Sample records for asymmetric strecker syntheses

  1. Generic approach for synthesizing asymmetric nanoparticles and nanoassemblies (United States)

    Sun, Yugang; Hu, Yongxing


    A generic route for synthesis of asymmetric nanostructures. This approach utilizes submicron magnetic particles (Fe.sub.3O.sub.4--SiO.sub.2) as recyclable solid substrates for the assembly of asymmetric nanostructures and purification of the final product. Importantly, an additional SiO.sub.2 layer is employed as a mediation layer to allow for selective modification of target nanoparticles. The partially patched nanoparticles are used as building blocks for different kinds of complex asymmetric nanostructures that cannot be fabricated by conventional approaches. The potential applications such as ultra-sensitive substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) have been included.

  2. Biomimetic asymmetric total syntheses of spirooliganones A and B. (United States)

    Song, Liyan; Yao, Hongliang; Tong, Rongbiao


    Biomimetic total syntheses of potent antiviral spirooliganones A and B were achieved with 3% and 2% yield, respectively, in 12 steps from commercially available materials. The synthetic strategy was inspired primarily by the biogenetic hypothesis and was enabled by two independent cascade events: (i) an unprecedented reaction involving aromatic Claisen rearrangement/o-quinone methide formation/hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition to construct the tetracyclic framework and (ii) phenol oxidative dearomatization/spirocyclization to build the spiro-fused cyclohexadienone/tetrahydrofuran moiety.

  3. Mechanochemical Lignin-Mediated Strecker Reaction. (United States)

    Dabral, Saumya; Turberg, Mathias; Wanninger, Andrea; Bolm, Carsten; Hernández, José G


    A mechanochemical Strecker reaction involving a wide range of aldehydes (aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic), amines, and KCN afforded a library of α-aminonitriles upon mechanical activation. This multicomponent process was efficiently activated by lignocellulosic biomass as additives. Particularly, commercially available Kraft lignin was found to be the best activator for the addition of cyanide to the in situ formed imines. A comparative study of the (31)P-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) along with IR (Infrared) data analysis for the Kraft lignin and methylated Kraft lignin samples ascertained the importance of the free hydroxyl groups in the activation of the mechanochemical reaction. The solvent-free mechanochemical Strecker reaction was then coupled with a lactamization process leading to the formation of the N-benzylphthalimide (5a) and the isoindolinone derivative 6a.

  4. Organocatalytic asymmetric assembly reactions for the syntheses of carbohydrate derivatives by intermolecular Michael-Henry reactions (United States)

    Uehara, Hisatoshi; Imashiro, Ritsuo; Hernández-Torres, Gloria; Barbas, Carlos F.


    Given the significance of carbohydrates in life, medicine, and industry, the development of simple and efficient de novo methods to synthesize carbohydrates are highly desirable. Organocatalytic asymmetric assembly reactions are powerful tools to rapidly construct molecules with stereochemical complexity from simple precursors. Here, we present a simple and robust methodology for the asymmetric synthesis of pyranose derivatives with talo- and manno- configurations from simple achiral precursors through organocatalytic asymmetric intermolecular Michael–Henry reaction sequences. In this process, (tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)acetaldehyde 1 was successfully utilized in two ways: as a donor in a highly selective anti-Michael reaction and as an acceptor in a consecutive Henry reaction. Varied nitroolefins served as Michael acceptors and varied aldehydes substituted for 1 as Henry acceptors providing for the construction of a wide range of carbohydrates with up to 5 stereocenters. In these reactions, a catalyst-controlled Michael reaction followed by a substrate-controlled Henry reaction provided 3,4-dideoxytalose derivatives 6 in a highly stereoselective manner. The Henry reaction was affected by addition of a simple base such as triethylamine: A complex chiral base was not necessary. 3,4-Dideoxymannose derivatives 7 were produced by simply changing the base from triethylamine to 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene. Extension of this methodology to a syn-Michael initiated sequence was also successful. A mechanistic discussion is provided to explain the unusual substrate-induced stereoselectivity of the Henry reaction. PMID:20639468

  5. A general approach to synthesize asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles by interfacial reactions. (United States)

    He, Jie; Perez, Maria Teresa; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yijing; Babu, Taarika; Gong, Jinlong; Nie, Zhihong


    Asymmetric multicomponent nanoparticles (AMNPs) offer new opportunities for new-generation materials with improved or new synergetic properties not found in their individual components. There is, however, an urgent need for a synthetic strategy capable of preparing hybrid AMNPs with fine-tuned structural and compositional complexities. Herein, we report a new paradigm for the controllable synthesis of polymer/metal AMNPs with well-controlled size, shape, composition, and morphology by utilizing interfacial polymerization. The hybrid AMNPs display a new level of structural-architectural sophistication, such as controlled domain size and the number of each component of AMNPs. The approach is simple, versatile, cost-effective, and scalable for synthesizing large quantities of AMNPs. Our method may pave a new route to the design and synthesis of advanced breeds of building blocks for functional materials and devices. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. Total syntheses of (–)-Borrelidin and (–)-Doliculide and the development of the catalytic asymmetric addition of Grignard reagents to ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madduri Venkata, Ashoka Vardhan Reddy


    This thesis describes the application of copper-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition and ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation in novel total syntheses of the macrocyclic polyketides Borrelidin and Doliculide. A second topic in the thesis comprizes the development of a novel asymmetric

  7. [Development of novel asymmetric reactions oriented to next-generation enzymatic organic syntheses]. (United States)

    Akai, Shuji


    Enzyme-catalyzed organic syntheses have enormous potential in the development of environmentally benign processes. In the last two decades, increased efforts have been devoted to making this a reality. However, the utility of the enzymes is generally limited. For example, although the lipases are extensively used for the kinetic resolution or the desymmetrization of alcohols and carboxylic acid derivatives, little is known about their ability to catalyze carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. In the past several years, we have been engaged in exploiting a next-generation enzymatic synthesis by using the lipases for the construction of carbon skeletons. This review article describes the results. First, the development of a new type of acyl donor, 1-ethoxyvinyl esters (EVEs), that have significant advantages over common acyl donors (e.g., vinyl esters) for lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions. Second, the highly enantioselective desymmetrization of prochiral 1,3-propanediols and meso 1,2-diols using 1-ethoxyvinyl 2-furoate. The application of this technology for the asymmetric syntheses of fredericamycin A analogues and the oxindoles with a chiral, nonracemic quaternary carbon center has been demonstrated. Third, the first lipase-catalyzed domino reaction using EVEs possessing a suitably functionalized acyl moiety is described. The acyl moiety installed during the enzymatic kinetic resolution was used as a part of the constituent structure for the subsequent Diels--Alder reaction to product optically pure tricyclic compounds with five chiral carbon centers via a one-pot operation. The potential influence of the lipase on the Diets--Alder reaction and the domino process accompanied by the dynamic kinetic resolution are also described.

  8. Asymmetric Syntheses of Pharmaceuticals Containing a Cyclopropane Moiety Using Catalytic Asymmetric Simmons–Smith Reactions of Allylalcohols: Syntheses of Optically Active Tranylcypromine and Milnacipran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ishizuka, Yuki; Fujimori, Hirohisa; Noguchi, Takuya; Kawasaki, Masashi; Kishida, Mari; Nagai, Takuya; Imai, Nobuyuki; Kirihara, Masayuki


    ...–Smith cyclopropanation catalyzed by a simple disulfonamide derived from an α-amino acid. The optically active milnacipran was also synthesized by porcine pancreas lipase-catalyzed selective monoacylation of the C4-hydroxy group...

  9. Stereocontrolled synthesis of substituted chiral piperidines via one-pot asymmetric 6π-azaelectrocyclization: asymmetric syntheses of (-)-dendroprimine, (+)-7-epidendroprimine, (+)-5-epidendroprimine, and (+)-5,7-epidendroprimine. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyoharu; Hasegawa, Futoshi; Hirose, Yoshikatsu; Tanaka, Katsunori; Mori, Hajime; Katsumura, Shigeo


    The asymmetric one-pot 6π-azaelectrocyclization of alkenyl vinyl stannane, ethyl (Z)-2-iodo-4-oxobutenoate, and (-)-7-isopropyl-cis-aminoindanol in the presence of a Pd(0) catalyst stereoselectively produced the tetracyclic aminoacetal compounds, resulting from the four-bond formation accompanying by controlling the stereochemistry at the two asymmetric centers. The produced cyclic aminoacetals can be regarded as synthetic precursors of substituted chiral piperidines, and the syntheses of 2,4- and 2,4,6-substituted piperidines were realized from the obtained aminoacetals by the stereoselective hydrogenation of the double bond conjugated with the C-4 ester group and alkylation at the aminoacetal moiety. In addition, the stereoselective synthesis of an indolizidine alkaloid, (-)-dendroprimine, and its three stereoisomers, (+)-7-epidendroprimine, (+)-5-epidendroprimine, and (+)-5,7-epidendroprimine, were achieved.

  10. Characterization of enzymatically synthesized amylopectin analogs via asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Rolland-Sabate, Agnes; Guilois, Sophie; Loos, Katja


    Asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4), when coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), is a very powerful technique for determination of the macromolecular structure of high molar mass (branched) polysaccharides. AF4 is a size fractionation technique just as size exclusion

  11. Quinones as Strecker degradation reagents in wine oxidation processes. (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Santos, Sónia A O; Silvestre, Armando J D; Barros, António S; Ferreira, António César Silva; Silva, Artur M S


    The Strecker aldehydes formed during the reaction between α-amino acids (phenylalanine or methionine) and either gallic acid, caffeic acid or (+)-catechin ortho-quinones were evaluated in wine-model systems. It was demonstrated that phenylacetaldehyde was formed by quinone intermediates at wine pH. The highest amounts of phenylacetaldehyde during the 10days of experiment (69±5µg/L/day; 7x>Control) were obtained from (+) catechin, followed by gallic acid (61±4µg/L/day; 6x>Control) and caffeic acid (41±4µg/L/day; 4x>Control). The intermediate structures delivered from the reaction of ortho-quinones with α-amino acids were demonstrated by MSn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Asymmetric dumbbell-shaped silver nanoparticles and spherical gold nanoparticles green-synthesized by mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp waste extracts. (United States)

    Park, Ji Su; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie


    Mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana ) pericarp waste extract was used to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles by a green strategy. The extract was both a reducing and stabilizing agent during synthesis. Phytochemical screening of the extract was conducted to obtain information regarding the presence/absence of primary and secondary metabolites in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activity results demonstrated that the extract had excellent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to a standard (butylated hydroxy toluene). Spherical gold nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AuNPs]) with an average size of 15.37±3.99 to 44.20±16.99 nm were observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. Most interestingly, the silver nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles green synthesized by mangosteen pericarp extract [GM-AgNPs]) had asymmetric nanodumbbell shapes where one tail grew from a spherical head. The average head size was measured to be 13.65±5.07 to 31.08±3.99 nm from HR-TEM images. The hydrodynamic size of both nanoparticles tended to increase with increasing extract concentration. Large negative zeta potentials (-18.92 to -34.77 mV) suggested that each nanoparticle solution possessed excellent colloidal stability. The reaction yields were 99.7% for GM-AuNPs and 82.8% for GM-AgNPs, which were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. A high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of both nanoparticles. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, the hydroxyl functional groups of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds were most likely involved in a reduction reaction of gold or silver salts to their corresponding nanoparticles. The in vitro cytotoxicity (based on a water-soluble tetrazolium assay) demonstrated that GM-AgNPs were toxic to both A549 (a human lung

  13. [Implantation of Strecker's endocoronary prosthesis. Apropos of 21 cases]. (United States)

    Larrazet, F; Dupouy, P; Dubois-Randé, J L; Kvasnicka, J; Geschwind, H J


    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of implantation of Strecker coronary stents. The implantation was performed in 21 patients during elective angioplasty (N = 18) or in emergency situations (N = 3). The indications were acute occlusion after angioplasty (N = 3), restenosis (N = 12), incomplete balloon angioplasty results (N = 4) and implantation of first intent (N = 2). The site of implantation was a venous bypass graft in 9 cases, the left anterior descending artery in 5 cases, the right coronary artery in 4 cases and the left circumflex in 3 cases. The average length of the lesions was 8.4 +/- 4.1 mm, including 15 short ( 10 mm) lesions. Four lesions were located at an acute angle (> 45 degrees) and 4 at the site of origin of a side branch. The diameter of the normal segment of the treated artery was 3 mm in 9 cases. Seven 3 mm, five 3.5 mm, six 4 mm and three 4.5 mm diameter stents were implanted. There were no failures to position or implant the stents. After the implantation, the minimal lernen diameter of the artery at the angioplasty site was greater than that obtained with balloon (2.87 +/- 0.67 mm versus 1.83 +/- 1.11 mm, p < 0.001). There was no early restenosis at control angiography at 24 hours (2.78 +/- 0.20 mm versus 2.87 +/- 0.67 mm NS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. L-Lactate-mediated Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of α-Bromo Esters for Asymmetric Syntheses of α-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yelim; Park, Kon Ji; Choi, Yun Soo; Lee, Myungsu; Park, Yong Sun [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We conclude that ethyl L-lactate is an effective and convenient chiral auxiliary for dynamic kinetic resolution of α-bromo esters in nucleophilic substitution with various amine nucleophiles. The methodology can provide a general procedure for asymmetric syntheses of dihydroquinoxalinones, dihydrobenzoxazinones and 1,1'-iminodicarboxylic acid derivatives. Simple and easy procedure in obtaining highly enantioenriched α-amino acid derivatives suggests that the dynamic kinetic resolution approach should be further developed. For asymmetric synthesis of α-substituted carboxylic acid derivatives, a variety of chiral auxiliaries have been used for the dynamic resolution of α-halo esters in nucleophilic substitution.1 For example, L-lactamide-mediated dynamic kinetic resolution of α-bromo esters was successfully used for the asymmetric preparation of α-aryloxy carboxylic acids and oxazin-2-ones.

  15. The Relevance of Oxygen for the Formation of Strecker Aldehydes during Beer Production and Storage. (United States)

    Wietstock, Philip Ché; Kunz, Thomas; Methner, Frank-Juergen


    Off-flavor in beer is often associated with the appearance of staling aldehydes. In this study, the factors amino acid concentration, carbohydrate concentration, Fe2+ concentration, and oxygen concentration were investigated in terms of their effect on the formation of carbonyl compounds during storage using response surface methodology. From all factors tested, only amino acid concentration and oxygen concentration promoted Strecker aldehyde formation during storage while all other carbonyls measured were unaffected. A mixture of glucose/xylose, representing carbohydrate sources, as well as Fe2+ concentration were insignificant factors; though, carbohydrate additions exhibited a significant role for the formation of 2-furfural. De novo formation of phenylacetaldehyde from phenylalanine during beer storage was observed using labeling experiments and a linear relationship between Strecker aldehydes formed and total packaged oxygen was identified. Capping beers with oxygen barrier crown corks and addition of 10 mg/L EDTA to beers effectively diminished Strecker aldehyde formation. Oxygen was additionally shown to significantly promote Strecker aldehyde formation during sweet wort production. A pathway for the reactive oxygen species-induced degradation of amino acids yielding Strecker aldehydes was proposed and was further scrutinized in buffered model solutions. The insignificant role of Fe2+ in the response surface experiments is discussed.

  16. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong


    The employment of metal salts is quite limited in asymmetric catalysis, although it would provide an additional arsenal of safe and inexpensive reagents to create molecular functions with high optical purity. Cation chelation by polyethers increases the salts' solubility in conventional organic...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...

  17. Products of the Strecker Synthesis as Indicators of Parent Body Conditions of the Murchison Meteorite (United States)

    Lerner, Narcinda R.; Cooper, George W.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)


    The Strecker synthesis, R2C=O + HCN + NH3 yields R2C(NH2)CN + H2O yields R2C(NH2)CO2H has been proposed as a source of amino acids in meteorites. The detection of carbonlyl compounds, the precursors of the amino acids in the Strecker synthesis, and a-hydroxy acids, important by-products of the Strecker synthesis, in the Murchison meteorite supports this conjecture. However, the following observations raise questions about the Strecker synthesis as the source of a-amino and a-hydroxy acids in Murchison: a) Imino acetic acids are also important by-products of the Strecker synthesis and have not been reported in Murchison. b) a-aminisobutyric acid (AIBA) is one of the most abundant amino acids in Murchison but the Strecker synthesis conducted at room temperature produced only small amounts of AIBA relative to other amino acids. c) If the a-amino and a-hydroxy acids observed in Murchison arose from a common precursor this ought to be reflected in their relative abundances, but the straight chain a-hydroxy acids appeared to be relatively abundant compared with the analogous a-amino acids. In order to address question a) we have examined a non-hydrolyzed aqueous extract of the Murchison meteorite. Imino di acetic acid, Imino propionic acetic acid and Imino butyric acetic acid (both isomers) have been identified in this fraction. The relative abundances of amino acids and imino acetic acids in this fraction are consistent with a Strecker synthesis at low temperature (263 K) as a origin of both the amino acids and the imino acetic acids found on Murchison. To deal with questions b) and c) we have carried out laboratory simulations of the Strecker synthesis. The starting concentrations for carbonlyl compounds used were based on estimates of what these concentrations might have been on the parent body. for the carbonyl compounds this estimate was determined by the amount of carbonyl compound found on Murchison plus the amounts of the corresponding amino acid and hydroxy acid

  18. Green Tea Polyphenols Decrease Strecker Aldehydes and Bind to Proteins in Lactose-Hydrolyzed UHT Milk. (United States)

    Jansson, Therese; Rauh, Valentin; Danielsen, Bente P; Poojary, Mahesha M; Waehrens, Sandra S; Bredie, Wender L P; Sørensen, John; Petersen, Mikael A; Ray, Colin A; Lund, Marianne N


    The effect of epigallocatechin gallate enriched green tea extract (GTE) on flavor, Maillard reactions and protein modifications in lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) ultrahigh temperature (UHT) processed milk was examined during storage at 40 °C for up to 42 days. Addition of GTE inhibited the formation of Strecker aldehydes by up to 95% compared to control milk, and the effect was similar when GTE was added either before or after UHT treatment. Release of free amino acids, caused by proteolysis, during storage was also decreased in GTE-added milk either before or after UHT treatment compared to control milk. Binding of polyphenols to milk proteins was observed in both fresh and stored milk samples. The inhibition of Strecker aldehyde formation by GTE may be explained by two different mechanisms; inhibition of proteolysis during storage by GTE or binding of amino acids and proteins to the GTE polyphenols.

  19. Asymmetric Supercapacitors Using 3D Nanoporous Carbon and Cobalt Oxide Electrodes Synthesized from a Single Metal-Organic Framework. (United States)

    Salunkhe, Rahul R; Tang, Jing; Kamachi, Yuichiro; Nakato, Teruyuki; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke


    Nanoporous carbon and nanoporous cobalt oxide (Co3O4) materials have been selectively prepared from a single metal-organic framework (MOF) (zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-67) by optimizing the annealing conditions. The resulting ZIF-derived carbon possesses highly graphitic walls and a high specific surface area of 350 m(2)·g(-1), while the resulting ZIF-derived nanoporous Co3O4 possesses a high specific surface area of 148 m(2)·g(-1) with much less carbon content (1.7 at%). When nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 were tested as electrode materials for supercapacitor application, they showed high capacitance values (272 and 504 F·g(-1), respectively, at a scan rate of 5 mV·s(-1)). To further demonstrate the advantages of our ZIF-derived nanoporous materials, symmetric (SSCs) and asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) were also fabricated using nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 electrodes. Improved capacitance performance was successfully realized for the ASC (Co3O4//carbon), better than those of the SSCs based on nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 materials (i.e., carbon//carbon and Co3O4//Co3O4). The developed ASC with an optimal mass loading can be operated within a wide potential window of 0.0-1.6 V, which leads to a high specific energy of 36 W·h·kg(-1). More interestingly, this ASC also exhibits excellent rate capability (with the highest specific power of 8000 W·kg(-1) at a specific energy of 15 W·h·kg(-1)) combined with long-term stability up to 2000 cycles.

  20. Thermodynamics of Strecker Synthesis Reactions During Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Bodies (United States)

    Schulte, M. D.; Shock, E. L.


    The wide acceptance of the parent body aqueous alteration hypothesis to explain the presence of hydrated silicate minerals on carbonaceous chondrite meteorites has led a number of researchers to investigate the suggestion that some of the organic compounds in these meteorites were produced during the silicate mineral alteration event (Bunch and Chang, 1980; Peltzer et al., 1984; Cronin, 1989; Shock and Schulte, 1990). Much of the interest has focused on the mechanisms of amino acid formation, the most favored of which is Strecker synthesis (Peltzer et al., 1984; Cronin, 1989; Kerridge, 1990). The observation of ammonium-bearing minerals in several carbonaceous chondrites (Zolensky and McSween, 1988), as well as the possible detection of the same minerals on asteroids (King et al., 1992), may allow explicit coupling of Strecker synthesis reactions with mineral alteration by aqueous fluids on meteorite parent bodies. In one path of Strecker synthesis, aldehydes or ketones react with HCN and ammonia in aqueous solution to produce amino acids. In the absence of ammonia in the initial reaction step, Strecker synthesis will produce hydroxy acids. This process has also been invoked to explain the presence of hydroxy acids on carbonaceous chondrites (Peltzer et al., 1984). The potential for Strecker synthesis of amino and hydroxy acids can be evaluated from values of the Gibbs free energy of the overall reactions deltaG (sub)r degrees. At 25 degrees C and 1 bar, calculated values of deltaG (sub)r degrees are negative for many examples of overall Strecker synthesis reactions, indicating that these reactions are energetically favored at these conditions. Oxygen isotope systematics indicate that aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites occurred at temperatures from 0 degrees to ~150 degrees C (Clayton and Mayeda, 1984). Values of deltaG (sub)r degrees for reactions involving aqueous organic compounds can be calculated at elevated temperature using standard state

  1. A new series of short axially symmetrically and asymmetrically 1,3,6,8-tetrasubstituted pyrenes with two types of substituents: Syntheses, structures, photophysical properties and electroluminescence (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Tengfei; Xu, Lu; Han, Fangfang; Zhao, Yun; Ni, Zhonghai


    A new series of short axially symmetrically (4a and 4b) and asymmetrically (4c and 4d) 1,3,6,8-tetrasubstituted pyrene-based compounds with two phenyl moieties and two diphenylamine units on the pyrene core were designed and synthesized based on stepwise synthetic strategy. These compounds were structurally characterized and their photoelectric properties were investigated by spectroscopy, electrochemical and theoretical studies. The structures of 4a and 4b were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, indicating that the compounds are twisted by the peripheral substituents and the intermolecular π-π interactions have been efficiently interrupted. The four compounds exhibit high absolute fluorescence quantum yields (VF) in dichloromethane (83.31-88.45%) and moderate VFs in film states (20.78-38.68%). In addition, compounds 4a and 4b display relatively higher absolute VFs than those of 4c and 4d in film states. All the compounds exhibit high thermal stability with decomposition temperatures above 358 °C and the values of 4c and 4d are higher than 4a and 4b. Compounds 4a and 4b can form morphologically stable amorphous thin films with Tg values of 146 °C and 149 °C, respectively. However, there are no obvious Tg observed in compounds 4c and 4d. Electroluminescent devices using 4a and 4b as doped emission layer show promising device performance with low turn-on voltage (3.0 V), maximum brightness around 15100 cd/m2 and 16100 cd/m2, maximum luminance efficiency of 12.4 cd/A and 13.6 cd/A and maximum external quantum efficiency of 5.34% and 5.63%, respectively.

  2. Strecker degradation of amino acids promoted by a camphor-derived sulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fernanda N. N. Carvalho


    Full Text Available A camphor-derived sulfonimine with a conjugated carbonyl group, oxoimine 1 (O2SNC10H13O, reacts with amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine to form a compound O2SNC10H13NC10H14NSO2 (2 which was characterized by spectroscopic means (MS and NMR and supported by DFT calculations. The product, a single diastereoisomer, contains two oxoimine units connected by a –N= bridge, and thus has a structural analogy to the colored product Ruhemann´s purple obtained by the ninhydrin reaction with amino acids. A plausible reaction mechanism that involves zwitterions, a Strecker degradation of an intermediate imine and water-catalyzed tautomerizations was developed by means of DFT calculations on potential transition states.

  3. Antagonism between lipid-derived reactive carbonyls and phenolic compounds in the Strecker degradation of amino acids. (United States)

    Delgado, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Francisco J; Zamora, Rosario


    The Strecker-type degradation of phenylalanine in the presence of 2-pentanal and phenolic compounds was studied to investigate possible interactions that either promote or inhibit the formation of Strecker aldehydes in food products. Phenylacetaldehyde formation was promoted by 2-pentenal and also by o- and p-diphenols, but not by m-diphenols. This is consequence of the ability of phenolic compounds to be converted into reactive carbonyls and produce the Strecker degradation of the amino acid. When 2-pentenal and phenolic compounds were simultaneously present, an antagonism among them was observed. This antagonism is suggested to be a consequence of the ability of phenolic compounds to either react with both 2-pentenal and phenylacetaldehyde, or compete with other carbonyl compounds for the amino acids, a function that is determined by their structure. All these results suggest that carbonyl-phenol reactions may be used to modulate flavor formation produced in food products by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A theoretical investigation on the Strecker reaction catalyzed by a Ti(IV)-complex catalyst generated from a cinchona alkaloid, achiral substituted 2,2'-biphenol, and tetraisopropyl titanate. (United States)

    Su, Zhishan; Li, Weiyi; Wang, Jun; Hu, Changwei; Feng, Xiaoming


    The mechanism and the origin of selectivity of the asymmetric Strecker reaction catalyzed by a Ti(IV)-complex catalyst generated from a cinchona alkaloid, achiral substituted 2,2'-biphenol, and tetraisopropyl titanate have been investigated by DFT and ONIOM methods. The calculations indicate that the reaction proceeds through a dual activation mechanism, in which Ti(IV) acts as Lewis acid to activate the electrophile aldimine substrate, whereas the tertiary amine in cinchona alkaloid works as Lewis base to promote the activation and isomerization of HCN. The C-C bond formation step is predicted to be the selectivity-controlling step in the reaction with an energy barrier of 9.3 kcal mol(-1). The "asymmetric activation" is achieved by the transfer of asymmetry from the chiral cinchonine ligand to the axially flexible achiral biphenol ligand through coordination interaction with the central metal Ti(IV) . The large steric hindrance from the 3,3'-position substitute of biphenol, combined with the quinoline fragment of cinchona alkaloid and the orientation of hydrogen bonding of iPrOH, play a key role in controlling the stereoselectivity, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A two-step hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesize NiCo2S4/NiS hollow nanospheres for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Lin, Jianming; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Miaoliang; Fan, Leqing; He, Xin; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Zedong


    In this work, a high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor device based on NiCo2S4/NiS hollow nanospheres as the positive electrode and the porous activated carbon as the negative electrode was successfully fabricated via a facile two-step hydrothermal synthesis approach. This NiCo2S4/NiS//activated carbon asymmetric supercapacitor achieved a high energy density of 43.7 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 160 W kg-1, an encouraging specific capacitance of 123 F g-1 at a current density of 1 mA cm-2, as well as a long-term performance with capacitance degradation of 5.2% after 3000 consecutive cycles at 1 mA cm-2. Moreover, the NiCo2S4/NiS electrode also demonstrated an excellent specific capacitance (1947.5 F g-1 at 3 mA cm-2) and an outstanding cycling stability (retaining 90.3% after 1000 cycles). The remarkable electrochemical performances may be attributed to the effect of NiS doping on NiCo2S4 which could enlarge the surface area and increase the surface roughness.

  6. Effect of sonochemical synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles and coagulation bath temperature on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes prepared via phase inversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedini Reza


    Full Text Available In this study, asymmetric pure CA and CA/ TiO2 composite membranes were prepared via phase inversion by dispersing TiO2 nanopaticles in the CA casting solutions induced by immersion precipitation in water coagulation bath. TiO2 nanoparticles, which were synthesized by the sonochemical method, were added into the casting solution with different concentrations. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles concentration (0 wt. %, 5wt.%, 10wt.%, 15wt.%, 20wt.% and 25wt.% and coagulation bath temperature (CBT= 25°C, 50°C and 75°C on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux (PWF of the prepared membranes were studied and discussed. Increasing TiO2 concentration in the casting solution film along with higher CBT resulted in increasing the membrane thickness, water content (WC, membrane porosity and pure water flux (PWF, also these changes facilitate macrovoids formation. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA shows that thermal stability of the composite membranes were improved by the addition of TiO2 nanopaticles. Also TGA results indicated that increasing CBT in each TiO2 concentration leads to the decreasing of decomposition temperature (Td of hybrid membranes.

  7. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev


    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  8. Chemoenzymatic asymmetric total syntheses of antitumor agents (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-Panaxytriol and (R)- and (S)-Falcarinol from Panax ginseng using an enantioconvergent enzyme-triggered cascade reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, S.F.; Steinreiber, A.; Orru, R.V.A.; Faber, K.A.


    Total asymmetric synthesis of two components of Panax ginseng showing antitumor activity, i.e., (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-Panaxytriol and of both enantiomers of Falcarinol was accomplished. Due to the fact that the synthetic strategy was based on enantioconvergent biotransformations, the

  9. Hydroxamic acids in asymmetric synthesis. (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi


    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst's center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Because of their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which uses the titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities.

  10. (TIQ) Thiazole and Oxazoline Ligands for Asymmetric Henry Reactions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    TIQ) backbone were synthesized. Their application in the catalytic asymmetric Henry reaction was investigated with comparison to a corresponding TIQ oxazoline ligand. The Cu(II)-oxazoline complex was more reactive and furnished moderate ...

  11. Asymmetric Ashes (United States)


    that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy

  12. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias


    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  13. Asymmetric Divisions in Oogenesis. (United States)

    Bilinski, Szczepan M; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Kloc, Malgorzata

    In the majority of animals, the oocyte/egg is structurally, molecularly, and functionally asymmetric. Such asymmetry is a prerequisite for a flawless fertilization and faithful segregation of maternal determinants during subsequent embryonic development. The oocyte asymmetry develops during oogenesis and must be maintained during consecutive and obligatorily asymmetric oogonial divisions, which depending on the species lead to the formation of either oocyte alone or oocyte and nurse cell complex. In the following chapter, we summarize current knowledge on the asymmetric oogonial divisions in invertebrate (insects) and vertebrate (Xenopus) species.

  14. Asymmetrical field emitter (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.


    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  15. Asymmetric synthesis of novel apio carbocyclic nucleoside analogues as potential antiviral and antitumor agent. (United States)

    Jeong, Lak Shin; Lee, Jeong A; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Kim, Hea Ok; Lee, Kang Man; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chun, Moon Woo


    Novel apio carbocyclic nucleosides 18-21 were asymmetrically synthesized as potential antiviral and antitumor agent, starting from D-ribose employing aldol reaction, RCM reaction and Mitsunobu reaction as key reactions.

  16. Vinylimidazole-Based Asymmetric Ion Pair Comonomers: Synthesis, Polymerization Studies and Formation of Ionically Crosslinked PMMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jana, S.; Vasantha, V.A.; Stubbs, L.P.; Parthiban, A.; Vancso, Gyula J.


    Vinylimidazole-based asymmetric ion pair comonomers (IPCs) which are free from nonpolymerizable counter ions have been synthesized, characterized and polymerized by free radical polymerization (FRP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer

  17. Divergent Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Asymmetrical-Core-Fucosylated and Core-Unmodified N-Glycans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Tiehai; Huang, Min; Liu, Lin; Wang, Shuo; Moremen, Kelley W; Boons, Geert-Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088245489


    A divergent chemoenzymaytic approach for the preparation of core-fucosylated and core-unmodified asymmetrical N-glycans from a common advances precursor is described. An undecasaccharide was synthesized by sequential chemical glycosylations of an orthogonally protected core fucosylated

  18. Asymmetric cyanation of aldehydes, ketones, aldimines, and ketimines catalyzed by a versatile catalyst generated from cinchona alkaloid, achiral substituted 2,2'-biphenol and tetraisopropyl titanate. (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Wentao; Li, Wei; Hu, Xiaolei; Shen, Ke; Tan, Cheng; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming


    Full investigation of cyanation of aldehydes, ketones, aldimines and ketimines with trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN) or ethyl cyanoformate (CNCOOEt) as the cyanide source has been accomplished by employing an in situ generated catalyst from cinchona alkaloid, tetraisopropyl titanate [Ti(OiPr)(4)] and an achiral modified biphenol. With TMSCN as the cyanide source, good to excellent results have been achieved for the Strecker reaction of N-Ts (Ts=p-toluenesulfonyl) aldimines and ketimines (up to >99% yield and >99% ee) as well as for the cyanation of ketones (up to 99% yield and 98% ee). By using CNCOOEt as the alternative cyanide source, cyanation of aldehyde was accomplished and various enantioenriched cyanohydrin carbonates were prepared in up to 99% yield and 96% ee. Noteworthy, CNCOOEt was successfully employed for the first time in the asymmetric Strecker reaction of aldimines and ketimines, affording various alpha-amino nitriles with excellent yields and ee values (up to >99% yield and >99% ee). The merits of current protocol involved facile availability of ligand components, operational simplicity and mild reaction conditions, which made it convenient to prepare synthetically important chiral cyanohydrins and alpha-amino nitriles. Furthermore, control experiments and NMR analyses were performed to shed light on the catalyst structure. It is indicated that all the hydroxyl groups in cinchona alkaloid and biphenol complex with Ti(IV), forming the catalyst with the structure of (biphenoxide)Ti(OR*)(OiPr). The absolute configuration adopted by biphenol 4 m in the catalyst was identified as S configuration according to the evidence from control experiments and NMR analyses. Moreover, the roles of the protonic additive (iPrOH) and the tertiary amine in the cinchona alkaloid were studied in detail, and the real cyanide reagent in the catalytic cycle was found to be hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, two plausible catalytic cycles were proposed to elucidate the reaction

  19. An overview on the applications of 'Doyle catalysts' in asymmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chiral dirhodium(II) carboxamidates are a unique class of chiral catalysts useful for asymmetric inter- and intramolecular cyclopropanation, cyclopropenation and C-H insertion reactions with excellent enantioselectivities. The broad applications of these catalysts in organic syntheses are briefly reviewed.

  20. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B


    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain

  1. How Is Nature Asymmetric?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. How Is Nature Asymmetric? - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation ... Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  2. Highly asymmetric rice genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian-Qun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals in the same species are assumed to share the same genomic set. However, it is not unusual to find an orthologous gene only in small subset of the species, and recent genomic studies suggest that structural rearrangements are very frequent between genomes in the same species. Two recently sequenced rice genomes Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare and O. sativa L. var. 93-11 provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the extent of the gene repertoire polymorphism, even though the genomic data of 93-11 derived from whole-short-gun sequencing is not yet as complete as that of Nipponbare. Results We compared gene contents and the genomic locations between two rice genomes. Our conservative estimates suggest that at least 10% of the genes in the genomes were either under presence/absence polymorphism (5.2% or asymmetrically located between genomes (4.7%. The proportion of these "asymmetric genes" varied largely among gene groups, in which disease resistance (R genes and the RLK kinase gene group had 11.6 and 7.8 times higher proportion of asymmetric genes than housekeeping genes (Myb and MADS. The significant difference in the proportion of asymmetric genes among gene groups suggests that natural selection is responsible for maintaining genomic asymmetry. On the other hand, the nucleotide diversity in 17 R genes under presence/absence polymorphism was generally low (average nucleotide diversity = 0.0051. Conclusion The genomic symmetry was disrupted by 10% of asymmetric genes, which could cause genetic variation through more unequal crossing over, because these genes had no allelic counterparts to pair and then they were free to pair with homologues at non-allelic loci, during meiosis in heterozygotes. It might be a consequence of diversifying selection that increased the structural divergence among genomes, and of purifying selection that decreased nucleotide divergence in each R gene locus.

  3. Chemo-enzymatic asymmetric total syntheses of antitumor afents (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-panaxytriol and (R)- and (S)-falcarinol from panes ginseng using an enantioconvergent enzyme-triggered cascade reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, S.F.; Steinreiber, A.; Orru, R.V.A.; Faber, K.


    Total asymmetric synthesis of two components of Panax ginseng showing antitumor activity, i.e., (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-Panaxytriol and of both enantiomers of Falcarinol was accomplished. Due to the fact that the synthetic strategy was based on enantioconvergent biotransformations, the

  4. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  5. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy


    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  6. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games. (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph


    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  7. Chiral fullerenes from asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Maroto, Enrique E; Izquierdo, Marta; Reboredo, Silvia; Marco-Martínez, Juan; Filippone, Salvatore; Martín, Nazario


    Fullerenes are among the most studied molecules during the last three decades, and therefore, a huge number of chemical reactions have been tested on these new carbon allotropes. However, the aim of most of the reactions carried out on fullerenes has been to afford chemically modified fullerenes that are soluble in organic solvents or even water in the search for different mechanical, optical, or electronic properties. Therefore, although a lot of effort has been devoted to the chemical functionalization of these molecular allotropes of carbon, important aspects in the chemistry of fullerenes have not been properly addressed. In particular, the synthesis of chiral fullerenes at will in an efficient manner using asymmetric catalysis has not been previously addressed in fullerene science. Thus, despite the fact that the chirality of fullerenes has always been considered a fundamental issue, the lack of a general stereoselective synthetic methodology has restricted the use of enantiopure fullerene derivatives, which have usually been obtained only after highly expensive HPLC isolation on specific chiral columns or prepared from a pool of chiral starting materials. In this Account, we describe the first stereodivergent catalytic enantioselective syntheses in fullerene science, which have allowed the highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure derivatives with total control of the stereochemical result using metallic catalysts and/or organocatalysts under very mild conditions. Density functional theory calculations strongly support the experimental findings for the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new stereocenters, which has also been ascertained by application of the sector rule and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of the curved double bond of fullerene cages as a two-π-electron component in a variety of stereoselective cycloaddition reactions represents a challenging goal considering that, in contrast to most of the substituted

  8. Asymmetric fluorocyclizations of alkenes. (United States)

    Wolstenhulme, Jamie R; Gouverneur, Véronique


    CONSPECTUS: The vicinal fluorofunctionalization of alkenes is an attractive transformation that converts feedstock olefins into valuable cyclic fluorinated molecules for application in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, medical, and material sectors. The challenges associated with asymmetric fluorocyclizations induced by F(+) reagents are distinct from other types of halocyclizations. Processes initiated by the addition of an F(+) reagent onto an alkene do not involve the reversible formation of bridged fluoronium ions but generate acyclic β-fluorocationic intermediates. This mechanistic feature implies that fluorocyclizations are not stereospecific. A discontinuity exists between the importance of this class of fluorocyclization and the activation modes currently available to implement successful catalysis. Progress toward fluorocyclization has been achieved by investing in neutral and cationic [NF] reagent development. The body of work on asymmetric fluorination using chiral cationic [NF](+) reagents prepared by fluorine transfer from the dicationic [NF](2+) reagent Selectfluor to quinuclidines, inspired the development of asymmetric F(+)-induced fluorocyclizations catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids; for catalysis, the use of N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide, which is less reactive than Selectfluor, ensures that the achiral F(+) source remains unreactive toward the alkene. These organocatalyzed enantioselective fluorocyclizations can be applied to indoles to install the fluorine on a quaternary benzylic stereogenic carbon center and to afford fluorinated analogues of natural products featuring the hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole or the tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-b]indole skeleton. In an alternative approach, the poor solubility of dicationic Selectfluor bis(tetrafluoroborate) in nonpolar solvent was exploited with anionic phase transfer catalysis as the operating activation mode. Exchange of the tetrafluoroborate ions of Selectfluor with bulky lipophilic chiral anions (e

  9. Catalytic asymmetric fluorinations. (United States)

    Bobbio, Carla; Gouverneur, Véronique


    The appearance of structurally diverse fluorinating reagents displaying a large spectrum of reactivity has been critical to the development of the catalytic asymmetric fluorination processes known to date. In this article, we discuss how this area of research emerged and which strategies have allowed for the successful development of both nucleophilic and electrophilic catalytic enantioselective fluorinations. We also present the fundamental understanding of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the most efficient processes and highlight the first synthetic application with the preparation of a complex fluorinated target.

