the γ-lactam structure embedded in salinosporamide A. The use of a benzyl ester as a protective group for a sterically hindered carboxylic acid led to a one-pot global deprotection at the end of the synthesis.

  20. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    CERN Document Server

    Lakatos, G


    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or ...

  1. Total knee arthroplasty with asymmetric femoral condyles and tibial tray. (United States)

    Crockarell, John R; Hicks, John M; Schroeder, R Jason; Guyton, James L; Harkess, James W; Lavelle, David G


    Total knee arthroplasties with an asymmetric tibial tray and posterior femoral condyles were implanted in 224 knees. Follow-up averaged 6.3 years. All components were cemented, all patellae were resurfaced, and all femoral components were cruciate-substituting. Postoperative alignment averaged 3.3 degrees valgus. Radiolucencies were absent around 116 knees (66%). No components were radiographically loose. Knee Society scores averaged 85 postoperatively and modified Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index scores averaged 82. Postoperative flexion averaged 114 degrees. Ten knees required manipulation for arthrofibrosis. Lateral release was necessary in 62 knees (28%). No revisions were required for aseptic loosening. Survivorship free of additional surgical procedures was 97% at 5 years. Compared with other series by designing surgeons, similar excellent survivorship was seen but with a higher lateral release rate. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. One-step catalytic asymmetric synthesis of all-syn deoxypropionate motif from propylene: Total synthesis of (2R,4R,6R,8R)-2,4,6,8-tetramethyldecanoic acid. (United States)

    Ota, Yusuke; Murayama, Toshiki; Nozaki, Kyoko


    In nature, many complex structures are assembled from simple molecules by a series of tailored enzyme-catalyzed reactions. One representative example is the deoxypropionate motif, an alternately methylated alkyl chain containing multiple stereogenic centers, which is biosynthesized by a series of enzymatic reactions from simple building blocks. In organic synthesis, however, the majority of the reported routes require the syntheses of complex building blocks. Furthermore, multistep reactions with individual purifications are required at each elongation. Here we show the construction of the deoxypropionate structure from propylene in a single step to achieve a three-step synthesis of (2R,4R,6R,8R)-2,4,6,8-tetramethyldecanoic acid, a major acid component of a preen-gland wax of the graylag goose. To realize this strategy, we focused on the coordinative chain transfer polymerization and optimized the reaction condition to afford a stereo-controlled oligomer, which is contrastive to the other synthetic strategies developed to date that require 3-6 steps per unit, with unavoidable byproduct generation. Furthermore, multiple oligomers with different number of deoxypropionate units were isolated from one batch, showing application to the construction of library. Our strategy opens the door for facile synthetic routes toward other natural products that share the deoxypropionate motif.

  3. Recent Advances in Substrate-Controlled Asymmetric Induction Derived from Chiral Pool α-Amino Acids for Natural Product Synthesis. (United States)

    Paek, Seung-Mann; Jeong, Myeonggyo; Jo, Jeyun; Heo, Yu Mi; Han, Young Taek; Yun, Hwayoung


    Chiral pool α-amino acids have been used as powerful tools for the total synthesis of structurally diverse natural products. Some common naturally occurring α-amino acids are readily available in both enantiomerically pure forms. The applications of the chiral pool in asymmetric synthesis can be categorized prudently as chiral sources, devices, and inducers. This review specifically examines recent advances in substrate-controlled asymmetric reactions induced by the chirality of α-amino acid templates in natural product synthesis research and related areas.

  4. Recent Advances in Substrate-Controlled Asymmetric Induction Derived from Chiral Pool α-Amino Acids for Natural Product Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Mann Paek


    Full Text Available Chiral pool α-amino acids have been used as powerful tools for the total synthesis of structurally diverse natural products. Some common naturally occurring α-amino acids are readily available in both enantiomerically pure forms. The applications of the chiral pool in asymmetric synthesis can be categorized prudently as chiral sources, devices, and inducers. This review specifically examines recent advances in substrate-controlled asymmetric reactions induced by the chirality of α-amino acid templates in natural product synthesis research and related areas.

  5. Rényi entropy of the totally asymmetric exclusion process (United States)

    Wood, Anthony J.; Blythe, Richard A.; Evans, Martin R.


    The Rényi entropy is a generalisation of the Shannon entropy that is sensitive to the fine details of a probability distribution. We present results for the Rényi entropy of the totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP). We calculate explicitly an entropy whereby the squares of configuration probabilities are summed, using the matrix product formalism to map the problem to one involving a six direction lattice walk in the upper quarter plane. We derive the generating function across the whole phase diagram, using an obstinate kernel method. This gives the leading behaviour of the Rényi entropy and corrections in all phases of the TASEP. The leading behaviour is given by the result for a Bernoulli measure and we conjecture that this holds for all Rényi entropies. Within the maximal current phase the correction to the leading behaviour is logarithmic in the system size. Finally, we remark upon a special property of equilibrium systems whereby discontinuities in the Rényi entropy arise away from phase transitions, which we refer to as secondary transitions. We find no such secondary transition for this nonequilibrium system, supporting the notion that these are specific to equilibrium cases.

  6. Mo-catalyzed asymmetric olefin metathesis in target-oriented synthesis: Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-africanol (United States)

    Weatherhead, Gabriel S.; Cortez, G. A.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.


    Catalytic asymmetric ring-opening metathesis (AROM) provides an efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of optically enriched small organic molecules that cannot be easily prepared by alternative methods. The development of Mo-catalyzed AROM transformations that occur in tandem with ring-closing metathesis are described. The utility of the Mo-catalyzed AROM/ring-closing metathesis is demonstrated through an enantioselective approach to the synthesis of (+)-africanol. PMID:15056762

  7. Total harmonic distortion of an asymmetric quasi-sinusoidal current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebennikov Vitaliy


    Full Text Available This paper presents the correlation of factors that determine the quality of asymmetric quasi-sinusoidal output current and dynamic losses in the switches of the current generator circuit. The operating mode of the generator was obtained, especially of its power circuit elements, where combination of acceptable output current quality with relatively small dynamic losses in switches and mass-dimensional parameters of the inductor are provided. Achieved results can be used in designing this type of generators.

  8. Total synthesis of UCS1025A. (United States)

    Lambert, Tristan H; Danishefsky, Samuel J


    The enantioselective total synthesis of the telomerase inhibitor UCS1025A has been accomplished. The key transformation involves a remarkable boron Reformatsky coupling of iodolactone 13 and aldehyde 17.

  9. A Facile Stereoselective Total Synthesis of (R)-Rugulactone


    B Narasimha Reddy; R. P. Singh


    An efficient and novel synthesis of (R)-rugulactone has been achieved employing Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation of allyl alcohols followed by selective hydride reduction of epoxy alcohols and olefin cross metathesis reactions.

  10. Asymmetric synthesis of propargylamines as amino acid surrogates in peptidomimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wünsch


    Full Text Available The amide moiety of peptides can be replaced for example by a triazole moiety, which is considered to be bioisosteric. Therefore, the carbonyl moiety of an amino acid has to be replaced by an alkyne in order to provide a precursor of such peptidomimetics. As most amino acids have a chiral center at Cα, such amide bond surrogates need a chiral moiety. Here the asymmetric synthesis of a set of 24 N-sulfinyl propargylamines is presented. The condensation of various aldehydes with Ellman’s chiral sulfinamide provides chiral N-sulfinylimines, which were reacted with (trimethylsilylethynyllithium to afford diastereomerically pure N-sulfinyl propargylamines. Diverse functional groups present in the propargylic position resemble the side chain present at the Cα of amino acids. Whereas propargylamines with (cycloalkyl substituents can be prepared in a direct manner, residues with polar functional groups require suitable protective groups. The presence of particular functional groups in the side chain in some cases leads to remarkable side reactions of the alkyne moiety. Thus, electron-withdrawing substituents in the Cα-position facilitate a base induced rearrangement to α,β-unsaturated imines, while azide-substituted propargylamines form triazoles under surprisingly mild conditions. A panel of propargylamines bearing fluoro or chloro substituents, polar functional groups, or basic and acidic functional groups is accessible for the use as precursors of peptidomimetics.

  11. Biomimetic asymmetric total syntheses of spirooliganones A and B. (United States)

    Song, Liyan; Yao, Hongliang; Tong, Rongbiao


    Biomimetic total syntheses of potent antiviral spirooliganones A and B were achieved with 3% and 2% yield, respectively, in 12 steps from commercially available materials. The synthetic strategy was inspired primarily by the biogenetic hypothesis and was enabled by two independent cascade events: (i) an unprecedented reaction involving aromatic Claisen rearrangement/o-quinone methide formation/hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition to construct the tetracyclic framework and (ii) phenol oxidative dearomatization/spirocyclization to build the spiro-fused cyclohexadienone/tetrahydrofuran moiety.

  12. Six-Step Total Synthesis of Azaspirene. (United States)

    Kang, Taeho; Jo, Deokhee; Han, Sunkyu


    The total synthesis of (±)-azaspirene (1) was achieved in a total of six steps from commercially available materials. Keys to the conciseness of our synthetic approach were the effective γ-lactam formation from linear precursor 36 and successful tandem epoxidations of γ-lactam 34 to afford α,β-epoxy-γ-hydroxy-γ-lactam intermediate 14. While our streamlined synthesis of azaspirene (1) sought inspiration from its biogenetic hypothesis, experimentally observed chemical reactivity of biosynthetically relevant precursors conversely provides insights to the biological origin of this natural product.

  13. Study Toward the Total Synthesis of Pyrenophorin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo F. Santos Filho


    Full Text Available Macrodiolides are macrocyclic compounds containing two ester groups in a cyclic chain. Of this class of compounds, Pyrenophorin (1 shows antifungal activity, and is produced from the pathogenic fungus Pyrenophora avenae. As this substance, derived from nature, is isolated in small quantities, an asymmetric synthesis using a simple and efficient methodology would be of great interest. The proposed synthetic route starts with the protection of propargyl alcohol 3 using DHP and feldspar as catalyst. Compound 5 obtained in this reaction was then subjected to acid-base reaction between the acetylenic proton and 1 eq. n-BuLi, leading to formation of the acetylide 5A. The 1,2- addition reaction between 5A and g-valerolactone (6 leads to the formation of alkinone 7 in 67% yield. Subsequently, compound 7 was subjected to a ketalization reaction using the same feldspar catalyst. Ketal 8 was formed under concomitant removal of the THP group. The product of this reaction (8 was then submitted to a reduction reaction of the triple bond to form olefin 9 with E configuration. Currently, the conditions for obtaining 10 by oxidation using Jones reagent, are being optimized. Compound 10,    obtained as described, is being subjected to a macrolactonization reaction. Various conditions including the use of enzymes are being studied. In addition, a study involving the enantioselective synthesis of (R,R-(--pyrenophorin, using enzymatic kinetic resolution of the racemic mixture of compound 8, is in progress in the group

  14. Practical Synthesis of both Enantiomeric Amino Acid, Mannich, and Aldol Derivatives by Asymmetric Organocatalysis. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Arumugam, Natarajan; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Maruoka, Keiji


    In this account, we describe our recent developments in organocatalyzed asymmetric methodologies for the practical synthesis of both enantiomers. The synthesis of both enantiomeric products by using both enantiomeric catalysts is the most traditional way. In addition, use of two pseudoenantiomeric catalysts provides a more practical approach for the synthesis of both enantiomeric products. Even more efficient is the use of a single enantiomeric catalyst in the presence or absence of certain additives for obtaining both enantiomeric products. These three different strategies are illustrated by using certain organocatalyzed asymmetric approaches. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Total Synthesis of Cephalosporin C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin


    R B Woodward in his Nobel Lecture, Dec 11, 1965. The total synthesis of Cephalosporin C is yet another example where Woodward identifies an anchor from which he never wavered, in spite of enormous problems. The anchor here was. L (+) cysteine (1). The choice of 1 was indeed ingenious! Not only does 1 contain half ...

  16. Total synthesis of insect antifeedant drimane sesquiterpenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.


    The investigations described in this thesis deal with the total synthesis of sesquiterpenes of the drimane family, named for their widespread occurrence in the stem bark of South American Drimys species. These compounds contain the bicyclofarnesol nucleus

  17. Total Synthesis, Proof of Absolute Configuration, and Biosynthetic Origin of Stylopsal, the First Isolated Sex Pheromone of Strepsiptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagoutte, Roman; Šebesta, Petr; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Jirošová, Anna; Straka, J.; Černá, K.; Šobotník, Jan; Cvačka, Josef; Jahn, Ullrich


    Roč. 19, č. 26 (2013), s. 8515-8524 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1466 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : asymmetric synthesis * configuration determination * pheromones * total synthesis * Wittig reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.696, year: 2013

  18. Asymmetrical total knee arthroplasty does not improve patella tracking: a study without patella resurfacing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barink, M.; Meijerink, H.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Kampen, A. van; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de


    It is often suggested that patella tracking after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with an asymmetrical patella groove is more physiological than with a symmetrical patella groove. Therefore, this study tried to address two questions: what is the effect of TKA on patella tracking, and is patella

  19. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Secalonic Acid E. (United States)

    Ganapathy, Dhandapani; Reiner, Johannes R; Löffler, Lorenz E; Ma, Ling; Gnanaprakasam, Boopathy; Niepötter, Benedikt; Koehne, Ingo; Tietze, Lutz F


    The first enantioselective synthesis of a secalonic acid containing a dimeric tetrahydroxanthenone skeleton is described, using a Wacker-type cyclization of a methoxyphenolic compound to form a chiral chroman with a quaternary carbon stereogenic center with >99% ee. Further steps are a Sharpless dihydroxylation and a Dieckmann condensation to give a tetrahydroxanthenone. A late-stage one-pot palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-dimerization reaction leads to the 2,2'-biphenol linkage to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of secalonic acid E in 18 steps with 8% overall yield. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Total Synthesis of (±)-Kuwanol E. (United States)

    Iovine, Valentina; Benni, Irene; Sabia, Rocchina; D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Fabrizi, Giancarlo; Botta, Bruno; Calcaterra, Andrea


    The total synthesis of the Diels-Alder-type adducts (±)-kuwanol E and the heptamethyl ether derivative of (±)-kuwanon Y has been accomplished via a convergent strategy involving 2'-hydroxychalcone 6 or 9 and dehydroprenylstilbene 7, in nine steps. The synthesis features, as a key step, a Lewis acid-mediated biomimetic intermolecular Diels-Alder [4+2] cycloaddition for the construction of the cyclohexene skeleton with three stereogenic centers. Notably, the endo/exo diastereoselectivity of the reaction proved to be temperature-controlled.

  1. Enantioconvergent synthesis by sequential asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons and palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Møller; Hansen, E. Louise; Kane, John


    A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed...... by asymmetric HWE reactions into mixtures of two major $alpha@,$beta@-unsaturated esters, possessing opposite configurations at their allylic stereocenters as well as opposite alkene geometry. Subsequently, these isomeric mixtures of alkenes could be subjected to palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution...

  2. A combined continuous microflow photochemistry and asymmetric organocatalysis approach for the enantioselective synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines


    Erli Sugiono; Magnus Rueping


    Summary A continuous-flow asymmetric organocatalytic photocyclization?transfer hydrogenation cascade reaction has been developed. The new protocol allows the synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines from readily available 2-aminochalcones using a combination of photochemistry and asymmetric Br?nsted acid catalysis. The photocylization and subsequent reduction was performed with catalytic amount of chiral BINOL derived phosphoric acid diester and Hantzsch dihydropyridine as hydrogen source providing ...

  3. A combined continuous microflow photochemistry and asymmetric organocatalysis approach for the enantioselective synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines. (United States)

    Sugiono, Erli; Rueping, Magnus


    A continuous-flow asymmetric organocatalytic photocyclization-transfer hydrogenation cascade reaction has been developed. The new protocol allows the synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines from readily available 2-aminochalcones using a combination of photochemistry and asymmetric Brønsted acid catalysis. The photocylization and subsequent reduction was performed with catalytic amount of chiral BINOL derived phosphoric acid diester and Hantzsch dihydropyridine as hydrogen source providing the desired products in good yields and with excellent enantioselectivities.

  4. A combined continuous microflow photochemistry and asymmetric organocatalysis approach for the enantioselective synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erli Sugiono


    Full Text Available A continuous-flow asymmetric organocatalytic photocyclization–transfer hydrogenation cascade reaction has been developed. The new protocol allows the synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines from readily available 2-aminochalcones using a combination of photochemistry and asymmetric Brønsted acid catalysis. The photocylization and subsequent reduction was performed with catalytic amount of chiral BINOL derived phosphoric acid diester and Hantzsch dihydropyridine as hydrogen source providing the desired products in good yields and with excellent enantioselectivities.

  5. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of neodysiherbaine A and analogues. (United States)

    Shoji, Muneo; Akiyama, Nobuyuki; Tsubone, Koichi; Lash, L Leanne; Sanders, James M; Swanson, Geoffrey T; Sakai, Ryuichi; Shimamoto, Keiko; Oikawa, Masato; Sasaki, Makoto


    Dysiherbaine (1) and its congener neodysiherbaine A (2) are naturally occurring excitatory amino acids with selective and potent agonistic activity for ionotropic glutamate receptors. We describe herein the total synthesis of 2 and its structural analogues 3-8. Advanced key intermediate 16 was employed as a branching point to assemble a series of these analogues 3-8 with respect to the C8 and C9 functionalities, which would not have been accessible through manipulations of the natural product itself. The synthesis of key intermediate 16 features (i) stereocontrolled C-glycosylation to set the C6 stereocenter, (ii) concise synthesis of the bicyclic ether skeleton through chemo- and stereoselective dihydroxylation of the exo-olefin and stereoselective epoxidation of the endo-olefin, followed by epoxide ring opening/5-exo ring closure, and (iii) catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of enamide ester to construct the amino acid appendage. A preliminary biological evaluation of analogues for their in vivo toxicity against mice and binding affinity for glutamate receptors showed that both the type and stereochemistry of the C8 and C9 functional groups affected the subtype selectivity of dysiherbaine analogues for members of the kainic acid receptor family.

  6. Total synthesis of panicein A2. (United States)

    Yeung, Lili; Pilkington, Lisa I; Cadelis, Melissa M; Copp, Brent R; Barker, David


    The first total synthesis of the unusual aromatic sesquiterpene panicein A2 is reported and the structure of the natural product has been confirmed. When tested by the NCI against a range of human cancer cell lines, it was found that panicein A2 exhibits very little antiproliferative activity at 10 μM - an observation that is at odds with the earlier report that stated panicein A2 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of tumour cell lines.

  7. Applications of ortho-Quinone Methide Intermediates in Catalysis and Asymmetric Synthesis


    Pathak, Tejas P.; Sigman, Matthew S.


    Ortho -quinone methides are important synthetic intermediates and widely implicated in biological processes. In this Synopsis, recent advances concerning the synthesis and utility of these intermediates are discussed with a particular emphasis on metal-catalyzed formation of quinone methide intermediates. Additionally, applications of these intermediates as partners in asymmetric synthesis will be discussed including methods we have developed that involve the enantioselective Pd-catalyzed for...

  8. Asymmetric Synthesis of Optically Active Spirocyclic Indoline Scaffolds through an Enantioselective Reduction of Indoles

    KAUST Repository

    Borrmann, Ruediger


    An enantioselective synthesis of spirocyclic indoline scaffolds was achieved by applying an asymmetric iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation of 3H-indoles. Low catalyst loadings and mild reaction conditions provide a broad range of differently substituted products with excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The developed methodology allows an efficient synthesis of this important spirocyclic structural motif, which is present in numerous biologically active molecules and privileged structures in medicinal chemistry.

  9. Concise enantioselective synthesis of duloxetine via direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of thioamide. (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuta; Iwata, Mitsutaka; Yazaki, Ryo; Kumagai, Naoya; Shibasaki, Masakatsu


    Direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of thioamide offers a new entry to the concise enantioselective synthesis of duloxetine. The direct aldol protocol was scalable (>20 g) to afford the aldol product in 92% ee after LiAlH(4) reduction, and 84% of the chiral ligand was recovered after recrystallization. The following four steps of transformation delivered duloxetine.

  10. Highly enantioselective synthesis of chiral cyclic allylic amines via Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation. (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Liu, Tang-Lin; Cao, Min; Xue, Zejian; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu


    Highly regioselective and enantioselective asymmetric hydrogenation of cyclic dienamides catalyzed by an Rh-DuanPhos complex has been developed, which provides a readily accessible method for the synthesis of chiral cyclic allylic amines in excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The products are valuable chiral building blocks and could be easily transformed to multisubstituted cyclohexane derivatives.

  11. Asymmetric Imine Isomerisation in the Enantioselective Synthesis of Chiral Amines from Prochiral Ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Johannes G.H.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Zwanenburg, Binne


    An asymmetric catalytic synthesis of chiral amines using a chiral base catalysed [1,3]-proton shift reaction of imines is described. The isomerisation reaction of N-benzylimines derived from prochiral ketones (benzylacetone, acetophenone) and p-substituted benzylamines, is catalysed by chiral

  12. Total synthesis of panicein A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yeung


    Full Text Available The first total synthesis of the unusual aromatic sesquiterpene panicein A2 is reported and the structure of the natural product has been confirmed. When tested by the NCI against a range of human cancer cell lines, it was found that panicein A2 exhibits very little antiproliferative activity at 10 μM – an observation that is at odds with the earlier report that stated panicein A2 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of tumour cell lines.

  13. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acylfulvene and (-)-irofulven. (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S; Piizzi, Grazia; Piersanti, Giovanni; Movassaghi, Mohammad


    We report our full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acylfulvene (1) and (-)-irofulven (2), which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of the molecular framework of these antitumor agents. We discuss (1) the application of an Evans Cu-catalyzed aldol addition reaction using a strained cyclopropyl ketenethioacetal, (2) an efficient enyne ring-closing metathesis cascade reaction in a challenging setting, (3) the reagent IPNBSH for a late-stage reductive allylic transposition reaction, and (4) the final RCM/dehydrogenation sequence for the formation of (-)-acylfulvene (1) and (-)-irofulven (2).

  14. Total Synthesis of (±)-Integrifolin. (United States)

    Shimomaki, Katsuya; Kusama, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Nobuharu


    The total synthesis of (±)-integrifolin has been achieved for the first time through the stereoselective preparation of the bicyclo[5.3.0]decane skeleton based on the tungsten-catalyzed cyclization of acyclic trienynes under photoirradiation conditions. Further key transformations of the cyclized product are the Tamao oxidation through cyclic silyl ether, the introduction of two oxygen functionalities by the oxidation of the diene and the construction of three exo-methylene moieties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Total synthesis of the Daphniphyllum alkaloid daphenylline (United States)

    Lu, Zhaoyong; Li, Yong; Deng, Jun; Li, Ang


    The Daphniphyllum alkaloids are a large class of natural products isolated from a genus of evergreen plants widely used in Chinese herbal medicine. They display a remarkable range of biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and vasorelaxation properties as well as elevation of nerve growth factor. Daphenylline is a structurally unique member among the predominately aliphatic Daphniphyllum alkaloids, and contains a tetrasubstituted arene moiety mounted on a sterically compact hexacyclic scaffold. Herein, we describe the first total synthesis of daphenylline. A gold-catalysed 6-exo-dig cyclization reaction and a subsequent intramolecular Michael addition reaction, inspired by Dixon's seminal work, were exploited to construct the bridged 6,6,5-tricyclic motif of the natural product at an early stage, and the aromatic moiety was forged through a photoinduced olefin isomerization/6π-electrocyclization cascade followed by an oxidative aromatization process.

  16. Determinantal Representation of the Time-Dependent Stationary Correlation Function for the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Bogoliubov


    Full Text Available The basic model of the non-equilibrium low dimensional physics the so-called totally asymmetric exclusion process is related to the 'crystalline limit' (q → ∞ of the SU_q(2 quantum algebra. Using the quantum inverse scattering method we obtain the exact expression for the time-dependent stationary correlation function of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process on a one dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions.

  17. Chemoenzymatic asymmetric total syntheses of antitumor agents (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-Panaxytriol and (R)- and (S)-Falcarinol from Panax ginseng using an enantioconvergent enzyme-triggered cascade reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, S.F.; Steinreiber, A.; Orru, R.V.A.; Faber, K.A.


    Total asymmetric synthesis of two components of Panax ginseng showing antitumor activity, i.e., (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-Panaxytriol and of both enantiomers of Falcarinol was accomplished. Due to the fact that the synthetic strategy was based on enantioconvergent biotransformations, the

  18. Asymmetric synthesis of apio fluoroneplanocin A analogs as potential AdoHcy hydrolase inhibitor. (United States)

    Park, Ah-Young; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Kim, Kyung Ran; Kang, Jin-Ah; Chun, Moon Woo; Jeong, Lak Shin


    Apio fluoroneplanocin A (apio F-NPA, 3) and its uracil analogue 4 have been designed and asymmetrically synthesized starting from D-ribose. Introduction of fluoro group into vinylic position of 5 was accomplished successfully over 5 steps employing key reactions such as iodination according to an addition-elimination reaction mechanism, stereo- and regioselective reduction of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone, and electrophilic fluorination. This methodology can be adapted to the synthesis of fluoro compounds extensively.

  19. Polyalkoxy Nitrones as Chiral Building Blocks in Asymmetric Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Tejero


    Full Text Available Optically active nitrones derived from both aldoses and dialdoses add metallated heterocycles in a stereocontrolled way depending on the nature of the Lewis acid used as a precomplexing agent of the nitrone. Further elaborations of the resulting hydroxylamines lead to the development of new synthetic methodologies for the preparation of polyalkoxy α-amino aldehydes and α-amino acids. These compounds can be used as key advanced intermediates in the synthesis of a wide range of natural products and derivatives including amino sugars, aza sugars, and complex nucleosides.

  20. The total synthesis of cannabisin G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A convenient method for the synthesis of lignanamide cannabisin G, starting from vanillin, was developed. The convergent synthesis was based on the Stobbe reaction as C–C bond-forming steps to give the skeleton of lignan, which was condensed with a derivative of tyramine to obtain synthetic cannabisin G for the first time.

  1. Asymmetric Enzymatic Synthesis of Allylic Amines: A Sigmatropic Rearrangement Strategy. (United States)

    Prier, Christopher K; Hyster, Todd K; Farwell, Christopher C; Huang, Audrey; Arnold, Frances H


    Sigmatropic rearrangements, while rare in biology, offer opportunities for the efficient and selective synthesis of complex chemical motifs. A "P411" serine-ligated variant of cytochrome P450(BM3) has been engineered to initiate a sulfimidation/[2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement sequence in whole E. coli cells, a non-natural function for any enzyme, providing access to enantioenriched, protected allylic amines. Five mutations in the enzyme substantially enhance its activity toward this new function, demonstrating the evolvability of the catalyst toward challenging nitrene transfer reactions. The evolved catalyst additionally performs the highly enantioselective imidation of non-allylic sulfides. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Time-headway distribution for periodic totally asymmetric exclusion process with various updates (United States)

    Hrabák, P.; Krbálek, M.


    The totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with periodic boundaries is considered as traffic flow model. The large-L approximation of the stationary state is used for the derivation of the time-headway distribution (an important microscopic characteristic of traffic flow) for the model with generalized update (genTASEP) in both, forward- and backward-sequential representations. The usually used updates, fully-parallel and regular forward- and backward-sequential, are analyzed as special cases of the genTASEP. It is shown that only for those cases, the time-headway distribution is determined by the flow regardless to the density. The qualitative comparison of the results with traffic data demonstrates that the genTASEP with backward order and attractive interaction evinces similar properties of time-headway distribution as the real traffic sample.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Septiana


    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Penelitian ini mengkaji model dinamik yaitu Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Process (TASEP khususnya dalam dua dimensi (2D. Selain itu akan dibahas pula mengenai syarat batas dan aturan dinamika yang digunakan dalam pemodelan ini. TASEP telah diaplikasikan dalam berbagai bidang, salah satunya ialah pemodelan lalu lintas kendaraan (traffic flow. Sistem dua dimensi yang akan dikaji adalah sistem yang diskrit, yakni sistem ke kisi dua dimensi. Sistem ini dimodifikasi menjadi bentuk pertigaan (junction yang searah. Lebih jauh lagi, kendaraan yang melalui pertigaan dimodelkan sebagai partikel yang melompat dari satu kisi ke ke kisi yang lain. Nilai kepadatan dan rapat arus partikel dalam sistem tersebut ditentukan secara numerik. Persamaan kontinuitas untuk menggambarkan dinamika partikel dalam TASEP diselesaikan menggunakan metode Euler. Profil kepadatan dan rapat arus partikel dipengaruhi oleh laju masukan (input rate dan laju keluaran (output rate lompatan partikel.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ The research analyzed a dynamic model of Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Process (TASEP, especially in two dimensions (2D and  also the boundary and rules dynamic conditions  used in this modeling. TASEP has been applied in various fields, one of them is the modeling of vehicle traffic. Two-dimensional system that will be studied is the discrete system of two-dimensional lattice system. The system is modified into the form of unidirectional T-junction . Furthermore, the vehicles that pass the junction are modeled as particles that jump from one lattice to another lattice. The value of the density and current density of particles in the system is determined numerically. The continuity equation to describe the dynamics of particles in TASEP is solved by using Euler's method. The profiles of

  4. Total synthesis of (±)-divanillyltetrahydrofuran ferulate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Keywords. Synthesis; sesquilignan; stobbe reaction; divanillyltetrahydrofuran ferulate. 1. Introduction. Divanillyltetrahydrofuran ferulate was first isolated from the ... plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous human malaria parasite. 9. Two sesquilignans Chushizisins H and I exhibited antioxidant activities against H2O2-.

  5. Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines from ketones applied to sitagliptin manufacture. (United States)

    Savile, Christopher K; Janey, Jacob M; Mundorff, Emily C; Moore, Jeffrey C; Tam, Sarena; Jarvis, William R; Colbeck, Jeffrey C; Krebber, Anke; Fleitz, Fred J; Brands, Jos; Devine, Paul N; Huisman, Gjalt W; Hughes, Gregory J


    Pharmaceutical synthesis can benefit greatly from the selectivity gains associated with enzymatic catalysis. Here, we report an efficient biocatalytic process to replace a recently implemented rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric enamine hydrogenation for the large-scale manufacture of the antidiabetic compound sitagliptin. Starting from an enzyme that had the catalytic machinery to perform the desired chemistry but lacked any activity toward the prositagliptin ketone, we applied a substrate walking, modeling, and mutation approach to create a transaminase with marginal activity for the synthesis of the chiral amine; this variant was then further engineered via directed evolution for practical application in a manufacturing setting. The resultant biocatalysts showed broad applicability toward the synthesis of chiral amines that previously were accessible only via resolution. This work underscores the maturation of biocatalysis to enable efficient, economical, and environmentally benign processes for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals.

  6. Total syntheses of (–)-Borrelidin and (–)-Doliculide and the development of the catalytic asymmetric addition of Grignard reagents to ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madduri Venkata, Ashoka Vardhan Reddy


    This thesis describes the application of copper-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition and ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation in novel total syntheses of the macrocyclic polyketides Borrelidin and Doliculide. A second topic in the thesis comprizes the development of a novel asymmetric

  7. model synthetic studies towards palitantin total synthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis of palitantin, 5-(1'E, 3'E-heptadienyl)~cis-2,3-dihydroxy-6-hydroxy- methylcyclohexan-l-oue (1), model ... envisioned a rctrosynthctic approach based on a one-pot Michael-Wittig reactions followed by standard .... the material may have been converted to the polyhydroxylated ester (21). The loss of regioselectivity ...

  8. Asymmetric Hydrogen Bonding Catalysis for the Synthesis of Dihydroquinazoline-Containing Antiviral, Letermovir. (United States)

    Chung, Cheol K; Liu, Zhijian; Lexa, Katrina W; Andreani, Teresa; Xu, Yingju; Ji, Yining; DiRocco, Daniel A; Humphrey, Guy R; Ruck, Rebecca T


    A weak Brønsted acid-catalyzed asymmetric guanidine aza-conjugate addition reaction has been developed. C2-symmetric, dual hydrogen-bond donating bistriflamides are shown to be highly effective in activating α,β-unsaturated esters toward the intramolecular addition of a pendant guanidinyl nucleophile. Preliminary mechanistic investigation, including density functional theory calculations and kinetics studies, support a conjugate addition pathway as more favorable energetically than an alternative electrocyclization pathway. This methodology has been successfully applied to the synthesis of the 3,4-dihydroquinazoline-containing antiviral, Letermovir, and a series of analogues.

  9. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric alkylation in the synthesis of cyclopentanoid and cycloheptanoid core structures bearing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Allen Y.


    General catalytic asymmetric routes toward cyclopentanoid and cycloheptanoid core structures embedded in numerous natural products have been developed. The central stereoselective transformation in our divergent strategies is the enantioselective decarboxylative alkylation of seven-membered β-ketoesters to form α-quaternary vinylogous esters. Recognition of the unusual reactivity of β-hydroxyketones resulting from the addition of hydride or organometallic reagents enabled divergent access to γ-quaternary acylcyclopentenes through a ring contraction pathway or γ-quaternary cycloheptenones through a carbonyl transposition pathway. Synthetic applications of these compounds were explored through the preparation of mono-, bi-, and tricyclic derivatives that can serve as valuable intermediates for the total synthesis of complex natural products. This work complements our previous work with cyclohexanoid systems.

  10. Synthesis of asymmetric polyetherimide membrane for CO2/N2 separation (United States)

    Ahmad, A. L.; Salaudeen, Y. O.; Jawad, Z. A.


    Large emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the environment requires mitigation to avoid unbearable consequences on global climate change. The CO2 emissions generated by fossil fuel combustion within the power and industrial sectors need to be quickly curbed. The gas emission can be abated using membrane technology; this is one of the most promising approaches for selective separation of CO2/N2. The purpose of the study is to synthesis an asymmetric polyetherimide (PEI) membrane and to establish its morphological characteristics for CO2/N2 separation. The PEI flat-sheet asymmetric membrane was fabricated using phase inversion with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and water-isopropanol as a coagulant. Particularly, polymer concentration of 20, 25, and 30 wt. % were studied. In addition, the structure and morphology of the produced membrane were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Importantly, results showed that the membrane with high PEI concentration of 30 wt. % yield an optimal selectivity of 10.7 for CO2/Nitrogen (N2) separation at 1 bar and 25 ºC for pure gas, aided by the membrane surface morphology. The dense skin present was as a result of non-solvent (water) while isopropanol generates a porous sponge structure. This appreciable separation performance makes the PEI asymmetric membrane an attractive alternative for CO2/N2 separation.

  11. Versatile procedure for asymmetric and orthogonal protection of symmetric polyamines and its advantages for solid phase synthesis. (United States)

    Hahn, Frank; Schepers, Ute


    To date, many polyamine syntheses are carried out on solid phase to allow the generation of biologically active polyamine conjugates and libraries of natural product analogs. The synthesis of compounds and libraries, which derive from a symmetric polyamine building block such as spermine requires asymmetric and orthogonal protection of the symmetric polyamine. For this purpose we have established a novel Aloc- and Nosyl-protection group strategy, which displays several advantages. Solution phase synthesis and an easy workup reveals high yield of the asymmetrically and orthogonally protected polyamine. Asymmetric protection prevents cross-linking of the resin, and sequential deprotection can occur on highly acid and base labile resins without cleavage of the linker. Finally, it tolerates the elongation and modification of the symmetric polyamine backbone with several functional groups by conventional Fukuyama-alkylation. The suitability of this protection group strategy was shown by the first solid phase synthesis of the philanthotoxin-analog HO359b.

  12. First total synthesis of (+/-)-3-hydroxy-11-norcytisine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yohannes, Daniel; Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Akireddy, Srinivasa Rao


    The first total synthesis of the natural product 3-hydroxy-11-norcytisine ( 1), structurally related to cytisine ( 2), a benchmark ligand at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs), has been achieved. The synthesis permits the unambiguous confirmation of the structure originally proposed...

  13. Recruiting the Students to Fight Cancer: Total Synthesis of Goniothalamin (United States)

    Nahra, Fady; Riant, Olivier


    A modified total synthesis of (S)-goniothalamin is described for an advanced course in organic chemistry. This experiment gives students an opportunity to handle organometallic reagents and perform an enzymatic kinetic resolution and a metathesis reaction, all in the same synthesis. Furthermore, students learn flame-drying techniques for the…

  14. A facile three-step total synthesis of tanshinone I. (United States)

    Yang, Han-Rui; Wang, Jie-Jie; Shao, Peng-Peng; Yuan, Si-Yi; Li, Xu-Qin


    A facile synthetic approach for total synthesis of tanshinone I has been accomplished. The key precursor is a novel compound, epoxy phenanthraquinone. And this synthesis of tanshinone I is achieved in only three simple stages, which include Diels-Alder reaction, Δ(2)-Weitz-Scheffer-type epoxidation, and Feist-Bénary reaction from commercially available styrene.

  15. Total enzymatic synthesis of cholecystokinin CCK-5. (United States)

    Xiang, H; Xiang, G Y; Lu, Z M; Guo, L; Eckstein, H


    This paper describes the enzymatic synthesis of the C-terminal fragment H-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 of cholecystokinin. Immobilized enzymes were used for the formation of all peptide bonds except thermolysin. Beginning the synthesis with phenylacetyl (PhAc) glycine carboxamidomethyl ester (OCam) and H-Trp-OMe by using immobilized papain as biocatalyst in buffered ethyl acetate, the dipeptide methyl ester was then coupled directly with Met-OEt.HCl by alpha-chymotrypsin/Celite 545 in a solvent free system. For the 3+2 coupling PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-OEt had to be converted into its OCam ester. The other fragment H-Asp(OMe)-Phe-NH2 resulted from the coupling of Cbo-Asp(OMe)-OH with H-Phe-NH2.HCl and thermolysin as catalyst, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. Finally PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 was obtained in a smooth reaction from PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-OCam and H-Asp(OMe)-Phe-NH2 with alpha-chymotrypsin/Celite 545 in acetonitrile, followed by basic hydrolysis of the beta-methyl ester. The PhAc-group is removed with penicillin G amidase and CCK-5 is obtained in an overall isolated yield of 19.6%.

  16. Asymmetric synthesis of chiral 2-alkyl-3,3-dinitro-1-tosylazetidines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hui Seok; Lee, Hyo Jun; Chang, Duk Ho; Lee, Su Jeong; Cho, Chang Woo [Dept. of Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hee; Kim, Jin Seuk [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    To explore the feasibility of the diastereoselective aza- Henry reaction, we treated 1 with (S)-(E)-N-ethylidene-4- methylbenzenesulfinamide (2a) using potassium hydroxide (20 mol %) as the base at 25 .deg. C for 24 h in a variety of solvents (Table 1, entries 1–4). Among the solvents tested, CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} proved superior, providing the corresponding aza-Henry product 3a in 62% yield as a 12:1 mixture of diastereomers. We achieved the concise asymmetric synthesis of (S)-2-alkyl-3,3-dinitro-1-tosylazetidines 7a,c from 2,2- dimethyl-5-nitro-1,3-dioxane (1) in five steps, via a diastereo- selective aza-Henry reaction followed by Mitsunobu cyclization. The aza-Henry reaction of 1 with chiral N-sulfinyl aldimines 2a,c using potassium hydroxide as the base provided the desired chiral products 3a,c in good yields and high diastereoselectivities. The azetidine skeletons in 6a,c were constructed by the Mitsunobu cyclization of the chiral dihydroxy sulfonamides 5a,c. This is the first example of the asymmetric synthesis of chiral 2-substituted-3,3-dinitroazetidine derivatives. Further studies will be devoted to the development of new synthetic routes to these interesting chiral compounds.

  17. The Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)‐Liphagal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Joshua J.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Virgil, Scott C.


    Ring a ding: The first catalytic enantioselective total synthesis of the meroterpenoid natural product (+)-liphagal is disclosed. The approach showcases a variety of technology including enantioselective enolate alkylation, a photochemical alkyne-alkene [2+2] reaction, microwaveassisted metal cat...

  18. Total synthesis and structural revision of (+)-cristatumin C. (United States)

    Lorenzo, Paula; Álvarez, Rosana; de Lera, Ángel R


    Naturally occurring (+)-cristatumin C, a bis-pyrrolidinoindoline diketopiperazine alkaloid isolated from Eurotium cristatum EN-220, is the 2R,3R,11S,15R,2'R,3'R,11'S,15'S enantiomer, as confirmed by total synthesis.

  19. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines using ω-aminotransferases. (United States)

    Seo, Joo-Hyun; Kyung, Dohyun; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jooyoung; Kim, Byung-Gee


    The half reactions of ω-aminotransferase (ω-AT) from Vibrio fluvialis JS17 (ω-ATVf) were carried out using purified pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-enzyme (PLP-Enz) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate-enzyme (PMP-Enz) complexes to investigate the relative activities of substrates. In the reaction generating PMP-Enz from PLP-Enz using L-alanine as an amine donor, L-alanine showed about 70% of the initial reaction rate of (S)-α-methylbenzylamine ((S)-α-MBA). However, in the subsequent half reaction recycling PLP-Enz from PMP-Enz using acetophenone as an amine acceptor, acetophenone showed nearly negligible reactivity compared to pyruvate. These results indicate that the main bottleneck in the asymmetric synthesis of (S)-α-MBA lies not in the amination of PLP by alanine, but in the amination of acetophenone by PMP-Enz, where conformational restraints of the enzyme structure is likely to be the main reason for limiting the amine group transfer from PMP-Enz to acetophenone. Based upon those half reaction experiments using the two amino acceptors of different activity, it appears that the relative activities of the two amine donors and the two acceptors involved in the ω-AT reactions can roughly determine the asymmetric synthesis yield of the target chiral amine compound. Predicted conversion yields of several target chiral amines were calculated and compared with the experimental conversion yields. Approximately, a positive linear correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.92) was observed between the calculated values and the experimental conversion yields. To overcome the low (S)-α-MBA productivity of ω-ATVf caused by the possible disadvantageous structural constraints for acetophenone, new ω-ATs showing higher affinity to benzene ring of acetophenone than ω-ATVf were computationally screened using comparative modeling and protein-ligand docking. ω-ATs from Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 (SAV2612) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58 (Atu4761) were

  20. Stereocontrolled synthesis of substituted chiral piperidines via one-pot asymmetric 6π-azaelectrocyclization: asymmetric syntheses of (-)-dendroprimine, (+)-7-epidendroprimine, (+)-5-epidendroprimine, and (+)-5,7-epidendroprimine. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyoharu; Hasegawa, Futoshi; Hirose, Yoshikatsu; Tanaka, Katsunori; Mori, Hajime; Katsumura, Shigeo


    The asymmetric one-pot 6π-azaelectrocyclization of alkenyl vinyl stannane, ethyl (Z)-2-iodo-4-oxobutenoate, and (-)-7-isopropyl-cis-aminoindanol in the presence of a Pd(0) catalyst stereoselectively produced the tetracyclic aminoacetal compounds, resulting from the four-bond formation accompanying by controlling the stereochemistry at the two asymmetric centers. The produced cyclic aminoacetals can be regarded as synthetic precursors of substituted chiral piperidines, and the syntheses of 2,4- and 2,4,6-substituted piperidines were realized from the obtained aminoacetals by the stereoselective hydrogenation of the double bond conjugated with the C-4 ester group and alkylation at the aminoacetal moiety. In addition, the stereoselective synthesis of an indolizidine alkaloid, (-)-dendroprimine, and its three stereoisomers, (+)-7-epidendroprimine, (+)-5-epidendroprimine, and (+)-5,7-epidendroprimine, were achieved.

