Sample records for asymmetric somatic hybrids

  1. The place of asymmetric somatic hybridization in wheat breeding. (United States)

    Liu, Shuwei; Xia, Guangmin


    Since its first development some 40 years ago, the application of the somatic hybridization technique has generated a body of hybrid plant material involving a wide combination of parental species. Until the late 1990s, the technique was ineffective in wheat, as regeneration from protoplasts was proving difficult to achieve. Since this time, however, a successful somatic hybridization protocol for wheat has been established and used to generate a substantial number of both symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybrids and derived materials, especially involving the parental combination bread wheat and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum). This review describes the current state of the art for somatic hybridization in wheat and focuses on its potential application for wheat improvement.

  2. Donor chromosome elimination and organelle composition of asymmetric somatic hybrid plants between an interspecific tomato hybrid and eggplant. (United States)

    Samoylov, V M; Izhar, S; Sink, K C


    Morphology, the extent of elimination of donor chromosomes and the organelle composition of highly asymmetric somatic hybrid plants between a interspecific tomato hybrid Lycopersicon esculentum x L. pennellii (EP) as donor and a Solarium melongena, eggplant (E), recipient, were studied. Morphologically, the somatic hybrids most resemble eggplant but, due to polyploidy, growth is slower relative to both fusion parents. The somatic hybrids produce flowers that are characterized by abnormal styles, stigmas and by anthers which do not produce pollen. Limited amounts of donor EP genomic DNA were found in the three somatic hybrid plants (H18-1, H18-2 and H18-3), by dot-blot hybridization with probe pTHG2, equivalent to 6.23,5.41, and 5.95% EP, respectively. These percentages translated to the presence of 3.59, 2.90 and 3.19 average-size EP chromosomes in plants H1 8-1,-2 and-3, respectively. RFLP determination of L. esculentum- and L. pennellii-specific chromosomes revealed that only fragments of eight to ten out of the 24 EP chromosomes (EP has 12 L. esculentum and 12 L. pennellii chromosomes) are present in the asymmetric somatic hybrid plants. Loci of L. esculentum and L. pennellii were evenly represented in plants H18-1, -2, and -3: four to five from L. esculentum and four to five from L. pennellii. All somatic hybrid plants retained locus TG22, chromosome 4, from both EP species. Although the regeneration of plants, H18-1, -2 and-3 was from one callus, loci TG31 and TG79 of L. esculentum chromosome 2 and L. pennellii chromosome 9, respectively, were missing in hybrid plant H18-1. The three somatic hybrid plants all had chloroplast DNA fragments specific for S. melongena. The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) in the asymmetric somatic hybrids showed predominantly the pattern of eggplant; however, some eggplant-specific polymorphic bands were not present in the three plants.

  3. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts

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    Bona, Claudine Maria de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail:; Gould, Jean Howe [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Ecosystem Science and Management], e-mail:; Miller Junior, J. Creighton [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences], e-mail:; Stelly, David [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences], e-mail:; Louzada, Eliezer Silva [Texas A and M University, Kingsville, TX (United States). Citrus Center], e-mail:


    The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma.irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck) 'Itaborai', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow.) and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis). Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L{sup -1} iodoacetamide (IOA), and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata) x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol.butyric acid (IBA) solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of plantlet DNA samples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy.irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA.treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L{sup -1} IBA solution for 10 min. (author)

  4. Asymmetric somatic hybrid plants between Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa, lucerne) and Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (sainfoin). (United States)

    Li, Y G; Tanner, G J; Delves, A C; Larkin, P J


    This paper reports on the production of intergeneric somatic hybrid plants between two sexually incompatible legume species. Medicago sativa (alfalfa, lucerne) leaf protoplasts were inactivated by lethal doses of iodoacetamide. Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) suspension-cell protoplasts were gamma-irradiated at lethal doses. Following electrofusion under optimized conditions about 50,000 viable heterokaryons were produced in each test. The fusion products were cultured with the help of alfalfa nurse protoplasts. Functional complementation permitted only the heterokaryons to survive. A total of 706 putative heterokaryon-derived plantlets were regenerated and 570 survived transplantation to soil. Experimentation was aimed at the introduction of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) from sainfoin, a bloat-safe plant, to alfalfa, a bloat-causing forage crop; however, no tannin-positive regenerant plants were detected. Most regenerant plants have shown morphological differences from the fusion parents, although, as expected, all resembled the "recipient" parent, alfalfa. Southern analysis using an improved total-genomic probing technique has shown low levels of sainfoin-specific DNA in 43 out of 158 tested regenerants. Cytogenetic analysis of these asymmetric hybrids has confirmed the existence of euploid (2n=32; 17%) as well as aneuploid (2n=30, 33-78; 83%) plants. Pollen germination tests have indicated that the majority of the hybrids were fertile, while 35% had either reduced fertility or were completely sterile.

  5. The role of irradiation dose and DNA content of somatic hybrid calli in producing asymmetric plants between an interspecific tomato hybrid and eggplant. (United States)

    Samoylov, V M; Sink, K C


    Highly asymmetric somatic hybrid plants were obtained by PEG/DMSO fusion of gamma-irradiated mesophyll protoplasts of the kanamycin-resistant (KmR(+)) interspecific hybrid Lycopersicon esculentum x L. pennellii (EP) with mesophyll protoplasts of Solanum melongena (eggplant, E). Elimination of the EP chromosomes was obtained by irradiating the donor genome with different doses of gamma rays (100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 Gy). The selection of somatic hybrid calli was based on kanamycin resistance; EP and E protoplasts did not divide due to the irradiation treatment and sensitivity to kanamycin, respectively. KmR(+) calli were recovered following all irradiation doses of donor EP protoplasts. The hybrid nature of the recovered calli was confirmed by PCR amplification of the NptII gene, RAPD patterns and Southern hybridizations using potato ribosomal DNA and pTHG2 probes. Ploidy levels of calli confirmed as hybrid were further analyzed by flow cytometry. Such analyses revealed that the vast majority of hybrid calli that did not regenerate shoots were 5-9n polyploids. The three asymmetric somatic hybrid plants obtained were regenerated only from callus with a ploidy level close to 4n, and such calli occurred only when the donor EP had been exposed to 100 Gy. The amount of DNA in somatic hybrid calli, from 100-Gy exposure, was found by dot blot hybridization with the species-specific probe, pTHG2, to be equivalent with 3.1-25.8% of the tomato genome. Thus, DNA contained in 3.8-13.2 average-size tomato chromosomes was present in these hybrid calli. The asymmetric somatic hybrid plants had the eggplant morphology and were regenerated from one hybrid callus that contained an amount of tomato DNA equivalent to 6.29 average-size tomato chromosomes.

  6. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

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    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  7. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass (United States)

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how did these variations happened was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays ...

  8. [Molecular identification of intergeneric somatic hybrid plants between alfalfa and sainfoin]. (United States)

    Xu, Z Q; Jia, J F


    Somatic hybrid plants between alfalfa and sainfoin were regenerated by protoplast fusion and culture. DNA samples of the hybrid plants, hydroxyproline-resistant sainfoin plants, alfalfa cell line transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens 702 were isolated with a new and simple method. The hybridity was identified by random amplified polymorphic DNAs and Southern hybridization. Significant differences can be seen in the sequences amplified, which are specific for each parent/primer combination under the amplification conditions used. In 20 random oligonucleotide primers used, six could amplified more DNA fragments and had better polymorphisms. The results suggested that besides containing nuclear substances of two parents, the hybrid genome was inclined to eliminate sainfoin chromosome with DNA reconstruction. However, the somatic genome also could produce the sainfoin-specified DNA fragments which further confirmed by Southern hybridization. The hybrids were asymmetric and had certain regeneration ability just because the intervention of sainfoin DNA.

  9. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone. (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan


    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass. (United States)

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin


    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the presence of a number of short introgressed tall wheatgrass chromatin segments. DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences, including sequences deletions, altered regulation of gene expression, changed patterns of cytosine methylation, and the reactivation of retrotransposons. Phenotypic variations appear to result from altered repetitive sequences combined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and/or retrotransposon transposition. The extent of genetic and epigenetic variation due to the maintenance of parent wheat cells in tissue culture was assessed and shown to be considerably lower than had been induced in the introgression lines. Asymmetric somatic hybridization provides appropriate material to explore the nature of the genetic and epigenetic variations induced by genomic shock. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Complementation of multiple sulfatase deficiency in somatic cell hybrids.


    Fedde, K; Horwitz, A L


    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is an inherited disorder characterized by deficient activity of seven different sulfatases. Genetic complementation for steroid sulfatase (STS), arylsulfatase A, and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-SO4 sulfatase was demonstrated in somatic cell hybrids between MSD fibroblasts and mouse cells ( LA9 ) or Chinese hamster cells ( CHW ). In an electrophoretic system that separates human and rodent STS isozymes, enzyme from hybrids migrated as human enzyme. We concluded ...