  10. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James


    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  11. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus


    were pioneered by Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder who discovered what later became known as the Diels Alder reaction. The Diels Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition in which a π4 component reacts with a π2 component via a cyclic transition state to generate a 6 membered ring. This reaction...... undergo cascade reactions with different electron deficient dienophiles in Diels Alder – nucleophilic ring closing reactions. This methodology opens up for the direct asymmetric formation of hydroisochromenes and hydroisoquinolines which may possess interesting biological activities. It is also...

  12. Asymmetric inclusion process. (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri


    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites' occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  13. Symmetric Decomposition of Asymmetric Games. (United States)

    Tuyls, Karl; Pérolat, Julien; Lanctot, Marc; Ostrovski, Georg; Savani, Rahul; Leibo, Joel Z; Ord, Toby; Graepel, Thore; Legg, Shane


    We introduce new theoretical insights into two-population asymmetric games allowing for an elegant symmetric decomposition into two single population symmetric games. Specifically, we show how an asymmetric bimatrix game (A,B) can be decomposed into its symmetric counterparts by envisioning and investigating the payoff tables (A and B) that constitute the asymmetric game, as two independent, single population, symmetric games. We reveal several surprising formal relationships between an asymmetric two-population game and its symmetric single population counterparts, which facilitate a convenient analysis of the original asymmetric game due to the dimensionality reduction of the decomposition. The main finding reveals that if (x,y) is a Nash equilibrium of an asymmetric game (A,B), this implies that y is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table A, and x is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table B. Also the reverse holds and combinations of Nash equilibria of the counterpart games form Nash equilibria of the asymmetric game. We illustrate how these formal relationships aid in identifying and analysing the Nash structure of asymmetric games, by examining the evolutionary dynamics of the simpler counterpart games in several canonical examples.

  14. Minimal asymmetric dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M. Boucenna


    Full Text Available In the early Universe, any particle carrying a conserved quantum number and in chemical equilibrium with the thermal bath will unavoidably inherit a particle–antiparticle asymmetry. A new particle of this type, if stable, would represent a candidate for asymmetric dark matter (DM with an asymmetry directly related to the baryon asymmetry. We study this possibility for a minimal DM sector constituted by just one (generic SU(2L multiplet χ carrying hypercharge, assuming that at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition an effective operator enforces chemical equilibrium between χ and the Higgs boson. We argue that limits from DM direct detection searches severely constrain this scenario, leaving as the only possibilities scalar or fermion multiplets with hypercharge y=1, preferentially quintuplets or larger SU(2 representations, and with a mass in the few TeV range.

  15. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia


    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  16. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen


    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  17. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh


    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  18. Asymmetric bifurcated halogen bonds. (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Marek, Radek


    Halogen bonding (XB) is being extensively explored for its potential use in advanced materials and drug design. Despite significant progress in describing this interaction by theoretical and experimental methods, the chemical nature remains somewhat elusive, and it seems to vary with the selected system. In this work we present a detailed DFT analysis of three-center asymmetric halogen bond (XB) formed between dihalogen molecules and variously 4-substituted 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. The energy decomposition, orbital, and electron density analyses suggest that the contribution of electrostatic stabilization is comparable with that of non-electrostatic factors. Both terms increase parallel with increasing negative charge of the electron donor molecule in our model systems. Depending on the orientation of the dihalogen molecules, this bifurcated interaction may be classified as 'σ-hole - lone pair' or 'σ-hole - π' halogen bonds. Arrangement of the XB investigated here deviates significantly from a recent IUPAC definition of XB and, in analogy to the hydrogen bonding, the term bifurcated halogen bond (BXB) seems to be appropriate for this type of interaction.

  19. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle life....

  20. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian


    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  1. Asymmetric Ion-Pairing Catalysis (United States)

    Brak, Katrien


    Charged intermediates and reagents are ubiquitous in organic transformations. The interaction of these ionic species with chiral neutral, anionic, or cationic small molecules has emerged as a powerful strategy for catalytic, enantioselective synthesis. This review describes developments in the burgeoning field of asymmetric ion-pairing catalysis with an emphasis on the insights that have been gleaned into the structural and mechanistic features that contribute to high asymmetric induction. PMID:23192886

  2. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack (United States)


    Electrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm) based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  3. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A


    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  4. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  5. Enantioselective Total Syntheses of Kuwanon X, Kuwanon Y, and Kuwanol A. (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Han, Jianguang; Lei, Xiaoguang


    The first enantioselective total syntheses of (-)-kuwanon X, (+)-kuwanon Y, and (+)-kuwanol A have been accomplished by using asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition promoted by chiral VANOL or VAPOL/boron Lewis acid. The biosynthesis-inspired asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition shows high exo selectivity (exo/endo = 13/1), which was unprecedented in the previous total syntheses of related prenylflavonoid Diels-Alder natural products. An acid catalyzed intramolecular ketalization process enabled a biomimetic transformation to construct the polycyclic skeleton of kuwanol A efficiently.

  6. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings. (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana


    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  7. Does asymmetric correlation affect portfolio optimization? (United States)

    Fryd, Lukas


    The classical portfolio optimization problem does not assume asymmetric behavior of relationship among asset returns. The existence of asymmetric response in correlation on the bad news could be important information in portfolio optimization. The paper applies Dynamic conditional correlation model (DCC) and his asymmetric version (ADCC) to propose asymmetric behavior of conditional correlation. We analyse asymmetric correlation among S&P index, bonds index and spot gold price before mortgage crisis in 2008. We evaluate forecast ability of the models during and after mortgage crisis and demonstrate the impact of asymmetric correlation on the reduction of portfolio variance.

  8. Extremely deep blue and highly efficient non-doped organic light emitting diodes using an asymmetric anthracene derivative with a xylene unit. (United States)

    Kim, Ran; Lee, Sunghun; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Lee, Yun-Ji; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Jang-Joo; Kim, Yun-Hi


    A new highly twisted asymmetric anthracene derivative with naphthalene and triphenylamine substituted xylene was synthesized as an extremely deep blue emitting material. A non-doped device using the new asymmetric blue emitter displays a maximum EQE of 4.62% with CIE color coordinates of (0.154, 0.049).

  9. Asymmetric hydrogenation using monodentate phosphoramidite ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Lefort, Laurent; De Vries, Johannes G.


    Monodentate phosphoramidites are excellent ligands for Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations of substituted olefins. Enantioselectivities between 95 and 99% were obtained in the asymmetric hydrogenation of protected alpha- and beta-dehydroamino acids and esters, itaconic acid and esters, aromatic

  10. Synthesized Digital Mammography Imaging. (United States)

    Freer, Phoebe E; Winkler, Nicole


    Synthesized mammography (SM) is a new imaging technique similar to digital mammography constructed from an acquired digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) examination. SM allows for widespread screening using DBT, maintaining the benefits of DBT while decreasing the radiation of DBT by nearly half. This article reviews studies evaluating SM, most of which suggest that SM may be appropriate to use clinically to replace an actual acquired conventional 2-dimensional full-field digital mammogram (FFDM) when using DBT for breast cancer screening. These results should be interpreted with caution because there are inherent differences between SM and FFDM image quality and lesion visibility and larger, more robust studies still need to be performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chiral bicycle imidazole nucleophilic catalysts: rational design, facile synthesis, and successful application in asymmetric Steglich rearrangement. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenfeng; Xie, Fang; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Wanbin


    A new type of chiral bicycle imidazole nucleophilic catalyst was rationally designed, facilely synthesized, and successfully applied in an asymmetric Steglich rearrangement with good to excellent yield and enantioselectivity at ambient temperature. Moreover, it can be easily recycled with almost no reduction of catalytic efficiency. This is the first example for the successful chiral imidazole nucleophilic catalyst without H-bonding assistance.

  12. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul


    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b...

  13. Structure of asymmetrical peptide dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okrugin, B.M.; Neelov, I.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Borisov, Oleg V.


    Structural properties of asymmetric peptide dendrimers up to the 11th generation are studied on the basis of the self-consistent field Scheutjens-Fleer numerical approach. It is demonstrated that large scale properties such as, e.g., the gyration radius, are relatively weakly affected by the

  14. Doclet To Synthesize UML (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.


    The RoseDoclet computer program extends the capability of Java doclet software to automatically synthesize Unified Modeling Language (UML) content from Java language source code. [Doclets are Java-language programs that use the doclet application programming interface (API) to specify the content and format of the output of Javadoc. Javadoc is a program, originally designed to generate API documentation from Java source code, now also useful as an extensible engine for processing Java source code.] RoseDoclet takes advantage of Javadoc comments and tags already in the source code to produce a UML model of that code. RoseDoclet applies the doclet API to create a doclet passed to Javadoc. The Javadoc engine applies the doclet to the source code, emitting the output format specified by the doclet. RoseDoclet emits a Rose model file and populates it with fully documented packages, classes, methods, variables, and class diagrams identified in the source code. The way in which UML models are generated can be controlled by use of new Javadoc comment tags that RoseDoclet provides. The advantage of using RoseDoclet is that Javadoc documentation becomes leveraged for two purposes: documenting the as-built API and keeping the design documentation up to date.

  15. A Note on Asymmetric Thick Branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bazeia


    Full Text Available We study asymmetric thick braneworld scenarios, generated after adding a constant to the superpotential associated with the scalar field. We study in particular models with odd and even polynomial superpotentials, and we show that asymmetric brane can be generated irrespective of the potential being symmetric or asymmetric. We study in addition the nonpolynomial sine-Gordon like model, also constructed with the inclusion of a constant in the standard superpotential, and we investigate gravitational stability of the asymmetric brane. The results suggest robustness of the new braneworld scenarios and add further possibilities of the construction of asymmetric branes.

  16. Geodesics in Asymmetric Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennucci Andrea C. G.


    Full Text Available In a recent paper [17] we studied asymmetric metric spaces; in this context we studied the length of paths, introduced the class of run-continuous paths; and noted that there are different definitions of “length spaces” (also known as “path-metric spaces” or “intrinsic spaces”. In this paper we continue the analysis of asymmetric metric spaces.We propose possible definitions of completeness and (local compactness.We define the geodesics using as admissible paths the class of run-continuous paths.We define midpoints, convexity, and quasi-midpoints, but without assuming the space be intrinsic.We distinguish all along those results that need a stronger separation hypothesis. Eventually we discuss how the newly developed theory impacts the most important results, such as the existence of geodesics, and the renowned Hopf-Rinow (or Cohn-Vossen theorem.

  17. Electron Jet of Asymmetric Reconnection (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retino, A.; hide


    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E(sub parallel lines) amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV/m and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.

  18. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.


    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  19. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model


    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.


    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical...

  20. Up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin


    Bulk toroidal rotation has proven capable of stabilising both dangerous MHD modes and turbulence. In this thesis, we explore a method to drive rotation in large tokamaks: up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. We seek to maximise this rotation by finding optimal up-down asymmetric flux surface shapes. First, we use the ideal MHD model to show that low order external shaping (e.g. elongation) is best for creating up-down asymmetric flux surfaces throughout the device. Then, we calculate realistic up-down asymmetric equilibria for input into nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence analysis. Analytic gyrokinetics shows that, in the limit of fast shaping effects, a poloidal tilt of the flux surface shaping has little effect on turbulent transport. Since up-down symmetric surfaces do not transport momentum, this invariance to tilt implies that devices with mirror symmetry about any line in the poloidal plane will drive minimal rotation. Accordingly, further analytic investigation suggests that non-mirror symmetri...

  1. Unravelling Thiol’s Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod–Au Nanoparticle Dimers

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng


    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  2. Rational design of cyclopropane-based chiral PHOX ligands for intermolecular asymmetric Heck reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rubina


    Full Text Available A novel class of chiral phosphanyl-oxazoline (PHOX ligands with a conformationally rigid cyclopropyl backbone was synthesized and tested in the intermolecular asymmetric Heck reaction. Mechanistic modelling and crystallographic studies were used to predict the optimal ligand structure and helped to design a very efficient and highly selective catalytic system. Employment of the optimized ligands in the asymmetric arylation of cyclic olefins allowed for achieving high enantioselectivities and significantly suppressing product isomerization. Factors affecting the selectivity and the rate of the isomerization were identified. It was shown that the nature of this isomerization is different from that demonstrated previously using chiral diphosphine ligands.

  3. A General Asymmetric Synthesis of (R-Matsutakeol and Flavored Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu


    Full Text Available An efficient and practical synthetic route toward chiral matsutakeol and analogs was developed by asymmetric addition of terminal alkyne to aldehydes. (R-matsutakeol and other flavored substances were feasibly synthesized from various alkylaldehydes in high yield (up to 49.5%, in three steps and excellent enantiomeric excess (up to >99%. The protocols may serve as an alternative asymmetric synthetic method for active small-molecule library of natural fatty acid metabolites and analogs. These chiral allyl alcohols are prepared for food analysis and screening insect attractants.

  4. Electronic conductivity of mechanochemically synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 67, No. 2. — journal of. August 2006 physics pp. 331–340. Electronic conductivity of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline Ag1−xCuxI system using DC polarization technique∗ .... 0.15, 0.25 were synthesized by mechanical grinding in a 6 agate mortar and pestle for 5 h at room temperature in an ...

  5. LG tools for asymmetric wargaming (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Alex; Yakhnis, Vladimir


    Asymmetric operations represent conflict where one of the sides would apply military power to influence the political and civil environment, to facilitate diplomacy, and to interrupt specified illegal activities. This is a special type of conflict where the participants do not initiate full-scale war. Instead, the sides may be engaged in a limited open conflict or one or several sides may covertly engage another side using unconventional or less conventional methods of engagement. They may include peace operations, combating terrorism, counterdrug operations, arms control, support of insurgencies or counterinsurgencies, show of force. An asymmetric conflict can be represented as several concurrent interlinked games of various kinds: military, transportation, economic, political, etc. Thus, various actions of peace violators, terrorists, drug traffickers, etc., can be expressed via moves in different interlinked games. LG tools allow us to fully capture the specificity of asymmetric conflicts employing the major LG concept of hypergame. Hypergame allows modeling concurrent interlinked processes taking place in geographically remote locations at different levels of resolution and time scale. For example, it allows us to model an antiterrorist operation taking place simultaneously in a number of countries around the globe and involving wide range of entities from individuals to combat units to governments. Additionally, LG allows us to model all sides of the conflict at their level of sophistication. Intelligent stakeholders are represented by means of LG generated intelligent strategies. TO generate those strategies, in addition to its own mathematical intelligence, the LG algorithm may incorporate the intelligence of the top-level experts in the respective problem domains. LG models the individual differences between intelligent stakeholders. The LG tools make it possible to incorporate most of the known traits of a stakeholder, i.e., real personalities involved in

  6. Loan sales under asymmetric information


    Vargas Martínez, Mónica


    Loans are illiquid assets that can be sold in a secondary market even that buyers have no certainty about their quality. I study a model in which a lender has access to new investment opportunities when all her assets are illiquid. To raise funds, the lender may either borrow using her assets as collateral, or she can sell them in a secondary market. Given asymmetric information about assets quality, the lender cannot recover the total value of her assets. There is then a role for the governm...

  7. Asymmetric liberations in exterior resonances (United States)

    Beauge, C.


    The purpose of this paper is to present a general analysis of the planar circular restricted problem of three bodies in the case of exterior mean-motion resonances. Particularly, our aim is to map the phase space of various commensurabilities and determine the singular solutions of the averaged system, comparing them to the well-known case of interior resonances. In some commensurabilities (e.g. 1/2, 1/3) we show the existence of asymmetric librations; that is, librations in which the stationary value of the critical angle theta = (p+q) lambda1-p lambda-q pi is not equal to either zero or pi. The origin, stability and morphogenesis of these solutions are discussed and compared to symmetric librations. However, in some other resonances (e.g. 2/3, 3/4), these fixed points of the mean system seem to be absent. Librations in such cases are restricted to theta = O mod(pi). Asymmetric singular solutions of the plane circular problem are unknown in the case of interior resonances and cannot be reproduced by the reduced Andoyer Hamiltonian known as the Second Fundamental Model for Resonance. However, we show that the extended version of this Hamiltonian function, in which harmonics up to order two are considered, can reproduce fairly well the principal topological characteristics of the phase space and thereby constitutes a simple and useful analytical approximation for these resonances.

  8. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.


    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  9. Thin lenses of asymmetric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris


    Full Text Available It is generally supposed that thin systems, including refracting surfaces and thin lenses, have powers that are necessarily symmetric.  In other words they have powers which can be represented assymmetric dioptric power matrices and in the familar spherocylindrical form used in optometry and ophthalmology.  This paper shows that this is not correct and that it is indeed possible for a thin system to have a power that is not symmetric and which cannot be expressed in spherocylindrical form.  Thin systems of asymmetric power are illustratedby means of a thin lens that is modelled with small prisms and is chosen to have a dioptric power ma-trix that is antisymmetric.  Similar models can be devised for a thin system whose dioptric power matrix is any  2 2 ×  matrix.  Thus any power, symmetric, asymmetric or antisymmetric, is possible for a thin system.  In this sense our understanding of the power of thin systems is now complete.

  10. Asymmetric Warfare and the Will to Win

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera, Cary


    This thesis explores the will to win in asymmetric war. Asymmetric war, in which one side has an overwhelming advantage over its opponent, will likely be the war of the future for the United States in the post-Cold War uni-polar world...

  11. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max


    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis. I...

  12. Asymmetric Quantum Codes on Toric Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.


    Asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes are quantum codes defined over biased quantum channels: qubit-flip and phase-shift errors may have equal or different probabilities. The code construction is the Calderbank-Shor-Steane construction based on two linear codes. We present families of toric...... surfaces, toric codes and associated asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes....

  13. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach


    Chauhan, Pankaj; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh


    Summary Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  14. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach (United States)

    Chauhan, Pankaj


    Summary Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques. PMID:23243475

  15. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L


    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  16. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chauhan


    Full Text Available Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  17. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić


    Full Text Available ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a technologythat allows transmission at 8.488 Mbps over the existingtelephone copper line (speed range depending on the distance.ADSL circuit connects the ADSL modems by twisted-pairtelephone lines creating three infonnation channels: high speedsimplex (maximum 9 Mbps, medium speed duplex channel(maximum 2 Mbps and plain old telephone service channel.ADSL technology supports up to seven synchronous channelsthat can be configured to meet the needs of the end user.One could simultaneously view four movies stored in MPEG 1fonnat on separate television sets (MPEG 1 transmitted at 1.5Mbps, hold a video-conference (transmitted at 348 kbps,download data files from a server at 128 kbps via ISDN andeven receive a telephone call.

  18. Research on asymmetric searchable encryption (United States)

    Yu, Zonghua; Wu, Yudong


    Cloud server side to ease the user's local storage pressure at the same time, there are hidden data on the hidden dangers, the user often choose to upload the data in the form of cipher text to the cloud server. However, the classic data encryption and decryption algorithms are not provided search function, affecting the user's efficiency. To this end, an asymmetric searchable encryption scheme is proposed. The scheme can be used for any person can generate a trapdoor, cipher text can be free modified, the key pair generated by the user themselves, encrypt the identity, S-shaped virtual and other five loopholes to improve. The analysis results show that the scheme solves the above five vulnerabilities in the original scheme, so that the information semantics of both parties of communication can be guaranteed.

  19. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Geoff


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple

  20. Total Synthesis of (R, R, R)-gamma-Tocopherol through Cu-Catalyzed Asymmetric 1,2-Addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Zhongtao; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    Based on the asymmetric copper-catalyzed 1,2-addition of Grignard reagents to ketones, (R,R,R)--tocopherol has been synthesized in 36% yield over 12 steps (longest linear sequence). The chiral center in the chroman ring was constructed with 73% ee by the 1,2-addition of a phytol-derived Grignard

  1. Proteomics analysis for asymmetric inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells in budding yeast. (United States)

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kusunoki, Shunta; Ishibashi, Yuko; Kito, Keiji


    In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited. The aim of this study is to propose a proteomics strategy for asymmetrical inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells. During synchronous culture for one generation, newly synthesized proteins were labeled with stable isotope amino acids to discriminate preexisting proteins originally expressed in mother cells, followed by separation of mother and daughter cells using a conventional method based on biotin labeling. Isotope incorporation ratios for individual proteins were quantified using mass spectrometry. We successfully identified 21 proteins whose preexisting versions were asymmetrically inherited in mother cells, including plasma membrane transporter involved in the aging process and organelle-anchoring proteins related to the stress response to misfolded proteins. Thus, our approach would be useful for making catalog of asymmetrically inherited proteins. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of apio fluoroneplanocin A analogs as potential AdoHcy hydrolase inhibitor. (United States)

    Park, Ah-Young; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Kim, Kyung Ran; Kang, Jin-Ah; Chun, Moon Woo; Jeong, Lak Shin


    Apio fluoroneplanocin A (apio F-NPA, 3) and its uracil analogue 4 have been designed and asymmetrically synthesized starting from D-ribose. Introduction of fluoro group into vinylic position of 5 was accomplished successfully over 5 steps employing key reactions such as iodination according to an addition-elimination reaction mechanism, stereo- and regioselective reduction of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone, and electrophilic fluorination. This methodology can be adapted to the synthesis of fluoro compounds extensively.

  3. Chiral PEPPSI Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in Asymmetric Suzuki–Miyaura Coupling Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Benhamou, Laure


    PEPPSI complexes incorporating chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands based on 2,2-dimethyl-1-(o-substituted aryl)propan-1-amines were synthesized. Two complexes, with one saturated and one unsaturated NHC ligand, were structurally characterized. The chiral PEPPSI complexes were used in asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura reactions, giving atropisomeric biaryl products in modest to good enantiomeric ratios. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Synthesis of Main-Chain Chiral Quaternary Ammonium Polymers for Asymmetric Catalysis Using Quaternization Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masud Parvez


    Full Text Available Main-chain chiral quaternary ammonium polymers were successfully synthesized by the quaternization polymerization of cinchonidine dimer with dihalides. The polymerization occurred smoothly under optimized conditions to give novel type of main-chain chiral quaternary ammonium polymers. The catalytic activity of the polymeric chiral organocatalysts was investigated on the asymmetric benzylation of N-(diphenylmethylideneglycine tert-butyl ester.

  5. Asymmetric MoS2 /Graphene/Metal Sandwiches: Preparation, Characterization, and Application. (United States)

    Toth, Peter S; Velický, Matĕj; Bissett, Mark A; Slater, Thomas J A; Savjani, Nicky; Rabiu, Aminu K; Rakowski, Alexander M; Brent, Jack R; Haigh, Sarah J; O'Brien, Paul; Dryfe, Robert A W


    The polarizable organic/water interface is used to construct MoS2 /graphene nanocomposites, and various asymmetrically dual-decorated graphene sandwiches are synthesized. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and 3D electron tomography confirm their structure. These dual-decorated graphene-based hybrids show excellent hydrogen evolution activity and promising capacitance performance. © 2016 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Frequency synthesizers concept to product

    CERN Document Server

    Chenakin, Alexander


    A frequency synthesizer is an electronic system for generating any of a range of frequencies from a single fixed oscillator. They are found in modern devices like radio receivers, mobile phones, and GPS systems. This comprehensive resource offers RF and microwave engineers a thorough overview of both well-established and recently developed frequency synthesizer design techniques. Professionals find expert guidance on all design aspects, including main architectures, key building blocks, and practical circuit implementation. Engineers learn the development process and gain a solid understanding

  7. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian


    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  8. Nondeterministic self-assembly with asymmetric interactions (United States)

    Tesoro, S.; Göpfrich, K.; Kartanas, T.; Keyser, U. F.; Ahnert, S. E.


    We investigate general properties of nondeterministic self-assembly with asymmetric interactions, using a computational model and DNA tile assembly experiments. By contrasting symmetric and asymmetric interactions we show that the latter can lead to self-limiting cluster growth. Furthermore, by adjusting the relative abundance of self-assembly particles in a two-particle mixture, we are able to tune the final sizes of these clusters. We show that this is a fundamental property of asymmetric interactions, which has potential applications in bioengineering, and provides insights into the study of diseases caused by protein aggregation.

  9. Asymmetric monometallic nanorod nanoparticle dimer and related compositions and methods

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu


    The fabrication of asymmetric monometallic nanocrystals with novel properties for plasmonics, nanophotonics and nanoelectronics. Asymmetric monometallic plasmonic nanocrystals are of both fundamental synthetic challenge and practical significance. In an example, a thiol-ligand mediated growth strategy that enables the synthesis of unprecedented Au Nanorod-Au Nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimers from pre-synthesized AuNR seeds. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, crystal structure and three-dimensional morphology of the dimer, as well as the growth pathway of the AuNP on the AuNR seed, was investigated for this example. The dimer exhibits an extraordinary broadband optical extinction spectrum spanning the UV, visible, and near infrared regions (300 - 1300 nm). This unexpected property makes the AuNR-AuNP dimer example useful for many nanophotonic applications. In two experiments, the dimer example was tested as a surface- enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate and a solar light harvester for photothermal conversion, in comparison with the mixture of AuNR and AuNP. In the SERS experiment, the dimer example showed an enhancement factor about 10 times higher than that of the mixture, when the excitation wavelength (660 nm) was off the two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands of the mixture. In the photothermal conversion experiment under simulated sunlight illumination, the dimer example exhibited an energy conversion efficiency about 1.4 times as high as that of the mixture.

  10. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones. (United States)

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.


    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  11. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.


    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  12. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals (United States)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue


    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  13. Bioinspired total syntheses of terpenoids. (United States)

    Hugelshofer, Cedric L; Magauer, Thomas


    Nature's highly efficient routes for constructing natural products have inspired chemists to mimic these processes in a laboratory setting. This Perspective presents some recent examples of conceptually different bioinspired total syntheses of complex terpenoids and thereby aims to highlight the vast benefits offered by bioinspired strategies.

  14. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga


    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  15. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga


    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  16. Asymmetrical Warfare, Transformation, and Foreign Language Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porter, Clifford F


    .... There is no doubt that the current global war on terrorism is an asymmetrical war against an unpredictable enemy rather than the predictable or symmetrical threats against self-important dictators or the Soviet Union...

  17. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing. (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng


    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  18. Congenital asymmetric crying face: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Kara


    Full Text Available Congenital asymmetric crying face is an anomalia caused by unilateral absence or weakness of depressor anguli oris muscle The major finding of the disease is the absence or weakness in the outer and lower movement of the commissure during crying. The other expression muscles are normal and the face is symmetric at rest. The asymmetry in congenital asymmetric crying face is most evident during infancy but decreases by age. Congenital asymmetric crying face can be associated with cervicofacial, musclebone, respiratory, genitourinary and central nervous system anomalia. It is diagnosed by physical examination. This paper presents a six days old infant with Congenital asymmetric crying face and discusses the case in terms of diagnosis and disease features.

  19. Modeling Asymmetric Volatility In Oil Prices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Aun Hassan


    .... The paper uses daily crude oil price data for the past 10 years to test and model the oil price volatility by fitting different variations of GARCH including a univariate asymmetric GARCH model to the series...

  20. Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ik Jae


    Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.

  1. Designing Asymmetric Multiferroics with Strong Magnetoelectric Coupling


    Lu, X. Z.; Xiang, H. J.


    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Unfortunately, single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature has not been discovered. Here, we propose the concept of a new type of multiferroics, namely, "asymmetric multiferroic". In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from ...

  2. Stable Bound States of Asymmetric Dark Matter


    Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue


    The simplest renormalizable effective field theories with asymmetric dark matter bound states contain two additional gauge singlet fields one being the dark matter and the other a mediator particle that the dark matter annihilates into. We examine the physics of one such model with a Dirac fermion as the dark matter and a real scalar mediator. For a range of parameters the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter to the mediator gives rise to stable asymmetric dark matter bound states. We derive pr...

  3. Characteristics of Braced Excavation under Asymmetrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjie Xu


    Full Text Available Numerous excavation practices have shown that large discrepancies exist between field monitoring data and calculated results when the conventional symmetry-plane method (with half-width is used to design the retaining structure under asymmetrical loads. To examine the characteristics of a retaining structure under asymmetrical loads, we use the finite element method (FEM to simulate the excavation process under four different groups of asymmetrical loads and create an integrated model to tackle this problem. The effects of strut stiffness and wall length are also investigated. The results of numerical analysis clearly imply that the deformation and bending moment of diaphragm walls are distinct on different sides, indicating the need for different rebar arrangements when the excavation is subjected to asymmetrical loads. This study provides a practical approach to designing excavations under asymmetrical loads. We analyze and compare the monitoring and calculation data at different excavation stages and find some general trends. Several guidelines on excavation design under asymmetrical loads are drawn.

  4. Asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beams. (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Skidanov, R V; Soifer, V A


    We propose a three-parameter family of asymmetric Bessel-Gauss (aBG) beams with integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aBG beams are described by the product of a Gaussian function by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind of complex argument, having finite energy. The aBG beam's asymmetry degree depends on a real parameter c≥0: at c=0, the aBG beam is coincident with a conventional radially symmetric Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam; with increasing c, the aBG beam acquires a semicrescent shape, then becoming elongated along the y axis and shifting along the x axis for c≫1. In the initial plane, the intensity distribution of the aBG beams has a countable number of isolated optical nulls on the x axis, which result in optical vortices with unit topological charge and opposite signs on the different sides of the origin. As the aBG beam propagates, the vortex centers undergo a nonuniform rotation with the entire beam about the optical axis (c≫1), making a π/4 turn at the Rayleigh range and another π/4 turn after traveling the remaining distance. At different values of the c parameter, the optical nulls of the transverse intensity distribution change their position, thus changing the OAM that the beam carries. An isolated optical null on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. A vortex laser beam shaped as a rotating semicrescent has been generated using a spatial light modulator.

  5. X-Band PLL Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kutin


    Full Text Available This paper deals with design and realization of a PLL synthesizer for the microwave X−band. The synthesizer is intended for use as a local oscillator in a K−band downconverter. The design goal was to achieve very low phase noise and spurious free signal with a sufficient power level. For that purpose a low phase noise MMIC VCO was used in phase locked loop. The PLL works at half the output frequency, therefore there is a frequency doubler at the output of the PLL. The output signal from the frequency doubler is filtered by a band-pass filter and finally amplified by a single stage amplifier.

  6. Effiziente chemoenzymatische Synthese von dhydroartemisinaldehyd


    Demiray, Melodi; Tang, Xiaoping; Wirth, Thomas; Faraldos, Juan A.; Allemann, Rudolf K.


    Artemisinin aus der Pflanze Artemisia annua ist das wirkungsvollste Arzneimittel zur Behandlung von Malaria. Die Sesquiterpen-Cyclase Amorphadien-Synthase, ein Cytochrom-abhängiges CYP450 und eine Aldehyd-Reduktase wandeln in der Pflanze Farnesyl-Diphosphat (FDP) in Dihydroartemisinaldehyd (DHAAl) um, welches ein Schlüsselzwischenprodukt in der Biosynthese von Artemisinin und eine halbsynthetische Vorstufe in der chemischen Synthese des Arzneimittels ist. Hier berichten wir über einen chemoen...

  7. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. A First Synthesis and Physical Properties of Asymmetric Anthracenes-Thiophenes Bridged with Ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Min Ji; Park, Ji Hee; Jeong, Eun Bin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of); and others


    Here we report our recent result of a new semiconductor material, which has an asymmetric structure. The synthesized molecules consist of anthracene and thiophene connected by bridged ethylene and substituted with hexyl or dodecyl groups as pendants. The semiconductors were synthesized using a McMurry coupling reaction between anthracene-2-carbaldehyde and corresponding 5-hexyl(or dodecyl)thiophene-2-carbaldehyde. A first investigation of synthesized asymmetry AVHT (9a) and AVDT (9b) for the physical properties showed that they have high oxidation potential and thermal stability. The devices prepared by using AVHT (9a) and AVDT (9b) showed the mobility of 2.6 Χ 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}/Vs and 4.4 Χ 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively, in solution processed OTFTs.

  9. Asymmetrical soft palate cleft repair: preliminary results. (United States)

    Bütow, K-W; Engelbrecht, H; Naidoo, S


    The reconstructions of the asymmetrical soft palate cleft is a surgical challenge when it comes to achieving symmetry and optimal soft palate muscular function. Three different versions of the intravelar veloplasty have been used: the intravelar veloplasty (1969) (type I), the modification according to anatomical defects (1991) (type II), and the modification using part of Sommerlad's technique and part of Ivanov's technique (2008) (type III). The perioperative outcomes of the type II and type III intravelar veloplasty were assessed and compared in asymmetrical cleft cases. Two hundred and seventy-seven soft palate clefts were reconstructed: 153 type II and 124 type III. Of these, 49 were asymmetrical (17.7%); 23 underwent the type II procedure and 26 the type III procedure. Of the type II procedure cases, 30.4% remained asymmetrical postoperatively compared to 3.8% of the type III cases. The uvula appeared subjectively atrophic in 47.8% of the type II cases and in 7.7% of type III cases. Oro-nasal fistula occurred in 13.0% of the type II cases and 3.8% of the type III cases. Speech results will only be assessed after 4 years of age. The type III modified intravelar veloplasty has had a major beneficial impact on patients who had an asymmetrical soft palate cleft. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division. (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Conradt, Barbara


    Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  11. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hatzold


    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  12. A sampling theory for asymmetric communities. (United States)

    Noble, Andrew E; Temme, Nico M; Fagan, William F; Keitt, Timothy H


    We introduce the first analytical model of asymmetric community dynamics to yield Hubbell's neutral theory in the limit of functional equivalence among all species. Our focus centers on an asymmetric extension of Hubbell's local community dynamics, while an analogous extension of Hubbell's metacommunity dynamics is deferred to an appendix. We find that mass-effects may facilitate coexistence in asymmetric local communities and generate unimodal species abundance distributions indistinguishable from those of symmetric communities. Multiple modes, however, only arise from asymmetric processes and provide a strong indication of non-neutral dynamics. Although the exact stationary distributions of fully asymmetric communities must be calculated numerically, we derive approximate sampling distributions for the general case and for nearly neutral communities where symmetry is broken by a single species distinct from all others in ecological fitness and dispersal ability. In the latter case, our approximate distributions are fully normalized, and novel asymptotic expansions of the required hypergeometric functions are provided to make evaluations tractable for large communities. Employing these results in a bayesian analysis may provide a novel statistical test to assess the consistency of species abundance data with the neutral hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-stabilized nucleophiles in Cu-catalysed dynamic kinetic asymmetric allylic alkylation (United States)

    You, Hengzhi; Rideau, Emeline; Sidera, Mireia; Fletcher, Stephen P.


    The development of new reactions forming asymmetric carbon-carbon bonds has enabled chemists to synthesize a broad range of important carbon-containing molecules, including pharmaceutical agents, fragrances and polymers. Most strategies to obtain enantiomerically enriched molecules rely on either generating new stereogenic centres from prochiral substrates or resolving racemic mixtures of enantiomers. An alternative strategy--dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation--involves the transformation of a racemic starting material into a single enantiomer product, with greater than 50 per cent maximum yield. The use of stabilized nucleophiles (pKa =50, more than 25 orders of magnitude more basic than the nucleophiles that are typically used in such transformations. Organometallic reagents are generated in situ from alkenes by hydrometallation and give highly enantioenriched products under mild reaction conditions. The method is used to synthesize natural products that possess activity against tuberculosis and leprosy, and an inhibitor of para-aminobenzoate biosynthesis. Mechanistic studies indicate that the reaction proceeds through a rapidly isomerizing intermediate. We anticipate that this approach will be a valuable complement to existing asymmetric catalytic methods.

  14. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M


    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  15. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.


    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  16. Asymmetric microscope. Fusho no kenbisho [exclamation point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tadashi. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))


    It is difficult for a conventional optical analysis means to determine the configuration of a substance with an ultra low optical purity. Recently, an asymmetric microscope has been reported as a new concept for solving the above-mentioned problem. Specifically, a product with slight asymmetry is obtained by using the substance with an ultra low optical purity as the chiral initiation, and then the asymmetry of the product is amplified dramatically due to the asymmetric autocatalysis, thus obtaining a product having a high optical purity. A new means is to determine the configuration of the original substance having the low optical purity from the configuration of the substance having the high optical purity. According to this method, the chirality of the substance having the low optical purity is transcribed to alkanol, and the chirality is amplified due to the asymmetric autocatalysis, thus the absolute configuration of the original compound can be determined from the absolute configuration of the final product. (NEDO)

  17. Multi-agent Bargaining under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Marcus; Genesove, David

    information aspect is due to partly unobserved individual valuations of an elevator. We tailor Hellwig (2003) to the features of the retrofitting problem and use this to predict which building characteristics should make it easier for owners to agree. Data from Copenhagen broadly support the model......It is well know that asymmetric information might lead to underprovision of public goods. To test the theoretical prediction, we study the decision to retrofit an elevator into an old apartment building, in which each owner has to agree on how the investment cost is split. The asymmetric......'s predictions. We use transaction data to estimate the market value of an elevator and conclude that for approximately 30-40 percent of the buildings without an elevator the aggregate increase in value exceeds the investment cost....

  18. Synthesis of New Chiral Ligands Based on Thiophene Derivatives for Use in Catalytic Asymmetric Oxidation of Sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong Chul; Ahn, Dae Jun; Lee, Woo Sun; Lee, Seung Han; Ahn, Kwang Hyun [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We discovered that the vanadium complexes of new Schiff base ligands and prepared from thiophene derivatives efficiently catalyze the asymmetric oxidation of sulfides by hydrogen peroxide to provide sulfoxides with enantioselectivities up to 79% ee and in yields up to 89%. Notably, Schiff base showed better or similar enantioselectivity than the well-studied Schiff base. These results suggest possible applications of Schiff bases derived from and in other catalytic asymmetric reactions. Chiral sulfoxides are important functional groups for various applications. For example, the biological activities of sulfoxide containing drugs such as omeprazole are strongly related to the chirality of the sulfoxide group; for this reason, esomeprazole, the enantiomerically pure form of omeprazole, was later developed. There are several chiral sulfoxide based drugs that have been introduced by the pharmaceutical industry including armodafinil, aprikalim, oxisurane, and ustiloxin. Chiral sulfoxides have also been utilized as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric syntheses of chiral intermediates.