  1. Asymmetric allylation/Pauson-Khand reaction: a simple entry to polycyclic amines. Application to the synthesis of aminosteroid analogues. (United States)

    Fustero, Santos; Lázaro, Rubén; Aiguabella, Nuria; Riera, Antoni; Simón-Fuentes, Antonio; Barrio, Pablo


    Asymmetric allylation of o-iodoarylsulfinylimines has been achieved in high diastereoselectivities. The thus-obtained o-iodoarylhomoallylic sulfinamides participate in a subsequent Sonogashira coupling followed by a diastereoselective intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction. In this way, tricyclic amines showing a unique benzo-fused indenyl backbone were obtained. The methodology has been applied to the synthesis of amino steroid analogues.

  2. Modular synthesis of optically active lactones by Ru-catalyzed asymmetric allylic carboxylation and ring-closing metathesis reaction. (United States)

    Takii, Koichiro; Kanbayashi, Naoya; Onitsuka, Kiyotaka


    A new synthetic route to optically active unsaturated γ- and δ-lactones has been demonstrated via asymmetric allylic carboxylation with a planar-chiral Cp'Ru catalyst and ring-closing metathesis reaction with a Grubbs II catalyst, and successfully applied to the enantioselective synthesis of (R)-(-)-massoialactone. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  3. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka


    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  4. A homochiral metal-organic framework as an effective asymmetric catalyst for cyanohydrin synthesis. (United States)

    Mo, Ke; Yang, Yuhua; Cui, Yong


    A homochiral metal-organic framework (MOF) of an enantiopure 2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-biphenyl ligand was constructed. After exchanging one proton of the dihydroxyl group for Li(I) ions, the framework is shown to be a highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for asymmetric cyanation of aldehydes with up to >99% ee. Compared with the homogeneous counterpart, the MOF catalyst exhibits significantly enhanced catalytic activity and enantioselectivity, especially at a low catalyst/substrate ratio, due to that the rigid framework could stabilize the catalytically active monolithium salt of biphenol against its free transformation to catalytically inactive and/or less active assemblies in reactions. The synthetic utility of the cyanation was demonstrated in the synthesis of (S)-bufuralol (a nonselective β-adrenoceptor blocking agent) with 98% ee.

  5. One-Step Homologation for the Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Deoxypropionates. (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Li, Haijun; Komiyama, Masato; Oda, Akimichi; Negishi, Ei-Ichi


    A one-step homologation protocol for the synthesis of natural products containing deoxypropionate motif is described by the combination of Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA)-Pd-catalyzed vinylation and ZACA-oxidation reaction. In contrast to most other synthetic strategies used to date that typically require three steps per deoxypropionate unit due to the functional-group interconversions, our one-step homologation strategy promises to provide a general and more efficient synthetic route toward deoxypropionate natural products as exemplified by significant improvements in the syntheses of intermediates and/or final products of mycolipenic acid 1 and its analogue 2, (-)-rasfonin, and syn- and anti-dicarboxylic acids 5 and 6. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Total Synthesis of Δ(12) -Prostaglandin J3 : Evolution of Synthetic Strategies to a Streamlined Process. (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Yu, Ruocheng; Rigol, Stephan; Heretsch, Philipp; Grove, Charles I; Hale, Christopher R H; ElMarrouni, Abdelatif


    The total synthesis of Δ(12) -prostaglandin J3 (Δ(12) -PGJ3 , 1), a reported leukemia stem cell ablator, through a number of strategies and tactics is described. The signature cross-conjugated dienone structural motif of 1 was forged by an aldol reaction/dehydration sequence from key building blocks enone 13 and aldehyde 14, whose lone stereocenters were generated by an asymmetric Tsuji-Trost reaction and an asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction, respectively. During this program, a substituent-governed regioselectivity pattern for the Rh-catalyzed C-H functionalization of cyclopentenes and related olefins was discovered. The evolution of the synthesis of 1 from the original strategy to the final streamlined process proceeded through improvements in the construction of both fragments 13 and 14, exploration of the chemistry of the hitherto underutilized chiral lactone synthon 57, and a diastereoselective alkylation of a cyclopentenone intermediate. The described chemistry sets the stage for large-scale production of Δ(12) -PGJ3 and designed analogues for further biological and pharmacological studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Application of cyclic phosphonamide reagents in the total synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Focken


    Full Text Available A review of the synthesis of natural products and bioactive compounds adopting phosphonamide anion technology is presented highlighting the utility of phosphonamide reagents in stereocontrolled bond-forming reactions. Methodologies utilizing phosphonamide anions in asymmetric alkylations, Michael additions, olefinations, and cyclopropanations will be summarized, as well as an overview of the synthesis of the employed phosphonamide reagents.

  8. First total synthesis of a guanidine alkaloid Nitensidine D using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An efficient first total synthesis of a naturally occurring guanidine alkaloid, Nitensidine D isolated from ethanol extract of Pterogyne nitens has been described. Geraniol has been used as the starting material. N-alkylation of phthalimide has been achieved using immobilized ionic liquid and formamidinesulfinic acid acts as ...

  9. Total synthesis of (-)-exiguolide via an organosilane-based strategy. (United States)

    Li, Hongze; Xie, Hengmu; Zhang, Zhigao; Xu, Yongjin; Lu, Ji; Gao, Lu; Song, Zhenlei


    An organosilane-based strategy has been used to accomplish the convergent total synthesis of (-)-exiguolide. The key steps involve: (1) geminal bis(silyl) Prins cyclization to construct the A ring; (2) silicon-protected RCM reaction to construct the 20-membered macrocycle; and (3) Hiyama-Denmark cross-coupling of vinylsilane with vinyliodide to install the triene side chain.

  10. Total synthesis of (±)-nardoaristolone B and its analogues. (United States)

    Handore, Kishor L; Reddy, D Srinivasa


    The first total synthesis of nardoaristolone B, a nor-sesquiterpenoid with an unusual fused ring system and having protective effects on the injury of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, has been accomplished. Stereoselective synthesis of its novel analogues inlcuding exo-cyclopropyl ring fusion is also part of this disclosure. In addition, an alternate and more efficient one-step method to make a 3/5/6 tricyclic ring system using the Robinson annulation method has been developed toward the generation of a library of compounds around this skeleton.

  11. Total Synthesis of Lagunamide A via Remote Vinylogous Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions, Chemical Studies Toward the Total Synthesis of Micromide and Preliminary Studies Toward the Total Synthesis of Azaspirene


    Banasik, Brent


    Lagunamide A represents a class of novel cyclic depsipeptide obtained from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. With an array of biological activity and impressive IC50 values including anti-malarial properties (IC50 0.19-0.91 μM), significant cytotoxic properties against P388 murine leukemia cell lines (IC50 6.4-20.5 nM) and ileocecal colon cancer (1.6 nM), lagunamide A shows promise as an extremely powerful therapeutic agent. Unexpectedly, in a recent total synthesis of lagunamide ...

  12. The Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Bisquinolizidine Alkaloids: A Modular 'Inside-Out' Approach. (United States)

    Scharnagel, Dagmar; Goller, Jessica; Deibl, Nicklas; Milius, Wolfgang; Breuning, Matthias


    Bisquinolizidine alkaloids are characterized by a chiral bispidine core (3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) to which combinations of an alpha,N-fused 2-pyridone, an endo- or exo-alpha,N-annulated piperidin(on)e, and an exo-allyl substituent are attached. We developed a modular 'inside-out' approach that permits access to most members of this class. Its applicability was proven in the asymmetric synthesis of 21 natural bisquinolizidine alkaloids, among them more than ten first enantioselective total syntheses. Key steps are the first successful preparation of both enantiomers of C2-symmetric 2,6-dioxobispidine by desymmetrization of a 2,4,6,8-tetraoxo precursor, the construction of the alpha,N-fused 2-pyridone by using an enamine-bromoacrylic acid strategy, and the installation of endo- or, optionally, exo-annulated piperidin(on)es. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Total synthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan containing 92 monosaccharide units (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Xiong, De-Cai; Chen, Si-Cong; Wang, Yong-Shi; Ye, Xin-Shan


    Carbohydrates are diverse bio-macromolecules with highly complex structures that are involved in numerous biological processes. Well-defined carbohydrates obtained by chemical synthesis are essential to the understanding of their functions. However, synthesis of carbohydrates is greatly hampered by its insufficient efficiency. So far, assembly of long carbohydrate chains remains one of the most challenging tasks for synthetic chemists. Here we describe a highly efficient assembly of a 92-mer polysaccharide by the preactivation-based one-pot glycosylation protocol. Several linear and branched oligosaccharide/polysaccharide fragments ranging from 5-mer to 31-mer in length have been rapidly constructed in one-pot manner, which enables the first total synthesis of a biologically important mycobacterial arabinogalactan through a highly convergent [31+31+30] coupling reaction. Our results show that the preactivation-based one-pot glycosylation protocol may provide access to the construction of long and complicated carbohydrate chains.

  14. Ring-Contraction Strategy for the Practical, Scalable, Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Versatile γ-Quaternary Acylcyclopentenes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Allen Y.


    Contraction action! A simple protocol for the catalytic asymmetric synthesis of highly functionalized γ-quaternary acylcyclopentenes (see schematic) in up to 91 % overall yield and 92 % ee has been developed. The reaction sequence employs a palladium-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation reaction and exploits the unusual stability of β-hydroxy cycloheptanones to achieve a general and robust method for performing two-carbon ring contractions.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of vanadium catalysed asymmetric cyanohydrin synthesis in propylene carbonate. (United States)

    North, Michael; Omedes-Pujol, Marta


    Propylene carbonate can be used as a green solvent for the asymmetric synthesis of cyanohydrin trimethylsilyl ethers from aldehydes and trimethylsilyl cyanide catalysed by VO(salen)NCS, though reactions are slower in this solvent than the corresponding reactions carried out in dichloromethane. A mechanistic study has been undertaken, comparing the catalytic activity of VO(salen)NCS in propylene carbonate and dichloromethane. Reactions in both solvents obey overall second-order kinetics, the rate of reaction being dependent on the concentration of both the aldehyde and trimethylsilyl cyanide. The order with respect to VO(salen)NCS was determined and found to decrease from 1.2 in dichloromethane to 1.0 in propylene carbonate, indicating that in propylene carbonate, VO(salen)NCS is present only as a mononuclear species, whereas in dichloromethane dinuclear species are present which have previously been shown to be responsible for most of the catalytic activity. Evidence from ⁵¹V NMR spectroscopy suggested that propylene carbonate coordinates to VO(salen)NCS, blocking the free coordination site, thus inhibiting its Lewis acidity and accounting for the reduction in catalytic activity. This explanation was further supported by a Hammett analysis study, which indicated that Lewis base catalysis made a much greater contribution to the overall catalytic activity of VO(salen)NCS in propylene carbonate than in dichloromethane.

  16. The Daphniphyllum Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of (−)-Calyciphylline N (United States)


    Presented here is a full account on the development of a strategy culminating in the first total synthesis of the architecturally complex daphniphyllum alkaloid, (−)-calyciphylline N. Highlights of the approach include a highly diastereoselective, intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction of a silicon-tethered acrylate; an efficient Stille carbonylation of a sterically encumbered vinyl triflate; a one-pot Nazarov cyclization/proto-desilylation sequence; and the chemoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted diene ester. PMID:25756504

  17. Structure of FD-895 revealed through total synthesis. (United States)

    Villa, Reymundo; Mandel, Alexander L; Jones, Brian D; La Clair, James J; Burkart, Michael D


    The total synthesis of FD-895 was completed through a strategy that featured the use of a tandem esterification ring-closing metathesis (RCM) process to construct the 12-membered macrolide and a modified Stille coupling to append the side chain. These studies combined with detailed analysis of all four possible C16-C17 stereoisomers were used to confirm the structure of FD-895 and identify an analog with an enhanced subnanomolar bioactivity.

  18. Chemo-enzymatic asymmetric total syntheses of antitumor afents (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-panaxytriol and (R)- and (S)-falcarinol from panes ginseng using an enantioconvergent enzyme-triggered cascade reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, S.F.; Steinreiber, A.; Orru, R.V.A.; Faber, K.


    Total asymmetric synthesis of two components of Panax ginseng showing antitumor activity, i.e., (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-Panaxytriol and of both enantiomers of Falcarinol was accomplished. Due to the fact that the synthetic strategy was based on enantioconvergent biotransformations, the

  19. Total chemical synthesis of proteins without HPLC purification. (United States)

    Loibl, S F; Harpaz, Z; Zitterbart, R; Seitz, O


    The total chemical synthesis of proteins is a tedious and time-consuming endeavour. The typical steps involve solid phase synthesis of peptide thioesters and cysteinyl peptides, native chemical ligation (NCL) in solution, desulfurization or removal of ligation auxiliaries in the case of extended NCL as well as many intermediary and final HPLC purification steps. With an aim to facilitate and improve the throughput of protein synthesis we developed the first method for the rapid chemical total on-resin synthesis of proteins that proceeds without a single HPLC-purification step. The method relies on the combination of three orthogonal protein tags that allow sequential immobilization (via the N-terminal and C-terminal ends), extended native chemical ligation and release reactions. The peptide fragments to be ligated are prepared by conventional solid phase synthesis and used as crude materials in the subsequent steps. An N-terminal His6 unit permits selective immobilization of the full length peptide thioester onto Ni-NTA agarose beads. The C-terminal peptide fragment carries a C-terminal peptide hydrazide and an N-terminal 2-mercapto-2-phenyl-ethyl ligation auxiliary, which serves as a reactivity tag for the full length peptide. As a result, only full length peptides, not truncation products, react in the subsequent on-bead extended NCL. After auxiliary removal the ligation product is liberated into solution upon treatment with mild acid, and is concomitantly captured by an aldehyde-modified resin. This step allows the removal of the most frequently observed by-product in NCL chemistry, i.e. the hydrolysed peptide thioester (which does not contain a C-terminal peptide hydrazide). Finally, the target protein is released with diluted hydrazine or acid. We applied the method in the synthesis of 46 to 126 amino acid long MUC1 proteins comprising 2-6 copies of a 20mer tandem repeat sequence. Only three days were required for the parallel synthesis of 9 MUC1 proteins

  20. Synthesis of hollow asymmetrical silica dumbbells with a movable inner core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagao, D.; van Kats, C.M.; Hayasaka, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Konno, M.; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.


    Hollow asymmetrical silica dumbbells containing a movable inner core were fabricated by a template-assisted method. Three different templates were employed for the fabrication of the hollow asymmetrical dumbbells. For the preparation of the first template, silica particles were uniformly covered

  1. Concise and Straightforward Asymmetric Synthesis of a Cyclic Natural Hydroxy-Amino Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Simirgiotis


    Full Text Available An enantioselective total synthesis of the natural amino acid (2S,4R,5R-4,5-di-hydroxy-pipecolic acid starting from D-glucoheptono-1, 4-lactone is presented. The best sequence employed as a key step the intramolecular nucleophilic displacement by an amino function of a 6-O-p-toluene-sulphonyl derivative of a methyl D-arabino-hexonate and involved only 12 steps with an overall yield of 19%. The structures of the compounds synthesized were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic (NMR and MS and computational analysis.

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of novel apio carbocyclic nucleoside analogues as potential antiviral and antitumor agent. (United States)

    Jeong, Lak Shin; Lee, Jeong A; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Kim, Hea Ok; Lee, Kang Man; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chun, Moon Woo


    Novel apio carbocyclic nucleosides 18-21 were asymmetrically synthesized as potential antiviral and antitumor agent, starting from D-ribose employing aldol reaction, RCM reaction and Mitsunobu reaction as key reactions.

  3. Vinylimidazole-Based Asymmetric Ion Pair Comonomers: Synthesis, Polymerization Studies and Formation of Ionically Crosslinked PMMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jana, S.; Vasantha, V.A.; Stubbs, L.P.; Parthiban, A.; Vancso, Gyula J.


    Vinylimidazole-based asymmetric ion pair comonomers (IPCs) which are free from nonpolymerizable counter ions have been synthesized, characterized and polymerized by free radical polymerization (FRP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer

  4. Divergent Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Asymmetrical-Core-Fucosylated and Core-Unmodified N-Glycans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Tiehai; Huang, Min; Liu, Lin; Wang, Shuo; Moremen, Kelley W; Boons, Geert-Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088245489


    A divergent chemoenzymaytic approach for the preparation of core-fucosylated and core-unmodified asymmetrical N-glycans from a common advances precursor is described. An undecasaccharide was synthesized by sequential chemical glycosylations of an orthogonally protected core fucosylated

  5. Recent approaches for asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes. (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Song, Xiaohan; Wang, Jiang; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Liu, Hong


    This review article critically discusses examples of asymmetric synthesis of tailor-made α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine and alanine Schiff bases, reported in the literature from 2013 through the end of 2016. Where it is possible, reaction mechanism and origin of the stereochemical outcome is discussed in detail. Special attention is given to various aspects of practicality and scalability of the reported methods. Among the most noticeable developments in this area are novel designs of axially chiral ligands, application of electro- and mechano-chemical (ball-milling) conditions, and development of dynamic kinetic resolution procedures.

  6. Industrial asymmetric synthesis by use of metal-BINAP catalysts; Kinzoku-BINAP sakutai shokubai wo mochiita fusai gosei gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumobayashi, H.; Sayo, N.; Akutagawa, S.; Sakaguchi, T.; Tsuruta, H. [Takasago International Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan). Central Research Laboratory


    This article covers the history and present progress of the industrial asymmetric synthesis by use of BINAP (2,2`-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1`-binaphthyl)-metal catalysts. Especially, the historic discovery of the BINAP-rhodium(I)-catalyzed 1,3-hydrogen migration of N,N-diethylgeranylamine (GDEA) and the achievement of practical preparation of optically active BINAP, led to the establishment of the first industrial process for efficient production of l-menthol employing asymmetric catalysts. Continuing efforts have been devoted to the exploration of new catalytic reactions using new BINAP-metal complexes and their applications to industrial asymmetric synthesis. Among them, asymmetric hydrogenation of functionalyzed olefins and ketones by use of BINAP-ruthenium (II) complexes provides fruitful results. Today, a wide range of chiral compounds including the pharmaceutical intermediates 4-acetoxy-2-azetidinone (4-AA) and 1,2-propanediol (2-PPD) are produced in industrial scale in Takasago. 47 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Total Synthesis and Stereochemical Assignment of Nostosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Wang


    Full Text Available Nostosins A and B were isolated from a hydrophilic extract of Nostoc sp. strain from Iran, which exhibits excellent tryps inhibitory activity. Nostosin A was the most potent natural tripeptide aldehyde as trypsin inhibitor up to now. Both R‐ and S‐2‐hydroxy‐4‐(4‐hydroxy‐phenyl butanoic acid (Hhpba were prepared and incorporated into the total synthesis of nostosin B, respectively. Careful comparison of the NMR spectra and optical rotation data of synthetic nostosin B (1a and 1b with the natural product led to the unambiguous identification of the R‐configuration of the Hhpba fragment, which was further confirmed by co‐injection with the authentic sample on HPLC using both reversed phase column and the chiral AD‐RH column.

  8. Supported liquid membrane as a novel tool for driving the equilibrium of ω-transaminase catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. (United States)

    Rehn, Gustav; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Grey, Carl


    An attractive option to produce chiral amines of industrial importance is through asymmetric synthesis using ω-transaminase. However, reaching high yields often requires a strategy for shifting the equilibrium position. This paper describes a novel strategy for handling this problem. It involves the use of a supported liquid membrane (SLM) together with a packed bed reactor. The reactor contains Escherichia coli cells with ω-transaminase from Arthrobacter citreus, immobilized by flocculation with chitosan. The SLM consists of a hollow fibre membrane contactor in which the pores contain undecane. The system enables continuous extraction of the amine product and was used to successfully shift the equilibrium in asymmetric synthesis of (S)-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA). A conversion of 98% was reached, compared to 50% without product extraction. Moreover, a selective extraction of the produced MBA was realized. A high product concentration of 55g/l was reached after 80h, and the system showed promising potential for continuous operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adding a functional handle to nature's building blocks: the asymmetric synthesis of β-hydroxy-α-amino acids. (United States)

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Farrants, Helen; Li, Xuechen


    β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids are not only used by synthetic chemists but are also found in natural products, many of which show anti-microbial or anti-cancer properties. Over the past 30 years, chemists have searched for many asymmetric routes to these useful building blocks. Initial attempts to synthesize these compounds utilized chiral auxiliaries and the reactions of glycine equivalents with aldehydes to form two stereocenters in one step. Other methods with the formation of specific intermediates or that were aimed at a specific amino acid have also been investigated. Asymmetric hydrogenation by dynamic kinetic resolution has emerged as a high-yielding method for the synthesis of an array of modified amino acids with good stereoselectivity. More recently, amino-acid functionalization and multicomponent reactions have increased the atom economy and simplified many long and difficult routes. In this Focus Review, many of the elegant syntheses of these compounds are explored. The applications of β-hydroxy-α-amino acids in natural-product synthesis are also mentioned. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A total synthesis of spirastrellolide A methyl ester. (United States)

    Arlt, Alexander; Benson, Stefan; Schulthoff, Saskia; Gabor, Barbara; Fürstner, Alois


    A concise total synthesis of spirastrellolide A methyl ester (1 a, R(1) =Me) as the parent compound of a series of highly cytotoxic marine macrolides is disclosed, which exploits and expands the flexibility of a synthesis plan previously developed by our group en route to the sister compound spirastrellolide F methyl ester (6 a, R(1) =Me). Key to success was the masking of the signature Δ(15,16) -bond of 1 a as a C16-carbonyl group until after the stereogenic center at C24 had been properly set by a highly selective hydrogenation of the C24 exo-methylene precursor 66. Conformational control over the macrocyclic frame allowed the proper stereochemical course to be dialed into this reduction process. The elaboration of the C16 ketone to the C15-C16 double bond was accomplished by a chemoselective alkenyl triflate formation followed by a palladium-catalyzed hydride delivery. The role of the ketone at C16 as a strategic design element is also evident up-stream of the key intermediate 66, the assembly of which hinged upon the addition of the polyfunctionalized dithiane 37 to the similarly elaborate aldehyde fragment 46. Other crucial steps of the total synthesis were an alkyl-Suzuki coupling and a Yamaguchi lactonization that allowed the Northern and the Southern sector of the target to be stitched together and the macrocyclic perimeter to be forged. The lateral chain comprising the remote C46 stereocenter was finally attached to the core region by a modified Julia-Kocienski olefination. The preparation of the individual building blocks led to some methodological spin-offs, amongst which the improved procedure for the N-O-bond cleavage of isoxazolines by zero-valent molybdenum and the ozonolysis of a double bond in the presence of other oxidation-prone functionality are most noteworthy. Preliminary biological data suggest that the entire carbon framework, that is the macrocyclic core plus the lateral chain, might be necessary for high cytotoxicity. Copyright

  11. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.


    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions.

  12. Shortcut with pool under parallel update rule on one-dimensional lattice totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (United States)

    Xiao, Song; Chen, Xiaoyu; Liang, Ruquan; Liu, Yanna


    This paper studies one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with a pool-shortcut under parallel update rule. Here, the pool is a special area which is introduced into a TASEP on a single lane with shortcut with the probabilities of entering (p) and leaving (q). Different from the existed researches, the parameters of p and q are unequal. To simplify the calculations, the simplest case with parallel update is considered, namely the hopping probability in the bulk equals unity. The theoretical calculation results are compared to the densities acquired by Monte Carlo simulations, and they agree very well. The diagram includes five phases, namely LD/LD/LD, HD/HD/HD, LD/LD/HD, MC/LD/LD and MC/LD/HD phases. It is divided into the LD/LD/LD and HD/HD/HD two regions by the LD/LD/HD phase. Interestingly, the MC/LD/LD and MC/LD/HD phases become a straight line and a point, respectively. The influences of parameters p and q (p > q) on the phases are examined. It is found that the HD/HD/HD phase region shrinks, when the variable q reduces from 0.6 to 0.2 (p is fixed, p = 0.8).

  13. A General Asymmetric Synthesis of (R-Matsutakeol and Flavored Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu


    Full Text Available An efficient and practical synthetic route toward chiral matsutakeol and analogs was developed by asymmetric addition of terminal alkyne to aldehydes. (R-matsutakeol and other flavored substances were feasibly synthesized from various alkylaldehydes in high yield (up to 49.5%, in three steps and excellent enantiomeric excess (up to >99%. The protocols may serve as an alternative asymmetric synthetic method for active small-molecule library of natural fatty acid metabolites and analogs. These chiral allyl alcohols are prepared for food analysis and screening insect attractants.

  14. Asymmetric time interval between evening and morning milking and its effect on the total daily milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek


    Full Text Available Samples of milk obtained in the course of evening and morning milking performed in variable time intervals of either 11 and 13 hours (n = 1.282 or 10 and 14 hours (n = 370 were collected with the aim to quantify the effect of the length of a variable (asymmetric time interval between evening and morning milking on the total amount and composition of daily milk production of dairy cows. Milk samples were analysed in an accredited (EN ISO 17025 laboratory in Brno-Tuřany (Czech Republic and the following contents of individual milk components were estimated: fat (F; g.100g−1, total protein (TP; g.100g−1, lactose (L; lactose monohydrate; g.100g−1, and somatic cell counts (SCC; ­−1 were estimated in. It was found out that with the increasing total daily milk production the shares of evening and morning milk yield increased as well; however, the percentages of evening and/or morning yields in the total yield remained practically unchanged and represented 43.5 % and 56.5% or 40.4 % and 59.6 % in variants with intervals of 11 and 13 hours and/or 10 and 14 hours, respectively. In the variant with the milking interval of 11 and 13 hours, values of correlation coefficients between the above parameters (i.e. F, TP, L, SCC, and log SCC of evening and morning milk yields on the one hand and the total milk performance on the other ranged from the minimum r = 0.896 (F to the maximum r = 0.980 (TP. In the variant with the interval of 10 and 14 hours, the corresponding values of correlation coefficients were r = 0.848 (F and r = 0.983 (TP. These correlations were statistically highly significant in all cases (P ≤ 0.001. Further, linear regression equations enabling the estimation of milk parameters of the total milk yield on the base of results obtained in evening and morning milking was calculated as well. Values of coefficients of determination (R2 of these equations ranged from 0.803 (F to 0.960 (TP and from 0.718 (F to 0.966 (TP for

  15. Efforts Towards The Total Synthesis Of Aureobasidin L


    Rani Maharani


    Aureobasidin L AbL 2 was synthesised using a strategy applied for the synthesis of analog 2S3S-Hmp-AbL 1 through a combination of solution- and solid-phase peptide synthesis. It was assumed that the synthesis of the natural AbL 2 will be more straightforward than the synthesis of the analog 2. However some issues were found during the synthesis. Due to these issues a small amount of AbL 2 was obtained. The AbL 2 was characterized by ESI-MS analysis and a comparison of 1H-NMR spectrum between ...

  16. Asymmetric synthesis of quaternary α-fluoro-β-keto-amines via detrifluoroacetylative Mannich reactions. (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Dai, Yanling; Mei, Haibo; Han, Jianlin; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Pan, Yi


    Efficient asymmetric detrifluoroacetylative Mannich addition reactions between 2-fluoro-1,3-di-ketones/hydrates and chiral N-sulfinyl-imines via C-C bond cleavage were reported, which afforded C-F quaternary α-fluoro-β-keto-amines with excellent yields and high diastereoselectivity.

  17. Chiral bicycle imidazole nucleophilic catalysts: rational design, facile synthesis, and successful application in asymmetric Steglich rearrangement. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenfeng; Xie, Fang; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Wanbin


    A new type of chiral bicycle imidazole nucleophilic catalyst was rationally designed, facilely synthesized, and successfully applied in an asymmetric Steglich rearrangement with good to excellent yield and enantioselectivity at ambient temperature. Moreover, it can be easily recycled with almost no reduction of catalytic efficiency. This is the first example for the successful chiral imidazole nucleophilic catalyst without H-bonding assistance.

  18. α-Ketophosphonates as ester surrogates: isothiourea-catalyzed asymmetric diester and lactone synthesis. (United States)

    Smith, Siobhan R; Leckie, Stuart M; Holmes, Reuben; Douglas, James; Fallan, Charlene; Shapland, Peter; Pryde, David; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Smith, Andrew D


    Isothiourea HBTM-2.1 catalyzes the asymmetric Michael addition/lactonization of aryl- and alkenylacetic acids using α-keto-β,γ-unsaturated phosphonates as α,β-unsaturated ester surrogates, giving access to a diverse range of stereodefined lactones or enantioenriched functionalized diesters upon ring-opening.

  19. First Stereoselective Total Synthesis of a Dimeric Naphthoquinonopyrano-γ-lactone: (+)-γ-Actinorhodin. (United States)

    Neumeyer, Markus; Brückner, Reinhard


    We have accomplished the first total synthesis of an isomerically pure naphthoquinonopyrano-γ-lactone dimer, γ-actinorhodin, in eleven steps. Two steps exploit pairs of peri-MeO groups as unusual selectivity controls. The respective MeO groups convey the steric bulk of a bromo or iodo substituent located ortho to one MeO group as steric hindrance into the vicinity of the second MeO group. This relay effect was indispensable for exerting regiocontrol in an aromatic bromination and diastereocontrol in an oxa-Pictet-Spengler cyclization. The absolute configuration of our target compound was established in an asymmetric Sharpless dihydroxylation of a β,γ-unsaturated ester, which was synthesized in a Heck coupling of a bromoiodonaphthalene with ethyl vinylacetate. The dihydroxylation provided the γ-hydroxylactone moiety of the bromonaphthalene that was used as the substrate in the oxa-Pictet-Spengler cyclization. Dimerization to the core of γ-actinorhodin occurred by two Suzuki couplings. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synthesis of optically active β- or γ-alkyl-substituted alcohols through copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents. (United States)

    Guduguntla, Sureshbabu; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    An efficient one-pot synthesis of optically active β-alkyl-substituted alcohols through a tandem copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) with organolithium reagents and reductive ozonolysis is presented. Furthermore, hydroboration-oxidation following the Cu-catalyzed AAA leads to the corresponding homochiral γ-alkyl-substituted alcohols.

  1. Asymmetric Synthesis of Amino-Bis-Pyrazolone Derivatives via an Organocatalytic Mannich Reaction


    Chauhan, Pankaj; Mahajan, Suruchi; Kaya, Uğur; Peuronen, Anssi; Rissanen, Kari; Enders, Dieter


    A new series of N-Boc ketimines derived from pyrazolin-5-ones have been used as electrophiles in asymmetric Mannich reactions with pyrazolones. The amino-bis-pyrazolone products are obtained in excellent yields and stereoselectivities by employing a very low loading of 1 mol % of a bifunctional squaramide organocatalyst. Depending on the substitution at position 4 of the pyrazolones, the new protocol allows for the generation of one or two tetrasubstituted stereocenters, including a one-pot v...

  2. Chiral PEPPSI Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in Asymmetric Suzuki–Miyaura Coupling Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Benhamou, Laure


    PEPPSI complexes incorporating chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands based on 2,2-dimethyl-1-(o-substituted aryl)propan-1-amines were synthesized. Two complexes, with one saturated and one unsaturated NHC ligand, were structurally characterized. The chiral PEPPSI complexes were used in asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura reactions, giving atropisomeric biaryl products in modest to good enantiomeric ratios. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Synthesis of Main-Chain Chiral Quaternary Ammonium Polymers for Asymmetric Catalysis Using Quaternization Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masud Parvez


    Full Text Available Main-chain chiral quaternary ammonium polymers were successfully synthesized by the quaternization polymerization of cinchonidine dimer with dihalides. The polymerization occurred smoothly under optimized conditions to give novel type of main-chain chiral quaternary ammonium polymers. The catalytic activity of the polymeric chiral organocatalysts was investigated on the asymmetric benzylation of N-(diphenylmethylideneglycine tert-butyl ester.

  4. Recent approaches towards the asymmetric synthesis of α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Henning; Brase, S.


    The class of alpha,alpha-disubstituted alpha-amino acids has gained considerable attention in the past decades and continues doing so. The ongoing interest in biological and chemical properties of the substance class has inspired the development of many new methodologies for their asymmetric...... construction, which have not found their way into the general focus of organic chemistry yet. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the developments in the field since 1998....

  5. alpha-Ketophosphonates as ester surrogates : isothiourea-catalyzed asymmetric diester and lactone synthesis


    Smith, Siobhan R.; Leckie, Stuart M.; Holmes, Reuben; Douglas, James; Fallan, Charlene; Shapland, Peter; Pryde, David; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Smith, Andrew D.


    This work is in part supported by the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) ERC Grant Agreement No. 279850 Isothiourea HBTM-2.1 catalyzes the asymmetric Michael addition/lactonization of aryl- and alkenylacetic acids using α-keto-β,γ-unsaturated phosphonates as α,β-unsaturated ester surrogates, giving access to a diverse range of stereodefined lactones or enantioenriched functionalized diesters upon ring-opening. Postprint Pe...

  6. Biologically active Phytophthora mating hormone prepared by catalytic asymmetric total synthesis (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Zhao, Zhijian; den Hartog, Tim; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Govers, Francine


    A Phytophthora mating hormone with an array of 1,5-stereogenic centers has been synthesized by using our recently developed methodology of catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition of Grignard reagents. We applied this methodology in a diastereo- and enantioselective iterative route and obtained two of the 16 possible stereoisomers of Phytophthora hormone α1. These synthetic stereoisomers induced the formation of sexual spores (oospores) in A2 mating type strains of three heterothallic Phytophthora species, P. infestans, P. capsici, and P. nicotianae but not in A1 mating type strains. The response was concentration-dependent, and the oospores were viable. These results demonstrate that the biological activity of the synthetic hormone resembles that of the natural hormone α1. Mating hormones are essential components in the sexual life cycle of a variety of organisms. For plant pathogens like Phytophthora, sexual reproduction is important as a source of genetic variation. Moreover, the thick-walled oospores are the most durable propagules that can survive harsh environmental conditions. Sexual reproduction can thus greatly affect disease epidemics. The availability of synthetic compounds mimicking the activity of Phytophthora mating hormone will be instrumental for further unravelling sexual reproduction in this important group of plant pathogens. PMID:18559862

  7. Efforts Towards The Total Synthesis Of Aureobasidin L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Maharani


    Full Text Available Aureobasidin L AbL 2 was synthesised using a strategy applied for the synthesis of analog 2S3S-Hmp-AbL 1 through a combination of solution- and solid-phase peptide synthesis. It was assumed that the synthesis of the natural AbL 2 will be more straightforward than the synthesis of the analog 2. However some issues were found during the synthesis. Due to these issues a small amount of AbL 2 was obtained. The AbL 2 was characterized by ESI-MS analysis and a comparison of 1H-NMR spectrum between AbL 2 and 2S3S-Hmp-AbL 1.

  8. Asymmetric Synthesis of Double Bond Isomers of the Structure Proposed for Pyrinodemin A and Indication of Its Structural Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun’ichi Kobayashi


    Full Text Available Asymmetric synthesis of double bond isomers ( -2 (∆15’,16’ and ( -3 (∆14’,15’ ofthe structure (1 (∆16’,17’ proposed for pyrinodemin A, a cytotoxic bis-pyridine alkaloidwith a unique cis-cyclopent[c]isoxazolidine moiety from a marine sponge, has beenaccomplished. Pyrinodemin A was indicated to be a 1:1 racemic mixture of 2 fromcomparison of C18 and chiral HPLC analysis for pyrinodemin A and the syntheticcompounds as well as ESIMS data of oxidative degradation products of pyrinodemin A.

  9. Enantioselective synthesis of anti-β-hydroxy-α-amido esters by asymmetric transfer hydrogenation in emulsions. (United States)

    Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton; Villo, Piret; Somfai, Peter


    Herein, we present two methods for an asymmetric transfer hydrogenation through the dynamic kinetic resolution of α-amido-β-ketoesters. These procedures yield the corresponding anti-β-hydroxy-α-amido esters in good yields and with good diastereo- and enantioselectivities. First, the scope of the reduction of α-amido-β-ketoesters by using triethylammonium formate azeotrope is examined. Then, an emulsion technology with sodium formate is explored, which allows for broader substrate scope, faster reaction times, and lower catalyst loading. Furthermore, these reactions are operationally simple and can be set up in air. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Flexible and Asymmetric Ligand in Constructing Coordinated Complexes: Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Fluorescent Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Lin


    Full Text Available Flexible and asymmetric ligand L [L = 1-((pyridin-3-ylmethyl-1H-benzotriazole], is used as a basic backbone to construct complicated metal-organic frameworks. Two new polymers, namely, [Ag2(L2(NO32]n (1 and [Ag(L(ClO4]n (2, were synthesized and characterized by X-ray structure analysis and fluorescent spectroscopy. The complex 1 gives an “S” type double helical conformation, whereas complex 2 exhibits a 1D zigzag configuration. Different anions affect the silver coordination geometry and crystal packing topology.

  11. New Organocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Highly Substituted Chiral 2-Oxospiro-[indole-3,4′- (1′,4′-dihydropyridine] Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Auria-Luna


    Full Text Available Herein, we report our preliminary results concerning the first promising asymmetric synthesis of highly functionalized 2-oxospiro-[indole-3,4′-(1′,4′-dihydropyridine] via the reaction of an enamine with isatylidene malononitrile derivatives in the presence of a chiral base organocatalyst. The moderate, but promising, enantioselectivity observed (30%–58% ee (enantiomeric excess opens the door to a new area of research for the asymmetric construction of these appealing spirooxindole skeletons, whose enantioselective syntheses are still very limited.

  12. Whole-Cell Biocatalyst for Chemoenzymatic Total Synthesis of Rivastigmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vitale


    Full Text Available Biocatalytic processes are increasingly playing a key role in the development of sustainable asymmetric syntheses, which are central to pharmaceutical companies for the production of chiral enantiopure drugs. This work describes a simple and economically viable chemoenzymatic process for the production of (S-rivastigmine, which is an important drug for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. The described protocol involves the R-regioselective bioreduction of an aromatic ketone by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 whole cells in phosphate buffered saline (PBS (37 °C, 24 h as a key step. Biocatalytic performance of baker’s yeast whole cells in water and in aqueous eutectic mixtures have been evaluated and discussed as well. The route is scalable, environmentally friendly, and the target drug is obtained via four steps in overall 78% yield and 98% ee.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene coated iron oxide nanoparticles and asymmetric assemblies by phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui


    Films with a gradient concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are reported, based on a phase inversion membrane process. Nanoparticles with ∼13 nm diameter were prepared by coprecipitation in aqueous solution and stabilized by oleic acid. They were further functionalized by ATRP leading to grafted polystyrene brush. The final nanoparticles of 33 nm diameter were characterized by TGA, FTIR spectroscopy, GPC, transmission electron microscopy, and dynanmic light scattering. Asymmetric porous nanoparticle assemblies were then prepared by solution casting and immersion in water. The nanocomposite film production with functionalized nanoparticles is fast and technically scalable. The morphologies of films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, demonstrating the presence of sponge-like structures and finger-like cavities when 50 and 13 wt % casting solutions were, respectively, used. The magnetic properties were evaluated using vibrating sample magnetometer.

  14. Concise methods for the synthesis of chiral polyoxazolines and their application in asymmetric hydrosilylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jie Li


    Full Text Available Seven polyoxazoline ligands were synthesized in high yield in a one-pot reaction by heating polycarboxylic acids or their esters and chiral β-amino alcohols under reflux with concomitant removal of water or the alcohol produced in the reaction. The method is much simpler and more efficient in comparison to those methods reported in the literature.The compounds were used as chiral ligands in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrosilylation of aromatic ketones, and the effects of the linkers and the substituents present on the oxazoline rings on the yield and enantioselectivity investigated. Compound 2 was identified as the best ligand of this family for the hydrosilylation of aromatic ketones.

  15. A First Synthesis and Physical Properties of Asymmetric Anthracenes-Thiophenes Bridged with Ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Min Ji; Park, Ji Hee; Jeong, Eun Bin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of); and others


    Here we report our recent result of a new semiconductor material, which has an asymmetric structure. The synthesized molecules consist of anthracene and thiophene connected by bridged ethylene and substituted with hexyl or dodecyl groups as pendants. The semiconductors were synthesized using a McMurry coupling reaction between anthracene-2-carbaldehyde and corresponding 5-hexyl(or dodecyl)thiophene-2-carbaldehyde. A first investigation of synthesized asymmetry AVHT (9a) and AVDT (9b) for the physical properties showed that they have high oxidation potential and thermal stability. The devices prepared by using AVHT (9a) and AVDT (9b) showed the mobility of 2.6 Χ 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}/Vs and 4.4 Χ 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively, in solution processed OTFTs.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of asymmetric gramicidin S analogues containing modified D-phenylalanine residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, Matthijs; Engels, Eefje; Busscher, Henk J.; Otero, Jose M.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; van Raaij, Mark J.; Mars-Groenendijk, Roos H.; Noort, Daan; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Overhand, Mark


    The synthesis of new analogues of the cationic antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S, having a modified D-phenylalanine residue, their antibacterial properties against several Gram positive and negative strains, as well as their hemolytic activity is reported. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of asymmetric gramicidin S analogues containing modified d-phenylalanine residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, M. van der; Engels, E.; Busscher, H.J.; Otero, J.M.; Llamas-Saiz, A.L.; Raaij, M.J. van; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Marel, G.A. van der; Overkleeft, H.S.; Overhand, M.


    The synthesis of new analogues of the cationic antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S, having a modified d-phenylalanine residue, their antibacterial properties against several Gram positive and negative strains, as well as their hemolytic activity is reported. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of asymmetric supramolecular compounds using a Ni(0) catalysed homo-coupling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassidy, Lynda; Horn, Sabine; Cleary, Laura; Halpin, Yvonne; Browne, Wesley R.; Vos, Johannes G.