  12. Intermediate fertile Triticum aestivum (+) Agropyron elongatum somatic hybrids are generated by low doses of UV irradiation. (United States)

    Cheng, Ai Xia; Xia, Guang Min; Zhi, Da Ying; Chen, Hui Min


    We report the production and characterization of somatic hybrids between Triticum aestivum L. and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nevishi (the synonym is Thinopyrum ponticum). Asymmetric protoplast fusion was performed between Agropyron elongatum protoplasts irradiated with a low UV dose and protoplasts of wheat taken from nonregenerable suspension cultures. More than 40 green plantlets were obtained from 15 regenerated clones and one of them produced seeds. The phenotypes of the hybrid plants and seeds were intermediate between wheat and Agropyron elongatum. All of the regenerated calli and plants were verified as intergeneric hybrids on the basis of morphological observation and analysis of isozyme, cytological, 5SrDNA spacer sequences and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial genome revealed evidence of random segregation and recombination of mtDNA.

  13. [Phosphinothricin-resistant somatic hybrids Brassica napus + Orychophragmus violaceus]. (United States)

    Sakhno, L O; Komarnyts'kyĭ, I K; Cherep, M N; Kuchuk, M V


    Phosphinothricin (PPT) resistant hybrid plants between Brassica napus L. cv. Kalinovsky and Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Shulz. were obtained as a result of somatic hybridization experiments. The hybrids inherited PPT resistance from O. violaceus plants which were previously transformed by the vector containing Spm/dSpm Zea mays transposon system with bar gene located within the nonautonomous transposon. The obtained plants had intermediate morphology. Their hybrid nature has been confirmed by isozyme (esterase and amilase activity) and PCR (bar, gus, Spm/dSpm integration) analyses. The hybrids combined B. napus plastom and O. violaceus mithochondrion that was revealed by PCR-RFLP. The hybrid plants might be included to rapeseed breeding programme after examination of their oil quality as well as to chloroplast transformation experiments that is still urgent for B. napus.

  14. Citrus asymmetric somatic hybrids produced via fusion of gamma-irradiated and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts Híbridos somáticos assimétricos de citros produzidos pela fusão de protoplastos irradiados e tratados com iodoacetamida

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    Claudine Maria de Bona


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce citrus somatic asymmetric hybrids by fusing gamma-irradiated protoplasts with iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension cells of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad. cultivars Ruby Red and Flame, sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck 'Itaboraí', 'Natal', Valencia', and 'Succari', from 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow. and 'Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Murcott' tangor (C. reticulata x C. sinensis. Donor protoplasts were exposed to gamma rays and receptor protoplasts were treated with 3 mmol L-1 iodoacetamide (IOA, and then they were fused for asymmetric hybridization. Asymmetric embryos were germinated, and the resulting shoots were either grafted onto sour orange, rough lemon or 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata x 'Sunki' mandarin rootstock seedlings, or rooted after dipping their bases in indol-butyric acid (IBA solution. The products were later acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry, and hybridity was confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis of plantlet DNAsamples. The best treatment was the donor-recipient fusion combination of 80 Gy-irradiated 'Ruby Red' protoplasts with 20 min IOA-treated 'Succari' protoplasts. Tetraploid and aneuploid plants were produced. Rooting recalcitrance was solved by dipping shoots' stems in 3,000 mg L-1 IBA solution for 10 min.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos assimétricos de citros pela fusão de protoplastos irradiados com raios gama e protoplastos tratados com iodoacetamida. Protoplastos foram isolados de suspensões celulares embriogênicas de pomelo (Citrus paradisi Macfad., cultivares Ruby Red e Flame, de laranja doce (C. sinensis Osbeck 'Itaboraí', 'Natal', Valencia' e 'Succari', de tangerinas 'Satsuma' (C. unshiu Marcow. e 'Changsha' (C. reticulata Blanco e de tangor 'Murcott' (C. reticulata x C. sinensis

  15. Microdissection-derived murine mcb probes from somatic cell hybrids. (United States)

    Trifonov, Vladimir; Karst, Constanze; Claussen, Uwe; Mrasek, Kristin; Michel, Susanne; Avner, Philip; Liehr, Thomas


    The multicolor-banding (mcb) technique is a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-banding approach, which is based on region-specific microdissection libraries producing changing fluorescence intensity ratios along the chromosomes. The latter are used to assign different pseudocolors to specific chromosomal regions. Here we present the first three available mcb-probe sets for the Mus musculus chromosomes 3, 6, and 18. In the present work, the creation of the microdissection libraries was done for the first time on mouse/human somatic cell hybrids. During creation of the mcb-probes, the latter enabled an unambiguous identification of the, otherwise in GTG-banding, hardly distinguishable murine chromosomes.

  16. In situ hybridization to somatic chromosomes in Drosophila. (United States)

    Dernburg, Abby F


    In situ hybridization was originally developed as a technique for visualizing and physically mapping specific sequences on Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. Hybridization techniques can also be used to localize sequences on smaller, diploid chromosomes, such as condensed mitotic chromosomes. Variations of the method also allow the hybridization of probes to chromosomes within intact cells and tissues, rather than to chromosomes isolated from their cellular context and flattened on slides. This article presents methods for hybridizing fluorescent probes to chromosomes in whole-mount Drosophila tissues. These methods allow the investigation of nuclear organization even at stages where chromosomes are decondensed (as in interphase) or, for other reasons, cannot be discriminated in the light microscope. Consequently, they are useful for addressing a variety of cell biological questions. In addition to enhancing our understanding of somatic chromosome organization, this experimental approach has also revealed interactions among meiotic chromosomes in Drosophila females, which spend much of meiosis in a compact ball called the karyosome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) methods can also be used to karyotype individual nuclei using chromosome-specific markers. With appropriate fixation conditions, hybridization to chromosomal DNA can be performed in conjunction with immunostaining, allowing the colocalization of cellular or chromosomal proteins.

  17. Complementation of multiple sulfatase deficiency in somatic cell hybrids. (United States)

    Fedde, K; Horwitz, A L


    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is an inherited disorder characterized by deficient activity of seven different sulfatases. Genetic complementation for steroid sulfatase (STS), arylsulfatase A, and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-SO4 sulfatase was demonstrated in somatic cell hybrids between MSD fibroblasts and mouse cells ( LA9 ) or Chinese hamster cells ( CHW ). In an electrophoretic system that separates human and rodent STS isozymes, enzyme from hybrids migrated as human enzyme. We concluded that the rodent cell complemented the MSD deficiency and allowed normal expression of the STS structural gene. Some MSD- LA9 hybrids showed significant levels of human arylsulfatase A activity, as shown by the immunoprecipitation of active enzyme by human-specific antiserum. Complementation was also suggested for N-acetylgalactosamine 6- sulfatate sulfatase (GalNAc-6S sulfatase) in several MSD- LA9 hybrids by the demonstration of a significant increase in activity (10-fold) over that of the GalNAc-6S sulfatase-deficient parental mouse and MSD cells. Thus, it was possible to demonstrate complementation for more than one sulfatase in a single MSD-rodent hybrid. Normal levels of sulfatase activity in hybrids indicate that the sulfatase structural genes are intact in MSD cells.

  18. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Anthurium andraeanum hybrids. (United States)

    Kuehnle, A R; Chen, F C; Sugii, N


    A method for the production of somatic embryos and subsequent plant regeneration for Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex André (Monocotyledonae) hybrids is described. Whole leaf blade explants, derived from plantlets grown in vitro, formed translucent embryogénic calli at their basal ends within one month of culture in the dark. Secondary somatic embryos formed frequently and without an intervening callus on surfaces of primary embryos. Embryogenesis was induced with three genotypes using a modified half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 to 4.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.33 to 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin. A combination of 2% sucrose with 1% glucose in the medium favored embryogenesis over 3% sucrose alone. Whole leaf blades on medium solidified with 0.18% Gelrite produced more somatic embryos than leaves on medium with 0.7% Bacto-agar. Within two to three months after culture initiation, embryos were transferred to modified MS medium containing 0.2 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 2% sucrose and placed in the light for conversion into plantlets. Rooted plantlets were recovered and transferred into pots with tree fern fiber medium and grown in the greenhouse.

  19. Somatic hybrid plants produced by electrofusion between Solanum melongena L. and Solanum torvum Sw. (United States)

    Sihachakr, D; Haicour, R; Chaput, M H; Barrientos, E; Ducreux, G; Rossignol, L


    Somatic hybrid plants between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Solanum torvum have been produced by the electrofusion of mesophyll protoplasts in a movable multi-electrode fusion chamber. Using hair structure as a selection criteria, we identified a total of 19 somatic hybrids, which represented an overall average of 15.3% of the 124 regenerated plants obtained in the two fusion experiments. Several morphological traits were intermediate to those of the parents, including trichome density and structure, height, leaf form and inflorescence. Cytological analyses revealed that the chromosome numbers of the somatic hybrids approximated the expected tetraploid level (2n=4x=48). Fifteen hybrid plants were homogeneous and had relatively stable chromosome numbers (46-48), while four other hybrids had variable chromosome numbers (35-48) and exhibited greater morphological variation. The hybridity of these 19 somatic hybrid plants was confirmed by analyses of phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) and esterase zymograms.