  19. Versatile procedure for asymmetric and orthogonal protection of symmetric polyamines and its advantages for solid phase synthesis. (United States)

    Hahn, Frank; Schepers, Ute


    To date, many polyamine syntheses are carried out on solid phase to allow the generation of biologically active polyamine conjugates and libraries of natural product analogs. The synthesis of compounds and libraries, which derive from a symmetric polyamine building block such as spermine requires asymmetric and orthogonal protection of the symmetric polyamine. For this purpose we have established a novel Aloc- and Nosyl-protection group strategy, which displays several advantages. Solution phase synthesis and an easy workup reveals high yield of the asymmetrically and orthogonally protected polyamine. Asymmetric protection prevents cross-linking of the resin, and sequential deprotection can occur on highly acid and base labile resins without cleavage of the linker. Finally, it tolerates the elongation and modification of the symmetric polyamine backbone with several functional groups by conventional Fukuyama-alkylation. The suitability of this protection group strategy was shown by the first solid phase synthesis of the philanthotoxin-analog HO359b.

  20. Algebraic Davis decomposition and asymmetric Doob inequalities


    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier


    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let $(\\M,\\tau)$ be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a weak-$*$ dense filtration of von Neumann subalgebras $(\\M_n)_{n \\ge 1}$. Let $\\E_n$ denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for $1 < p < 2$ and $x \\in L_p(\\M,\\tau)$ one can find $a, b \\in L_p(\\M,\\tau)$ and contractions $u_n, v_...

  1. Asymmetric multiscale behavior in PM2.5 time series: Based on asymmetric MS-DFA (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Zhiwei; Ni, Liping


    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mm or less (PM2.5) is one of the most serious air pollution, considered most harmful for people by World Health Organisation. In this paper, we utilized the asymmetric multiscale detrended fluctuation analysis (A-MSDFA) method to explore the existence of asymmetric correlation properties for PM2.5 daily average concentration in two USA cities (Fresno and Los Angeles) and two Chinese cities (Hong Kong and Shanghai), and to assess the properties of these asymmetric correlations. The results show the existences of asymmetric correlations, and the degree of asymmetric for two USA cities is stronger than that of two Chinese cities. Further, most of the local exponent β(n) are smaller than 0.5, which indicates the existence of anti-persistent long-range correlation for PM2.5 time series in four cities. In addition, we reanalyze the asymmetric correlation by the A-MSDFA method with secant rolling windows of different sizes, which can investigate dynamic changes in the multiscale correlation for PM2.5 time series with changing window size. Whatever window sizes, the correlations are asymmetric and display smaller asymmetries at small scales and larger asymmetries at large scales. Moreover, the asymmetries become increasingly weaker with the increase of window sizes.

  2. Cell-sized asymmetric lipid vesicles facilitate the investigation of asymmetric membranes (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Takeuchi, Shoji


    Asymmetric lipid giant vesicles have been used to model the biochemical reactions in cell membranes. However, methods for producing asymmetric giant vesicles lead to the inclusion of an organic solvent layer that affects the mechanical and physical characteristics of the membrane. Here we describe the formation of asymmetric giant vesicles that include little organic solvent, and use them to investigate the dynamic responses of lipid molecules in the vesicle membrane. We formed the giant vesicles via the inhomogeneous break-up of a lipid microtube generated by applying a jet flow to an asymmetric planar lipid bilayer. The asymmetric giant vesicles showed a lipid flip-flop behaviour in the membrane, superficially similar to the lipid flip-flop activity observed in apoptotic cells. In vitro synthesis of membrane proteins into the asymmetric giant vesicles revealed that the lipid asymmetry in bilayer membranes improves the reconstitution ratio of membrane proteins. Our asymmetric giant vesicles will be useful in elucidating lipid-lipid and lipid-membrane protein interactions involved in the regulation of cellular functions.

  3. Molecular Syntheses of Extended Materials (United States)

    Paley, Daniel W.

    Bottom-up molecular synthesis is a route to chemically and crystallographically uniform polymers and solid-state materials. Through the use of molecular precursors, we gain atomic-level control of functionality and fine-tuning of the collective properties of materials. This dissertation presents two studies that demonstrate this approach. Ring-opening alkyne metathesis polymerization is a possible approach to monodisperse conjugated polymers, but its applications have been limited by difficult syntheses and high air sensitivity of known organometallic ROAMP initiators. We designed a dimeric, air-stable molybdenum alkylidyne with a tris(phenolate) supporting ligand. The precatalyst is activated by addition of methanol and polymerizes cyclooctynes with excellent chemical selectivity and functional group tolerance. The Nuckolls and Roy groups have introduced a new family of solid-state compounds synthesized from cobalt chalcogenide clusters Co6Q 8(PR3)6 and fullerenes. The first examples of these materials crystallized in superatom lattices with the symmetry of simple inorganic solids CdI2 (P-3m1) and NaCl (Fm-3m). This dissertation reveals that further members of the family feature extraordinary diversity of structure, including a pseudo-trigonal array of fulleride dimers in [Co 6Te8(PEt3)6]2[C140 ][C70]2 and a heterolayered van der Waals cocrystal [Co6Se8(PEt2phen)6][C 60]5. In addition to these unusual crystal structures, this dissertation presents a method for assigning redox states from crystallographic data in Co6Q8 clusters. Finally, a detailed guide to the collection and solution of single-crystal X-ray data is presented. The guide is intended for independent study by new crystallographers.

  4. On the optimization of asymmetric barrier layers in InAlGaAs/AlGaAs laser heterostructures on GaAs substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukov, A. E.; Asryan, L. V.; Semenova, Elizaveta


    Band offsets at the heterointerface are calculated for various combinations of InAlGaAs/AlGaAs heteropairs that can be synthesized on GaAs substrates in the layer-by-layer pseudomorphic growth mode. Patterns which make it possible to obtain an asymmetric barrier layer providing the almost...

  5. De novo asymmetric synthesis and biological analysis of the daumone pheromones in Caenorhabditis elegans and in the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines (United States)

    The de novo asymmetric total syntheses of daumone 1, daumone 2 and analogs are described. The key steps of our approach are the diastereoselective palladium catalyzed glycosylation reaction, the Noyori reduction of a acetylfuran and a propargyl ketone, which introduce the absolute stereochemistry of...

  6. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2013 ... The Internet is an insecure open network and its use and connectivity have witnessed a significant growth, and this has made it vulnerable to all forms of attacks. A threat to a network can cause harm or interrupt the network. In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using asymmetric.

  7. Settling dynamics of asymmetric rigid fibers (United States)

    E.J. Tozzi; C Tim Scott; David Vahey; D.J. Klingenberg


    The three-dimensional motion of asymmetric rigid fibers settling under gravity in a quiescent fluid was experimentally measured using a pair of cameras located on a movable platform. The particle motion typically consisted of an initial transient after which the particle approached a steady rate of rotation about an axis parallel to the acceleration of gravity, with...

  8. Computing modal dispersion characteristics of radially Asymmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine how the modal characteristics change as circular Bragg fiber is changed to asymmetric Bragg fiber. The key to this transfer matrix method (TMM) is the accurate calculation of the propagation constants of modes. And validity of this method is verified by FDTD method. We compare these results with obtained from ...

  9. Organocatalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Johannes G.; Mrsic, Natasa; Mršić, Nataša


    The asymmetric organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation of imines can be accomplished in good yields with high enantioselectivities through the use of BINOL-derived phosphoric acids as catalysts and Hantzsch esters or benzothiazoles as the hydride source. The same method can also be applied to the

  10. Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A

    We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into

  11. Asymmetric volatility connectedness on the forex market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš


    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2017), s. 39-56 ISSN 0261-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14179S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : volatility * connectedness * asymmetric effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.853, year: 2016 http:// library

  12. Asymmetric Drift and the Stellar Velocity Ellipsoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.


    We present the decomposition of the stellar velocity ellipsoid using stellar velocity dispersions within a 40° wedge about the major-axis (smaj), the epicycle approximation, and the asymmetric drift equation. Thus, we employ no fitted forms for smaj and escape interpolation errors resulting from

  13. Dynamic Conditional Correlations for Asymmetric Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThe paper develops two Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models, namely the Wishart DCC (WDCC) model and the Matrix-Exponential Conditional Correlation (MECC) model. The paper applies the WDCC approach to the exponential GARCH (EGARCH) and GJR models to propose asymmetric DCC models.

  14. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.


    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  15. Spectral inequalities for the quantum asymmetric top

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourget, Alain; McMillen, Tyler [Department of Mathematics, California State University (Fullerton), McCarthy Hall 154, Fullerton, CA 92834 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We consider the spectrum of the quantum asymmetric top. Unlike in the case when two or three moments of inertia are equal, when the moments of inertia are distinct all degeneracy in the spectrum of the operator is removed. We derive inequalities for the spectra based on recent results on the interlacing of Van Vleck zeros.

  16. Palladium catalysed asymmetric alkylation of benzophenone Schiff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 4. Palladium catalysed asymmetric alkylation of benzophenone Schiff base glycine esters in ionic liquids. Dae Hyun Kim Jin Kyu Im Dae Won Kim Minserk Cheong Hoon Sik Kim Deb Kumar Mukherjee. Volume 123 Issue 4 July 2011 pp 467-476 ...

  17. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Internet is an insecure open network and its use and connectivity have witnessed a significant growth, and this has made it vulnerable to all forms of attacks. A threat to a network can cause harm or interrupt the network. In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using asymmetric cryptography, with ...

  18. Mixed gas plasticization phenomena in asymmetric membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Tymen


    This thesis describes the thorough investigation of mixed gas transport behavior of asymmetric membranes in the separation of feed streams containing plasticizing gases in order to gain more insights into the complicated behavior of plasticization. To successfully employ gas separation membranes in

  19. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    the paralinguistic traits of the synthesized voice. Using a corpus of 13 synthesized voices, constructed from acoustic concatenative speech synthesis, we assessed the response of 23 listeners from differing cultural backgrounds. Evaluating if the perception shifts from the known ground–truths, we asked listeners...... exploration into a more participatory and inclusive synthesized vocal identity....

  20. Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco


    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown...... component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton...... flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric....

  1. Determinant of asymmetric risks in Nigerian loan market: any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bank lending in Nigeria was dominated by the presence of asymmetric information, a wedge to financial intermediation. Using probit and correlation test methodology, evidence of low level asymmetric risk was found and the determinants of asymmetric risks in the market were not significantly different. The size of default ...

  2. Flexible and Asymmetric Ligand in Constructing Coordinated Complexes: Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Fluorescent Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Lin


    Full Text Available Flexible and asymmetric ligand L [L = 1-((pyridin-3-ylmethyl-1H-benzotriazole], is used as a basic backbone to construct complicated metal-organic frameworks. Two new polymers, namely, [Ag2(L2(NO32]n (1 and [Ag(L(ClO4]n (2, were synthesized and characterized by X-ray structure analysis and fluorescent spectroscopy. The complex 1 gives an “S” type double helical conformation, whereas complex 2 exhibits a 1D zigzag configuration. Different anions affect the silver coordination geometry and crystal packing topology.

  3. Catalytic Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)- and (-)-Paeoveitol via a Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction. (United States)

    Li, Tian-Ze; Geng, Chang-An; Yin, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Tong-Hua; Chen, Xing-Long; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yun-Bao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun


    The first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-paeoveitol has been accomplished in 42% overall yield via a biomimetic hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. The chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed hetero-Diels-Alder reaction showed excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (>99:1 dr and 90% ee); two rings and three stereocenters were constructed in a single step to produce (-)-paeoveitol on a scale of 452 mg. This strategy enabled us to selectively synthesize both paeoveitol enantiomers from the same substrates by simply changing the enantiomer of the catalyst.

  4. Asymmetric total synthesis of Apocynaceae hydrocarbazole alkaloids (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. (United States)

    Du, Ji-Yuan; Zeng, Chao; Han, Xiao-Jie; Qu, Hu; Zhao, Xian-He; An, Xian-Tao; Fan, Chun-An


    An unprecedented asymmetric catalytic tandem aminolysis/aza-Michael addition reaction of spirocyclic para-dienoneimides has been designed and developed through organocatalytic enantioselective desymmetrization. A unified strategy based on this key tandem methodology has been divergently explored for the asymmetric total synthesis of two natural Apocynaceae alkaloids, (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. The present studies not only enrich the tandem reaction design concerning the asymmetric catalytic assembly of a chiral all-carbon quaternary stereocenter contained in the densely functionalized hydrocarbazole synthons but also manifest the potential for the application of the asymmetric catalysis based on the para-dienone chemistry in asymmetric synthesis of natural products.

  5. Settling dynamics of asymmetric rigid fibers (United States)

    Tozzi, E. J.; Scott, C. T.; Vahey, D.; Klingenberg, D. J.


    The three-dimensional motion of asymmetric rigid fibers settling under gravity in a quiescent fluid was experimentally measured using a pair of cameras located on a movable platform. The particle motion typically consisted of an initial transient after which the particle approached a steady rate of rotation about an axis parallel to the acceleration of gravity, with its center of mass following a helical trajectory. Numerical and analytical methods were used to predict translational and angular velocities as well as the evolution of the fiber orientation as a function of time. A comparison of calculated and measured values shows that it is possible to quantitatively predict complex motions of particles that have highly asymmetric shape. The relations between particle shape and settling trajectory have potential applications for hydrodynamic characterization of fiber shapes and fiber separation.

  6. Enhancing molecule fluorescence with asymmetrical plasmonic antennas. (United States)

    Lu, Guowei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianyue; Shen, Hongming; Perriat, Pascal; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Gu, Ying; He, Yingbo; Wang, Yuwei; Gong, Qihuang


    We propose and justify by the finite-difference time-domain method an efficient strategy to enhance the spontaneous emission of a fluorophore with a multi-resonance plasmonic antenna. The custom-designed asymmetrical antenna consists of two plasmonic nanoparticles with different sizes and is able to couple efficiently to free space light through multiple localized surface plasmon resonances. This design simultaneously permits a large near-field excitation near the antenna as well as a high quantum efficiency, which results in an unusual and significant enhancement of the fluorescence of a single emitter. Such an asymmetrical antenna presents intrinsic advantages over single particle or dimer based antennas made using two identical nanostructures. This promising concept can be exploited in the large domain of light-matter interaction processes involving multiple frequencies.

  7. Defect induced asymmetric pit formation on hydroxyapatite. (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Young; Wang, Eddie; Chung, Alice; Chang, Neil; Saiz, Eduardo; Choe, Uh-Joo; Koobatian, Maxwell; Lee, Seung-Wuk


    Defect sites on bone minerals play a critical role in bone remodeling processes. We investigated single crystal hydroxyapatite (100) surfaces bearing crystal defects under acidic dissolution conditions using real-time in situ atomic force microscopy. At defect sites, surface structure-dependent asymmetric hexagonal etch pits were formed, which dominated the overall dissolution rate. Meanwhile, dissolution from the flat terraces proceeded by stochastic formation of flat bottom etch pits. The resulting pit shapes were intrinsically dictated by the HAP crystal structure. Computational modeling also predicted different step energies associated with different facets of the asymmetric etch pits. Our microscopic observations of HAP dissolution are significant for understanding the effects of local surface structure on the bone mineral remodeling process and provide useful insights for the design of novel therapies for treating osteoporosis and dental caries.

  8. Asymmetric synthesis and sensory evaluation of sedanenolide. (United States)

    Oguro, Daichi; Watanabe, Hidenori


    The synthesis and sensory evaluation of enantiomeric sets of sedanenolide (1) and 3-butylphthalide (3) are described. The asymmetric synthesis was achieved via the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of chiral propargylester (5) which was prepared from optically active propargyl alcohol (4) and 2,4-pentadienoic acid. The sensory evaluation of these enantiomers revealed that there were distinct differences between their aroma character and odor threshold.

  9. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates. (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L


    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of α,β-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good yields and high enantiomeric excess. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated through stereospecific transformations into multifunctional optically active compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li


    In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....

  11. Asymmetric monetary policy effects in EMU


    Clausen, Volker; Hayo, Bernd


    This paper uses a semi-structural dynamic modelling approach to investigate asymmetric monetary transmission in Europe. A system of equations containing reaction functions for monetary policy, output and inflation equations is simultaneously estimated for France, Germany, and Italy. Extensive cross equation tests show that relatively large differences in simulated impulse responses are still consistent with the notion that the transmission mechanism is homogeneous across the three major EMU c...

  12. Predicting tensorial electrophoretic effects in asymmetric colloids (United States)

    Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, T. A.


    We formulate a numerical method for predicting the tensorial linear response of a rigid, asymmetrically charged body to an applied electric field. This prediction requires calculating the response of the fluid to the Stokes drag forces on the moving body and on the countercharges near its surface. To determine the fluid's motion, we represent both the body and the countercharges using many point sources of drag known as Stokeslets. Finding the correct flow field amounts to finding the set of drag forces on the Stokeslets that is consistent with the relative velocities experienced by each Stokeslet. The method rigorously satisfies the condition that the object moves with no transfer of momentum to the fluid. We demonstrate that a sphere represented by 1999 well-separated Stokeslets on its surface produces flow and drag force like a solid sphere to 1% accuracy. We show that a uniformly charged sphere with 3998 body and countercharge Stokeslets obeys the Smoluchowski prediction [F. Morrison, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 210 (1970), 10.1016/0021-9797(70)90171-2] for electrophoretic mobility when the countercharges lie close to the sphere. Spheres with dipolar and quadrupolar charge distributions rotate and translate as predicted analytically to 4% accuracy or better. We describe how the method can treat general asymmetric shapes and charge distributions. This method offers promise as a way to characterize and manipulate asymmetrically charged colloid-scale objects from biology (e.g., viruses) and technology (e.g., self-assembled clusters).

  13. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin


    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  14. Syntheses and Characterization of Some Tetradentate Schiff-Base Complexes and Their Heteroleptic Analogues


    Osowole, A. A.


    VO(IV), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of the asymmetric Schiff base [(HOC6H3(OCH3)C(C6H5):N(CH2CH2)N:C(CH3)CH:C(C6H5)OH)], and their heteroleptic analogues with triphenyl phosphine and 2,2’-bipyridine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, conductance, magnetic, infrared and electronic spectral measurements. The ligand is tetradentate coordinating via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes adopt a four coordinate square planar geometry, the VO(I...

  15. Preparation of CaTiO3 Asymmetric Membranes Using Polyetherimide as Binder Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwanti Setyaningsih


    Full Text Available Asymmetric dense and thin membranes have been prepared from powders of perovskite oxide-type CaTiO3 without cracking by phase inversion method. Polyetherimide was used as a polymeric binder in the method. The resulting green membranes, composed of CaTiO3 powder and polyetherimide binder, were sintered at 890, 1100 or 1200 °C. The crystal phase of CaTiO3 was analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The XRD pattern of the synthesized CaTiO3 powder was matched with the reference indicating the formation of CaTiO3 structure. Sintering at 890 °C fails to form a strong membrane. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images of the membranes showed that the membrane had the asymmetric structure with dense layer on one side and porous layer on the other side. The pores in the porous layer were both finger-like and sponge-like structure. The mechanical strength of the membranes, which were determined by Vickers micro hardness method, varied from 3.5 to 25.8 Hv. The strongest membrane without any crack was resulted from sintering at 1200°C with hardness values between 19.4 and 25.8 Hv. Thermal expansion coefficients of the asymmetric membranes sintered at 1100 and 1200 °C, measured with Thermomechanical Analyzer (TMA, were 10.82 × 10-6 and 12.78 × 10-6.C-1 respectively.

  16. Asymmetrical lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs may promote asymmetrical hip joint development. (United States)

    Flückiger, Mark A; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joseph P


    This study examines the relationship between the morphology of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV) and asymmetrical development of the hip joints in dogs. A total of 4000 dogs which had been consecutively scored for canine hip dysplasia were checked for the presence of a LTV. A LTV was noted in 138 dogs and classified depending on the morphology of the transverse processes and the degree of contact with the ilium. In dogs with an asymmetrical LTV, the hip joint was significantly more predisposed to subluxation and malformation on the side of the intermediate or sacral-like transverse process (p hip joint conformation was less affected on the side featuring a free transverse process (p hip joint, and secondary osteoarthritis. Asymmetrical hip conformation may therefore be the sequela of a LTV and mask or aggravate genetically induced canine hip dysplasia.

  17. Asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of heterocycles via Rhodium-catalysed allylic arylation of racemates (United States)

    Schäfer, Philipp; Palacin, Thomas; Sidera, Mireia; Fletcher, Stephen P.


    Using asymmetric catalysis to simultaneously form carbon-carbon bonds and generate single isomer products is strategically important. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling is widely used in the academic and industrial sectors to synthesize drugs, agrochemicals and biologically active and advanced materials. However, widely applicable enantioselective Suzuki-Miyaura variations to provide 3D molecules remain elusive. Here we report a rhodium-catalysed asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura reaction with important partners including aryls, vinyls, heteroaromatics and heterocycles. The method can be used to couple two heterocyclic species so the highly enantioenriched products have a wide array of cores. We show that pyridine boronic acids are unsuitable, but they can be halogen-modified at the 2-position to undergo reaction, and this halogen can then be removed or used to facilitate further reactions. The method is used to synthesize isoanabasine, preclamol, and niraparib--an anticancer agent in several clinical trials. We anticipate this method will be a useful tool in drug synthesis and discovery.

  18. New Organocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Highly Substituted Chiral 2-Oxospiro-[indole-3,4′- (1′,4′-dihydropyridine] Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Auria-Luna


    Full Text Available Herein, we report our preliminary results concerning the first promising asymmetric synthesis of highly functionalized 2-oxospiro-[indole-3,4′-(1′,4′-dihydropyridine] via the reaction of an enamine with isatylidene malononitrile derivatives in the presence of a chiral base organocatalyst. The moderate, but promising, enantioselectivity observed (30%–58% ee (enantiomeric excess opens the door to a new area of research for the asymmetric construction of these appealing spirooxindole skeletons, whose enantioselective syntheses are still very limited.

  19. Syntheses of copper complexes of nicotinohydroxamic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syntheses of copper complexes of nicotinohydroxamic and isonicotinohydroxamic acids. A.O Aliyu, A.P Egwaikhide, C.E Gimba. Abstract. Nicotinohydroxamic acid (NHA) and isonicotinohydroxamic acid (INHA) were synthesized, characterized by electronic and spectral studies,magnetic measurements and their pKa ...

  20. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials (United States)

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun


    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  1. A Synthesized (Biosocial) Theory of Rape. (United States)

    Ellis, Lee


    Integrates features of contemporary theories of rape (feminist theory, social learning theory, evolutionary theory) with information on neurohormonal variables to formulate synthesized theory of rape. Synthesized theory of rape, consisting of four propositions, proposes that people are not all equally prone toward rape and that men are much more…

  2. Making the Bread: Insights from Newly Synthesized Allohexaploid Wheat. (United States)

    Li, Ai-li; Geng, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Lian-quan; Liu, Deng-cai; Mao, Long


    Bread wheat (or common wheat, Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) that arose by hybridization between a cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum (AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and the wild goatgrass Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). Polyploidization provided niches for rigorous genome modification at cytogenetic, genetic, and epigenetic levels, rendering a broader spread than its progenitors. This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding gene regulation mechanisms in newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat and possible correlation with polyploid growth vigor and adaptation. Cytogenetic studies reveal persistent association of whole-chromosome aneuploidy with nascent allopolyploids, in contrast to the genetic stability in common wheat. Transcriptome analysis of the euploid wheat shows that small RNAs are driving forces for homoeo-allele expression regulation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The ensuing non-additively expressed genes and those with expression level dominance to the respective progenitor may play distinct functions in growth vigor and adaptation in nascent allohexaploid wheat. Further genetic diploidization of allohexaploid wheat is not random. Regional asymmetrical gene distribution, rather than subgenome dominance, is observed in both synthetic and natural allohexaploid wheats. The combinatorial effects of diverged genomes, subsequent selection of specific gene categories, and subgenome-specific traits are essential for the successful establishment of common wheat. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preview-based Asymmetric Load Reduction of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mathias; Filsø, Jakob; Soltani, Mohsen


    Fatigue loads on wind turbines caused by an asymmetric wind field become an increasing concern when the scale of wind turbines increases. This paper presents a model based predictive approach to reduce asymmetric loads by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) measurements. The Model Predictive...... to the same controller without LIDAR data. The results showed that the MPC with LIDAR was able to reduce the asymmetric loads compared to the MPC without LIDAR while still maintaining the power reference....

  4. Asymmetric joint multifractal analysis in Chinese stock markets (United States)

    Chen, Yuwen; Zheng, Tingting


    In this paper, the asymmetric joint multifractal analysis method based on statistical physics is proposed to explore the asymmetric correlation between daily returns and trading volumes in Chinese stock markets. The result shows asymmetric multifractal correlations exist between return and trading volume in Chinese stock markets. Moreover, when the stock indexes are upward, the fluctuations of returns are always weaker than when they are downward, whether the trading volumes are more or less.

  5. Combined shear/compression structural testing of asymmetric sandwich structures


    Castanié, Bruno; Barrau, Jean-Jacques; Jaouen, Jean-Pierre; Rivallant, Samuel


    Asymmetric sandwich technology can be applied in the design of lightweight, non-pressurized aeronautical structures such as those of helicopters. A test rig of asymmetric sandwich structures subjected to compression/shear loads was designed, validated, and set up. It conforms to the standard certification procedure for composite aeronautical structures set out in the “test pyramid”, a multiscale approach. The static tests until failure showed asymmetric sandwich structures to be extremely res...

  6. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)


    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  7. On asymmetric causal relationships in Petropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Feyza


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine whether the First Law of Petropolitics denominated by Friedman in 2006 is valid for OPEC countries. To do this, this paper analyses the relationship between political risk and oil supply by applying the asymmetric panel causality test suggested by Hatemi-J (2011 to these countries for the period 1984-2014. The results show that the First Law of Petropolitics is valid for Angola, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE, given that positive oil supply shocks significantly lead to negative political stability shocks, and negative oil supply shocks significantly lead to positive shocks in political stability.

  8. RHIC operation with asymmetric collisions in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Aschenauer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Atoian, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ottavio, T. D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Drees, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hayes, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laster, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Makdisi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marr, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morris, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Narayan, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nemesure, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poblaguev, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schmidke, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severino, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shrey, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yip, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    To study low-x shadowing/saturation physics as well as other nuclear effects [1], [2], proton-gold (p-Au, for 5 weeks) and proton-Aluminum (p-Al, for 2 weeks) collisions were provided for experiments in 2015 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with polarized proton beam in the Blue ring and Au/Al beam in the Yellow ring. The special features of the asymmetric run in 2015 will be introduced. The operation experience will be reviewed as well in the report.

  9. Chiral Diamine-catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Da-zhen; WU Lu-lu; WANG Yong-mei


    A highly efficient catalytic system composed of a simple and commercially available chiral primary diamine (1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine(6) and trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) was employed for asymmetric Aldol reaction in i-PrOH at room temperature.A loading of 10%(molar fraction) catalyst 6 with TFA as a cocatalyst could catalyze the Aldol reactions of various ketones or aldehydes with a series of aromatic aldehydes,furnishing Aldol products in moderate to high yields(up to >99%) with enantioselectivities of up to >99% and diastereoselectivities of up to 99:1.

  10. Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada


    Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.

  11. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric oxidation of sulfides. (United States)

    O'Mahony, Graham E; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Anita R


    Copper-catalyzed asymmetric sulfoxidation of aryl benzyl and aryl alkyl sulfides, using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant, has been investigated. A relationship between the steric effects of the sulfide substituents and the enantioselectivity of the oxidation has been observed, with up to 93% ee for 2-naphthylmethyl phenyl sulfoxide, in modest yield in this instance (up to 30%). The influence of variation of solvent and ligand structure was examined, and the optimized conditions were then used to oxidize a number of aryl alkyl and aryl benzyl sulfides, producing sulfoxides in excellent yields in most cases (up to 92%), and good enantiopurities in certain cases (up to 84% ee).

  12. At Low SNR Asymmetric Quantizers Are Better

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Tobias


    We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a one-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by 2/pi, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately two decibels. Here it is shown that this power loss can be entirely avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. We prove that in order to avoid this power loss flash-signaling input-distributions are essential. Consequently, one-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: as we prove, at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all one-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case we show that a one-bit output quantizer ...

  13. Asymmetric DSL Technology of Signal Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević


    Full Text Available Asymmetric flow of information is the key feature of theADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop technology, i.e.higher data transmission rate towards the user than from theuser towards the network. Characteristic is the short messagesending by the user with a certain request to the se!Ver. These!Ver responds to the request by a significantly longer messageof various electronic forms (data, digitized speech, pictures orvideo. Therefore, this technology is most often used by smalland medium users. ADSL is currently the only commerciallyavailable DSL technology which is still experiencing the breakthroughon the seiVice market. It enables faster access to theInternet, LAN (Local Area Network, videoconferencing, VoD(Video on Demand and interactive multimedia. In order tostandardize such se/Vices, the !TU (International TelecommunicationsUnion G. 992.1 (standardized DMT-discrete multi-tone line coding technology and ANSJ (American NationalStandards Institution Tl.413-95!98 are used for ADSL. DMT(Discrete Multi Tone, as the more popular one, uses the linecoding technique, which splits a certain frequency range intoseveral sub-channels. Most of these sub-channels are used forupstream and downstream transmission of speech and data,whereas some are used as pilot signals or kept in rese/Ve. Suchmodulation technique expands the frequency spectrum, allowingthe usage ofbroadband se/Vices per one pair of wires. In thisway the sharing of speech and data se/Vice transmission is realized.

  14. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics (United States)

    Pinier, Jeremy T


    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  15. Algebraic Davis Decomposition and Asymmetric Doob Inequalities (United States)

    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier


    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let {({M}, τ)} be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a filtration of von Neumann subalgebras {({M}_n)_{n ≥ 1}}, whose union {bigcup_{n≥1}{M}_n} is weak-* dense in {{M}}. Let {{E}_n} denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for {1 Hardy spaces {{H}_p^r({M})} and {{H}_p^c({M})} respectively. In particular, this solves a problem posed by the Defant and Junge in 2004. In the case p = 1, our results establish a noncommutative form of the Davis celebrated theorem on the relation betwe en martingale maximal and square functions in L 1, whose noncommutative form has remained open for quite some time. Given {1 ≤ p ≤ 2}, we also provide new weak type maximal estimates, which imply in turn left/right almost uniform convergence of {{E}_n(x)} in row/column Hardy spaces. This improves the bilateral convergence known so far. Our approach is based on new forms of Davis martingale decomposition which are of independent interest, and an algebraic atomic description for the involved Hardy spaces. The latter results are new even for commutative von Neumann algebras.

  16. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles]. (United States)

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B


    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  18. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang


    Full Text Available A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our time-lapse studies suggest that cytoophidia are dynamic. Once the mother cell divides, the cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia independently partition into one of the two daughter cells. Although the two daughter cells differ from one another morphologically, they possess similar chances of inheriting the cytoplasmic cytoophidium from the mother cell, suggesting that the partition of cytoophidium is a stochastic process. Our findings on asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in S. pombe offer an exciting opportunity to study the inheritance of metabolic enzymes in a well-studied model system.

  19. Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Epidermis (United States)

    Poulson, Nicholas D.; Lechler, Terry


    Generation of three-dimensional tissue with distinct cell types is required for the development of all organs. On its own, mitotic spindle orientation allows tissues to change in length or shape. In combination with intrinsic or extrinsic cues this can also be coupled to the generation of diverse cell fates - a process known as asymmetric cell division (ACD). Understanding ACD’s has been greatly aided by studies in invertebrate model systems, where genetics and live imaging have provided the basis for much of what we know. ACD’s also drive the development and differentiation of the epidermis in mammals. While similar to the invertebrate models, the epidermis is distinct in balancing symmetric and asymmetric divisions to yield a tissue of the correct surface area and thickness. Here we review the roles of spindle orientation in driving both morphogenesis and cell fate decisions. We highlight the epidermis as a unique model system to study not only basic mechanisms of ACD, but also to study their regulation during development. PMID:22449491

  20. Mesoporous Vanadium Nitride Synthesized by Chemical Routes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishra, Pragnya P; Theerthagiri, J; Panda, Rabi N


    Nanocrystalline vanadium nitride (VN) materials are synthesized by two different routes, namely, the urea route and the ammonia route, using various V2O5 precursors obtained by citric acid–based sol–gel method...

  1. Synthesizing a color algorithm from examples. (United States)

    Hurlbert, A C; Poggio, T A


    A lightness algorithm that separates surface reflectance from illumination in a Mondrian world is synthesized automatically from a set of examples, which consist of pairs of input (intensity signal) and desired output (surface reflectance) images. The algorithm, which resembles a new lightness algorithm recently proposed by Land, is approximately equivalent to filtering the image through a center-surround receptive field in individual chromatic channels. The synthesizing technique, optimal linear estimation, requires only one assumption, that the operator that transforms input into output is linear. This assumption is true for a certain class of early vision algorithms that may therefore be synthesized in a similar way from examples. Other methods of synthesizing algorithms from examples, or "learning," such as back-propagation, do not yield a significantly better lightness algorithm.

  2. Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and luminescence behaviour of terephthalate bridged heptacoordinated dinuclear lead(II) complexes containing a pentadentate N-donor Schiff base. SUBHASIS ROYa, SOMNATH CHOUBEYa, SUMITAVA KHANa, KISHALAY BHARa,. PARTHA MITRAb and BARINDRA ...

  3. A universal isocyanide for diverse heterocycle syntheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Pravin; Dömling, Alexander; Khoury, Kareem; Herdtweck, Eberhardt


    Novel scaffolds are of uttermost importance for the discovery of functional material. Three different heterocyclic scaffolds easily accessible from isocyanoacetaldehyde dimethylacetal 1 by multicomponent reaction (MCR) are described. They can be efficiently synthesized by a Ugi tetrazole

  4. Raman assisted lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten


    We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level.......We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level....

  5. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.


    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  6. Acoustics of finite asymmetric exotic beams: Examples of Airy and fractional Bessel beams (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.


    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the properties of finite asymmetric exotic scalar (acoustic) beams with unusual properties using the angular spectrum decomposition in plane waves. Such beams possess intrinsic uncommon characteristics that make them attractive from the standpoint of particle manipulation, handling and rotation, and possibly other applications in particle clearing and separation. Assuming a specific apodization function at the acoustic source, the angular spectrum function is calculated and used to synthesize the radiated pressure field (i.e., excluding evanescent waves that decay away from the source) in the forward direction of wave motion (i.e., away from the source). Moreover, a generalized hybrid method combining the angular spectrum approach with the multipole expansion formalism in spherical coordinates is developed, which is applicable to any finite beam of arbitrary wavefront. The improved approach allows adequate computation of the resonance scattering, radiation force, and spin torque components on an object of arbitrary shape, located on or off the axis of the incident beam in space. Considering the illustrative example of a viscous fluid sphere submerged in a non-viscous liquid and illuminated by finite asymmetric beams such as the Airy and the Bessel vortex beam with fractional order, numerical computations for the scattering, radiation force, and torque components are performed with an emphasis on the distance from the source, the arbitrary location of the particle ,and the asymmetric nature of the incident field. Moreover, beamforming calculations are presented with supplementary animations for the pressure field distribution in space, with an emphasis on the intrinsic properties of the selected beams. The numerical predictions illustrate the scattering, radiation force, and spin torque properties depending on the beam parameters and the distance separating the sphere from the source. This study provides a generalized

  7. Asymmetric pair distribution functions in catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, B. S.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    of asymmetric pair distribution functions for nano-sized particles and how they influence the structural parameters obtained from the standard data analysis. An alternative method, which takes into account deviations from the Gaussian pair distribution function typically used in the analysis of EXAFS spectra......, will be described. The method is based on an analysis of the pair distribution functions derived from molecular dynamics simulations of small metal particles and its reliability is demonstrated by comparing structural parameters obtained from independent X-ray diffraction experiments.......The structural parameters, i.e., coordination numbers, bond distances and disorder obtained from the analysis of EXAFS spectra may sometimes be significantly influenced by errors introduced due to the inadequacy of the analysis method applied. Especially in the case of heterogeneous catalysts...

  8. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Benzophenone Dianhydrides (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)


    This invention relates to the composition and processes for preparing thermoset polyimides derived from an asymmetric dianhydride, namely 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) with at least one diamine, and a monofunctional terminal endcaps. The monofunctional terminating groups include 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride ester-acid derivatives, phenylethyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA) and its ester derivatives as well as 3-phenylethynylaniline. The process of polyimide composite comprises impregnating monomer reactants of dianhydride or its ester-acid derivatives, diamine and with monofunctional reactive endcaps into glass, carbon, quartz or synthetic fibers and fabrics, and then stack up into laminates and subsequently heated to between C. either at atmosphere or under pressure to promote the curing and crosslinking of the reactive endcaps to form a network of thermoset polyimides.

  9. Optical Nonreciprocity in Asymmetric Optomechanical Couplers (United States)

    Wang, Zheqi; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xinbiao; Zhang, Xinliang


    We propose an all-optical integrated nonreciprocal device on the optomechanical platform with a large nonreciprocal bandwidth and low operating power. The device is based on an asymmetric silicon coupler consisting of two branches. One of them is a conventional strip waveguide fixed on the substrate, and the other is a freestanding nanostring suspended above a groove in the substrate. When light is launched into the coupler, the optical gradient force between the freestanding nanostring and the underlying substrate leads to the deflection of the nanostring, and finally results in destruction of the initial phase-matching condition between the two branches. The suspended branch would achieve distinct deflections when light is incident from different ports. The simulation results show a nonreciprocal bandwidth of 13.1 nm with operating power of 390 μW. With the advantages of simple structure, low power consumption and large operating bandwidth, our work provides a promising solution for on-chip passive nonreciprocal device.

  10. Asymmetric adsorption in an open electrolytic cell (United States)

    Bousiadi, S.; Lelidis, I.


    We investigate the effect of adsorption-desorption phenomenon of ions in an asymmetric electrolytic cell at open circuit conditions. Our approach is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory for electrolytes and the kinetic model of Langmuir for the description of adsorption-desorption phenomena on the electrodes. When the electrodes are immersed into the solution, selective ion adsorption takes place. It is shown, that the selective ion adsorption is responsible for generating an electrical potential difference between the electrodes of the cell. The analytical expressions for the potential difference and for the charge distribution are calculated. Finally, the time evolution of the system is investigated and the relaxation times of the problem are deduced numerically.

  11. Bilateral asymmetrical traumatic sternoclavicular joint dislocations. (United States)

    Albarrag, Mohammed K


    Unilateral and bilateral sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocations are rare injuries. The difficulty in assessing this condition often leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report a rare case of bilateral asymmetrical traumatic SCJ dislocations in a 45-year-old male. The right anterior SCJ dislocation was reduced in the emergency room (ER) and resulted in residual instability. The left posterior SCJ dislocation was asymptomatic and unnoticed for six months. It is important for ER physicians and orthopaedic surgeons to be able identify and treat this condition. All suspected SCJ dislocations should be evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scan for confirmation of the diagnosis and evaluation of both SCJs. Posterior SCJ dislocation is a potentially fatal injury and should not be overlooked due to the presence of other injuries. Surgical intervention is often necessary in acute and old cases.