    The synthesis and characterisation of a series of dinuclear ruthenium and osmium polypyridyl metal complexes based on the bridging ligands [5-(5'-bipyridin-2',2 ''-yl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl)]-1,2,4-triazole (Hpytr-bipy), 2,2 ''-bis(pyridin-2 '' yl)-5,5 ''-bis(pyridin-3 ''-yl) (bipy-bipy) and

  19. Asymmetric, Organocatalytic, 3-Step Synthesis of γ-Hydroxy-(E)-α-β-Unsaturated Sulfones and Esters (United States)

    Petersen, Kimberly S.


    Efficient and enantiocontrolled synthesis of γ-hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated sulfones and esters are reported through the reaction of enantioenriched α-selenyl aldehydes with EWG-stabilized carbanions and then a one pot selenide oxidation, in situ epoxide formation, and final in situ epoxide opening. PMID:18811178

  20. Asymmetric synthesis of a functionalized tricyclo [6.2. 0.0 2, 6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of a functionalized tricyclo[,6]decane derivative in enantiomerically pure form, the core structure present in the natural products kelsoene and poduran, is described. The key steps involve a stereocontrolled copper (I)-catalyzed intramolecular [2+2] photocycloaddition of a 1, 6-diene prepared from ...

  1. Total synthesis of starfish saponin goniopectenoside B. (United States)

    Xiao, Guozhi; Yu, Biao


    Star quality: Goniopectenoside B, a minor asterosaponin from starfish Goniopecten demonstrans with antifouling activity, has been synthesized in a convergent 21 steps and in 4.3 % overall yield starting from adrenosterone. This represents the first synthesis of a complex asterosaponin, which are ubiquitous and characteristic in starfish as defense chemicals (see figure). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. First total synthesis of a guanidine alkaloid Nitensidine D using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crivos M, Martinez M R, Pochettino M L, Remorini C,. Sy A and Teves L 2007 J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 3 2 (1). 10. Bolzani V D S, Gunatilaka A A L and Kingston ... (a) Miller CE and Bischoff JJ 1986 Synthesis 777; (b). Meryanoff C A, Stanzione R C, Plampin J N and Mills. J E 1986 J. Org. Chem. 51 1882. 29. Walter W 1955 ...

  3. Synthesis and use of an asymmetric transfer hydrogenation catalyst based on iron(II) for the synthesis of enantioenriched alcohols and amines. (United States)

    Zuo, Weiwei; Morris, Robert H


    The catalytic hydrogenation of prochiral ketones and imines is an advantageous approach to the synthesis of enantioenriched alcohols and amines, respectively, which are two classes of compounds that are highly prized in pharmaceutical, fragrance and flavoring chemistry. This hydrogenation reaction is generally carried out using ruthenium-based catalysts. Our group has developed an alternative synthetic route that is based on the environmentally friendlier iron-based catalysis. This protocol describes the three-part synthesis of trans-[amine(imine)diphosphine]chlorocarbonyliron(II) tetrafluoroborate templated by iron salts and starting from commercially available chemicals, which provides the precatalyst for the efficient asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones and imines. The use of the enantiopure (S,S) catalyst to reduce prochiral ketones to the (R)-alcohol in good to excellent yields and enantioenrichment is also detailed, as well as the reduction to the amine in very high yield and enantiopurity of imines substituted at the nitrogen with the N-(diphenylphosphinoyl) group (-P(O)Ph2). Although the best ruthenium catalysts provide alcohols in higher enantiomeric excess (ee) than the iron complex catalyst used in this protocol, they do so on much longer time scales or at higher catalyst loadings. This protocol can be completed in 2 weeks.

  4. Synthesis and thermodynamic properties of a novel pyridinium-based asymmetrical gemini ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuzhao; Wang, Jun; Zou, Wenyuan; Wu, Jinchao [Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou (China)


    A novel asymmetrical gemini ionic liquid (GIL), [1-(1-pyridinium-yl-hexyl)-6-methylpiperidinium] dihexafluorophosphate ([PyC{sub 6}MPi][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2}) combined with pyridine, 1-methylpiperidine by 1,6-dibromohexane with PF{sub 6} as anion, was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and IR. The molar heat capacity of the GIL was measured via differential scanning calorimetry from 298.15 K to 448.15 K under atmospheric pressure. No phase transition or other thermal anomaly was observed in the solid-phase region (298.15 K to 358.15 K) and liquid-phase region (403.15 K to 448.15 K). The basic properties and thermodynamic functions of the GIL, such as melting point, molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion, heat capacity, enthalpy HT-H298.15 K, and entropy S{sub T}-S{sub 298.15} K, were also determined from the experimental data. Thermal decomposition kinetics of [PyC{sub 6}MPi][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} were investigated by using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis in pure nitrogen atmosphere at various heating rates. Thermal decomposition data were, respectively, correlated with Friedman method, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall equation, and ASTM model. The activation energy (E) and pre-exponential factor (logA) values were obtained by using the above three methods.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical study of a new asymmetrical tripodal amine containing morpholine moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Rezaeivala


    Full Text Available A new asymmetrical tripodal amine, [H3L2]Br3 containing morpholine moiety was prepared from reacting of one equivalent of N-(3-aminopropylmorpholine and two equivalents of tosylaziridine, followed by detosylation with HBr/CH3COOH. The products were characterized by various spectroscopic methods such as FAB-MS, elemental analysis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the hydrobromide salt of the latter amine, [H3L2]Br3, was also determined. For triprotonated form of the ligand L2 we can consider several microspecies and/or conformers. A theoretical study at B3LYP/6-31G∗∗ level of theory showed that the characterized microspecies is the most stable microspecies for the triprotonated form of the ligand. It was shown that the experimental NMR data for [H3L2]Br3 in solution have good correlation with the corresponding calculated data for the most stable microspecies of [H3L2]3+ in the gas phase.

  6. Low temperature synthesis of ternary metal phosphides using plasma for asymmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng


    We report a versatile route for the preparation of metal phosphides using PH plasma for supercapacitor applications. The high reactivity of plasma allows rapid and low temperature conversion of hydroxides into monometallic, bimetallic, or even more complex nanostructured phosphides. These same phosphides are much more difficult to synthesize by conventional methods. Further, we present a general strategy for significantly enhancing the electrochemical performance of monometallic phosphides by substituting extrinsic metal atoms. Using NiCoP as a demonstration, we show that the Co substitution into NiP not only effectively alters the electronic structure and improves the intrinsic reactivity and electrical conductivity, but also stabilizes Ni species when used as supercapacitor electrode materials. As a result, the NiCoP nanosheet electrodes achieve high electrochemical activity and good stability in 1 M KOH electrolyte. More importantly, our assembled NiCoP nanoplates//graphene films asymmetric supercapacitor devices can deliver a high energy density of 32.9 Wh kg at a power density of 1301 W kg, along with outstanding cycling performance (83% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 20 A g). This activity outperforms most of the NiCo-based materials and renders the NiCoP nanoplates a promising candidate for capacitive storage devices.

  7. Possibilities of synthesis of unknown isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z > 108 in asymmetric actinide-based complete fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Juhee [Institute for Basic Science, Rare Isotope Science Project, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adamian, G.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Mathematical Physics Department, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    The possibilities of production of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z = 109-114 in various asymmetric hot fusion reactions are studied for the first time. The excitation functions of the formation of these isotopes in the xn evaporation channels are predicted and the optimal conditions for the synthesis are proposed. The products of the suggested reactions can fill a gap of unknown isotopes between the isotopes of the heaviest nuclei obtained in cold and hot complete fusion reactions. (orig.)

  8. Catalytic Asymmetric Piancatelli Rearrangement: Brønsted Acid Catalyzed 4π Electrocyclization for the Synthesis of Multisubstituted Cyclopentenones

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Yunfei


    The first catalytic asymmetric Piancatelli reaction is reported. Catalyzed by a chiral Brønsted acid, the rearrangement of a wide range of furylcarbinols with a series of aniline derivatives provides valuable aminocyclopentenones in high yields as well as excellent enantioselectivities and diastereoselectivities. The high value of the aza-Piancatelli rearrangement was demonstrated by the synthesis of a cyclopentane-based hNK1 antagonist analogue.

  9. Asymmetric Synthesis of γ-Lactones through Koga Amine-Controlled Addition of Enediolates to α,β-Unsaturated Sulfoxonium Salts. (United States)

    Peraino, Nicholas J; Kaster, Sven H; Wheeler, Kraig A; Kerrigan, Nessan J


    A chiral Koga amine-controlled asymmetric synthesis of cis-γ-lactones through a formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition of enediolates with α,β-unsaturated sulfoxonium salts is described. The desired structural motif was formed in moderate to good yields (50-71% for 13 examples), with good to very good diastereoselectivity (dr 5:1 to 10:1 for 20 examples), favoring the cis-isomer, and good to excellent enantioselectivity (70-91% ee for 13 examples).

  10. Dynamic kinetic asymmetric ring-opening/reductive amination sequence of racemic nitroepoxides with chiral amines: enantioselective synthesis of chiral vicinal diamines. (United States)

    Agut, Juan; Vidal, Andreu; Rodríguez, Santiago; González, Florenci V


    We report a highly diastereoselective synthesis of vicinal diamines by the treatment of nitroepoxides with primary amines and then a reducing agent. When using a chiral primary amine, racemic nitroepoxides are transformed into chiral diamines as a single enantiomers (>95:5 er) through a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT). The overall process is a one-pot procedure combining the exposure of nitroepoxides to chiral amines to afford diastereomeric mixtures of aminoimines and subsequent stereoselective imine reduction.

  11. Total synthesis and allelopathic activity of cytosporones A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamberlam, Charles E.M.; Meza, Alisson; Lima, Denis P. de; Beatriz, Adilson [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Leite, Carla Braga; Marques, Maria Rita [Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)


    The search for efficient, environmentally friendly herbicides has been the focus of numerous studies on the organic synthesis of compounds isolated from natural sources. Cytosporones, which are phenolic lipids isolated from fungi, exhibit noteworthy biological properties. This paper reports the preparation of cytosporones A-C from the same starting material through a short synthetic route, with good yields. All compounds were tested for allelopathic activity on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) seeds. Cytosporone A and its methylated precursor showed remarkable allelopathic activity, inhibiting seed germination and plantule growth. (author)

  12. The absolute configuration of (+)-oxopropaline D by theoretical calculation of specific rotation and asymmetric synthesis. (United States)

    Kuwada, Takeshi; Fukui, Miyako; Hata, Toshiyuki; Choshi, Tominari; Nobuhiro, Junko; Ono, Yukio; Hibino, Satoshi


    The specific optical rotations of (R)-oxopropaline D calculated by two ab initio MO methods were +52+/-31 degrees and +61+/-29 degrees, respectively, and (+)-oxopropaline D (3) was presumed to have an R-configuration. On the basis of this theoretical result, the reaction of 1-litio-beta-carboline with (R)-glyceraldehyde acetonide followed by oxidation with MnO(2) gave (R)-oxopropaline D acetonide (4a), which was consistent with the previously synthesized (+)-oxopropaline D acetonide (4) in all respects. From the results of theoretical calculations and the experimental synthesis, we determined that natural (+)-oxopropaline D (3) has an R-configuration.

  13. Asymmetric synthesis of quaternary aryl amino acid derivatives via a three-component aryne coupling reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P. Jones


    Full Text Available A method was developed for the synthesis of α-alkyl, α-aryl-bislactim ethers in good to excellent yields and high diastereoselectivities, consisting of a facile one-pot procedure in which the aryl group is introduced by means of a nucleophilic addition to benzyne and the alkyl group by alkylation of a resultant benzylic anion. Hydrolysis of the sterically less hindered adducts gave the corresponding quaternary amino acids with no racemization, whereas hydrolytic ring opening gave the corresponding valine dipeptides from bulkier bislactims.

  14. Total Synthesis of Kealiinines A-C, Kealiiquinone, 2-Deoxy-2-aminokealiiquinone and Study Towards Total Synthesis of Spirocalcaridines A-B (United States)

    Das, Jayanta Kumar

    Our group is mainly interested in the total synthesis of imidazole-containing alkaloids along with other kinds of alkaloids. A new family of imidazole alkaloids, the Leucetta alkaloids, is a group of 60 or so 2-aminoimidazole natural products found in marine sponges, which have received substantial attention recently because of their challenging structures and strong biological activities. Over the past few years, our laboratory has developed several synthetic methods for the total synthesis of 2-aminoimidazole alkaloids using site selective functionalization of polyhaloimidazoles. By using the above synthetic strategy, the development of high yielding and protecting group-free total syntheses of the reported structures of the Leucetta alkaloids kealiinine A-C has been accomplished. In addition to the challenging syntheses of these, our data unequivocally prove that the reported structures of those natural products did not match synthetic material due to discrepancies in the interpretation of spectroscopic data during initial isolation and characterization. Finally, the correct structure assignment was achieved with the help of extensive experimentation using 2D NMR spectroscopy (HMBC, HSQC and ROESY) and X-ray crystallography of these synthetic natural products. A second set of targets was accessed using a biosynthetic guided strategy according to which, kealiinine C would serve as a precursor to kealiiquinone and 2-deoxy-2-aminokealiiquinone. The synthesis of both alkaloids was completed from a late stage intermediate from the kealiinine C synthesis by oxidation. Although the first total synthesis of kealiiquinone was accomplished by Ohta et al. in 1995, the current method was protecting group-free and required only 6 steps in comparison to 12 steps by the Japanese group. The first total synthesis of the 2-amino congener was also accomplished. After successful syntheses of those natural products, in collaboration with Dr. Mandal's group, the cytotoxicity of these

  15. Total synthesis, structure, and oral absorption of a thiazole cyclic peptide, sanguinamide A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel S; Hoang, Huy N; Lohman, Rink-Jan


    The first total synthesis and three-dimensional solution structure are reported for sanguinamide A, a thiazole-containing cyclic peptide from the sea slug H. sanguineus. Solution phase fragment synthesis, solid phase fragment assembly, and solution macrocyclization were combined to give (1) in 10...

  16. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of amphidinolide V and analogues. (United States)

    Fürstner, Alois; Flügge, Susanne; Larionov, Oleg; Takahashi, Yohei; Kubota, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi


    The awesome power of metathesis is illustrated by a concise synthesis of the extremely scarce marine natural product amphidinolide V, which hinges on a sequence of ring-closing alkyne metathesis followed by intermolecular enyne metathesis with ethylene (see scheme). As a complete set of conceivable stereoisomers was prepared, the constitution and absolute configuration of this macrolide could be established and first insights into structure-activity relationships governing its cytotoxicity were obtained.A sequence of ring-closing alkyne metathesis followed by an intermolecular enyne metathesis of the resulting cycloalkyne with ethene was used to forge the macrocyclic skeleton and to set the vicinal exo-methylene branches characteristic for the cytotoxic marine natural product amphidinolide V (1). Comparison of the synthetic material with an authentic sample of this extremely scarce metabolite isolated from a dinoflagellate of the Amphidinium sp. eliminated any doubts about its structure and allowed the absolute configuration of amphidinolide V to be determined as 8R,9S,10S,13R. Moreover, the flexibility inherent to the underlying synthesis blueprint also opened access to a comprehensive set of diastereomers of 1 as well as to synthetic analogues differing from the natural lead in the lipophilic chains appended to the macrocyclic core. This set of designed analogues gave first insights into structure-activity relationships, which revealed that the stereostructure of the macrolactone is a highly critical parameter, whereas the examined alterations of the side chain did not diminish the cytotoxicity of the compounds to any notable extent.

  17. Total synthesis of (-)-brevenal: a concise synthetic entry to the pentacyclic polyether core. (United States)

    Ebine, Makoto; Fuwa, Haruhiko; Sasaki, Makoto


    Total synthesis of (-)-brevenal, a novel marine polycyclic ether natural product, is described. Highly efficient and scalable entries to the AB-ring exo-olefin and the DE-ring enol phosphate and a rapid construction of the C-ring by means of our Suzuki-Miyaura coupling-based strategy realized a concise synthesis of the pentacyclic skeleton of (-)-brevenal. The present synthesis is considerably more efficient than our previous synthesis (longest linear sequence: 50 steps from 2-deoxy-d-ribose).

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis of Second-Generation Light-Driven Molecular Motors. (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Thomas; Danowski, Wojciech; Otten, Edwin; Wezenberg, Sander J; Feringa, Ben L


    The enantiomeric homogeneity of light-driven molecular motors based on overcrowded alkenes is crucial in their application as either unidirectional rotors or as chiral multistate switches. It was challenging to obtain these compounds as single enantiomers via the established synthetic procedures due to loss of optical purity in the key step, i.e., the Barton-Kellogg olefination reaction. Searching for strategies to avoid racemization, a new class of light-driven molecular motors was designed, synthesized, and studied. The stereochemical integrity was fully preserved throughout the synthesis, and on the basis of photochemical and kinetic studies using UV/vis, CD, and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, it was established that they still function properly as unidirectional molecular motors.

  19. Total Synthesis and Pharmacological Investigation of Cordyheptapeptide A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar


    Full Text Available The present investigation reports the synthesis of a phenylalanine-rich N-methylated cyclopeptide, cordyheptapeptide A (8, previously isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps sp. BCC 1788, accomplished through the coupling of N-methylated tetrapeptide and tripeptide fragments followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide unit. Structure elucidation of the newly synthesized cyclopolypeptide was performed by means of FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS, and screened for its antibacterial, antidermatophytic, and cytotoxic potential. According to the antimicrobial activity results, the newly synthesized N-Methylated cyclopeptide exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activity against dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL, in comparison to the reference drugs, gatifloxacin and griseofulvin. In addition, cyclopolypeptide 8 displayed suitable levels of cytotoxicity against Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA and Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma (EAC cell lines.

  20. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of grassypeptolide A. (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Yuqing; Wang, Zhuo; Xing, Xiangyou; Maguire, Anita R; Luesch, Hendrik; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao


    Herein, we describe in full our investigations into the synthesis of grassypeptolide A (1) in 17 linear steps with an overall yield of 11.3 %. In particular, this work features the late-stage introduction of sensitive bis(thiazoline) heterocycles and 31-membered macrocyclization conducted at the sterically congested secondary amide site in superb conversion (72 % yield). Biological evaluation indicated that grassypeptolide A significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. It induced cancer cell apoptosis, which was associated with increased cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and decreased expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL. Furthermore, grassypeptolide A also caused cell cycle redistribution by increasing cells in the G1 phase and decreasing cells in the S and G2 phases. In addition, cell cycle arrest was correlated with downregulation of cyclin D and upregulation of p27 and p21. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed, tert-Butyllithium-Mediated Dimerization of Aryl Halides and Its Application in the Atropselective Total Synthesis of Mastigophorene A. (United States)

    Buter, Jeffrey; Heijnen, Dorus; Vila, Carlos; Hornillos, Valentín; Otten, Edwin; Giannerini, Massimo; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Feringa, Ben L


    A palladium-catalyzed direct synthesis of symmetric biaryl compounds from aryl halides in the presence of tBuLi is described. In situ lithium-halogen exchange generates the corresponding aryl lithium reagent, which undergoes a homocoupling reaction with a second molecule of the aryl halide in the presence of the palladium catalyst (1 mol %). The reaction takes place at room temperature, is fast (1 h), and affords the corresponding biaryl compounds in good to excellent yields. The application of the method is demonstrated in an efficient asymmetric total synthesis of mastigophorene A. The chiral biaryl axis is constructed with an atropselectivity of 9:1 owing to catalyst-induced remote point-to-axial chirality transfer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. De novo asymmetric synthesis and biological analysis of the daumone pheromones in Caenorhabditis elegans and in the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines (United States)

    The de novo asymmetric total syntheses of daumone 1, daumone 2 and analogs are described. The key steps of our approach are the diastereoselective palladium catalyzed glycosylation reaction, the Noyori reduction of a acetylfuran and a propargyl ketone, which introduce the absolute stereochemistry of...

  3. Design and synthesis of ternary Co3O4/carbon coated TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites for asymmetric supercapacitors. (United States)

    Kim, Myeongjin; Choi, Jaeho; Oh, Ilgeun; Kim, Jooheon


    Recently, attention has been focused on the synthesis and application of nanocomposites for supercapacitors, which can have superior electrochemical performance than single structured materials. Here, we report a carbon-coated TiO2/Co3O4 ternary hybrid nanocomposite (TiO2@C/Co) electrode for supercapacitors. A carbon layer was directly introduced onto the TiO2 surface via thermal vapor deposition. The carbon layer provides anchoring sites for the deposition of Co3O4, which was introduced onto the carbon-coated TiO2 surface by hydrazine and the thermal oxidation method. The TiO2@C/Co electrode exhibits much higher charge storage capacity relative to pristine TiO2, carbon-coated TiO2, and pristine Co3O4, showing a specific capacitance of 392.4 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) with 76.2% rate performance from 5 to 500 mV s(-1) in 1 M KOH aqueous solution electrolyte. This outstanding electrochemical performance can be attributed to the high conductivity and high pseudo-capacitive contributions of the nanoscale particles. To evaluate the capacitive performance of a supercapacitor device employing the TiO2@C/Co electrode, we have successfully assembled TiO2@C/Co//activated carbon (AC) asymmetric supercapacitors. The optimized TiO2@C/Co//AC supercapacitor could be cycled reversibly in the voltage range from 0 to 1.5 V, and it exhibits a specific capacitance of 59.35 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) with a specific capacitance loss of 15.4% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles. These encouraging results show great potential in terms of developing high-capacitive energy storage devices for practical applications.

  4. Synthesis of chiral biphenol-based diphosphonite ligands and their application in palladium-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric allylic amination reactions. (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Chien, Chih-Wei; Ojima, Iwao


    A library of new 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphinoyloxy)-1,1'-binaphthyl (binapo)-type chiral diphosphonite ligands was designed and synthesized based on chiral 3,3',5,5',6,6'-hexasubstituted biphenols. These bop ligands have exhibited excellent efficiency in a palladium-catalyzed intermolecular allylic amination reaction, which provides a key intermediate for the total synthesis of Strychnos indole alkaloids with enantiopurities of up to 96% ee. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Constructing Molecular Complexity and Diversity: Total Synthesis of Natural Products of Biological and Medicinal Importance (United States)

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Hale, Christopher R. H.; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A.


    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules—natural and designed—of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products—the organic molecules of nature—is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature’s molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years. PMID:22743704

  6. Heronapyrrole D: A case of co-inspiration of natural product biosynthesis, total synthesis and biodiscovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schmidt


    Full Text Available The heronapyrroles A–C have first been isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. (CMB-0423 in 2010. Structurally, these natural products feature an unusual nitropyrrole system to which a partially oxidized farnesyl chain is attached. The varying degree of oxidation of the sesquiterpenyl subunit in heronapyrroles A–C provoked the hypothesis that there might exist other hitherto unidentified metabolites. On biosynthetic grounds a mono-tetrahydrofuran-diol named heronapyrrole D appeared a possible candidate. We here describe a short asymmetric synthesis of heronapyrrole D, its detection in cultivations of CMB-0423 and finally the evaluation of its antibacterial activity. We thus demonstrate that biosynthetic considerations and the joint effort of synthetic and natural product chemists can result in the identification of new members of a rare class of natural products.

  7. Total Synthesis of Ionic Liquid Systems for Dissolution of Lunar Simulant (United States)

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Karr, Laurel J.; Paley, Mark S.


    For purposes of Space Resource Utilization, work in the total synthesis of a new ionic liquid system for the extraction of oxygen and metals from lunar soil is studied and described. Reactions were carried out according to procedures found in the chemical literature, analyzed via Thin-Layer Chromatography and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and purified via vacuum distillation and rotary evaporation. Upon final analysis via 1H NMR, it was found that while the intermediates of the synthesis had been achieved, unexpected side products were also present. The mechanisms and constraints of the synthesis are described as well as the final results of the project and recommendations for continued study

  8. Stereoselective total synthesis of the potent anti-asthmatic compound CMI-977 (LDP-977)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luiz Carlos; Farina, Lui Strambi; Ferreira, Marco Antonio Barbosa, E-mail: [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica


    A short and efficient stereoselective total synthesis of CMI-977 (LDP-977), a potent and orally active anti-asthmatic compound, was developed. The key steps involve a highly diastereoselective Mukaiyama oxidative cyclization, which provides the trans-THF (tetrahydrofuran) unit and a Seyferth-Gilbert homologation to construct the triple bond in the target molecule. The synthesis of the key chiral building block was performed using Jacobsen hydrolytic kinetic resolution. (author)

  9. Copper(II)-catalyzed enantioselective hydrosilylation of halo-substituted alkyl aryl and heteroaryl ketones: asymmetric synthesis of (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine. (United States)

    Zhou, Ji-Ning; Fang, Qiang; Hu, Yi-Hu; Yang, Li-Yao; Wu, Fei-Fei; Xie, Lin-Jie; Wu, Jing; Li, Shijun


    A set of reaction conditions has been established to facilitate the non-precious copper-catalyzed enantioselective hydrosilylation of a number of structurally diverse β-, γ- or ε-halo-substituted alkyl aryl ketones and α-, β- or γ-halo-substituted alkyl heteroaryl ketones under air to afford a broad spectrum of halo alcohols in high yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The developed procedure has been successfully applied to the asymmetric synthesis of antidepressant drugs (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine, which highlighted its synthetic utility.

  10. A Novel Strategy Towards the Asymmetric Synthesis of Orthogonally Funtionalised 2-N-Benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamino- 5-carboxymethyl-cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio G. Urones


    Full Text Available The asymmetric synthesis of the orthogonally funtionalised compounds tert-butyl 2-N-benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamino-5-methoxycarbonylmethylcyclopentane- 1-carboxylate and methyl 2-N-benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamino-5–carboxymethylcyclo- pentane-1-carboxylate by a domino reaction of tert-butyl methyl (E,E-octa-2,6- diendioate with lithium N-α-methylbenzyl-N-benzylamide initiated by a Michael addition, subsequent 5-exo-trig intramolecular cyclisation and posterior selective hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid is reported.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of aziridines using asymmetric transfer hydrogenation as a precursor for chiral derivatives used as bonding agent for rocket solid propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Kawamoto


    Full Text Available A rapid, expedient and enantioselective method for the synthesis of beta-hydroxy amines and monosubstituted aziridines in up to 99% e.e., via asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of a-amino ketones and cyclisation through treatment with tosyl chloride and base, is described. (1R,2R-N-(para-toluenesulfonyl-1,2-ethylenediamine with formic acid has been utilised as a ligand for the Ruthenium (II catalysed enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of the ketones.The chiral 2-methyl aziridine, which is a potentially more efficient bonding agent for Rocket Solid Propellant has been successfully achieved.

  12. Total synthesis of (-)-tubingensin B enabled by the strategic use of an aryne cyclization (United States)

    Corsello, Michael A.; Kim, Junyong; Garg, Neil K.


    Tubingensin B is an indole diterpenoid that bears a daunting chemical structure featuring a disubstituted carbazole unit, five stereogenic centres—three of which are quaternary—and a decorated [3.2.2]-bridged bicycle. We describe our synthetic design toward a concise and enantiospecific total synthesis of tubingensin B, which hinges on the strategic use of a transient aryne intermediate. Although initial studies led to unexpected reaction outcomes, we ultimately implemented a sequence of carbazolyne cyclization followed by Rh-catalysed fragmentation to install the seven-membered ring and vicinal quaternary stereocentres of the natural product. Coupled with a late-stage radical cyclization to construct the [3.2.2]-bridged bicycle, these efforts have enabled the total synthesis of tubingensin B. The design and evolution of our succinct total synthesis underscores the utility of long-avoided aryne intermediates for the introduction of structural motifs that have conventionally been viewed as challenging.

  13. Chemistry of Renieramycins. Part 14: Total Synthesis of Renieramycin I and Practical Synthesis of Cribrostatin 4 (Renieramycin H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Yokoya


    Full Text Available The first total synthesis of (±-renieramycin I, which was isolated from the Indian bright blue sponge Haliclona cribricutis, is described. The key step is the selenium oxide oxidation of pentacyclic bis-p-quinone derivative (3 stereo- and regioselectively. We also report a large-scale synthesis of cribrostatin 4 (renieramycin H via the C3-C4 double bond formation in an early stage based on the Avendaño’s protocol, from readily available 1-acetyl-3-(3-methyl-2,4,5-trimethylphenylmethyl-piperazine-2,5-dione (8 in 18 steps (8.3% overall yield. The synthesis provides unambiguous evidence supporting the original structure of renieramycin I.

  14. d-Amino acids in molecular evolution in space - Absolute asymmetric photolysis and synthesis of amino acids by circularly polarized light. (United States)

    Sugahara, Haruna; Meinert, Cornelia; Nahon, Laurent; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V; Hamase, Kenji; Takano, Yoshinori; Meierhenrich, Uwe J


    Living organisms on the Earth almost exclusively use l-amino acids for the molecular architecture of proteins. The biological occurrence of d-amino acids is rare, although their functions in various organisms are being gradually understood. A possible explanation for the origin of biomolecular homochirality is the delivery of enantioenriched molecules via extraterrestrial bodies, such as asteroids and comets on early Earth. For the asymmetric formation of amino acids and their precursor molecules in interstellar environments, the interaction with circularly polarized photons is considered to have played a potential role in causing chiral asymmetry. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the investigation of chirality transfer from chiral photons to amino acids involving the two major processes of asymmetric photolysis and asymmetric synthesis. We will discuss analytical data on cometary and meteoritic amino acids and their potential impact delivery to the early Earth. The ongoing and future ambitious space missions, Hayabusa2, OSIRIS-REx, ExoMars 2020, and MMX, are scheduled to provide new insights into the chirality of extraterrestrial organic molecules and their potential relation to the terrestrial homochirality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: d-Amino acids: biology in the mirror, edited by Dr. Loredano Pollegioni, Dr. Jean-Pierre Mothet and Dr. Molla Gianluca. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Convenient Asymmetric Synthesis of a β-amino Ester with Additional Functionalization as a Precursor for Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA Monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio G. Urones


    Full Text Available We report the asymmetric synthesis of di-3-pentyl (3S,αS,7E-3-N-benzyl-N- α-methylbenzylamino-dec-7-enedioate (9, which contains the correct functionalization to produce δ-amino acid derivatives to be used as monomers for Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA formation With this aim, thymine-pentanoic acid 15 and some of its ester derivatives were obtained, their reactivity was studied and the noteworthy ethyl ester 12 was quantitatively produced by transesterification of methyl ester 11, thus paving the way for the synthesis of the thymine-containing amino ester IV, which has been designed as a building block for a Nucleic-Acid analog with a chiral, flexible peptide backbone

  16. Stereoselective α-fluoroamide and α-fluoro-γ-lactone synthesis by an asymmetric zwitterionic aza-Claisen rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hagan David


    Full Text Available Text Abstract Background Asymmetric introduction of fluorine α-to a carbonyl has become popular recently, largely because the direct fluorination of enolates by asymmetric electrophilic fluorinating reagents has improved, and as a result such compounds are becoming attractive synthons. We have sought an alternative but straightforward asymmetric method to this class of compounds, utilising the zwitterionic aza-Claisen rearrangement by reacting α-fluoroacid chlorides and homochiral N-allylpyrrolidines as starting materials. Results Treatment of N-allylmorpholine with 2-fluoropropionyl chloride under Yb(OTf3 catalysis generated the zwitterionic aza-Claisen rearrangement product in good yield and demonstrated the chemical feasibility of the approach. For the asymmetric reaction, N-allyl-(S-2-(methoxymethylpyrrolidine was treated with either 2-fluoropropionyl chloride or 2-fluorophenylacetic acid chloride under similar conditions and resulted in N-(α-fluoro-γ-vinylamidepyrrolidine products as homochiral materials in 99% de. These products were readily converted to their corresponding α-fluoro-γ-lactones by iodolactonisation and in good diastereoselectivity. Conclusion Molecules which have fluorine at a stereogeneic centre are finding increasing utility in pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and materials research. The zwitterionic aza-Claisen rearrangement proved to be an effective and competitive complement to asymmetric electrophilic fluorination strategies and provides access to versatile synthetic intermediates with fluorine at the stereogenic centre.

  17. Selective bromochlorination of a homoallylic alcohol for the total synthesis of (−-anverene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Seidl


    Full Text Available The scope of a recently reported method for the catalytic enantioselective bromochlorination of allylic alcohols is expanded to include a specific homoallylic alcohol. Critical factors for optimization of this reaction are highlighted. The utility of the product bromochloride is demonstrated by the first total synthesis of an antibacterial polyhalogenated monoterpene, (−-anverene.

  18. Stereoselective total synthesis of some insect pheromones: (±-serricornine and (±-invictolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Pilli


    Full Text Available An efficient (12 steps, 12% overallyield and stereoselective total synthesis of (±-serricornine (1 the sex pheromone of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricornine F is described. The preparation of intermediate 5, which encompasses the proper relative configuration of three contiguous chiral centers of (±-invictolide, (3, is discussed.

  19. Total synthesis of the sesquiterpene (+/-)-illudin C via an intramolecular nitrile oxide cycloaddition. (United States)

    Aungst, R A; Chan, C; Funk, R L


    [reaction: see text] A convergent total synthesis of illudin C is described. The tricyclic ring system of the natural product was quickly assembled from cyclopropane and cyclopentene precursors via a novel oxime dianion coupling reaction and a subsequent intramolecular nitrile oxide-olefin cycloaddition.

  20. Total synthesis of (−-epimyrtine by a gold-catalyzed hydroamination approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Huyen Trinh


    Full Text Available A new approach to the total synthesis of (−-epimyrtine has been developed from D-alanine. The key step to access the enantiopure pyridone intermediate was achieved by a gold-mediated cyclization. Finally, various transformations afforded the natural product in a few steps and good overall yield.

  1. First Total Synthesis of an Analogue of (±)-Hypargenin B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    First total synthesis of (±)-hypargenin B methyl ether 2 was accomplished via a  strategy of AC→ABC, in which CrO3/H2O/NaOAc/HOAc system was utilized for introducing  7-keto group in order to avoid dehydration of benzyl tertiary alcohol.

  2. Total Synthesis and Complete Stereostructure of a Marine Macrolide Glycoside, (-)-Lyngbyaloside B. (United States)

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Yamagata, Naoya; Okuaki, Yuta; Ogata, Yuya; Saito, Asami; Sasaki, Makoto


    We have described in detail the total synthesis of both the proposed and correct structures of (-)-lyngbyaloside B, which facilitated the elucidation of the complete stereostructure of this natural product. Our study began with the total synthesis of 13-demethyllyngbyaloside B, in which an esterification/ring-closing metathesis (RCM) strategy was successfully used for the efficient construction of the macrocycle. We also established reliable methods for the introduction of the conjugated diene side chain and the l-rhamnose residue onto the macrocyclic framework. However, the esterification/RCM strategy proved ineffective for the parent natural product because of the difficulties in acylating the sterically encumbered C-13 tertiary alcohol; macrolactionization of a seco-acid was also extensively investigated under various conditions without success. We finally completed the total synthesis of the proposed structure of (-)-lyngbyaloside B by means of a macrolactonization that involves an acyl ketene as the reactive species. However, the NMR spectroscopic data of our synthetic material did not match those of the authentic material, which indicated that the proposed structure must be re-examined. Inspection of the NMR spectroscopic data of the natural product and molecular mechanics calculations led us to postulate that the configuration of the C-10, C-11, and C-13 stereogenic centers had been incorrectly assigned in the proposed structure. Finally, our revised structure of (-)-lyngbyaloside B was unambiguously verified through total synthesis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Stereoselective total synthesis of Oxylipin from open chain gluco-configured building block. (United States)

    Borkar, Santosh Ramdas; Aidhen, Indrapal Singh


    Total synthesis of naturally occurring Oxylipin has been achieved from open chain gluco-configured building block which is readily assembled from inexpensive and commercially available D-(+)-gluconolactone. Grignard reaction and Wittig olefination reactions are key steps for the requisite CC bond formation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Total Synthesis of Septocylindrin B and C-Terminus Modified Analogues (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo; Nuyts, Koen; De Zotti, Marta; Lavigne, Rob; Lamberigts, Chris; De Borggraeve, Wim M.


    The total synthesis is reported of the peptaibol Septocylindrin B which is related to the well documented channel forming peptaibol antibiotic Alamethicin. Several analogues were synthesized with a modified C-terminus, to investigate the SAR of the terminal residue Phaol. All these peptides were tested for their membrane perturbation properties by fluorescent dye leakage assay and for their antibacterial activity. PMID:23284749

  5. Total synthesis of Septocylindrin B and C-terminus modified analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Nelissen

    Full Text Available The total synthesis is reported of the peptaibol Septocylindrin B which is related to the well documented channel forming peptaibol antibiotic Alamethicin. Several analogues were synthesized with a modified C-terminus, to investigate the SAR of the terminal residue Phaol. All these peptides were tested for their membrane perturbation properties by fluorescent dye leakage assay and for their antibacterial activity.

  6. Synthesis of New Chiral Ligands Based on Thiophene Derivatives for Use in Catalytic Asymmetric Oxidation of Sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong Chul; Ahn, Dae Jun; Lee, Woo Sun; Lee, Seung Han; Ahn, Kwang Hyun [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We discovered that the vanadium complexes of new Schiff base ligands and prepared from thiophene derivatives efficiently catalyze the asymmetric oxidation of sulfides by hydrogen peroxide to provide sulfoxides with enantioselectivities up to 79% ee and in yields up to 89%. Notably, Schiff base showed better or similar enantioselectivity than the well-studied Schiff base. These results suggest possible applications of Schiff bases derived from and in other catalytic asymmetric reactions. Chiral sulfoxides are important functional groups for various applications. For example, the biological activities of sulfoxide containing drugs such as omeprazole are strongly related to the chirality of the sulfoxide group; for this reason, esomeprazole, the enantiomerically pure form of omeprazole, was later developed. There are several chiral sulfoxide based drugs that have been introduced by the pharmaceutical industry including armodafinil, aprikalim, oxisurane, and ustiloxin. Chiral sulfoxides have also been utilized as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric syntheses of chiral intermediates.

  7. Duodenal juice total protein and pancreatic enzyme synthesis, turnover, and secretion in patients after acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Ogden, J M; O'Keefe, S J; Louw, J A; Adams, G; Marks, I N


    It is controversial whether acute pancreatitis has longterm effects on pancreatic function. Pancreatic enzyme synthesis, turnover, and secretion were measured in 10 patients in clinical remission who had had one or more (one to six) attacks of acute alcoholic pancreatitis. The studies were done between two and 29 months after the most recent attack. A control group included five patients with no evidence of pancreatic disease. A four hour primed/continuous intravenous infusion of [14C]L-leucine tracer was given with secretin (2 U/kg/h) and cholecystokinin (0.5 U/kg/h) and secreted duodenal juice aspirated. Amylase and trypsin were extracted from duodenal juice by affinity chromatography, permitting measurement of the rate of isotope incorporation into total protein, amylase, and trypsin. The results showed non-parallel changes in enzyme synthesis and turnover with decreases in total enzyme protein and amylase synthesis and turnover but preservation of trypsin synthesis and turnover. The low turnover rates may be ascribed to continuing pancreatic cell malfunction after recovery from acute alcoholic pancreatitis and suggest that the decreased amylase secretion rates are partly a consequence of impaired amylase synthesis and not simply because of loss of pancreatic tissue.

  8. Total synthesis of (+)-cocaine via desymmetrization of a meso-dialdehyde. (United States)

    Mans, Douglas M; Pearson, William H


    [reaction: see text] The total synthesis of (+)-cocaine is described. An extension of the recently reported proline catalyzed intramolecular enol-exo-aldol reaction to a meso-dialdehyde provided the tropane ring skeleton directly with good enantiomeric excess. The meso-dialdehyde was prepared using a 2-azaallyllithium [3 + 2] cycloaddition to generate a cis-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine. Overall, the synthesis proceeded in 6.5% yield and 86% ee over 14 linear steps starting from commercially available 3-benzyloxy-1-propanol.

  9. Nonlinear multivariable design by total synthesis. [of gas turbine engine control systems (United States)

    Sain, M. K.; Peczkowski, J. L.


    The Nominal Design Problem (NDP) is extended to nonlinear cases, and a new case study of robust feedback synthesis for gas turbine control design is presented. The discussion of NDP extends and builds on earlier Total Synthesis Problem theory and ideas. Some mathematical preliminaries are given in which a bijection from a set S onto a set T is considered, with T admitting the structure of an F-vector space. NDP is then discussed for a nonlinear plant, and nonlinear nominal design is defined and characterized. The design of local controllers for a turbojet and the scheduling of these controls into a global control are addressed.

  10. Total synthesis of pancratistatin relying on the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement. (United States)

    Ko, Hyojin; Kim, Eunkyung; Park, Jae Eun; Kim, Deukjoon; Kim, Sanghee


    A new total synthesis of the antitumor alkaloid, pancratistatin (1), has been accomplished from readily available starting materials. Claisen rearrangement of the racemic dihydropyranethylene 17 was employed to construct the A and C rings with the appropriate stereochemistry. In addition, the Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of the enantiomerically pure 9 followed by ring-closing metathesis provided the important intermediate 24, thus implying that our approach could yield the enantioselective synthesis of (+)-pancratistatin. With the appropriately functionalized cyclohexene 24, stereo- and regiocontrolled functional group interchanges, such as iodolactonization, dihydroxylations, and a cyclic sulfate elimination reaction, facilitated the production of the target natural product.

  11. Variations of total protein content and protein synthesis during microsporogenesis in Larix europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława B. Chwirot


    Full Text Available The variations of the total protein content and protein synthesis were analyzed in successive stages of microsporogenesis in Larix europaea L. Pure fractions of microsporocytes containing the cells in successive phases of meiosis and fractions of the anther wall cells were used to perform the assays. It was revealed, that the protein content and the intensity of protein synthesis undergo considerable changes in the course of meiosis. It was proved also, by means of electrophoretic separation of protein fractions, that no new proteins are synthesised during differentiation of microsporocytes of larch, and that the microsporogenesis process is related rather to disappearance of some protein fractions.

  12. Synthesis of N-phenyl β-amino acids via iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation using mixed monodentate ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mrsic, Natasa; Panella, Lavinia; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; de Vries, Johannes G.