  20. Asymmetric MRI Magnet Design Using a Hybrid Numerical Method (United States)

    Zhao, Huawei; Crozier, Stuart; Doddrell, David M.


    This paper describes a hybrid numerical method for the design of asymmetric magnetic resonance imaging magnet systems. The problem is formulated as a field synthesis and the desired current density on the surface of a cylinder is first calculated by solving a Fredholm equation of the first kind. Nonlinear optimization methods are then invoked to fit practical magnet coils to the desired current density. The field calculations are performed using a semi-analytical method. A new type of asymmetric magnet is proposed in this work. The asymmetric MRI magnet allows the diameter spherical imaging volume to be positioned close to one end of the magnet. The main advantages of making the magnet asymmetric include the potential to reduce the perception of claustrophobia for the patient, better access to the patient by attending physicians, and the potential for reduced peripheral nerve stimulation due to the gradient coil configuration. The results highlight that the method can be used to obtain an asymmetric MRI magnet structure and a very homogeneous magnetic field over the central imaging volume in clinical systems of approximately 1.2 m in length. Unshielded designs are the focus of this work. This method is flexible and may be applied to magnets of other geometries.

  1. Intergeneric somatic hybrid plants of Citrus sinensis cv. Hamlin and Poncirus trifoliata cv. Flying Dragon. (United States)

    Grosser, J W; Gmitter, F G; Chandler, J L


    Intergeneric somatic hybrid plants between 'Hamlin' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.) were regenerated following protoplast fusion. 'Hamlin' protoplasts, isolated from an habituated embryogenic suspension culture, were fused chemically with 'Flying Dragon' protoplasts isolated from juvenile leaf tissue. The hybrid selection scheme was based on complementation of the regenerative ability of the 'Hamlin' protoplasts with the subsequent expression of the trifoliate leaf character of 'Flying Dragon.' Hybrid plants were regenerated via somatic embryogenesis and multiplied organogenically. Hybrid morphology was intermediate to that of the parents. Chromosome counts indicated that the hybrids were allotetraploids (2n=4x=36). Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isozyme patterns confirmed the hybrid nature of the regenerated plants. These genetically unique somatic hybrid plants will be evaluated for citrus rootstock potential. The cell fusion, selection, and regeneration scheme developed herein should provide a general means to expand the germplasm base of cultivated Citrus by intergeneric hybridization with related sexually incompatible genera.

  2. Glycoalkaloids as biomarkers for recognition of cultivated, wild, and somatic hybrids of potato. (United States)

    Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio


    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs). During breeding programs, species genomes are often put together through either sexual or somatic hybridization. Therefore, the determination of the GA composition of hybrids is very important in that it may affect either human consumption, or resistance to pathogen and pests. Here, we report the results of GA analysis performed on wild Solanum bulbocastanum, haploids of cultivated potato S. tuberosum and their interspecific somatic hybrids. GAs were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. HPLC Profile of S. tuberosum haploids showed, as expected, the presence of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. The profile of S. bulbocastanum extract showed lack of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, and the presence of four GAs. The GA pattern of the somatic hybrids was the sum of their parents' profile. This represents a noteworthy tool for their unequivocal recognition. Interestingly, two hybrids produced not only GAs of both parents but also new compounds to be further investigated. This provided evidence that somatic hybridization induced the synthesis of new metabolites. The nature of the probable unidentified GAs associated to S. bulbocastanum and its somatic hybrids was ascertained by chemical degradation and spectroscopic analysis of their aglycones and sugar moieties. Our results suggest their close relation with GAs of both wild and cultivated potato species.

  3. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of Brassica nigra introgression lines from somatic hybridization: a resource for cauliflower improvement

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    Guixiang Wang


    Full Text Available Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower ‘Korso’ (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome and black mustard ‘G1/1’ (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome. However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits and physiological (black rot/club root resistance characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from ‘Korso’. Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms analysis identified the presence of ‘G1/1’ DNA segments (average 7.5%. Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1% was significantly higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%, and the presence of fragments specific to B. carinata (BBCC 2n = 34 were common (average 15.5%. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4% was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%. Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  4. Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species


    Azad, Md. Abul; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah


    Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for pla...

  5. Production and characterization of intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus and their backcrossing progenies. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-gang; Hu, Ting-ting; Ge, Xian-Hong; Du, Xue-zhu; Ding, Li; Li, Zai-yun


    Alien chromosome addition lines have been widely used for identifying gene linkage groups, assigning species-specific characters to a particular chromosome and comparing gene synteny between related species. In plant breeding, their utilization lies in introgressing characters of agronomic value. The present investigation reports the production of intergeneric somatic hybrids Brassica napus (2n = 38) + Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24) through asymmetric fusions of mesophyll protoplasts and subsequent development of B. napus-O. violaceous chromosome addition lines. Somatic hybrids showed variations in morphology and fertility and were mixoploids (2n = 51-67) with a range of 19-28 O. violaceus chromosomes identified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). After pollinated with B. napus parent and following embryo rescue, 20 BC(1) plants were obtained from one hybrid. These exhibited typical serrated leaves of O. violaceus or B. napus-type leaves. All BC(1) plants were partially male fertile but female sterile because of abnormal ovules. These were mixoploids (2n = 41-54) with 9-16 chromosomes from O. violaceus. BC(2) plants showed segregations for female fertility, leaf shape and still some chromosome variation (2n = 39-43) with 2-5 O. violaceus chromosomes, but mainly containing the whole complement from B. napus. Among the selfed progenies of BC(2) plants, monosomic addition lines (2n = 39, AACC + 1O) with or without the serrated leaves of O. violaceus or female sterility were established. The complete set of additions is expected from this investigation. In addition, O. violaceus plants at diploid and tetraploid levels with some variations in morphology and chromosome numbers were regenerated from the pretreated protoplasts by iodoacetate and UV-irradiation.

  6. Viral Hybrid Vectors for Somatic Integration - Are They the Better Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Ehrhardt


    Full Text Available The turbulent history of clinical trials in viral gene therapy has taught us important lessons about vector design and safety issues. Much effort was spent on analyzing genotoxicity after somatic integration of therapeutic DNA into the host genome. Based on these findings major improvements in vector design including the development of viral hybrid vectors for somatic integration have been achieved. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of available hybrid vectors utilizing viruses for high transduction efficiencies in concert with various integration machineries for random and targeted integration patterns. It discusses advantages but also limitations of each vector system.

  7. In situ hybridization to somatic metaphase chromosomes of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R. G.; Hoekstra, R.; van der Leij, F. R.; Pijnacker, L. P.; Witholt, B.; Feenstra, W. J.


    An in situ hybridization procedure was developed for mitotic potato chromosomes by using a potato 24S rDNA probe. This repetitive sequence hybridized to the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of chromosome 2 in 95%-100% of the metaphase plates. Another repetitive sequence (P5), isolated from the

  8. On the mechanism of nucleolar dominance in mouse-human somatic cell hybrids.


    Onishi, T; Berglund, C; Reeder, R H


    The mechanism of nucleolar dominance was studied in two lines of mouse-human somatic hybrids. Both lines had preferentially lost human chromosomes but had retained significant amounts of both mouse and human ribosomal genes (genes coding for the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S RNAs of ribosomes). However, the human ribosomal genes were repressed, and only mouse ribosomal genes were expressed. Soluble transcription extracts from the hybrids were able to initiate RNA synthesis accurately on a cloned mouse r...

  9. Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin


    Full Text Available Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33 was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F1 plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets.

  10. Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis from immature embryos derived through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species. (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah


    Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F(1) plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets.

  11. Asymmetric dimethylarginine in somatically healthy schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen


    ratio are positively correlated to measures of oxidative stress. METHODS: We included 40 schizophrenia patients treated with AAP, but without somatic disease or drug abuse, and 40 healthy controls. Plasma concentrations of ADMA and L-arginine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...

  12. Interspecific somatic hybrid plants between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Solanum torvum. (United States)

    Guri, A; Sink, K C


    Mesophyll protoplasts of eggplant (cv Black Beauty) and of Solanum torvum (both 2n=2x=24) were fused using a modification of the Menczel and Wolfe PEG/DMSO procedure. Protoplasts post-fusion were plated at 1 × 10(5)/ml in modified KM medium, which inhibited division of S. torvum protoplasts. One week prior to shoot regeneration, ten individual calluses had a unique light-green background and were verified as cell hybrids by the presence of the dimer isozyme patterns for phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT). Hybridity was also confirmed at the plant stage by DNA-DNA hybridization to a pea 45S ribosomal RNA gene probe. The ten somatic hybrid plants were established in the greenhouse and exhibited intermediate morphological characteristics such as leaf size and shape, flower size, shape, color and plant stature. Their chromosome number ranged from 46-48 (expected 2n=4x=48) and pollen viability was 5%-70%. In vitro shoots taken from the ten hybrid plants exhibited resistance to a verticillium wilt extract. Total DNA from the ten hybrids was restricted and hybridized with a 5.9 kb Oenothera chloroplast cytochrome f gene probe, a 2.4 kb EcoRI clone encoding mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II from maize and a 22.1 kb Sal I mitochondrial clone from Nicotiana sylvestris. Southern blot hybridization patterns showed that eight of ten somatic hybrids contained the eggplant cpDNA, while two plants contained the cpDNA hybridization patterns of both parents. The mtDNA analysis revealed the presence of novel bands, loss of some specific parental bands and mixture of specific bands from both parents in the restriction hybridization profiles of the hybrids.