  12. Bilateral Asymmetrical Traumatic Sternoclavicular Joint Dislocations (United States)

    Albarrag, Mohammed K.


    Unilateral and bilateral sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocations are rare injuries. The difficulty in assessing this condition often leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report a rare case of bilateral asymmetrical traumatic SCJ dislocations in a 45-year-old male. The right anterior SCJ dislocation was reduced in the emergency room (ER) and resulted in residual instability. The left posterior SCJ dislocation was asymptomatic and unnoticed for six months. It is important for ER physicians and orthopaedic surgeons to be able identify and treat this condition. All suspected SCJ dislocations should be evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scan for confirmation of the diagnosis and evaluation of both SCJs. Posterior SCJ dislocation is a potentially fatal injury and should not be overlooked due to the presence of other injuries. Surgical intervention is often necessary in acute and old cases. PMID:23275851

  13. Asymmetrical Integration: Lessons from a Railway Empire. (United States)

    McDonald, Kate


    This article reexamines railway imperialism in Manchuria from the perspective of global network building. Through a case study of the Japanese-owned South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR), I trace how one railway empire used through traffic agreements to integrate Northeast Asian railways into a global network while at the same time installing itself as the necessary intermediary between European and Asian overland traffic. I argue that the SMR's pursuit of global reach and local dominance compels us to reconsider the traditional division of border-crossing railways into international and imperialist types, and instead to examine how border-crossing railways contributed to the uneven or "asymmetrical" integration of the global transportation infrastructure.

  14. Asymmetric synthesis of first generation molecular motors. (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas M; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Zhao, Depeng; Lubbe, Anouk S; Kistemaker, Jos C M; Feringa, Ben L


    A general enantioselective route to functionalized first generation molecular motors is described. An enantioselective protonation of the silyl enol ethers of indanones by a Au(I)BINAP complex sets the stage for a highly diastereoselective McMurry coupling as a second enhancement step for enantiomeric excess. In this way various functionalized overcrowded alkenes could be synthesized in good yields (up to 78%) and good to excellent enantiomeric excess (85% ee->98% ee) values.

  15. An automated Teflon microfluidic peptide synthesizer. (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Wang, Weizhi; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Zihua; Hood, Leroy; Lausted, Christopher; Hu, Zhiyuan


    We present a microfluidic synthesizer made entirely of Teflon material for solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Solvent-resistant perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) was used to construct chip-sized devices featuring multiple tri-layer pneumatic microvalves. Using these devices, model peptides were automatically synthesized and cleaved in situ in a continuous-flow manner. The total coupling and cleavage time was significantly reduced compared to conventional bulk reactors. The synthesis of a decapeptide, for instance, took less than 6 h using our device while it usually takes more than three days using conventional reactors.

  16. Zinc-mediated asymmetric additions of dialkylphosphine oxides to α,β-unsaturated ketones and N-sulfinylimines. (United States)

    Zhao, Depeng; Mao, Lijuan; Yang, Dongxu; Wang, Rui


    A catalyst was synthesized on the basis of Trost's dinuclear catalyst characterized by working well without pyridine in the present phospha-Michael reaction. Nevertheless, the presence of pyridine is still advantageous in the present system. The substrate scope was successfully extended to enones employing diallyl phosphine oxide as a nucleophile. Excellent yields and enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee) were achieved for a wide scope of enones employing the catalyst under mild conditions. The detailed reaction mechanism is also discussed herein. Finally, the unprecedented asymmetric additions of dialkylphosphine oxides to N-sulfinylimines were achieved by using Et(2)Zn as a base.

  17. Synergistic Catalysis for the Asymmetric [3+2] Cycloaddition of Vinyl Aziridines with α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes. (United States)

    Naesborg, Line; Tur, Fernando; Meazza, Marta; Blom, Jakob; Halskov, Kim Søholm; Jørgensen, Karl Anker


    The first asymmetric [3+2] cycloaddition of vinyl aziridines with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, based on synergistic catalysis, is disclosed. This methodology allows the formation of attractive pyrrolidine structures in good yields (up to 84 %), moderate diastereoselectivity, and high enantioselectivity values (up to >99 % ee). Additionally, a tricyclic pyrrolidine core structure found in biologically active molecules was synthesized in a one-pot fashion by using the presented reaction concept. Finally, a mechanistic proposal is outlined. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide with Different Polyoxometalates as Positive and Negative Electrodes. (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Chodankar, Nilesh R; Vinu, Ajayan; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Gomez-Romero, Pedro


    Nanofabrication using a "bottom-up" approach of hybrid electrode materials into a well-defined architecture is essential for next-generation miniaturized energy storage devices. This paper describes the design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polyoxometalate (POM)-based hybrid electrode materials and their successful exploitation for asymmetric supercapacitors. First, redox active nanoclusters of POMs [phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12 ) and phosphotungstic acid (PW12 )] were uniformly decorated on the surface of rGO nanosheets to take full advantage of both charge-storing mechanisms (faradaic from POMs and electric double layer from rGO). The as-synthesized rGO-PMo12 and rGO-PW12 hybrid electrodes exhibited impressive electrochemical performances with specific capacitances of 299 (269 mF cm-2 ) and 370 F g-1 (369 mF cm-2 ) in 1 m H2 SO4 as electrolyte at 5 mA cm-2 . An asymmetric supercapacitor was then fabricated using rGO-PMo12 as the positive and rGO-PW12 as the negative electrode. This rGO-PMo12 ∥rGO-PW12 asymmetric cell could be successfully cycled in a wide voltage window up to 1.6 V and hence exhibited an excellent energy density of 39 Wh kg-1 (1.3 mWh cm-3 ) at a power density of 658 W kg-1 (23 mW cm-3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Homogenous asymmetric hydrogenation: Recent trends and industrial applications. (United States)

    Palmer, Andreas M; Zanotti-Gerosa, Antonio


    Recent advances in the field of homogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation are presented in this review. An analysis of academic literature published in the past 2 years highlights significant advances in the asymmetric hydrogenation of functional groups that previously were considered difficult to hydrogenate, as well as the emergence of novel concepts in catalysis, such as the use of non-traditional metals, phosphine-free catalysts and chiral counterions. An analysis of industry publications from 2009 and 2010 highlights more established applications of asymmetric hydrogenation reactions; these are discussed with a particular focus on practical aspects, such as catalyst selection, experimental conditions and the removal of metal residues.

  20. Coping with Asymmetric Channel Losses in CSMA/CA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank


    /CA is very sensitive to asymmetric channel losses caused by channel conditions. Leveraging this analysis, we present an adaptive channel priority protocol that copes with asymmetric channel losses while being compatible with CSMA/CA. We implement this protocol and perform real-life measurements that (i......) confirm the sensitivity of the CSMA/CA scheme in real implementations, and (ii) shows that our adaptive protocol provides a simple, yet potent mechanism to cope with asymmetric channel losses and ultimately to enhance end-to-end throughput in high-load scenarios....

  1. Asymmetric Branching in Biological Resource Distribution Networks (United States)

    Brummer, Alexander Byers

    There is a remarkable relationship between an organism's metabolic rate (resting power consumption) and the organism's mass. It may be a universal law of nature that an organism's resting metabolic rate is proportional to its mass to the power of 3/4. This relationship, known as Kleiber's Law, appears to be valid for both plants and animals. This law is important because it implies that larger organisms are more efficient than smaller organisms, and knowledge regarding metabolic rates are essential to a multitude of other fields in ecology and biology. This includes modeling the interactions of many species across multiple trophic levels, distributions of species abundances across large spatial landscapes, and even medical diagnostics for respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies. Previous models of vascular networks that seek to identify the origin of metabolic scaling have all been based on the unrealistic assumption of perfectly symmetric branching. In this dissertation I will present a theory of asymmetric branching in self-similar vascular networks (published by Brummer et al. in [9]). The theory shows that there can exist a suite of vascular forms that result in the often observed 3/4 metabolic scaling exponent of Kleiber's Law. Furthermore, the theory makes predictions regarding major morphological features related to vascular branching patterns and their relationships to metabolic scaling. These predictions are suggestive of evolutionary convergence in vascular branching. To test these predictions, I will present an analysis of real mammalian and plant vascular data that shows: (i) broad patterns in vascular networks across entire animal kingdoms and (ii) within these patterns, plant and mammalian vascular networks can be uniquely distinguished from one another (publication in preparation by Brummer et al.). I will also present results from a computational study in support of point (i). Namely, that asymmetric branching may be the optimal strategy to

  2. Asymmetric total synthesis of 6-Tuliposide B and its biological activities against tulip pathogenic fungi. (United States)

    Shigetomi, Kengo; Omoto, Shoko; Kato, Yasuo; Ubukata, Makoto


    The structure-activity relationship was investigated to evaluate the antifungal activities of tuliposides and tulipalins against tulip pathogenic fungi. 6-Tuliposide B was effectively synthesized via the asymmetric Baylis-Hillman reaction. Tuliposides and tulipalins showed antifungal activities against most of the strains tested at high concentrations (2.5 mM), while Botrytis tulipae was resistant to tuliposides. Tulipalin formation was involved in the antifungal activity, tulipalin A showed higher inhibitory activity than 6-tuliposide B and tulipalin B. Both the tuliposides and tulipalins showed pigment-inducing activity against Gibberella zeae and inhibitory activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tulipae. These activities were induced at a much lower concentration (0.05 mM) than the antifungal MIC values.

  3. One-Step Homologation for the Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Deoxypropionates. (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Li, Haijun; Komiyama, Masato; Oda, Akimichi; Negishi, Ei-Ichi


    A one-step homologation protocol for the synthesis of natural products containing deoxypropionate motif is described by the combination of Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA)-Pd-catalyzed vinylation and ZACA-oxidation reaction. In contrast to most other synthetic strategies used to date that typically require three steps per deoxypropionate unit due to the functional-group interconversions, our one-step homologation strategy promises to provide a general and more efficient synthetic route toward deoxypropionate natural products as exemplified by significant improvements in the syntheses of intermediates and/or final products of mycolipenic acid 1 and its analogue 2, (-)-rasfonin, and syn- and anti-dicarboxylic acids 5 and 6. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Concise methods for the synthesis of chiral polyoxazolines and their application in asymmetric hydrosilylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jie Li


    Full Text Available Seven polyoxazoline ligands were synthesized in high yield in a one-pot reaction by heating polycarboxylic acids or their esters and chiral β-amino alcohols under reflux with concomitant removal of water or the alcohol produced in the reaction. The method is much simpler and more efficient in comparison to those methods reported in the literature.The compounds were used as chiral ligands in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrosilylation of aromatic ketones, and the effects of the linkers and the substituents present on the oxazoline rings on the yield and enantioselectivity investigated. Compound 2 was identified as the best ligand of this family for the hydrosilylation of aromatic ketones.

  5. Organocatalyzed asymmetric Michael addition by an efficient bifunctional carbohydrate-thiourea hybrid with mechanistic DFT analysis. (United States)

    Azad, Chandra S; Khan, Imran A; Narula, Anudeep K


    A series of thiourea based bifunctional organocatalysts having d-glucose as a core scaffold were synthesized and examined as catalysts for the asymmetric Michael addition reaction of aryl/alkyl trans-β-nitrostyrenes over cyclohexanone and other Michael donors having active methylene. Excellent enantioselectivities (<95%), diastereoselectivities (<99%), and yields (<99%) were attained under solvent free conditions using 10 mol% of 1d0. The obtained results were explained through DFT calculations using the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) basic set. The QM/MM calculations revealed the role of cyclohexanone as a solvent as well as reactant in the rate determining step imparting 31.91 kcal mol(-1) of energy towards the product formation.

  6. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    for Nationalities, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanning, Guangxi 530006,. China ... The O–H···O and C–H···Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions play a significant role in promoting the diversity ... syntheses, structural characterization, and spectral analyses of two new coordination polymers based on three ...

  8. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The C. halicacabum leaf extract synthesized AgNPs efficiency were tested against different bacterial pathogens MTCC-426 Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-2453 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MTCC-96 Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-441 Bacillus subtilis andMTCC-735 Salmonella paratyphi, and fungal pathogens Alternaria solani ...

  9. Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 4. Syntheses, molecular and ... Mitra2 Barindra Kumar Ghosh1. Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713 104, India; Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700 032, India ...

  10. Cytotoxicity of Nanoliposomal Cisplatin Coated with Synthesized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of pegylated nanoliposomal cisplatin on human ovarian cancer cell line A2780CP. Methods: Synthesized methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) propionaldehyde was characterized by 1Hnuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and used ...

  11. Ferromagnetic Behavior in Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc ferrite have been produced and used by humans since long time, however understanding of ZnFe2O4 as a nano structured materials is very useful in order to be used for technological applications. ZnFe2O4 structural, magnetic and electrical properties are different when synthesized using different techniques.

  12. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, optical and thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Selenidogermanates; nickel; solvothermal syntheses; crystal structures; optical properties ... The different coordination environments of Ni²⁺ ions indicate the influence of the denticity of ethylene polyamines on the formation of selenidogermanates in the presence of transition metal ions. Thecompounds 1–3 ...

  13. Spectroscopy and laser characterization of synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 12, 2014 ... spectrophotometric titration. Laser performances of the synthesized and commercial CB[7] sample as an additive were evaluated using Nd-YAG (532 nm) pumped Rhodamine B aqueous dye lasers and comparable results were obtained. Keywords. Macrocyclic host; cucurbit[7]uril; host–guest complex; ...

  14. Isolation and total syntheses of cytotoxic cryptolactones A1, A2, B1, and B2: α,β-unsaturated δ-lactones from a Cryptomyzus sp. aphid. (United States)

    Horikawa, Mitsuyo; Inai, Makoto; Oguri, Yuki; Kuroda, Eri; Tanaka, Masami; Suzuki, Shinya; Ito, Takuya; Takahashi, Shigeru; Kaku, Hiroto; Tsunoda, Tetsuto


    The cryptolactones A1, A2, B1, and B2, which are α,β-unsaturated δ-lactones, were isolated from a Cryptomyzus sp. aphid. The structures were established by 1-D and 2-D NMR spectra and CI-HRMS. Their absolute configurations were determined with the Kusumi-Mosher method, combined with asymmetric total syntheses. The syntheses were accomplished with the Mukaiyama aldol reaction and olefin metathesis, which utilized the second-generation Grubbs catalyst for the key steps. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 0.97-5.3 μM.

  15. Syntheses and Crystal Structures of Ferrocenoindenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus


    Full Text Available Ferrocenoindenes display planar chirality and thus represent valuable ligands for asymmetric catalysis. Here, we report on the synthesis of novel 3-(1,1-dibromomethyleneferroceno[1,2-a]indene, (Z-3-(1-bromomethylene-6-iodoferroceno[1,2-a]indene, and benzo[5,6-f]ferroceno[2,3,a]inden-1-one. Any application-oriented design of chiral catalysts requires fundamental knowledge about the ligands involved, not only in terms of atom-connectivity, but also in terms of their three-dimensional structure and steric demand. Therefore, the crystal structures of 2-ferrocenylbenzoic acid, ferroceno[1,2-a]indene, and (Z-3-(1-bromomethylene-6-iodoferroceno[1,2-a]indene have been determined. The bond-lengths that can be retrieved therefrom also allow for an estimation of the reactivity of the aryl-iodo, bromo-methylidene and dibromomethylidene moieties.

  16. Computation in Dynamically Bounded Asymmetric Systems (United States)

    Rutishauser, Ueli; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Douglas, Rodney


    Previous explanations of computations performed by recurrent networks have focused on symmetrically connected saturating neurons and their convergence toward attractors. Here we analyze the behavior of asymmetrical connected networks of linear threshold neurons, whose positive response is unbounded. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, this asymmetry brings interesting and computationally useful dynamical properties. When driven by input, the network explores potential solutions through highly unstable ‘expansion’ dynamics. This expansion is steered and constrained by negative divergence of the dynamics, which ensures that the dimensionality of the solution space continues to reduce until an acceptable solution manifold is reached. Then the system contracts stably on this manifold towards its final solution trajectory. The unstable positive feedback and cross inhibition that underlie expansion and divergence are common motifs in molecular and neuronal networks. Therefore we propose that very simple organizational constraints that combine these motifs can lead to spontaneous computation and so to the spontaneous modification of entropy that is characteristic of living systems. PMID:25617645

  17. Asymmetric sensory reweighting in human upright stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logan

    Full Text Available To investigate sensory reweighting as a fundamental property of sensor fusion during standing, we probed postural control with simultaneous rotations of the visual scene and surface of support. Nineteen subjects were presented with pseudo-random pitch rotations of visual scene and platform at the ankle to test for amplitude dependencies in the following conditions: low amplitude vision: high amplitude platform, low amplitude vision: low amplitude platform, and high amplitude vision: low amplitude platform. Gain and phase of frequency response functions (FRFs to each stimulus were computed for two body sway angles and a single weighted EMG signal recorded from seven muscles. When platform stimulus amplitude was increased while visual stimulus amplitude remained constant, gain to vision increased, providing strong evidence for inter-modal reweighting between vision and somatosensation during standing. Intra-modal reweighting of vision was also observed as gains to vision decreased as visual stimulus amplitude increased. Such intra-modal and inter-modal amplitude dependent changes in gain were also observed in muscular activity. Gains of leg segment angle and muscular activity relative to the platform, on the other hand, showed only intra-modal reweighting. That is, changing platform motion amplitude altered the responses to both visual and support surface motion whereas changing visual scene motion amplitude did not significantly affect responses to support surface motion, indicating that the sensory integration scheme between somatosensation (at the support surface and vision is asymmetric.

  18. Asymmetric translation between multiple representations in chemistry (United States)

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II


    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests that presenting concrete representations before abstract representations can increase the effectiveness of MR instruction; however, little work has been conducted on varying the order of different representations during instruction and the role of concreteness in assessment. In this study, we investigated the application of concreteness fading to MR instruction and assessment in teaching chemistry. In two experiments, undergraduate students in either introductory psychology courses or general chemistry courses were given MR instruction on phase changes using different orders of presentation and MR assessment questions based on the representations in the chemistry triplet. Our findings indicate that the order of presentation based on levels of concreteness in MR chemistry instruction is less important than implementation of comprehensive MR assessments. Even after MR instruction, students display an asymmetric understanding of the chemical phenomenon on the MR assessments. Greater emphasis on MR assessments may be an important component in MR instruction that effectively moves novices toward more expert MR understanding.

  19. Biomechanical reevaluation of orthodontic asymmetric headgear. (United States)

    Chi, Lu; Cheng, Mulin; Hershey, H Garland; Nguyen, Tung; Ko, Ching-Chang


    To investigate the distribution of distal and lateral forces produced by orthodontic asymmetric headgear (AHG) using mathematical models to assess periodontal ligament (PDL) influence and to attempt to resolve apparent inconsistencies in the literature. Mechanical models for AHG were constructed to calculate AHG force magnitudes and direction using the theory of elasticity. The PDL was simulated by elastic springs attached to the inner-bow terminals of the AHG. The total storage energy (E(t)) of the AHG and the supporting springs was integrated to evaluate the distal and lateral forces produced by minimizing E(t) (Castigliano's theorem). All analytical solutions were derived symbolically. The spring-supported headgear model (SSHG) predicted the magnitude and distribution of distal forces consistent with our data and the published data of others. The SSHG model revealed that the lateral forces delivered to the inner-bow terminals were not equal, and the spring constant (stiffness of the PDL) affected the magnitude and direction of the resultant lateral forces. Changing the stiffness of the PDL produced a greater biomechanical effect than did altering the face-bow design. The PDL spring model appeared to help resolve inconsistencies in the literature between laboratory in vitro experiments and clinical in vivo studies. Force magnitude and direction of AHG were predicted precisely using the present model and may be applied to improve the design of AHG to minimize unwanted lateral tooth movement.

  20. Neural Network Control of Asymmetrical Multilevel Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice WIRA


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a neural implementation of a harmonic eliminationstrategy (HES to control a Uniform Step Asymmetrical Multilevel Inverter(USAMI. The mapping between the modulation rate and the requiredswitching angles is learned and approximated with a Multi-Layer Perceptron(MLP neural network. After learning, appropriate switching angles can bedetermined with the neural network leading to a low-computational-costneural controller which is well suited for real-time applications. Thistechnique can be applied to multilevel inverters with any number of levels. Asan example, a nine-level inverter and an eleven-level inverter are consideredand the optimum switching angles are calculated on-line. Comparisons to thewell-known sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM have been carriedout in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Simulationresults demonstrate the technical advantages of the proposed neuralimplementation over the conventional method (SPWM in eliminatingharmonics while controlling a nine-level and eleven-level USAMI. Thisneural approach is applied for the supply of an asynchronous machine andresults show that it ensures a highest quality torque by efficiently cancelingthe harmonics generated by the inverters.

  1. Asymmetric evaluation promotes cooperation in network population (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Li, Xiaoping; Shi, Lei; Deng, Zhenghong


    The evolution of cooperation remains a fundamental challenge in human society. Many previous studies investigated these questions via spatial reciprocity, where players obtain their payoffs by interacting with their direct neighbors. It has also been verified that environmental factors can influence the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. In reality, however, individuals may have the limit knowledge about their indirect neighbors. Inspired by this fact, we consider an asymmetric fitness calculation mechanism, which only integrates the environment factors into the focal player, to explore the evolution of cooperation. Here, the environmental factor is defined as the average payoff of all individual neighbors, which is regulated by a tunable parameter u. Through numerical simulation, we find that, compared with the traditional version (u = 0), that the cooperation level can be greatly enhanced when u is positive. Interestingly, the larger the value of u, the higher the level of cooperation. Finally, to explore the generality of this finding, we have tested the results on different topologies.

  2. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Butenolides and Butyrolactones. (United States)

    Mao, Bin; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    γ-Butenolides, γ-butyrolactones, and derivatives, especially in enantiomerically pure form, constitute the structural core of numerous natural products which display an impressive range of biological activities which are important for the development of novel physiological and therapeutic agents. Furthermore, optically active γ-butenolides and γ-butyrolactones serve also as a prominent class of chiral building blocks for the synthesis of diverse biological active compounds and complex molecules. Taking into account the varying biological activity profiles and wide-ranging structural diversity of the optically active γ-butenolide or γ-butyrolactone structure, the development of asymmetric synthetic strategies for assembling such challenging scaffolds has attracted major attention from synthetic chemists in the past decade. This review offers an overview of the different enantioselective synthesis of γ-butenolides and γ-butyrolactones which employ catalytic amounts of metal complexes or organocatalysts, with emphasis focused on the mechanistic issues that account for the observed stereocontrol of the representative reactions, as well as practical applications and synthetic potentials.

  3. Asymmetrically coupled resonators for mass sensing (United States)

    Marquez, S.; Alvarez, M.; Plaza, J. A.; Villanueva, L. G.; Dominguez, C.; Lechuga, L. M.


    Mechanically coupled resonators have been applied in the last years to the development of nanomechanical mass-sensors based on the detection of the different vibration modes of the system by measuring on a single resonator. Their sensitivity and capability for detecting multiple analytes strongly depends on the design and coupling strength between the mechanically coupled resonators in an array format. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the behavior of an asymmetrically coupled array of four different resonators. These doubly clamped beam resonators are elastically coupled by an overhang region of varying length along the transversal axis of the array. The results show that parameters such as the gap between microbeams and the overhang length affect the coupling strength, tuning the system from highly disordered and highly localized (weak coupling) to highly delocalized (strong coupling). In the strong coupling and partially localized case, the distances between resonant peaks are larger, reaching higher eigenfrequency values. In this case, relative changes in a specific eigenstate, due to an added mass, can be markedly large due to the energy distribution over a single microbeam. A strong coupling also facilitates performing the detection on the relative frequency shift mode, which can usually be resolved with better precision than the amplitude changes.

  4. Performance of an AGATA asymmetric detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, A.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Dimmock, M.R.; Unsworth, C.; Boston, H.C.; Cooper, R.J.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Jones, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Slee, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)


    High-resolution gamma-ray detectors based on high-purity germanium crystals (HPGe) are one of the key workhorses of experimental nuclear science. The technical development of such detector technology has been dramatic in recent years. Large volume, high-granularity, electrically segmented HPGe detectors have been realised and a methodology to improve position sensitivity using pulse-shape analysis coupled with the novel technique of gamma-ray tracking has been developed. Collaborations have been established in Europe (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA)) [J. Simpson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36 (2005) 1383] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA) [C.W. Beausang, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 204 (2003)] to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the first AGATA asymmetric detector that has been tested at the University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector.

  5. Micromagnetic simulation of Fe asymmetric nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, J.L.; Morales-Concha, C.; Leighton, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Escrig, J., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile)


    During the last decade several methods to control the vortex chirality in nanodots have been proposed. One of them, the introduction of asymmetry in the geometry of the dots, originates interesting effects on the magnetic behavior of the particle. However, asymmetry in core-free structures is also interesting to investigate because of the reproducibility of their magnetic properties. In this work we report systematic changes in the coercivity and remanence in asymmetric nanorings. The angular dependence is also addressed. For specific geometries and magnetic field direction newly reversal modes appear associated with important changes in the coercivity and remanence of the rings. - Highlights: > We report that the existence of asymmetry strongly influences the coercivity and the remanence. > Magnetization reversal is driven by the nucleation of a C state and propagation of a vortex state. > We also conclude that the lack of a core contributes to the stability of the vortex state. > Asymmetry can be useful for tailoring specific magnetic characteristics of these systems.

  6. Trade Credit Insurance and Asymmetric Information Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolovska Olena


    Full Text Available The presence of different risk factors in international trade gives evidence of the necessity of support in gaps that may affect exporters’ activity. To maximize the trade volumes and in the same time to minimize the exporters’ risks the stakeholders use trade credit insurance. The paper provides analysis of conceptual background of the trade credit insurance in the world. We analyzed briefly the problems, arising in insurance markets due to asymmetric information, such as adverse selection and moral hazard. Also we discuss the main stages of development of trade credit insurance in countries worldwide. Using comparative and graphical analysis we provide a brief evaluation of the dynamics of claims and recoveries for different forms of trade credit insurance. We found that the claims related to the commercial risk for medium and long trade credits in recent years exceed the recoveries, while with the political risk the reverse trend holds. And we originally consider these findings in terms of information asymmetry in the trade credit insurance differentiated by type of risk.

  7. High sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer. (United States)

    Chavarria, Mario A; Matheoud, Alessandro V; Marmillod, Philippe; Liu, Youjiang; Kong, Deyi; Brugger, Jürgen; Boero, Giovanni


    A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 10 12 V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz 1/2 during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency. The FAIMS system was characterized by detecting different standard chemical compounds. Additionally, we investigated the use of a synchronous modulation/demodulation technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in FAIMS measurements. In particular, we implemented the modulation of the compensation voltage with the synchronous demodulation of the ion current. The analysis of the measurements at low concentration levels led to an extrapolated limit of detection for acetone of 10 ppt with an averaging time of 1 s.

  8. Evacuation dynamics of asymmetrically coupled pedestrian pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Frank


    We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...

  9. High sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (United States)

    Chavarria, Mario A.; Matheoud, Alessandro V.; Marmillod, Philippe; Liu, Youjiang; Kong, Deyi; Brugger, Jürgen; Boero, Giovanni


    A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 1012 V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz1/2 during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency. The FAIMS system was characterized by detecting different standard chemical compounds. Additionally, we investigated the use of a synchronous modulation/demodulation technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in FAIMS measurements. In particular, we implemented the modulation of the compensation voltage with the synchronous demodulation of the ion current. The analysis of the measurements at low concentration levels led to an extrapolated limit of detection for acetone of 10 ppt with an averaging time of 1 s.

  10. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds (United States)

    Gergely, László Á.; Képíró, Ibolya


    We study a brane-world cosmological scenario with local inhomogeneities represented by black holes. The brane is asymmetrically embedded into the bulk. The black strings/cigars penetrating the Friedmann brane generate a Swiss-cheese-type structure. This universe forever expands and decelerates, as its general relativistic analogue. The evolution of the cosmological fluid, however, can proceed along four branches, two allowed to have positive energy density, and one of them having the symmetric embedding limit. On this branch a future pressure singularity can arise for either (a) a difference in the cosmological constants of the cosmological and black hole brane regions or (b) a difference in the left and right bulk cosmological constants. While behaviour (a) can be avoided by a redefinition of the fluid variables, (b) establishes a critical value of the asymmetry over which the pressure singularity occurs. We introduce the pressure singularity censorship which bounds the degree of asymmetry in the bulk cosmological constant. We also show as a model-independent generic feature that the asymmetry source term due to the bulk cosmological constant increases in the early universe. In order to obey the nucleosynthesis constraints, the brane tension should be constrained therefore both from below and from above. With the maximal degree of asymmetry obeying the pressure singularity censorship, the higher limit is ten times the lower limit. The degree of asymmetry allowed by present cosmological observations is, however, much less, pushing the upper limit to infinity.

  11. Experimental study of asymmetric heart valve prototype (United States)

    Vukicevic, M.; Fortini, S.; Querzoli, G.; Cenedese, A.; Pedrizzetti, G.


    The mechanical heart valves (MHVs) are extremely important medical devices, commonly used for diseased heart valves replacement. Despite the long term of use and constant design refinement, the MHVs are very far from ideal and their performance is very diverse from that of the native ones. It has been approved that small variations in geometry of valvular leaflets influence the significant change in the intraventricular vortical flow, known as one of the most important factors for the overall functionality of the heart. We have experimentally examined the home-made heart valve prototypes, exclusively modeled for the mitral valve replacement. The performance and energetic properties of the prototypes have been compared with those in the presence of standard MHVs. The analysis was based on the testing of intraventricular fluid dynamics, usually missing criteria for the quality of the valve performance. It has been shown that the asymmetric prototype, with unequal leaflets and D-shaped orifice produces flow patterns and energetic properties close to those found in the healthy subjects. Thus, the break of symmetry in the standard bi-leaflet MHV prosthesis, at least from the fluid dynamics point of view, is worthwhile to be considered for the design of MHVs for the mitral valve replacement.

  12. Cooperative Supply Chain Management Under Asymmetric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Y. Xu


    Full Text Available This study investigates supply chain cooperative management problem. In this study, based on principal-agent, firstly we analyses cooperative management factors in supply chain including leading enterprise expected utilities, subsidiary enterprise expected incomes and leading enterprise agency cost, then the incentive contract model is constructed; Secondly the model is solved in the case of symmetric information and asymmetric information; At last, in order to make clear of the model, this paper does mathematical analysis of leading enterprise expected utilities, subsidiary enterprise expected incomes and leading enterprise agency cost. Some important conclusions are obtained: subsidiary enterprise ability, cost coefficient, absolute risk aversion factor and output variance has the same influence on leading enterprise expected utilities and subsidiary enterprise expected incomes; subsidiary enterprise ability, cost coefficient has the same influence on leading enterprise expected utilities, subsidiary enterprise expected incomes and leading enterprise agency cost; leading enterprise expected utilities and subsidiary enterprise expected incomes become bigger and bigger, but leading enterprise agency cost becomes smaller and smaller with absolute risk aversion factor and output variance decreased. etc. Leading enterprise can take on incentive measures (improving subsidiary enterprise ability, decreasing subsidiary enterprise cost coefficient.etc to optimize supply chain management based on the common factors.

  13. Crystallization in mass and charge asymmetric bilayers (United States)

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick; Filinov, Alexei; Lozovik, Yurii; Stolz, Heinrich


    We consider Coulomb crystal formation in quantum electron-ion (hole) bilayers. Varying the mass ratio M of ions and electrons between 1 and 100 for a fixed layer separation d at low temperature and high density, one can tune the hole behavior from delocalized (quantum) to localized (quasi-classical) while the electrons remain delocalized all the time. While in 3D plasmas [1], ions crystallize if the mass ratio exceeds a critical value of Mcr˜80, in bilayers Mcr can be drastically reduced by properly choosing d and the in-layer particle density. The complicated overlap of correlation and quantum effects of both, electrons and holes, is fully taken care of by performing first-principle path integral Monte Carlo simulations. [1] M. Bonitz, V.S. Filinov, V.E. Fortov. P.R. Levashov, and H. Fehske, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235006 (2005) and J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 4717 (2006). [2] P. Ludwig, A. Filinov, Yu. Lozovik, H. Stolz, and M. Bonitz, Crystallization in mass-asymmetric electron-hole bilayers, Contrib. Plasma Phys. (2007), ArXiv: cond-mat/0611556

  14. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan


    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  15. Vertical Control and Parallel Trade under Asymmetric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Avenali


    profits from the manufacturer to the wholesaler. Therefore, in R&D-intensive industries, such as pharmaceuticals, policy makers should anticipate the likely consequences of PT under asymmetric information on the long-run incentives to innovate.

  16. Asymmetric periflexural exanthema: A report in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar V


    Full Text Available Asymmetric periflexural exanthem (APE is a distinctive exanthem, probably viral in origin. It is largely a disease of childhood and is uncommon in adults. We report an adult man presenting with the typical clinical findings of APE.

  17. Loss Aversion and the Asymmetric Transmission of Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Emiliano; Petrella, Ivan; Pfajfar, Damjan


    There is widespread evidence that monetary policy exerts asymmetric effects on output over contractions and expansions in economic activity, while price responses display no sizeable asymmetry. To rationalize these facts we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model where households’ utility...

  18. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab


    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  19. Luminosity lifetime at an asymmetric e +e - collider (United States)

    Porter, Frank C.


    The dependence of the luminosity on time is discussed for an asymmetric e +e - storage ring collider, with emphasis on single-particle scattering mechanisms for beam loss. The "optimal" filling strategy and average luminosity obtainable are also reviewed.

  20. Asymmetric H-D exchange reactions of fluorinated aromatic ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yujun


    Chiral bicyclic guanidine catalyzes the asymmetric H-D exchange reactions. Up to 30% ee was achieved. DFT calculations were employed to elucidate and explain the origin of the reaction\\'s stereoselectivity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Asymmetric wave transmission in a diatomic acoustic/elastic metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bing; Tan, K. T., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3903 (United States)


    Asymmetric acoustic/elastic wave transmission has recently been realized using nonlinearity, wave diffraction, or bias effects, but always at the cost of frequency distortion, direction shift, large volumes, or external energy. Based on the self-coupling of dual resonators, we propose a linear diatomic metamaterial, consisting of several small-sized unit cells, to realize large asymmetric wave transmission in low frequency domain (below 1 kHz). The asymmetric transmission mechanism is theoretically investigated, and numerically verified by both mass-spring and continuum models. This passive system does not require any frequency conversion or external energy, and the asymmetric transmission band can be theoretically predicted and mathematically controlled, which extends the design concept of unidirectional transmission devices.

  2. Asymmetric MRI Systems: Shim and RF Coil Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crozier, S


    We have recently introduced the concept of asymmetric clinical MRI systems. The potential advantages of these systems include a reduced perception of claustrophobia by patients and better physician access to the patient...

  3. Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Broniowski, W. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)


    The authors analyze the chiral limit in dense isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter.

  4. Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.D. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Broniowski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)


    We analyze the chiral limit in dense isoptin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter. (author). 20 refs.

  5. Influence of temperature gradients on charge transport in asymmetric nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneker, Anne M.; Wendt, Hans David; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wood, Jeffery A.


    Charge selective asymmetric nanochannels are used for a variety of applications, such as nanofluidic sensing devices and energy conversion applications. In this paper, we numerically investigate the influence of an applied temperature difference over tapered nanochannels on the resulting charge

  6. Non-stationary probabilities for the asymmetric exclusion process on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stationary probabilities for the asymmetric exclusion process on a ring. V B Priezzhev. Invited Talks:- Topic 4: Pattern formation in systems out of equilibrium (growth processes, fracture, hydrodynamic instabilities, chemical reactions, granular flows, etc ...

  7. Catalytic asymmetric alkylation of ketones using organometallic reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madduri, Ashoka V.R.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of tertiary alcohols by the addition of organometallic reagents to ketones is of central importance in organic chemistry. The resulting quaternary stereocentres are difficult to prepare selectively by other means despite their widespread occurrence in natural

  8. Optical detection of asymmetric bacteria utilizing electro orientation


    Choi, Jae-Woo; Pu, Allen; Psaltis, Demetri


    We propose a bacterial detection scheme which uses no biochemical markers and can be applied in a Point-of-Care setting. The detection scheme aligns asymmetric bacteria with an electric field and detects the optical scattering.

  9. Loss aversion and the asymmetric transmission of monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffeo, E.; Petrella, I.; Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    There is widespread evidence that monetary policy exerts asymmetric effects on output over contractions and expansions in economic activity, while price responses display no sizeable asymmetry. To rationalize these facts we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model where households’ utility

  10. Asymmetric continuum extreme processes in solids and fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Teisseyre, Roman


    This book deals with a class of basic deformations in asymmetric continuum theory. It describes molecular deformations and transport velocities in fluids, strain deformations in solids as well as the molecular transport, important in fracture processes.

  11. Asymmetric radiation transfer based on linear light-matter interaction (United States)

    Jia, Zi-xun; Shuai, Yong; Zhang, Jia-hui; Tan, He-ping


    In this paper, asymmetric radiation transfer based on linear light-matter interaction has been proposed. Two naturally different numerical methods, finite difference time domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), are utilized to verify that asymmetric radiation transfer can exist for linear plasmonic meta-material. The overall asymmetry has been introduced to evaluate bifacial transmission. Physics for the asymmetric optical responses have been understood via electromagnetic field distributions. Dispersion relation for surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and temporal coupled mode theory (TCMT) have been employed to verify the physics discussed in the paper. Geometric effects and the disappearing of asymmetric transmission have also been investigated. The results gained herein broaden the cognition of linear optical system, facilitate the design of novel energy harvesting device.

  12. Asymmetric periflexural exanthema: A report in an adult patient


    Zawar V


    Asymmetric periflexural exanthem (APE) is a distinctive exanthem, probably viral in origin. It is largely a disease of childhood and is uncommon in adults. We report an adult man presenting with the typical clinical findings of APE.

  13. Hodge operator and asymmetric fluid in unbounded domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kondrashuk


    Full Text Available A system of equations modeling the stationary flow of an incompressible asymmetric fluid is studied for bounded domains of an arbitrary form. Based on the methods of Clifford analysis, we write the system of asymmetric fluid in the hypercomplex formulation and represent its solution in Clifford operator terms. We have significantly used Clifford algebra, and in particular the Hodge operator of the Clifford algebra to demonstrate the existence and uniqueness of the strong solution for arbitrary unbounded domains.

  14. Hodge operator and asymmetric fluid in unbounded domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. kondrashuk


    Full Text Available A system of equations modeling the stationary flow of an incompressible asymmetric fluid is studied for bounded domains of an arbitrary form. Based on the methods of Clifford analysis, we write the system of asymmetric fluid in the hypercomplex formulation and represent its solution in Clifford operator terms. We have significantly used Clifford algebra, and in particular the Hodge operator of the Clifford algebra to demonstrate the existence and uniqueness of the strong solution for arbitrary unbounded domains.