    The iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of N-phenyl-beta-dehydroamino acid derivatives was examined using monodentate phosphoramidite ligands. The highest yields and enantioselectivities were obtained using a mixed ligand approach with PipPhos L1 and achiral triphenylphosphine (full

  13. A strategy for complex dimer formation when biomimicry fails: total synthesis of ten coccinellid alkaloids. (United States)

    Sherwood, Trevor C; Trotta, Adam H; Snyder, Scott A


    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature's presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class.

  14. Chemoenzymatic one-pot synthesis in an aqueous medium: combination of metal-catalysed allylic alcohol isomerisation-asymmetric bioamination. (United States)

    Ríos-Lombardía, Nicolás; Vidal, Cristian; Cocina, María; Morís, Francisco; García-Álvarez, Joaquín; González-Sabín, Javier


    The ruthenium-catalysed isomerisation of allylic alcohols was coupled, for the first time, with asymmetric bioamination in a one-pot process in an aqueous medium. In the cases involving prochiral ketones, the ω-TA exhibited excellent enantioselectivity, identical to that observed in the single step. As a result, amines were obtained from allylic alcohols with high overall yields and excellent enantiomeric excesses.

  15. Total synthesis of exiguamines A and B inspired by catecholamine chemistry. (United States)

    Sofiyev, Vladimir; Lumb, Jean-Philip; Volgraf, Matthew; Trauner, Dirk


    The evolution of a total synthesis of the exiguamines, two structurally unusual natural products that are highly active inhibitors of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), is described. The ultimately successful strategy involves advanced cross-coupling methodology and features a potentially biosynthetic tautomerization/electrocyclization cascade reaction that forms two heterocycles and installs a quaternary ammonium ion in a single synthetic operation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Total Synthesis of Eleutherobin and Analogs and Study of Anti-Cancer Mechanism (United States)


    instead of a methyl group, was used for the protection of phenol, cf. reference 21S. 33) a) T. Ishiyama , M. Murata, N. Miyaura, J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60...Reactions and Synthesis in Surfactant Syntems John Texter G. Oehme ......................... 517 New Advances in Analytical Chemistry Atta-ur-Rahman U...deprotected with [10] a) T. Ishiyama , M. Murata, N. Miyaura, J Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7508- pyridine-buffered HF/pyridine to afford a mixture of our total

  17. Navigating the Chiral Pool in the Total Synthesis of Complex Terpene Natural Products. (United States)

    Brill, Zachary G; Condakes, Matthew L; Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J


    The pool of abundant chiral terpene building blocks (i.e., "chiral pool terpenes") has long served as a starting point for the chemical synthesis of complex natural products, including many terpenes themselves. As inexpensive and versatile starting materials, such compounds continue to influence modern synthetic chemistry. This review highlights 21st century terpene total syntheses which themselves use small, terpene-derived materials as building blocks. An outlook to the future of research in this area is highlighted as well.

  18. Harnessing Quinone Methides: Total Synthesis of (±)‐Vaticanol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Thomas, Stephen; Yunqing, lin


    Although quinone methides are often postulated as intermediates in the biosynthesis of many polyphenolic natural products, deploying their power in a laboratory setting to achieve similar bond constructions has sometimes proven challenging. Herein, a total synthesis of the resveratrol trimer...... vaticanol A has been achieved through three instances of quinone methide chemistry. These operations, one of which succeeded only under very specific conditions, expediently generated its [7,5]-carbocyclic core, afforded a unique sequence for dihydrobenzofuran formation, and concurrently generated...

  19. Total Synthesis of Ellagitannins via Sequential Site-Selective Functionalization of Unprotected D-Glucose. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Takumi; Kawabata, Takeo


    A short-step total synthesis of the natural glycosides pterocarinin C and tellimagrandin II (eugeniin) has been performed by sequential and site-selective functionalization of free hydroxy groups of unprotected D-glucose. The key reactions are β-selective glycosidation of a gallic acid derivative using unprotected D-glucose as a glycosyl donor and catalyst-controlled site-selective introduction of a galloyl group into the inherently less reactive hydroxy group of the glucoside.

  20. Total synthesis approaches to natural product derivatives based on the combination of chemical synthesis and metabolic engineering. (United States)

    Kirschning, Andreas; Taft, Florian; Knobloch, Tobias


    Secondary metabolites are an extremely diverse and important group of natural products with industrial and biomedical implications. Advances in metabolic engineering of both native and heterologous secondary metabolite producing organisms have allowed the directed synthesis of desired novel products by exploiting their biosynthetic potentials. Metabolic engineering utilises knowledge of cellular metabolism to alter biosynthetic pathways. An important technique that combines chemical synthesis with metabolic engineering is mutasynthesis (mutational biosynthesis; MBS), which advanced from precursor-directed biosynthesis (PDB). Both techniques are based on the cellular uptake of modified biosynthetic intermediates and their incorporation into complex secondary metabolites. Mutasynthesis utilises genetically engineered organisms in conjunction with feeding of chemically modified intermediates. From a synthetic chemist's point of view the concept of mutasynthesis is highly attractive, as the method combines chemical expertise with Nature's synthetic machinery and thus can be exploited to rapidly create small libraries of secondary metabolites. However, in each case, the method has to be critically compared with semi- and total synthesis in terms of practicability and efficiency. Recent developments in metabolic engineering promise to further broaden the scope of outsourcing chemically demanding steps to biological systems.

  1. A two-step hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesize NiCo2S4/NiS hollow nanospheres for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Lin, Jianming; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Miaoliang; Fan, Leqing; He, Xin; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Zedong


    In this work, a high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor device based on NiCo2S4/NiS hollow nanospheres as the positive electrode and the porous activated carbon as the negative electrode was successfully fabricated via a facile two-step hydrothermal synthesis approach. This NiCo2S4/NiS//activated carbon asymmetric supercapacitor achieved a high energy density of 43.7 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 160 W kg-1, an encouraging specific capacitance of 123 F g-1 at a current density of 1 mA cm-2, as well as a long-term performance with capacitance degradation of 5.2% after 3000 consecutive cycles at 1 mA cm-2. Moreover, the NiCo2S4/NiS electrode also demonstrated an excellent specific capacitance (1947.5 F g-1 at 3 mA cm-2) and an outstanding cycling stability (retaining 90.3% after 1000 cycles). The remarkable electrochemical performances may be attributed to the effect of NiS doping on NiCo2S4 which could enlarge the surface area and increase the surface roughness.

  2. Highly efficient asymmetric synthesis of α,β-epoxy esters via one-pot organocatalytic epoxidation and oxidative esterification. (United States)

    Xuan, Yi-ning; Lin, Han-Sen; Yan, Ming


    Highly enantioselective synthesis of α,β-epoxy esters was achieved via one-pot organocatalytic epoxidation and consequent oxidative esterification. Excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) and good yields were obtained for a variety of α,β-epoxy esters. The method was readily scaled. Furthermore the product was applied towards the synthesis of (-)-clausenamide with excellent enantioselectivities (>99% ee).

  3. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Porous NiCo2O4 Microspheres: Application as High Performance Asymmetric and Symmetric Supercapacitors with Large Areal Capacitance (United States)

    Khalid, Syed; Cao, Chuanbao; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Youqi


    Large areal capacitance is essentially required to integrate the energy storage devices at the microscale electronic appliances. Energy storage devices based on metal oxides are mostly fabricated with low mass loading per unit area which demonstrated low areal capacitance. It is still a challenge to fabricate supercapacitor devices of porous metal oxides with large areal capacitance. Herein we report microwave method followed by a pyrolysis of the as-prepared precursor is used to synthesize porous nickel cobaltite microspheres. Porous NiCo2O4 microspheres are capable to deliver large areal capacitance due to their high specific surface area and small crystallite size. The facile strategy is successfully demonstrated to fabricate aqueous-based asymmetric & symmetric supercapacitor devices of porous NiCo2O4 microspheres with high mass loading of electroactive materials. The asymmetric & symmetric devices exhibit maximum areal capacitance and energy density of 380 mF cm-2 & 19.1 Wh Kg-1 and 194 mF cm-2 & 4.5 Wh Kg-1 (based on total mass loading of 6.25 & 6.0 mg) respectively at current density of 1 mA cm-2. The successful fabrication of symmetric device also indicates that NiCo2O4 can also be used as the negative electrode material for futuristic asymmetric devices.

  4. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations. (United States)

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim


    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  5. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives (United States)

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel


    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  6. Asymmetric Ion-Pairing Catalysis (United States)

    Brak, Katrien


    Charged intermediates and reagents are ubiquitous in organic transformations. The interaction of these ionic species with chiral neutral, anionic, or cationic small molecules has emerged as a powerful strategy for catalytic, enantioselective synthesis. This review describes developments in the burgeoning field of asymmetric ion-pairing catalysis with an emphasis on the insights that have been gleaned into the structural and mechanistic features that contribute to high asymmetric induction. PMID:23192886

  7. A convergent total synthesis of the telomerase inhibitor (±)-γ-rubromycin. (United States)

    Wilsdorf, Michael; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich


    The total synthesis of the human telomerase inhibitor γ-rubromycin in its racemic form was accomplished in 3.8 % overall yield. The key feature of this synthesis is an efficient acid-catalyzed spiroketalization for the construction of the spiroketal core. The required electronically well-balanced spiroketal precursor was obtained by the convergent assembly of a naphthyl-substituted aldehyde, an α-methoxyallyl-γ-silyl-substituted phosphonate as the central C3 building block, and a highly functionalized aryl Grignard reagent. Another key feature is the late-stage construction of the isocoumarin moiety and a simultaneous protodesilylation furnishing the known methyl aryl ether protected precursor of γ-rubromycin. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Total synthesis of a Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS repeating unit hexasaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Seeberger


    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes severe disease globally. Vaccines that prevent S. pneumoniae infections induce antibodies against epitopes within the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS. A better immunological understanding of the epitopes that protect from bacterial infection requires defined oligosaccharides obtained by total synthesis. The key to the synthesis of the S. pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS hexasaccharide repeating unit that is not contained in currently used glycoconjugate vaccines is the assembly of the trisaccharide β-D-GalpNAc-(1→4-[α-D-Glcp-(1→3]-β-D-ManpNAcA, in which the branching points are equipped with orthogonal protecting groups. A linear approach relying on the sequential assembly of monosaccharide building blocks proved superior to a convergent [3 + 3] strategy that was not successful due to steric constraints. The synthetic hexasaccharide is the starting point for further immunological investigations.

  9. Stereospecific approach to the synthesis of ring-A oxygenated sarpagine indole alkaloids. Total synthesis of the dimeric indole alkaloid P-(+)-dispegatrine and six other monomeric indole alkaloids. (United States)

    Edwankar, Chitra R; Edwankar, Rahul V; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Liao, Xuebin; Cook, James M


    The first regio- and stereocontrolled total synthesis of the bisphenolic, bisquaternary alkaloid (+)-dispegatrine (1) has been accomplished in an overall yield of 8.3% (12 reaction vessels) from 5-methoxy-d-tryptophan ethyl ester (17). A crucial late-stage thallium(III) mediated intermolecular oxidative dehydrodimerization was employed in the formation of the C9-C9' biaryl axis in 1. The complete stereocontrol observed in this key biaryl coupling step is due to the asymmetric induction by the natural sarpagine configuration of the monomer lochnerine (6) and was confirmed by both the Suzuki and the oxidative dehydrodimerization model studies on the tetrahydro β-carboline (35). The axial chirality of the lochnerine dimer (40) and in turn dispegatrine (1) was established by X-ray crystallography and was determined to be P(S). Additionally, the first total synthesis of the monomeric indole alkaloids (+)-spegatrine (2), (+)-10-methoxyvellosimine (5), (+)-lochnerine (6), lochvinerine (7), (+)-sarpagine (8), and (+)-lochneram (11) were also achieved via the common pentacyclic intermediate 16.

  10. Total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin based on an automated electrochemical assembly of a disaccharide building block. (United States)

    Isoda, Yuta; Sasaki, Norihiko; Kitamura, Kei; Takahashi, Shuji; Manmode, Sujit; Takeda-Okuda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Nokami, Toshiki; Itoh, Toshiyuki


    The total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin using an automated electrochemical synthesizer for the assembly of carbohydrate building blocks is demonstrated. We have successfully prepared a precursor of TMG-chitotriomycin, which is a structurally-pure tetrasaccharide with typical protecting groups, through the methodology of automated electrochemical solution-phase synthesis developed by us. The synthesis of structurally well-defined TMG-chitotriomycin has been accomplished in 10-steps from a disaccharide building block.

  11. Design, synthesis, and applications of potential substitutes of t-Bu-phosphinooxazoline in Pd-catalyzed asymmetric transformations and their use for the improvement of the enantioselectivity in the Pd-catalyzed allylation reaction of fluorinated allyl enol carbonates. (United States)

    Bélanger, Étienne; Pouliot, Marie-France; Courtemanche, Marc-André; Paquin, Jean-François


    The design, synthesis, and applications of potential substitutes of t-Bu-PHOX in asymmetric catalysis is reported. The design relies on the incorporation of geminal substituents at C5 in combination with a substituent at C4 other than t-butyl (i-Pr, i-Bu, or s-Bu). Most of these new members of the PHOX ligand family behave similarly in terms of stereoinduction to t-Bu-PHOX in three palladium-catalyzed asymmetric transformations. Electronically modified ligands were also prepared and used to improve the enantioselectivity in the Pd-catalyzed allylation reaction of fluorinated allyl enol carbonates.

  12. Total synthesis of the endogenous inflammation resolving lipid resolvin D2 using a common lynchpin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Li


    Full Text Available The total synthesis of the endogenous inflammation resolving eicosanoid resolvin D2 (1 is described. The key steps involved a Wittig reaction between aldehyde 5 and the ylide derived from phosphonium salt 6 to give enyne 17 and condensation of the same ylide with aldehyde 7 to afford enyne 11. Desilylation of 11 followed by hydrozirconation and iodination gave the vinyl iodide 4 and Sonogashira coupling between this compound and enyne 3 provided alkyne 18. Acetonide deprotection, partial reduction and ester hydrolysis then gave resolvin D2 (1.

  13. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Acylfulvene and (−)-Irofulven (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S.; Piizzi, Grazia; Piersanti, Giovanni; Movassaghi, Mohammad


    We report our full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-acylfulvene (1) and (−)-irofulven (2), which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of the molecular framework of these antitumor agents. We discuss (1) the application of an Evans’ Cu-catalyzed aldol addition reaction using a strained cyclopropyl ketenethioacetal, (2) an efficient enyne ring-closing metathesis (EYRCM) cascade reaction in a challenging setting, (3) the reagent IPNBSH for a late stage reductive allylic transposition reaction, and (4) the final RCM/dehydrogenation sequence for the formation of (−)-acylfulvene (1) and (−)-irofulven (2). PMID:19938810

  14. Recent Advances in the Total Synthesis of Tetramic Acid-Containing Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ju Bai


    Full Text Available With incredible bioactivities and fascinating structural complexities, tetramic acid- (TA- containing natural products have attracted favorable attention among the organic chemistry community. Although the construction of the TA core is usually straightforward, the intricate C3-side chain sometimes asks for some deliberative strategy so as to fulfill an elegant total synthesis. This review mainly covers some exceptional synthetic examples for each type of natural product in recent years, showcasing the great achievements as well as unsettled obstacles in this area, in the hope of accelerating the synthetic and biological investigations for this unique type of natural product.

  15. Total Synthesis of Fellutamide B and Deoxy-Fellutamides B, C, and D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Payne


    Full Text Available The total syntheses of the marine-derived lipopeptide natural product fellutamide B and deoxy-fellutamides B, C, and D are reported. These compounds were accessed through a novel solid-phase synthetic strategy using Weinreb amide-derived resin. As part of the synthesis, a new enantioselective route to (3R-hydroxy lauric acid was developed utilizing a Brown allylation reaction followed by an oxidative cleavage-oxidation sequence as the key steps. The activity of these natural products, and natural product analogues was also assessed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro.

  16. Expedient total synthesis of small to medium-sized membrane proteins via Fmoc chemistry. (United States)

    Zheng, Ji-Shen; Yu, Mu; Qi, Yun-Kun; Tang, Shan; Shen, Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Longhua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei


    Total chemical synthesis provides a unique approach for the access to uncontaminated, monodisperse, and more importantly, post-translationally modified membrane proteins. In the present study we report a practical procedure for expedient and cost-effective synthesis of small to medium-sized membrane proteins in multimilligram scale through the use of automated Fmoc chemistry. The key finding of our study is that after the attachment of a removable arginine-tagged backbone modification group, the membrane protein segments behave almost the same as ordinary water-soluble peptides in terms of Fmoc solid-phase synthesis, ligation, purification, and mass spectrometry characterization. The efficiency and practicality of the new method is demonstrated by the successful preparation of Ser64-phosphorylated M2 proton channel from influenza A virus and the membrane-embedded domain of an inward rectifier K(+) channel protein Kir5.1. Functional characterizations of these chemically synthesized membrane proteins indicate that they provide useful and otherwise-difficult-to-access materials for biochemistry and biophysics studies.

  17. Total synthesis of fluoxetine and duloxetine through an in situ imine formation/borylation/transimination and reduction approach. (United States)

    Calow, Adam D J; Fernández, Elena; Whiting, Andrew


    We report efficient, catalytic, asymmetric total syntheses of both (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes conducting five sequential one-pot steps (imine formation/copper mediated β-borylation/transimination/reduction/oxidation) followed by the specific ether group formation which deliver the desired products (R)-fluoxetine in 45% yield (96% ee) and (S)-duloxetine in 47% yield (94% ee).

  18. Ultrasound-Accelerated Synthesis of Asymmetrical Thiosulfonate S-Esters by Base-Promoted Reaction of Sulfonyl Chlorides with Thiols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Hien Thi; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan Thi; Duus, Fritz


    or with a minimum amount of solvent assisted by magnetic stirring, ultrasound irradiation and microwave irradiation. Ultrasound irradiation has good effects on the synthesis of sterically hindered thiosulfonate S-esters in solvent-free media as well as in a minimum amount of anhydrous diethyl ether....

  19. I. Total Synthesis of Smenochromene B and Halenaquinone and II. Studies on the Chemical and Biological Properties of Azobenzene Photoswitches


    Kienzler, Michael A


    Part one of this dissertation describes synthetic efforts toward two separate but structurally related groups of marine sesquiterpene quinone natural products, the smenochromene/likonide family and halenaquinone, and culminates in the total synthesis of smenochromene B and halenaquinone. The total synthesis of smenochromene B and efforts towards likonide A centered around the use of smenochromene D as a synthetic intermediate. A macrocyclic ring contraction and double bond isomerization was...

  20. A concise total synthesis of (R)-fluoxetine, a potent and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Angelo de; Lapis, Alexandre Augusto M.; Pilli, Ronaldo A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    (R)-Fluoxetine, potent and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been synthesized in six steps, 50% overall yield and 99% ee from benzaldehyde via catalytic asymmetric allylation with Maruoka's catalyst. (author)

  1. Asymmetric synthesis of densely functionalized medium-ring carbocycles and lactones through modular assembly and ring-closing metathesis of sulfoximine-substituted trienes and dienynes. (United States)

    Lejkowski, Michal; Banerjee, Prabal; Schüller, Sabine; Münch, Alexander; Runsink, Jan; Vermeeren, Cornelia; Gais, Hans-Joachim


    An asymmetric synthesis of densely functionalized 7-11-membered carbocycles and 9-11-membered lactones has been developed. Its key steps are a modular assembly of sulfoximine-substituted C- and O-tethered trienes and C-tethered dienynes and their Ru-catalyzed ring-closing diene and enyne metathesis (RCDEM and RCEYM). The synthesis of the C-tethered trienes and dienynes includes the following steps: 1) hydroxyalkylation of enantiomerically pure titanated allylic sulfoximines with unsaturated aldehydes, 2) α-lithiation of alkenylsulfoximines, 3) alkylation, hydroxy-alkylation, formylation, and acylation of α-lithioalkenylsulfoximines, and 4) addition of Grignard reagents to α-formyl(acyl)alkenylsulfoximines. The sulfoximine group provided for high asymmetric induction in steps 1) and 4). RCDEM of the sulfoximine-substituted trienes with the second-generation Ru catalyst stereoselectively afforded the corresponding functionalized 7-11-membered carbocyles. RCDEM of diastereomeric silyloxy-substituted 1,6,12-trienes revealed an interesting difference in reactivity. While the (R)-diastereomer gave the 11-membered carbocyle, the (S)-diastereomer delivered in a cascade of cross metathesis and RCDEM 22-membered macrocycles. RCDEM of cyclic trienes furnished bicyclic carbocycles with a bicyclo[7.4.0]tridecane and bicyclo[9.4.0]pentadecane skeleton. Selective transformations of the sulfoximine- and bissilyloxy-substituted carbocycles were performed including deprotection, cross-coupling reaction and reduction of the sulfoximine moiety. Esterification of a sulfoximine-substituted homoallylic alcohol with unsaturated carboxylic acids gave the O-tethered trienes, RCDEM of which yielded the sulfoximine-substituted 9-11-membered lactones. RCEYM of a sulfoximine-substituted 1,7-dien-10-yne showed an unprecedented dichotomy in ring formation depending on the Ru catalyst. While the second-generation Ru catalyst gave the 9-membered exo 1,3-dienyl carbocycle, the first-generation Ru

  2. Improving carbene-copper-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of α-aminoboronic esters using benzimidazole-based precursors. (United States)

    Wen, Kun; Wang, Han; Chen, Jinbo; Zhang, He; Cui, Xiaodan; Wei, Chao; Fan, Erkang; Sun, Zhihua


    By using a benzimidazole core and N-substitutions to tune the electronic properties of the corresponding N-heterocyclic carbenes, a one-pot protocol for efficient synthesis of α-aminoboronic esters without the need of a glovebox was developed in this work. The starting materials for the transformation can also be extended from aldehydes to ketones. An alternative protocol with short reaction time using preformed carbene-copper chloride is also described.

  3. 1: Mass asymmetric fission barriers for {sup 98}Mo; 2: Synthesis and characterization of actinide-specific chelating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeck, A.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst. for Transactinium Science]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.


    Excitation functions have been measured for complex fragment emission from the compound nucleus {sup 98}Mo, produced by the reaction of {sup 86}Kr with {sup 12}C. Mass asymmetric fission barriers have been obtained by fitting the excitation functions with a transition state formalism. The extracted barriers are {approximately} 5.7 MeV higher, on average, than the calculations of the Rotating Finite Range Model (RFRM). These data clearly show an isospin dependence of the conditional barriers when compared with the extracted barriers from {sup 90}Mo and {sup 94}Mo. Eleven different liquid/liquid extractants were synthesized based upon the chelating moieties 3,2-HOPO and 3,4-HOPO; additionally, two liquid/liquid extractants based upon the 1,2-HOPO chelating moiety were obtained for extraction studies. The Pu(IV) extractions, quite surprisingly, yielded results that were very different from the Fe(III) extractions. The first trend remained the same: the 1,2-HOPOs were the best extractants, followed closely by the 3,2-HOPOs, followed by the 3,4-HOPOs; but in these Pu(IV) extractions the 3,4-HOPOs performed much better than in the Fe(III) extractions. 129 refs.

  4. Asymmetric Synthesis and Evaluation of Danshensu-Cysteine Conjugates as Novel Potential Anti-Apoptotic Drug Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Long Pan


    Full Text Available We have previously reported that the danshensu-cysteine conjugate N-((R-3-benzylthio-1-methoxy-1-oxo-2-propanyl-2-acetoxy-3-(3,4-diacetoxyphenyl propanamide (DSC is a potent anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic agent. Herein, we further design and asymmetrically synthesize two diastereoisomers of DSC and explore their potential bioactivities. Our results show that DSC and its two diastereoisomers exert similar protective effects in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced cellular injury in SH-SY5Y cells, as evidenced by the increase of cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and reduced glutathione (GSH activity, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx expression, and the decrease of cellular morphological changes and nuclear condensation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, and malondialdehyde (MDA production. In H2O2-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC, DSC concentration-dependently attenuates H2O2-induced cell death, LDH release, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and modulates the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9. Our results provide strong evidence that DSC and its two diastereoisomers have similar anti-oxidative activity and that DSC exerts significant vascular-protective effects, at least in part, through inhibition of apoptosis and modulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes.

  5. Synthesis of Highly Porous Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Asymmetric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui


    For the first time, self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation was applied to polysulfone-based linear block copolymers, reaching mechanical stability much higher than other block copolymers membranes used in this method, which were mainly based on polystyrene blocks. Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k) with a low polydispersity of 1.4 was synthesized by combining step-growth condensation and RAFT polymerization. Various advanced electron microscopies revealed that PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k assembles into worm-like cylindrical micelles in DMAc and adopts a “flower-like” arrangement with the PSU central block forming the shell. Computational modeling described the mechanism of micelle formation and morphological transition. Asymmetric nanostructured membranes were obtained with a highly porous interconnected skin layer and a sublayer with finger-like macrovoids. Ultrafiltration tests confirmed a water permeance of 555 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 with molecular weight cut-off of 28 kg/mol. PtBA segments on the membrane surface were then hydrolyzed and complexed with metals, leading to cross-linking and enhancement of antibacterial capability.

  6. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of asymmetric EF24 analogues as potential anti-cancer agents for lung cancer. (United States)

    Wu, Jianzhang; Wu, Shoubiao; Shi, Lingyi; Zhang, Shanshan; Ren, Jiye; Yao, Song; Yun, Di; Huang, Lili; Wang, Jiabing; Li, Wulan; Wu, Xiaoping; Qiu, Peihong; Liang, Guang


    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway has been targeted for the therapy of various cancers, including lung cancer. EF24 was considered as a potent inhibitor of NF-κB signaling pathway. In this study, a series of asymmetric EF24 analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against three lung cancer cell lines (A549, LLC, H1650). Most of the compounds exhibited good anti-tumor activity. Among them, compound 81 showed greater cytotoxicity than EF24. Compound 81 also possessed a potent anti-migration and anti-proliferative ability against A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, compound 81 induced lung cancer cells death by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway, and activated the JNK-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting in apoptosis. In summary, compound 81 is a valuable candidate for anti-lung cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Asymmetric Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New Mono and Bicyclic β-Lactams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taslimi


    Full Text Available Reaction of the amino acid D-phenylalanine ethyl ester (4 with cinnamaldehyde gave chiral Schiff base 5, which underwent an asymmetric Staudinger [2+2] cycloaddition reaction with phthalimidoacetyl chloride to give the monocyclic β-lactam 6 as a single stereoisomer. Ozonolysis of 6 followed by reduction with lithium aluminum tri(tert-butoxy hydride afforded the hydroxymethyl β-lactam 8. Treatment of 8 with methansulfonyl chloride gave the mesylated monocyclic β-lactam 9, which was converted to the bicyclic β-lactam 10 upon treatment with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4.0] undec- 7-ene (DBU. Deprotection of the phthalimido group in β-lactams 6 and 10 by methylhydrazine and subsequent acylation of the free amino β-lactams with different acyl chlorides in the presence of pyridine afforded mono and bicyclic β-lactams 14a-d and 15a-d respectively. The compounds prepared were tested against Escherichia coli, Staphilococcus citrus, Klebsiella pneumanie and Bacillus subtillis. Some of these compounds showed potential antimicrobial activities.

  8. Synthesis of derivatives of tetronic acid and pulvinic acid. Total synthesis of norbadione A; Synthese de derives de l'acide tetronique et de l'acide pulvinique. Synthese totale de la norbadione A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallinger, A


    When vegetables like mushrooms are contaminated by radioactive caesium 137, this radioactive caesium is associated to norbadione A, a natural pigment present in two mushroom species and which can be used as a caesium decorporation agent or maybe as protection agent against ionizing radiations. Within this perspective, this research report describes the biosynthesis and the structure and properties of the norbadione A and of pulvinic acids (physicochemical properties, anti-oxidizing properties). Then, it presents the various tetronic acids (3-acyl-, 3-alkyl-, 3-alkoxy-, 3-aryl-tetronic acids and non 3-substituted tetronic acids), their synthesis path as they are described in the literature, and presents a new synthesis approach using a tandem reaction (with different esters or hydroxy esters) and the synthesis of tetronic acids. The author also proposes a new synthesis way for methyl pulvinates, and finally reports the work on the development of a total synthesis of the norbadione A.

  9. Decision-making regarding total knee replacement surgery: A qualitative meta-synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Bie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent condition that can result in disability and reduced quality of life. The evidence suggests that total knee replacement surgery (TKR is an effective intervention for patients with severe knee problems, but there is also an unmet need for this treatment in the UK. To help understand the reason for this unmet need, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence the decision-making process of TKR surgery by synthesising the available evidence from qualitative research on this topic. Methods A meta-synthesis was undertaken. This involved sevens steps: getting started, deciding what is relevant to the initial interest, reading the studies, determining how the studies are related, translating the studies into one another, synthesising translations, and finally, expressing the synthesis. Second-order and third-order interpretations regarding decision-making in TKR surgery were drawn from the literature. Results Ten qualitative studies were found and are included in the synthesis. The evidence suggests that social and cultural categories of aging have shaped the expectation of knee osteoarthritis, and this in turn shapes patients' expectations of treatment options. The role of the health care professional was the strongest theme to emerge across all ten studies. Coping strategies and life context determine short and longer-term outcomes of TKR. Conclusion The decision-making process regarding TKR surgery is extremely complex, as patients have weigh up numerous considerations before they can make a decision about surgery. By synthesising ten qualitative studies, we have illuminated the importance of the health care professional during this process.

  10. Direct asymmetric vinylogous aldol reaction of allyl ketones with isatins: Divergent synthesis of 3-hydroxy-2-oxindole derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Bo


    6 in 1: The highly enantioselective title reaction is mediated by a bifunctional catalyst and leads to E-configured vinylogous aldol products (see scheme). These products are used as common intermediates in the synthesis of six biologically active 3-hydroxy-2-oxindole derivatives (e.g., CPC-1). Computational studies indicated that the observed stereoselectivity is a result of favorable secondary π-π* and H-bonding interactions in the transition state. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong


    The employment of metal salts is quite limited in asymmetric catalysis, although it would provide an additional arsenal of safe and inexpensive reagents to create molecular functions with high optical purity. Cation chelation by polyethers increases the salts' solubility in conventional organic...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases; Part 1: alkyl halide alkylations. (United States)

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim A


    Alkylations of chiral or achiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases constitute a landmark in the development of practical methodology for asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids. Straightforward, easy preparation as well as high reactivity of these Ni(II) complexes render them ready available and inexpensive glycine equivalents for preparing a wide variety of α-amino acids, in particular on a relatively large scale. In the case of Ni(II) complexes containing benzylproline moiety as a chiral auxiliary, their alkylation proceeds with high thermodynamically controlled diastereoselectivity. Similar type of Ni(II) complexes derived from alanine can also be used for alkylation providing convenient access to quaternary, α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids. Achiral type of Ni(II) complexes can be prepared from picolinic acid or via recently developed modular approach using simple secondary or primary amines. These Ni(II) complexes can be easily mono/bis-alkylated under homogeneous or phase-transfer catalysis conditions. Origin of diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the alkylations reactions, aspects of practicality, generality and limitations of this methodology is critically discussed.

  13. Stereoselective synthesis of (E)-beta-tributylstannyl-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones: Construction of a key intermediate for the total synthesis of zoanthamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; Tanner, David Ackland


    (E)-beta-Trialkylstannyl-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones are readily available from secondary propargylic alcohols via a two-step sequence involving highly regio- and stereoselective Pd(0)-catalyzed hydrostannation followed by mild oxidation (TPAP). The methodology has been applied to the synthesis...... of enantiomerically pure enone 12 which is a key intermediate for the total synthesis of zoanthamine, a structurally complex marine natural product....

  14. Total Synthesis of Flocoumafen via Knoevenagel Condensation and Intramolecular Ring Cyclization: General Access to Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankil Jung


    Full Text Available The total synthesis and structure determination of cis- and trans-flocoumafen was described. The key synthetic steps involve Knoevenagel condensation with p-methoxybenzaldehyde, in situ decarboxylation and intramolecular ring cyclization to construct the tetralone skeleton. Stereospecific reduction of the O-alkylated ketone 13 afforded good yield of precusor alcohol 5. Final coupling of alcohol 5 with 4-hydroxy-coumarin yielded flocoumafen (1. Separation and structure determination of cis- and trans-flocoumafen through 2D NMR analyses-assisted computer simulation techniques for the evaluation of anticoagulant activities are reported for the first time. This method is useful for generating the core tetralone skeleton of 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives and provides a generalized access to various warfarin type anticoagulants.

  15. Discovery and Total Synthesis of Natural Cystobactamid Derivatives with Superior Activity against Gram-Negative Pathogens. (United States)

    Hüttel, Stephan; Testolin, Giambattista; Herrmann, Jennifer; Planke, Therese; Gille, Franziska; Moreno, Maria; Stadler, Marc; Brönstrup, Mark; Kirschning, Andreas; Müller, Rolf


    Antibiotic discovery and development is challenging as chemical scaffolds of synthetic origin often lack the required pharmaceutical properties, and the discovery of novel ones from natural sources is tedious. Herein, we report the discovery of new cystobactamids with a significantly improved antibacterial profile in a detailed screening of myxobacterial producer strains. Some of these new derivatives display antibacterial activities in the low-μg mL-1 range against Gram-negative pathogens, including clinical isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which were not observed for previously reported cystobactamids. Our findings provide structure-activity relationships and show how pathogen resistance can be overcome by natural scaffold diversity. The most promising derivative 861-2 was prepared by total synthesis, enabling further chemical optimization of this privileged scaffold. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Total Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Palmarumycin CP17 and Its Methoxy Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruina Wang


    Full Text Available Total synthesis of naturally occurring spirobisnaphthalene palmarumycin CP17 and its methoxy analogues was first achieved through Friedel-Crafts acylation, Wolff-Kishner reduction, intramolecular cyclization, ketalization, benzylic oxidation, and demethylation using the inexpensive and readily available methoxybenzene, 1,2-dimethoxybenzene and 1,4-dimethoxybenzene and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene as raw materials. Demethylation with (CH33SiI at ambient temperature resulted in ring A aromatization and acetal cleavage to give rise to binaphthyl ethers. The antifungal activities of these spirobisnaphthalene derivatives were evaluated, and the results revealed that 5 and 9b exhibit EC50 values of 9.34 µg/mL and 12.35 µg/mL, respectively, against P. piricola.

  17. Total Synthesis of Disciformycin A and B: Unusually Exigent Targets of Biological Significance. (United States)

    Kwon, Yonghoon; Schulthoff, Saskia; Dao, Quang Minh; Wirtz, Conny; Fürstner, Alois


    The first total synthesis of the potent antibiotic disciformycin B (2) is described, which is exceptionally isomerization-prone and transforms into disciformycin A (1) even under notably mild conditions. To outweigh this bias, the approach to 2 hinged on the use of a silyl residue at C4 to lock the critical double bond in place and hence insure the integrity of the synthetic intermediates en route to 2. This tactic was instrumental for the preparation of the building blocks and formation of the macrocyclic ring via ring closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM). To make the end game successful, however, it proved necessary to cleave the C-silyl protecting group off; it was at this stage that the exceptional sensitivity of the target became fully apparent. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Total Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of a Natural Cycloheptapeptide of Marine Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemendra Gautam


    Full Text Available The present study deals with the first total synthesis of the proline-rich cyclopolypeptide stylisin 2 via a solution phase technique by coupling of the Boc-l-Pro-l-Ile-l-Pro-OH tripeptide unit with the l-Phe-l-Pro-l-Pro-l-Tyr-OMe tetrapeptide unit, followed by cyclization of the resulting linear heptapeptide fragment. The chemical structure of the finally synthesized peptide was elucidated by FTIR, 1H/13C-NMR and FAB MS spectral data, as well as elemental analyses. The newly synthesized peptide was subjected to antimicrobial screening against eight pathogenic microbes and found to exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans, in addition to moderate antidermatophyte activity against pathogenic Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii when compared to standard drugs—gatifloxacin and griseofulvin.

  19. One-pot synthesis of 2-substituted indoles from 2-aminobenzyl phosphonium salts. A formal total synthesis of arcyriacyanin A. (United States)

    Kraus, George A; Guo, Haitao


    The reaction of (2-aminobenzyl) triphenylphosphonium bromide with aromatic aldehydes or alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes under microwave-assisted conditions constitutes a new synthesis of 2-substituted indoles in high yields (81-97%) in a one-pot reaction. The adduct from indole-4-carboxaldehyde was an advanced intermediate in the synthesis of arcyriacyanin A.

  20. Total synthesis of Fluoxetine & Duloxetine through an in situ imine formation/borylation/transimination and reduction approach


    Fernández, E.; Calow, A.D.J; Whiting, A.


    author can archive pre-print (ie pre-refereeing), 12 meses de embargo. Post print subject to Restrictions below, author can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing) DOI: 10.1039/c4ob01142b URL:!divAbstract Filiació URV: SI We report efficient, catalytic, asymmetric total syntheses of both (R)-Fluoxetine and (S)-Duloxetine from ¿¿¿-unsaturated aldehydes conducting five sequential one pot steps (imine ...

  1. Asymmetric synthesis of nonracemic primary amines via spiroborate-catalyzed reduction of pure (E)- and (Z)-O-benzyloximes: applications toward the synthesis of calcimimetic agents. (United States)

    Ou, Wenhua; Espinosa, Sandraliz; Meléndez, Héctor J; Farré, Silvia M; Alvarez, Jaime L; Torres, Valerie; Martínez, Ileanne; Santiago, Kiara M; Ortiz-Marciales, Margarita


    Highly enantiopure (1-aryl)- and (1-naphthyl)-1-ethylamines were synthesized by the borane-mediated reduction of single-isomeric (E)- and (Z)-O-benzyloxime ethers using the stable spiroborate ester derived from (S)-diphenyl valinol and ethylene glycol as the chiral catalyst. Primary (R)-arylethylamines were prepared by the reduction of pure (Z)-ethanone oxime ethers in up to 99% ee using 15% of catalyst. Two convenient and facile approaches to the synthesis of new and known calcimimetic analogues employing enantiopure (1-naphthalen-1-yl)ethylamine as chiral precursor are described.

  2. Asymmetric Synthesis of Nonracemic Primary Amines via Spiroborate Catalyzed Reduction of pure (E)- and (Z)-O-Benzyloximes: Applications toward the Synthesis of Calcimimetic Agents (United States)

    Ou, Wenhua; Espinosa, Sandraliz; Meléndez, Héctor J.; Farré, Silvia M.; Alvarez, Jaime L.; Torres, Valerie; Martínez, Ileanne; Santiago, Kiara M.; Ortiz-Marciales, Margarita


    Highly enantiopure (1-aryl)- and (1-naphthyl)-1-ethylamines were synthesized by the borane-mediated reduction of single-isomeric (E)- and (Z)-O-benzyloxime ethers using the stable spiroborate ester derived from (S)-diphenyl valinol and ethylene glycol as the chiral catalyst. Primary (R)-arylethylamines were prepared by the reduction of pure (Z)-ethanone oxime ethers in up to 99% ee using 15% of catalyst. Two convenient and facile approaches to the synthesis of new and known calcimimetic analogs employing enantiopure (1-naphthalen-1-yl)ethylamine as chiral precursor are described. PMID:23638707

  3. Scope and Limitations of Fmoc Chemistry SPPS-Based Approaches to the Total Synthesis of Insulin Lispro via Ester Insulin. (United States)

    Dhayalan, Balamurugan; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Rege, Nischay; Weiss, Michael A; Eitel, Simon H; Meier, Thomas; Schoenleber, Ralph O; Kent, Stephen B H


    We have systematically explored three approaches based on 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) for the total chemical synthesis of the key depsipeptide intermediate for the efficient total chemical synthesis of insulin. The approaches used were: stepwise Fmoc chemistry SPPS; the "hybrid method", in which maximally protected peptide segments made by Fmoc chemistry SPPS are condensed in solution; and, native chemical ligation using peptide-thioester segments generated by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. A key building block in all three approaches was a Glu[O-β-(Thr)] ester-linked dipeptide equipped with a set of orthogonal protecting groups compatible with Fmoc chemistry SPPS. The most effective method for the preparation of the 51 residue ester-linked polypeptide chain of ester insulin was the use of unprotected peptide-thioester segments, prepared from peptide-hydrazides synthesized by Fmoc chemistry SPPS, and condensed by native chemical ligation. High-resolution X-ray crystallography confirmed the disulfide pairings and three-dimensional structure of synthetic insulin lispro prepared from ester insulin lispro by this route. Further optimization of these pilot studies could yield an efficient total chemical synthesis of insulin lispro (Humalog) based on peptide synthesis by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Protecting-group-free and catalysis-based total synthesis of the ecklonialactones. (United States)

    Hickmann, Volker; Alcarazo, Manuel; Fürstner, Alois


    A concise and protecting-group-free total synthesis of optically pure ecklonialactones A (1) and B (2) is described. The successful route to these oxylipins isolated from various brown algae involves five transition-metal-catalyzed transformations in the longest linear sequence of 13 steps. The first chiral center was set by a rhodium-catalyzed 1,4-addition of an alkenyl boronate to the commercial butenolide 11, which was controlled by Carreira's carvone-derived diene ligand 21. Other key steps involve a ring-closing olefin metathesis effected by the ruthenium indenylidene complex 22 for the formation of the five-membered carbocycle, a vanadium-catalyzed, hydroxy-directed epoxidation, and a ring-closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM) to forge the macrocyclic ring. Because of the unusually high propensity of the oxirane of the ecklonialactones for ring-opening, this transformation was best achieved with [(Ph(3)SiO)(3)Mo[triple bond]CPh].OEt(2) (34) as the catalyst, which is a representative of a new generation of highly tolerant yet remarkably efficient molybdenum alkylidyne complexes. The ancillary triphenylsilanolate ligands in 34 temper the Lewis acidity of the molybdenum center and are not able to nucleophilically open the fragile epoxide ring. The final reduction of the cycloalkyne formed in the RCAM step to the required (Z)-alkene was accomplished either by Lindlar reduction or with the aid of nickel boride.

  5. Direct C-glycosylation of organotrifluoroborates with glycosyl fluorides and its application to the total synthesis of (+)-varitriol. (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Vedachalam, Seenuvasan; Xiang, Shaohua; Liu, Xue-Wei


    A mild, stereoselective, and quick approach to accessing alkynyl and alkenyl C-glycosides via BF(3)·Et(2)O promoted coupling of organotrifluoroborates and glycosyl fluorides is reported. The application of this method was further demonstrated by the concise and efficient total synthesis of (+)-varitriol in only seven steps.