  13. Strongly asymmetric hybridization barriers shape the origin of a new polyploid species and its hybrid ancestor. (United States)

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Cooley, Arielle M; Lee, Michelle Yuequi; Folmer, Madison; McKain, Michael R; Puzey, Joshua R


    Hybridization between diploids and tetraploids can lead to new allopolyploid species, often via a triploid intermediate. Viable triploids are often produced asymmetrically, with greater success observed for "maternal-excess" crosses where the mother has a higher ploidy than the father. Here we investigated the evolutionary origins of Mimulus peregrinus, an allohexaploid recently derived from the triploid M. ×robertsii, to determine whether reproductive asymmetry has shaped the formation of this new species. We used reciprocal crosses between the diploid (M. guttatus) and tetraploid (M. luteus) progenitors to determine the viability of triploid M. ×robertsii hybrids resulting from paternal- vs. maternal-excess crosses. To investigate whether experimental results predict patterns seen in the field, we performed parentage analyses comparing natural populations of M. peregrinus to its diploid, tetraploid, and triploid progenitors. Organellar sequences obtained from pre-existing genomic data, supplemented with additional genotyping was used to establish the maternal ancestry of multiple M. peregrinus and M. ×robertsii populations. We found strong evidence for asymmetric origins of M. peregrinus, but opposite to the common pattern, with paternal-excess crosses significantly more successful than maternal-excess crosses. These results successfully predicted hybrid formation in nature: 111 of 114 M. ×robertsii individuals, and 27 of 27 M. peregrinus, had an M. guttatus maternal haplotype. This study, which includes the first Mimulus chloroplast genome assembly, demonstrates the utility of parentage analysis through genome skimming. We highlight the benefits of complementing genomic analyses with experimental approaches to understand asymmetry in allopolyploid speciation. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Inheritance of characters involved in fruit quality in a citrus interspecific allotetraploid somatic hybrid. (United States)

    Bassene, Jean-Baptiste; Berti, Liliane; Costantino, Gilles; Carcouet, Elodie; Kamiri, Mourad; Tomi, Felix; Dambier, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann


    The main components of citrus fruit quality (organic acids, sugars, and aromatic compounds) were studied in fruits of a somatic hybrid allotetraploid between Willow leaf mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Ten.) + Eureka lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] and the two diploid parents. The somatic hybrid (WLM + EUR) combined both nuclear genomes of the parents, with chloroplasts and mitochondria of mandarin. Variations in sugar and acid content were studied in fruit pulp during the maturing period, and the chemical composition of peel oils was investigated by capillary gas chromatography (GC), GC/mass spectrometry (MS), and (13)C NMR. The somatic hybrid was close to the lemon parent in the synthesis of organic acids and close to the mandarin parent in fructose content, while sucrose and glucose contents were between the two parents. The aromatic compounds of WLM + EUR were close to mandarin with a non-negligible effect of lemon, which inhibits the methyl N-methylanthranilate, a mandarin-specific compound. Our results lead us to conclude that biosynthesis of compounds involved in citrus fruit quality is not inherited in an additive way in the allotetraploid hybrid. We observed mandarin dominance for fructose and most of the aromatic compounds, lemon dominance for organic acid and methyl N-methylanthranilate, and codominance for sucrose and glucose.

  15. [Obtaining and analysis of intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and "albino" line of Orychophragmus violaceus]. (United States)

    Vasilenko, M Iu; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Sakhno, L A; Gleba, Iu Iu; Kuchuk, N V


    The Orychophragmus violaceus chlorophylldefective line of "albino" type has been obtained by spectinomycin treatment. Somatic hybridization between Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus was performed by fusion of green mesophyll protoplasts of rape and callus protoplasts of the O. violaceus "albino" line. Near two hundred of regenerant plants were selected according to the regeneration type and ability to become green, and were determined as hybrids. Chloroplast DNA in selected hybrids was identical to rape chlDNA, which was confirmed by the PCR-RFLP analysis of plastid DNA fragments. Fragments of hybrid mitochondrial DNA analyzed by the PCR-RFLP analysis were identical to fragments of O. violaceus. The nuclear genome of the majority of hybrids was represented by the O. violaceus genome, which was demonstrated by analyses of isoenzymes, DNA telomeric sequences, ribosomal and satellite DNAs, and the RAPD analysis. The cytogenetic analysis of a number of lines has shown variability in the number of chromosomes in the obtained lines.

  16. A Hybrid Kinetic Model of Asymmetric Thin Current Sheets with Sheared Flows in a Collisionless Plasma (United States)


    different regimes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Asymmetric Collisionless Current Sheet Solar Wind Theory Reconnection Hybrid Simulation 16. SECllRITY...Pritchett, 2008]. Cas.sak and Shay [2007] provided a theory and simulation of asymmetric reconnection in the MHD regime. Malova et al. [2007] proposed a...z are aligned with those of the usual Geocentric Sun- Earth (aSE) coordinates. In this frame, +x points from the Earth to the Sun, +y points out of

  17. Molecular analysis of chromosomal rearrangements using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and somatic cell hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.M. (Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne (United States))


    Many human genetic diseases, including some cancers, are characterized by consistent chromosome abnormalities, such as deletions and translocations. Analyses of these mutations often prove crucial to the eventual cloning and characterization of the gene(s) responsible for the disease. Two methods for analyzing these chromosome abnormalities have been developed in recent years: somatic cell hybridization and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Somatic cell hybridization is a technique for segregating an aberrant chromosome from its normal homologue in a cell derived from an unrelated species, which is usually a rodent. Demonstrations of these analytic techniques are presented, using as an example chromosomal abnormalities involving human chromosome band 11p13, the locus for the Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormality, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome.

  18. Complementation of arylsulfatase A in somatic hybrids of metachromatic leukodystrophy and multiple sulfatase deficiency disorder fibroblasts.


    Chang, P L; Davidson, R G


    Metachromatic leukodystrophy and multiple sulfatase deficiency disorder are severe neurodegenerative diseases inherited as separate autosomal recessive traits. Arylsulfatase A (aryl-sulfate sulfohydrolase, EC activity is deficient in both diseases but in multiple sulfatase deficiency disorder, activities of arylsulfatases B and C and other sulfatases are also reported to be reduced. Somatic hybrid cell clones produced by fusing cultured fibroblasts from patients with these diseases w...

  19. Somatic hybridization for citrus rootstock breeding: an effective tool to solve some important issues of the Mediterranean citrus industry. (United States)

    Dambier, Dominique; Benyahia, Hamid; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Aka Kaçar, Yildiz; Froelicher, Yann; Belfalah, Zina; Lhou, Beniken; Handaji, Najat; Printz, Bruno; Morillon, Raphael; Yesiloglu, Turgut; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick


    The prevalence of sour orange rootstock in the southern and eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin is presently threatened by the spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and its main vector Toxoptera citricida, combined with abiotic constraints such as drought, salinity and alkalinity. The search for alternative CTV-resistant rootstocks that also withstand the other constraints is now considered an urgent priority for a sustainable citrus industry in the area. Complementary progenitors can be found in citrus germplasm to combine the desired traits, particularly between Poncirus and Citrus genera. The production of somatic hybrids allows cumulating all dominant traits irrespective of their heterozygosity level, and would appear to be an effective way to solve the rootstock challenge facing the Mediterranean citrus industry. This paper presents the results obtained during a regional collaborative effort between five countries, to develop new rootstocks by somatic hybridization. New embryogenic callus lines to be used for somatic hybridization have been created. Protoplast fusions have been performed at CIRAD and IVIA laboratories, focusing on intergeneric combinations. Analysis of ploidy level by flow cytometry and molecular markers confirmed the acquisition of new interesting tetraploid somatic hybrids for six combinations. Diploid cybrids with intergeneric (Citrus × Poncirus) nucleus and C. reticulata or C. aurantifolia mitochondria were also identified for four combinations. The agronomical performance of a pre-existing somatic hybrid between Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata was validated in calcareous soils in Morocco. Somatic hybridization is now integrated into the breeding programs of the five Mediterranean countries.

  20. Simultaneous acquisition of storage phosphor and asymmetric screen-film chest images using a hybrid cassette (United States)

    Stewart, Brent K.; Kimme-Smith, Carolyn; Johnson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Timothy; Aberle, Denise R.