  15. Reduction of contact stresses using involute gears with asymmetric teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila VOJTKOVÁ


    Full Text Available Asymmetrical involute gears have a different value of the operating pressure angle for right and left side of the gear. These teeth are suitable for one direction of rotation. Such teeth enable to change the length of the generating line. They enable to improve the value of reduced radii of curvature. Asymmetrical teeth allow reducing the values of Hertz's pressures, especially on the root of the teeth. Hertz pressures are directly related to the asymmetry.

  16. Oil prices and economic activity: An asymmetric cointegration approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lardic, Sandrine [EconomiX-CNRS, University of Paris 10 (France); Mignon, Valerie [EconomiX-CNRS, University of Paris 10 (France); CEPII, Paris (France)


    The aim of this paper is to study the long-term relationship between oil prices and economic activity, proxied by GDP. To account for asymmetries existing in the links between the two variables, we propose an approach based on asymmetric cointegration. Our empirical analysis concerns the U.S. economy, but also the G7, Europe and Euro area economies. Results indicate that, while standard cointegration is rejected, there is evidence for asymmetric cointegration between oil prices and GDP. (author)

  17. Circular motion of asymmetric self-propelling particles. (United States)

    Kümmel, Felix; ten Hagen, Borge; Wittkowski, Raphael; Buttinoni, Ivo; Eichhorn, Ralf; Volpe, Giovanni; Löwen, Hartmut; Bechinger, Clemens


    Micron-sized self-propelled (active) particles can be considered as model systems for characterizing more complex biological organisms like swimming bacteria or motile cells. We produce asymmetric microswimmers by soft lithography and study their circular motion on a substrate and near channel boundaries. Our experimental observations are in full agreement with a theory of Brownian dynamics for asymmetric self-propelled particles, which couples their translational and orientational motion.

  18. Dynamic and Asymmetric Adjustment in Beef and Pork Prices


    Hahn, William F.


    Beef and pork prices at farm, wholesale and retail are examined for evidence of a dynamic and asymmetric price transmission using an endogenous switching model. Dynamic adjustment means that it take time for prices to adjust to changes in the market. Price transmission is asymmetric if the speed or completeness of price adjustment depends on the direction that the price or a related price is moving. Some of the previous research on price transmission in agricultural markets attempts to use ma...

  19. Asymmetric dominance and the stability of constructed preferences


    Anyuan Shen; Shuguang Liu


    In this research, we explore how experience with an "attraction set" of options, designed to elicit an asymmetric-dominance (attraction) effect, affects choice making in a second "compromise set" designed to elicit a compromise effect. In Experiment 1, when a compromise set was presented, subjects who had chosen an asymmetrically dominating option from an attraction set were less likely to surrender to the compromise heuristic than their counterparts who had chosen the equiv...

  20. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux


    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  1. Formation of asymmetric vesicles via phospholipase D-mediated transphosphatidylation. (United States)

    Takaoka, Rina; Kurosaki, Haruko; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Keisuke; Nakano, Minoru


    Most biomembranes have an asymmetric structure with regard to phospholipid distribution between the inner and outer leaflets of the lipid bilayers. Control of the asymmetric distribution plays a pivotal role in several cellular functions such as intracellular membrane fusion and cell division. The mechanism by which membrane asymmetry and its alteration function in these transformation processes is not yet clear. To understand the significance of membrane asymmetry on trafficking and metabolism of intracellular vesicular components, a system that experimentally reproduces the asymmetric nature of biomembranes is essential. Here, we succeeded in obtaining asymmetric vesicles by means of transphosphatidylation reactions with phospholipase D (PLD), which acts exclusively on phosphatidylcholine (PC) present in the outer leaflet of vesicles. By treating PC vesicles with PLD in the presence of 1.7M serine and 0.3M ethanolamine, we obtained asymmetric vesicles that are topologically similar to intracellular vesicles containing phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the cytosolic leaflet. PLD and other unwanted compounds could be removed by trypsin digestion followed by dialysis. Our established technique has a great advantage over conventional methods in that asymmetric vesicles can be provided at high yield and high efficiency, which is requisite for most physicochemical assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient Supercapacitor Energy Storage Using Conjugated Microporous Polymer Networks Synthesized from Buchwald-Hartwig Coupling. (United States)

    Liao, Yaozu; Wang, Haige; Zhu, Meifang; Thomas, Arne


    Supercapacitors have received increasing interest as energy storage devices due to their rapid charge-discharge rates, high power densities, and high durability. In this work, novel conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) networks are presented for supercapacitor energy storage, namely 3D polyaminoanthraquinone (PAQ) networks synthesized via Buchwald-Hartwig coupling between 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone and aryl bromides. PAQs exhibit surface areas up to 600 m2 g-1 , good dispersibility in polar solvents, and can be processed to flexible electrodes. The PAQs exhibit a three-electrode specific capacitance of 576 F g-1 in 0.5 m H2 SO4 at a current of 1 A g-1 retaining 80-85% capacitances and nearly 100% Coulombic efficiencies (95-98%) upon 6000 cycles at a current density of 2 A g-1 . Asymmetric two-electrode supercapacitors assembled by PAQs show a capacitance of 168 F g-1 of total electrode materials, an energy density of 60 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 1300 W kg-1 , and a wide working potential window (0-1.6 V). The asymmetric supercapacitors show Coulombic efficiencies up to 97% and can retain 95.5% of initial capacitance undergo 2000 cycles. This work thus presents novel promising CMP networks for charge energy storage. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Enzymatic synthesizing of phytosterol oleic esters. (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Chen, Biqiang; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zhul, Biyun; Tan, Tianwei


    A method of synthesizing the phytosterol esters from oleic acid and sterols was studied, using immobilized lipase Candida sp. 99-125 as catalyst. Molar ratio (oleic acid/phytosterols), temperature, reaction period, organic solvents, catalyst, and silica-gel drier were optimized, and the result showed that 93.4% of the sterols had been esterified under the optimal synthetic condition: the molar ratio of oleic acid/phytosterol is 1:1 in 10 mL iso-octane, immobilized lipase (w, 140% of the sterols), incubated in an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at a temperature of 45 °C for 24 h. The immobilized lipase could be reused for at least 13 times with limited loss of esterification activity. The conversion still maintained up to 86.6%. Hence, this developed process for synthesizing phytosterol esters could be considered as simple and low-energy consumption compared to existing chemical processes.

  4. Controllable Syntheses of MOF-Derived Materials. (United States)

    Zou, Kang-Yu; Li, Zuo-Xi


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), as an important kind of porous inorganic-organic hybrid materials with inherent outstanding physicochemistry characteristics, can be widely applied as versatile precursors for the facile preparation of functional MOF-derived materials. However, there are plenty of sophisticated factors during the synthetic process, which is far from reaching the goal of effectively controlling the nature of MOF-derived materials (such as the composition, morphology and surface area). Therefore, it is urgently necessary to develop regular protocols and concepts for controllable syntheses of MOF-derived materials. In this minireview, we mainly summarize and analyze complicated factors in the fabrication of MOF-derived materials according to recently reported literatures, and this provides a new insight into the rational design and syntheses of MOF-derived materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Gene Assembly from Chip-Synthesized Oligonucleotides (United States)

    Eroshenko, Nikolai; Kosuri, Sriram; Marblestone, Adam H; Conway, Nicholas; Church, George M.


    De novo synthesis of long double-stranded DNA constructs has a myriad of applications in biology and biological engineering. However, its widespread adoption has been hindered by high costs. Cost can be significantly reduced by using oligonucleotides synthesized on high-density DNA chips. However, most methods for using off-chip DNA for gene synthesis have failed to scale due to the high error rates, low yields, and high chemical complexity of the chip-synthesized oligonucleotides. We have recently demonstrated that some commercial DNA chip manufacturers have improved error rates, and that the issues of chemical complexity and low yields can be solved by using barcoded primers to accurately and efficiently amplify subpools of oligonucleotides. This article includes protocols for computationally designing the DNA chip, amplifying the oligonucleotide subpools, and assembling 500-800 basepair (bp) constructs. PMID:25077042

  6. Syntheses and studies of organosilicon compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Ren [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The syntheses of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as silicon carbide ceramic precursors have been active research areas in the Barton Research Group. In this thesis, the work is focused on the preparation of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as stoichiometric silicon carbide precursor polymers. The syntheses of the precursor polymers are discussed and the conversions of these precursors to silicon carbide via pyrolysis are reported. The XRD pattern and elemental analyses of the resulting silicon carbide ceramics are presented. Silicon monoxide is an important intermediate in the production of silicon metal. The existence of silicon monoxide in gap phase has been widely accepted. In the second part of this thesis, the generation of gaseous silicon monoxide in four different reactors and the reactions of gaseous silicon monoxide towards organic compounds are discussed.

  7. Syntheses and Characterization of Some Tetradentate Schiff-Base Complexes and Their Heteroleptic Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Osowole


    Full Text Available VO(IV, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes of the asymmetric Schiff base [(HOC6H3(OCH3C(C6H5:N(CH2CH2N:C(CH3CH:C(C6H5OH], and their heteroleptic analogues with triphenyl phosphine and 2,2’-bipyridine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, conductance, magnetic, infrared and electronic spectral measurements. The ligand is tetradentate coordinating via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The Ni(II and Cu(II complexes adopt a four coordinate square planar geometry, the VO(IV complex is five coordinate square-pyramidal and the heteroleptic complexes are 6-coordinate, octahedral. The assignment of geometry is collaborated by magnetic moments and electronic spectra measurements. The compounds are non-electrolyte in nitromethane and are magnetically dilute.

  8. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ical scavenging activity was measured by the salicylic acid method [16]. The synthesized AgNPs solution at different concentrations (10 to 80 μg ml. −1. ) was dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water. One millilitre of AgNPs mixed with 1 ml of. 9 mM salicylic acid, 1 ml of 9 mM ferrous sulphate and 1ml of 9 mM hydrogen peroxide.

  9. Nanocrystalline diamond synthesized from C60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Langehorst, F.; Jacobsen, S.; Liebske, C. (Bayreuth)


    A bulk sample of nanocrystalline cubic diamond with crystallite sizes of 5-12 nm was synthesized from fullerene C{sub 60} at 20(1) GPa and 2000 C using a multi-anvil apparatus. The new material is at least as hard as single crystal diamond. It was found that nanocrystalline diamond at high temperature and ambient pressure kinetically is more stable with respect to graphitization than usual diamonds.

  10. Cyclopropanation Strategies in Recent Total Syntheses. (United States)

    Ebner, Christian; Carreira, Erick M


    Complex molecular architectures containing cyclopropanes present significant challenges for any synthetic chemist. This review aims to highlight the strategic considerations for introduction of the cyclopropane motif in a collection of recent total syntheses. At first, an overview of the most important and widely used cyclopropanation techniques is presented, followed by a discussion of elegant approaches and clever solutions that have been developed to enable the synthesis of various unique cyclopropane natural products or use of cyclopropanes as versatile strategic intermediates.

  11. Affective privilege: Asymmetric interference by emotional distracters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eReeck


    Full Text Available Numerous theories posit that affectively salient stimuli are privileged in their capacity to capture attention and disrupt ongoing cognition. Two underlying assumptions in this theoretical position are that the potency of affective stimuli transcends task boundaries (i.e., emotional distracters do not have to belong to a current task-set to disrupt processing and that there is an asymmetry between emotional and cognitive processing (i.e., emotional distracters disrupt cognitive processing, but not vice versa. These assumptions have remained largely untested, as common experimental probes of emotion-cognition interaction rarely manipulate task-relevance and only examine one side of the presumed asymmetry of interference. To test these propositions directly, a face-word Stroop protocol was adapted to independently manipulate (a the congruency between target and distracter stimulus features, (b the affective salience of distracter features, and (c the task-relevance of emotional compared to non-emotional target features. A three-way interaction revealed interdependent effects of distracter relevance, congruence, and affective salience. Compared to task-irrelevant distracters, task-relevant congruent distracters facilitated performance and task-relevant incongruent distracters impaired performance, but the latter effect depended on the nature of the target feature and task. Specifically, task-irrelevant emotional distracters resulted in equivalent performance costs as task-relevant non-emotional distracters, whereas task-irrelevant non-emotional distracters did not produce performance costs comparable to those generated by task-relevant emotional distracters. These results document asymmetric cross-task interference effects for affectively salient stimuli, supporting the notion of affective prioritization in human information processing.

  12. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia. (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S


    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  13. Asymmetric transfer of auditory perceptual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sygal eAmitay


    Full Text Available Perceptual skills can improve dramatically even with minimal practice. A major and practical benefit of learning, however, is in transferring the improvement on the trained task to untrained tasks or stimuli, yet the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. Reduction of internal noise has been proposed as a mechanism of perceptual learning, and while we have evidence that frequency discrimination (FD learning is due to a reduction of internal noise, the source of that noise was not determined. In this study, we examined whether reducing the noise associated with neural phase locking to tones can explain the observed improvement in behavioural thresholds. We compared FD training between two tone durations (15 and 100 ms that straddled the temporal integration window of auditory nerve fibers upon which computational modeling of phase locking noise was based. Training on short tones resulted in improved FD on probe tests of both the long and short tones. Training on long tones resulted in improvement only on the long tones. Simulations of FD learning, based on the computational model and on signal detection theory, were compared with the behavioral FD data. We found that improved fidelity of phase locking accurately predicted transfer of learning from short to long tones, but also predicted transfer from long to short tones. The observed lack of transfer from long to short tones suggests the involvement of a second mechanism. Training may have increased the temporal integration window which could not transfer because integration time for the short tone is limited by its duration. Current learning models assume complex relationships between neural populations that represent the trained stimuli. In contrast, we propose that training-induced enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio offers a parsimonious explanation of learning and transfer that easily accounts for asymmetric transfer of learning.

  14. Magnesioferrite synthesized from magnesian-magnetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hidemassa Anami


    Full Text Available Magnesioferrite is an important mineral due to its use in different scientific fields and by the fact that the soil through the action of weathering, can be a source of nutrients essential for plant development by the fact that in the soil. Its use in pure form or associated with other minerals is only possible through the synthesis in laboratory conditions. This study aimed to synthesize magnesioferrite and hematite from magnesian-magnetite by a co-precipitation procedure. The methodology used is an adaptation of the method of synthesis of pure magnetite, partially replacing the soluble salts of iron with soluble magnesium salts in the proportion of 30.0 mol% of Fe for Mg. The characterization of the synthetic minerals used x-rays diffraction, total chemical analysis and mass specific magnetic susceptibility. The results showed that besides the magnesian-magnetite an unprecedented muskoxita was synthesized, which upon annealing was converted to magnesioferrite and hematite and in the proportion of 93.1% and 6.9% respectively. The isomorphous substitution of Fe for Mg enhanced the thermal stability of the ferrimagnetic mineral synthesized.

  15. Syntheses and studies of acetylenic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiwei, Ding [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Based on new diiodo aryl compounds a series of novel soluble polymers, poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenyleneethynylene)s (PPE polymers) were synthesized using palladium-catalysis. The molecular weights (MW) range from 8,000 to 40,000. Properties such as absorption, fluorescence, and conductivity were studied. A PPE polymer with butoxy side chain exhibits a weak electrical conductivity (σ = 10-3 S/cm) after doping with AsF5. Absorption spectra in THF solution at room temperature (RT) show a maximum at 440 nm. However, absorption spectra of PPE polymers in the film state at (RT) show a maximum at 480 nm. PPE polymer-based light emitting diode (LED) devices have been prepared; greenish light from these LED devices can be observed. Poly(ethynylene-p-arylene-ethynylene-silylene)s were synthesized through the same palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs are between 6,000 and 82,000. Absorption and fluorescence were studied. Some of these polymers exhibit thermotropic liquid crystalline properties. In addition, nonlinear optical properties were briefly examined. Poly(silylene-ethynylene) homopolymers as well as alternating copolymers were synthesized through a novel palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs range from 56 x 103 to 5.3 x 103. Thermal stability of these was also investigated; char yields range from 56 to 83%. One of these polymers exhibits thermotropic liquid crystalline properties.

  16. Shock Syntheses of Novel Nitrides and Biomolecules (United States)

    Sekine, Toshimori


    High-pressure spinel nitride of Si3N4 was discovered more than 10 years ago. Since then there have been many studies on the spinel nitrides and related materials including oxynitrides. We have developed shock synthesis method to investigate their structural, mechanical, chemical, physical, and optical properties. At the same time we tried to synthesize carbon nitrides from the organic substances. And later we extended to shock synthesis of ammonia through the Haber-Bosch reaction under shock in order to apply geochemical subjects related to the origin of life. The simplest amino acid of glycine, as well as animes (up to propylamine) and carboxylic acids (up to pentanoic acid), has been synthesized successfully in aqueous solutions through meteoritic impact reactions. Recently we are trying to make more complex biomolecules for implications of biomolecule formation for the origin of life through meteorite impacts on early Earth's ocean. These results of shock syntheses may imply significant contributions to materials science and Earth and planetary sciences. This research is collaborated with National Institute for Materials Science and Tohoku University.

  17. Adding a functional handle to nature's building blocks: the asymmetric synthesis of β-hydroxy-α-amino acids. (United States)

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Farrants, Helen; Li, Xuechen


    β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids are not only used by synthetic chemists but are also found in natural products, many of which show anti-microbial or anti-cancer properties. Over the past 30 years, chemists have searched for many asymmetric routes to these useful building blocks. Initial attempts to synthesize these compounds utilized chiral auxiliaries and the reactions of glycine equivalents with aldehydes to form two stereocenters in one step. Other methods with the formation of specific intermediates or that were aimed at a specific amino acid have also been investigated. Asymmetric hydrogenation by dynamic kinetic resolution has emerged as a high-yielding method for the synthesis of an array of modified amino acids with good stereoselectivity. More recently, amino-acid functionalization and multicomponent reactions have increased the atom economy and simplified many long and difficult routes. In this Focus Review, many of the elegant syntheses of these compounds are explored. The applications of β-hydroxy-α-amino acids in natural-product synthesis are also mentioned. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Asymmetrical dimethylarginine level in atrial fibrillation. (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye; Sahinarslan, Asife; Biberoğlu, Gursel; Hasanoğlu, Alev; Tavil, Yusuf; Tulmaç, Murat; Ozdemir, Murat


    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is known to be related with increased risk of thromboembolic events. Asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), which is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), can cause endothelial dysfunction by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and lead to increased risk of thrombosis. In the present study our aim was to compare plasma levels of ADMA in patients with acute onset ( 1 year) to determine the risk of thrombosis. 17 patients with the first detected attack of AF within the first 24 hours of presentation (group 1), 25 patients who had permanent chronic AF lasting at least 1 year or more (group II) and 18 healthy persons as the control group (group III) were included in the study. For each patient the plasma ADMA, L-arginine, symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in venous blood samples collected before cardioversion. We compared the plasma ADMA, L-arginine and SDMA concentrations between the groups. Plasma L-arginine (78.18 +/- 28.29 vs. 73.14 +/- 14.11 vs. 71.03 +/- 21.31, P = 0.549) and plasma SDMA concentrations (0.38 +/-0.18 vs. 0.42 +/- 0.21 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.24, P = 0.224) were similar in all groups. There was a significant difference between plasma ADMA concentrations (0.76 +/- 0.27 vs. 0.50 +/- 0.26 vs. 0.36 +/- 0.20, P < 0.001) among the groups. When we compared plasma ADMA levels between the subgroups, we also found a significant difference (P = 0.002 when comparing group I and group II, P < 0.001 when comparing of group I and group III, P = 0.042 when compareng of group II and group III). ADMA levels in patients with acute onset AF were significantly increased when compared with patients with chronic AF and the healthy control group indicating the presence of endothelial dysfunction and a prothrombotic state even in a very early phase of AF.

  19. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and coronary collateral vessel development. (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Sahinarslan, Asife; Biberoglu, Gursel; Hasanoglu, Alev; Akyel, Ahmet; Timurkaynak, Timur; Cengel, Atiye


    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in collateral vessel development. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) that is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis may impair the effective coronary collateral vessel development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma ADMA level and coronary collateral vessel development. The patients with a greater than or equal to 95% obstruction in at least one epicardial coronary artery were included in the study. Degree of coronary collateral development was determined according to Rentrop method. Patients with grade 2-3 collateral development were regarded as good collateral group and formed group I. The patients with grade 0-1 collateral development were regarded as poor collateral group and were included in group II. Group III that had been formed as a control group included the patients with a normal coronary angiogram. We compared the plasma ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio among three groups. Seventy-four patients have been included in the study. Patients with good collateral development had lower plasma ADMA level in comparison with patients with poor collateral development (0.41+/-0.25 micromol/l vs. 0.70+/-0.23 micromol/l, P=0.001) and had similar plasma ADMA levels with the patients who have normal coronary arteries. When we compared L-arginine/ADMA ratio between good and poor collateral groups, we found that the patients with higher L-arginine/ADMA ratio have significantly better collateral development (270.8+/-168.0 vs. 120.9+/-92.1, P<0.001). In the analyses comparing Rentrop score with ADMA level and L-arginine/ADMA ratio, there were significant correlations (r=-0.444, P=0.008 and r=0.553, P=0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, ADMA level (odds ratio, 0.009; 95% confidence interval, 0.000-0.466, P=0.020) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio (odds ratio, 1.010; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.020, P=0.032) were independent predictors of collateral development. Increased

  20. Asymmetrical reinforcement and Wolbachia infection in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jaenike


    Full Text Available Reinforcement refers to the evolution of increased mating discrimination against heterospecific individuals in zones of geographic overlap and can be considered a final stage in the speciation process. One the factors that may affect reinforcement is the degree to which hybrid matings result in the permanent loss of genes from a species' gene pool. Matings between females of Drosophila subquinaria and males of D. recens result in high levels of offspring mortality, due to interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia infection of D. recens. Such hybrid inviability is not manifested in matings between D. recens females and D. subquinaria males. Here we ask whether the asymmetrical hybrid inviability is associated with a corresponding asymmetry in the level of reinforcement. The geographic ranges of D. recens and D. subquinaria were found to overlap across a broad belt of boreal forest in central Canada. Females of D. subquinaria from the zone of sympatry exhibit much stronger levels of discrimination against males of D. recens than do females from allopatric populations. In contrast, such reproductive character displacement is not evident in D. recens, consistent with the expected effects of unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility. Furthermore, there is substantial behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria, because females from populations sympatric with D. recens discriminate against allopatric conspecific males, whereas females from populations allopatric with D. recens show no discrimination against any conspecific males. Patterns of general genetic differentiation among populations are not consistent with patterns of behavioral discrimination, which suggests that the behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria results from selection against mating with Wolbachia-infected D. recens. Interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility may contribute not only to post-mating isolation, an effect already widely recognized, but also to

  1. Success Factors of Asymmetric Connections - Example of Large Slovenian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Vračar


    Full Text Available More and more companies realize the fact that networking or partner collaborations, which are based on partner relations between companies, are essential for their long-term existence. In today’s global competitive environment each company is included at least in some different connections. Very common connections occur between large and smaller enterprises, where the so called asymmetric connections occur, which may be understood as the ability of one organisation to establish power, influence and control over the other organisation and its resources. According to numerous statements, the connections between enterprises are very frequently uneffectivenessful, with opinions on the optimal nature of asymmetric connections being quite common as well, whereby it is, as a rule, a synergic complementing of missing content for both partners. To verify the thesis, that companies achieve more competitiveness and effectiveness through connections, whereby the so called asymmetric connections are common, a structural model of the evolution of asymmetric connection has been developed, which connects the theoretically identified factors and all dependent concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and effectiveness. The empirical research also attempts to further expose the factors of asymmetric connections, which affect efficiency and effectiveness of the connected enterprises.

  2. Distribution of quantum Fisher information in asymmetric cloning machines. (United States)

    Xiao, Xing; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Lei-Ming; Wang, Xiaoguang


    An unknown quantum state cannot be copied and broadcast freely due to the no-cloning theorem. Approximate cloning schemes have been proposed to achieve the optimal cloning characterized by the maximal fidelity between the original and its copies. Here, from the perspective of quantum Fisher information (QFI), we investigate the distribution of QFI in asymmetric cloning machines which produce two nonidentical copies. As one might expect, improving the QFI of one copy results in decreasing the QFI of the other copy. It is perhaps also unsurprising that asymmetric phase-covariant cloning outperforms universal cloning in distributing QFI since a priori information of the input state has been utilized. However, interesting results appear when we compare the distributabilities of fidelity (which quantifies the full information of quantum states), and QFI (which only captures the information of relevant parameters) in asymmetric cloning machines. Unlike the results of fidelity, where the distributability of symmetric cloning is always optimal for any d-dimensional cloning, we find that any asymmetric cloning outperforms symmetric cloning on the distribution of QFI for d ≤ 18, whereas some but not all asymmetric cloning strategies could be worse than symmetric ones when d > 18.

  3. Performance of JPEG Image Transmission Using Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Yusoff Alias


    Full Text Available This paper gives the results of a simulation study on the performance of JPEG image transmission over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels using typical and proposed asymmetric turbo codes for error control coding. The baseline JPEG algorithm is used to compress a QCIF (176×144 “Suzie” image. The recursive systematic convolutional (RSC encoder with generator polynomials (1,D3+D2+1/D3+D+1, that is, (13/11 in decimal, and 3G interleaver are used for the typical WCDMA and CDMA2000 turbo codes. The proposed asymmetric turbo code uses generator polynomials (1,D3+D2+1/D3+D+1;D3+D2+1/D3+1, that is, (13/11; 13/9 in decimal, and a code-matched interleaver. The effect of interleaver in the proposed asymmetric turbo code is studied using weight distribution and simulation. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code for the frame length N=400, code rate r=1/3 with Log-MAP decoder over AWGN channel are compared with the typical system. From the simulation results, it is observed that the image transmission using proposed asymmetric turbo code performs better than that with the typical system.

  4. Performance of JPEG Image Transmission Using Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi Mohammad Umar


    Full Text Available This paper gives the results of a simulation study on the performance of JPEG image transmission over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels using typical and proposed asymmetric turbo codes for error control coding. The baseline JPEG algorithm is used to compress a QCIF ( "Suzie" image. The recursive systematic convolutional (RSC encoder with generator polynomials , that is, (13/11 in decimal, and 3G interleaver are used for the typical WCDMA and CDMA2000 turbo codes. The proposed asymmetric turbo code uses generator polynomials , that is, (13/11; 13/9 in decimal, and a code-matched interleaver. The effect of interleaver in the proposed asymmetric turbo code is studied using weight distribution and simulation. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code for the frame length , code rate with Log-MAP decoder over AWGN channel are compared with the typical system. From the simulation results, it is observed that the image transmission using proposed asymmetric turbo code performs better than that with the typical system.

  5. Asymmetric MRI Magnet Design Using a Hybrid Numerical Method (United States)

    Zhao, Huawei; Crozier, Stuart; Doddrell, David M.


    This paper describes a hybrid numerical method for the design of asymmetric magnetic resonance imaging magnet systems. The problem is formulated as a field synthesis and the desired current density on the surface of a cylinder is first calculated by solving a Fredholm equation of the first kind. Nonlinear optimization methods are then invoked to fit practical magnet coils to the desired current density. The field calculations are performed using a semi-analytical method. A new type of asymmetric magnet is proposed in this work. The asymmetric MRI magnet allows the diameter spherical imaging volume to be positioned close to one end of the magnet. The main advantages of making the magnet asymmetric include the potential to reduce the perception of claustrophobia for the patient, better access to the patient by attending physicians, and the potential for reduced peripheral nerve stimulation due to the gradient coil configuration. The results highlight that the method can be used to obtain an asymmetric MRI magnet structure and a very homogeneous magnetic field over the central imaging volume in clinical systems of approximately 1.2 m in length. Unshielded designs are the focus of this work. This method is flexible and may be applied to magnets of other geometries.

  6. Catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition reactions using alpha,beta-unsaturated N-acylpyrroles as highly reactive monodentate alpha,beta-unsaturated ester surrogates. (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki; Kinoshita, Tomofumi; Okada, Shigemitsu; Harada, Shinji; Shibasaki, Masakatsu


    Synthesis and application of alpha,beta-unsaturated N-acylpyrroles as highly reactive, monodentate ester surrogates in the catalytic asymmetric epoxidation and Michael reactions are described. alpha,beta-Unsaturated N-acylpyrroles with various functional groups were synthesized by the Wittig reaction using ylide 2. A Sm(O-i-Pr)(3)/H(8)-BINOL complex was the most effective catalyst for the epoxidation to afford pyrrolyl epoxides in up to 100% yield and >99% ee. Catalyst loading was successfully reduced to as little as 0.02 mol % (substrate/catalyst = 5000). The high turnover frequency and high volumetric productivity of the present reaction are also noteworthy. In addition, a sequential Wittig olefination-catalytic asymmetric epoxidation reaction was developed, providing efficient one-pot access to optically active epoxides from various aldehydes in high yield and ee (96-->99%). In a direct catalytic asymmetric Michael reaction of hydroxyketone promoted by the Et(2)Zn/linked-BINOL complex, Michael adducts were obtained in good yield (74-97%), dr (69/31-95/5), and ee (73-95%). This represents the first direct catalytic asymmetric Michael reaction of unmodified ketone to an alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivative. The properties of alpha,beta-unsaturated N-acylpyrrole are also discussed. Finally, the utility of the N-acylpyrrole unit for further transformations is demonstrated.

  7. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet; Sharma, Madan Mohan


    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO3 via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  8. Recent Advances in Chemoenzymatic Peptide Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Yazawa


    Full Text Available Chemoenzymatic peptide synthesis is the hydrolase-catalyzed stereoselective formation of peptide bonds. It is a clean and mild procedure, unlike conventional chemical synthesis, which involves complicated and laborious protection-deprotection procedures and harsh reaction conditions. The chemoenzymatic approach has been utilized for several decades because determining the optimal conditions for conventional synthesis is often time-consuming. The synthesis of poly- and oligopeptides comprising various amino acids longer than a dipeptide continues to pose a challenge owing to the lack of knowledge about enzymatic mechanisms and owing to difficulty in optimizing the pH, temperature, and other reaction conditions. These drawbacks limit the applications of the chemoenzymatic approach. Recently, a variety of enzymes and substrates produced using recombinant techniques, substrate mimetics, and optimal reaction conditions (e.g., frozen aqueous media and ionic liquids have broadened the scope of chemoenzymatic peptide syntheses. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in the chemoenzymatic syntheses of various peptides and their use in developing new materials and biomedical applications.

  9. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Abhijeet, E-mail:; Sharma, Madan Mohan [Manipal University Jaipur (India)


    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO{sub 3} via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  10. Six transformer based asymmetrical embedded Z-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Poh Chiang, Loh; Chi, Jin


    Embedded/Asymmetrical embedded Z-source inverters were proposed to maintain smooth input current/voltage across the dc source and within the impedance network, remain the shoot-through feature used to boost up the dc-link voltage without adding bulky filter at input side. This paper introduces a ...... a class of transformer based asymmetrical embedded Z-source inverters which keep the smooth input current and voltage while achieving enhanced voltage boost capability. The presented inverters are verified by laboratory prototypes experimentally.......Embedded/Asymmetrical embedded Z-source inverters were proposed to maintain smooth input current/voltage across the dc source and within the impedance network, remain the shoot-through feature used to boost up the dc-link voltage without adding bulky filter at input side. This paper introduces...

  11. Solitary waves in asymmetric electron-positron-ion plasmas (United States)

    Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Xie, Bai-Song


    > By solving the coupled equations of the electromagnetic field and electrostatic potential, we investigate solitary waves in an asymmetric electron-positron plasma and/or electron-positron-ion plasmas with delicate features. It is found that the solutions of the coupled equations can capture multipeak structures of solitary waves in the case of cold plasma, which are left out by using the long-wavelength approximation. By considering the effect of ion motion with respect to non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic temperature plasmas, we find that the ions' mobility can lead to larger-amplitude solitary waves; especially, this becomes more obvious for a high-temperature plasma. The effects of asymmetric temperature between electrons and positrons and the ion fraction on the solitary waves are also studied and presented. It is shown that the amplitudes of solitary waves decrease with positron temperature in asymmetric temperature electron-positron plasmas and decrease also with ion concentration.

  12. Complete polarimetry on the asymmetric transmission through subwavelength hole arrays. (United States)

    Arteaga, Oriol; Maoz, Ben M; Nichols, Shane; Markovich, Gil; Kahr, Bart


    Dissymmetric, periodically nanostructured metal films can show non-reciprocal transmission of polarized light, in apparent violation of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. The wave vector dependence of the extraordinary optical transmission in gold films with square and oblique subwavelength hole arrays was examined for the full range of polarized light input states. In normal incidence, the oblique lattice, in contrast to square lattice, showed strong asymmetric, non-reciprocal transmission of circularly polarized light. By analyzing the polarization of the input and the output with a complete Mueller matrix polarimeter the mechanisms that permits asymmetric transmission while preserving the requirement of electromagnetic reciprocity is revealed: the coupling of the linear anisotropies induced by misaligned surface plasmons in the film. The square lattice also shows asymmetric transmission at non-normal incidence, whenever the plane of incidence does not coincide with a mirror line.

  13. Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schlueter


    Full Text Available The proepicardium (PE is a cluster of cells that forms on the cardiac inflow tract and gives rise to the epicardium and connective tissue and largely contributes to the coronary vasculature. In many vertebrates, the PE undergoes left-right asymmetrical development. While PE cells and marker genes can be initially found on both sides, only the right-sided PE will fully develop and ultimately deliver cells to the heart. Several signalling inputs, like FGF and BMP signals, are involved in PE induction in the lateral plate mesoderm, as well as during inflow tract formation and, also, control asymmetric PE development. These signalling events will be put into the context of embryonic left-right asymmetry determination. Finally, it will be discussed whether PE development may serve as a readout for asymmetric inflow tract morphogenesis.

  14. Asymmetric nanoparticle may go "active" at room temperature (United States)

    Sheng, Nan; Tu, YuSong; Guo, Pan; Wan, RongZheng; Wang, ZuoWei; Fang, HaiPing


    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an asymmetrically shaped nanoparticle in dilute solution possesses a spontaneously curved trajectory within a finite time interval, instead of the generally expected random walk. This unexpected dynamic behavior has a similarity to that of active matters, such as swimming bacteria, cells, or even fish, but is of a different physical origin. The key to the curved trajectory lies in the non-zero resultant force originated from the imbalance of the collision forces acted by surrounding solvent molecules on the asymmetrically shaped nanoparticle during its orientation regulation. Theoretical formulae based on microscopic observations have been derived to describe this non-zero force and the resulting motion of the asymmetrically shaped nanoparticle.

  15. Abel inversion of asymmetric plasma density profile at Aditya tokamak (United States)

    Joshi, N. Y.; Atrey, P. K.; Pathak, S. K.


    In Aditya tokamak, at Institute for Plasma Research, till now, multi-channel microwave interferometer system is used to measure the cord averaged plasma density at predefined radial position. An inversion code is developed to determine the local density profile from the chord average density measurement of radially asymmetric plasma. The radial density profile is interpolated using Spline interpolation analytical technique for symmetric plasma density profile. Code implements the Slice and Stack method to determine localized density from asymmetric averaged plasma density measurement from interferometer. Inverted results are tested with various monotonically varying asymmetric radial density profiles of the plasma shots. It also provides the poloidal picture of plasma density distribution with circular constant density surfaces. Localized density measurements, which is very important for successful operation of tokamak, is in agreement with observation of other diagnostics.

  16. Asymmetric microscope; Fusho no kenbisho {exclamation_point}?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tadashi. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    It is difficult for a conventional optical analysis means to determine the configuration of a substance with an ultra low optical purity. Recently, an asymmetric microscope has been reported as a new concept for solving the above-mentioned problem. Specifically, a product with slight asymmetry is obtained by using the substance with an ultra low optical purity as the chiral initiation, and then the asymmetry of the product is amplified dramatically due to the asymmetric autocatalysis, thus obtaining a product having a high optical purity. A new means is to determine the configuration of the original substance having the low optical purity from the configuration of the substance having the high optical purity. According to this method, the chirality of the substance having the low optical purity is transcribed to alkanol, and the chirality is amplified due to the asymmetric autocatalysis, thus the absolute configuration of the original compound can be determined from the absolute configuration of the final product. (NEDO)

  17. Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of vimentin. (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Mikołaj; Salmonowicz, Hanna; Brown, Rachel; Turkowska, Joanna; Średniawa, Władysław; Pattabiraman, Sundararaghavan; Amen, Triana; Abraham, Ayelet-chen; Eichler, Noam; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Kaganovich, Daniel


    Aging is associated with the accumulation of several types of damage: in particular, damage to the proteome. Recent work points to a conserved replicative rejuvenation mechanism that works by preventing the inheritance of damaged and misfolded proteins by specific cells during division. Asymmetric inheritance of misfolded and aggregated proteins has been shown in bacteria and yeast, but relatively little evidence exists for a similar mechanism in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate, using long-term 4D imaging, that the vimentin intermediate filament establishes mitotic polarity in mammalian cell lines and mediates the asymmetric partitioning of damaged proteins. We show that mammalian JUNQ inclusion bodies containing soluble misfolded proteins are inherited asymmetrically, similarly to JUNQ quality-control inclusions observed in yeast. Mammalian IPOD-like inclusion bodies, meanwhile, are not always inherited by the same cell as the JUNQ. Our study suggests that the mammalian cytoskeleton and intermediate filaments provide the physical scaffold for asymmetric inheritance of dynamic quality-control JUNQ inclusions. Mammalian IPOD inclusions containing amyloidogenic proteins are not partitioned as effectively during mitosis as their counterparts in yeast. These findings provide a valuable mechanistic basis for studying the process of asymmetric inheritance in mammalian cells, including cells potentially undergoing polar divisions, such as differentiating stem cells and cancer cells.

  18. Efficient Algorithms with Asymmetric Read and Write Costs


    Blelloch, Guy E.; Fineman, Jeremy T.; Gibbons, Phillip B.; Gu, Yan; Shun, Julian


    In several emerging technologies for computer memory (main memory), the cost of reading is significantly cheaper than the cost of writing. Such asymmetry in memory costs poses a fundamentally different model from the RAM for algorithm design. In this paper we study lower and upper bounds for various problems under such asymmetric read and write costs. We consider both the case in which all but O(1) memory has asymmetric cost, and the case of a small cache of symmetric memory. We model both ...

  19. Asymmetric Cerebral Lesion Pattern in X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wang


    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is an inherited disease caused by peroxisomal dysfunction. X-ALD usually involves the cerebral white matter in an approximately symmetric way. We report a 10-year-old boy with the cerebral form of X-ALD who presented with cognitive impairment and left spastic hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed asymmetric lesions, and the lesions in the right hemisphere were predominant. In the late stage of the disease, bilateral limbs were involved. The cerebral lesions enlarged and appeared approximately symmetric on MRI. The purpose of our report is to highlight asymmetric demyelination in initial presentation of X-ALD.

  20. Asymptotic behavior of observables in the asymmetric quantum Rabi model (United States)

    Semple, J.; Kollar, M.


    The asymmetric quantum Rabi model with broken parity invariance shows spectral degeneracies in the integer case, that is when the asymmetry parameter equals an integer multiple of half the oscillator frequency, thus hinting at a hidden symmetry and accompanying integrability of the model. We study the expectation values of spin observables for each eigenstate and observe characteristic differences between the integer and noninteger cases for the asymptotics in the deep strong coupling regime, which can be understood from a perturbative expansion in the qubit splitting. We also construct a parent Hamiltonian whose exact eigenstates possess the same symmetries as the perturbative eigenstates of the asymmetric quantum Rabi model in the integer case.