  6. Synthesis of gamma,delta-unsaturated-beta-keto lactones via sequential cross metathesis-lactonization: a facile entry to macrolide antibiotic (-)-A26771B. (United States)

    Gebauer, Julian; Blechert, Siegfried


    A simple access to gamma,delta-unsaturated-beta-keto lactones is presented, allowing a rapid total synthesis of the naturally occurring 16-membered macrolide antibiotic (-)-A26771B via cross metathesis, asymmetric dihydroxylation, and lactonization as the key steps.

  7. Streamlined Total Synthesis of Trioxacarcins and Its Application to the Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Analogues Thereof. Discovery of Simpler Designed and Potent Trioxacarcin Analogues. (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Chen, Pengxi; Zhu, Shugao; Cai, Quan; Erande, Rohan D; Li, Ruofan; Sun, Hongbao; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Aujay, Monette; Sandoval, Joseph; Gavrilyuk, Julia


    A streamlined total synthesis of the naturally occurring antitumor agents trioxacarcins is described, along with its application to the construction of a series of designed analogues of these complex natural products. Biological evaluation of the synthesized compounds revealed a number of highly potent, and yet structurally simpler, compounds that are effective against certain cancer cell lines, including a drug-resistant line. A novel one-step synthesis of anthraquinones and chloro anthraquinones from simple ketone precursors and phenylselenyl chloride is also described. The reported work, featuring novel chemistry and cascade reactions, has potential applications in cancer therapy, including targeted approaches as in antibody-drug conjugates.

  8. Total synthesis of the cyclopeptide alkaloid abyssenine A. Application of inter- and intramolecular copper-mediated coupling reactions in organic synthesis. (United States)

    Toumi, Mathieu; Couty, François; Evano, Gwilherm


    The first total synthesis of the 15-membered ring cyclopeptide alkaloid abyssenine A 1 has been achieved with a longest linear sequence of 15 steps. Central to the synthetic approach was an efficient copper-mediated Ullmann coupling/Claisen rearrangement sequence allowing for both ipso and ortho functionalization of aromatic iodide 4. This sequence was used for the synthesis of the aromatic core. The synthetic utility of copper-catalyzed coupling reactions was further demonstrated to install the enamide with a concomitant straightforward macrocyclization starting from acyclic alpha-amido-omega-vinyl iodide 13.

  9. Chiral fullerenes from asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Maroto, Enrique E; Izquierdo, Marta; Reboredo, Silvia; Marco-Martínez, Juan; Filippone, Salvatore; Martín, Nazario


    Fullerenes are among the most studied molecules during the last three decades, and therefore, a huge number of chemical reactions have been tested on these new carbon allotropes. However, the aim of most of the reactions carried out on fullerenes has been to afford chemically modified fullerenes that are soluble in organic solvents or even water in the search for different mechanical, optical, or electronic properties. Therefore, although a lot of effort has been devoted to the chemical functionalization of these molecular allotropes of carbon, important aspects in the chemistry of fullerenes have not been properly addressed. In particular, the synthesis of chiral fullerenes at will in an efficient manner using asymmetric catalysis has not been previously addressed in fullerene science. Thus, despite the fact that the chirality of fullerenes has always been considered a fundamental issue, the lack of a general stereoselective synthetic methodology has restricted the use of enantiopure fullerene derivatives, which have usually been obtained only after highly expensive HPLC isolation on specific chiral columns or prepared from a pool of chiral starting materials. In this Account, we describe the first stereodivergent catalytic enantioselective syntheses in fullerene science, which have allowed the highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure derivatives with total control of the stereochemical result using metallic catalysts and/or organocatalysts under very mild conditions. Density functional theory calculations strongly support the experimental findings for the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new stereocenters, which has also been ascertained by application of the sector rule and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of the curved double bond of fullerene cages as a two-π-electron component in a variety of stereoselective cycloaddition reactions represents a challenging goal considering that, in contrast to most of the substituted

  10. Construction of an advanced tetracyclic intermediate for total synthesis of the marine alkaloid sarain A. (United States)

    Hong, Sungwoo; Yang, Jinhai; Weinreb, Steven M


    In work directed toward a total synthesis of the marine alkaloid sarain A (1), the advanced intermediate 54, containing all the key elements and the seven stereogenic centers of sarain A, has been successfully synthesized from bicyclic lactam 4, previously prepared via an intramolecular stereospecific [3 + 2]-azomethine ylide dipolar cycloaddition. Intermediate lactam 4 could be efficiently converted to N-Boc derivative 12. Introduction of a two-carbon fragment into lactam 12 which eventually becomes the C-7',8' syn diol of the "eastern" ring was then achieved by C-acylation of the corresponding enolate with methoxyacetyl chloride followed by a highly stereoselective ketone reduction with Zn(BH4)2 to afford alcohol 16. Intermediate 16 has the incorrect C-7' relative stereochemistry for sarain A, but this problem was conveniently remedied by inverting the C-7' center via an intramolecular Ohfune-type cyclization of the silyl carbamate derived from Boc mesylate 27 to produce the key cyclic carbamate 28. It was then possible to convert acetal 28 to allylsilane 32 followed by cyclization to the alkaloid tricyclic core 33 via an allylsilane/N-sulfonyliminium ion cyclization. Formation of the "western" macrocyclic ring has been successfully addressed using functional group handles at C-3' and N-1' on the tricyclic core via a ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM) strategy with the second-generation Grubbs ruthenium catalyst to produce intermediate macrolactam 47. A chelation-controlled addition of ethynylmagnesium bromide to advanced aldehyde 51 afforded a single diastereomeric adduct 53 which is tentatively assigned to have the correct C-7',8' syn-diol stereochemistry. This adduct could be rearranged to the conveniently protected amino carbonate 54 which is set up for construction of the remainder of the eastern ring of sarain A.

  11. Scope & Limitations of Fmoc Chemistry SPPS-Based Approaches to the Total Synthesis of Insulin Lispro via Ester Insulin (United States)

    Dhayalan, Balamurugan; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Rege, Nischay; Weiss, Michael A.; Eitel, Simon H.; Meier, Thomas; Schoenleber, Ralph O.; Kent, Stephen B.H.


    We have systematically explored three approaches based on Fmoc chemistry SPPS for the total chemical synthesis of the key depsipeptide intermediate for the efficient total chemical synthesis of insulin. The approaches used were: stepwise Fmoc chemistry SPPS; the ‘hybrid method’, in which maximally-protected peptide segments made by Fmoc chemistry SPPS are condensed in solution; and, native chemical ligation using peptide-thioester segments generated by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. A key building block in all three approaches was a Glu[Oβ(Thr)] ester-linked dipeptide equipped with a set of orthogonal protecting groups compatible with Fmoc chemistry SPPS. The most effective method for the preparation of the 51 residue ester-linked polypeptide chain of ester insulin was the use of unprotected peptide-thioester segments, prepared from peptide-hydrazides synthesized by Fmoc chemistry SPPS, and condensed by native chemical ligation. High resolution X-ray crystallography confirmed the disulfide pairings and three-dimensional structure of synthetic insulin lispro prepared from ester insulin lispro by this route. Further optimization of these pilot studies should yield an effective total chemical synthesis of insulin lispro (Humalog) based on peptide synthesis by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. PMID:27905149

  12. Total synthesis of (-)-reidispongiolide A, an actin-targeting macrolide isolated from the marine sponge Reidispongia coerulea. (United States)

    Paterson, Ian; Ashton, Kate; Britton, Robert; Cecere, Giuseppe; Chouraqui, Gaëlle; Florence, Gordon J; Knust, Henner; Stafford, Jonathan


    A stereocontrolled total synthesis of the microfilament-destabilizing cytotoxic macrolide (-)-reidispongiolide A, isolated from the New Caledonian marine sponge Reidispongia coerulea, is described. This synthesis utilizes a convergent aldol-based strategy to construct the 26-membered macrolactone, followed by the late-stage coupling of a derived aldehyde with an N-vinylformamide-containing ketone subunit to install the full side chain. Two alternative routes were examined for the introduction of the 2E,4E-dienoate region, and a complex Mukaiyama aldol coupling was used to connect the northern and southern hemispheres to install the C13 stereocenter. This constitutes the first chemical synthesis of any member of the reidispongiolide/sphinxolide family of marine macrolides and unequivocally establishes the relative and absolute configuration.

  13. One-pot synthesis of symmetric and asymmetric p-quinone ligands and unprecedented substituent induced reactivity in their dinuclear ruthenium complexes. (United States)

    Schweinfurth, David; Das, Hari Sankar; Weisser, Fritz; Bubrin, Denis; Sarkar, Biprajit


    The compounds 2-[2-(trifluoromethyl)-anilino]-5-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (L(1)), 2,5-di-[2-(trifluoromethyl)-anilino]-1,4-benzoquinone (L(2)), 2-[2-(methylthio)-anilino]-5-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (L(3)), and 2,5-di-[2-(methylthio)-anilino]-1,4-benzoquinone (L(4)) were prepared in high yields by reacting 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone with the corresponding amines in a one-pot synthesis in refluxing acetic acid. This straightforward and "green" synthesis delivers biologically relevant asymmetric p-quinones such as L(1) and L(3) in a rare, simple, one-step process. The proposed synthetic route is general and can be applied to generate a variety of such molecules with different substituents on the nitrogen atoms. Structural characterization of L(2) and L(4) shows electron delocalization across the "upper" and "lower" parts of the molecule, thus showing the importance of charge separated species in the proper description of such molecules. Reactions of these ligands with [Cl(η(6)-Cym)Ru(μ-Cl)(2)Ru(η(6)-Cym)Cl] (Cym = p-Cymene = 1-isopropyl-4-methyl-benzene) in the presence of a base result in the formation of complexes [{Cl(η(6)-Cym)Ru}(2)(μ-L(-2H)(1))] (1), [{Cl(η(6)-Cym)Ru}(2)(μ-L(-2H)(2))] (2), [{Cl(η(6)-Cym)Ru}(2)(μ-L(-2H)(3))] (3), and [{Cl(η(6)-Cym)Ru}(2)(μ-L(-2H)(4))] (4). Structural characterization of 2 and 4 shows a rare syn-coordination of the chloride atoms. The SMe groups in 3 and 4 are not coordinated to the ruthenium center, and the bridging ligands thus function in a bis-bidentate form. Abstraction of the chloride atoms in these complexes with AgClO(4) in CH(3)CN results in the expected formation of solvent substituted complexes [{(CH(3)CN)(η(6)-Cym)Ru}(2)(μ-L(-2H)(1))][ClO(4)](2) (5[ClO(4)](2)) and [{(CH(3)CN)(η(6)-Cym)Ru}(2)(μ-L(-2H)(2))][ClO(4)](2) (6[ClO(4)](2)) with the ligands where there are no additional donor atoms on the nitrogen substituents. The same chloride abstraction reaction in the cases of 3 and 4 leads to an

  14. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements: recent applications in the total synthesis of natural products† (United States)

    Ilardi, Elizabeth A.; Stivala, Craig E.


    Among the fundamental chemical transformations in organic synthesis, the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement occupies a unique position as a powerful, reliable, and well-defined method for the stereoselective construction of carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom bonds. While many other reactions can unite two subunits and create a new bond, the strengths of sigmatropic rearrangements derive from their ability to enable structural reorganization with unmatched build-up of complexity. Recent applications that illustrate [3,3]-sigmatropic processes as a key concept in the synthesis of complex natural products are described in this tutorial review, covering literature from about 2001 through early 2009. PMID:19847347

  15. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements: recent applications in the total synthesis of natural products. (United States)

    Ilardi, Elizabeth A; Stivala, Craig E; Zakarian, Armen


    Among the fundamental chemical transformations in organic synthesis, the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement occupies a unique position as a powerful, reliable, and well-defined method for the stereoselective construction of carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bonds. While many other reactions can unite two subunits and create a new bond, the strengths of sigmatropic rearrangements derive from their ability to enable structural reorganization with unmatched build-up of complexity. Recent applications that illustrate [3,3]-sigmatropic processes as a key concept in the synthesis of complex natural products are described in this tutorial review, covering literature from about 2001 through early 2009.

  16. Highly enantioselective synthesis of γ-, δ-, and ε-chiral 1-alkanols via Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA)-Cu- or Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling. (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Oda, Akimichi; Kamada, Hirofumi; Negishi, Ei-ichi


    Despite recent advances of asymmetric synthesis, the preparation of enantiomerically pure (≥99% ee) compounds remains a challenge in modern organic chemistry. We report here a strategy for a highly enantioselective (≥99% ee) and catalytic synthesis of various γ- and more-remotely chiral alcohols from terminal alkenes via Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA reaction)-Cu- or Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling. ZACA-in situ oxidation of tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBS)-protected ω-alkene-1-ols produced both (R)- and (S)-α,ω-dioxyfunctional intermediates (3) in 80-88% ee, which were readily purified to the ≥99% ee level by lipase-catalyzed acetylation through exploitation of their high selectivity factors. These α,ω-dioxyfunctional intermediates serve as versatile synthons for the construction of various chiral compounds. Their subsequent Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling with various alkyl (primary, secondary, tertiary, cyclic) Grignard reagents and Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling with aryl and alkenyl halides proceeded smoothly with essentially complete retention of stereochemical configuration to produce a wide variety of γ-, δ-, and ε-chiral 1-alkanols of ≥99% ee. The MαNP ester analysis has been applied to the determination of the enantiomeric purities of δ- and ε-chiral primary alkanols, which sheds light on the relatively undeveloped area of determination of enantiomeric purity and/or absolute configuration of remotely chiral primary alcohols.

  17. Total synthesis and evaluation of C25-benzyloxyepothilone C for tubulin assembly and cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Hutt, Oliver E; Reddy, Bollu S; Nair, Sajiv K; Reiff, Emily A; Henri, John T; Greiner, Jack F; Chiu, Ting-Lan; Vandervelde, David G; Amin, Elizabeth A; Himes, Richard H; Georg, Gunda I


    The total synthesis of C25-benzyloxy epothilone C is described. A sequential Suzuki-Aldol-Yamaguchi macrolactonization strategy was utilized employing a novel derivatized C8-C12 fragment. The C25-benzyloxy analog exhibited significantly reduced biological activity in microtubule assembly and cytotoxicity assays. Molecular modeling simulations indicated that excessive steric bulk in the C25 position may reduce activity by disrupting key hydrogen bonds that are crucial for epothilone binding to beta-tubulin.

  18. A 11-Steps Total Synthesis of Magellanine through a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Dehydro Diels-Alder Reaction. (United States)

    McGee, Philippe; Bétournay, Geneviève; Barabé, Francis; Barriault, Louis


    We have developed an innovative strategy for the formation of angular carbocycles via a gold(I)-catalyzed dehydro Diels-Alder reaction. This transformation provides rapid access to a variety of complex angular cores in excellent diastereoselectivities and high yields. The usefulness of this AuI -catalyzed cycloaddition was further demonstrated by accomplishing a 11-steps total synthesis of (±)-magellanine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Total Synthesis of γ-Indomycinone and Kidamycinone by Means of Two Regioselective Diels-Alder Reactions. (United States)

    Mabit, Thibaud; Siard, Aymeric; Pantin, Mathilde; Zon, Doumadé; Foulgoc, Laura; Sissouma, Drissa; Guingant, André; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Carreaux, François; Dujardin, Gilles; Collet, Sylvain


    An efficient access for the synthesis of pluramycinones is described. Total syntheses of racemic γ-indomycinone and kidamycinone were achieved by means of two Diels-Alder reactions. A first Diels-Alder condensation followed by a Stille cross-coupling is used for the elaboration of the desired substituted dienes which will be involved in the second pericyclic reaction with juglone to construct the tetracyclic core of pluramycinones.

  20. First total synthesis of justicidone, a p-quinone-lignan derivative from Justicia hyssopifolia. (United States)

    Boluda, Carlos J; López, Hermelo; Pérez, José A; Trujillo, Juan M


    The first synthesis of justicidone (4-(1',3'-Benzodioxol-5'-yl)-6-methoxynaphtho[2,3-c]furan-1,5,8(3H)-trione) was carried out from piperonal, as a starting compound, through a lineal process using well known reactions.

  1. A Facile Total Synthesis of ent-17β-Estradiol and Structurally–Related Analogues (United States)

    Cai, Zu Yun; Covey, Douglas F.


    A facile six-step synthesis (15.2% yield) of ent-17β-estradiol from readily accessible precursors is described. The preparation of analogues with 2-alkyl substitutents, double bond unsaturation in the C-ring, a cis C, D-ring fusion and modified substituents at C17 is also reported. PMID:17257636

  2. Total Synthesis of Linckosides A and B, the Representative Starfish Polyhydroxysteroid Glycosides with Neuritogenic Activities. (United States)

    Zhu, Dapeng; Yu, Biao


    Linckosides A and B, two starfish metabolites with promising neuritogenic activities, are synthesized in a longest linear sequence of 32 steps and 0.5% overall yield; this represents the first synthesis of members of the polyhydroxysteroid glycoside family, which occur widely in starfishes.

  3. ortho-Quinone methides from para-quinones: total synthesis of rubioncolin B. (United States)

    Lumb, Jean-Philip; Choong, Kevin C; Trauner, Dirk


    A concise synthesis of rubioncolin B is described, which features an unprecedented intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction involving an ortho-quinone methide and a naphthofuran moiety. The ortho-quinone methide is generated through a surprisingly facile tautomerization of a para-quinone.

  4. Total Synthesis of (-)-Doliculide, Structure-Activity Relationship Studies and Its Binding to F-Actin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matcha, Kiran; Madduri, Ashoka V. R.; Roy, Sayantani; Ziegler, Slava; Waldmann, Herbert; Hirsch, Anna K. H.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    Actin, an abundant protein in most eukaryotic cells, is one of the targets in cancer research. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to the synthesis and function of actin-targeting compounds and their use as effective molecular probes in chemical biology. In this study, we have

  5. Total synthesis of (-)-fumiquinazolines A, B, C, E, H, and I. Approaches to the synthesis of fiscalin A. (United States)

    Snider, Barry B; Zeng, Hongbo


    The first syntheses of (-)-fumiquinazolines A, B, and I, which proceed in 14 steps from protected tryptophan, anthranilic acid, leucine, and alanine in 7% overall yield, are described. Tricycle 30 was formed by a palladium-catalyzed cyclization. Oxidation of 30a with saccharine-derived oxaziridine 21 for fumiquinazolines A and B and oxidation of 30b with dimethyldioxirane for fumiquinazoline I selectively formed the appropriate imidazoindolone stereoisomers. Application of the Ganesan-Mazurkiewicz cyclization completed the syntheses. Efficient 14-step syntheses of (-)-fumiquinazolines C (7) and E (3) and a 15-step synthesis of (-)-fumiquinazoline H (8) using FmocNHCH(CH2SePh)CO2H as a dehydroalanine precursor that spontaneously eliminated benzeneselenol without oxidation under the cyclization conditions are also reported. Model 86 for fiscalins A with the H and OH anti to each other has been prepared, but the procedure that worked for the model failed with the fully functionalized side chain.

  6. Asymmetric fluorocyclizations of alkenes. (United States)

    Wolstenhulme, Jamie R; Gouverneur, Véronique


    .g., TRIP and derivatives) brings into solution the resulting chiral Selectfluor reagent, now capable of asymmetric fluorocyclization. This strategy is best applied to a subset of substrates bearing a nucleophilic pendent group (benzamide is best) capable of hydrogen bonding for association with the chiral phosphate catalyst. These contributions focused on fluoroheterocyclization involving either O- or N-nucleophiles. As for other halocyclizations, alkenes armed with π C-nucleophiles represent the most demanding class of substrates for asymmetric F(+)-induced electrophilic fluorination-cyclization. Successful implementation required the design of new chiral Selectfluor reagents featuring stereogenicity on the DABCO core. These reagents, accessible from chiral vicinal diamines, allowed the synthesis of unusual chiral fluorine-containing tetracyclic compounds, some composed of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine exclusively. The challenges associated with F(+)-induced fluorocarbocyclizations prompted methodologists to consider chemistry where the Csp(3)-F bond formation event follows a catalyst-controlled cyclization. An exciting development built on in the area of transition metal π-cyclization of polyenes leading to cationic metal-alkyl intermediates. When intercepted by oxidative fluorodemetalation with a F(+) source, the resulting products are complex polycyclic structures emerging from an overall catalytic cascade fluorocarbocyclization. Complementing F(+)-based reactions, examples of fluorocyclizations with fluoride in the presence of an oxidant were reported. Despite some exciting developments, the field of asymmetric fluorocyclizations is in its infancy and undoubtedly requires new activation modes, catalysts, as well as F(+) and F(-) reagents to progress into general retrosynthetic approach toward enantioenriched fluorocycles. Numerous opportunities emerge, not least the use of a latent fluorine source as a means to minimize background fluorination.

  7. Total solid-phase synthesis of the azathiocoraline class of symmetric bicyclic peptides. (United States)

    Bayó-Puxan, Núria; Fernández, Ariadna; Tulla-Puche, Judit; Riego, Estela; Cuevas, Carmen; Alvarez, Mercedes; Albericio, Fernando


    Thiocoraline is a potent antitumor agent isolated from the marine organism Micromonospora sp. This symmetric bicyclic depsipeptide binds the minor groove of DNA. Here we report two solid-phase strategies for the syntheses of azathiocoraline and its analogues. The thioester linkage was replaced by an amide bond to improve the compound's pharmacokinetic properties. The first strategy is based on a convergent (4+4) approach, whilst the second is a stepwise synthesis, cyclizations in both approaches occurring on the solid support. These two strategies were designed to overcome problems caused by the presence of consecutive noncommercial N-methyl amino acids, to avoid epimerization during cyclization and/or fragment condensation, and to form the disulfide bridge under solid-phase conditions. The heterocyclic moiety was added in the last step of the synthesis to assist the preparation of libraries of new compounds with potential therapeutic applications.

  8. Total synthesis of ulocladol A and analogues alternariol 0-methyl ether and alternariol


    Sudlow, Lauren


    Ulocladol A is a natural product which has been shown to exhibit tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity against the enzyme Lck. It was isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia vaginalis in 1999. Prior to the commencement of this project there had been three reported syntheses of ulocladol A, all of which started from intermediates prepared in the synthesis of graphislactones C and D. The routes were relatively long and did not provide much scope for analogous compounds.We proposed it would b...

  9. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements: recent applications in the total synthesis of natural products†


    Ilardi, Elizabeth A.; Stivala, Craig E.; Zakarian, Armen


    Among the fundamental chemical transformations in organic synthesis, the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement occupies a unique position as a powerful, reliable, and well-defined method for the stereoselective construction of carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom bonds. While many other reactions can unite two subunits and create a new bond, the strengths of sigmatropic rearrangements derive from their ability to enable structural reorganization with unmatched build-up of complexity. Recent applicati...

  10. Asymmetric Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Substitution of Diaryl Methanols with Thiols and Alcohols for the Synthesis of Chiral Thioethers and Ethers

    KAUST Repository

    Chatupheeraphat, Adisak


    An enantioselective addition of thiols and alcohols to aza-ortho-quinone methides, starting from diaryl methanols, was developed. The asymmetric additions occur under mild reaction conditions in the presence of chiral phosphoric acids and furnish the corresponding adducts with excellent yields and enantioselectivities.

  11. Synthesis of a highly Mg2+-selective fluorescent probe and its application to quantifying and imaging total intracellular magnesium. (United States)

    Sargenti, Azzurra; Farruggia, Giovanna; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Marraccini, Chiara; Sgarzi, Massimo; Cappadone, Concettina; Malucelli, Emil; Procopio, Alessandra; Prodi, Luca; Lombardo, Marco; Iotti, Stefano


    Magnesium plays a crucial role in many physiological functions and pathological states. Therefore, the evolution of specific and sensitive tools capable of detecting and quantifying this element in cells is a very desirable goal in biological and biomedical research. We developed a Mg2+-selective fluorescent dye that can be used to selectively detect and quantify the total magnesium pool in a number of cells that is two orders of magnitude smaller than that required by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS), the reference analytical method for the assessment of cellular total metal content. This protocol reports itemized steps for the synthesis of the fluorescent dye based on diaza-18-crown-6-hydroxyquinoline (DCHQ5). We also describe its application in the quantification of total intracellular magnesium in mammalian cells and the detection of this ion in vivo by confocal microscopy. The use of in vivo confocal microscopy enables the quantification of magnesium in different cellular compartments. As an example of the sensitivity of DCHQ5, we studied the involvement of Mg2+ in multidrug resistance in human colon adenocarcinoma cells sensitive (LoVo-S) and resistant (LoVo-R) to doxorubicin, and found that the concentration was higher in LoVo-R cells. The time frame for DCHQ5 synthesis is 1-2 d, whereas the use of this dye for total intracellular magnesium quantification takes 2.5 h and for ion bioimaging it takes 1-2 h.

  12. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Antibiotic CJ-16,264, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Designed Analogues, and Discovery of Highly Potent and Simpler Antibacterial Agents. (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Buchman, Marek; Shah, Akshay A; Cen, Nicholas; McCurry, Megan D; Beabout, Kathryn; Shamoo, Yousif


    An improved and enantioselective total synthesis of antibiotic CJ-16,264 through a practical kinetic resolution and an iodolactonization reaction to form the iodo pyrrolizidinone fragment of the molecule is described. A series of racemic and enantiopure analogues of CJ-16,264 was designed and synthesized through the developed synthetic technologies and tested against drug-resistant bacterial strains. These studies led to interesting structure-activity relationships and the identification of a number of simpler, and yet equipotent, or even more potent, antibacterial agents than the natural product, thereby setting the foundation for further investigations in the quest for new anti-infective drugs.

  13. A solid-phase approach to the phallotoxins: total synthesis of [Ala7]-phalloidin. (United States)

    Anderson, Marc O; Shelat, Anang A; Guy, R Kiplin


    Herein we report a solid-phase synthetic approach to [Ala7]-phalloidin (1). Prior syntheses of phallotoxins were carried out using solution-phase routes that required large scale and preclude library production. The route presented here consists of solution-phase preparation of key orthogonally protected amino acid building blocks, followed by a solid-phase peptide synthesis sequence, featuring two resin-bound macro-cyclization reactions. The final product mixture was composed of two atropisomeric compounds, one designated "natural" (1) and the other designated "non-natural" (1'). The structures of these species were modeled using restrained energy minimization with NMR-derived restraints.

  14. Asymmetric Ashes (United States)


    that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy

  15. Influence of the Total Gas Flow at Different Reaction Times for CVD-Graphene Synthesis on Polycrystalline Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lavin-Lopez


    Full Text Available Optimization of the total gas flow (CH4+H2 during the reaction step for different reaction times for CVD-graphene synthesis on polycrystalline nickel foil using an atmospheric pressure set-up is reported. A thickness value related to number of graphene layers in each of the synthesized samples was determined using an Excel-VBA application. This method assigned a thickness value between 1 and 1000 and provided information on the percentage of each type of graphene (monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer deposited onto the polycrystalline nickel sheet. The influence of the total gas flow during the reaction step and the reaction time was studied in detail. Optical microscopy showed that samples were covered with different types of graphene, such as multilayer, few-layer, bilayer, and monolayer graphene. The synthesis variables were optimized according to the thickness value and the results were verified by Raman spectroscopy. The best conditions were obtained with a reaction temperature of 980°C, a CH4/H2 flow rate ratio of 0.07 v/v, a reaction time of 1 minute, and a total gas flow of 80 NmL/min. In the sample obtained under the optimized conditions, 80% of the area was covered with monolayer graphene and less than 1% with multilayer graphene.

  16. Tanjungides A and B: New Antitumoral Bromoindole Derived Compounds from Diazona cf formosa. Isolation and Total Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Murcia


    Full Text Available Tanjungides A (1 (Z isomer and B (2 (E isomer, two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey’s analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines.

  17. Tanjungides A and B: new antitumoral bromoindole derived compounds from Diazona cf formosa. isolation and total synthesis. (United States)

    Murcia, Carmen; Coello, Laura; Fernández, Rogelio; Martín, María Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Francesch, Andrés; Munt, Simon; Cuevas, Carmen


    Tanjungides A (1) (Z isomer) and B (2) (E isomer), two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey's analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines.

  18. A diversity-oriented approach to indolocarbazoles via Fischer indolization and olefin metathesis: total synthesis of tjipanazole D and I. (United States)

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Saifuddin, Mohammad; Aswar, Vikas R


    New synthetic strategies to indolocarbazoles have been reported via two-fold Fischer indolization under green conditions using l-(+)-tartaric acid and N,N-dimethyl urea. Starting with cyclohexanone, a bench-top starting material, this methodology has been extended to the total synthesis of natural products such as tjipanazoles D and I as well as the core structure of asteropusazole and racemosin B. Here, atom economical reactions like ring-closing metathesis, enyne-metathesis, and the Diels-Alder reaction have been used as key steps. Diverse strategies demonstrated here are useful in medicinal chemistry and materials science to design a library of decorated indoles.

  19. Total synthesis of feglymycin based on a linear/convergent hybrid approach using micro-flow amide bond formation (United States)

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Mifune, Yuto; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi


    Feglymycin is a naturally occurring, anti-HIV and antimicrobial 13-mer peptide that includes highly racemizable 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycines (Dpgs). Here we describe the total synthesis of feglymycin based on a linear/convergent hybrid approach. Our originally developed micro-flow amide bond formation enabled highly racemizable peptide chain elongation based on a linear approach that was previously considered impossible. Our developed approach will enable the practical preparation of biologically active oligopeptides that contain highly racemizable amino acids, which are attractive drug candidates.

  20. Total synthesis of (-)-aritasone via the ultra-high pressure hetero-Diels-Alder dimerisation of (-)-pinocarvone. (United States)

    Uroos, Maliha; Pitt, Phillip; Harwood, Laurence M; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Hayes, Christopher J


    This paper describes a total synthesis of the terpene-derived natural product aritasone via the hetero-Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cyclodimerisation of pinocarvove, which represents the proposed biosyntheic route. The hetero-Diels-Alder dimerisation of pinocarvone did not proceed under standard conditions, and ultra-high pressure (19.9 kbar) was required. As it seems unlikely that these ultra-high pressures are accessible within a plant cell, we suggest that the original biosynthetic hypothesis be reconsidered, and alternatives are discussed.

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers via copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of (Z)-allyl bromides with organolithium reagents. (United States)

    Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Vitale, Romina; Pérez, Manuel; Feringa, Ben L


    A copper/phosphoramidite catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of Z trisubstituted allyl bromides with organolithium reagents is reported. The reaction affords all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers in high yields and very good regio- and enantioselectivity. This systematic study illustrates the crucial role of the olefin geometry of the allyl substrate on the outcome of the reaction and provides a viable alternative to access these important structural motifs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Two-step hydrothermal synthesis of NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods on nickel foam for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Lin, Jianming; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Miaoliang; Fan, Leqing; Chen, Hongwei; He, Xin; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Zedong


    It is still a huge challenge to obtain a high-energy-density asymmetric supercapacitors and develop an active electrode material with excellent electrochemical characteristics. Although NiCo2S4 has been considered as one of the promising positive electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors, the electrochemical performance of the NiCo2S4-based positive electrodes is still relatively low and cannot meet the demand in the devices. Herein, NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods with a large capacitance are synthesized via a simple two-step hydrothermal treatment. A high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor operating at 1.6 V is successfully assembled using the NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode in 3 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, which demonstrates a fairly high energy density of 49.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 123 W kg-1, an excellent capacitance of 0.91 F cm-2 (139.42 F g-1) at current density of 1 mA cm-2 as well as a remarkable cycling stability due to the high physical strength, the large specific surface area, and the good conductivity for NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods and the brilliant synergistic effect for NiCo2S4 and Co9S8 electrode materials. The as-prepared NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods open up a new platform as positive electrode material for high-energy-density asymmetric supercapacitors in energy-storage.

  3. Catalytic asymmetric alkylation of ketones using organometallic reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madduri, Ashoka V.R.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of tertiary alcohols by the addition of organometallic reagents to ketones is of central importance in organic chemistry. The resulting quaternary stereocentres are difficult to prepare selectively by other means despite their widespread occurrence in natural

  4. Total synthesis of marinomycin A using salicylate as a molecular switch to mediate dimerization (United States)

    Evans, P. Andrew; Huang, Mu-Hua; Lawler, Michael J.; Maroto, Sergio


    Antibiotics play a significant role in human health because of their ability to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. The growing problems with antibiotic resistance have made the development of new antibiotics a World Health Organization priority. Marinomycin A is a member of a new class of bis-salicylate-containing polyene macrodiolides, which have potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Herein, we describe a triply convergent synthesis of this agent using the salicylate as a novel molecular switch for the chemoselective construction of the macrodiolide. This strategy raises new questions regarding the biosynthetic role of the salicylate and its potential impact on the mechanism of action of these types of agents. For instance, in contrast to penicillin, which enhances the electrophilicity of the cyclic amide through ring strain, salicylates reduce the electrophilicity of the aryl ester through an intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bond to provide an amide surrogate.

  5. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 2: aldol, Mannich addition reactions, deracemization and (S) to (R) interconversion of α-amino acids. (United States)

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim


    This review provides a comprehensive treatment of literature data dealing with asymmetric synthesis of α-amino-β-hydroxy and α,β-diamino acids via homologation of chiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases using aldol and Mannich-type reactions. These reactions proceed with synthetically useful chemical yields and thermodynamically controlled stereoselectivity and allow direct introduction of two stereogenic centers in a single operation with predictable stereochemical outcome. Furthermore, new application of Ni(II) complexes of α-amino acids Schiff bases for deracemization of racemic α-amino acids and (S) to (R) interconversion providing additional synthetic opportunities for preparation of enantiomerically pure α-amino acids, is also reviewed. Origin of observed diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the aldol, Mannich-type and deracemization reactions, generality and limitations of these methodologies are critically discussed.

  6. Highly concise routes to epothilones: the total synthesis and evaluation of epothilone 490. (United States)

    Biswas, Kaustav; Lin, Hong; Njardarson, Jon T; Chappell, Mark D; Chou, Ting-Chao; Guan, Yongbiao; Tong, William P; He, Lifeng; Horwitz, Susan B; Danishefsky, Samuel J


    A concise modular laboratory construction of the epothilone class of promising antitumor agents has been accomplished. For the first time in the epothilone area, the new synthesis exploits the power of ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM) in a stereospecific way. Previous attempts at applying RCM to epothilone syntheses have been repeatedly plagued by complete lack of stereocontrol in the generation of the desired 12,13-olefin geometry in the products. The isolation of epothilone 490 (3) prompted us to reevaluate the utility of the RCM procedure for fashioning the 10,11-olefin, with the Z-12,13-olefin geometry already in place. Olefin metathesis of the triene substrate 12 afforded the product diene macrolide in stereoselective fashion. For purposes of greater synthetic convergency, the C3-(S)-alcohol was fashioned late in the synthesis, using chiral titanium-mediated aldol conditions with the entire O-alkyl fragment as a C15 acetate as the enolate component. Examination of the effects of protecting groups on the RCM process showed that deprotection of the C7 alcohol has a beneficial effect on the reaction yield. Performing the RCM as the last synthetic step in the sequence afforded a 64% yield of only the desired E-olefin. Selective diimide reduction of the new 10,11-olefin yielded 12,13-desoxyepothilone B, our current clinical candidate, demonstrating the utility of this new RCM-reduction protocol in efficiently generating the epothilone framework. Furthermore, the new olefin was selectively funtionalized to demonstrate the advantage conferred by this route for the construction of new analogues for SAR studies, in cytoxicity and microtubule affinity screens. Also described is the surprisingly poor in vivo performance of epothilone 490 in xenografts in the light of very promising in vitro data. This disappointing outcome was traced to unfavorable pharmacokinetic features of the drug in murine plasma. By the pharmacokinetic criteria, the prognosis for the

  7. Asymmetric inclusion process. (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri


    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites' occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  8. The mechanism by which an asymmetric distribution of plant growth hormone is attained (United States)

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga; Jensen, Philip; Desrosiers, Mark; Epel, Bernard; Kowalczyk, Stanley

    Zea mays (sweet corn) seedlings attain an asymmetric distribution of the growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) within 3 minutes following a gravity stimulus. Both free and esterified IAA (that is total IAA) accumulate to a greater extent in the lower half of the mesocotyl cortex of a horizontally placed seedling than in the upper half. Thus, changes in the ratio of free IAA to ester IAA cannot account for the asymmetric distribution. Our studies demonstrate there is no de novo synthesis of IAA in young seedlings. We conclude that asymmetric IAA distribution is attained by a gravity-induced, potential-regulated gating of the movement of IAA from kernel to shoot and from stele to cortex. As a working theory, which we call the Potential Gating Theory, we propose that perturbation of the plant's bioelectric field, induced by gravity, causes opening and closing of transport channels in the plasmodesmata connecting the vascular stele to the surrounding cortical tissues. This results in asymmetric growth hormone distribution which results in the asymmetric growth characteristic of the gravitropic response.

  9. Monitoring the catalytic synthesis of glycerol carbonate by real-time attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvino-Casilda, V.; Mul, Guido; Fernandez, J.F.; Rubio-Marcos, F.; Banares, M.A.


    In situ Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the carbonylation of glycerol with urea. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles, Co3O4, hierarchically dispersed on zinc oxide microparticles, ZnO, were used as catalysts. The present work demonstrates that in situ real-time attenuated

  10. Polymer-Supported Cinchona Alkaloid-Derived Ammonium Salts as Recoverable Phase-Transfer Catalysts for the Asymmetric Synthesis of α-Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Nájera


    Full Text Available Alkaloids such as cinchonidine, quinine and N-methylephedrine have been N-alkylated using polymeric benzyl halides or co-polymerized and then N-alkylated, thus affording a series of polymer-supported chiral ammonium salts which have been employed as phase-transfer catalysts in the asymmetric benzylation of an N-(diphenylmethyleneglycine ester. These new polymeric catalysts can be easily recovered by simple filtration after the reaction and reused. The best ee’s were achieved when Merrifield resin-anchored cinchonidinium ammonium salts were employed.

  11. Total synthesis and structural validation of cyclodepsipeptides solonamide A and B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitir, Betül; Baldry, Mara; Ingmer, Hanne


    Microorganisms are an attractive source of new natural products with antimicrobial properties, and the marine environment constitutes a prolific resource of bioactive microorganisms. During a global research expedition (Galathea III), two depsipeptides, solonamide A and solonamide B, were isolated...... conditions. Thus, the first total syntheses of the solonamides corroborated the originally assigned structures, and by changing the stereochemistry of the auxiliary in the aldol steps we gained access to the natural products as well as their β3-epimers....

  12. Synthesis and resolution of a multifunctional inherently chiral calix[4]arene with an ABCD substitution pattern at the wide rim: the effect of a multifunctional structure in the organocatalyst on enantioselectivity in asymmetric reactions. (United States)

    Shirakawa, Seiji; Kimura, Tomohiro; Murata, Shun-ichi; Shimizu, Shoichi


    An efficient synthetic route to inherently chiral calix[4]arenes with an ABCD substitution pattern at the wide rim in the cone conformation was developed for the first time. For the synthesis of inherently chiral ABCD-type calix[4]arenes, first 5,11-dibromo-17-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene (9) was prepared as a key intermediate. Then, functionalization of the calix[4]arene 9 was examined, and highly regioselective monofunctionalization was achieved via selective monolithiation of bromo groups. Various multifunctionalized inherently chiral ABCD-type calix[4]arenes can be synthesized by using this method; thus, the synthesis of inherently chiral phosphine and carboxylic acid derivatives of ABCD-type calix[4]arene was demonstrated. In addition, the aminophenol derivative 1b of an ABCD-type calix[4]arene with a 3,5-dimethylphenyl group at the wide rim was synthesized and resolved into optically pure enantiomers. The chiral calix[4]arene 1b was used as an organocatalyst in asymmetric Michael addition reactions of thiophenols. The effect of the 3,5-dimethylphenyl group at the wide rim of calix[4]arene 1b on enantioselectivity was examined, and a positive effect of the 3,5-dimethylphenyl group was observed.

  13. Synthesis of hydrochloric acid solution for total mercury determination in natural waters. (United States)

    Patel-Sorrentino, Nathalie; Benaim, Jean-Yves; Cossa, Daniel; Lucas, Yves


    Total mercury (Hg(T)) determination requires the addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid solution (≥10 mol L(-1) HCl) in relatively high amounts to preserve the samples and to prepare reagent solutions. A method for the preparation of concentrated HCl with Hg(T) concentration of lower than 5 ng L(-1) is described in this article. It is based on the well-known chemical reaction: 2 NH(4)Cl + H(2)SO(4) → (NH(4))(2)SO(4) + 2 HCl. This method is validated thanks to the US Environmental Protection Agency method 1631 and standard reference materials BCR-579 (mercury in coastal seawater).

  14. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Stolonines A–C, Unique Taurine Amides from the Australian Marine Tunicate Cnemidocarpa stolonifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong D. Tran


    Full Text Available Cnemidocarpa stolonifera is an underexplored marine tunicate that only occurs on the tropical to subtropical East Coast of Australia, with only two pyridoacridine compounds reported previously. Qualitative analysis of the lead-like enhanced fractions of C. stolonifera by LC-MS dual electrospray ionization coupled with PDA and ELSD detectors led to the identification of three new natural products, stolonines A–C (1–3, belonging to the taurine amide structure class. Structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses and later verified by total synthesis. This is the first time that the conjugates of taurine with 3-indoleglyoxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid present in stolonines A–C (1–3, respectively, have been reported. An immunofluorescence assay on PC3 cells indicated that compounds 1 and 3 increased cell size, induced mitochondrial texture elongation, and caused apoptosis in PC3 cells.

  15. Extending the Glucosyl Ceramide Cassette Approach: Application in the Total Synthesis of Ganglioside GalNAc-GM1b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miku Konishi


    Full Text Available The development of a novel cyclic glucosyl ceramide cassette acceptor for efficient glycolipid syntheses was investigated. p-Methoxybenzyl (PMB groups were selected as protecting groups at C2 and C3 of the glucose residue with the aim of improving the functionality of the cassette acceptor. The choice of the PMB group resulted in a loss of β-selectivity, which was corrected by using an appropriate tether to control the spatial arrangement and the nitrile solvent effect. To investigate the effect of linker structure on the β-selectivity of intramolecular glycosylation, several linkers for tethering the glucose and ceramide moiety were designed and prepared, namely, succinyl, glutaryl, dimethylmalonyl, and phthaloyl esters. The succinyl ester linker was the best for accessing the cassette form. The newly designed glucosyl ceramide cassette acceptor was then applied in the total synthesis of ganglioside GalNAc-GM1b.