    A hybrid cassette has been developed for simultaneous acquisition of storage phosphor and asymmetric screen-film chest images. This is important for the collection of images for Receiver Operating Characteristic studies comparing conventional radiography and computed radiography, without either increased exposure or non-identical imaging conditions. This hybrid radiographic cassette consists of a computed radiography imaging plate (in front) and an intact, high contrast variant of a commercially available asymmetric screen-film system (in the rear) with a speed of approximately 425. The high contrast, speed and efficiency of this screen-film system allow for positioning of the storage phosphor plate in the front of the cassette. As the imaging plate absorption is approximately 35%, the fast screen-film system provides high quality diagnostic images. There is minimal beam hardening, which is ameliorated by the high contrast of the asymmetric front screen. There is minimal differences in the Plexiglas step wedge phantom gray level values for CR and CR-hybrid images and in optical density values for InSightTM and InSightTM-hybrid films. The signal to noise ratio of either hybrid image, while fractionally less than their standard counterparts, is negligibly so. Only a slight modification in radiographic technique is required (10%) for use of this hybrid cassette, providing images that are virtually the same as those obtained through the standard CR and InSightTM ITC imaging methods.

  1. Comparison between 9-level hybrid asymmetric and conventional multi-level inverters for medium voltage application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Order Distortion Factor (DF1), power semiconductor losses, and efficiency are selected as performance indexes. The results indicate that the hybrid asymmetric topology has a better performance in performance indexes than the other topologies which leads to energy saving, better power quality...

  2. Nanostructured cobalt sulfide-on-fiber with tunable morphology as electrodes for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan


    Porous cobalt sulfide (Co9S8) nanostructures with tunable morphology, but identical crystal phase and composition, have been directly nucleated over carbon fiber and evaluated as electrodes for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. As the morphology is changed from two-dimensional (2D) nanoflakes to 3D octahedra, dramatic changes in supercapacitor performance are observed. In three-electrode configuration, the binder-free Co9S82D nanoflake electrodes show a high specific capacitance of 1056 F g-1at 5 mV s-1vs. 88 F g-1for the 3D electrodes. As sulfides are known to have low operating potential, for the first time, asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors are constructed from Co9S8nanostructures and activated carbon (AC), providing an operation potential from 0 to 1.6 V. At a constant current density of 1 A g-1, the 2D Co9S8, nanoflake//AC asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor exhibits a gravimetric cell capacitance of 82.9 F g-1, which is much higher than that of an AC//AC symmetric capacitor (44.8 F g-1). Moreover, the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor shows an excellent energy density of 31.4 W h kg-1at a power density of 200 W Kg-1and an excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of ∼90% after 5000 cycles. This journal is

  3. Dynamics of asymmetrical hybridization in North American wood ferns: reconciling patterns of inheritance with gametophyte reproductive biology. (United States)

    Testo, Weston L; Watkins, James E; Barrington, David S


    Hybridization is an important evolutionary force in plants, but the mechanisms underlying it have not been well studied for many groups. In particular, the drivers of non-random patterns of interspecific gene flow (asymmetrical hybridization) remain poorly understood, especially in the seed-free vascular plants. Here, we examine patterns of asymmetrical hybridization in two widespread fern hybrids from eastern North America and study the role of gametophyte ecology in the determination of hybridization bias. We characterized the maternal parentage of > 140 hybrid sporophytes by sequencing a c. 350-bp region of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). To identify factors contributing to patterns of asymmetrical hybridization, we cultured gametophytes of the parental species and evaluated critical aspects of their reproductive biology. We found that asymmetrical hybridization was prevalent across the populations of both hybrids. Reproductive traits varied across species and suggest that selfing potential, antheridiogen responsiveness, sperm dispersal capacity and gamete size all contribute to the mediation of the direction of hybridization in this group. Our findings suggest that asymmetrical hybridization in ferns is driven by an array of reproductive traits. This study helps to sharpen and define a mechanistic understanding of patterns of hybridization in this group and demonstrates the importance of considering gametophyte biology when studying evolutionary processes in ferns. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Enhanced quadruple-resonant terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric hybrid resonators (United States)

    Shi, Minglei; Lan, Feng; Mazumder, Pinaki; Aghadjani, Mahdi; Yang, Ziqiang; Meng, Lin; Zhou, Jun


    This paper presents the design, fabrication and investigation of a quadruple-resonant terahertz metamaterial that comprises two different Electric-inductance capacitance (ELC) resonators in a vertical configuration. Owing to asymmetric electric field coupling between the two resonators, the combined structure exhibits better performance in terms of transmission minima and bandwidths than the individual particles. The distributions of the surface current and electric field reveal quasi-quadrupole resonance, electric dipolar resonance and coupling between these resonances at different resonant frequencies. Moreover, the resonant frequencies are tunable by adjusting the corresponding geometrical parameters. Above all, the excellent performance of the proposed structure makes it promising for application in multiband terahertz devices.

  5. Assignment of electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) to human chromosome 4q33 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybridization. (United States)

    Spector, E B; Seltzer, W K; Goodman, S I


    Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a nuclear-encoded protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Inherited defects of ETF-QO cause glutaric acidemia type II. We here describe the localization of the ETF-QO gene to human chromosome 4q33 by somatic cell hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Mechanism of Interferon Uptake in Parental and Somatic Monkey-Mouse Hybrid Cells (United States)

    Chany, C.; Grégoire, A.; Vignal, M.; Lemaitre-Moncuit, J.; Brown, P.; Besançon, F.; Suarez, H.; Cassingena, R.


    Dose-response curves of interferons in different sensitive cells are regularly sigmoidal. In somatic monkey-mouse hybrid cells, however, a significant decrease in the slope of the curve for primate interferon was observed, while the dose-response effect was unaltered for mouse interferon. High concentrations of primate interferon were 10- to 100-times less effective in hybrid clones than in parental monkey CV-1 cells; at low concentrations the antiviral effect was 10- to 20-times higher in hybrid clones than in the parental cells. The receptor(s) for primate interferon located on the cell membrane was destroyed by trypsin but not by EDTA. Similarly, acid pH inactivated these receptor sites. We, thus, postulate that the antiviral effect is, at least partially, related to the amount of interferon taken up by the cells. Uptake could be conditioned by active cooperation of two cell-specific factors: a receptor and an activator. The activator might be missing or inactivated for primate interferon in the hybrid cells. We suggest that the putative antiviral protein is not cell-species specific, and that information for its synthesis in the hybrid cells might be located on a mouse rather than a monkey chromosome. PMID:4346894

  7. A novel PM motor with hybrid PM excitation and asymmetric rotor structure for high torque performance (United States)

    Xu, Gaohong; Liu, Guohai; Du, Xinxin; Bian, Fangfang


    This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet (PM) motor for high torque performance, in which hybrid PM material and asymmetric rotor design are applied. The hybrid PM material is adopted to reduce the consumption of rare-earth PM because ferrite PM is assisted to enhance the torque production. Meanwhile, the rotor structure is designed to be asymmetric by shifting the surface-insert PM (SPM), which is used to improve the torque performance, including average torque and torque ripple. Moreover, the reasons for improvement of the torque performance are explained by evaluation and analysis of the performances of the proposed motor. Compared with SPM motor and V-type motor, the merit of high utilization ratio of rare-earth PM is also confirmed, showing that the proposed motor can offer higher torque density and lower torque ripple simultaneously with less consumption of rare-earth PM.

  8. Complementation of arylsulfatase A in somatic hybrids of metachromatic leukodystrophy and multiple sulfatase deficiency disorder fibroblasts. (United States)

    Chang, P L; Davidson, R G


    Metachromatic leukodystrophy and multiple sulfatase deficiency disorder are severe neurodegenerative diseases inherited as separate autosomal recessive traits. Arylsulfatase A (aryl-sulfate sulfohydrolase, EC activity is deficient in both diseases but in multiple sulfatase deficiency disorder, activities of arylsulfatases B and C and other sulfatases are also reported to be reduced. Somatic hybrid cell clones produced by fusing cultured fibroblasts from patients with these diseases were isolated by a nonselective technique based on unit-gravity sedimentation. Arylsulfatase A activity was restored in these hybrids. The complemented enzyme resembled the normal arylsulfatase A in heat stability, pH optimum, Km, electrophoretic mobility, and immunologic reactivity. Because a structurally normal enzyme can be restored in a hybrid only though intergenic complementation, these results indicate that the mutations responsible for the deficiency of arylsulfatase A activity in metachromatic leukodystrophy and multiple sulfatase deficiency disorder are nonallelic and that at least two genetic loci control the expression of arylsulfatase A activity in the human genome. Furthermore, arylsulfatase C activity was also restored to normal in the hybrids, indicating that a common sulfatase inhibitor is not the cause of the multiple sulfatse deficiency.