  1. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengtao Zhou


    Full Text Available Copper-catalyzed (or -mediated asymmetric coupling reactions have received significant attention over the past few years. Especially the coupling reactions of aryl or alkyl halides with nucleophiles became a very powerful tool for the formation of C–C, C–N, C–O and other carbon–heteroatom bonds as well as for the construction of heteroatom-containing ring systems. This review summarizes the recent progress in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions for the formation of C–C and carbon–heteroatom bonds.

  2. Data analysis of asymmetric structures advanced approaches in computational statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takayuki


    Data Analysis of Asymmetric Structures provides a comprehensive presentation of a variety of models and theories for the analysis of asymmetry and its applications and provides a wealth of new approaches in every section. It meets both the practical and theoretical needs of research professionals across a wide range of disciplines and  considers data analysis in fields such as psychology, sociology, social science, ecology, and marketing. In seven comprehensive chapters this guide details theories, methods, and models for the analysis of asymmetric structures in a variety of disciplines and presents future opportunities and challenges affecting research developments and business applications.

  3. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun


    In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.

  4. Ratchet effect of the domain wall by asymmetric magnetostatic potentials (United States)

    Piao, Hong-Guang; Choi, Hyeok-Cheol; Shim, Je-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, Chun-Yeol


    We investigate a ratchet effect of magnetic domain wall motion in a ferromagnetic nanowire under AC magnetic fields using micromagnetic simulation. The ratchet effect for a transverse domain wall is achieved using an asymmetric magnetic potential generated by stray fields from non-contact trapezoidal ferromagnetic stubs near the straight nanowire. The ratchet phenomenon has been examined with various combinations of amplitude and frequency of the driving AC field. Interestingly, we find that the domain wall propagates along a preferential direction by the diode-like ratchet effect under AC field. The propagation of the domain wall strongly depends on the profile of the asymmetrical magnetic potentials and the driving AC field characteristics.

  5. On the topology defined by Thurston's asymmetric metric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Athanase; Theret, Guillaume


    We establish some properties of Thurston's asymmetric metric L on the Teichmüller space of a surface of genus with punctures and with negative Euler characteristic. We study convergence of sequences of elements in in the sense of L, as well as sequences that tend to infinity in . We show...... that the topology that the asymmetric metric L induces on Teichmüller space is the same as the usual topology. Furthermore, we show that L satisfies the axioms of a (not necessarily symmetric) metric in the sense of Busemann and conclude that L is complete in the sense of Busemann....

  6. Role of Asymmetric Clusters in Desynchronization of Coherent Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovych, O.; Maistrenko, Y.; Mosekilde, Erik


    The transition from full synchronization (coherent motion) to two-cluster dynamics is studied for a system of N globally coupled logistic maps. When increasing the nonlinearity parameter of the individual map, new periodic and strongly asymmetric two-cluster states are found to emerge in the same...... order as the periodic windows arise in the logistic map. These strongly asymmetric two-cluster states are generally first to stabilize when reducing the coupling strength. Similar phenomena are also observed for a system of globally coupled Henon maps....

  7. Climate agreements under limited participation, asymmetric information and market imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagem, Cathrine


    This thesis relates to climate agreements and cost efficiency by analysing the formation of a system of quota leading to distributed discharge of emissions between countries. Main fields concerned are the greenhouse effect, the political process, efficient and cost-effective climate agreements, and climate agreements under limited participation, asymmetric information and market imperfections covering fields like limited participation in climate agreements, limited participation and indirect impact on non-participating countries` emissions, limited participation and direct impact on non-participating countries` emissions under asymmetric information, and non-competitive market for tradeable quotas. 166 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. Asymmetric salivary gland uptake: Potential pitfall following radioiodide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavin, J.D. Jr.; Mack, J.M.; Spencer, R.P.


    A 67-year old woman, with prior radioiodide (/sup 131/I) therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, had a follow-up scan that revealed asymmetric accumulation in the left upper neck and cheek regions. This resembled functioning metastatic tissue. An immediate /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate image demonstrated accumulation in the same areas. This corresponded to activity in the left submandibular gland and parotid. Hence, asymmetric salivary gland uptake was mimicking functional thyroid metastases. Possible causes of the disparate salivary gland function were discussed.

  9. Simplification of Methods for PET Radiopharmaceutical Syntheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael, R.


    In an attempt to develop simplified methods for radiochemical synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals useful in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), current commercially available automated synthesis apparati were evaluated for use with solid phase synthesis, thin-film techniques, microwave-accelerated chemistry, and click chemistry approaches. Using combinations of these techniques, it was shown that these automated synthesis systems can be simply and effectively used to support the synthesis of a wide variety of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled compounds, representing all of the major types of compounds synthesized and using all of the common radiochemical precursors available. These techniques are available for use to deliver clinically useful amounts of PET radiopharmaceuticals with chemical and radiochemical purities and high specific activities, suitable for human administration.

  10. Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates (United States)

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari


    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588

  11. Structure of the enzymatically synthesized fructan inulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, A.G.; Schroeer, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 25, 14476 Golm (Germany); Radosta, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Polymerforschung, Postfach 126, 14504 Teltow (Germany); Wolff, D.; Czapla, S.; Springer, J. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, FG Makromolekulare Chemie, Str. des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)


    Construction, purification and characterization of a fusion protein of maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli and the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans is described. With the purified protein, in vitro synthesis of inulin was performed. The obtained polysaccharide was characterized by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and static light scattering (SLS) in dilute aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. For all samples very high molecular weights between 60x10{sup 6} and 90x10{sup 6} g/mol and a remarkable small polydispersity index of 1.1 have been determined. Small root-mean-square radii of gyration point to a compact conformation in dilute solution. No difference between native and enzymatically synthesized inulin was observed by X-ray powder diffraction and thermoanalysis of solid samples. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Allenes in Asymmetric Catalysis. Asymmetric Ring-Opening of Meso-Epoxides Catalyzed by Allene-Containing Phosphine Oxides (United States)

    Pu, Xiaotao; Qi, Xiangbing; Ready, Joseph M.


    Unsymmetrically substituted allenes (1,2 dienes) are inherently chiral and can be prepared in optically pure form. Nonetheless, to date the allene framework has not been incorporated into ligands for asymmetric catalysis. Since allenes project functionality differently than either tetrahedral carbon or chiral biaryls, they may create complementary chiral environments. This study demonstrates that optically active C2 symmetric allene-containing bisphosphine oxides can catalyze the addition of SiCl4 to meso epoxides with high enantioselectivity. The epoxide-opening likely involves generation of a Lewis acidic, cationic (bisphosphine oxide)SiCl3 complex. The fact that high asymmetric induction is observed suggests that allenes may represent a new platform for the development of ligands and catalysts for asymmetric synthesis. PMID:19722613

  13. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  14. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.


    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  15. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method in aqueous media from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a crystalline structure with hexagonal structure of the wurtzite. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles presented a spherical ...

  16. Asymmetric activation spreading in the multiplication associative network due to asymmetric overlap between numerosities semantic representations? (United States)

    Didino, Daniele; Knops, André; Vespignani, Francesco; Kornpetpanee, Suchada


    Simple multiplication facts are thought to be organised in a network structure in which problems and solutions are associated. Converging evidence suggests that the ability for solving symbolic arithmetic problems is based on an approximate number system (ANS). Most theoretical stances concerning the metric underlying the ANS converge on the assumption that the representational overlap between two adjacent numbers increases as the numerical magnitude of the numbers increases. Given a number N, the overlap between N and N+1 is larger than the overlap between N and N-1. Here, we test whether this asymmetric overlap influences the activation spreading within the multiplication associative network (MAN). When verifying simple multiplication problems such as 8×4 participants were slower in rejecting false but related outcomes that were larger than the actual outcome (e.g., 8×4=36) than rejecting smaller related outcomes (e.g., 8×4=28), despite comparable numerical distance from the correct result (here: 4). This effect was absent for outcomes which are not part of either operands table (e.g., 8×4=35). These results suggest that the metric of the ANS influences the activation spreading within the MAN, further substantiating the notion that symbolic arithmetic is grounded in the ANS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Asymmetrical Space Vector Method for Single Phase Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Yuanhai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt


    the motor torque performance is not good enough. This paper addresses a new control method, an asymmetrical space vector method with PWM modulation, also a three-phase inverter is used for the main winding and the auxiliary winding. This method with PWM modulation is implemented to control the motor speed...

  18. Asymmetric Threat Assessment Using Electro-Optical Image Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Schutte, K.


    Asymmetric threat assessment from military platforms, including early detection and classification by electro-optical means, is a complicated matter. These threats can be for instance explosives-packed rubber boats, minecarrying swimmers and divers in a marine environment or terrorists, improvised

  19. The catalystic asymmetric synthesis of optically active epoxy ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Bertha Gerda


    In this thesis the use of catalytic asymmetric synthesis to prepare optically active epoxy ketones is described. This means that the auxiliary chirality, necessary to obtain an optically active product, is added in a catalytic quantity . In principle this is a very efficient way to make opticlly

  20. Efficient asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of prochiral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 4. Efficient asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of prochiral cyclobutanones using new polymer-supported and unsupported chiral co(salen) complexes. Reza Sandaroos Mohammad Taghi Goldani Saman Damavandi Ali Mohammadi. Volume 124 Issue 4 ...

  1. Attempt to accelerate asymmetric species with unequal frequencies in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hayes, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severino, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    This report summarizes the beam studies on accelerating asymmetric beams with unequal frequencies, during the proton-Gold/Aluminum run in 2015. The experiment failed due to modulated beam-beam effects even though the beams were separated by at least 15 mm.

  2. Novel Cinchona derived organocatalysts: new asymmetric transformations and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, A.C.


    Cinchona alkaloids have a long history as being a powerful medicine against malaria. Since a relative short period (about 50 years) chemist have also used these alkaloids as chiral catalyst for a wide variety of asymmetric transformations. Especially since the beginning of this century, when strong

  3. Unexpected phase behavior of an asymmetric diblock copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Christine Maria; Almdal, Kristoffer; Mortensen, Kell


    We report on measurements of the transmitted depolarized light intensity and on small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on a compositionally asymmetric poly(ethylene propylene)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) diblock copolymer studied in the bulk. SANS measurements were made both on isotropic a...

  4. Welfare-Improving Asymmetric Information in Dynamic Insurance Markets. (United States)

    de Garidel-Thoron, Thomas


    This article presents a two-period asymmetric learning model of insurance markets. When information about past accidents is not shared by insurers, asymmetries of information develop through time. Equilibrium contracts exist, are payoff unique, and display a realistic bonus-malus pattern. Eliminating asymmetries through information sharing is…

  5. Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-azaspirene, a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. (United States)

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Shoji, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Junichiro; Sato, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shinpei; Mukaiyama, Takasuke; Sakai, Ken; Asami, Yukihiro; Kakeya, Hideaki; Osada, Hiroyuki


    The asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-azaspirene, an angiogenesis inhibitor, has been accomplished, establishing its absolute stereochemistry. The key steps are a MgBr2.OEt2-mediated, diastereoselective Mukaiyama aldol reaction, a NaH-promoted, intramolecular cyclization of an alkynylamide, and the aldol reaction of a ketone containing functionalized gamma-lactam moiety without protection of tert-alcohol and amide functionalities.

  6. The Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process: An Exactly Solvable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Ayyer, Indian Institute of Science


    Jun 30, 2017 ... Introduction. Multispecies ASEP. Affine Weyl Groups. Table of Contents. 1 Introduction. Motivation. Toy Model. 2 Multispecies ASEP. 3 Affine Weyl Groups. Arvind Ayyer, IISc. 28th Mid Year Meeting Faculty Hall, Indian Institute of Science. Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process ...

  7. Water-accelerated tandem Claisen rearrangement-catalytic asymmetric carboalumination. (United States)

    Wipf, P; Ribe, S


    [reaction: see text] The addition of stoichiometric quantities of water accelerates both the trimethylaluminum-mediated aromatic Claisen reaction and the chiral zirconocene-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of terminal alkenes. The two reactions occur in a tandem sequence resulting in the selective formation of two new C-C and one C-O bond after oxidative quench of the intermediate trialkylalane.

  8. Pulse generation and compression using an asymmetrical porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose an asymmetrical Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for efficient pulse generation and compression using porous silicon (PS) waveguide, fibre delay line and couplers. We show a pulse compression of about 0.4 ns at the output port with third-order super-Gaussian input pulse in ∼2 ns time duration and ∼40.3 ...

  9. Linguistic Correlates of Asymmetric Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick; Cappaert, Kevin; Durso, Raymond


    Asymmetric motor severity is common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and provides a method for examining the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying cognitive and linguistic deficits associated with the disorder. In the present research, PD participants (N = 31) were assessed in terms of the asymmetry of their motor symptoms. Interviews with the…

  10. Current Topics in the Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Imines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Januščák, J.; Václavík, Jiří; Šot, P.; Pecháček, J.; Vilhanová, B.; Kuzma, Marek; Kačer, P.


    Roč. 109, č. 7 (2015), s. 492-498 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/1276; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : asymmetric transfer hydrogenation * ruthenium * isoquinoline Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.279, year: 2015

  11. The SU(2)-Higgs model on asymmetric lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc


    We calculate the {\\cal O}(g^2,\\lambda) corrections to the coupling anisotropies of the SU(2)-Higgs model on lattices with asymmetric lattice spacings. These corrections are obtained by a one-loop calculation requiring the rotational invariance of the gauge- and Higgs-boson propagators in the continuum limit.

  12. Physics at a 10{sup 36} Asymmetric B Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roodman, Aaron


    The physics opportunities at an asymmetric B Factory operating at the unprecedented luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} are unique and attractive. The accelerator appears to be practical and the challenges of performing a sensitive experiment in this environment can be met.

  13. Luminosity lifetime at an asymmetric e sup + e sup - collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, F.C. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). Lauritsen Lab. of High Energy Physics)


    The dependence of the luminosity on time is discussed for an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring collider, with emphasis on single-particle scattering mechanisms for beam loss. The 'optimal' filling strategy and average luminosity obtainable are also reviewed. (orig.).

  14. An EMG technique for measuring spinal loading during asymmetric lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, P.; Kingma, I.; De Looze, M. P.; Van Dieen, J. H.; Toussaint, H. M.; Baten, C.T.M.; Adams, M.A.


    Objective. To compare two methods of calibrating the erector spinae electromyographic signal against moment generation in order to predict extensor moments during asymmetric lifting tasks, and to compare the predicted moments with those obtained using a linked-segment model. Methods. Eight men

  15. Bound states in a hyperbolic asymmetric double-well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, R. R., E-mail: [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila (Philippines)


    We report a new class of hyperbolic asymmetric double-well whose bound state wavefunctions can be expressed in terms of confluent Heun functions. An analytic procedure is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the criterion for the potential to support bound states is discussed.

  16. Asymmetric bipolar membrane: A tool to improve product purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Sumbharaju, R.; Srikantharajah, S.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Jordan, V.; Wessling, Matthias


    Bipolar membranes (BPMs) are catalytic membranes for electro-membrane processes splitting water into protons and hydroxyl ions. To improve selectivity and current efficiency of BPMs, we prepare new asymmetric BPMs with reduced salt leakages. The flux of salt ions across a BPM is determined by the

  17. Plasmonic Terahertz Amplification in Graphene-Based Asymmetric Hyperbolic Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nefedov


    Full Text Available We propose and theoretically explore terahertz amplification, based on stimulated generation of plasmons in graphene asymmetric hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMM, strongly coupled to terahertz radiation. In contrast to the terahertz amplification in resonant nanocavities, AHMM provides a wide-band THz amplification without any reflection in optically thin graphene multilayers.

  18. Purcell effect of asymmetric dipole source distributions in nanowire resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Adam, Jost

    of the asymmetric source distributions in proximity to the metal nanowire in two configurations: a metal cylinder truncated by the PEC plates and finite metal cylinder in free-space. In order to evaluate Purcell factor the mode eigenvalues are precalculated using Comsol Multiphysics radio frequency module. We...

  19. Purcell effect of asymmetric dipole source distributions in nanowire resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Adam, Jost


    of the asymmetric source distributions in proximity to the metal nanowire in two configurations: a metal cylinder truncated by the PEC plates and finite metal cylinder in free-space. In order to evaluate Purcell factor the mode eigenvalues are precalculated using Comsol Multiphysics radio frequency module. We...

  20. Free asymmetric transverse vibration of polar orthotropic annular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. In the present paper, free asymmetric transverse vibrations of a non- uniform polar orthotropic annular sector plate, with parabolically varying thickness in the radial direction, have been studied on the basis of classical plate theory. The circular edges of the plate are elastically restrained against translation and.

  1. Asymmetric gold-catalyzed lactonizations in water at room temperature** (United States)

    Handa, Sachin; Lippincott, Daniel J.; Slack, Eric D.; Aue, Donald H.


    Asymmetric gold-catalyzed hydrocarboxylations are reported that show broad substrate scope. The hydrophobic effect associated with in situ-formed aqueous nanomicelles leads to good-to-excellent ee’s of product lactones. In-flask product isolation, along with recycling of the catalyst and reaction medium, combine to arrive at an especially environmentally friendly process. PMID:25124085

  2. Ion pumping in nanochannels using an asymmetric electrode array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, Wouter; Cucu, C.F.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Locascio, L.E.; Gaitan, M.; Paegel, B.M.; Ross, D.J.; Vreeland, W.N.


    We demonstrate an ion pump, consisting of a nanochannel with an AC driven asymmetric electrode array. Our system enables us to actively pump ions using a low driving voltage. In all experiments the electrical double layers are overlapping. Via viscous coupling ion pumping is accompanied by liquid

  3. Research on the Design and Modification of Asymmetric Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohe Deng


    Full Text Available A design method for the geometric shape and modification of asymmetric spur gear was proposed, in which the geometric shape and modification of the gear can be obtained directly according to the rack-cutter profile. In the geometric design process of the gear, a rack-cutter with different pressure angles and fillet radius in the driving side and coast side was selected, and the generated asymmetric spur gear profiles also had different pressure angles and fillets accordingly. In the modification design of the gear, the pressure angle modification of rack-cutter was conducted firstly and then the corresponding modified involute gear profile was obtained. The geometric model of spur gears was developed using computer-aided design, and the meshing process was analyzed using finite element simulation method. Furthermore, the transmission error and load sharing ratio of unmodified and modified asymmetric spur gears were investigated. Research results showed that the proposed gear design method was feasible and desired spur gear can be obtained through one time rapid machining by the method. Asymmetric spur gear with better transmission characteristic can be obtained via involute modification.

  4. Symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviours of a bogie system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue-jun, Gao; Ying-hui, Li; Yuan, Yue


    Based on the bifurcation and stability theory of dynamical systems, the symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviours and chaotic motions of a railway bogie system under a complex nonlinear wheel–rail contact relation are investigated in detail by the ‘resultant bifurcation diagram’ method with slo...

  5. Effect of entry bending moment on exit curvature in asymmetrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In practice, rolling of plate and sheet asymmetry arises due to inequality in roll radii, roll velocity and interface friction. These ... used modified slab method to analyze the asymmetrical plate rolling and to predict strip curvature. Knight et al. ...... This relative motion makes the rotation toward the rougher roll. By applying ...

  6. Interactional Dimension of Online Asynchronous Exchange in an Asymmetric Telecollaboration (United States)

    Loizidou, Dora; Mangenot, François


    The telecollaborative project under study involves, on the one hand, Masters students who are studying to become teachers and who design the tasks as well as tutor them, and, on the other hand, French language students. The relationship in this type of telecollaboration has been shown to be both asymmetric and symmetric. The hypothesis this paper…

  7. Market Efficiency and Price Formation When Dealers are Asymmetrically Informed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagno, R.; Lovo, S.M.


    We consider the effect of asymmetric information on the price formation process in a quote-driven market where one market maker receives a private signal on the security fundamental.A model is presented where market makers repeatedly compete in prices: at each stage a bid-ask auction occurs and the

  8. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Dihydrofurans and Cyclopentenols with Tertiary Stereocenters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Zhongtao; Madduri, Ashoka V.R.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    A new asymmetric synthesis of dihydrofurans and cyclopentenols has been developed and is based on the copper-catalyzed 1,2-addition of Grignard reagents to enones in combination with Sonogashira coupling/cyclization or ring-closing metathesis. By this approach, dihydrofurans with an

  9. The asymmetric leader election algorithm: number of survivors near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following classical asymmetric leader election algorithm has obtained quite a bit of attention lately. Starting with n players, each one throws a coin, and the k of them which have each thrown a head (with probability q) go on, and the leader will be found amongst them, using the same strategy. Should nobody advance ...

  10. Eigenstate localization in an asymmetric coupled quantum well pair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mialitsin, Aleksej; Schmult, Stefan; Solov'yov, Ilia


    Optical pumping of a type-I/type-II coupled asymmetric quantum well pair induces a spatially separated two dimensional charge carriers plasma in the well’s wide and narrow parts. Treating the two coupled wells as a single system we find that the eigenstate probability distribution localizes...

  11. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2S,3S-ketols. 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme– substrate ...

  12. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2, 3-ketols 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme-substrate interactions.

  13. Symmetrical and asymmetrical growth restriction in preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger; Bos, Arend; Kerstjens, Jorien; de Winter, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how symmetric (proportionate; SGR) and asymmetric (disproportionate; AGR) growth restriction influence growth and development in preterms from birth to 4 years. METHODS: This community-based cohort study of 810 children comprised 86 SGR, 61 AGR, and 663 non-growth restricted

  14. Measurement of mode splitting in asymmetric Y-junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tol, J.J.G.M.; Laarhuis, J.H.; Laarhuis, Jan


    A measurement procedure is presented for the determination of mode splitting (or mode sorting) in asymmetric Y-junctions. This procedure avoids measurement errors introduced by bends, tapers, small damages in the waveguides outside the coupling region, variation in fiber-chip coupling, etc. It is

  15. Asymmetric block copolymers confined in a thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huinink, HP; Brokken-Zijp, JCM; van Dijk, MA; Sevink, GJA


    We have used a dynamic density functional theory (DDFT) for polymeric systems, to simulate the formation of micro phases in a melt of an asymmetric block copolymer, A(n)B(m)(f(A) = 1/3), both in the bulk and in a thin film. In the DDFT model a polymer is represented as a chain of springs and beads.

  16. Baseline-dependent neutrino oscillations in asymmetrically-warped spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hollenberg, S; Pas, H; Weiler, J T


    We study the possibility to explain the LSND anomaly by means of resonant active-sterile neutrino oscillations in an asymmetrically-warped spacetime. In such extra-dimensional scenarios sterile neutrinos take shortcuts through the extra dimension, which results in new types of resonances in the oscillation probability.

  17. Water transport and purification in nanochannels controlled by asymmetric wettability. (United States)

    Chen, Qinwen; Meng, Lingyi; Li, Qikai; Wang, Dong; Guo, Wei; Shuai, Zhigang; Jiang, Lei


    Biomimetic asymmetric nanochannels have recently attracted increasing attention from researchers, especially in the aspect of the asymmetric wettability (a hydrophilic-hydrophobic system), which can be utilized to control the wetting behavior of aqueous media and to offer a means for guiding water motion. By using molecular dynamics simulations, a design for a potentially efficient water filter is presented based on (n, n) single-walled carbon nanotubes, where n = 6, 8, 10 and 12, asymmetrically modified with hydrophilic groups (carboxyl, -COOH) at one tip and hydrophobic groups (trifluoromethyl, -CF(3) ) at the other. The reduced water density on the hydrophobic sides of the functionalized nanotubes are observed in both pure water and aqueous electrolyte solution, except for the functionalized (6, 6) tube, due to the change of dipole orientation of the single-file water wire within it. The functionalized (8, 8) tube can significantly maintain the low water density on the hydrophobic side. Both (6, 6) and (8, 8) tubes have relatively high energy barriers at their tips for ion permeation, which can be obtained by calculating the potential of mean force. Such tip functionalization of a nanotube therefore suggests the great possibilities of water transport and filtration, dominated by asymmetric wettability. The functionalized (8, 8) tube could act as a nanofluidic channel for water purification, not only for ion exclusion but also as a stable water column structure. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The impact of asymmetric flows on pathological speech (United States)

    Erath, Byron D.; Peterson, Sean D.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    In voiced speech the vocal folds form a divergent glottal passage during the closing phases of the phonatory cycle. Due to the adverse pressure gradient, asymmetric flow develops within the glottis causing the glottal jet to separate from one vocal fold wall, and fully-attach to the opposing wall. The asymmetric pressures that arise from this flow configuration directly influence the vocal fold energy exchange process, and are expected to have the greatest influence on vocal fold motion when pathologies that affect the vocal fold musculature are present. A theoretical flow solution that produces the pressure distributions arising from asymmetric glottal flows is implemented into a two-mass model of speech. The impact of flow asymmetries on pathological vocal fold motion is investigated by modifying the tissue parameters of the speech model to represent unilateral paralysis. The influence of asymmetric flow behavior on pathological vocal fold motion is quantified and compared to the commonly-reported simplified case involving symmetric flow behavior.

  19. Switching the Interpenetration of Confined Asymmetric Polymer Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, Stephen B.; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Mears, Laura L.E.; Skoda, Maximilian W.A.; Dalgliesh, Robert; Edmondson, Steve; Richardson, Robert M.; Prescott, Stuart W.


    The interpenetration of two polymer brushes on approaching flat surfaces has been investigated. When compacting polymer brushes with an asymmetric charge on each surface, one neutral and the other weakly charged, we find that the brush interpenetration becomes a parameter that can be controlled by

  20. Study on Warm Forging Prosess of 45 Steel Asymmetric Gear (United States)

    Qi, Yushi; Du, Zhiming; Sun, Hongsheng; Chen, Lihua; Wang, Changshun


    Asymmetric gear has complex structure, so using plastic forming technology to process the gear has problems of large forming load, short die life, bad tooth filling, and so on. To solve these problems, this paper presents a radial warm extrusion process of asymmetric gear to reduce the forming load and improve the filling in the toothed corner portion. Using the new mold and No. 45 steel to conducting forming experiments under the optimal forming parameters: billet temperature is 800°C, mold temperature is 250°C, the forming speed is 30mm/s, and the friction coefficient is 0.15, we can obtain the complete asymmetric gear with better surface and tooth filling. Asymmetric gears’ microstructure analysis and mechanical testing showed that the small grain evenly distributed in the region near the addendum circle with high strength; the area near the central portion of the gear had a coarse grain size, uneven distribution and low strength. Significant metal flow lines at the corner part of the gear indicated that a large number of late-forming metal flowed into the tooth cavity filling the corner portion.

  1. GaAs-Based Nanowire Devices with Multiple Asymmetric Gates for Electrical Brownian Ratchets


    Tanaka, Takayuki; Nakano, Yuki; Kasai, Seiya


    GaAs-based nanowire devices having multiple asymmetric gates for electrical Brownian ratchets were fabricated and characterized. From three-dimensional potential simulation results and current–voltage characteristics, we confirmed the formation of the asymmetric potential in our device design. Direct current was generated at room temperature by repeatedly switching the potential in a multiple-asymmetric-gate device on and off. Such current was not observed in either a single-asymmetric-gate d...

  2. An N-Linked Bidentate Phosphoramidite Ligand (N-Me-BIPAM for Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric 1,4-Addition of Arylboronic Acids to α,β-Unsaturated Ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Miyaura


    Full Text Available A new bidentate phosphoramidite (N-Me-BIPAM based on Shibasaki’s N-linked BINOL was synthesized. This ligand appears to be highly effective for rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric conjugated addition of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated enones. The reaction of ortho-substituted arylboronic acid with acyclic and cyclic enones provides the corresponding products in good yields and enantioselectivities.

  3. Asymmetric Aldol Additions: A Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Activity on Catalysis (United States)

    King, Jorge H. Torres; Wang, Hong; Yezierski, Ellen J.


    Despite the importance of asymmetric catalysis in both the pharmaceutical and commodity chemicals industries, asymmetric catalysis is under-represented in undergraduate chemistry laboratory curricula. A novel guided-inquiry experiment based on the asymmetric aldol addition was developed. Students conduct lab work to compare the effectiveness of…

  4. Legionella bozemanae synthesizes phosphatidylcholine from exogenous choline. (United States)

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Janczarek, Monika; Kalitynski, Rafal; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Russa, Ryszard


    The phospholipid class and fatty acid composition of Legionella bozemanae were determined using thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were the predominant phospholipids, while phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidyl-N,N-dimethylethanolamine were present at low concentrations. With the use of the LC/MS technique, PC16:0/15:0, PC17:/15:0, and PE16:1/15:0 were shown to be the dominant phospholipid constituents, which may be taxonomically significant. Two independent phosphatidylcholine synthesis pathways (the three-step methylation and the one-step CDP-choline pathway) were present and functional in L. bozemanae. In the genome of L. bozemanae, genes encoding two potential phosphatidylcholine forming enzymes, phospholipid N-methyl transferase (PmtA) and phosphatidylcholine synthase (Pcs), homologous to L. longbeachae, L. drancourtii, and L. pneumophila pmtA and pcs genes were identified. Genes pmtA and pcs from L. bozemanae were sequenced and analyzed on nucleotide and amino acid levels. Bacteria grown on an artificial medium with labelled choline synthesized phosphatidylcholine predominantly via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway, which indicates that L. bozemanae phosphatidylcholine, similarly as in other bacteria associated with eukaryotes, is an important determinant of host-microbe interactions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Syntheses of surfactants from oleochemical epoxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwel Siegfried


    Full Text Available Sugar-based surfactants were obtained in good yields (up to 100% under mild conditions (70°C, methanol or mixtures of methanol and water by ring-opening of terminal epoxides with aminopolyols, derived from glucose. Reaction of N-methyl glucamine with epoxides from even-numbered C4-C18 alpha-olefins or from terminal unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters leads to linear products, while corresponding reactions with N-dodecyl glucamine or glucamine yield surfactants with different Y-structures. Products obtained by conversion of omega-epoxy fatty acid methyl esters were saponificated with NaOH or hydrolyzed enzymatically to sodium salts or free acids respectively, which are amphoteric surfactants. Studies of the surfactants at different pH-values demonstrate different surface active properties in aqueous solutions. Critical micelle concentrations (c.m.c. in a range between 2 and 500mg/l and surface tensions of 25-40mN/m were measured for several of the synthesized sugar-based surfactants. The ring-opening products are rather poor foamers, whereas some of the corresponding hydrobromides show good foaming properties.

  6. [Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses]. (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano


    The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.

  7. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells synthesize neuromodulatory factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Sakry

    Full Text Available NG2 protein-expressing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC are a persisting and major glial cell population in the adult mammalian brain. Direct synaptic innervation of OPC by neurons throughout the brain together with their ability to sense neuronal network activity raises the question of additional physiological roles of OPC, supplementary to generating myelinating oligodendrocytes. In this study we investigated whether OPC express neuromodulatory factors, typically synthesized by other CNS cell types. Our results show that OPC express two well-characterized neuromodulatory proteins: Prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS and neuronal Pentraxin 2 (Nptx2/Narp. Expression levels of the enzyme PTGDS are influenced in cultured OPC by the NG2 intracellular region which can be released by cleavage and localizes to glial nuclei upon transfection. Furthermore PTGDS mRNA levels are reduced in OPC from NG2-KO mouse brain compared to WT cells after isolation by cell sorting and direct analysis. These results show that OPC can contribute to the expression of these proteins within the CNS and suggest PTGDS expression as a downstream target of NG2 signaling.

  8. Asymmetric catalysis at the mesoscale: gold nanoclusters embedded in chiral self-assembled monolayer as heterogeneous catalyst for asymmetric reactions. (United States)

    Gross, Elad; Liu, Jack H; Alayoglu, Selim; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C; Toste, F Dean; Somorjai, Gabor A


    Research to develop highly versatile, chiral, heterogeneous catalysts for asymmetric organic transformations, without quenching the catalytic reactivity, has met with limited success. While chiral supramolecular structures, connected by weak bonds, are highly active for homogeneous asymmetric catalysis, their application in heterogeneous catalysis is rare. In this work, asymmetric catalyst was prepared by encapsulating metallic nanoclusters in chiral self-assembled monolayer (SAM), immobilized on mesoporous SiO2 support. Using olefin cyclopropanation as an example, it was demonstrated that by controlling the SAM properties, asymmetric reactions can be catalyzed by Au clusters embedded in chiral SAM. Up to 50% enantioselectivity with high diastereoselectivity were obtained while employing Au nanoclusters coated with SAM peptides as heterogeneous catalyst for the formation of cyclopropane-containing products. Spectroscopic measurements correlated the improved enantioselectivity with the formation of a hydrogen-bonding network in the chiral SAM. These results demonstrate the synergetic effect of the catalytically active metallic sites and the surrounding chiral SAM for the formation of a mesoscale enantioselective catalyst.

  9. A Numerical Comparison of Symmetric and Asymmetric Supersonic Wind Tunnels (United States)

    Clark, Kylen D.

    Supersonic wind tunnels are a vital aspect to the aerospace industry. Both the design and testing processes of different aerospace components often include and depend upon utilization of supersonic test facilities. Engine inlets, wing shapes, and body aerodynamics, to name a few, are aspects of aircraft that are frequently subjected to supersonic conditions in use, and thus often require supersonic wind tunnel testing. There is a need for reliable and repeatable supersonic test facilities in order to help create these vital components. The option of building and using asymmetric supersonic converging-diverging nozzles may be appealing due in part to lower construction costs. There is a need, however, to investigate the differences, if any, in the flow characteristics and performance of asymmetric type supersonic wind tunnels in comparison to symmetric due to the fact that asymmetric configurations of CD nozzle are not as common. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study has been conducted on an existing University of Michigan (UM) asymmetric supersonic wind tunnel geometry in order to study the effects of asymmetry on supersonic wind tunnel performance. Simulations were made on both the existing asymmetrical tunnel geometry and two axisymmetric reflections (of differing aspect ratio) of that original tunnel geometry. The Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved via NASAs OVERFLOW code to model flow through these configurations. In this way, information has been gleaned on the effects of asymmetry on supersonic wind tunnel performance. Shock boundary layer interactions are paid particular attention since the test section integrity is greatly dependent upon these interactions. Boundary layer and overall flow characteristics are studied. The RANS study presented in this document shows that the UM asymmetric wind tunnel/nozzle configuration is not as well suited to producing uniform test section flow as that of a symmetric configuration, specifically one

  10. High performance asymmetric supercapacitor based on molybdenum disulphide/graphene foam and activated carbon from expanded graphite. (United States)

    Masikhwa, Tshifhiwa M; Madito, Moshawe J; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien K; Manyala, Ncholu


    Molybdenum disulphide which has a graphene-like single layer structure has excellent mechanical and electrical properties and unique morphology, which might be used with graphene foam as composite in supercapacitor applications. In this work, Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)/graphene foam (GF) composites with different graphene foam loading were synthesized by the hydrothermal process to improve on specific capacitance of the composites. Asymmetric supercapacitor device was fabricated using the best performing MoS2/GF composite and activated carbon derived from expanded graphite (AEG) as positive and negative electrodes, respectively, in 6M KOH electrolyte. The asymmetric MoS2/GF//AEG device exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 59Fg-1 at a current density of 1Ag-1 with maximum energy and power densities of 16Whkg-1 and 758Wkg-1, respectively. The supercapacitor also exhibited a good cyclic stability with 95% capacitance retention over 2000 constant charge-discharge cycles. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of MoS2/GF//AEG as a promising material for electrochemical energy storage application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface Characterization of Asymmetric Bi-Soft Segment Poly(ester urethane urea Membranes for Blood-Oxygenation Medical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Faria


    Full Text Available Asymmetric bi-soft segment poly(ester urethane urea (PEUU membranes containing polycaprolactone (PCL as a second soft segment are synthesized with PCL-diol ranging from 0% to 15% (w/w. Bulk and surface characteristics of the PEUU membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, static water contact angles, and surface streaming potentials and were correlated to hemocompatibility properties, namely, hemolysis and thrombosis degrees. SEM analysis reveals PEUU membranes with asymmetric cross-sections and top dense surfaces with distinct morphologies. The increase in PCL-diol content yields PEUU membranes with blood-contacting surfaces that are smoother, more hydrophilic, and with higher maximum zeta potentials. The results obtained in this work give no evidence of a correlation between hydrophilicity/zeta potentials and the hemolysis/thrombosis degree of blood-contacting surfaces of the PEUU membranes. In contrast, other hemocompatibility aspects reveal that the more hydrophilic membranes are associated with lower platelet deposition and inhibition of extreme states of platelet activation.

  12. Asymmetric Electrophilic Fluorination of β-Keto Phosphonates in Ionic Liquid Media Catalyzed by Chiral Palladium Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Min; Kang, Young Ku; Mang, Joo Yang; Kim, Dae Young [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kil Sung [Cheil Industries Inc., Euiwang, (Korea, Republic of)


    We have accomplished the highly efficient catalytic enantioselective fluorination of β-keto phosphonates with excellent yield and enantioselectivity in ionic liquid, which simplify product isolation and catalyst recycling. The chemistry of bioactive organofluorine compounds is a rapidly developing area of research because of their importance in biochemical and medicinal application. Chiral organofluorine compounds containing a fluorine atom bonded directly to a stereogenic center have been utilized in studies of enzyme mechanisms and as intermediates in asymmetric syntheses. The development of effective methodologies for the preparation of new selectively fluorinated, stereochemically defined compounds is critical to further advances of fluorine chemistry. The catalytic enantioselective construction of fluorinated stereogenic centers is still important challenge in modern organic chemistry.

  13. Syntheses of (+)-30-epi-, (-)-6-epi-, (±)-6,30-epi-13,14-Didehydroxyisogarcinol and (±)-6,30-epi-Garcimultiflorone A Utilizing Highly Diastereoselective, Lewis Acid-Controlled Cyclizations. (United States)

    Boyce, Jonathan H; Eschenbrenner-Lux, Vincent; Porco, John A


    The first syntheses of 13,14-didehydroxyisogarcinol (6) and garcimultiflorone A (5) stereoisomers are reported in six steps from a commercially available phloroglucinol. Lewis acid-controlled, diastereoselective cationic oxycyclizations enabled asymmetric syntheses of (-)-6-epi-6 and (+)-30-epi-6. A similar strategy enabled production of the meso-dervied isomers (±)-6,30-epi-6 and (±)-6,30-epi-5. Finally, a convenient strategy for gram scale synthesis was developed utilizing diastereomer separation at a later stage in the synthesis that minimized the number of necessary synthetic operations to access all possible stereoisomers.

  14. Asymmetric nonlinear response of the quantized Hall effect (United States)

    Siddiki, A.; Horas, J.; Kupidura, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Ludwig, S.


    An asymmetric breakdown of the integer quantized Hall effect (IQHE) is investigated. This rectification effect is observed as a function of the current value and its direction in conjunction with an asymmetric lateral confinement potential defining the Hall bar. Our electrostatic definition of the Hall bar via Schottky gates allows a systematic control of the steepness of the confinement potential at the edges of the Hall bar. A softer edge (flatter confinement potential) results in more stable Hall plateaus, i.e. a breakdown at a larger current density. For one soft and one hard edge, the breakdown current depends on its direction, resembling rectification. This nonlinear magneto-transport effect confirms the predictions of an emerging screening theory of the IQHE.