  16. Solid-Phase Synthesis for the Construction of Biologically Interesting Molecules and the Total Synthesis of Trioxacarcin DC-45-A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Remi Jacob Thomsen

    This thesis covers three research projects in addition to a literature survey on solid-phase organic synthesis and photolabile linkers. Synthesis of Doxorubicin Derivatives on Photolabile Solid Support. The synthesis of doxorubicin derivatives on photolabile solid support, compatible with bead-ba...

  17. Total observed organic carbon (TOOC in the atmosphere: a synthesis of North American observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Heald


    Full Text Available Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 μgC m−3 from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head to the most polluted (Mexico City. Organic aerosol makes up 3–17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source

  18. Controlled synthesis, asymmetrical transport behavior and luminescence properties of lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures (United States)

    Yue, Dan; Lu, Wei; Jin, Lin; Li, Chunyang; Luo, Wen; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Zhenling; Hao, Jianhua


    Lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures have been fabricated by polyol-mediated method and characterized by various microstructural and optical techniques. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO:Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) samples have a hexagonal phase structure and possess a mushroom-like 3D hierarchical morphology. The length of the whole mushroom from stipe bottom to pileus top is about 1.0 μm, and the diameters of pileus and stipe are about 0.8 μm and 0.4 μm, respectively. It is found that the flow of N2 is the key parameter for the formation of the novel ZnO structure and the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 has a prominent effect on the phase structure and the growth of mushroom-like morphology. The potential mechanism of forming this morphology is proposed. The pileus of the formed mushroom is assembled by several radial ZnO:Ln3+ nanorods, whereas the stipe is composed of over layered ZnO:Ln3+ nanosheets. Moreover, asymmetrical I-V characteristic curves of ZnO:Ln3+ mushrooms indicate that the texture composition of the 3D hierarchical morphology might lead to the asymmetrical transport behavior of electrical conductivity. Lanthanide doped ZnO samples can exhibit red or green emission under the excitation of UV light.Lanthanide doped ZnO mushroom-like 3D hierarchical structures have been fabricated by polyol-mediated method and characterized by various microstructural and optical techniques. The results indicate that the as-prepared ZnO:Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) samples have a hexagonal phase structure and possess a mushroom-like 3D hierarchical morphology. The length of the whole mushroom from stipe bottom to pileus top is about 1.0 μm, and the diameters of pileus and stipe are about 0.8 μm and 0.4 μm, respectively. It is found that the flow of N2 is the key parameter for the formation of the novel ZnO structure and the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 has a prominent effect on the phase structure and the growth of mushroom-like morphology. The potential

  19. Asymmetric Ultrasonic Pulse Radiation Using Electromagnetic-Induction Transducer and PZT(Pb(Zr-Ti)O3) Transducer with Wave Synthesis Method (United States)

    Endoh, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Koji


    In medical applications, especially in urology, we use a fragmentation calculus technique with shock waves. This technique is very profitable because of no abdominal surgery for a human being. Large negative sound amplitude pulses, however, can cause problems such as internal hemorrhage or pain in the human body. The final goal of this study is to develop a means to project an intense positive unipolar pulse without negative sound pressure. We improved a composite transducer consisting of an electromagnetic-induction-type (EMI) transducer and PZT (Pb(Zr-Ti)O3) transducers. An EMI transducer consisting of a metal coil and vibration membrane can project intense sound pulses into water. In order to suppress its negative sound pressure, we project a compensation pulse with PZT transducers using an inverse filtering method. An asymmetric pulse whose P+ to P- amplitude ratio was very high was projected in water.

  20. Asymmetric PTC C-alkylation catalyzed by chiral derivatives of tartaric acid and aminophenols. Synthesis Of (R)- and (S)-alpha-methyl amino acids (United States)

    Belokon; Kochetkov; Churkina; Ikonnikov; Chesnokov; Larionov; Singh; Parmar; Vyskocil; Kagan


    A new type of efficient chiral catalyst has been elaborated for asymmetric C-alkylation of CH acids under PTC conditions. Sodium alkoxides formed from chiral derivatives of tartaric acid and aminophenols (TADDOL's 2a-e and NOBIN's 3a-h) can be used as chiral catalysts in the enantioselective alkylation, as exemplified by the reaction of Schiff's bases 1a-e derived from alanine esters and benzaldehydes with active alkyl halides. Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the products formed in the reaction afforded (R)-alpha-methylphenylalanine, (R)-alpha-naphthylmethylalanine, and (R)-alpha-allylalanine in 61-93% yields and with ee 69-93%. The procedure could be successfully scaled up to 6 g of substrate 1b. When (S,S)-TADDOL or (R)-NOBIN are used, the (S)-amino acids are formed. A mechanism rationalizing the observed features of the reaction has been suggested.

  1. Zn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) complexes of tridentate asymmetrical Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization, properties and biological activity (United States)

    Şahin, Mustafa; Koçak, Nuriye; Erdenay, Damla; Arslan, Uğur


    New asymmetrical tridentate Schiff base ligands were synthesized using 1,2-phenylenediamine, 4-methyl-1,2-phenylenediamine, 2-hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde, 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were synthesised and characterized by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, XRD, ESR, elemental analysis and fluorescence studies. The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus mutans RSHM 676, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The determination of the antibacterial activity was done using the broth microdilution methods. In general, it has been determined that the studied compounds have MIC values similar to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It has been found that Ni, Pb, Zn derivatives of HL1A and ZnL2A has lower MIC values than ampicillin for P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strain.

  2. Asymmetric conjugate addition of alkylzirconium reagents to α,β-unsaturated lactones. (United States)

    Maciver, Eleanor E; Maksymowicz, Rebecca M; Wilkinson, Nancy; Roth, Philippe M C; Fletcher, Stephen P


    The asymmetric synthesis of β-substituted lactones by catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of alkyl groups to α,β-unsaturated lactones is reported. The method uses alkylzirconium nucleophiles prepared in situ from alkenes and the Schwartz reagent. Enantioselective additions to 6- and 7-membered lactones proceed at rt, tolerate a wide variety of functional groups, and are readily scalable. The method was used in a formal asymmetric synthesis of mitsugashiwalactone.

  3. Identification of an Unexpected 2-Oxonia[3,3]sigmatropic Rearrangement/Aldol Pathway in the Formation of Oxacyclic Rings. Total Synthesis of (+)-Aspergillin PZ


    Canham, Stephen M.; Overman, Larry E.; Tanis, Paul S.


    This paper reports the first unambiguous evidence that the cascade synthesis of tetrahydrofuran-containing oxacyclic molecules depicted in Scheme 12 can take place by a 2-oxonia[3,3]sigmatropic/aldol mechanism rather than by a Prins cyclization/pinacol rearrangement sequence. The 8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octyl aldehyde products of this reaction, 20 and 29, were employed to complete the first total synthesis of the structurally remarkable isoindolone alkaloid (+)-aspergillin PZ (1). The lack of acti...

  4. Cell-sized asymmetric lipid vesicles facilitate the investigation of asymmetric membranes (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Takeuchi, Shoji


    Asymmetric lipid giant vesicles have been used to model the biochemical reactions in cell membranes. However, methods for producing asymmetric giant vesicles lead to the inclusion of an organic solvent layer that affects the mechanical and physical characteristics of the membrane. Here we describe the formation of asymmetric giant vesicles that include little organic solvent, and use them to investigate the dynamic responses of lipid molecules in the vesicle membrane. We formed the giant vesicles via the inhomogeneous break-up of a lipid microtube generated by applying a jet flow to an asymmetric planar lipid bilayer. The asymmetric giant vesicles showed a lipid flip-flop behaviour in the membrane, superficially similar to the lipid flip-flop activity observed in apoptotic cells. In vitro synthesis of membrane proteins into the asymmetric giant vesicles revealed that the lipid asymmetry in bilayer membranes improves the reconstitution ratio of membrane proteins. Our asymmetric giant vesicles will be useful in elucidating lipid-lipid and lipid-membrane protein interactions involved in the regulation of cellular functions.

  5. Total flavonoid aglycones extract in Radix scutellariae inhibits lung carcinoma and lung metastasis by affecting cell cycle and DNA synthesis. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Cao, Hui-Juan; Sun, Shu-Jun; Dai, Jian-Ye; Fang, Jun-Wei; Li, Qian-Hua; Yan, Chao; Mao, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Yu


    Radix Scutellariae (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, RS), a traditional herbal medicine commonly used to treat inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, bacterial and viral infections, is reported to treat lung cancer by supplements of modern medicine. The total flavonoid aglycones extract (TFAE) from RS is the most important composition for the pharmacodynamic effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-lung tumor effect of TFAE on A549 cells and A549 cell nude mice xenografts. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect and mechanism of TFAE treating non-small cell lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor activity of TFAE in vitro was investigated using the MTT assay. The changes of cell invasion and migration were detected by Transwell assay and tube formation experiments were used to detect the anti-angiogenic effect. The anti-tumor effects of TFAE in vivo were evaluated in A549 cell nude mice xenografts. The mechanism of TFAE was detected by flow cytometry technology, western blot assay and immuno-histochemistry assay. In vitro, TFAE inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo, TFAE by oral administration at 100mg/kg for 30 days decreased the tumor volume and tumor weight in A549 cell xenograft by 25.5% with no statistical significance (P<0.05) compared to the cis-platinum positive control group (30.0%). The cell cycle and DNA synthesis experiment illustrated that TFAE could induce A549 cell cycle to arreste in S phase and DNA synthesis in A549 cells be inhibited, while TFAE had no influence on apoptosis of A549 cells. Western Blot assay demonstrated that the treatment of TFAE could make Cyclin D1 decrease and p53 increase both in vitro and in vivo. TFAE displayed the inhibition effects of non-small cell lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanism might be related to the increased p53 protein expression and decreased Cyclin D1

  6. Statistical experimental design guided optimization of a one-pot biphasic multienzyme total synthesis of amorpha-4,11-diene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixian Chen

    Full Text Available In vitro synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceuticals using enzymes is of considerable interest as these biocatalysts facilitate a wide variety of reactions under mild conditions with excellent regio-, chemo- and stereoselectivities. A significant challenge in a multi-enzymatic reaction is the need to optimize the various steps involved simultaneously so as to obtain high-yield of a product. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to guide the optimization of a total synthesis of amorpha-4,11-diene (AD using multienzymes in the mevalonate pathway. A combinatorial approach guided by Taguchi orthogonal array design identified the local optimum enzymatic activity ratio for Erg12:Erg8:Erg19:Idi:IspA to be 100∶100∶1∶25∶5, with a constant concentration of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (Ads, 100 mg/L. The model also identified an unexpected inhibitory effect of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (IspA, where the activity was negatively correlated with AD yield. This was due to the precipitation of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP, the product of IspA. Response surface methodology was then used to optimize IspA and Ads activities simultaneously so as to minimize the accumulation of FPP and the result showed that Ads to be a critical factor. By increasing the concentration of Ads, a complete conversion (∼100% of mevalonic acid (MVA to AD was achieved. Monovalent ions and pH were effective means of enhancing the specific Ads activity and specific AD yield significantly. The results from this study represent the first in vitro reconstitution of the mevalonate pathway for the production of an isoprenoid and the approaches developed herein may be used to produce other isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP/dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP based products.

  7. Asymmetric Synthesis of New Chiral Europium N,N'-Disuccinate Complexes : Shift Reagents for Aqueous Solutions and Application in the Enantiomeric Excess Determination of Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The synthesis of new chiral N,N'-disuccinate ligands (R,R)-8, (R,R)-9, and (S,S)-10 from (5R)- or (SS)-(menthyloxy)-2(5H)-furanone is described. These ligands, after complexation with EuCl3.6H(2)O, are highly suitable as chiral shift reagents for the enantiomeric excess determination of amino acids

  8. A novel asymmetric di-Ni(II) system as a highly efficient functional model for phosphodiesterase: synthesis, structures, physicochemical properties and catalytic kinetics. (United States)

    Ren, Yan-wei; Lu, Jia-xian; Cai, Bo-wei; Shi, Da-bin; Jiang, Huan-feng; Chen, Jun; Zheng, De; Liu, Bin


    A novel asymmetric phenol-based 'end-off' dinucleating ligand 2-{[(2-piperidylmethyl)amino]methyl}-4-bromo-6-[(1-methylhomopiperazine-4-yl)methyl]phenol (HL) and three dinuclear nickel(II) complexes, [Ni₂L(μ-OH)] (ClO₄)₂ (1), [Ni₂L(DNBA)₂(CH₃CN)₂]BPh₄ (2) and [Ni₂L(BPP)₂(CH₃CN)₂]BPh₄ (3) have been synthesized and characterized by a variety of techniques including: NMR, infrared and UV-vis spectroscopies, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, thermal analysis, magnetochemistry and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. The UV-vis spectrum of complex 1 exhibits a strong peak at 510 nm, a characteristic absorption of a d-d transition of the square-planar four-coordinated Ni(II) center. Utilizing this feature, the stepwise formation of mono- and dinickel centers in solution can be monitored. Phosphodiesterase activity of a dinuclear Ni(II) system (complex 1), formed in situ by a 2 : 1 mixture of Ni(2+) ions and the ligand HL, was investigated using bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate (BNPP) as the substrate. The pH dependence of the BNPP cleavage in water-ethanol (1 : 1, v/v) reveals a bell-shaped pH-k(obs) profile with an optimum at about pH 8.3 which is parallel to the formation of the dinuclear species [Ni₂L(μ-OH)](2+), according to the increase of the peak at 510 nm in the UV-vis absorption spectrum . These studies reveal that the di-Ni(II) system shows the highest catalytic activity reported so far, with an acceleration rate 1.28 × 10⁷ times faster than the uncatalyzed reaction. The bridging hydroxyl group in [Ni₂L(μ-OH)](2+) is responsible for the hydrolysis reaction. The possible mechanism for the BNPP cleavage promoted by di-Ni(II) system is proposed on the basis of kinetic and spectral analyses. This study provides a less common example of the asymmetric phosphodiesterase model, which is like the active sites of most native metallohydrolases.

  9. Total Synthesis of Zoanthamine Alkaloids, Part 2. Construction of the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 Fragments of Zoanthamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Tedenborg, Lars; Somfai, Peter


    This paper describes the construction of three key intermediates for a projected total synthesis of the marine alkaloid zoanthamine. These building blocks, corresponding to the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 fragments of the target molecule, are synthesised efficiently form (R)-hydroxymethyl-butyrolac......This paper describes the construction of three key intermediates for a projected total synthesis of the marine alkaloid zoanthamine. These building blocks, corresponding to the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 fragments of the target molecule, are synthesised efficiently form (R...

  10. Cobalt terephthalate MOF-templated synthesis of porous nano-crystalline Co3O4 by the new indirect solid state thermolysis as cathode material of asymmetric supercapacitor (United States)

    Bigdeli, Hadise; Moradi, Morteza; Hajati, Shaaker; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Toth, Jozsef


    In this work, two different types of Co3O4 nano-crystals were synthesized by (i) conventional direct solid state thermolysis of cobalt terephthalate metal-organic framework (MOF-71) and (ii) new indirect solid state thermolysis of Co(OH)2 derived by alkaline aqueous treatment of MOF-71. The products were then characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS), Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. By REELS analysis the energy band gap of MOF-71 was determined to be 3.7 eV. Further, electrochemical performance of each Co3O4 nanostructure was studied by the cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in a three-electrode system in KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using indirect Co3O4 nanoparticles as cathode and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide as anode, and the electrochemical properties were studied and showed a high energy density of 13.51 Wh kg-1 along with a power density of 9775 W kg-1 and good cycling stability with capacitance retention rate of 85% after 2000 cycles.

  11. In vitro asymmetric binding of the pleiotropic regulatory protein, FruR, to the ace operator controlling glyoxylate shunt enzyme synthesis. (United States)

    Cortay, J C; Nègre, D; Scarabel, M; Ramseier, T M; Vartak, N B; Reizer, J; Saier, M H; Cozzone, A J


    The fruR gene of Escherichia coli, which encodes the regulatory protein FruR, was cloned in the pT7-5 expression vector so as to overproduce a protein tagged with 6 histidine residues. By using a one-step chromatographic procedure, FruR was purified to near-homogeneity. Analysis of the protein under both denaturing and nondenaturing conditions indicated that it is a tetramer with a molecular mass of about 150 kilodaltons. The positions of interference between FruR and the operator of the acetate operon were examined. The number and nature of the nucleotides essential for FruR binding were determined by several different techniques: base methylation with dimethyl sulfate, base removal by formic acid and hydrazine, uracil interference, and hydroxyl radical footprinting. It was observed that FruR asymmetrically binds to a 16-base pair DNA sequence located 170 base pairs upstream from the transcriptional start point of the ace operon.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structures, and properties of two novel cadmium(II)-organic frameworks based on asymmetric dicarboxylate and N-donor ligands (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Gao, Loujun; Zhang, Xiaoge; Han, Xuhua; Wang, Yao; Sun, Rong


    Two novel cadmium(II)-organic frameworks with asymmetric dicarboxylate and N-donor ligands, namely [Cd(cpa)(phen)]n (1) and {[Cd2(cpa)2(bpy)1.5]·0.5H2O}n (2) (H2cpa = 3-(4-benzoic)propionic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 4,4";-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectra, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, TGA, powder XRD and fluorescent measurements. 1 displays a double zigzag chain structure containing 8-number and 22-number circles. 2 Shows a 6-connected 3D polymer network based on tetranuclear cadmium cluster units. The most striking feature of 2 is that a pair of identical 3D networks are interlocked with each other to the form a 2-fold interpenetrated 3D α-Po structural topology. The diverse structures of two complexes indicate that the skeleton of N-donor ligands plays a great role in the assembly of such different frameworks. In addition, the thermal stabilities, XRD and photoluminescence properties of 1-2 were also studied.

  13. Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ik Jae


    Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.

  14. A binder-free wet chemical synthesis approach to decorate nanoflowers of bismuth oxide on Ni-foam for fabricating laboratory scale potential pencil-type asymmetric supercapacitor device. (United States)

    Shinde, N M; Xia, Qi Xun; Yun, Je Moon; Singh, Saurabh; Mane, Rajaram S; Kim, Kwang-Ho


    The present study involves the synthesis of a bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) electrode consisting of an arranged nano-platelets for evolving a flower-type surface appearance on nickel-foam (Bi2O3-Ni-F) by a simple, inexpensive, binder-free and one-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method, popularly known as a wet chemical method. The as-prepared Bi2O3 on Ni-foam, as an electrode material, demonstrates 557 F g-1 specific capacitance (SC, at 1 mA cm-2), of which 85% is retained even after 2000 cycles. With specific power density of 500 kW kg-1, the Bi2O3-Ni-F electrode documents a specific energy density of 80 Wh kg-1. Furthermore, a portable asymmetric supercapacitor device, i.e. a pencil-type cell consisting of Bi2O3-Ni-F as an anode and graphite as a cathode in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte solution, confirms 11 Wh kg-1 and 720 kW kg-1 specific energy and specific power densities, respectively. An easy and a simple synthesis approach for manufacturing a portable laboratory scale pencil-type supercapacitor device is a major outcome of this study, which can also be applied for ternary and quaternary metal oxides for recording an enhanced performance. In addition, we presented a demonstration of lighting a light emitting diode (LED) using a home-made pencil-type supercapacitor device which, finally, has confirmed the scaling and technical potentiality of Bi2O3-Ni-F in energy storage devices.

  15. New phosphine-diamine and phosphine-amino-alcohol tridentate ligands for ruthenium catalysed enantioselective hydrogenation of ketones and a concise lactone synthesis enabled by asymmetric reduction of cyano-ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes José A


    Full Text Available Abstract Enantioselective hydrogenation of ketones is a key reaction in organic chemistry. In the past, we have attempted to deal with some unsolved challenges in this arena by introducing chiral tridentate phosphine-diamine/Ru catalysts. New catalysts and new applications are presented here, including the synthesis of phosphine-amino-alcohol P,N,OH ligands derived from (R,S-1-amino-2-indanol, (S,S-1-amino-2-indanol and a new chiral P,N,N ligand derived from (R,R-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. Ruthenium pre-catalysts of type [RuCl2(L(DMSO] were isolated and then examined in the hydrogenation of ketones. While the new P,N,OH ligand based catalysts are poor, the new P,N,N system gives up to 98% e.e. on substrates that do not react at all with most catalysts. A preliminary attempt at realising a new delta lactone synthesis by organocatalytic Michael addition between acetophenone and acrylonitrile, followed by asymmetric hydrogenation of the nitrile functionalised ketone is challenging in part due to the Michael addition chemistry, but also since Noyori pressure hydrogenation catalysts gave massively reduced reactivity relative to their performance for other acetophenone derivatives. The Ru phosphine-diamine system allowed quantitative conversion and around 50% e.e. The product can be converted into a delta lactone by treatment with KOH with complete retention of enantiomeric excess. This approach potentially offers access to this class of chiral molecules in three steps from the extremely cheap building blocks acrylonitrile and methyl-ketones; we encourage researchers to improve on our efforts in this potentially useful but currently flawed process.

  16. Asymmetric Divisions in Oogenesis. (United States)

    Bilinski, Szczepan M; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Kloc, Malgorzata

    In the majority of animals, the oocyte/egg is structurally, molecularly, and functionally asymmetric. Such asymmetry is a prerequisite for a flawless fertilization and faithful segregation of maternal determinants during subsequent embryonic development. The oocyte asymmetry develops during oogenesis and must be maintained during consecutive and obligatorily asymmetric oogonial divisions, which depending on the species lead to the formation of either oocyte alone or oocyte and nurse cell complex. In the following chapter, we summarize current knowledge on the asymmetric oogonial divisions in invertebrate (insects) and vertebrate (Xenopus) species.

  17. Synthesis of alpha-amino acids via asymmetric phase transfer-catalyzed alkylation of achiral nickel(II) complexes of glycine-derived Schiff bases. (United States)

    Belokon, Yuri N; Bespalova, Natalia B; Churkina, Tatiana D; Císarová, Ivana; Ezernitskaya, Marina G; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R; Hrdina, Radim; Kagan, Henri B; Kocovský, Pavel; Kochetkov, Konstantin A; Larionov, Oleg V; Lyssenko, Konstantin A; North, Michael; Polásek, Miroslav; Peregudov, Alexander S; Prisyazhnyuk, Vladimir V; Vyskocil, Stepán


    Achiral, diamagnetic Ni(II) complexes 1 and 3 have been synthesized from Ni(II) salts and the Schiff bases, generated from glycine and PBP (7) and PBA (11), respectively, in MeONa/MeOH solutions. The requisite carbonyl-derivatizing agents pyridine-2-carboxylic acid(2-benzoyl-phenyl)-amide 7 (PBP) and pyridine-2-carboxylic acid(2-formyl-phenyl)-amide 11 (PBA) were readily prepared from picolinic acid and o-aminobenzophenone or picolinic acid and methyl o-anthranilate, respectively. The structure of 1 was established by X-ray crystallography. Complexes 1 and 3 were found to undergo C-alkylation with alkyl halides under PTC conditions in the presence of beta-naphthol or benzyltriethylammonium bromide as catalysts to give mono- and bis-alkylated products, respectively. Decomposition of the complexes with aqueous HCl under mild conditions gave the required amino acids, and PBP and PBA were recovered. Alkylation of 1 with highly reactive alkyl halides, carried out under the PTC conditions in the presence of 10% mol of (S)- or (R)-2-hydroxy-2'-amino-1,1'-binaphthyl 31a (NOBIN) and/or its N-acyl derivatives and by (S)- or (R)-2-hydroxy-8'-amino-1,1'-binaphthyl 32a (iso-NOBIN) and its N-acyl derivatives, respectively, gave rise to alpha-amino acids with high enantioselectivities (90-98.5% ee) in good-to-excellent chemical yields at room temperature within several minutes. An unusually large positive nonlinear effect was observed in these reactions. The Michael addition of acrylic derivatives 37 to 1 was conducted under similar conditions with up to 96% ee. The (1)H NMR and IR spectra of a mixture of the sodium salt of NOBIN and 1 indicated formation of a complex between the two components. Implications of the association and self-association of NOBIN for the observed sense of asymmetric induction and nonlinear effects are discussed.

  18. Detection, quantification, and total synthesis of novel 3-hydroxykynurenine glucoside-derived metabolites present in human lenses. (United States)

    Gad, Nicholas A; Mizdrak, Jasminka; Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J; Truscott, Roger J W; Jamie, Joanne F


    3-Hydroxykynurenine O-β-D-glucoside (3OHKG) protects the lens from UV damage, and novel related species may act analogously. The aim of this study was to detect, quantify, and elucidate the structures of novel 3-hydroxykynurenine glucoside-derived metabolites present in the human lens. Compounds were detected and quantified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in 24 human lenses of different ages, of which 22 were normal and two had cataract. Structures of these were confirmed through total synthesis. 3OHKG concentrations decreased with age in the lens nuclei, whereas the levels of three novel species, 4-(2-amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid O-β-D-glucoside (3OHKG-W), 3-hydroxykynurenine O-β-D-glucoside yellow (3OHKG-Y), and 2-amino-3-hydroxyacetophenone O-β-D-glucoside (AHAG), increased, though to different extents. In contrast, the concentrations present in the cortex of the lens remained constant with age. Three novel 3OHKG-derived metabolites have been detected in extracts from human lenses.

  19. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang


    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  20. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of the potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediator resolvin D3 and its aspirin-triggered 17R-epimer. (United States)

    Winkler, Jeremy W; Uddin, Jasim; Serhan, Charles N; Petasis, Nicos A


    The first total synthesis of stereochemically pure resolvin D3 and aspirin-triggered resolvin D3 is reported. These enzymatic metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. The convergent synthetic strategy is based on enantiomerically pure starting materials, and it is highly stereocontrolled.

  1. Total synthesis of cis-Hydroazulene sesquiterpenes : base-induced and -directed elimination and rearrangement reactions of perhydronaphthalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenniskens, L.H.D.


    The total synthesis of a number of cis-fused hydroazulene sesquiterpenes is described in this thesis. In this synthetic study, ample attention is paid to the mechanistic aspects of the base- induced and -directed rearrangement and elimination reactions of perhydronaphthalene-1,4-diol

  2. Novel poly(triphenylamine-alt-fluorene) with asymmetric hexaphenylbenzene and pyrene moieties: synthesis, fluorescence, flexible near-infrared electrochromic devices and theoretical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Po-I.


    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. In this study, a new triphenylamine-alt-fluorene conjugated copolymer, HPBPYFL6, with hexaphenylbenzene (HPB) and pyrene as asymmetrical pendant groups was synthesized via Suzuki coupling polymerization. The conjugated polymer had a weight-average molecular weight of 5.8 × 104 g mol-1 with a polydispersity index of 2.5 characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). HPBPYFL6 showed good solubility in common organic solvents such as NMP, THF, toluene and dichloromethane at 25°C. In addition, HPBPYFL6 possessed a high glass transition temperature of 260°C and a 10% weight-loss temperature of 503°C in nitrogen. HPBPYFL6 bearing a pyrene moiety had a solvatochromic fluorescence shift from a green to an orange emission as the polarity of the solvent increased. Cyclic voltammetry of HPBPYFL6 films cast onto indium-tin oxide-coated glass (ITO-glass) exhibited two oxidation redox couples at an E1/2 value of 0.82 and 1.17 V versus Ag/Ag+ in an acetonitrile solution. The HPBPYFL6 film on graphene-coated PET had an E1/2 value of 0.24 and 1.12 V. Conjugated polymer films exhibited reversible electrochromic behaviour with a colour change from pale yellow to deep blue upon electrochemical oxidation and high absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region. The switching and bleaching times were 5.16 s and 3.12 s for 1231 nm and were 3.30 s and 3.74 s for 1030 nm of HPBPYFL6 on ITO-glass. The strong NIR electrochromic absorbance of HPBPYFL6 was attributed to intervalence charge transfer by the incorporation of the HPB moiety. This phenomenon was confirmed by chemical oxidation as the oxidant contents increased in the solution state. Furthermore, the electrochromic mechanism was interpreted by DFT calculation and the simulated NIR electrochromic spectra of model compound HPBPYFL are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and antimicrobial activity of binuclear metal complexes of a new asymmetrical Schiff base ligand: DNA binding affinity of copper(II) complexes. (United States)

    Shebl, Magdy


    The 1:1 condensation of o-acetoacetylphenol and 1,2-diaminopropane under condition of high dilution gives the mono-condensed Schiff base, (E)-3-(1-aminopropan-2-ylimino)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)butan-1-one. The mono-condensed Schiff base has been used for further condensation with isatin to obtain the new asymmetrical dicompartmental Schiff base ligand, (E)-3-(2-((E)-4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutan-2-ylideneamino) propylimino)indolin-2-one (H3L) with a N2O3 donor set. Reactions of the ligand with metal salts give a series of new binuclear complexes. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, electronic, ESR and mass spectra, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as thermal analyses. The analytical and spectroscopic tools showed that the complexes can be formulated as: [(HL)(VO)2(SO4)(H2O)]·4H2O, [(HL)Fe2Cl4(H2O)3]·EtOH, [(HL)Fe2(ox)Cl2(H2O)3]·2H2O, [(L)M2(OAc)(H2O)m]·nH2O; M=Co, Ni or Cu, m=4, 0 and n=2, 3, [(HL)Cu2Cl]Cl·6H2O and [(L)(UO2)2(OAc)(H2O)3]·6H2O. The metal complexes exhibited octahedral geometrical arrangements except copper complexes that exhibited tetrahedral geometries and uranyl complex in which the metal ion is octa-coordinated. The Schiff base and its metal complexes were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus). The ligand and some of its complexes were found to be biologically active. The DNA-binding properties of the copper complexes (6 and 7) have been investigated by electronic absorption, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. The results obtained indicate that these complexes bind to DNA via an intercalation binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant, Kb of 1.34×10(4) and 2.5×10(4) M(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Progress toward the total synthesis of bafilomycin A(1): stereoselective synthesis of the C15-C25 subunit by additions of nonracemic allenylzinc reagents to aldehydes. (United States)

    Marshall, J A; Adams, N D


    [reaction: see text] A highly stereoselective synthesis of the C15-C25 subunit (2) of bafilomycin A(1) (1) has been accomplished by a route utilizing additions of chiral nonracemic allenylzinc reagents to aldehydes.

  5. Generic approach for synthesizing asymmetric nanoparticles and nanoassemblies (United States)

    Sun, Yugang; Hu, Yongxing


    A generic route for synthesis of asymmetric nanostructures. This approach utilizes submicron magnetic particles (Fe.sub.3O.sub.4--SiO.sub.2) as recyclable solid substrates for the assembly of asymmetric nanostructures and purification of the final product. Importantly, an additional SiO.sub.2 layer is employed as a mediation layer to allow for selective modification of target nanoparticles. The partially patched nanoparticles are used as building blocks for different kinds of complex asymmetric nanostructures that cannot be fabricated by conventional approaches. The potential applications such as ultra-sensitive substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) have been included.

  6. An Enantioselective Synthesis of a MEM-Protected Aetheramide A Derivative. (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun K; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Akasapu, Siddhartha


    Aetheramides A and B are very potent anti-HIV agents. An enantioselective synthesis of a MEM-protected aetheramide A derivative is described. The synthesis was accomplished in a convergent and stereoselective manner. The key reactions involved asymmetric dihydroxylation, asymmetric allylation, asymmetric syn-aldol reactions and asymmetric hydrogenation.

  7. Concise Total Synthesis of Trichodermamides A, B, and C Enabled by an Efficient Construction of the 1,2-Oxazadecaline Core. (United States)

    Mfuh, Adelphe M; Zhang, Yu; Stephens, David E; Vo, Anh X T; Arman, Hadi D; Larionov, Oleg V


    We report herein a facile and efficient method of the construction of the cis-1,2-oxazadecaline system, distinctive of (pre)trichodermamides, aspergillazine A, gliovirin, and FA-2097. The formation of the 1,2-oxazadecaline core was accomplished by a 1,2-addition of an αC-lithiated O-silyl ethyl pyruvate oxime to benzoquinone, which is followed by an oxa-Michael ring-closure. The method was successfully applied to the concise total synthesis of trichodermamide A (in gram quantities) and trichodermamide B, as well as the first synthesis of trichodermamide C.

  8. An expeditious route to both enantiomers of all carbon quaternary stereocenters at C-3 carbon of lactams via [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement: total synthesis of (-)-physostigmine. (United States)

    Pandey, Ganesh; Khamrai, Jagadish; Mishra, Akash


    A diastereoselective route to all carbon quaternary stereocenters at the C-3 position of cyclic lactams has been developed via Johnson-Claisen rearrangement of γ-hydroxy-α, β-unsaturated lactams. It has been observed that olefin geometry plays an important role in the development of the absolute stereochemistry of the product. The dependence of the product configuration on the olefin geometry is explained by postulating probable transition states. The success of this method has been shown for the multigram scale synthesis of these substituted lactams from commercially available cheap starting materials. The synthetic usefulness of this method is also demonstrated by carrying out the total synthesis of (-)-physostigmine.

  9. Total synthesis of a protected form of sphingofungin E using the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of an allylic thiocyanate as the key reaction. (United States)

    Martinková, Miroslava; Gonda, Jozef; Raschmanová, Jana Špaková; Slaninková, Michaela; Kuchár, Juraj


    An approach to the stereocontrolled synthesis of the protected form of sphingofungin E (32) starting from the known protected d-glucose derivative 3 is described herein. For the construction of a tetrasubstituted carbon atom that is substituted with nitrogen, the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of thiocyanate 8 was employed. Subsequent functional group interconversions afforded the highly functionalized fragment, allylic bromide 26. Its coupling reaction with the known C(12) hydrophobic segment 2, followed by further manipulation, completed the total synthesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of an Unexpected 2-Oxonia[3,3]sigmatropic Rearrangement/Aldol Pathway in the Formation of Oxacyclic Rings. Total Synthesis of (+)-Aspergillin PZ. (United States)

    Canham, Stephen M; Overman, Larry E; Tanis, Paul S


    This paper reports the first unambiguous evidence that the cascade synthesis of tetrahydrofuran-containing oxacyclic molecules depicted in Scheme 12 can take place by a 2-oxonia[3,3]sigmatropic/aldol mechanism rather than by a Prins cyclization/pinacol rearrangement sequence. The 8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octyl aldehyde products of this reaction, 20 and 29, were employed to complete the first total synthesis of the structurally remarkable isoindolone alkaloid (+)-aspergillin PZ (1). The lack of activity seen in two tumor cell lines for synthetic (+)-aspergillin PZ calls into question the suggestion that aspergillin PZ, like many aspochalasin diterpenes, might exhibit useful antitumor properties.

  11. Loan sales under asymmetric information


    Vargas Martínez, Mónica


    Loans are illiquid assets that can be sold in a secondary market even that buyers have no certainty about their quality. I study a model in which a lender has access to new investment opportunities when all her assets are illiquid. To raise funds, the lender may either borrow using her assets as collateral, or she can sell them in a secondary market. Given asymmetric information about assets quality, the lender cannot recover the total value of her assets. There is then a role for the governm...

  12. Prediction of Multi-Target Networks of Neuroprotective Compounds with Entropy Indices and Synthesis, Assay, and Theoretical Study of New Asymmetric 1,2-Rasagiline Carbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Romero Durán


    Full Text Available In a multi-target complex network, the links (Lij represent the interactions between the drug (di and the target (tj, characterized by different experimental measures (Ki, Km, IC50, etc. obtained in pharmacological assays under diverse boundary conditions (cj. In this work, we handle Shannon entropy measures for developing a model encompassing a multi-target network of neuroprotective/neurotoxic compounds reported in the CHEMBL database. The model predicts correctly >8300 experimental outcomes with Accuracy, Specificity, and Sensitivity above 80%–90% on training and external validation series. Indeed, the model can calculate different outcomes for >30 experimental measures in >400 different experimental protocolsin relation with >150 molecular and cellular targets on 11 different organisms (including human. Hereafter, we reported by the first time the synthesis, characterization, and experimental assays of a new series of chiral 1,2-rasagiline carbamate derivatives not reported in previous works. The experimental tests included: (1 assay in absence of neurotoxic agents; (2 in the presence of glutamate; and (3 in the presence of H2O2. Lastly, we used the new Assessing Links with Moving Averages (ALMA-entropy model to predict possible outcomes for the new compounds in a high number of pharmacological tests not carried out experimentally.

  13. Effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha on total myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis and polysomal aggregation in rat skeletal muscles. (United States)

    Cheema, I R; Hermann, C; Postell, S; Holifield, B


    The total sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein synthesis was reduced in incubated fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus of rat after in vivo tumour necrosis factor-alpha treatment at 50 micrograms/kg/day for 5 days. The rate of protein synthesis in the myofibrillar fraction was inhibited more severely (41% in EDL and 34% in soleus) than that in the sarcoplasmic fraction (23% in EDL and 14% in soleus). Sucrose density gradient centrifugation analysis indicated that TNF-alpha treatment impaired polysomal aggregation in rat diaphragm muscle. Compared with the control muscles, the ratio of 40S and 60S subunits to polysomes was higher in TNF-alpha treated muscles. These findings suggest a role for TNF-alpha in the translational regulation of protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle.

  14. Diastereoselective one-pot Wittig olefination-Michael addition and olefin cross metathesis strategy for total synthesis of cytotoxic natural product (+)-varitriol and its higher analogues. (United States)

    Ghosal, Partha; Sharma, Deepty; Kumar, Brijesh; Meena, Sanjeev; Sinha, Sudhir; Shaw, Arun K


    A stereoselective route for the total synthesis of anticancer marine natural product (+)-varitriol (1) is detailed herein. The impressive biological activity and interesting structural features of natural (+)-varitriol fuelled us to undertake the synthesis of some higher analogues (1a-j) of this molecule. The key features of the synthetic strategy include one-pot Wittig olefination followed by a highly diastereoselective oxa-Michael addition to assemble stereochemically pure tetrasubstituted THF moiety of the natural varitriol and olefin cross metathesis to couple the aromatic part with tetrasubstituted THF moiety. The total synthesis of title natural product is efficient with 21.8% overall yield for 9 linear steps from D-ribose and thus facilitates the more scaled-up practical route for the synthesis of 1 and its analogues as well. The synthetic (+)-varitriol (1) and its analogues were screened for their cytotoxicity. The present synthetic approach paves the way for preparation of numerous analogues of the title natural product for drug development.

  15. Asymmetrical field emitter (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.


    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  16. Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A

    We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into

  17. Total synthesis of cis-Hydroazulene sesquiterpenes : base-induced and -directed elimination and rearrangement reactions of perhydronaphthalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate esters


    Jenniskens, L.H.D.


    The total synthesis of a number of cis-fused hydroazulene sesquiterpenes is described in this thesis. In this synthetic study, ample attention is paid to the mechanistic aspects of the base- induced and -directed rearrangement and elimination reactions of perhydronaphthalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate esters. These reactions form the key steps in the synthetic routes that were followed.

    A general introduction into the chemistry of terpenes, with emphasis laid on the sesquiterpene...

  18. Unified approach to catechin hetero-oligomers: first total synthesis of trimer EZ-EG-CA isolated from Ziziphus jujuba. (United States)

    Yano, Takahisa; Ohmori, Ken; Takahashi, Haruko; Kusumi, Takenori; Suzuki, Keisuke


    A catechin hetero-trimer isolated from Ziziphus jujuba has been synthesized. Among three constituent monomers, (-)-epiafzelechin and (-)-epigallocatechin were prepared by de novo synthesis. Trimer formation relied on the unified approach to oligomers based on the bromo-capping and the orthogonal activation, reaching the reported structure of the natural product.

  19. Stimulation of glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes by added amino acids is related to the total intracellular content of amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, P. J.; Boon, L.; Caro, L. H.; van Woekom, G. M.; Meijer, A. J.


    Katz et al. [Katz, J., Golden, S. & Wals, P.A. (1976) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 73, 3433-3437] were the first to report that in hepatocytes isolated from fasted rats and incubated with either dihydroxyacetone, glucose or other sugars, glycogen synthesis was greatly accelerated by addition of amino

  20. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B


    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain

  1. How Is Nature Asymmetric?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. How Is Nature Asymmetric? - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation ... Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  2. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of statine side chain building blocks and application in the total synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering compound solistatin. (United States)

    Rieder, Oliver; Wolberg, Michael; Foegen, Silke E; Müller, Michael


    The synthesis and enzymatic reduction of several 6-substituted dioxohexanoates are presented. Two-step syntheses of tert-butyl 6-bromo-3,5-dioxohexanoate and the corresponding 6-hydroxy compound have been achieved in 89% and 59% yield, respectively. Regio- and enantioselective reduction of these diketones and of the 6-chloro derivative with alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (LBADH) gave the (5S)-5-hydroxy-3-oxo products with enantiomeric excesses of 91%, 98.4%, and >99.5%, respectively. Chain elongation of the reduction products by one carbon via cyanide addition, and by more than one carbon by Julia-Kocienski olefination, gave access to well-established statine side-chain building blocks. Application in the synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering natural compound solistatin is given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly asymmetric rice genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian-Qun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals in the same species are assumed to share the same genomic set. However, it is not unusual to find an orthologous gene only in small subset of the species, and recent genomic studies suggest that structural rearrangements are very frequent between genomes in the same species. Two recently sequenced rice genomes Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare and O. sativa L. var. 93-11 provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the extent of the gene repertoire polymorphism, even though the genomic data of 93-11 derived from whole-short-gun sequencing is not yet as complete as that of Nipponbare. Results We compared gene contents and the genomic locations between two rice genomes. Our conservative estimates suggest that at least 10% of the genes in the genomes were either under presence/absence polymorphism (5.2% or asymmetrically located between genomes (4.7%. The proportion of these "asymmetric genes" varied largely among gene groups, in which disease resistance (R genes and the RLK kinase gene group had 11.6 and 7.8 times higher proportion of asymmetric genes than housekeeping genes (Myb and MADS. The significant difference in the proportion of asymmetric genes among gene groups suggests that natural selection is responsible for maintaining genomic asymmetry. On the other hand, the nucleotide diversity in 17 R genes under presence/absence polymorphism was generally low (average nucleotide diversity = 0.0051. Conclusion The genomic symmetry was disrupted by 10% of asymmetric genes, which could cause genetic variation through more unequal crossing over, because these genes had no allelic counterparts to pair and then they were free to pair with homologues at non-allelic loci, during meiosis in heterozygotes. It might be a consequence of diversifying selection that increased the structural divergence among genomes, and of purifying selection that decreased nucleotide divergence in each R gene locus.