  9. Asymmetrical gene flow in a hybrid zone of Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae species with contrasting mating systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa E Wallace

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical gene flow, which has frequently been documented in naturally occurring hybrid zones, can result from various genetic and demographic factors. Understanding these factors is important for determining the ecological conditions that permitted hybridization and the evolutionary potential inherent in hybrids. Here, we characterized morphological, nuclear, and chloroplast variation in a putative hybrid zone between Schiedea menziesii and S. salicaria, endemic Hawaiian species with contrasting breeding systems. Schiedea menziesii is hermaphroditic with moderate selfing; S. salicaria is gynodioecious and wind-pollinated, with partially selfing hermaphrodites and largely outcrossed females. We tested three hypotheses: 1 putative hybrids were derived from natural crosses between S. menziesii and S. salicaria, 2 gene flow via pollen is unidirectional from S. salicaria to S. menziesii and 3 in the hybrid zone, traits associated with wind pollination would be favored as a result of pollen-swamping by S. salicaria. Schiedea menziesii and S. salicaria have distinct morphologies and chloroplast genomes but are less differentiated at the nuclear loci. Hybrids are most similar to S. menziesii at chloroplast loci, exhibit nuclear allele frequencies in common with both parental species, and resemble S. salicaria in pollen production and pollen size, traits important to wind pollination. Additionally, unlike S. menziesii, the hybrid zone contains many females, suggesting that the nuclear gene responsible for male sterility in S. salicaria has been transferred to hybrid plants. Continued selection of nuclear genes in the hybrid zone may result in a population that resembles S. salicaria, but retains chloroplast lineage(s of S. menziesii.

  10. Hybrid PV/wind system with quinary asymmetric inverter without increasing DC-link number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Baghbany Oskouei


    Full Text Available This paper suggests quinary asymmetric inverter with coupled inductors and transformer, and uses it in hybrid system including photovoltaic (PV and wind. This inverter produces twenty-five-level voltage in addition to merits of multilevel inverter, has only one DC source. Then, it is adequate for hybrid systems, which prevents increasing DC-link and makes control of system easy. Proposed structure also provides isolation in the system and the switch numbers are reduced in this topology compared with other multilevel structures. In this system, battery is used as backup, where PV and wind have complementary nature. The performance of proposed inverter and hybrid system is validated with simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and experimental results based PCI-1716 data acquisition system.

  11. Genetic characteristic of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in somatic hybrid wheat lines -- potential application to wheat breeding. (United States)

    Heng, Liu; Lei, Shi; Junsheng, Zhao; Guangmin, Xia


    Analysis of 17 derivatives from a somatic fusion between common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheat grass (Thinopyrum ponticum) showed a diversity of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) compositions. On the basis of the inheritance of HMW-GS patterns, the derivatives were either (i) bred true over four successive generations, (ii) generated a few novel HMW-GS combinations at each generation, or (iii) showed highly unstable HMW-GS compositions. HMW-GS analysis of F(5) seed and each single seed-generated F(6) progenies further revealed that most of the HMW-GS had genetic stability. The variations of HMW-GS were inferred to occur in early generations and were maintained thereafter. Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) in hybrid lines with high or low bread-making quality, classified into the first pattern, were compared. The result showed that hybrid lines with the uniform HMW-GS patterns also have identical LMW-GS patterns. The Glu-1 quality score was inferred to be relatively significant to the sodium dodecyl dulfate sedimentation value, as well as to correlate with the gluten exponent and contents of dry gluten and proteins. Sexual hybridization between high-quality somatic hybrid progeny II-12 and Chinese Spring (CS) showed that these high-quality HMW-GS genes could entail progenies. There was not subunit variation in the progenies of II-12 x CS. Therefore, sexual hybridization between somatic hybrid line and cultivars can transfer novel high-quality HMW-GS of somatic hybrids and benefit wheat breeding.

  12. Symmetric and asymmetric hybrid cryptosystem based on compressive sensing and computer generated holography (United States)

    Ma, Lihong; Jin, Weimin


    A novel symmetric and asymmetric hybrid optical cryptosystem is proposed based on compressive sensing combined with computer generated holography. In this method there are six encryption keys, among which two decryption phase masks are different from the two random phase masks used in the encryption process. Therefore, the encryption system has the feature of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. On the other hand, because computer generated holography can flexibly digitalize the encrypted information and compressive sensing can significantly reduce data volume, what is more, the final encryption image is real function by phase truncation, the method favors the storage and transmission of the encryption data. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed encryption scheme boosts the security and has high robustness against noise and occlusion attacks.

  13. Production of intergeneric somatic hybrids between round kumquat (Fortunella japonica Swingle) and 'Morita navel' orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). (United States)

    Takami, K; Matsumara, A; Yahata, M; Imayama, T; Kunitake, H; Komatsu, H


    Intergeneric somatic hybrids between embryogenic callus-derived protoplasts of round kumquat (Fortunella japonica Swingle) and 'Morita navel' orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) were produced by electrofusion. Among the eight different fusion strains obtained, six showed normal morphology, whereas the remaining two showed malformation. All the regenerated plants were intermediate in leaf morphology and had thick and round leaves, which are typical characteristics of polyploids. Ploidy analyses by flow cytometry and chromosome counting in root-tip cells revealed that these plants are amphidiploid (2n=4x=36). Hybridity of the fusion products was confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analyses. Furthermore, analyses of chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA by CAPS showed that these somatic hybrids contained cp- and mt-DNA of round kumquat without recombination in the regions analyzed.

  14. A general approach to synthesize asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles by interfacial reactions. (United States)

    He, Jie; Perez, Maria Teresa; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yijing; Babu, Taarika; Gong, Jinlong; Nie, Zhihong


    Asymmetric multicomponent nanoparticles (AMNPs) offer new opportunities for new-generation materials with improved or new synergetic properties not found in their individual components. There is, however, an urgent need for a synthetic strategy capable of preparing hybrid AMNPs with fine-tuned structural and compositional complexities. Herein, we report a new paradigm for the controllable synthesis of polymer/metal AMNPs with well-controlled size, shape, composition, and morphology by utilizing interfacial polymerization. The hybrid AMNPs display a new level of structural-architectural sophistication, such as controlled domain size and the number of each component of AMNPs. The approach is simple, versatile, cost-effective, and scalable for synthesizing large quantities of AMNPs. Our method may pave a new route to the design and synthesis of advanced breeds of building blocks for functional materials and devices. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. Generation of a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing fragments of human chromosome 12P by X-ray irradiation and cell fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, R J; Suijkerbuijk, R F; Herbergs, J; Janssen, H; Cassiman, J J; Geurts van Kessel, A

    We have employed an irradiation and fusion procedure to generate somatic cell hybrids containing various fragments of the short arm of human chromosome 12 using a 12p-only hybrid (M28) as starting material. For the initial identification of hybrids retaining human DNA, nonradioactive in situ

  16. Pachytene pairing and metaphase I configurations in a tetraploid somatic Lycopersicon esculentum x L. peruvianum hybrid. (United States)

    Sybenga, J; Schabbink, E; Eden, J; Jong, J H


    In the tetraploid somatic hybrid between the diploid Lycopersicon species L. esculentum (tomato) and L. peruvianum, synaptonemal complexes formed quadrivalents in 73 of the 120 sets of four chromosomes (60.8%) in 10 cells studied in detail at pachytene. Of these, 43 had one pairing partner exchange, 22 had two, and 8 had three, very close to a Poisson distribution. The points of pairing partner exchange were concentrated at the middle of the two arms. The frequency per arm corresponded with physical arm length. There was a sharp drop around the centromere, and pericentric heterochromatin had a slightly lower probability of being involved in pairing partner exchange than euchromatin. The chromosomes align before pairing and there are several points of pairing initiation, with concentrations at or near the ends and the centromere. From zygotene to late pachytene the quadrivalent frequency decreased considerably. At late pachytene it was lower than expected with the observed high frequency of pairing partner exchange. Pairing affinity between species was only slightly lower than affinity within species, in spite of considerable genetic differentiation. The frequency of recombination nodules increased from early to late zygotene and then decreased strongly to full pachytene. There is a highly significant negative correlation between percent pairing and SC length. At metaphase I the frequency of quadrivalents was 0.444, and branched quadrivalents were rare, probably caused by interference and restriction of chiasma formation to distal euchromatin. Metaphase I quadrivalent frequency is a relatively good indication of pairing affinity in this material.

  17. Different timing and spatial separation of parental chromosomes in intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus. (United States)

    Ding, L; Zhao, Z G; Ge, X H; Li, Z Y


    Experimental and newly formed hybrids and polyploids generated by wide crosses usually show varying degrees of cytological instability. The spatial separation of parental genomes and uniparental chromosome elimination in hybrid cells has been reported in many hybrids from plants and animals. Herein, the behavior of parental genomes in intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus was analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). In mitotic and meiotic cells, the chromosomes from O. violaceus were distinguished from B. napus by their larger size and staining patterns. In interphase nuclei of the hybrid, O. violaceus-labeled chromatin appeared as large heterochromatic blocks that were nonrandomly distributed at prophase, typically distributed toward one side of the nucleus. In pollen mother cells at prophase I of meiosis, O. violaceus chromosomes appeared as one or two deeply stained chromatin blocks that resolved into bivalents at a late stage, after bivalents from B. napus were visible. Thereafter, bivalents of O. violaceus congressed to the equatorial plate and segregated at anaphase I after those from B. napus. The different behavior of O. violaceus chromosomes in the hybrids indicates that they have differential condensation states at interphase and progress later through the cell cycle and meiosis than B. napus chromosomes. This difference in behavior may restrict or prevent the formation of bivalents of mixed genome origin. Differential gene expression of parental alleles including rDNA loci may contribute to their distinct cytological behavior and to the phenotype of hybrids.