  15. Gamma ray constraints on flavor violating asymmetric dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, I.; Panci, P.; Sannino, F.


    We show how cosmic gamma rays can be used to constrain models of asymmetric Dark Matter decaying into lepton pairs by violating flavor. First of all we require the models to explain the anomalies in the charged cosmic rays measured by PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S.; performing combined fits we...... determine the allowed values of the Dark Matter mass and lifetime. For these models, we then determine the constraints coming from the measurement of the isotropic gamma-ray background by Fermi for a complete set of lepton flavor violating primary modes and over a range of DM masses from 100 GeV to 10 Te......V. We find that the Fermi constraints rule out the flavor violating asymmetric Dark Matter interpretation of the charged cosmic ray anomalies....

  16. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, X.


    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  17. Multidisciplinary approach to an asymmetric traumatic occlusion: a case report. (United States)

    Pinho, T; Coutinho-Alves, C; Neves, M


    The case of a 47-year-old female patient with an asymmetric traumatic occlusion, great alveolar destruction in the mandibular left central incisor, gingival recession with attachment loss and lack o fkeratinized tissue more accentuated in the crossbite teeth is described. This situation was caused by the traumatic position of the teeth, aggravated by a forced asymmetric anterior position of the mandible and aggravated by mandibular movements. After the extraction of the left central mandibular incisor, keratinized tissue reconstruction and alveolar bone regeneration were performed to obtain enough bone to move the adjacent teeth in this direction and allow the correct placement of an implant at the end of orthodontic treatment. The orthodontic treatment achieved general stable occlusal contacts and esthetic results that were finalized with a definitive prosthetic treatment. This interdisciplinary management was important to solve in the present case the seriously compromised function and esthetics that would never be achieved without this combination.

  18. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.


    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Asymmetric dark matter models and the LHC diphoton excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Mads T. [CP" 3-Origins & Danish Institute for Advanced Study DIAS,University of Southern Denmark,Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Shoemaker, Ian M. [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics,Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University,104 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    The existence of dark matter (DM) and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are persistent indications that the SM is incomplete. More recently, the ATLAS and CMS experiments have observed an excess of diphoton events with invariant mass of about 750 GeV. One interpretation of this excess is decays of a new spin-0 particle with a sizable diphoton partial width, e.g. induced by new heavy weakly charged particles. These are also key ingredients in models cogenerating asymmetric DM and baryons via sphaleron interactions and an initial particle asymmetry. We explore what consequences the new scalar may have for models of asymmetric DM that attempt to account for the similarity of the dark and visible matter abundances.

  20. Control of Wind Turbines during Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer

    grid code requirements, which are targeting to make the WPPs operate in a closer manner to the conventional power plants. Common to most of the grid codes, WPPs are required to stay connected during short-circuit grid faults, and also inject reactive current in order to support the grid voltage...... regulation. The uninterrupted operation of WPPs is required even when the grid voltage drops down to zero; and the current injection requirement is defined as positive sequence reactive current irrespective of the fault type; symmetrical or asymmetrical. In this project, the response of full-scale converter...... type wind turbines (WTs), in an AC connected WPP, is investigated and control algorithms are designed for minimum disrupted operation and improved grid support, for both symmetrical and asymmetrical grid faults. WTs’ response with conventional control algorithms is studied regarding the impact...

  1. Multiband Printed Asymmetric Dipole Antenna for LTE/WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Mei Peng


    Full Text Available The ability of a single layer strip fed printed asymmetric dipole antenna, which is composed of top-loading, asymmetric coplanar waveguide (ACPW and stepped-feeding structure, to operate at three wide frequency bands (698~960 MHz, 1710~2620 MHz, and 5150~5850 MHz to cover WLAN and LTE operation has been demonstrated. A prototype of the proposed antenna with 57.5 mm in length, 0.4 mm in thickness, and 5 mm in width is fabricated and experimentally investigated. The experimental results indicate that the VSWR 2.5 : 1 bandwidths achieved were 74.3%, 40.8%, and 18.2% at 700 MHz, 2450 MHz, and 5500 MHz, respectively. Experimental results are shown to verify the validity of theoretical work.

  2. Corporate governance ratings as a means to reduce asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten; Holm, Claus; Poulsen, Thomas

    Can corporate governance ratings reduce problems of asymmetric information between companies and investors? To answer this question, we set out to examine the information basis for providing such ratings by reviewing corporate governance attributes that are required or recommended in laws...... suggest that rating providers by selecting relevant attributes in an intelligent way can improve the screening of companies according to governance quality. In contrast, it seems questionable that weighting, aggregation and classification of corporate governance attributes considerably improve...... governance ratings as a means to reduce asymmetric information in a more general manner. We propose that the rating process may be seen as consisting of two general activities, namely a data reduction phase, and a data weighting, aggregation and classification phase. Findings based on a Danish data set...

  3. Broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber based on sectional asymmetric structures (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Zhan, Mingzhou; Yang, Jing; Wang, Zhigang; Liu, Haitao; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Weiwei


    We suggest and demonstrate the concept and design of sectional asymmetric structures which can manipulate the metamaterial absorber’s working bandwidth with maintaining the other inherent advantages. As an example, a broadband terahertz perfect absorber is designed to confirm its effectiveness. The absorber’s each cell integrates four sectional asymmetric rings, and the entire structure composed of Au and Si3N4 is only 1.9 μm thick. The simulation results show the bandwidth with absorptivity being larger than 90% is extended by about 2.8 times comparing with the conventional square ring absorber. The composable small cell, ultra-thin, and broadband absorption with polarization and incident angle insensitivity will make the absorber suitable for the applications of focal plane array terahertz imaging. PMID:27571941

  4. Meta-$\\mathcal{PT}$ Symmetry in Asymmetric Directional Couplers

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Chicheng; Litchinitser, Natalia M


    Despite the benefits that directional coupler based parity-time symmetric systems may offer to the field of integrated optics, the realization of such couplers relies on rather strict design constraints on the waveguide parameters. Here, we investigate directional couplers built of asymmetric waveguides that do not fulfill parity-time symmetry. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that for properly designed parameters, at least one mode of such couplers shows a behavior similar to the one observed in parity-symmetric systems. We find an analytical condition relating gain and loss that enables such a behavior. Moreover, if the individual waveguides composing the asymmetric coupler are designed such that the propagation constants of their modes are identical, the behavior of both super-modes supported by the coupler resembles that of the parity-time symmetric systems.

  5. Asymmetric trienamine catalysis: new opportunities in amine catalysis. (United States)

    Kumar, Indresh; Ramaraju, Panduga; Mir, Nisar A


    Amine catalysis, through HOMO-activating enamine and LUMO-activating iminium-ion formation, is receiving increasing attention among other organocatalytic strategies, for the activation of unmodified carbonyl compounds. Particularly, the HOMO-raising activation concept has been applied to the greatest number of asymmetric transformations through enamine, dienamine, and SOMO-activation strategies. Recently, trienamine catalysis, an extension of amine catalysis, has emerged as a powerful tool for synthetic chemists with a novel activation strategy for polyenals/polyenones. In this review article, we discuss the initial developments of trienamine catalysis for highly asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions with different dienophiles and emerging opportunities for other types of cycloadditions and cascade reactions.

  6. Cosmology in time asymmetric extensions of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, Genly


    We investigate the cosmological behavior in a universe governed by time asymmetric extensions of general relativity, which is a novel modified gravity based on the addition of new, time-asymmetric, terms on the Hamiltonian framework, in a way that the algebra of constraints and local physics remain unchanged. Nevertheless, at cosmological scales these new terms can have significant effects that can alter the universe evolution, both at early and late times, and the freedom in the choice of the involved modification function makes the scenario able to produce a huge class of cosmological behaviors. For basic ansatzes of modification, we perform a detailed dynamical analysis, extracting the stable late time solutions. Amongst others, we find that the universe can result in dark-energy dominated, accelerating solutions, even in the absence of an explicit cosmological constant, in which the dark energy can be quintessence-like, phantom-like, or behave as an effective cosmological constant. Moreover, it can result...

  7. Asymmetric molecular-orbital tomography by manipulating electron trajectories (United States)

    Wang, Bincheng; Zhang, Qingbin; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Rezvani, Seyed Ali; Lu, Peixiang


    We present a scheme for tomographic imaging of asymmetric molecular orbital based on high-order harmonic generation with a two-color orthogonally polarized multicycle laser field. With the two-dimensional manipulation of the electron trajectories, the electrons can recollide with the target molecule from two noncollinear directions, and then the dipole moment generated from the single direction can be obtained to reconstructed the asymmetric molecular orbital. The recollision is independent from the molecular structure and the angular dependence of the ionization rate in the external field. For this reason, this scheme can avoid the negative effects arising from the modification of the angle-dependent ionization rate induced by Stark shift and be applied to various molecules.

  8. Asymmetric Hardware Distortions in Receive Diversity Systems: Outage Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah


    This paper studies the impact of asymmetric hardware distortion (HWD) on the performance of receive diversity systems using linear and switched combining receivers. The asymmetric attribute of the proposed model motivates the employment of improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) scheme rather than the traditional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme. The achievable rate performance is analyzed for the ideal and non-ideal hardware scenarios using PGS and IGS transmission schemes for different combining receivers. In addition, the IGS statistical characteristics are optimized to maximize the achievable rate performance. Moreover, the outage probability performance of the receive diversity systems is analyzed yielding closed form expressions for both PGS and IGS based transmission schemes. HWD systems that employ IGS is proven to efficiently combat the self interference caused by the HWD. Furthermore, the obtained analytic expressions are validated through Monte-Carlo simulations. Eventually, non-ideal hardware transceivers degradation and IGS scheme acquired compensation are quantified through suitable numerical results.

  9. New type of asymmetric fission in proton-rich nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, A N; Huyse, M; Van Duppen, P; Antalic, S; Barzakh, A; Bree, N; Cocolios, T E; Comas, V F; Diriken, J; Fedorov, D; Fedosseev, V; Franchoo, S; Heredia, J A; Ivanov, O; Koster, U; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Page, R D; Patronis, N; Seliverstov, M; Tsekhanovich, I; Van den Bergh, P; Van De Walle, J; Venhart, M; Vermote, S; Veselsky, M; Wagemans, C; Ichikawa, T; Iwamoto, A; Moller, P; Sierk, A J


    A very exotic process of ${\\beta}$-delayed fission of $^{180}$Tl is studied in detail by using resonant laser ionization with subsequent mass separation at ISOLDE (CERN). In contrast to common expectations, the fission-fragment mass distribution of the post-${\\beta}$-decay daughter nucleus $^{180}$Hg (N/Z=1.25) is asymmetric. This asymmetry is more surprising since a mass-symmetric split of this extremely neutron-deficient nucleus would lead to two $^{90}$Zr fragments, with magic N=50 and semimagic Z=40. This is a new type of asymmetric fission, not caused by large shell effects related to fragment magic proton and neutron numbers, as observed in the actinide region. The newly measured branching ratio for $\\beta$-delayed fission of $^{180}$Tl is 3.6(7)×10$^{-3}$%, approximately 2 orders of magnitude larger than in an earlier study.

  10. Organocatalytic asymmetric arylation of indoles enabled by azo groups (United States)

    Qi, Liang-Wen; Mao, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Jian; Tan, Bin


    Arylation is a fundamental reaction that can be mostly fulfilled by electrophilic aromatic substitution and transition-metal-catalysed aryl functionalization. Although the azo group has been used as a directing group for many transformations via transition-metal-catalysed aryl carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond activation, there remain significant unmet challenges in organocatalytic arylation. Here, we show that the azo group can effectively act as both a directing and activating group for organocatalytic asymmetric arylation of indoles via formal nucleophilic aromatic substitution of azobenzene derivatives. Thus, a wide range of axially chiral arylindoles have been achieved in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities by utilizing chiral phosphoric acid as catalyst. Furthermore, highly enantioenriched pyrroloindoles bearing two contiguous quaternary chiral centres have also been obtained via a cascade enantioselective formal nucleophilic aromatic substitution-cyclization process. This strategy should be useful in other related research fields and will open new avenues for organocatalytic asymmetric aryl functionalization.

  11. Broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber based on sectional asymmetric structures. (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Zhan, Mingzhou; Yang, Jing; Wang, Zhigang; Liu, Haitao; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Weiwei


    We suggest and demonstrate the concept and design of sectional asymmetric structures which can manipulate the metamaterial absorber's working bandwidth with maintaining the other inherent advantages. As an example, a broadband terahertz perfect absorber is designed to confirm its effectiveness. The absorber's each cell integrates four sectional asymmetric rings, and the entire structure composed of Au and Si3N4 is only 1.9 μm thick. The simulation results show the bandwidth with absorptivity being larger than 90% is extended by about 2.8 times comparing with the conventional square ring absorber. The composable small cell, ultra-thin, and broadband absorption with polarization and incident angle insensitivity will make the absorber suitable for the applications of focal plane array terahertz imaging.

  12. A high voltage asymmetric waveform generator for FAIMS. (United States)

    Canterbury, Jesse D; Gladden, James; Buck, Lon; Olund, Roy; MacCoss, Michael J


    High field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) has been used increasingly in recent years as an additional method of ion separation and selection before mass spectrometry. The FAIMS electrodes are relatively simple to design and fabricate for laboratories wishing to implement their own FAIMS designs. However, construction of the electronics apparatus needed to produce the required high magnitude asymmetric electric field oscillating at a frequency of several hundred kilohertz is not trivial. Here we present an entirely custom-built electronics setup capable of supplying the required waveforms and voltages. The apparatus is relatively simple and inexpensive to implement. We also present data acquired on this system demonstrating the use of FAIMS as a gas-phase ion filter interface to an ion trap mass spectrometer. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Asymmetric cointegration between exchange rate and trade balance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaji Jibrilla Aliyu


    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the long-run pass through of the official exchange rates into trade balance in Nigeria by means of threshold cointegration and asymmetric error correction modeling. The study provides evidence for non-linear cointegration between our variables of interest. The estimated asymmetric error correction models provide new evidence for slower transmission of exchange rate depreciations into the country’s trade balance, which in turn appears to offer partial support for the Dutch disease hypothesis. This finding suggests that policy-makers cannot hope to use currency devaluation to improve the trade balance. It is recommended that policy-makers focus attention on diversification of the economy away from dependence on crude oil exports into productive manufacturing and non-oil exports, which will be vital in making the economy more competitive.

  14. On Another Edge of Defocusing: Hyperbolicity of Asymmetric Lemon Billiards (United States)

    Bunimovich, Leonid; Zhang, Hong-Kun; Zhang, Pengfei


    Defocusing mechanism provides a way to construct chaotic (hyperbolic) billiards with focusing components by separating all regular components of the boundary of a billiard table sufficiently far away from each focusing component. If all focusing components of the boundary of the billiard table are circular arcs, then the above separation requirement reduces to that all circles obtained by completion of focusing components are contained in the billiard table. In the present paper we demonstrate that a class of convex tables— asymmetric lemons, whose boundary consists of two circular arcs, generate hyperbolic billiards. This result is quite surprising because the focusing components of the asymmetric lemon table are extremely close to each other, and because these tables are perturbations of the first convex ergodic billiard constructed more than 40 years ago.

  15. Asymmetrical involvement of frontal lobes in social reasoning. (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Shuren, Jeffrey; Sheesley, Laura; Grafman, Jordan


    The frontal lobes are widely implicated in logical reasoning. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that frontal lobe involvement in reasoning is asymmetric (L>R) and increases with the presence of familiar, meaningful content in the reasoning situation. However, neuroimaging data can only provide sufficiency criteria. To determine the necessity of prefrontal involvement in logical reasoning, we tested 19 patients with focal frontal lobe lesions and 19 age- and education-matched normal controls on the Wason Card Selection Task, while manipulating social knowledge. Patients and controls performed equivalently on the arbitrary rule condition. Normal controls showed the expected improvement in the social knowledge conditions, but frontal lobe patients failed to show this facilitation in performance. Furthermore, left hemisphere patients were more affected than right hemisphere patients, suggesting that frontal lobe involvement in reasoning is asymmetric (L>R) and necessary for reasoning about social situations.

  16. Asymmetric synthesis of amines using tert-butanesulfinamide. (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Chao; Chowdhury, Somenath; Ellman, Jonathan A


    Chiral amines are prevalent in many bioactive molecules, including amino acids and pharmaceutical agents. tert-Butanesulfinamide (tBS) is a chiral amine reagent that has enabled the reliable asymmetric synthesis of a very broad range of different amine structures from simple, readily available starting materials. Three steps are commonly applied to the asymmetric synthesis of amines: (i) condensation of tBS with a carbonyl compound, (ii) nucleophile addition and (iii) tert-butanesulfinyl group cleavage. Here we demonstrate these steps with the preparation of a propargylic tertiary carbinamine, one of a class of amines that have been used for many different biological purposes, including click chemistry applications, diversity-oriented synthesis, the preparation of peptide isosteres and the development of protease inhibitors as drug candidates and imaging agents. The process described here can be performed in 3-4 d.

  17. Modification of Lime Mortars with Synthesized Aluminosilicates (United States)

    Loganina, Valentina I.; Sadovnikova, Marija E.; Jezierski, Walery; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota


    The increasing attention for restoration of buildings of historical and architectural importance has increased the interest for lime-based binders, which could be applied for manufacturing repair mortars and plasters compatible with historical heritage. Different additives, admixtures or fibers may be incorporated to improve mechanical and thermal features of such materials. In this study synthesized aluminosilicates (SA) were applied as an additive for lime mortar. The technology of synthesis consisted in the deposition of aluminosilicates from a sodium liquid glass by the aluminum sulphate Al2(SO4)3. The goal of this investigation was developing a new method of aluminosilicates synthesis from a sodium liquid glass and using this new material as a component for a lime mortar. Aluminosilicates were precipitated from the solution of aluminum sulphate Al2(SO)3 and sodium silicate. SA were then used as an additive to calcareous compositions and their influence was tested. Mortars were prepared with commercial air lime and siliceous river sand. Air lime binder was replaced by 5 and 10 wt.% of SA. Calcareous composition specimens were formed at water/lime ratio 1.0. The following analyses were made: grain size distribution of SA, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), sorption properties, plastic strength and compressive strength of lime mortars. XRD pattern of the SA shows the presence of thenardite, gibbsite and amorphous phase represented by aggregate of nano-size cristobalite-like crystallites. Application of SA leads to increase of compressive strength after 90 days of hardening by 28% and 53% at SA content 5 and 10% respectively comparing to specimens without this additive. Contents of chemically bound lime in the reference specimens after 28 days of hardening in air-dry conditions was 46.5%, while in specimens modified with SA contained 50.0-55.3% of bound lime depending on filtrate pH. This testifies to high activity of calcareous composition. The new blended lime

  18. Synthesis and thermodynamic properties of a novel pyridinium-based asymmetrical gemini ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuzhao; Wang, Jun; Zou, Wenyuan; Wu, Jinchao [Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou (China)


    A novel asymmetrical gemini ionic liquid (GIL), [1-(1-pyridinium-yl-hexyl)-6-methylpiperidinium] dihexafluorophosphate ([PyC{sub 6}MPi][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2}) combined with pyridine, 1-methylpiperidine by 1,6-dibromohexane with PF{sub 6} as anion, was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and IR. The molar heat capacity of the GIL was measured via differential scanning calorimetry from 298.15 K to 448.15 K under atmospheric pressure. No phase transition or other thermal anomaly was observed in the solid-phase region (298.15 K to 358.15 K) and liquid-phase region (403.15 K to 448.15 K). The basic properties and thermodynamic functions of the GIL, such as melting point, molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion, heat capacity, enthalpy HT-H298.15 K, and entropy S{sub T}-S{sub 298.15} K, were also determined from the experimental data. Thermal decomposition kinetics of [PyC{sub 6}MPi][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} were investigated by using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis in pure nitrogen atmosphere at various heating rates. Thermal decomposition data were, respectively, correlated with Friedman method, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall equation, and ASTM model. The activation energy (E) and pre-exponential factor (logA) values were obtained by using the above three methods.

  19. New Ti3C2 aerogel as promising negative electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors (United States)

    Li, Lu; Zhang, Mingyi; Zhang, Xitian; Zhang, Zhiguo


    Novel 3D Ti3C2 aerogel has been first synthesized by a simple EDA-assisted self-assembly process. Its inside are channels and pores structure. The interconnected aerogel structure could efficiently restrain restacking of Ti3C2 flakes. Thus, it exhibits a large specific surface area as high as 176.3 m2 g-1. The electrochemical performances have been measured. The Ti3C2 aerogel achieves a quite high areal capacitance of 1012.5 mF cm-2 for the mass loading of 15 mg at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 in 1 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has been assembled by using the Ti3C2 aerogel electrode as the negative electrode and electrospinning carbon nanofiber film as the positive electrode. The device can deliver a high energy density of 120.0 μWh cm-2 and a maximum power density of 26123 μW cm-2. A lamp panel with nineteen red light-emitting diodes has been powered by two ASCs in series.

  20. Low temperature synthesis of ternary metal phosphides using plasma for asymmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng


    We report a versatile route for the preparation of metal phosphides using PH plasma for supercapacitor applications. The high reactivity of plasma allows rapid and low temperature conversion of hydroxides into monometallic, bimetallic, or even more complex nanostructured phosphides. These same phosphides are much more difficult to synthesize by conventional methods. Further, we present a general strategy for significantly enhancing the electrochemical performance of monometallic phosphides by substituting extrinsic metal atoms. Using NiCoP as a demonstration, we show that the Co substitution into NiP not only effectively alters the electronic structure and improves the intrinsic reactivity and electrical conductivity, but also stabilizes Ni species when used as supercapacitor electrode materials. As a result, the NiCoP nanosheet electrodes achieve high electrochemical activity and good stability in 1 M KOH electrolyte. More importantly, our assembled NiCoP nanoplates//graphene films asymmetric supercapacitor devices can deliver a high energy density of 32.9 Wh kg at a power density of 1301 W kg, along with outstanding cycling performance (83% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 20 A g). This activity outperforms most of the NiCo-based materials and renders the NiCoP nanoplates a promising candidate for capacitive storage devices.

  1. Asymmetrical two-atom entanglement in a coated microsphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlak, G.N. [Center for Research on Engineering and Applied Sciences, Autonomous State University of Morelos, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62210 (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 44420 (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    We study evolution of entanglement of two two-level atoms placed inside a multilayered microsphere. We show that due to inhomogeneity of the optical field modes this entanglement essentially depends on the atomic positions (asymmetrical entanglement) and also on the detuning between the atomic transitions and field frequencies. The robust and complete entanglement can be achieved even in the resonant case when the atoms have different effective coupling constants, and it can be extended in time if the detuning is large enough.

  2. Asymmetric Dark Matter Models and the LHC Diphoton Excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.


    The existence of dark matter (DM) and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are persistent indications that the SM is incomplete. More recently, the ATLAS and CMS experiments have observed an excess of diphoton events with invariant mass of about 750 GeV. One interpretation of this excess is decays...... have for models of asymmetric DM that attempt to account for the similarity of the dark and visible matter abundances....

  3. Total harmonic distortion of an asymmetric quasi-sinusoidal current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebennikov Vitaliy


    Full Text Available This paper presents the correlation of factors that determine the quality of asymmetric quasi-sinusoidal output current and dynamic losses in the switches of the current generator circuit. The operating mode of the generator was obtained, especially of its power circuit elements, where combination of acceptable output current quality with relatively small dynamic losses in switches and mass-dimensional parameters of the inductor are provided. Achieved results can be used in designing this type of generators.

  4. Degrees of Freedom of Asymmetrical Multi-Way Relay Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; De Carvalho, Elisabeth


    In this paper, we introduce an asymmetrical multi-way relay channel where a base station conveys independent symbols to K different users while receiving independent symbols from the users. In this network, user i Shas Mi antennas (i ∈ [1, ..., K]), the base station has Σi=1K Mi antennas and the ...... with a proposed joint multiple access and broadcast precoding design using the signal space alignment concept....

  5. Comment on "Asymmetric coevolutionary networks facilitate biodiversity maintenance" (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Okuyama, Toshinori; DeAngelis, Donald L.


    Bascompte et al. (Reports, 21 April 2006, p. 431) used network asymmetries to explain mathematical conditions necessary for stability in historic models of mutualism. The Lotka-Volterra equations they used artificially created conditions in which some factor, such as asymmetric interaction strengths, is necessary for community coexistence. We show that a more realistic model incorporating nonlinear functional responses requires no such condition and is consistent with their data.

  6. Novel Asymmetric Wittig Reaction: Synthesis of Chiral Allenic Esters


    Melo, Teresa M. V. D. Pinho e; Cardoso, Ana L.; Gonsalves, António M. D'A Rocha; Pessoa, João Costa; José A. Paixão; Beja, Ana M


    Wittig reactions between 10-(phenylsulfonyl)isobornyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetates (1 and 6) and ketenes resulted in asymmetric induction, with the selective synthesis of allenes with axial chirality. Use of the (1R)-(-)-10-(phenylsulfonyl)isoborneol unit allows the synthesis of allenes with S configuration, whereas use of the (1S)-(+)-10-(phenylsulfonyl)isoborneol unit produces allenes with R configuration. The structure of (1R)-(-)-10-(phenylsulfonyl)isobornyl (S)-5,5-dimethylhexa-2...

  7. International labor migration, asymmetric information and occupational choice


    Kar, Saibal


    We study the effect of asymmetric information in the labor market of a country on the occupational choice pattern of immigrants vis-à-vis natives. The choice is limited to self-employment and paid employment. The study is motivated by empirical observations that regular and irregular immigrants in many countries are often over-represented in entrepreneurship/small business despite substantial initial disadvantages. There are also evidences that the immigrants catch up with the native incom...

  8. Asymmetric cell division in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its unique features. (United States)

    Vijay, Srinivasan; Nagaraja, Mukkayyan; Sebastian, Jees; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi


    Recently, several reports showed that about 80 % of mid-log phase Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG cells divide symmetrically with 5-10 % deviation in the septum position from the median. However, the mode of cell division of the pathogenic mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, using electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy of septum- and nucleoid-stained live and fixed cells, and live cell time-lapse imaging, we show the occurrence of asymmetric cell division with unusually deviated septum/constriction in 20 % of the 15 % septating M. tuberculosis cells in the mid-log phase population. The remaining 80 % of the 15 % septating cells divided symmetrically but with 2-5 % deviation in the septum/constriction position, as reported for M. smegmatis, M. marinum, and M. bovis BCG cells. Both the long and the short portions of the asymmetrically dividing M. tuberculosis cells with unusually deviated septum contained nucleoids, thereby generating viable short and long cells from each asymmetric division. M. tuberculosis short cells were acid fast positive and, like the long cells, further readily underwent growth and division to generate micro-colony, thereby showing that they were neither mini cells, spores nor dormant forms of mycobacteria. The freshly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients' sputum samples, which are known for the prevalence of oxidative stress conditions, also contained short cells at the same proportion as that in the mid-log phase population. The probable physiological significance of the generation of the short cells through unusually deviated asymmetric cell division is discussed.

  9. Dynamic vergence eye movements in strabismus and amblyopia: asymmetric vergence.


    Kenyon, R V; Ciuffreda, K J; Stark, L.


    This report investigates line-of-sight asymmetric disparity vergence in patients having either intermittent strabismus, constant strabismus with amblyopia, or amblyopia without strabismus. We find an absence of disparity vergence in all patients with strabismus and in some with amblyopia only. Accommodative vergence and saccades place the dominant eye on the targets moving in depth. These accommodative vergence responses have normal dynamic characteristics, thus indicating a properly function...

  10. New mechanistic aspects of the asymmetric homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes. (United States)

    Brown, J M; Giernoth, R


    Progress in homogeneous catalysis depends upon an understanding of the reaction mechanism; in asymmetric catalysis this entails an insight into the origins of enantioselectivity. Significant advances have been made in the area of alkene reduction catalyzed by rhodium or ruthenium complexes, which has been in tandem with the development of new, more effective ligands for the reaction. The combination of quantum chemical calculations and direct spectroscopic observation of catalytic intermediates has proved powerful in this regard.

  11. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


    Devine, Matthew S.; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; Pamela A. McCombe; Rose, Stephen E; Henderson, Robert D.


    Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each und...

  12. Airplane automatic control force trimming device for asymmetric engine failures (United States)

    Stewart, Eric C. (Inventor)


    The difference in dynamic pressure in the propeller slipstreams as measured by sensors is divided by the freestream dynamic pressure generating a quantity proportional to the differential thrust coefficient. This quantity is used to command an electric trim motor to change the position of trim tab thereby retrimming the airplane to the new asymmetric power condition. The change in position of the trim tab produced by the electric trim motor is summed with the pilot's input to produce the actual trim tab position.

  13. Asymmetric MHD outflows/jets from accreting T Tauri stars (United States)

    Dyda, S.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Lii, P. S.; Romanova, M. M.; Koldoba, A. V.


    Observations of jets from young stellar objects reveal the asymmetric outflows from some sources. A large set of 2.5D magnetohydrodynamic simulations was carried out for axisymmetric viscous/diffusive disc accretion to rotating magnetized stars for the purpose of assessing the conditions where the outflows are asymmetric relative to the equatorial plane. We consider initial magnetic fields that are symmetric about the equatorial plane and consist of a radially distributed field threading the disc (disc field) and a stellar dipole field. (1) For pure disc-fields the symmetry or asymmetry of the outflows is affected by the mid-plane plasma β of the disc. For discs with small plasma β, outflows are symmetric to within 10 per cent over time-scales of hundreds of inner disc orbits. For higher β discs, the coupling of the upper and lower coronal plasmas is broken, and quasi-periodic field motion leads to asymmetric episodic outflows. (2) Accreting stars with a stellar dipole field and no disc-field exhibit episodic, two component outflows - a magnetospheric wind and an inner disc wind. Both are characterized by similar velocity profiles but the magnetospheric wind has densities ≳ 10 times that of the disc wind. (3) Adding a disc field parallel to the stellar dipole field enhances the magnetospheric winds but suppresses the disc wind. (4) Adding a disc field which is antiparallel to the stellar dipole field in the disc suppresses the magnetospheric and disc winds. Our simulations reproduce some key features of observations of asymmetric outflows of T Tauri stars.

  14. A highly asymmetric dijet event of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment


    A highly asymmetric dijet event, with one jet with ET > 100 GeV and no evident recoiling jet, and with high energy calorimeter cell deposits distributed over a wide azimuthal region. Only tracks with pT > 2.6 GeV are shown, and only calorimeter energy deposits with cell energy ET > 700 MeV in the electromagnetic calorimeter, and E > 1 GeV in the hadronic calorimeter.

  15. Implementation of Asymmetric Potential Fields in Real Time Strategy Game


    Mansur-Ul-Islam, Muhammad; SAJJAD, Muhammad


    In eighties, the idea of using potential fields was first introduced in the field of the robotics. The purpose of using potential fields was to achieve the natural movement in robotics. Many researchers proceeded this idea to enhance their research. The idea of using potential fields was also introduced in real time strategy games for the better movement of objects. In this thesis we worked on the idea of using asymmetric potential fields in the game environment. The purpose of our study was ...

  16. Reflection-asymmetric nuclear deformations within the Density Functional Theory


    Olsen, E; Erler, J; Nazarewicz, W.; Stoitsov, M.


    Within the nuclear density functional theory (DFT) we study the effect of reflection-asymmetric shapes on ground-state binding energies and binding energy differences. To this end, we developed the new DFT solver AxialHFB that uses an approximate second-order gradient to solve the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations of superconducting DFT with the quasi-local Skyrme energy density functionals. Illustrative calculations are carried out for even-even isotopes of radium and thorium.

  17. Kinematics and Dynamics of an Asymmetrical Parallel Robotic Wrist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei


    This paper introduces an asymmetrical parallel robotic wrist, which can generate a decoupled unlimited-torsion motion and achieve high positioning accuracy. The kinematics, dexterity, and singularities of the manipulator are investigated to visualize the performance contours of the manipulator....... Using the method of Lagrange multipliers and considering all the mobile components, the equations of motion of the manipulator are derived to investigate the dynamic characteristics efficiently. The developed dynamic model is numerically illustrated and compared with its simplified formulation to show...

  18. The Influence of the Asymmetric Ionosphere on the Schumann Resonances (United States)

    Yu, H.; Williams, E. R.


    The asymmetric ionosphere is known to affect the behavior of the Earth's Schumann resonances (SR). Several studies have addressed the day-night asymmetry with observation or simulation and showed the contrast in SR amplitude between day and night (Satori 2007, Pechony and Price 2007, Yang, 2006). And distinct perturbations in the ionosphere caused by solar proton events, x-ray emission and earthquake coupling will also produce variations in SRs (Roldugin, 2004, De et al., 2010; Satori, 2015). Considering all these possible variations produced by changes in ionospheric asymmetry, we simulate the SR propagation in an asymmetric cavity including the day-night contribution and the more general perturbation asymmetry using a TDTE (Two Dimensional Telegraph Equation) approach. The change of source position in the asymmetric ionosphere and the size of the perturbation will also affect the SR parameters such as amplitude and modal frequency. The central location of the source in either the daytime or nighttime zone will produce a larger amplitude than other locations in the cavity. For example, the amplitude from a source in the zone with lower electric height (like the daytime region) is larger than the situation with source in region of larger electric height (like nighttime region). The asymmetry(difference on EM amplitude between two regions) will be more distinct when the source is on the terminator between two region than on other position. And when the size of the asymmetric construction is changed, the amplitude and modal frequency will also be changed. The increased size of the zone with lower electric height will produce larger SR amplitudes and decreased modal frequency.

  19. A Catalytic, Asymmetric Formal Synthesis of (+)-Hamigeran B

    KAUST Repository

    Mukherjee, Herschel


    A concise asymmetric, formal synthesis of (+)-hamigeran B is reported. A Pd-catalyzed, decarboxylative allylic alkylation, employing a trifluoromethylated derivative of t-BuPHOX, is utilized as the enantioselective step to form the critical quaternary carbon center in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. The product is converted in three steps to a late-stage intermediate previously used in the synthesis of hamigeran B.

  20. Asymmetric Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    distributions of all activities across active firms. MCS for the industry composition occurs in a country which experiences a decline in its costs of serving the foreign market and meanwhile experiences an increase in its level of competition. In the other country, the industry-level implications are exactly...... opposite. These clear industry-level results hold while firms respond asymmetrically to the trade shock...

  1. Photon splitting in a strongly magnetized, charge-asymmetric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistyakov M.V.


    Full Text Available The process of the photon splitting, γ → γγ, is investigated in the presence of strongly magnetized charge-asymmetric cold plasma. The dispersion properties of photons and the new polarization selection rules are obtained in such plasma. The absorption rate of the leading photon splitting channel are calculated with taking account of the photon dispersion and wave function renormalization. In addition, a comparison of the photon splitting and the Compton scattering processes is performed.

  2. Forecasting Performance of Asymmetric GARCH Stock Market Volatility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Lee


    Full Text Available We investigate the asymmetry between positive and negative returns in their effect on conditional variance of the stock market index and incorporate the characteristics to form an out-of-sample volatility forecast. Contrary to prior evidence, however, the results in this paper suggest that no asymmetric GARCH model is superior to basic GARCH(1,1 model. It is our prior knowledge that, for equity returns, it is unlikely that positive and negative shocks have the same impact on the volatility. In order to reflect this intuition, we implement three diagnostic tests for volatility models: the Sign Bias Test, the Negative Size Bias Test, and the Positive Size Bias Test and the tests against the alternatives of QGARCH and GJR-GARCH. The asymmetry test results indicate that the sign and the size of the unexpected return shock do not influence current volatility differently which contradicts our presumption that there are asymmetric effects in the stock market volatility. This result is in line with various diagnostic tests which are designed to determine whether the GARCH(1,1 volatility estimates adequately represent the data. The diagnostic tests in section 2 indicate that the GARCH(1,1 model for weekly KOSPI returns is robust to the misspecification test. We also investigate two representative asymmetric GARCH models, QGARCH and GJR-GARCH model, for our out-of-sample forecasting performance. The out-of-sample forecasting ability test reveals that no single model is clearly outperforming. It is seen that the GJR-GARCH and QGARCH model give mixed results in forecasting ability on all four criteria across all forecast horizons considered. Also, the predictive accuracy test of Diebold and Mariano based on both absolute and squared prediction errors suggest that the forecasts from the linear and asymmetric GARCH models need not be significantly different from each other.

  3. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials (United States)

    Gong, Chaokun

    ,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was

  4. Asymmetric bursting of Taylor bubble in inclined tubes (United States)

    Rana, Basanta Kumar; Das, Arup Kumar; Das, Prasanta Kumar


    In the present study, experiments have been reported to explain the phenomenon of approach and collapse of an asymmetric Taylor bubble at free surface inside an inclined tube. Four different tube inclinations with horizontal (30°, 45°, 60° and 75°) and two different fluids (water and silicon oil) are considered for the experiment. Using high speed imaging, we have investigated the approach, puncture, and subsequent liquid drainage for re-establishment of the free surface. The present study covers all the aspects in the collapse of an asymmetric Taylor bubble through the generation of two films, i.e., a cap film which lies on top of the bubble and an asymmetric annular film along the tube wall. Retraction of the cap film is studied in detail and its velocity has been predicted successfully for different inclinations and fluids. Film drainage formulation considering azimuthal variation is proposed which also describes the experimental observations well. In addition, extrapolation of drainage velocity pattern beyond the experimental observation limit provides insight into the total collapse time of bubbles at different inclinations and fluids.

  5. Asymmetric osmotic water permeation through a vesicle membrane (United States)

    Su, Jiaye; Zhao, Yunzhen; Fang, Chang; Shi, Yue


    Understanding the water permeation through a cell membrane is of primary importance for biological activities and a key step to capture its shape transformation in salt solution. In this work, we reveal the dynamical behaviors of osmotically driven transport of water molecules across a vesicle membrane by molecular dynamics simulations. Of particular interest is that the water transport in and out of vesicles is highly distinguishable given the osmotic force are the same, suggesting an asymmetric osmotic transportation. This asymmetric phenomenon exists in a broad range of parameter space such as the salt concentration, temperature, and vesicle size and can be ascribed to the similar asymmetric potential energy of lipid-ion, lipid-water, lipid-solution, lipid-lipid, and the lipid-lipid energy fluctuation. Specifically, the water flux has a linear increase with the salt concentration, similar to the prediction by Nernst-Planck equation or Fick's first law. Furthermore, due to the Arrhenius relation between the membrane permeability and temperature, the water flux also exhibits excellent Arrhenius dependence on the temperature. Meanwhile, the water flux shows a linear increase with the vesicle surface area since the flux amount across a unit membrane area should be a constant. Finally, we also present the anonymous diffusion behaviors for the vesicle itself, where transitions from normal diffusion at short times to subdiffusion at long times are identified. Our results provide significant new physical insights for the osmotic water permeation through a vesicle membrane and are helpful for future experimental studies.