  4. Bringing the science of proteins into the realm of organic chemistry: total chemical synthesis of SEP (synthetic erythropoiesis protein). (United States)

    Kent, Stephen B H


    Erythropoietin, commonly known as EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. Recombinant EPO has been described as "arguably the most successful drug spawned by the revolution in recombinant DNA technology". Recently, the EPO glycoprotein molecule has re-emerged as a major target of synthetic organic chemistry. In this article I will give an account of an important body of earlier work on the chemical synthesis of a designed EPO analogue that had full biological activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties. The design and synthesis of this "synthetic erythropoiesis protein" was ahead of its time, but has gained new relevance in recent months. Here I will document the story of one of the major accomplishments of synthetic chemistry in a more complete way than is possible in the primary literature, and put the work in its contemporaneous context. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Total synthesis of buckminsterfullerene (C60) and endohedral metal complexes. Final report, 1 March 1994-28 February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Y.F.


    A summary of our work aimed at the synthesis of a variety of endohedral metal complexes of fullerenes is presented. The completion of the synthesis of suitable highly unsaturated macrocyclic precursors containing 60 carbon atoms is described. These compounds were required to study their rearrangement to a fullerene framework in a process analogous to the gas-phase rearrangement of mono- and polycyclic polyynes (acetylenic rings) in the formation of C60 and higher fullerenes. Three types of synthetic acetylenic precursors were targeted, namely triply-linked bis-benzene-cyclophanes with octayne linking units, sextuply-linked bis-benzene-cyclophanes with tetrayne linkers, and deca-alkynylated metallocenes which include a metal in their structure early in the synthesis. The rearrangement to C60 of the first examples of these compounds has been studied in the gas phase by LDMS and in solution by various chemical reactions. Another aspect of our work was initiated by the successful opening of the largest orifice on the framework of C60 known to date in the form of a cobalt(III) complex of ethenobisfulleroid C64H4. This strategy is being applied in a double fashion on adjacent sites of the surface of C60 to form an even larger opening, aimed at eventual metal insertion inside the cage.

  6. An efficient synthesis of loline alkaloids (United States)

    Cakmak, Mesut; Mayer, Peter; Trauner, Dirk


    Loline (1) is a small alkaloid that, in spite of its simple-looking structure, has posed surprising challenges to synthetic chemists. It has been known for more than a century and has been the subject of extensive biological investigations, but only two total syntheses have been achieved to date. Here, we report an asymmetric total synthesis of loline that, with less then ten steps, is remarkably short. Our synthesis incorporates a Sharpless epoxidation, a Grubbs olefin metathesis and an unprecedented transannular aminobromination, which converts an eight-membered cyclic carbamate into a bromopyrrolizidine. The synthesis is marked by a high degree of chemo- and stereoselectivity and gives access to several members of the loline alkaloid family. It delivers sufficient material to support a programme aimed at studying the complex interactions between plants, fungi, insects and bacteria brokered by loline alkaloids.

  7. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  8. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy


    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  9. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games. (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph


    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  10. An efficient asymmetric synthesis of (-)-wodeshiol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soon Ho Lee1 Jae-Chul Jung2 Oee Sook Park3. Department of Chemistry, Institute for Basic Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Chungbuk, Korea; Department of Neuroscience and Medical Research Institute, School of Medicine, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul ...

  11. Selective Homogeneous Catalysis in Asymmetric Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter

    with predictions based on computational modelling of the transition states. Visualization of the determined transition states allowed for the construction of the new mnemonic device for prediction of absolute configuration, which also included a mapping of the important features onto an overlaid transition state....

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of first generation molecular motors. (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas M; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Zhao, Depeng; Lubbe, Anouk S; Kistemaker, Jos C M; Feringa, Ben L


    A general enantioselective route to functionalized first generation molecular motors is described. An enantioselective protonation of the silyl enol ethers of indanones by a Au(I)BINAP complex sets the stage for a highly diastereoselective McMurry coupling as a second enhancement step for enantiomeric excess. In this way various functionalized overcrowded alkenes could be synthesized in good yields (up to 78%) and good to excellent enantiomeric excess (85% ee->98% ee) values.

  13. Developement and examination of the diastereoselective zwitterionic aza-claisen rearrangement for the synthesis of optically active nine-membererd ring lactams. Asymmetric total synthesis of the indolizidine alkaloid (-)-8a-epi-Dendroprimin


    Diederich, Michel


    Abstract: The Diastereoselective Zwitterionic Aza-Claisen Rearrangement A novel type of ketene-Claisen rearrangement was developed. Allyl amines have been used in ketene-Claisen reactions rarely. The rearrangement was restricted to activated ketenes like dichloroketene, since alkyl ketenes are apparently not electrophilic enough to attack the allyl amine. Since acetyl chloride is a synthetic equivalent for ketene, special conditions were developed f...

  14. Total Chemical Synthesis of a Heterodimeric Interchain Bis-Lactam-Linked Peptide: Application to an Analogue of Human Insulin-Like Peptide 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Karas


    Full Text Available Nonreducible cystine isosteres represent important peptide design elements in that they can maintain a near-native tertiary conformation of the peptide while simultaneously extending the in vitro and in vivo half-life of the biomolecule. Examples of these cystine mimics include dicarba, diselenide, thioether, triazole, and lactam bridges. Each has unique physicochemical properties that impact upon the resulting peptide conformation. Each also requires specific conditions for its formation via chemical peptide synthesis protocols. While the preparation of peptides containing two lactam bonds within a peptide is technically possible and reported by others, to date there has been no report of the chemical synthesis of a heterodimeric peptide linked by two lactam bonds. To examine the feasibility of such an assembly, judicious use of a complementary combination of amine and acid protecting groups together with nonfragment-based, total stepwise solid phase peptide synthesis led to the successful preparation of an analogue of the model peptide, insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3, in which both of the interchain disulfide bonds were replaced with a lactam bond. An analogue containing a single disulfide-substituted interchain lactam bond was also prepared. Both INSL3 analogues retained significant cognate RXFP2 receptor binding affinity.

  15. Daily duration of vitamin D synthesis in human skin with relation to latitude, total ozone, altitude, ground cover, aerosols and cloud thickness. (United States)

    Engelsen, Ola; Brustad, Magritt; Aksnes, Lage; Lund, Eiliv


    Vitamin D production in human skin occurs only when incident UV radiation exceeds a certain threshold. From simulations of UV irradiances worldwide and throughout the year, we have studied the dependency of the extent and duration of cutaneous vitamin D production in terms of latitude, time, total ozone, clouds, aerosols, surface reflectivity and altitude. For clear atmospheric conditions, no cutaneous vitamin D production occurs at 51 degrees latitude and higher during some periods of the year. At 70 degrees latitude, vitamin D synthesis can be absent for 5 months. Clouds, aerosols and thick ozone events reduce the duration of vitamin D synthesis considerably, and can suppress vitamin D synthesis completely even at the equator. A web page allowing the computation of the duration of cutaneous vitamin D production worldwide throughout the year, for various atmospheric and surface conditions, is available on the Internet at and The computational methodology is outlined here.

  16. Total synthesis of crocacins A, C and D: new antibiotics isolated from Chondromyces crocatus and Chondromyces pediculatus; Sinteses totais das crocacinas A, C e D: novos antibioticos isolados de Chondromyces crocatus e Chondromyces pediculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana G. de; Dias, Luiz C.; Rosso, Giovanni B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    This review describes the endeavors that led to the total synthesis of a novel class of antibiotic compounds: the crocacins A-D. Other aspects such as isolation, structural elucidation as well as the biological activities are also presented. (author)

  17. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux


    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  18. A new synthesis of enantiomerically pure syn-(S)-β-hydroxy-α-amino acids via asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a homochiral Ni(II)-glycine/(S)-BPB Schiff base complex


    Belokon, Yuri N.; Kochetkov, Konstantin A.; Ikonnikov, Nikolai S.; Strelkova, Tatiana V.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Saghiyan, Ashot S.


    syn-(S)-β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids were synthesised stereoselectively via elaboration of the asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a chiral Ni(II)-(S)-BPB/glycine Schiff base complex in the presence of equimolar NaH in THF. The stereoselectivity of the reaction was studied as a function of time, the reaction conditions, the nature of the carbonyl compounds and the base used. The synthetic potential of this asymmetric method was demonstrated in the preparation of syn-(S)-β-hydroxyleucine o...

  19. Catalytic asymmetric fluorinations. (United States)

    Bobbio, Carla; Gouverneur, Véronique


    The appearance of structurally diverse fluorinating reagents displaying a large spectrum of reactivity has been critical to the development of the catalytic asymmetric fluorination processes known to date. In this article, we discuss how this area of research emerged and which strategies have allowed for the successful development of both nucleophilic and electrophilic catalytic enantioselective fluorinations. We also present the fundamental understanding of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the most efficient processes and highlight the first synthetic application with the preparation of a complex fluorinated target.

  20. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus


    were pioneered by Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder who discovered what later became known as the Diels Alder reaction. The Diels Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition in which a π4 component reacts with a π2 component via a cyclic transition state to generate a 6 membered ring. This reaction...... undergo cascade reactions with different electron deficient dienophiles in Diels Alder – nucleophilic ring closing reactions. This methodology opens up for the direct asymmetric formation of hydroisochromenes and hydroisoquinolines which may possess interesting biological activities. It is also...

  1. Asymmetrical lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs may promote asymmetrical hip joint development. (United States)

    Flückiger, Mark A; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joseph P


    This study examines the relationship between the morphology of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV) and asymmetrical development of the hip joints in dogs. A total of 4000 dogs which had been consecutively scored for canine hip dysplasia were checked for the presence of a LTV. A LTV was noted in 138 dogs and classified depending on the morphology of the transverse processes and the degree of contact with the ilium. In dogs with an asymmetrical LTV, the hip joint was significantly more predisposed to subluxation and malformation on the side of the intermediate or sacral-like transverse process (p hip joint conformation was less affected on the side featuring a free transverse process (p hip joint, and secondary osteoarthritis. Asymmetrical hip conformation may therefore be the sequela of a LTV and mask or aggravate genetically induced canine hip dysplasia.

  2. Chemoenzymatic Total Synthesis and Structural Diversification of Tylactone-Based Macrolide Antibiotics through Late-Stage Polyketide Assembly, Tailoring, and C-H Functionalization. (United States)

    Lowell, Andrew N; DeMars, Matthew D; Slocum, Samuel T; Yu, Fengan; Anand, Krithika; Chemler, Joseph A; Korakavi, Nisha; Priessnitz, Jennifer K; Park, Sung Ryeol; Koch, Aaron A; Schultz, Pamela J; Sherman, David H


    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) represent a powerful catalytic platform capable of effecting multiple carbon-carbon bond forming reactions and oxidation state adjustments. We explored the functionality of two terminal PKS modules that produce the 16-membered tylosin macrocycle, using them as biocatalysts in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of tylactone and its subsequent elaboration to complete the first total synthesis of the juvenimicin, M-4365, and rosamicin classes of macrolide antibiotics via late-stage diversification. Synthetic chemistry was employed to generate the tylactone hexaketide chain elongation intermediate that was accepted by the juvenimicin (Juv) ketosynthase of the penultimate JuvEIV PKS module. The hexaketide is processed through two complete modules (JuvEIV and JuvEV) in vitro, which catalyze elongation and functionalization of two ketide units followed by cyclization of the resulting octaketide into tylactone. After macrolactonization, a combination of in vivo glycosylation, selective in vitro cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation, and chemical oxidation was used to complete the scalable construction of a series of macrolide natural products in as few as 15 linear steps (21 total) with an overall yield of 4.6%.

  3. An Intramolecular Nitrone-Olefin Dipolar Cycloaddition-Based Approach to Total Synthesis of the Cylindricine and Lepadiformine Marine Alkaloids. (United States)

    Werner, Kim M.; de Los Santos, Jesus M.; Weinreb, Steven M.; Shang, Maoyu


    A synthetic route to the cylindricine skeleton as well as to the reported structure of the marine alkaloid lepadiformine has been achieved using an intramolecular nitrone/1,3-diene dipolar cycloaddition as the key step. The synthesis began with sequential alkylations of acetone oxime to afford key intermediate oxime 30, which contains all of the carbons necessary to form the tricyclic skeleton of the alkaloids. Nitrone 40, available from oxime 30 by standard transformations, underwent an intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to provide isoxazolidine 43. Related 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions were also explored on two additional nitrone-olefin substrates 41 and 42, which were prepared in a manner similar to that of 40. The tricyclic alkaloid core 52 was formed stereoselectively by a tandem oxidation-Michael addition of amino alcohol 49 derived from isoxazolidine 43. Cleavage of the O-phenyl ether of 52 provided 2-epi-cylindricine C (53). Several unsuccessful attempts were made to convert 52 to cylindricine C by epimerization at C2. Tricyclic ketone 52 was deoxygenated to give amine 59, whose structure and relative stereochemistry were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis of its picrate salt. Removal of the O-phenyl protecting group from 59 provided tricyclic amino alcohol 60 having the putative structure of lepadiformine, but whose NMR data did not correspond to those of the natural product.

  4. A new synthesis of enantiomerically pure syn-(S)-β-hydroxy-α-amino acids via asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a homochiral Ni(II)-glycine/(S)-BPB Schiff base complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokon, Yuri N.; Kochetkov, Konstantin A.; Ikonnikov, Nikolai S.; Strelkova, Tatiana V.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Saghiyan, Ashot S.


    syn-(S)-β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids were synthesised stereoselectively via elaboration of the asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a chiral Ni(II)-(S)-BPB/glycine Schiff base complex in the presence of equimolar NaH in THF. The stereoselectivity of the reaction was studied as a function of time,

  5. Symmetric Decomposition of Asymmetric Games. (United States)

    Tuyls, Karl; Pérolat, Julien; Lanctot, Marc; Ostrovski, Georg; Savani, Rahul; Leibo, Joel Z; Ord, Toby; Graepel, Thore; Legg, Shane


    We introduce new theoretical insights into two-population asymmetric games allowing for an elegant symmetric decomposition into two single population symmetric games. Specifically, we show how an asymmetric bimatrix game (A,B) can be decomposed into its symmetric counterparts by envisioning and investigating the payoff tables (A and B) that constitute the asymmetric game, as two independent, single population, symmetric games. We reveal several surprising formal relationships between an asymmetric two-population game and its symmetric single population counterparts, which facilitate a convenient analysis of the original asymmetric game due to the dimensionality reduction of the decomposition. The main finding reveals that if (x,y) is a Nash equilibrium of an asymmetric game (A,B), this implies that y is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table A, and x is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table B. Also the reverse holds and combinations of Nash equilibria of the counterpart games form Nash equilibria of the asymmetric game. We illustrate how these formal relationships aid in identifying and analysing the Nash structure of asymmetric games, by examining the evolutionary dynamics of the simpler counterpart games in several canonical examples.

  6. Total synthesis of avermectins part 2: enantioselective synthesis of the C10-C25 northern fragment and final steps for the construction of the 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1b aglycone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferezou, J.P.; Julia, M.; Li, Y.; Wei Liu, L.; Pancrazi, A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France)


    The total synthesis of the aglycone of 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1b involves a retrosynthetic two building-blocks approach. A Stille Pd(O) catalysed cross-coupling reaction is carried out between a northern C10-C25 E-vinylstannane and a southern C1-C9 vinyl iodide. The final steps include successive removal of the carboxyl {beta}-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl protecting group of the intermediate secoester, macrolactonization under Yonemitsu`s conditions and removal of the 5-O-TBS protecting group. These last steps have been carried out with the aid of a relay study from commercial Ivermectin; a macrolactone opening reaction of the aglycone in the presence of Ti(O{sup i}Pr){sub 4} has been developed where the crucial {Delta}{sup 3,4} double bond as well as the configuration at C-2 where totally preserved. (authors). 46 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Autonomous assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides built from an expanded DNA alphabet. Total synthesis of a gene encoding kanamycin resistance. (United States)

    Merritt, Kristen K; Bradley, Kevin M; Hutter, Daniel; Matsuura, Mariko F; Rowold, Diane J; Benner, Steven A


    Many synthetic biologists seek to increase the degree of autonomy in the assembly of long DNA (L-DNA) constructs from short synthetic DNA fragments, which are today quite inexpensive because of automated solid-phase synthesis. However, the low information density of DNA built from just four nucleotide "letters", the presence of strong (G:C) and weak (A:T) nucleobase pairs, the non-canonical folded structures that compete with Watson-Crick pairing, and other features intrinsic to natural DNA, generally prevent the autonomous assembly of short single-stranded oligonucleotides greater than a dozen or so. We describe a new strategy to autonomously assemble L-DNA constructs from fragments of synthetic single-stranded DNA. This strategy uses an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS) that adds nucleotides to the four (G, A, C, and T) found in standard DNA by shuffling hydrogen-bonding units on the nucleobases, all while retaining the overall Watson-Crick base-pairing geometry. The added information density allows larger numbers of synthetic fragments to self-assemble without off-target hybridization, hairpin formation, and non-canonical folding interactions. The AEGIS pairs are then converted into standard pairs to produce a fully natural L-DNA product. Here, we report the autonomous assembly of a gene encoding kanamycin resistance using this strategy. Synthetic fragments were built from a six-letter alphabet having two AEGIS components, 5-methyl-2'-deoxyisocytidine and 2'-deoxyisoguanosine (respectively S and B), at their overlapping ends. Gaps in the overlapped assembly were then filled in using DNA polymerases, and the nicks were sealed by ligase. The S:B pairs in the ligated construct were then converted to T:A pairs during PCR amplification. When cloned into a plasmid, the product was shown to make Escherichia coli resistant to kanamycin. A parallel study that attempted to assemble similarly sized genes with optimally designed standard nucleotides

  8. Minimal asymmetric dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M. Boucenna


    Full Text Available In the early Universe, any particle carrying a conserved quantum number and in chemical equilibrium with the thermal bath will unavoidably inherit a particle–antiparticle asymmetry. A new particle of this type, if stable, would represent a candidate for asymmetric dark matter (DM with an asymmetry directly related to the baryon asymmetry. We study this possibility for a minimal DM sector constituted by just one (generic SU(2L multiplet χ carrying hypercharge, assuming that at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition an effective operator enforces chemical equilibrium between χ and the Higgs boson. We argue that limits from DM direct detection searches severely constrain this scenario, leaving as the only possibilities scalar or fermion multiplets with hypercharge y=1, preferentially quintuplets or larger SU(2 representations, and with a mass in the few TeV range.

  9. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia


    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  10. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen


    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  11. Allenes in Asymmetric Catalysis. Asymmetric Ring-Opening of Meso-Epoxides Catalyzed by Allene-Containing Phosphine Oxides (United States)

    Pu, Xiaotao; Qi, Xiangbing; Ready, Joseph M.


    Unsymmetrically substituted allenes (1,2 dienes) are inherently chiral and can be prepared in optically pure form. Nonetheless, to date the allene framework has not been incorporated into ligands for asymmetric catalysis. Since allenes project functionality differently than either tetrahedral carbon or chiral biaryls, they may create complementary chiral environments. This study demonstrates that optically active C2 symmetric allene-containing bisphosphine oxides can catalyze the addition of SiCl4 to meso epoxides with high enantioselectivity. The epoxide-opening likely involves generation of a Lewis acidic, cationic (bisphosphine oxide)SiCl3 complex. The fact that high asymmetric induction is observed suggests that allenes may represent a new platform for the development of ligands and catalysts for asymmetric synthesis. PMID:19722613

  12. Total synthesis of (±)-naphthacemycin A9, possessing both antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and circumventing effect of β-lactam resistance. (United States)

    Hirose, Tomoyasu; Kojima, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Hidehito; Hanaki, Hideaki; Iwatsuki, Masato; Shiomi, Kazuro; Ōmura, Satoshi; Sunazuka, Toshiaki


    The total synthesis of KB-3346-5A 9 , named naphthacemycin A 9 , has been accomplished by combining the Dötz reaction and Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling as well as employing Friedel-Crafts reaction with dienone-phenol rearrangement as key steps. We also describe the preparation of the simplified tetarimycin A and naphthacemycin A analogs as a model study, which coincidentally reveal unique properties of naturally occurring naphthacene-5,6,11(12H)-trione framework. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) to elucidate their structure-activity relationships (SARs), the results of which agreed with a previously reported preliminary SAR study of tetarimycin A.

  13. Asymmetric MRI Magnet Design Using a Hybrid Numerical Method (United States)

    Zhao, Huawei; Crozier, Stuart; Doddrell, David M.


    This paper describes a hybrid numerical method for the design of asymmetric magnetic resonance imaging magnet systems. The problem is formulated as a field synthesis and the desired current density on the surface of a cylinder is first calculated by solving a Fredholm equation of the first kind. Nonlinear optimization methods are then invoked to fit practical magnet coils to the desired current density. The field calculations are performed using a semi-analytical method. A new type of asymmetric magnet is proposed in this work. The asymmetric MRI magnet allows the diameter spherical imaging volume to be positioned close to one end of the magnet. The main advantages of making the magnet asymmetric include the potential to reduce the perception of claustrophobia for the patient, better access to the patient by attending physicians, and the potential for reduced peripheral nerve stimulation due to the gradient coil configuration. The results highlight that the method can be used to obtain an asymmetric MRI magnet structure and a very homogeneous magnetic field over the central imaging volume in clinical systems of approximately 1.2 m in length. Unshielded designs are the focus of this work. This method is flexible and may be applied to magnets of other geometries.

  14. Solid-phase total synthesis of cherimolacyclopeptide E and discovery of more potent analogues by alanine screening. (United States)

    Shaheen, Farzana; Rizvi, Tania S; Musharraf, Syed G; Ganesan, A; Xiao, Kai; Townsend, Jared B; Lam, Kit S; Choudhary, M Iqbal


    Cherimolacyclopeptide E (1) is a cyclic hexapeptide obtained from Annona cherimola, reported to be cytotoxic against the KB (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cell line. The solid-phase total syntheses of this cyclic peptide and its analogues were accomplished by employing FMOC/tert-butyl-protected amino acids and the Kenner sulfonamide safety-catch linker. The synthetic peptide 1 was found to be weakly cytotoxic against four cell lines (MOLT-4, Jurkat T lymphoma, MDA-MB-231, and KB). Analogues 3 and 7, where glycine at positions 2 and 6 of the parent compound was replaced by Ala, exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity against KB (3, IC50 6.3 μM; 7, IC50 7.8 μM) and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (3, IC50 10.2 μM; 7, IC50 7.7 μM), thereby suggesting possible selective targeting of these cancer cells by these peptides. The spectral data of synthetic peptide 1 was found to be similar to that reported for the natural product. However, a striking difference in biological activity was noted, which warrants the re-evaluation of the original natural product for purity and the existence of conformational differences.

  15. Asymmetric 1,4-bis(ethynylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane rotators via monocarbinol functionalization. Ready access to polyrotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprien Lemouchi


    Full Text Available Asymmetric rotators with a 1,4-bis(ethynylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO core are needed for engineering crystalline arrays of functional molecular rotors. Their synthesis uses carbinol, 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, as a protecting group because of its polar character and its ability to sustain orthogonal functionalization with the further advantage of being readily removed. The synthesis in good yields of unprecedented asymmetric rotors and polyrotors demonstrates the efficiency of this strategy.

  16. Asymmetric bifurcated halogen bonds. (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Marek, Radek


    Halogen bonding (XB) is being extensively explored for its potential use in advanced materials and drug design. Despite significant progress in describing this interaction by theoretical and experimental methods, the chemical nature remains somewhat elusive, and it seems to vary with the selected system. In this work we present a detailed DFT analysis of three-center asymmetric halogen bond (XB) formed between dihalogen molecules and variously 4-substituted 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. The energy decomposition, orbital, and electron density analyses suggest that the contribution of electrostatic stabilization is comparable with that of non-electrostatic factors. Both terms increase parallel with increasing negative charge of the electron donor molecule in our model systems. Depending on the orientation of the dihalogen molecules, this bifurcated interaction may be classified as 'σ-hole - lone pair' or 'σ-hole - π' halogen bonds. Arrangement of the XB investigated here deviates significantly from a recent IUPAC definition of XB and, in analogy to the hydrogen bonding, the term bifurcated halogen bond (BXB) seems to be appropriate for this type of interaction.

  17. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang


    Full Text Available A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our time-lapse studies suggest that cytoophidia are dynamic. Once the mother cell divides, the cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia independently partition into one of the two daughter cells. Although the two daughter cells differ from one another morphologically, they possess similar chances of inheriting the cytoplasmic cytoophidium from the mother cell, suggesting that the partition of cytoophidium is a stochastic process. Our findings on asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in S. pombe offer an exciting opportunity to study the inheritance of metabolic enzymes in a well-studied model system.

  18. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle life....

  19. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian


    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  20. [Ag67(SPhMe2)32(PPh3)8]3+: Synthesis, Total Structure, and Optical Properties of a Large Box-Shaped Silver Nanocluster

    KAUST Repository

    Alhilaly, Mohammad J.


    Engineering the surface ligands of metal nanoparticles is critical in designing unique arrangements of metal atoms. Here, we report the synthesis and total structure determination of a large box-shaped Ag-67 nanocluster (NC) protected by a mixed shell of thiolate (2,4-dimethylbenzenethiolate, SPhMe2) and phosphine (triphenylphosphine, PPh3) ligands. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) revealed the cluster formula to be [Ag-67(SPhMe2)(32)(PPh3)(8)](3+). The crystal structure shows an Ag-23 metal core covered by a layer of Ag44S32P8 arranged in the shape of a box. The Ag-13, core was formed through an unprecedented centered cuboctahedron, i.e., Ag-13, unlike the common centered Ag-13 icosahedron geometry. Two types of ligand motifs, eight AgS3P and eight bridging thiols, were found to stabilize the whole cluster. The optical spectrum of this NC displayed highly structured multiple absorption peaks. The electronic structure and optical spectrum of Ag-67 were computed using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for both the full cluster [Ag-67(SPhMe2)(32)(PPh3)(8)](3+) and a reduced model [Ag-67(SH)(32)(PH3)(8)](3+). The lowest metal-to-metal transitions in the range 500-800 nm could be explained by considering the reduced model that shows almost identical electronic states to 32 free electrons in a jellium box. The successful synthesis of the large box-shaped Ag-67 NC facilitated by the combined use of phosphine and thiol paves the way for synthesizing other metal clusters with unprecedented shapes by judicious choice of thiols and phosphines.

  1. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels. (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich


    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, pcholesterol synthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  3. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  4. The Total Synthesis of Strychnine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    overcame this using an Al-courier! Compound 13 was treated with sodium acetylide in THF and the acetylinic moiety was reduced to provide 14. Compound 14 when reacted with LAH in refluxing ether effected the reduction of the amide present in ring-VI and delivered the hydrogen to the most inaccessible carbon-8 to form.

  5. Stereoselective total synthesis of sphingolipids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Chemical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 129, Issue 12. Current Issue Volume 129 | Issue 12. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  6. [Total synthesis of nordihydroguaiaretic acid]. (United States)

    Wu, A X; Zhao, Y R; Chen, N; Pan, X F


    beta-Keto ester(5) was obtained from vanilin through etherification, oxidation and condensation with acetoacetic ester, (5) on oxidative coupling reaction by NaOEt/I2 produced dimer (6) in high yield. Acid catalyzed cyclodehydration of (6) gave the furan derivative(7), and by a series of selective hydrogenation nordihydroguaiaretic acid, furoguaiacin dimethyl ether and dihydroguaiaretic acid dimethyl ether were synthesized.

  7. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    ecule was transformed and rent asunder in innumerable directions, and the fascination and intricacy of the chemistry of chlorophyll and its congeners was fully revealed. These massive contributions were crowned by the proposal, in. 1940 of a structure which was complete except for stereochemical detail. – R B Woodward ...

  8. First total synthesis of Boehmenan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Yamu Xia1 Xiaoli Dai1 Haixin Liu1 Chen Chai2. College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, People's Republic of China; The first Affiliated Hospital of Lanzhou University, Gansu 730000, People's Republic of China ...

  9. First total synthesis of Boehmenan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koubaa I and Damak M 2003 Fitoterapia 74 18. 8. Yang X W, Zhao P J, Ma Y L, Xiao H T, Zuo Y Q, He. H P, Li L and Hao X J 2007 J. Nat. Prod. 70 521. 9. Chen J J, Yang C S, Peng C F, Chen I S and Miaw C L. 2008 J. Nat. Prod. 71 1016. 10. Cutillo F, D'Abrosca B, DellaGreca M, Fiorentino A and Zarrelli A 2003 J. Agric.

  10. Total synthesis of (-)- and (+)-tedanalactam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    dihydroxylation of α,β-unsaturated ester 8 in the presence of OsO 4 and NMO as co-oxidant gave a rac-diol 7. Enantioselective Sharpless dihydroxylation using the AD-mix α catalyst (NH 2 SO 2 CH 3 , t-BuOH:H 2 O (1/1), 0 0 C) afforded diol 7a in 77% yield... and 91% ee as determined by the HPLC analyses, where as reverse selectivity was obtained when the AD-mix β catalyst was used. Thus, diol 7b was prepared employing the AD-mix β as catalyst with 94% ee and 71% yield. The absolute stereochemistry...

  11. (Quasi-)racemic X-ray structures of glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms of the chemokine Ser-CCL1 prepared by total chemical synthesis. (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryo; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Sawaya, Michael R; Kajihara, Yasuhiro; Yeates, Todd O; Kent, Stephen B H


    Our goal was to obtain the X-ray crystal structure of the glycosylated chemokine Ser-CCL1. Glycoproteins can be hard to crystallize because of the heterogeneity of the oligosaccharide (glycan) moiety. We used glycosylated Ser-CCL1 that had been prepared by total chemical synthesis as a homogeneous compound containing an N-linked asialo biantennary nonasaccharide glycan moiety of defined covalent structure. Facile crystal formation occurred from a quasi-racemic mixture consisting of glycosylated L-protein and non-glycosylated-D-protein, while no crystals were obtained from the glycosylated L-protein alone. The structure was solved at a resolution of 2.6-2.1 Å. However, the glycan moiety was disordered: only the N-linked GlcNAc sugar was well-defined in the electron density map. A racemic mixture of the protein enantiomers L-Ser-CCL1 and D-Ser-CCL1 was also crystallized, and the structure of the true racemate was solved at a resolution of 2.7-2.15 Å. Superimposition of the structures of the protein moieties of L-Ser-CCL1 and glycosylated-L-Ser-CCL1 revealed there was no significant alteration of the protein structure by N-glycosylation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. An approach to the construction of the carbon skeleton of marine nor-sesquiterpenes. Total synthesis of (±-dehalo-napalilactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Gaspar


    Full Text Available We disclose herein a synthetic approach for the preparation of an unusual carbon skeleton, which was found in nor-sesquiterpenes isolated from marine corals. The main structural feature of this skeleton is the presence of two contiguous quaternary centers, one of them bears a spiro gamma-butyrolactone moiety. One of the quaternary centers was prepared with moderate stereoselectivity by the conjugate addition of lithium dimethylcuprate to 2-methylcyclohexenone, followed by the trapping of the intermediate enolate with allyl bromide to furnish trans-2-allyl-2,3-dimethylcyclohexan-2-one, as a major diastereoisomer. The preparation of the quaternary centers bearing the spiro gamma-butyrolactone moiety was secured by the addition of a suitably functionalized organolithium reagent on trans-2-allyl-2,3-dimetylcyclohexan-2-one, followed by separation of the isomers and two oxidation steps. This strategy has permitted us to report the racemic total synthesis of a non-natural nor-sesquiterpene derivative, in 6 steps and 16% overall yield, from 2-methylcyclohexenone.

  13. cis-2,5-Diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane, a New Chiral Scaffold for Asymmetric Catalysis. (United States)

    Shaw, Subrata; White, James D


    Catalysis of widely used chemical transformations in which the goal is to obtain the product as a pure enantiomer has become a major preoccupation of synthetic organic chemistry over the past three decades. A large number of chiral entities has been deployed to this end, many with considerable success, but one of the simplest and most effective catalytic systems to have emerged from this effort is that based on a chiral diamine, specifically trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane. While there have been attempts to improve upon this scaffold in asymmetric synthesis, few have gained the recognition needed to take their place alongside this classic diamine. The challenge is to design a scaffold that retains the assets of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane while enhancing its intrinsic chirality and maximizing the scope of its applications. It occurred to us that cis-2,5-diaminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane could be such a scaffold. Synthesis of this diamine in enantiopure form was completed from benzoic acid, and the (1R,2R,4R,5R) enantiomer was used in all subsequent experiments in this laboratory. Condensation of the diamine with various salicyl aldehydes generated imine derivatives which proved to be excellent "salen" ligands for encapsulation of transition and other metals. In total, 12 salen-metal complexes were prepared from this ligand, many of which were crystalline and three of which, along with the ligand itself, yielded to X-ray crystallography. An advantage of this ligand is that it can be tuned sterically or electronically to confer specific catalytic properties on the salen-metal complex, and this feature was used in several applications of our salen-metal complexes in asymmetric synthesis. Thus, replacement of one of the tert-butyl groups in each benzenoid ring of the salen ligand by a methoxy substituent enhanced the catalytic efficiency of a cobalt(II)-salen complex used in asymmetric cyclopropanation of 1,1-disubstituted alkenes; the catalyst was employed in an improved

  14. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings. (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana


    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  15. Does asymmetric correlation affect portfolio optimization? (United States)

    Fryd, Lukas


    The classical portfolio optimization problem does not assume asymmetric behavior of relationship among asset returns. The existence of asymmetric response in correlation on the bad news could be important information in portfolio optimization. The paper applies Dynamic conditional correlation model (DCC) and his asymmetric version (ADCC) to propose asymmetric behavior of conditional correlation. We analyse asymmetric correlation among S&P index, bonds index and spot gold price before mortgage crisis in 2008. We evaluate forecast ability of the models during and after mortgage crisis and demonstrate the impact of asymmetric correlation on the reduction of portfolio variance.

  16. Synthesis-atomic structure-properties relationships in metallic nanoparticles by total scattering experiments and 3D computer simulations: case of Pt-Ru nanoalloy catalysts (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Ren, Yang; Shan, Shiyao; Zhao, Yinguang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Petkov, Valeri


    An approach to determining the 3D atomic structure of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in fine detail and using the unique knowledge obtained for rationalizing their synthesis and properties targeted for optimization is described and exemplified on Pt-Ru alloy NPs of importance to the development of devices for clean energy conversion such as fuel cells. In particular, PtxRu100-x alloy NPs, where x = 31, 49 and 75, are synthesized by wet chemistry and activated catalytically by a post-synthesis treatment involving heating under controlled N2-H2 atmosphere. So-activated NPs are evaluated as catalysts for gas-phase CO oxidation and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions taking place in fuel cells. Both as-synthesized and activated NPs are characterized structurally by total scattering experiments involving high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) analysis. 3D structure models both for as-synthesized and activated NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modelling Sutton-Chen method. Models are refined against the experimental PDF data by reverse Monte Carlo simulations and analysed in terms of prime structural characteristics such as metal-to-metal bond lengths, bond angles and first coordination numbers for Pt and Ru atoms. Analysis indicates that, though of a similar type, the atomic structure of as-synthesized and respective activated NPs differ in several details of importance to NP catalytic properties. Structural characteristics of activated NPs and data for their catalytic activity are compared side by side and strong evidence found that electronic effects, indicated by significant changes in Pt-Pt and Ru-Ru metal bond lengths at NP surface, and practically unrecognized so far atomic ensemble effects, indicated by distinct stacking of atomic layers near NP surface and prevalence of particular configurations of Pt and Ru atoms in these layers, contribute to the

  17. Symmetric and Asymmetric Reheating


    Hardy, Edward; Unwin, James


    We study models in which the inflaton is coupled to two otherwise decoupled sectors, and the effect of preheating and related processes on their energy densities during the evolution of the universe. Over most of parameter space, preheating is not disrupted by the presence of extra sectors, and even comparatively weakly coupled sectors can get an order 1 fraction of the total energy at this time. If two sectors are both preheated, the high number densities could also lead to inflaton mediated...

  18. Asymmetric hydrogenation using monodentate phosphoramidite ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Lefort, Laurent; De Vries, Johannes G.


    Monodentate phosphoramidites are excellent ligands for Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations of substituted olefins. Enantioselectivities between 95 and 99% were obtained in the asymmetric hydrogenation of protected alpha- and beta-dehydroamino acids and esters, itaconic acid and esters, aromatic

  19. Structure of asymmetrical peptide dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okrugin, B.M.; Neelov, I.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Borisov, Oleg V.


    Structural properties of asymmetric peptide dendrimers up to the 11th generation are studied on the basis of the self-consistent field Scheutjens-Fleer numerical approach. It is demonstrated that large scale properties such as, e.g., the gyration radius, are relatively weakly affected by the

  20. Total synthesis of a CD-ring: side-chain building block for preparing 17-epi-calcitriol derivatives from the Hajos-Parrish dione. (United States)

    Michalak, Karol; Wicha, Jerzy


    An efficient synthesis of the key building block for 17-epi-calctriol from the Hajos-Parrish dione involving a sequence of diastereoselective transformation of the azulene core and the side-chain construction is presented.

  1. Catalytic asymmetric aza-Darzens reaction with a vaulted biphenanthrol magnesium phosphate salt. (United States)

    Larson, Shawn E; Li, Guilong; Rowland, Gerald B; Junge, Denise; Huang, Rongcai; Woodcock, H Lee; Antilla, Jon C


    Conditions for a catalytic asymmetric aza-Darzens aziridine synthesis mediated by a vaulted biphenanthrol (VAPOL) magnesium phosphate salt is described. Using simple substrates, this methodology explores the scope and reactivity of a new magnesium catalyst for an aziridination reaction capable of building chirality and complexity simultaneously.

  2. NHC-Cu(I) catalysed asymmetric conjugate silyl transfer to unsaturated lactones: application in kinetic resolution. (United States)

    Pace, Vittorio; Rae, James P; Harb, Hassan Y; Procter, David J


    The scope of the asymmetric silyl transfer to unsaturated lactones utilising a C2-symmetric NHC-Cu(I) catalyst has been established and kinetic resolutions mediated by silyl transfer have been used to prepare enantiomerically enriched anti-4,5-disubstituted 5-membered lactones. The method has been exploited in an expedient synthesis of (+)-blastmycinone.

  3. Asymmetric 1,4-bis(ethynyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane rotators via monocarbinol functionalization. Ready access to polyrotors. (United States)

    Lemouchi, Cyprien; Batail, Patrick


    Asymmetric rotators with a 1,4-bis(ethynyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) core are needed for engineering crystalline arrays of functional molecular rotors. Their synthesis uses carbinol, 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, as a protecting group because of its polar character and its ability to sustain orthogonal functionalization with the further advantage of being readily removed. The synthesis in good yields of unprecedented asymmetric rotors and polyrotors demonstrates the efficiency of this strategy.

  4. A Note on Asymmetric Thick Branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bazeia


    Full Text Available We study asymmetric thick braneworld scenarios, generated after adding a constant to the superpotential associated with the scalar field. We study in particular models with odd and even polynomial superpotentials, and we show that asymmetric brane can be generated irrespective of the potential being symmetric or asymmetric. We study in addition the nonpolynomial sine-Gordon like model, also constructed with the inclusion of a constant in the standard superpotential, and we investigate gravitational stability of the asymmetric brane. The results suggest robustness of the new braneworld scenarios and add further possibilities of the construction of asymmetric branes.

  5. Synthesis and crystal structure of new dicopper(II) complexes having asymmetric N,N'-bis(substituted)oxamides with DNA/protein binding ability: In vitro anticancer activity and molecular docking studies. (United States)

    Zheng, Kang; Zhu, Ling; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei


    Two new dicopper(II) complexes bridged by asymmetric N,N'-bis(substituted)oxamide ligands: N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]oxamide (H3chdoxd) and N-hydroxypropyl-N'-(2-carboxylatophenyl)oxamide (H3oxbpa), and end-capped with 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), namely [Cu2(ClO4)(chdoxd)(CH3OH)(bpy)]·H2O (1) and [Cu2(pic)(oxbpa)(CH3OH)(bpy)]·0.5CH3OH (2) (pic denotes picrate anion), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity measurement, IR and electronic spectral studies, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both the copper(II) ions bridged by the cis-oxamido ligands in dicopper(II) complexes 1 and 2 are all in square-pyramidal environments with the corresponding Cu⋯Cu separations of 5.194(3) and 5.1714(8)Å, respectively. In the crystals of the two complexes, there are abundant hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking interactions contributing to the supramolecular structure. The reactivities toward herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) of the two complexes are studied both theoretically and experimentally, indicating that both the two complexes can interact with the DNA in the mode of intercalation, and effectively bind to BSA via the favored binding sites Trp134 for the complex 1 and Trp213 for the complex 2. Interestingly, the in vitro anticancer activities of the two complexes against the selected tumor cell lines are consistent with their DNA/BSA-binding affinities following the order of 1>2. The effects of coordinated counterions in the two complexes on DNA/BSA-binding ability and in vitro anticancer activity are preliminarily discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlled synthesis of MnO2 nanosheets vertically covered FeCo2O4 nanoflakes as a binder-free electrode for a high-power and durable asymmetric supercapacitor. (United States)

    Gao, Hongyan; Xiang, Junjie; Cao, Yan


    We developed a simple and controlled method to synthesize FeCo2O4@MnO2 core-sheath nanoarchitecture (CSN) grown on Ni foam. Ultrathin FeCo2O4 nanoflakes with an average thickness of 10 nm served as the scaffold to deposit the MnO2 nanosheets. The MnO2 nanosheets were able to vertically grow on FeCo2O4 nanoflakes to form a sheath via a hydrothermal reaction. The nanocomposites' thickness could be tailored from 80 nm-550 nm by changing the reaction times. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that FeCo2O4@MnO2 CSN with an optimal thickness of about 400 nm achieved an areal capacitance of 3.077 F cm-2 at 2 mA cm-2, which is much higher than individual FeCo2O4 nanoflakes (0.295 F cm-2) and MnO2 nanosheets (1.065 F cm-2). An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was assembled using FeCo2O4@MnO2 CSN as its positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as its negative electrode. The FeCo2O4@MnO2⫽AC ASC exhibited a capacitance of 0.538 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with a potential window of 1.65 V, and an excellent cycling stability (99.1% retention even after 5000 cycles). Furthermore, the maximum energy density and power density of FeCo2O4@MnO2⫽AC ASC was 0.203 mWh cm-2 at 3.44 mW cm-2 and 28.6 mW cm-2 at 0.061 mWh cm-2, respectively.

  7. Collective synthesis of natural products by means of organocascade catalysis (United States)

    Jones, Spencer B.; Simmons, Bryon; Mastracchio, Anthony; MacMillan, David W. C.