  18. Asymmetric Hybridization in Cattails (Typha spp.) and Its Implications for the Evolutionary Maintenance of Native Typha latifolia. (United States)

    Pieper, Sara J; Nicholls, Allison A; Freeland, Joanna R; Dorken, Marcel E


    Cattails (Typha spp.) have become an increasingly dominant component of wetlands in eastern North America and this dominance is largely attributable to the high frequency of Typha × glauca, the hybrid of native Typha latifolia and putatively introduced Typha angustifolia. Hybridization in this group is asymmetric, with T. angustifolia nearly always the maternal parent of F1 hybrids. However, the magnitude of hybrid infertility and whether mating asymmetries extend to the formation of advanced-generation hybrids have not been examined. We used hand-crosses to measure seed set and germination success. We found that mating asymmetries extend to the formation of back-crosses, with ~0 seeds set when T. latifolia was pollinated by hybrid cattails. Seed set was unaffected by pollen source for T. × glauca or T. angustifolia. However, seed production by T. angustifolia was consistently high while that of T. × glauca was variable and when pollinated by other T. × glauca more than 75% lower than for any other intraspecific cross indicating reduced hybrid fertility. We used these results to parameterize a model of hybrid zone evolution in which mating patterns and fertility were governed by interactions between alleles at nuclear and cytoplasmic loci. The model revealed that asymmetric mating and reduced hybrid fertility should favor the maintenance of T. latifolia over T. angustifolia compared to null expectations. However, the model also indicated restrictive conditions for the long-term maintenance of T. latifolia within populations, indicating that asymmetric mating might only stall rather than prevent the displacement of native cattails by hybrids. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  19. Isolation of the human chromosomal band Xq28 within somatic cell hybrids by fragile X site breakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S.T.; Knight, S.J.L.; Peters, J.F.; Stayton, C.L.; Consalez, G.G.; Zhang, F. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))


    The chromosomal fragile-site mapping to Xq27.3 is associated with a frequent form of mental retardation and is prone to breakage after induced deoxyribonucleotide pool perturbation. The human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genes flank the fragile X chromosome site and can be used to monitor integrity of the site in human-hamster somatic cell hybrids deficient in the rodent forms of these activities. After induction of the fragile X site, negative selection for HPRT and positive enrichment for G6PD resulted in 31 independent colonies of HPRT{sup {minus}}, G6PD{sup +} phenotype. Southern blot analysis demonstrated the loss of all tested markers proximal to the fragile X site with retention of all tested human Xq28 loci in a majority of the hybrids. In situ hybridization with a human-specific probe demonstrated the translocation of a small amount of human DNA to rodent chromosomes in these hybrids, suggesting chromosome breakage at the fragile X site and the subsequent translocation of Xq28. Southern blot hybridization of hybrid-cell DNA, resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, for human-specific repetitive sequences revealed abundant CpG-islands within Xq28, consistent with its known gene density. The electrophoretic banding patterns of human DNA among the hybrids were remarkably consistent, suggesting that fragile X site breakage is limited to a relatively small region in Xq27-28.

  20. Sterility in hybrid cattle. I. Distribution of constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolus organizer regions in somatic and meiotic chromosomes. (United States)

    Pathak, S; Kieffer, N M


    The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolus organizer regions (NOR's) in somatic as well as in meiotic chromosomes of Bos taurus, Bos banteng, Bison bison, and their hybrids are analyzed. C-bands are present in the centromeric regions of every autosome. The X chromosome does not show a distinct C-band in the centromeric region, whereas the Y chromosome contains an appreciable amount of C-band material. In somatic metaphases, NOR's are present on the telomeric ends of five pairs of autosomes. During pachytene, five autosomal bivalents contain NOR's on their terminal ends. Meiotic preparations made from sterile bulls did not contain stages beyond the degenerating pachytene, which are C-banding, more frequently showed clustering of heterochromatin than did the pachytene stage in normal bulls.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Somatic hybrid plants of various ploidy levels obtained after chemical fusion between two dihaploid clones of potato Solanum tuberosum L. have been analysed by cytological, morphological and molecular methods. The hybrid nature of tetraploid and hexaploid plants and the genome dosage in hexaploid

  2. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória


    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  3. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Solanum commersonii and its application to chloroplast genotype in somatic hybrids with Solanum tuberosum. (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Hong, Su-Young; Cho, Ji-Hong; Im, Ju-Seong; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Yu, Yei-Soo; Park, Tae-Ho


    Chloroplast genome of Solanum commersonii and S olanum tuberosum were completely sequenced, and Indel markers were successfully applied to distinguish chlorotypes demonstrating the chloroplast genome was randomly distributed during protoplast fusion. Somatic hybridization has been widely employed for the introgression of resistance to several diseases from wild Solanum species to overcome sexual barriers in potato breeding. Solanum commersonii is a major resource used as a parent line in somatic hybridization to improve bacterial wilt resistance in interspecies transfer to cultivated potato (S. tuberosum). Here, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genomes of Lz3.2 (S. commersonii) and S. tuberosum (PT56), which were used to develop fusion products, then compared them with those of five members of the Solanaceae family, S. tuberosum, Capsicum annum, S. lycopersicum, S. bulbocastanum and S. nigrum and Coffea arabica as an out-group. We then developed Indel markers for application in chloroplast genotyping. The complete chloroplast genome of Lz3.2 is composed of 155,525 bp, which is larger than the PT56 genome with 155,296 bp. Gene content, order and orientation of the S. commersonii chloroplast genome were highly conserved with those of other Solanaceae species, and the phylogenetic tree revealed that S. commersonii is located within the same node of S. tuberosum. However, sequence alignment revealed nine Indels between S. commersonii and S. tuberosum in their chloroplast genomes, allowing two Indel markers to be developed. The markers could distinguish the two species and were successfully applied to chloroplast genotyping (chlorotype) in somatic hybrids and their progenies. The results obtained in this study confirmed the random distribution of the chloroplast genome during protoplast fusion and its maternal inheritance and can be applied to select proper plastid genotypes in potato breeding program.

  4. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase for somatic integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhang

    Full Text Available We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We found that in all mice which received the hyperactive SB transposase, transgene expression levels were stabilized in a dose-dependent manner and that the highest vector dose was accompanied by fatalities in mice. To analyze potential genotoxic side-effects due to somatic integration into host chromosomes, we performed a genome-wide integration site analysis using linker-mediated PCR (LM-PCR and linear amplification-mediated PCR (LAM-PCR. Analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from HSB5 treated female and male mice revealed a total of 1327 unique transposition events. Overall the chromosomal distribution pattern was close-to-random and we observed a random integration profile with respect to integration into gene and non-gene areas. Notably, when using the LM-PCR protocol, 27 extra-chromosomal integration events were identified, most likely caused by transposon excision and subsequent transposition into the delivered adenoviral vector genome. In total, this study provides a careful evaluation of the safety profile of adenovirus/Sleeping Beauty transposase hybrid-vectors. The obtained information will be useful when designing future preclinical studies utilizing hybrid-vectors in small and large animal models.

  5. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome components of Solanum tuberosum + S. chacoense somatic hybrids and three SSR alleles related to bacterial wilt resistance. (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Guo, Xianpu; Xie, Conghua; He, Li; Cai, Xingkui; Tian, Lingli; Song, Botao; Liu, Jun


    The somatic hybrids were derived previously from protoplast fusion between Solanum tuberosum and S. chacoense to gain the bacterial wilt resistance from the wild species. The genome components analysis in the present research was to clarify the nuclear and cytoplasmic composition of the hybrids, to explore the molecular markers associated with the resistance, and provide information for better use of these hybrids in potato breeding. One hundred and eight nuclear SSR markers and five cytoplasmic specific primers polymorphic between the fusion parents were used to detect the genome components of 44 somatic hybrids. The bacterial wilt resistance was assessed thrice by inoculating the in vitro plants with a bacterial suspension of race 1. The disease index, relative disease index, and resistance level were assigned to each hybrid, which were further analyzed in relation to the molecular markers for elucidating the potential genetic base of the resistance. All of the 317 parental unique nuclear SSR alleles appeared in the somatic hybrids with some variations in the number of bands detected. Nearly 80 % of the hybrids randomly showed the chloroplast pattern of one parent, and most of the hybrids exhibited a fused mitochondrial DNA pattern. One hundred and nine specific SSR alleles of S. chacoense were analyzed for their relationship with the disease index of the hybrids, and three alleles were identified to be significantly associated with the resistance. Selection for the resistant SSR alleles of S. chacoense may increase the possibility of producing resistant pedigrees.