  6. Fault Current Characteristics of the DFIG under Asymmetrical Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao


    Full Text Available During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame. In the engineering practice, notch filters are usually used to extract the positive and negative sequence components. In these cases, the dynamic response of a rotor-side converter (RSC and the notch filters have a large influence on the fault current characteristics of the DFIG. In this paper, the influence of the notch filters on the proportional integral (PI parameters is discussed and the simplified calculation models of the rotor current are established. Then, the dynamic performance of the stator flux linkage under asymmetrical fault conditions is also analyzed. Based on this, the fault characteristics of the stator current under asymmetrical fault conditions are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of the stator fault current are obtained. Finally, digital simulation results validate the analytical results. The research results are helpful to meet the requirements of a practical short-circuit calculation and the construction of a relaying protection system for the power grid with penetration of DFIGs.

  7. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra


    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  8. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Devine


    Full Text Available Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM to explore gray matter (GM asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15 or left-sided limb (n = 15. Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01. Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.

  9. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Devine, Matthew S; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; McCombe, Pamela A; Rose, Stephen E; Henderson, Robert D


    Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15) or left-sided limb (n = 15). Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left) motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01). Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.

  10. Baseline Testing of the Club Car Carryall With Asymmetric Ultracapacitors (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.


    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the Club Car Carryall with asymmetric ultracapacitors as a way to reduce pollution in industrial settings, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The Club Car Carryall provides an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in electric vehicle technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via non-traditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The Carryall is a state of the art, ground up, electric utility vehicle. A unique aspect of the project was the use of a state of the art, long life ultracapacitor energy storage system. Innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The Carryall was tested with the standard lead acid battery energy storage system, as well as with an asymmetric ultracapacitor energy storage system. The report concludes that the Carryall provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of asymmetric ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  11. Asymmetric Flexible MXene-Reduced Graphene Oxide Micro-Supercapacitor

    KAUST Repository

    Couly, Cedric


    Current microfabrication of micro-supercapacitors often involves multistep processing and delicate lithography protocols. In this study, simple fabrication of an asymmetric MXene-based micro-supercapacitor that is flexible, binder-free, and current-collector-free is reported. The interdigitated device architecture is fabricated using a custom-made mask and a scalable spray coating technique onto a flexible, transparent substrate. The electrode materials are comprised of titanium carbide MXene (Ti3C2Tx) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), which are both 2D layered materials that contribute to the fast ion diffusion in the interdigitated electrode architecture. This MXene-based asymmetric micro-supercapacitor operates at a 1 V voltage window, while retaining 97% of the initial capacitance after ten thousand cycles, and exhibits an energy density of 8.6 mW h cm−3 at a power density of 0.2 W cm−3. Further, these micro-supercapacitors show a high level of flexibility during mechanical bending. Utilizing the ability of Ti3C2Tx-MXene electrodes to operate at negative potentials in aqueous electrolytes, it is shown that using Ti3C2Tx as a negative electrode and rGO as a positive one in asymmetric architectures is a promising strategy for increasing both energy and power densities of micro-supercapacitors.

  12. Experiment and numerical modeling of asymmetrically initiated hexagonal prism warhead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li


    Full Text Available Traditional fragmentation warheads are usually initiated on the axis, producing a uniform fragment distribution around the warhead, but only little portion of them can be imposed on the targets. The aimable warhead, on the other hand, using the off-axis initiations or the structure deforming, can improve the warhead energy utilization highly. Seeking methods to both enhance the fragment velocity and density has significant value for improving the target damage probability. In this article, a warhead shaped as hexagonal prism was studied using arena experiment and numerical modeling and compared with the traditional cylindrical structure. The fragment velocities and target hit patterns of the two types of warheads under axial initiation and asymmetrical initiation are obtained. It is revealed that for the hexagonal prism warhead, the asymmetrical initiation can enhance the fragment velocities by 27.71% and enhance fragment density by 34.09% compared to the axial initiation. The fragment velocity enhancement is close to that of the cylindrical warhead, but the fragment density enhancement is far above the cylindrical warhead. This indicates that the asymmetrically initiated hexagonal prism warhead is a very effective aimable warhead.

  13. Insights into the asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis in porous organic polymers: constructing a TADDOL-embedded chiral catalyst for studying the structure-activity relationship. (United States)

    An, Wan-Kai; Han, Man-Yi; Wang, Chang-An; Yu, Si-Min; Zhang, Yuan; Bai, Shi; Wang, Wei


    Construction of porous organic polymers (POPs) as asymmetric catalysts remains as an important but challenging task. Herein, we exploit the "bottom-up" strategy to facilely synthesize an α,α,α',α'-tetraaryl-1,3-dioxolane-4,5-dimethanol (TADDOL)-based chiral porous polymer (TADDOL-CPP) for highly efficient asymmetric catalysis. Constructed through the covalent linkages among the three-dimensional rigid monomers, TADDOL-CPP possesses hierarchical porous structure, high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, together with abundant and uniformly-distributed chiral sites. In the presence of [Ti(OiPr)4], TADDOL-CPP acts as a highly efficient and recyclable catalyst in the asymmetric addition of diethylzinc (Et2Zn) to aromatic aldehydes. Based on the direct observation of the key intermediates, the reaction mechanism has been revealed by solid-state (13)C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. In combination with the catalytic testing results, characterization on the working catalyst provides further information for understanding the structure-activity relationship. We suggest that the catalytic activity of TADDOL-CPP is largely affected by the structural rigidity, cooperative catalysis, local chiral environment, and hierarchical porous framework. We expect that the information obtained herein will benefit to the designed synthesis of robust POP catalysts toward practical applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Porous NiCo2O4 Microspheres: Application as High Performance Asymmetric and Symmetric Supercapacitors with Large Areal Capacitance (United States)

    Khalid, Syed; Cao, Chuanbao; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Youqi


    Large areal capacitance is essentially required to integrate the energy storage devices at the microscale electronic appliances. Energy storage devices based on metal oxides are mostly fabricated with low mass loading per unit area which demonstrated low areal capacitance. It is still a challenge to fabricate supercapacitor devices of porous metal oxides with large areal capacitance. Herein we report microwave method followed by a pyrolysis of the as-prepared precursor is used to synthesize porous nickel cobaltite microspheres. Porous NiCo2O4 microspheres are capable to deliver large areal capacitance due to their high specific surface area and small crystallite size. The facile strategy is successfully demonstrated to fabricate aqueous-based asymmetric & symmetric supercapacitor devices of porous NiCo2O4 microspheres with high mass loading of electroactive materials. The asymmetric & symmetric devices exhibit maximum areal capacitance and energy density of 380 mF cm-2 & 19.1 Wh Kg-1 and 194 mF cm-2 & 4.5 Wh Kg-1 (based on total mass loading of 6.25 & 6.0 mg) respectively at current density of 1 mA cm-2. The successful fabrication of symmetric device also indicates that NiCo2O4 can also be used as the negative electrode material for futuristic asymmetric devices.

  15. Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Thermal Behaviors of Two Supramolecular Salamo-Type Cobalt(II and Zinc(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li


    Full Text Available This paper reports the syntheses of two new complexes, [Co(L1(H2O2] (1 and [{Zn(L2(μ-OAcZn(n-PrOH}2] (2, from asymmetric halogen-substituted Salamo-type ligands H2L1 and H3L2, respectively. Investigation of the crystal structure of complex 1 reveals that the complex includes one Co(II ion, one (L12− unit and two coordinated water molecules. Complex 1 shows slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry, forming an infinite 2D supramolecular structure by intermolecular hydrogen bond and π–π stacking interactions. Complex 2 contains four Zn(IIions, two completely deprotonated (L23− moieties, two coordinated μ-OAc− ions and n-propanol molecules. The Zn(II ions in complex 2 display slightly distorted trigonal bipyramidal or square pyramidal geometries.

  16. Investigation of Asymmetric Thrust Detection with Demonstration in a Real-Time Simulation Testbed (United States)

    Chicatelli, Amy K.; Rinehart, Aidan W.; Sowers, T. Shane; Simon, Donald L.


    The purpose of this effort is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate three asymmetric thrust detection approaches to aid in the reduction of asymmetric thrust-induced aviation accidents. This paper presents the results from that effort and their evaluation in simulation studies, including those from a real-time flight simulation testbed. Asymmetric thrust is recognized as a contributing factor in several Propulsion System Malfunction plus Inappropriate Crew Response (PSM+ICR) aviation accidents. As an improvement over the state-of-the-art, providing annunciation of asymmetric thrust to alert the crew may hold safety benefits. For this, the reliable detection and confirmation of asymmetric thrust conditions is required. For this work, three asymmetric thrust detection methods are presented along with their results obtained through simulation studies. Representative asymmetric thrust conditions are modeled in simulation based on failure scenarios similar to those reported in aviation incident and accident descriptions. These simulated asymmetric thrust scenarios, combined with actual aircraft operational flight data, are then used to conduct a sensitivity study regarding the detection capabilities of the three methods. Additional evaluation results are presented based on pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) flight simulation testbed. Data obtained from this flight simulation facility are used to further evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of the asymmetric thrust detection approaches. Generally, the asymmetric thrust conditions are correctly detected and confirmed.

  17. Biogenic ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using L. aculeata leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous extract of Lantana aculeata Linn. leaf and assessed their effects on antifungal activity against the plant fungal pathogens. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, ...

  18. Effect of aging on copper nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of aging on copper nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of copper plate in water was studied. By characterization studies of the aged nanoparticles, it is found that copper nanoparticles converted into Cu@Cu2O nanostructure. The synthesized nanomaterial is characterized with UV-Visible absorption, ...

  19. Comparative study of synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Nanotechnology is an emerging field in science and technology, which can be applied to synthesize new materials at the nanoscale level. The present investigation aimed at comparing the synthesis, characterization and in vitro anticancer efficacy of synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using leaves extract of ...

  20. Impact of new synthesized analogues of dehydroacetic acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous work indicated that some of the new synthesized analogues of dehydroacetic acid (DHA) were inhibitory to the growth of mycotoxin producing moulds and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). The objective of this study was to determine the specific new synthesized chemical compounds ...

  1. Syntheses and absorption–structure relationships of some new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New biheterocyclic compound was synthesized as starting material to prepare new photosensitizers mono-, tri-, substituted tri-, azadimethine and mixed cyanine dyes. Absorption-structure relationship of the synthesized cyanine dyes were determined by studying their electronic spectral behaviour in ethanol. The structure of ...

  2. Written Rhetorical Syntheses: Processes and Products. Technical Report No. 17. (United States)

    Kantz, Margaret J.

    When students write syntheses in response to a rhetorical task, does the rhetorical nature of the task exert some special influence on the students' composing processes? How do these processes differ? Three case studies, quantitative analyses of papers written by seventeen undergraduates, and a tentative model of a synthesizing process address…

  3. Potentiometric study of polyaniline film synthesized with various ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The potentiometric study of polyaniline (PANI) film synthesized with dopants viz. polyvinyl sulfonic acid (PVS), -toluene sulfonic acid (TS), dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBS) and composite-dopants viz. PVS–TS and PVS–DBS, has been carried out. The synthesized PANI films were characterized by electrochemical ...

  4. Comparative study of synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanotechnology is an emerging field in science and technology, which can be applied to synthesize new materials at the nanoscale level. The present investigation aimed at comparing the synthesis, characterization andin vitro anticancer efficacy of synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using leaves extract of Bauhinia ...

  5. Syntheses of (±-Romucosine and (±-Cathafiline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Nimgirawath


    Full Text Available The structures previously assigned to (--romucosine and (+-cathafiline, N-(methoxycarbonyl aporphine alkaloids from Rollina mucosa (Annonaceae and Cassytha filiformis (Lauraceae respectively, have been confirmed by total syntheses of the racemic substances. The key step of the syntheses involved formation of ring C of the aporphines by a radical-initiated cyclisation.

  6. Versatile Route to Synthesize Heterobifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol of Variable Functionality for Subsequent Pegylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou


    Full Text Available Pegylation using heterotelechelic poly(ethylene glycol (PEG offers many possibilities to create high-performance molecules and materials. A versatile route is proposed to synthesize heterobifunctional PEG containing diverse combinations of azide, amine, thioacetate, thiol, pyridyl disulfide, as well as activated hydroxyl end groups. Asymmetric activation of one hydroxyl end group enables the heterobifunctionalization while applying selective monotosylation of linear, symmetrical PEG as a key step. The azide function is introduced by reacting monotosyl PEG with sodium azide. A thiol end group is obtained by reaction with sodium hydrosulfide. The activation of the hydroxyl end group and subsequent reaction with potassium carbonate/thioacetic acid yields a thioacetate end group. The hydrolysis of the thioester end group by ammonia in presence of 2,2′-dipyridyl disulfide provides PEG pyridyl disulfide. Amine terminated PEG is prepared either by reduction of the azide or by nucleophilic substitution of mesylate terminated PEG using ammonia. In all cases, >95% functionalization of the PEG end groups is achieved. The PEG derivatives particularly support the development of materials for biomedical applications. For example, grafting up to 13% of the Na-alg monomer units with α-amine-ω-thiol PEG maintains the gelling capacity in presence of calcium ions but simultaneous, spontaneous disulfide bond formation reinforces the initial physical hydrogel.

  7. Two-step hydrothermal synthesis of NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods on nickel foam for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Lin, Jianming; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Miaoliang; Fan, Leqing; Chen, Hongwei; He, Xin; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Zedong


    It is still a huge challenge to obtain a high-energy-density asymmetric supercapacitors and develop an active electrode material with excellent electrochemical characteristics. Although NiCo2S4 has been considered as one of the promising positive electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors, the electrochemical performance of the NiCo2S4-based positive electrodes is still relatively low and cannot meet the demand in the devices. Herein, NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods with a large capacitance are synthesized via a simple two-step hydrothermal treatment. A high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor operating at 1.6 V is successfully assembled using the NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode in 3 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, which demonstrates a fairly high energy density of 49.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 123 W kg-1, an excellent capacitance of 0.91 F cm-2 (139.42 F g-1) at current density of 1 mA cm-2 as well as a remarkable cycling stability due to the high physical strength, the large specific surface area, and the good conductivity for NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods and the brilliant synergistic effect for NiCo2S4 and Co9S8 electrode materials. The as-prepared NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods open up a new platform as positive electrode material for high-energy-density asymmetric supercapacitors in energy-storage.

  8. Syntheses, structures and properties of two dinuclear mercury(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a reported cadmium(II) iodide compound,14 where di- nuclear units are packed in a discrete manner without any appreciable non-covalent interaction forming a 1D zigzag chain. 3.4b [Hg2(L2)(I)4]·H2O (2): The asymmetric unit of compound 2 comprises of a neutral dinuclear. [Hg2(L2)(I)4] molecule and a disordered H2O ...

  9. Asymmetrische Synthese von Tarchonanthuslacton und Pironetin-Bausteinen


    Steinbusch, Daniel


    The natural product Pironetin was isolated from the culture broths Streptomyces sp. NK10958 and Streptomyces prunicolor PA-48153 in 1994 and shows remarkably high antitumor and immunosuppressive activity. Aim of this thesis was an efficient asymmetric synthesis of the aforementioned natural product. The keyintermediates in the synthesis are an unsaturated SAMP-hydrazone and an alpha,beta-unsaturated lactone. The SAMP-hydrazone was easily prepared utilizing a stereoselective alpha-alkylation o...

  10. High-Performance Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitor Based on CoAl-LDH and rGO Electrodes (United States)

    Li, Shuoshuo; Cheng, Pengpeng; Luo, Jiaxian; Zhou, Dan; Xu, Weiming; Li, Jingwei; Li, Ruchun; Yuan, Dingsheng


    A flexible asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) based on a CoAl-layered double hydroxide (CoAl-LDH) electrode and a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrode was successfully fabricated. The CoAl-LDH electrode as a positive electrode was synthesized by directly growing CoAl-LDH nanosheet arrays on a carbon cloth (CC) through a facile hydrothermal method, and it delivered a specific capacitance of 616.9 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. The rGO electrode as a negative electrode was synthesized by coating rGO on the CC via a simple dip-coating method and revealed a specific capacitance of 110.0 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1. Ultimately, the advanced ASC offered a broad voltage window (1.7 V) and exhibited a high superficial capacitance of 1.77 F cm-2 at 2 mA cm-2 and a high energy density of 0.71 mWh cm-2 at a power density of 17.05 mW cm-2, along with an excellent cycle stability (92.9% capacitance retention over 8000 charge-discharge cycles).

  11. Asymmetric muscle function in patients with developmental mandibular asymmetry. (United States)

    Dong, Y; Wang, X M; Wang, M Q; Widmalm, S E


    The aim was to test the hypothesis that developmental mandibular asymmetry is associated with increased asymmetry in muscle activity. Patients with mandibular condylar and/or ramus hyperplasia having unilateral cross-bite were compared with healthy subjects with normal occlusion. Muscle activity was recorded with surface electrodes in the masseter, suprahyoid, sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and upper trapezius areas during jaw opening-closing-clenching, head-neck flexion-extension, and elevation-lowering of shoulders. Root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) values were calculated and analysed using anova and t-tests with P muscles showed co-activation during jaw and head movements, significantly more asymmetric in the patients than in the healthy subjects. The RMS and MPF values were higher in the patients than in the controls in the SCM and suprahyoid areas on both sides during jaw opening-closing movement. The results indicate that the ability to perform symmetric jaw and neck muscle activities is disturbed in patients with developmental mandibular asymmetry. This is of clinical interest because asymmetric activity may be an etiologic factor in temporomandibular joint and cervical pain. The results support that co-activation occurs between jaw and neck muscles during voluntary jaw opening and indicate that postural antigravity reflex activity occurs in the masseter area during head extension. Further studies, where EMG recordings are made from the DMA patients at early stages are motivated to verify activity sources and test if the asymmetric activity is associated with muscle and joint pain in the jaw and cervical areas.

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Benzylic Substitution of Secondary Benzyl Carbonates with Nitrogen and Oxygen Nucleophiles. (United States)

    Najib, Atifah; Hirano, Koji; Miura, Masahiro


    A Pd/(R)-BINAP-catalyzed asymmetric benzylic substitution of secondary benzyl carbonates with amides and amines proceeds to form the corresponding optically active benzylamines in good yields with a high enantiomeric ratio. The reaction occurs in a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) manner. Additionally, the asymmetric Pd catalysis can also be applicable to phenol nucleophiles, thus delivering chiral ethers with acceptable yields and enantioselectivity.

  13. Asymmetric conjugate addition of alkylzirconium reagents to α,β-unsaturated lactones. (United States)

    Maciver, Eleanor E; Maksymowicz, Rebecca M; Wilkinson, Nancy; Roth, Philippe M C; Fletcher, Stephen P


    The asymmetric synthesis of β-substituted lactones by catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of alkyl groups to α,β-unsaturated lactones is reported. The method uses alkylzirconium nucleophiles prepared in situ from alkenes and the Schwartz reagent. Enantioselective additions to 6- and 7-membered lactones proceed at rt, tolerate a wide variety of functional groups, and are readily scalable. The method was used in a formal asymmetric synthesis of mitsugashiwalactone.

  14. Electronic properties of asymmetrical quantum dots dressed by laser field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibis, O.V. [Department of Applied and Theoretical Physics, Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marx Avenue 20, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Slepyan, G.Ya.; Maksimenko, S.A. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarus State University, Bobruyskaya St. 11, 220050 Minsk (Belarus); Hoffmann, A. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)


    In the present paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the strong non-resonant interaction between asymmetrical quantum dots (QDs) and a laser field results in harmonic oscillations of their band gap. It is shown that such oscillations change the spectrum of elementary electron excitations in QDs: in the absence of the laser pumping there is only one resonant electron frequency, but QDs dressed by the laser field have a set of electron resonant frequencies. One expects that this modification of elementary electron excitations in QDs can be observable in optical experiments. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Catalytic Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Imines: Recent Advances. (United States)

    Foubelo, Francisco; Yus, Miguel


    In this review article recent developments in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines from 2008 up to today are presented. The main methodology involves either metal-catalyzed procedures in the presence of a chiral ligand or organocatalyzed technologies using a Hantzsch ester and a chiral BINOL-derived phosphoric acid. The most important procedures are collected, paying special attention to the application of this methodology in synthetic organic chemistry. Copyright © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Constraining Asymmetric Dark Matter through observations of compact stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter


    We put constraints on asymmetric dark matter candidates with spin-dependent interactions based on the simple existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. For a wide range of the parameters (WIMP mass and WIMP-nucleon cross section), WIMPs can be trapped in progenitors in large...... numbers and once the original star collapses to a white dwarf or a neutron star, these WIMPs might self-gravitate and eventually collapse forming a mini-black hole that eventually destroys the star. We impose constraints competitive to direct dark matter search experiments, for WIMPs with masses down...

  17. Improved extremal optimization for the asymmetric traveling salesman problem (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wang; Zhu, Yao-Jia; Yang, Gen-Ke; Lu, Yong-Zai


    This paper presents an improved extremal optimization (IEO) algorithm for solving the asymmetric traveling salesman problem (ATSP). At each update step, the IEO algorithm proceeds through two main steps: extremal dynamics and cooperative optimization. As an improvement of extremal optimization (EO), the IEO provides a general combinatorial optimization framework by emphasizing the step of cooperative optimization. In the paper, an effective cooperative optimization strategy with combination of greedy search and random walk is designed in terms of the microscopic characteristics of the ATSP solutions. Simulation results on a set of benchmark ATSP instances show that the proposed IEO algorithm provides satisfactory performance on computational effectiveness and efficiency.

  18. Exact solution of large asymmetric traveling salesman problems. (United States)

    Miller, D L; Pekny, J F


    The traveling salesman problem is one of a class of difficult problems in combinatorial optimization that is representative of a large number of important scientific and engineering problems. A survey is given of recent applications and methods for solving large problems. In addition, an algorithm for the exact solution of the asymmetric traveling salesman problem is presented along with computational results for several classes of problems. The results show that the algorithm performs remarkably well for some classes of problems, determining an optimal solution even for problems with large numbers of cities, yet for other classes, even small problems thwart determination of a provably optimal solution.

  19. Asymmetrical transformer-based embedded Z-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede


    their performances, a number of asymmetrical transformer-based embedded Z-source inverters are proposed. Through theoretical derivation and experiments, the proposed inverters have been shown to draw a smooth input current and produce a high gain by varying the transformer turns ratio n. The range of variation for n......Z-source inverters are inverters with buck-boost capability that traditional inverters cannot match. Despite this ability, present Z-source topologies are burdened by some limitations such as chopping input current, high-voltage stress and poor spectral performance at high gain. To improve...

  20. Asymmetric Propargylation of Ketones using Allenylboronates Catalyzed by Chiral Biphenols (United States)

    Barnett, David S.; Schaus, Scott E.


    Chiral biphenols catalyze the enantioselective asymmetric propargylation of ketones using allenylboronates. The reaction uses 10 mol % of 3,3′-Br2-BINOL as the catalyst and allenyldioxoborolane as the nucleophile, in the absence of solvent, and under microwave irradiation to afford the homopropargylic alcohol. The reaction products are obtained in good yields (60 – 98%) and high enantiomeric ratios (3:1 – 99:1). Diastereoselective propargylations using chiral racemic allenylboronates result in good diastereoselectivities (dr > 86:14) and enantioselectivities (er > 92:8) under the catalytic conditions. PMID:21732609

  1. Strategic communication and behavioral coupling in asymmetric joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Richardson, Michael J.


    How is coordination achieved in asymmetric joint actions where co-actors have unequal access to task information? Pairs of participants performed a non-verbal tapping task with the goal of synchronizing taps to different targets. We tested whether ‘Leaders’ knowing the target locations would...... support ‘Followers’ without this information. Experiment 1 showed that Leaders tapped with higher amplitude that also scaled with specific target distance, thereby emphasizing differences between correct targets and possible alternatives. This strategic communication only occurred when Leaders’ movements...

  2. Control of transformerless MMC-HVDC during asymmetric grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timofejevs, Artjoms; Gamboa, Daniel; Liserre, Marco


    Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the latest converter topology suitable for the transformerless applications in HVDC transmission. HVDC systems are required to remain connected during grid faults, provide grid support and completely decouple the healthy side from the faulty one. The MMC...... converter weak points are challenged by this particular condition and by these demands. This paper demonstrates the effect of negative and zero sequence current control in MMCHVDC during asymmetric grid faults. A current limitation strategy for MMC is derived and verified through simulations....

  3. Option Pricing with Asymmetric Heteroskedastic Normal Mixture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V. K; Stentoft, Lars


    We propose an asymmetric GARCH in mean mixture model and provide a feasible method for option pricing within this general framework by deriving the appropriate risk neutral dynamics. We forecast the out-of-sample prices of a large sample of options on the S&P 500 index from January 2006 to December...... 2011, and compute dollar losses and implied standard deviation losses. We compare our results to those of existing mixture models and other benchmarks like component models and jump models. Using the model confidence set test, the overall dollar root mean squared error of the best performing benchmark...... model is significantly larger than that of the best mixture model....

  4. Enhanced quadruple-resonant terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric hybrid resonators (United States)

    Shi, Minglei; Lan, Feng; Mazumder, Pinaki; Aghadjani, Mahdi; Yang, Ziqiang; Meng, Lin; Zhou, Jun


    This paper presents the design, fabrication and investigation of a quadruple-resonant terahertz metamaterial that comprises two different Electric-inductance capacitance (ELC) resonators in a vertical configuration. Owing to asymmetric electric field coupling between the two resonators, the combined structure exhibits better performance in terms of transmission minima and bandwidths than the individual particles. The distributions of the surface current and electric field reveal quasi-quadrupole resonance, electric dipolar resonance and coupling between these resonances at different resonant frequencies. Moreover, the resonant frequencies are tunable by adjusting the corresponding geometrical parameters. Above all, the excellent performance of the proposed structure makes it promising for application in multiband terahertz devices.

  5. Multipulse Three-Dimensional Alignment of Asymmetric Top Molecules (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Makhija, Varun; Kumarappan, Vinod


    We show, by computation and experiment, that a sequence of nonresonant and impulsive laser pulses with different ellipticities can effectively align asymmetric top molecules in three dimensions under field-free conditions. By solving the Schrödinger equation for the evolution of the rotational wave packet, we show that the 3D alignment of 3,5 difluoroiodobenzene molecules improves with each successive pulse. Experimentally, a sequence of three pulses is used to demonstrate these results, which extend the multipulse schemes used for 1D alignment to full 3D control of rotational motion.

  6. Identification of Multimodel LPV Models with Asymmetric Gaussian Weighting Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie You


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the identification of linear parameter varying (LPV systems by utilizing a multimodel structure. To improve the approximation capability of the LPV model, asymmetric Gaussian weighting functions are introduced and compared with commonly used symmetric Gaussian functions. By this mean, locations of operating points can be selected freely. It has been demonstrated through simulations with a high purity distillation column that the identified models provide more satisfactory approximation. Moreover, an experiment is performed on real HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning to further validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Asymmetrical Achilles tendon ossification and rare rear heel pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Bakar Siddiq


    Full Text Available Achilles tendon ossification is not a frequent association of posterior heel pain in pain physicians’ daily practice. The condition has been reportedly common following rear heel trauma (repetitive heel stress injury, surgery (club foot surgery; however, some endocrino-metabolic, haematological disorders can also contribute to Achilles tendon ossification. Shape of ossified tendon mass varies from discrete (single/multiple to extensive variety; and as per literature review, in bilateral cases they are alike. To be intriguing, here in this write-up, we demonstrate asymmetrical (in terms of clinical features and radioimaging findings, bilateral Achilles tendon ossification in a 70-year-old retired farmer, first time in literature.

  8. Electron localization in an asymmetric double quantum well nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamedi, Hamid Reza, E-mail:


    The localization behavior of an asymmetric coupled quantum well (CQW) driven by two orthogonal standing-wave lasers based on intersubband transitions is investigated. We have shown that the precision of localization of the electron depends on different controlling parameters in the medium. We find that the high-spatial- resolution and high-precision-localization of the electron can be achieved through proper adjustment of the standing-wave fields. This scheme manifests a high controllability for the formation of the electron localization through different parameters such as frequency detuning and intensity of fields and level splitting energy between the bonding and anti-bonding states.

  9. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study examines the effect of shortages in labor supply on asymmetric cost behavior. Building on the labor demand literature, it is argued that labor supply shortages increase adjustment costs for hiring new employees. Consistent with this explanation, results provide evidence that companies...... facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply...

  10. Perturbation Measurements on the Degree of Naturalness of Synthesized Vowels. (United States)

    Yamasaki, Rosiane; Montagnoli, Arlindo; Murano, Emi Z; Gebrim, Eloisa; Hachiya, Adriana; Lopes da Silva, Jorge Vicente; Behlau, Mara; Tsuji, Domingos


    To determine the impact of jitter and shimmer on the degree of naturalness perception of synthesized vowels produced by acoustical simulation with glottal pulses (GP) and with solid model of the vocal tract (SMVT). Prospective study. Synthesized vowels were produced in three steps: 1. Eighty GP were developed (20 with jitter, 20 with shimmer, 20 with jitter+shimmer, 20 without perturbation); 2. A SMVT was produced based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from a woman during phonation-/ε/ and using rapid prototyping technology; 3. Acoustic simulations were performed to obtain eighty synthesized vowels-/ε /. Two experiments were performed. First Experiment: three judges rated 120 vowels (20 humans+80 synthesized+20% repetition) as "human" or "synthesized". Second Experiment: twenty PowerPoint slide sequences were created. Each slide had 4 synthesized vowels produced with the four perturbation condition. Evaluators were asked to rate the vowels from the most natural to the most artificial. First Experiment: all the human vowels were classified as human; 27 out of eighty synthesized vowels were rated as human, 15 of those were produced with jitter+shimmer, 10 with jitter, 2 without perturbation and none with shimmer. Second Experiment: Vowels produced with jitter+shimmer were considered as the most natural. Vowels with shimmer and without perturbation were considered as the most artificial. The association of jitter and shimmer increased the degree of naturalness of synthesized vowels. Acoustic simulations performed with GP and using SMVT demonstrated a possible method to test the effect of the perturbation measurements on synthesized voices. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization and control of electron beams from laser wakefield accelerations using asymmetric laser pulses (United States)

    Gopal, K.; Gupta, D. N.


    Optimization and control of electron beam quality in laser wakefield acceleration are explored by using a temporally asymmetric laser pulse of the sharp rising front portion. The temporally asymmetric laser pulse imparts stronger ponderomotive force on the ambient plasma electrons. The stronger ponderomotive force associated with the asymmetric pulse significantly affects the injection of electrons into the wakefield and consequently the quality of the injected bunch in terms of injected charge, mean energy, and emittance. Based on particle-in-cell simulations, we report to generate a monoenergetic electron beam with reduced emittance and enhanced charge in laser wakefield acceleration using an asymmetric pulse of duration 30 fs.

  12. GaAs-Based Nanowire Devices with Multiple Asymmetric Gates for Electrical Brownian Ratchets (United States)

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Nakano, Yuki; Kasai, Seiya


    GaAs-based nanowire devices having multiple asymmetric gates for electrical Brownian ratchets were fabricated and characterized. From three-dimensional potential simulation results and current-voltage characteristics, we confirmed the formation of the asymmetric potential in our device design. Direct current was generated at room temperature by repeatedly switching the potential in a multiple-asymmetric-gate device on and off. Such current was not observed in either a single-asymmetric-gate device or a multiple-symmetric-gate device. The current direction and input frequency dependences of the net current indicated that the observed current was generated by the flashing-ratchet mechanism.

  13. Metal-catalyzed Asymmetric Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of Unactivated Dienes with Glyoxylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Mogens; Yao, Sulan; Graven, Anette


    The development of a catalytic asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder methodology for the reaction of unactivated dienes with glyoxylates is presented. Several different asymmetric catalysts can be used, but copper-bisoxazolines and aluminium-BINOL give the highest yield, and the best chemo- and enantiose......The development of a catalytic asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder methodology for the reaction of unactivated dienes with glyoxylates is presented. Several different asymmetric catalysts can be used, but copper-bisoxazolines and aluminium-BINOL give the highest yield, and the best chemo...

  14. Electron energization and structure of the diffusion region during asymmetric reconnection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Li‐Jen; Hesse, Michael; Wang, Shan; Bessho, Naoki; Daughton, William


    Results from particle‐in‐cell simulations of reconnection with asymmetric upstream conditions are reported to elucidate electron energization and structure of the electron diffusion region (EDR...

  15. Asymmetric inelastic inert doublet dark matter from triplet scalar leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arina, Chiara, E-mail: [Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Sahu, Narendra, E-mail: [Service de Physique Theorique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP225, Bld du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    The nature of dark matter (DM) particles and the mechanism that provides their measured relic abundance are currently unknown. In this paper we investigate inert scalar and vector like fermion doublet DM candidates with a charge asymmetry in the dark sector, which is generated by the same mechanism that provides the baryon asymmetry, namely baryogenesis-via-leptogenesis induced by decays of scalar triplets. At the same time the model gives rise to neutrino masses in the ballpark of oscillation experiments via type II seesaw. We discuss possible sources of depletion of asymmetry in the DM and visible sectors and solve the relevant Boltzmann equations for quasi-equilibrium decay of triplet scalars. A Monte-Carlo-Markov-Chain analysis is performed for the whole parameter space. The survival of the asymmetry in the dark sector leads to inelastic scattering off nuclei. We then apply Bayesian statistic to infer the model parameters favoured by the current experimental data, in particular the DAMA annual modulation and XENON100 exclusion limit. The latter strongly disfavours asymmetric scalar doublet DM of mass O(TeV) as required by DM-DM-bar oscillations, while an asymmetric vector like fermion doublet DM with mass around 100 GeV is a good candidate for DAMA annual modulation yet satisfying the constraints from XENON100 data.

  16. Asymmetric transmission of terahertz waves using polar dielectrics. (United States)

    Serebryannikov, Andriy E; Ozbay, Ekmel; Nojima, Shunji


    Asymmetric wave transmission is a Lorentz reciprocal phenomenon, which can appear in the structures with broken symmetry. It may enable high forward-to-backward transmittance contrast, while transmission for one of the two opposite incidence directions is blocked. In this paper, it is demonstrated that ultrawideband, high-contrast asymmetric wave transmission can be obtained at terahertz frequencies in the topologically simple, i.e., one- or two-layer nonsymmetric gratings, which are entirely or partially made of a polar dielectric working in the ultralow-ε regime inspired by phonon-photon coupling. A variety of polar dielectrics with different characteristics can be used that gives one a big freedom concerning design. Simple criteria for estimating possible usefulness of a certain polar dielectric are suggested. Contrasts exceeding 80dB can be easily achieved without a special parameter adjustment. Stacking a high-ε corrugated layer with a noncorrugated layer made of a polar dielectric, one can enhance transmission in the unidirectional regime. At large and intermediate angles of incidence, a better performance can be obtained owing to the common effect of nonsymmetric diffractions and directional selectivity, which is connected with the dispersion of the ultralow-ε material. At normal incidence, strong asymmetry in transmission may occur in the studied structures as a purely diffraction effect.

  17. Polarization-controlled asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Quan


    Free-space light can be coupled into propagating surface waves at a metal–dielectric interface, known as surface plasmons (SPs). This process has traditionally faced challenges in preserving the incident polarization information and controlling the directionality of the excited SPs. The recently reported polarization-controlled asymmetric excitation of SPs in metasurfaces has attracted much attention for its promise in developing innovative plasmonic devices. However, the unit elements in these works were purposely designed in certain orthogonal polarizations, i.e., linear or circular polarizations, resulting in limited two-level polarization controllability. Here, we introduce a coupled-mode theory to overcome this limit. We demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that, by utilizing the coupling effect between a pair of split-ring-shaped slit resonators, exotic asymmetric excitation of SPs can be obtained under the x-, y-, left-handed circular, and right-handed circular polarization incidences, while the polarization information of the incident light can be preserved in the excited SPs. The versatility of the presented design scheme would offer opportunities for polarization sensing and polarization-controlled plasmonic devices.

  18. The Lazarillo's game: Sharing resources with asymmetric conditions. (United States)

    Lacomba, Juan A; Lagos, Francisco; Perote, Javier


    The Lazarillo of Tormes' picaresque novel introduces a story where two subjects sequentially extract (one, two or three) tokens from a common pool in an asymmetric information framework (the first player cannot observe her partners' actions). By introducing a reward for both subjects in case that in every period at least one subject had taken one single token, we define an interesting coordination game. We conduct an experiment with 120 undergraduate students to study their behavior in this framework. We find that if the second player is allowed to take more tokens than her partner, then the frequency of cooperators does not seem to be affected by the informational asymmetry. Nevertheless, this asymmetry (i) incentives the second player to use her 'power of extraction' while the social externality is still available, (ii) yields to more asymmetric profit distributions when subjects win the social externality and (iii) delays the breach period in case of coordination failure. Furthermore, the first choice of the first player is determinant for getting the reward.

  19. Complex corrective procedure in surgical treatment of asymmetrical pectus excavatum. (United States)

    Pawlak, Krystian; Gąsiorowski, Łuksasz; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech


    In this study we analysed the early and late results of surgical treatment of asymmetrical pectus excavatum using complex surgery combining the Ravitch procedure and the Nuss procedure in the same general anaesthesia. Eighty out of 938 patients with pectus excavatum operated on between 2002 and 2013, 67 males and 13 females aged 11 to 49 years (mean: 19.2), underwent a complex surgical procedure. During surgery the Nuss procedure was usually performed first (one corrective bar was implanted in 35 patients and two bars were inserted in 45 patients). Because of the unsatisfactory cosmetic effect, additionally the Ravitch procedure was started. The bars were electively removed 3 years after the primary operation. No mortality was observed in the early postoperative period. Non-life-threatening and transient postoperative complications occurred in 44 (55%) patients. The most common was pleural effusion (21%), which in 50% of patients required pleural drainage. A satisfactory and stable correction effect was achieved in 88% of cases. Six of those patients required repeat surgery due to recurrence of deformity. A complex corrective procedure is a successful method of surgical treatment in patients with asymmetrical pectus excavatum and is characterized by satisfactory postoperative results. The use of corrective bars enhances the cosmetic effect. The frequency of early, mostly non-life-threatening postoperative complications after a complex procedure is insignificantly higher than that after the Nuss procedure.

  20. Cholesterol Induces Uneven Curvature of Asymmetric Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Yesylevskyy


    Full Text Available A remarkable flexibility is observed in biological membranes, which allows them to form the structures of different curvatures. We addressed the question of intrinsic ability of phospholipid membranes to form highly curved structures and the role of cholesterol in this process. The distribution of cholesterol in the highly curved asymmetric DOPC/DOPS lipid bilayer was investigated by the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations in the membrane patches with large aspect ratio. It is shown that cholesterol induces uneven membrane curvature promoting the formation of extended flattened regions of the membrane interleaved by sharp bends. It is shown that the affinity of cholesterol to anionic DOPS or neutral DOPC lipids is curvature dependent. The cholesterol prefers DOPS to DOPC in either planar or highly curved parts of the membrane. In contrast, in the narrow interval of moderate membrane curvatures this preference is inverted. Our data suggest that there is a complex self-consistent interplay between the membrane curvature and cholesterol distribution in the asymmetric lipid bilayers. The suggested new function of cholesterol may have a biological relevance.