    Organic chemists are now able to synthesize small quantities of almost any known natural product, given sufficient time, resources and effort. However, translation of the academic successes in total synthesis to the large-scale construction of complex natural products and the development of large collections of biologically relevant molecules present significant challenges to synthetic chemists. Here we show that the application of two nature-inspired techniques, namely organocascade catalysis and collective natural product synthesis, can facilitate the preparation of useful quantities of a range of structurally diverse natural products from a common molecular scaffold. The power of this concept has been demonstrated through the expedient, asymmetric total syntheses of six well-known alkaloid natural products: strychnine, aspidospermidine, vincadifformine, akuammicine, kopsanone and kopsinine. PMID:21753848

  8. Geodesics in Asymmetric Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennucci Andrea C. G.


    Full Text Available In a recent paper [17] we studied asymmetric metric spaces; in this context we studied the length of paths, introduced the class of run-continuous paths; and noted that there are different definitions of “length spaces” (also known as “path-metric spaces” or “intrinsic spaces”. In this paper we continue the analysis of asymmetric metric spaces.We propose possible definitions of completeness and (local compactness.We define the geodesics using as admissible paths the class of run-continuous paths.We define midpoints, convexity, and quasi-midpoints, but without assuming the space be intrinsic.We distinguish all along those results that need a stronger separation hypothesis. Eventually we discuss how the newly developed theory impacts the most important results, such as the existence of geodesics, and the renowned Hopf-Rinow (or Cohn-Vossen theorem.

  9. Electron Jet of Asymmetric Reconnection (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retino, A.; hide


    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E(sub parallel lines) amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV/m and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.

  10. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.


    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  11. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model


    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.


    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical...

  12. Up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin


    Bulk toroidal rotation has proven capable of stabilising both dangerous MHD modes and turbulence. In this thesis, we explore a method to drive rotation in large tokamaks: up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. We seek to maximise this rotation by finding optimal up-down asymmetric flux surface shapes. First, we use the ideal MHD model to show that low order external shaping (e.g. elongation) is best for creating up-down asymmetric flux surfaces throughout the device. Then, we calculate realistic up-down asymmetric equilibria for input into nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence analysis. Analytic gyrokinetics shows that, in the limit of fast shaping effects, a poloidal tilt of the flux surface shaping has little effect on turbulent transport. Since up-down symmetric surfaces do not transport momentum, this invariance to tilt implies that devices with mirror symmetry about any line in the poloidal plane will drive minimal rotation. Accordingly, further analytic investigation suggests that non-mirror symmetri...

  13. A six-step total synthesis of α-thujone and d6-α-thujone, enabling facile access to isotopically labelled metabolites. (United States)

    Thamm, Irene; Richers, Johannes; Rychlik, Michael; Tiefenbacher, Konrad


    The short synthesis of α-thujone relies on the functionalization of the readily available dimethylfulvene. Furthermore, the three main metabolites of the natural product were also synthesized. Since d6-acetone can be used as a starting material, the route developed allows for the facile incorporation of isotopic labels which are required for detecting and quantifying trace amounts via GC/MS analysis.

  14. The Effect of Prolonged Fasting on Total Lipid Synthesis and Enzyme Activities in the Liver of the European Eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, S. A.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, F.N.


    The extent of fatty acid synthesis from [1-14C]acetate in liver slices was reduced 6-fold when eels were fasted for 1-7 wk and 20-fold when fasted for 39 wk, thereafter hepatic lipogenesis seemed to remain constant for up to 95 wk of fasting. After a 1-3 wk fast some hepatic enzyme activities wer...

  15. Total synthesis of epoxyquinols A, B, and C and epoxytwinol A and the reactivity of a 2H-pyran derivative as the diene component in the Diels-Alder reaction. (United States)

    Shoji, Mitsuru; Imai, Hiroki; Mukaida, Makoto; Sakai, Ken; Kakeya, Hideaki; Osada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yujiro


    Full details of two versions of the total synthesis of epoxyquinols A, B, and C and epoxytwinol A (RKB-3564D) are described. In the first-generation synthesis, the HfCl(4)-mediated diastereoselective Diels-Alder reaction of furan with Corey's chiral auxiliary has been developed. In the second-generation synthesis, a chromatography-free preparation of an iodolactone, by using acryloyl chloride as the dienophile in the Diels-Alder reaction of furan, and the lipase-mediated kinetic resolution of a cyclohexenol derivative have been developed. This second-generation synthesis is suitable for large-scale preparation. A biomimetic cascade reaction involving oxidation, 6pi-electrocyclization, and then Diels-Alder dimerization is the key reaction in the formation of the complex heptacyclic structure of epoxyquinols A, B, and C. Epoxytwinol A is synthesized by the cascade reaction composed of oxidation, 6pi-electrocyclization, and formal [4 + 4] cycloaddition reactions. A 2H-pyran, generated by oxidation/6pi-electrocyclization, acts as a good diene, reacting with several dienophiles to afford polycyclic compounds in one step. An azapentacyclic compound is synthesized by a similar cascade reaction composed of the four successive steps: oxidation, imine formation, 6pi-azaelectrocyclization, and Diels-Alder dimerization.

  16. First total synthesis of (4R,5R,11S and (4R,5R,11R-iso-cladospolide B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María González


    Full Text Available The two enantiomers of natural products (4S, 5S, 11R-and (4S, 5S, 11S-iso-cladospolide B have been synthesized and their structures unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Key steps of the synthesis include the use of tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal as precursor for a chiral furan diol which, after side chain transformation, underwent singlet oxygen oxidation to afford the target butenolides

  17. Studies Towards the Total Synthesis of Di- and Sesterterpenes with Dicyclopenta[a,d]cyclooctane Skeletons. Three-component Approach to the A/B Rings Building Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wicha


    Full Text Available Sesqui- and sesterterpenes of ophiobolin and fusicoccin families are important synthetic targets because of complexity of structure and potentially useful physiological activities, including anti-tumor activity. A synthesis of versatile building blocks for these terpenoids is described. Cyclopenta[8]annulene rings system with properly dislocated substituents was constructed using as key steps ring closing metathesis reaction and Wagner - Meerwein rearrangement. Ring closing metathesis reaction leading to cyclopenta[8]annulene was studied in detail.

  18. LG tools for asymmetric wargaming (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Alex; Yakhnis, Vladimir


    Asymmetric operations represent conflict where one of the sides would apply military power to influence the political and civil environment, to facilitate diplomacy, and to interrupt specified illegal activities. This is a special type of conflict where the participants do not initiate full-scale war. Instead, the sides may be engaged in a limited open conflict or one or several sides may covertly engage another side using unconventional or less conventional methods of engagement. They may include peace operations, combating terrorism, counterdrug operations, arms control, support of insurgencies or counterinsurgencies, show of force. An asymmetric conflict can be represented as several concurrent interlinked games of various kinds: military, transportation, economic, political, etc. Thus, various actions of peace violators, terrorists, drug traffickers, etc., can be expressed via moves in different interlinked games. LG tools allow us to fully capture the specificity of asymmetric conflicts employing the major LG concept of hypergame. Hypergame allows modeling concurrent interlinked processes taking place in geographically remote locations at different levels of resolution and time scale. For example, it allows us to model an antiterrorist operation taking place simultaneously in a number of countries around the globe and involving wide range of entities from individuals to combat units to governments. Additionally, LG allows us to model all sides of the conflict at their level of sophistication. Intelligent stakeholders are represented by means of LG generated intelligent strategies. TO generate those strategies, in addition to its own mathematical intelligence, the LG algorithm may incorporate the intelligence of the top-level experts in the respective problem domains. LG models the individual differences between intelligent stakeholders. The LG tools make it possible to incorporate most of the known traits of a stakeholder, i.e., real personalities involved in

  19. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12. Adil Ghani Khan is a final year student of BSc. (Honours) in Chemistry at. St. Stephen's College,. Delhi University. S V Eswaran is an accomplished Organic. Chemist and principal of. Deshbandhu College,. Delhi University. Keywords. Asymmetric synthesis, chira!. Adil Ghani Khan and ...

  20. Asymmetric gold nanoparticle reduction into polydimethylsiloxane thin films (United States)

    Dunklin, Jeremy R.; Forcherio, Gregory T.; Berry, Keith R.; Roper, D. Keith


    Polymer thin films embedded with plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are of significant interest in biomedicine, optics, photovoltaic, and nanoelectromechanical systems. Thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films containing 3-7 micron layers of AuNPs that were fabricated with a novel diffusive-reduction synthesis technique attenuated up to 85% of incoming laser light at the plasmon resonance. Rapid diffusive reduction of AuNPs into asymmetric PDMS thin films provided superior optothermal capabilities relative to thicker films in which AuNPs were reduced throughout. A photonto- heat conversion of up to 3000°C/watt was demonstrated, which represents a 3-230-fold increase over previous AuNPfunctionalized systems. Optical attenuation and thermal response increased in proportion to order of magnitude increases in tetrachloroaurate (TCA) solution concentration. Optical and thermoplasmonic responses were observed with and without an adjacent mesh support, which increased attenuation but decreased thermal response. Morphological, optical, and thermoplasmonic properties of asymmetric AuNP-PDMS films varied significantly with diffusive TCA concentration. Gold nanoparticles, networks, and conglomerates were formed via reduction as the amount of dissolved TCA increased across a log10-scale. Increasing TCA concentrations caused polymer surface cratering, leading to a larger effective surface area. This method, utilizing the diffusion of TCA into a single exposed partially cured PDMS interface, could be used to replace expensive lithographic or solution synthesis of plasmon-functionalized systems.

  1. Unravelling Thiol’s Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod–Au Nanoparticle Dimers

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng


    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  2. The Respiratory Impedance in an Asymmetric Model of the Lung Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin De Keyser


    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of the respiratory tree as a recurrent, but asymmetric, structure. The intrinsic properties posed by such a system lead to a multi-fractal structure, i.e. a non-integer order model of the total impedance. The fractional order behavior of the asymmetric tree simulated as a dynamic system is assessed by means of Bode plots, on a wide range of frequencies. The results indicate than in a specific frequency range, both the symmetric
    and asymmetric representation of the respiratory tree lead to similar values in the impedance.

  3. Asymmetric liberations in exterior resonances (United States)

    Beauge, C.


    The purpose of this paper is to present a general analysis of the planar circular restricted problem of three bodies in the case of exterior mean-motion resonances. Particularly, our aim is to map the phase space of various commensurabilities and determine the singular solutions of the averaged system, comparing them to the well-known case of interior resonances. In some commensurabilities (e.g. 1/2, 1/3) we show the existence of asymmetric librations; that is, librations in which the stationary value of the critical angle theta = (p+q) lambda1-p lambda-q pi is not equal to either zero or pi. The origin, stability and morphogenesis of these solutions are discussed and compared to symmetric librations. However, in some other resonances (e.g. 2/3, 3/4), these fixed points of the mean system seem to be absent. Librations in such cases are restricted to theta = O mod(pi). Asymmetric singular solutions of the plane circular problem are unknown in the case of interior resonances and cannot be reproduced by the reduced Andoyer Hamiltonian known as the Second Fundamental Model for Resonance. However, we show that the extended version of this Hamiltonian function, in which harmonics up to order two are considered, can reproduce fairly well the principal topological characteristics of the phase space and thereby constitutes a simple and useful analytical approximation for these resonances.

  4. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.


    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  5. Thin lenses of asymmetric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris


    Full Text Available It is generally supposed that thin systems, including refracting surfaces and thin lenses, have powers that are necessarily symmetric.  In other words they have powers which can be represented assymmetric dioptric power matrices and in the familar spherocylindrical form used in optometry and ophthalmology.  This paper shows that this is not correct and that it is indeed possible for a thin system to have a power that is not symmetric and which cannot be expressed in spherocylindrical form.  Thin systems of asymmetric power are illustratedby means of a thin lens that is modelled with small prisms and is chosen to have a dioptric power ma-trix that is antisymmetric.  Similar models can be devised for a thin system whose dioptric power matrix is any  2 2 ×  matrix.  Thus any power, symmetric, asymmetric or antisymmetric, is possible for a thin system.  In this sense our understanding of the power of thin systems is now complete.

  6. Controlling stereochemical outcomes of asymmetric processes by catalyst remote molecular functionalizations: chiral diamino-oligothiophenes (DATs) as ligands in asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Albano, Vincenzo Giulio; Bandini, Marco; Barbarella, Giovanna; Melucci, Manuela; Monari, Magda; Piccinelli, Fabio; Tommasi, Simona; Umani-Ronchi, Achille


    The synthesis, characterization, and structure-guided application of a new class of highly versatile chiral C(2)-symmetric diamine-oligothiophene ligands in Pd-catalyzed asymmetric transformations are presented. Experimental investigations of the intimate role of pendant pi-conjugate oligothiophenes in determining the catalytic activity of the corresponding chiral Pd complexes are described. Their unusual behavior opens up new routes toward the logical design of finely tuned organometallic catalysts by remote structural functionalizations.

  7. Synthesis of the macrocyclic core of (-)-pladienolide B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Jensen, T.


    An efficient synthesis of the macrocyclic core of (-)-pladienolide B is disclosed. The concise route relies on a chiral auxiliary-mediated asymmetric aldol addition and an osmium-catalyzed asymmetric dihydroxylation to install the three oxygenated stereocenters of the macrocycle. This purely...

  8. A concise and unified strategy for synthesis of the C1-C18 macrolactone fragments of FD-891, FD-892 and their analogues: formal total synthesis of FD-891. (United States)

    Kanoh, Naoki; Kawamata, Ayano; Itagaki, Tomohiro; Miyazaki, Yuta; Yahata, Kenzo; Kwon, Eunsang; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu


    A concise and unified strategy for the synthesis of C1-C18 macrolactone fragments of FD-891 and FD-892 as well as their analogues is reported. The strategy includes a stereoselective vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction (VMAR) using chiral silyl ketene N,O-acetal to construct C6-C7 stereocenters, an E-selective ring closing metathesis to construct a C12-C13 olefin, and stereodivergent construction of a C8-C9 epoxide.

  9. Asymmetric construction of binaphthyl by the chiral diether-mediated conjugate addition of naphthyllithium to naphthalenecarboxylic acid 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenyl ester. (United States)

    Shindo, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Yasutomo; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Tomioka, Kiyoshi


    Two ways for the synthesis of binaphthyl were examined based on a chiral ligand-mediated asymmetric conjugate addition of 1-naphthyllithium to naththalene-2-carboxylic acid 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenyl esters. The one pot method by conjugate addition-elimination gave a relatively higher enantioselectivity than the two step synthesis based on addition and subsequent oxidative aromatization.

  10. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of the alarm pheromone (+)-verbenone from geranyl diphosphate. (United States)

    Yoosuf-Aly, Zulfa; Faraldos, Juan A; Miller, David J; Allemann, Rudolf K


    The enzyme-guided asymmetric synthesis of (+)-verbenone from geranyl diphosphate in a simple two-step, one pot transformation highlights the potential of chemoenzymatic procedures for the generation of high-value terpenoids.

  11. Asymmetric Warfare and the Will to Win

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera, Cary


    This thesis explores the will to win in asymmetric war. Asymmetric war, in which one side has an overwhelming advantage over its opponent, will likely be the war of the future for the United States in the post-Cold War uni-polar world...

  12. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max


    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis. I...

  13. Asymmetric Quantum Codes on Toric Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.


    Asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes are quantum codes defined over biased quantum channels: qubit-flip and phase-shift errors may have equal or different probabilities. The code construction is the Calderbank-Shor-Steane construction based on two linear codes. We present families of toric...... surfaces, toric codes and associated asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes....

  14. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach


    Chauhan, Pankaj; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh


    Summary Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  15. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach (United States)

    Chauhan, Pankaj


    Summary Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques. PMID:23243475

  16. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L


    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  17. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chauhan


    Full Text Available Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  18. Total Synthesis of the Anti-inflammatory and Pro-resolving Lipid Mediator MaR1n-3 DPA Utilizing an sp3-sp3 Negishi Cross-coupling Reaction** (United States)

    Tungen, Jørn Eivind; Aursnes, Marius; Dalli, Jesmond; Arnardottir, Hildur; Serhan, Charles Nicholas


    The first total synthesis of the lipid mediator MaR1n-3 DPA (5) has been achieved in 12% overall yield over 11 steps. The stereoselective preparation of 5 was based on a Pd-catalyzed sp3-sp3 Negishi cross-coupling reaction and a stereo controlled Evans-Nagao acetate aldol reaction. LC-MS/MS results with synthetic material matched the biologically product 5. This novel lipid mediator displayed potent pro-resolving properties stimulating macrophage efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. PMID:25225129

  19. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić


    Full Text Available ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a technologythat allows transmission at 8.488 Mbps over the existingtelephone copper line (speed range depending on the distance.ADSL circuit connects the ADSL modems by twisted-pairtelephone lines creating three infonnation channels: high speedsimplex (maximum 9 Mbps, medium speed duplex channel(maximum 2 Mbps and plain old telephone service channel.ADSL technology supports up to seven synchronous channelsthat can be configured to meet the needs of the end user.One could simultaneously view four movies stored in MPEG 1fonnat on separate television sets (MPEG 1 transmitted at 1.5Mbps, hold a video-conference (transmitted at 348 kbps,download data files from a server at 128 kbps via ISDN andeven receive a telephone call.

  20. Research on asymmetric searchable encryption (United States)

    Yu, Zonghua; Wu, Yudong


    Cloud server side to ease the user's local storage pressure at the same time, there are hidden data on the hidden dangers, the user often choose to upload the data in the form of cipher text to the cloud server. However, the classic data encryption and decryption algorithms are not provided search function, affecting the user's efficiency. To this end, an asymmetric searchable encryption scheme is proposed. The scheme can be used for any person can generate a trapdoor, cipher text can be free modified, the key pair generated by the user themselves, encrypt the identity, S-shaped virtual and other five loopholes to improve. The analysis results show that the scheme solves the above five vulnerabilities in the original scheme, so that the information semantics of both parties of communication can be guaranteed.

  1. Total protein (United States)

    ... page: // Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  2. Metal-catalyzed asymmetric aldol reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luiz C.; Lucca Junior, Emilio C. de; Ferreira, Marco A. B.; Polo, Ellen C., E-mail: [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica


    The aldol reaction is one of the most powerful and versatile methods for the construction of C-C bonds. Traditionally, this reaction was developed in a stoichiometric version; however, great efforts in the development of chiral catalysts for aldol reactions were performed in recent years. Thus, in this review article, the development of metal-mediated chiral catalysts in Mukaiyama-type aldol reaction, reductive aldol reaction and direct aldol reaction are discussed. Moreover, the application of these catalysts in the total synthesis of complex molecules is discussed. (author)

  3. Application of (S,S)-Pentacycloundecane bis(4-Phenyloxazoline) as a Novel Chiral Ligand for Catalysis of the Asymmetric Diels-Alder Reaction of Cyclopentadiene with 3-Acryloyl-2-oxazolidinone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arvidsson, Per I; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, G; Maguire, M; Naicker, Tricia


    The synthesis of the novel C-1 symmetric (S,S)-pentacycloundecane bis(4-phenyloxazoline) ligand 5 and its evaluation as a chiral Lewis acid catalyst in the benchmark asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction between 3-acryloyloxazolidin-2-one...

  4. Asymmetric allylic alkylation in combination with ring-closing metathesis for the preparation of chiral N-heterocycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichert, Johannes F.; Zhang, Suyan; Zijl, Anthoni W. van; Slaa, Jan Willem; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Bernard


    Asymmetric copper-catalyzed allylic substitution with methylmagnesium bromide is employed in combination with ring-closing olefin metathesis or ene-yne metathesis to achieve the synthesis of chiral, unsaturated nitrogen heterocycles. The resulting six- to eight-membered chiral heterocycles are

  5. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian


    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  6. Nondeterministic self-assembly with asymmetric interactions (United States)

    Tesoro, S.; Göpfrich, K.; Kartanas, T.; Keyser, U. F.; Ahnert, S. E.


    We investigate general properties of nondeterministic self-assembly with asymmetric interactions, using a computational model and DNA tile assembly experiments. By contrasting symmetric and asymmetric interactions we show that the latter can lead to self-limiting cluster growth. Furthermore, by adjusting the relative abundance of self-assembly particles in a two-particle mixture, we are able to tune the final sizes of these clusters. We show that this is a fundamental property of asymmetric interactions, which has potential applications in bioengineering, and provides insights into the study of diseases caused by protein aggregation.

  7. Biomechanical reevaluation of orthodontic asymmetric headgear. (United States)

    Chi, Lu; Cheng, Mulin; Hershey, H Garland; Nguyen, Tung; Ko, Ching-Chang


    To investigate the distribution of distal and lateral forces produced by orthodontic asymmetric headgear (AHG) using mathematical models to assess periodontal ligament (PDL) influence and to attempt to resolve apparent inconsistencies in the literature. Mechanical models for AHG were constructed to calculate AHG force magnitudes and direction using the theory of elasticity. The PDL was simulated by elastic springs attached to the inner-bow terminals of the AHG. The total storage energy (E(t)) of the AHG and the supporting springs was integrated to evaluate the distal and lateral forces produced by minimizing E(t) (Castigliano's theorem). All analytical solutions were derived symbolically. The spring-supported headgear model (SSHG) predicted the magnitude and distribution of distal forces consistent with our data and the published data of others. The SSHG model revealed that the lateral forces delivered to the inner-bow terminals were not equal, and the spring constant (stiffness of the PDL) affected the magnitude and direction of the resultant lateral forces. Changing the stiffness of the PDL produced a greater biomechanical effect than did altering the face-bow design. The PDL spring model appeared to help resolve inconsistencies in the literature between laboratory in vitro experiments and clinical in vivo studies. Force magnitude and direction of AHG were predicted precisely using the present model and may be applied to improve the design of AHG to minimize unwanted lateral tooth movement.

  8. Magmatism, Hydrothermal Cooling and Asymmetric Accretion at Slow-spreading Ridges (United States)

    Bai, H.; Montesi, L.


    Asymmetric spreading is common at slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges when an active detachment fault accommodates a portion of the total plate separation. Basalts erupted along asymmetric segments have lower Ca, higher Fe, Na, K than the ones collected from symmetric segments, indicating higher pressures of fractionation and lower extents of partial melting of the mantle [Langmuir et al., AGU, 2013]. Seismic evidence also shows a thicker and colder axial lithosphere at asymmetric sections of the ridge [Escartín et al., 2008]. This phenomenon is most obvious when the asymmetric spreading centers are also oblique to its opening direction. The reduced melt supply beneath asymmetric spreading segments may be attributed to distorted mantle upwelling, enhanced hydrothermal cooling, and enriched compositional heterogeneities in the upper mantle. We construct two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of symmetric and asymmetric spreading centers, and test the effects of asymmetric accretion and hydrothermal circulation on mantle melting. A temperature-dependent mantle viscosity is used. The hydrothermal circulation is implemented as an enhanced thermal conductivity limited by cutoff depth and temperature. The effect of oblique spreading is incorporated in the model as reduced effective spreading rate. Mantle flow and thermal structure are solved in the commercial finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics®. Melt production and flux are estimated in Matlab® using a nonlinear melting function [Katz et al., 2003]. We show that the asymmetric accretion alone does not affect the extent of melting or reduce the melt flux significantly. Hydrothermal cooling can plays an important role in deepening the melting depth and lowering the melt extent. Therefore, the difference in the extent of melting between asymmetric and symmetric spreading models can be explained by an enhanced hydrothermal circulation at asymmetric segments. This correlation is supported by the observation made at

  9. Asymmetrically substituted 5,5 `-bistriazoles - nitrogen-rich materials with various energetic functionalities


    Dippold, Alexander A.; Thomas M. Klapötke; Oswald, Michaela


    In this contribution the synthesis and full structural and spectroscopic characterization of three asymmetrically substituted bis-1,2,4-triazoles, along with different energetic moieties like amino, nitro, nitrimino and azido moieties, is presented. Additionally, selected nitrogen-rich ionic derivatives have been prepared and characterized. This comparative study on the influence of these energetic moieties on structural and energetic properties constitutes a complete characterization includi...

  10. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga


    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  11. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga


    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  12. Asymmetric monometallic nanorod nanoparticle dimer and related compositions and methods

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu


    The fabrication of asymmetric monometallic nanocrystals with novel properties for plasmonics, nanophotonics and nanoelectronics. Asymmetric monometallic plasmonic nanocrystals are of both fundamental synthetic challenge and practical significance. In an example, a thiol-ligand mediated growth strategy that enables the synthesis of unprecedented Au Nanorod-Au Nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimers from pre-synthesized AuNR seeds. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, crystal structure and three-dimensional morphology of the dimer, as well as the growth pathway of the AuNP on the AuNR seed, was investigated for this example. The dimer exhibits an extraordinary broadband optical extinction spectrum spanning the UV, visible, and near infrared regions (300 - 1300 nm). This unexpected property makes the AuNR-AuNP dimer example useful for many nanophotonic applications. In two experiments, the dimer example was tested as a surface- enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate and a solar light harvester for photothermal conversion, in comparison with the mixture of AuNR and AuNP. In the SERS experiment, the dimer example showed an enhancement factor about 10 times higher than that of the mixture, when the excitation wavelength (660 nm) was off the two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands of the mixture. In the photothermal conversion experiment under simulated sunlight illumination, the dimer example exhibited an energy conversion efficiency about 1.4 times as high as that of the mixture.

  13. Asymmetric bursting of Taylor bubble in inclined tubes (United States)

    Rana, Basanta Kumar; Das, Arup Kumar; Das, Prasanta Kumar


    In the present study, experiments have been reported to explain the phenomenon of approach and collapse of an asymmetric Taylor bubble at free surface inside an inclined tube. Four different tube inclinations with horizontal (30°, 45°, 60° and 75°) and two different fluids (water and silicon oil) are considered for the experiment. Using high speed imaging, we have investigated the approach, puncture, and subsequent liquid drainage for re-establishment of the free surface. The present study covers all the aspects in the collapse of an asymmetric Taylor bubble through the generation of two films, i.e., a cap film which lies on top of the bubble and an asymmetric annular film along the tube wall. Retraction of the cap film is studied in detail and its velocity has been predicted successfully for different inclinations and fluids. Film drainage formulation considering azimuthal variation is proposed which also describes the experimental observations well. In addition, extrapolation of drainage velocity pattern beyond the experimental observation limit provides insight into the total collapse time of bubbles at different inclinations and fluids.

  14. Enhanced Stereoselectivity of a Cu(II) Complex Chiral Auxiliary in the Synthesis of Fmoc-L-γ-carboxyglutamic Acid | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Bridging bioinorganic chemistry with asymmetric synthesis: a naturally occurring metalloprotein is used for the structure-based evolution of chiral auxiliaries that prove to be effective in the synthesis of Fmoc-L-γ-carboxyglutamic acid.

  15. Asymmetrical Warfare, Transformation, and Foreign Language Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porter, Clifford F


    .... There is no doubt that the current global war on terrorism is an asymmetrical war against an unpredictable enemy rather than the predictable or symmetrical threats against self-important dictators or the Soviet Union...

  16. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing. (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng


    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  17. Congenital asymmetric crying face: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Kara


    Full Text Available Congenital asymmetric crying face is an anomalia caused by unilateral absence or weakness of depressor anguli oris muscle The major finding of the disease is the absence or weakness in the outer and lower movement of the commissure during crying. The other expression muscles are normal and the face is symmetric at rest. The asymmetry in congenital asymmetric crying face is most evident during infancy but decreases by age. Congenital asymmetric crying face can be associated with cervicofacial, musclebone, respiratory, genitourinary and central nervous system anomalia. It is diagnosed by physical examination. This paper presents a six days old infant with Congenital asymmetric crying face and discusses the case in terms of diagnosis and disease features.

  18. Modeling Asymmetric Volatility In Oil Prices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Aun Hassan


    .... The paper uses daily crude oil price data for the past 10 years to test and model the oil price volatility by fitting different variations of GARCH including a univariate asymmetric GARCH model to the series...

  19. Part I: Total Synthesis of (-)-Azaspirene Part II: Alkenylzincate and Disilylzinc Conjugate Additions Catalyzed by Copper(I) Iodide Dimethyl Sulfide Complex


    Montgomery, Timothy Robert


    Angiogenesis inhibitors are being targeted for their potential as anti-tumor agents as well as theraputics to treat rhematoid arthritis and wet macular degeneration. The natural product azaspirene was shown to inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo with low cyctotoxicity making it a compound of interest. Although three syntheses of azaspirene exist, they are lengthy (15 - 33 steps) and have low total yields (< 2%) making a reliable supply of the compound unavailable for further test...

  20. Designing Asymmetric Multiferroics with Strong Magnetoelectric Coupling


    Lu, X. Z.; Xiang, H. J.


    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Unfortunately, single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature has not been discovered. Here, we propose the concept of a new type of multiferroics, namely, "asymmetric multiferroic". In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from ...

  1. Stable Bound States of Asymmetric Dark Matter


    Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue


    The simplest renormalizable effective field theories with asymmetric dark matter bound states contain two additional gauge singlet fields one being the dark matter and the other a mediator particle that the dark matter annihilates into. We examine the physics of one such model with a Dirac fermion as the dark matter and a real scalar mediator. For a range of parameters the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter to the mediator gives rise to stable asymmetric dark matter bound states. We derive pr...

  2. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  3. Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis : The Origin, Control, and Amplification of Chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, Ben L.; van Delden, Richard A.


    One of the fundamental and intriguing aspects of life is the homochirality of the essential molecules. From the early days of stereochemistry, the origin of chirality in biological systems has been a challenge to the chemical sciences and numerous theories and experiments have been reported. Despite

  4. Asymmetric flavone-based liquid crystals: synthesis and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmons, Daren J. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Jordan, Abraham J. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Kirchon, Angelo A. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Murthy, N. Sanjeeva [New Jersey Center for Biomaterials, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA; Siemers, Troy J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Harrison, Daniel P. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA; Slebodnick, Carla [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA


    A series of flavones (n-F) substituted at the 4', and 6 positions was prepared, characterised by NMR (1H,13C), HRMS, and studied for liquid crystal properties. The 4'-alkoxy,6-methoxyflavones (4-F–16-F) exhibit varying ranges of nematic and smectic A phases as evidenced by polarised optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As the tail length is increased, the smectic phase becomes more prevalent. Smectic phases for (8-F–16-F) were further analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the rate of structural transformations was explored by combined DSC/XRD studies. Flavonol 6-F–OH was also prepared but no mesogenic behaviour was observed. The molecular structures of 6-F and 6-F–OH were determined by single-crystal XRD and help to explain the differences in material properties. Additionally, fluorescence and electrochemical studies were conducted on solutions of n-F.

  5. An efficient asymmetric synthesis of (–)-wodeshiol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Waddell T 1989 Phytochemistry 28 1373. 12. Najera C, Yus M 2003 Curr. Org. Chem. 7 867. 13. Takahashi K, Nakagawa T 1966 Chem. Pharm. Bull. 14. 641. 14. Tsukamoto H, Hisada S, Nishibe S 1984 Chem. Pharm. Bull. 32 2730. 15. Tsukamoto H, Hisada S, Nishibe S 1985 Chem. Pharm. Bull. 33 1232. 16. Xiaojun H ...

  6. Asymmetric synthesis of host-directed inhibitors of myxoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry W. Moore


    Full Text Available High-throughput screening (HTS previously identified benzimidazole 1 (JMN3-003 as a compound with broad antiviral activity against different influenza viruses and paramyxovirus strains. In pursuit of a lead compound from this series for development, we sought to increase both the potency and the aqueous solubility of 1. Lead optimization has achieved compounds with potent antiviral activity against a panel of myxovirus family members (EC50 values in the low nanomolar range and much improved aqueous solubilities relative to that of 1. Additionally, we have devised a robust synthetic strategy for preparing 1 and congeners in an enantio-enriched fashion, which has allowed us to demonstrate that the (S-enantiomers are generally 7- to 110-fold more potent than the corresponding (R-isomers.

  7. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of allylic fluorides. (United States)

    Katcher, Matthew H; Doyle, Abigail G


    The enantioselective fluorination of readily available cyclic allylic chlorides with AgF has been accomplished using a Pd(0) catalyst and Trost bisphosphine ligand. The reactions proceed with unprecedented ease of operation for Pd-mediated nucleophilic fluorination, allowing access to highly enantioenriched cyclic allylic fluorides that bear diverse functional groups. Evidence that supports a mechanism in which C-F bond formation occurs by an S(N)2-type attack of fluoride on a Pd(II)-allyl intermediate is presented.

  8. Characteristics of Braced Excavation under Asymmetrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjie Xu


    Full Text Available Numerous excavation practices have shown that large discrepancies exist between field monitoring data and calculated results when the conventional symmetry-plane method (with half-width is used to design the retaining structure under asymmetrical loads. To examine the characteristics of a retaining structure under asymmetrical loads, we use the finite element method (FEM to simulate the excavation process under four different groups of asymmetrical loads and create an integrated model to tackle this problem. The effects of strut stiffness and wall length are also investigated. The results of numerical analysis clearly imply that the deformation and bending moment of diaphragm walls are distinct on different sides, indicating the need for different rebar arrangements when the excavation is subjected to asymmetrical loads. This study provides a practical approach to designing excavations under asymmetrical loads. We analyze and compare the monitoring and calculation data at different excavation stages and find some general trends. Several guidelines on excavation design under asymmetrical loads are drawn.

  9. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and coronary collateral vessel development. (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Sahinarslan, Asife; Biberoglu, Gursel; Hasanoglu, Alev; Akyel, Ahmet; Timurkaynak, Timur; Cengel, Atiye


    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in collateral vessel development. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) that is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis may impair the effective coronary collateral vessel development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma ADMA level and coronary collateral vessel development. The patients with a greater than or equal to 95% obstruction in at least one epicardial coronary artery were included in the study. Degree of coronary collateral development was determined according to Rentrop method. Patients with grade 2-3 collateral development were regarded as good collateral group and formed group I. The patients with grade 0-1 collateral development were regarded as poor collateral group and were included in group II. Group III that had been formed as a control group included the patients with a normal coronary angiogram. We compared the plasma ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio among three groups. Seventy-four patients have been included in the study. Patients with good collateral development had lower plasma ADMA level in comparison with patients with poor collateral development (0.41+/-0.25 micromol/l vs. 0.70+/-0.23 micromol/l, P=0.001) and had similar plasma ADMA levels with the patients who have normal coronary arteries. When we compared L-arginine/ADMA ratio between good and poor collateral groups, we found that the patients with higher L-arginine/ADMA ratio have significantly better collateral development (270.8+/-168.0 vs. 120.9+/-92.1, P<0.001). In the analyses comparing Rentrop score with ADMA level and L-arginine/ADMA ratio, there were significant correlations (r=-0.444, P=0.008 and r=0.553, P=0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, ADMA level (odds ratio, 0.009; 95% confidence interval, 0.000-0.466, P=0.020) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio (odds ratio, 1.010; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.020, P=0.032) were independent predictors of collateral development. Increased

  10. Asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beams. (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Skidanov, R V; Soifer, V A


    We propose a three-parameter family of asymmetric Bessel-Gauss (aBG) beams with integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aBG beams are described by the product of a Gaussian function by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind of complex argument, having finite energy. The aBG beam's asymmetry degree depends on a real parameter c≥0: at c=0, the aBG beam is coincident with a conventional radially symmetric Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam; with increasing c, the aBG beam acquires a semicrescent shape, then becoming elongated along the y axis and shifting along the x axis for c≫1. In the initial plane, the intensity distribution of the aBG beams has a countable number of isolated optical nulls on the x axis, which result in optical vortices with unit topological charge and opposite signs on the different sides of the origin. As the aBG beam propagates, the vortex centers undergo a nonuniform rotation with the entire beam about the optical axis (c≫1), making a π/4 turn at the Rayleigh range and another π/4 turn after traveling the remaining distance. At different values of the c parameter, the optical nulls of the transverse intensity distribution change their position, thus changing the OAM that the beam carries. An isolated optical null on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. A vortex laser beam shaped as a rotating semicrescent has been generated using a spatial light modulator.

  11. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh


    Full Text Available Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1 were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale. TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01 with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.

  12. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd


    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents. PMID:21152306

  13. Synthesis, theoretical calculation, electrochemistry and total antioxidant capacity of 5-benzoyl-6-phenyl-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-thioxopyrimidine and derivatives (United States)

    Ergan, Erdem; Akbas, Esvet; Levent, Abdulkadir; Sahin, Ertan; Konus, Metin; Seferoglu, Nurgul


    5-Benzoyl-6-phenyl-4-(4-mehtoxyphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-thioxopyrimidine (1) have been prepared via Biginelli cyclocondensation reaction in acetic acid under reflux condition in good yield. The structure of 1 was determined by using spectroscopic techniques like 1H/13C NMR and elemental analyses. And also their molecular characterizations of compounds were analyzed by X-ray crystal analysis. A series of novel pyrimidine derivatives were obtained by reaction compound 1 with various reactive. All synthesized pyrimidine derivatives and related keto and enol tautomeric forms have been optimized geometrically with DFT in Gaussian at the B3LYP/6-31 + G (d, p) level in order to obtain information about the 3D geometries and electronic structures. The results showed that the keto tautomer is more stable than enol tautomer. However, the non-linear optical (NLO) properties were evaluated theoretically. The electrochemical properties of the novel compounds were investigated by CV and DPV. In addition, the total antioxidant capacities of all new synthesized compounds were measured in vitro by ABTS assay.

  14. Recent Applications of Polymer Supported Organometallic Catalysts in Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kann


    Full Text Available Recent developments concerning the application of polymer supported organometallic reagents in solid phase synthesis are reviewed, with a special focus on methodology for carbon-carbon formation. Examples of reactions that are covered include the classical Suzuki, Sonogashira and Heck coupings, but also aryl amination, epoxide opening, rearrangements, metathesis and cyclopropanation. Applications in the field of asymmetric synthesis are also discussed.

  15. Asymmetrical soft palate cleft repair: preliminary results. (United States)

    Bütow, K-W; Engelbrecht, H; Naidoo, S


    The reconstructions of the asymmetrical soft palate cleft is a surgical challenge when it comes to achieving symmetry and optimal soft palate muscular function. Three different versions of the intravelar veloplasty have been used: the intravelar veloplasty (1969) (type I), the modification according to anatomical defects (1991) (type II), and the modification using part of Sommerlad's technique and part of Ivanov's technique (2008) (type III). The perioperative outcomes of the type II and type III intravelar veloplasty were assessed and compared in asymmetrical cleft cases. Two hundred and seventy-seven soft palate clefts were reconstructed: 153 type II and 124 type III. Of these, 49 were asymmetrical (17.7%); 23 underwent the type II procedure and 26 the type III procedure. Of the type II procedure cases, 30.4% remained asymmetrical postoperatively compared to 3.8% of the type III cases. The uvula appeared subjectively atrophic in 47.8% of the type II cases and in 7.7% of type III cases. Oro-nasal fistula occurred in 13.0% of the type II cases and 3.8% of the type III cases. Speech results will only be assessed after 4 years of age. The type III modified intravelar veloplasty has had a major beneficial impact on patients who had an asymmetrical soft palate cleft. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division. (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Conradt, Barbara


    Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  17. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hatzold


    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  18. A sampling theory for asymmetric communities. (United States)

    Noble, Andrew E; Temme, Nico M; Fagan, William F; Keitt, Timothy H


    We introduce the first analytical model of asymmetric community dynamics to yield Hubbell's neutral theory in the limit of functional equivalence among all species. Our focus centers on an asymmetric extension of Hubbell's local community dynamics, while an analogous extension of Hubbell's metacommunity dynamics is deferred to an appendix. We find that mass-effects may facilitate coexistence in asymmetric local communities and generate unimodal species abundance distributions indistinguishable from those of symmetric communities. Multiple modes, however, only arise from asymmetric processes and provide a strong indication of non-neutral dynamics. Although the exact stationary distributions of fully asymmetric communities must be calculated numerically, we derive approximate sampling distributions for the general case and for nearly neutral communities where symmetry is broken by a single species distinct from all others in ecological fitness and dispersal ability. In the latter case, our approximate distributions are fully normalized, and novel asymptotic expansions of the required hypergeometric functions are provided to make evaluations tractable for large communities. Employing these results in a bayesian analysis may provide a novel statistical test to assess the consistency of species abundance data with the neutral hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Asymmetric Bilateral Hip Dislocations: A Case Report and Historical Review of the Literature (United States)

    Buckwalter, Joseph; Westerlind, Brian; Karam, Matthew


    Background Asymmetric bilateral hip dislocations are a rare injury pattern in which one hip dislocates posteriorly, and the contralateral hip dislocates anteriorly. We report a case of bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations and provide a comprehensive review of all available reports, identifying 104 total cases, which is 70 more than previously reported. Purpose To review and evaluate the total body of literature regarding bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations. Methods Comprehensive literature review and analysis of all reports of bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations with concurrent case report. Results and Conclusions Bilateral, asymmetric represent approximately 0.01%–0.02% of all joint dislocations. There has been a substantial increase in the number of case reports in the literature in the last 10 years. Males are more likely than females to incur this injury pattern and the most common mode of injury is motor vehicle accident Urgent closed reduction should be attempted in an efficient and safe manner to avoid potential complications, and open reduction should be considered in irreducible dislocations. Post reduction management should include stability assessment and CT to assess for associated injuries and intraarticular fragments; although no clear guidelines for post-reduction treatment emerged. Common complications include: nerve palsies, AVN and heterotopic ossification. PMID:26361448

  20. Asymmetric Bilateral Hip Dislocations: A Case Report and Historical Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Buckwalter, Joseph; Westerlind, Brian; Karam, Matthew


    Asymmetric bilateral hip dislocations are a rare injury pattern in which one hip dislocates posteriorly, and the contralateral hip dislocates anteriorly. We report a case of bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations and provide a comprehensive review of all available reports, identifying 104 total cases, which is 70 more than previously reported. To review and evaluate the total body of literature regarding bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations. Comprehensive literature review and analysis of all reports of bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations with concurrent case report. Bilateral, asymmetric represent approximately 0.01%-0.02% of all joint dislocations. There has been a substantial increase in the number of case reports in the literature in the last 10 years. Males are more likely than females to incur this injury pattern and the most common mode of injury is motor vehicle accident Urgent closed reduction should be attempted in an efficient and safe manner to avoid potential complications, and open reduction should be considered in irreducible dislocations. Post reduction management should include stability assessment and CT to assess for associated injuries and intraarticular fragments; although no clear guidelines for post-reduction treatment emerged. Common complications include: nerve palsies, AVN and heterotopic ossification.