  6. Non-additive gene regulation in a citrus allotetraploid somatic hybrid between C. reticulata Blanco and C. limon (L.) Burm. (United States)

    Bassene, J B; Froelicher, Y; Dubois, C; Ferrer, R M; Navarro, L; Ollitrault, P; Ancillo, G


    Polyploid plants often produce new phenotypes, exceeding the range of variability existing in the diploid gene pool. Several hundred citrus allotetraploid hybrids have been created by somatic hybridization. These genotypes are interesting models to study the immediate effects of allopolyploidization on the regulation of gene expression. Here, we report genome-wide gene expression analysis in fruit pulp of a Citrus interspecific somatic allotetraploid between C. reticulata cv 'Willowleaf mandarin'+C. limon cv 'Eureka lemon', using a Citrus 20K cDNA microarray. Around 4% transcriptome divergence was observed between the two parental species, and 212 and 160 genes were more highly expressed in C. reticulata and C. limon, respectively. Differential expression of certain genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. A global downregulation of the allotetraploid hybrid transcriptome was observed, as compared with a theoretical mid parent, for the genes displaying interspecific expression divergence between C. reticulata and C. limon. The genes underexpressed in mandarin, as compared with lemon, were also systematically repressed in the allotetraploid. When genes were overexpressed in C. reticulata compared with C. limon, the distribution of allotetraploid gene expression was far more balanced. Cluster analysis on the basis of gene expression clearly indicated the hybrid was much closer to C. reticulata than to C. limon. These results suggest there is a global dominance of the mandarin transcriptome, in consistence with our previous studies on aromatic compounds and proteomics. Interspecific differentiation of gene expression and non-additive gene regulation involved various biological pathways and different cellular components.

  7. Assignment of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) gene(s) to human chromosome 2 in rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. (United States)

    Herbschleb-Voogt, E; Grzeschik, K H; Pearson, P L; Meera Khan, P


    The experiments reported in this paper indicate that the expression of human adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) in the human-rodent somatic cell hybrids is influenced by the state of confluency of the cells and the background rodent genome. Thus, the complement of the L-cell derived A9 or B82 mouse parent apparently prevents the expression of human ADCP in the interspecific somatic cell hybrids. In the a3, E36, or RAG hybrids the human ADCP expression was not prevented by the rodent genome and was found to be proportional to the degree of confluency of the cell in the culture as in the case of primary human fibroblasts. An analysis of human chromosomes, chromosome specific enzyme markers, and ADCP in a panel of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids optimally maintained and harvested at full confluency has shown that the expression of human ADCP in the mouse (RAG)-human as well as in the hamster (E36 or a3)-human hybrids is determined by a gene(s) in human chromosome 2 and that neither chromosome 6 nor any other of the chromosomes of man carry any gene(s) involved in the formation of human ADCP at least in the Chinese hamster-human hybrids. A series of rodent-human hybrid clones exhibiting a mitotic separation of IDH1 and MDH1 indicated that ADCP is most probably situated between corresponding loci in human chromosome 2.

  8. Assignment of the gene for human tetranectin (TNA) to chromosome 3p22-->p21.3 by somatic cell hybrid mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Naylor, S L; Albrechtsen, R


    Tetranectin is a plasminogen-binding protein that is induced during the mineralization phase of osteogenesis. By screening a human chromosome 3 somatic cell hybrid mapping panel, we have localized the human tetranectin gene (TNA) to 3p22-->p21.3, which is distinct from the loci of two human...

  9. Selection of DC voltage magnitude using Fibonacci series for new hybrid asymmetrical multilevel inverter with minimum PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Banaei


    Full Text Available Multilevel inverters are suggested to obtain high quality output voltage. In this paper, a new hybrid configuration is proposed, obtained by cascading one four switches H-bridge cell with a family of multilevel inverters. In addition, by the use of specific sequence for value of DC sources named Fibonacci series, asymmetrical topology of proposed inverter is introduced. Main advantages are that proposed inverter has least Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV than other conventional multilevel converters in both symmetric and asymmetric modes. Also, this topology doubles the number of output levels using only one cascaded four switches H-bridge cell. The PCI-1716 DAQ using PC has been used to generate switching pulses in experimental results. For presenting valid performance of proposed configuration, simulation results carried out by MATLAB/SIMULINK software and the validity of the proposed multilevel inverter is verified by experimental results.

  10. North African hybrid sparrows (Passer domesticus, P. hispaniolensis) back from oblivion - ecological segregation and asymmetric mitochondrial introgression between parental species. (United States)

    Ait Belkacem, Abdelkrim; Gast, Oliver; Stuckas, Heiko; Canal, David; LoValvo, Mario; Giacalone, Gabriele; Päckert, Martin


    A stabilized hybrid form of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the Spanish sparrow (P. hispaniolensis) is known as Passer italiae from the Italian Peninsula and a few Mediterranean islands. The growing attention for the Italian hybrid sparrow and increasing knowledge on its biology and genetic constitution greatly contrast the complete lack of knowledge of the long-known phenotypical hybrid sparrow populations from North Africa. Our study provides new data on the breeding biology and variation of mitochondrial DNA in three Algerian populations of house sparrows, Spanish sparrows, and phenotypical hybrids. In two field seasons, the two species occupied different breeding habitats: Spanish sparrows were only found in rural areas outside the cities and bred in open-cup nests built in large jujube bushes. In contrast, house sparrows bred only in the town centers and occupied nesting holes in walls of buildings. Phenotypical hybrids were always associated with house sparrow populations. House sparrows and phenotypical hybrids started breeding mid of March, and most pairs had three successive clutches, whereas Spanish sparrows started breeding almost one month later and had only two successive clutches. Mitochondrial introgression is strongly asymmetric because about 75% of the rural Spanish sparrow population carried house sparrow haplotypes. In contrast, populations of the Italian hybrid form, P. italiae, were genetically least diverse among all study populations and showed a near-fixation of house sparrow haplotypes that elsewhere were extremely rare or that were even unique for the Italian Peninsula. Such differences between mitochondrial gene pools of Italian and North African hybrid sparrow populations provide first evidence that different demographic histories have shaped the extant genetic diversity observed on both continents.

  11. Active chromatin marks are retained on X chromosomes lacking gene or repeat silencing despite XIST/Xist expression in somatic cell hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy P Thorogood


    Full Text Available X-chromosome inactivation occurs early in mammalian development and results in the inactive X chromosome acquiring numerous hallmarks of heterochromatin. While XIST is a key player in the inactivation process, the method of action of this ncRNA is yet to be determined.To assess which features of heterochromatin may be directly recruited by the expression and localization of the XIST RNA we have analyzed a mouse/human somatic cell hybrid in which expression of human and mouse XIST/Xist has been induced from the active X by demethylation. Such hybrids had previously been demonstrated to disconnect XIST/Xist expression from gene silencing and we confirm maintenance of X-linked gene expression, even close to the Xist locus, despite the localized expression of mouse Xist.Loss of the active chromatin marks H3 acetylation and H3 lysine 4 methylation was not observed upon XIST/Xist expression, nor was there a gain of DNA methylation; thus these marks of facultative heterochromatin are not solely dependent upon Xist expression. Cot-1 holes, regions of depleted RNA hybridization with a Cot-1 probe, were observed upon Xist expression; however, these were at reduced frequency and intensity in these somatic cells. Domains of human Cot-1 transcription were observed corresponding to the human chromosomes in the somatic cell hybrids. The Cot-1 domain of the X was not reduced with the expression of XIST, which fails to localize to the human X chromosome in a mouse somatic cell background. The human inactive X in a mouse/human hybrid cell also shows delocalized XIST expression and an ongoing Cot-1 domain, despite X-linked gene silencing. These results are consistent with recent reports separating Cot-1 silencing from genic silencing, but also demonstrate repetitive element expression from an otherwise silent X chromosome in these hybrid cells.

  12. Non-additive phenotypic and transcriptomic inheritance in a citrus allotetraploid somatic hybrid between C. reticulata and C. limon: the case of pulp carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. (United States)

    Bassene, Jean Baptiste; Froelicher, Yann; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Mouhaya, Waffa; Ferrer, Rosa Mar; Ancillo, Gema; Morillon, Raphael; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick


    Allopolyploidy is known to induce novel patterns of gene expression and often gives rise to new phenotypes. Here we report on the first attempt to relate phenotypic inheritance in an allotetraploid somatic hybrid with gene expression. Carotenoid compounds in the fruit pulp of the two parental species and the hybrid were evaluated quantitatively by HPLC. Only very low levels of beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin were observed in Citrus limon, while beta-cryptoxanthin was a major component of C. reticulata, which also displayed high levels of phytoene, phytofluene, beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxantin and violaxanthin. Total carotenoid content in mandarin juice sacs was 60 times greater than that in lemon. The allotetraploid hybrid produced all the same compounds as mandarin but at very low levels. Transgressive concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) was observed in the somatic hybrid. Real-time RT-PCR of total RNA from juice sacs was used to study expression of seven genes (CitDxs, CitPsy, CitPds, CitZds, CitLcy-b, CitChx-b, and CitZep) of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and two genes (CitNced1 and CitNced2) involved in abscisic acid synthesis from carotenoid. Gene expression was significantly higher for mandarin than lemon for seven of the nine genes analyzed. Lemon under expression was partially dominant in the somatic hybrid for three upstream steps of the biosynthetic pathway, particularly for CitDxs. Transgressive over expression was observed for the two CitNced genes. A limitation of the upstream steps of the pathway and a downstream higher consumption of carotenoids may explain the phenotype of the somatic hybrid.

  13. Regeneration and interspecific somatic hybridization in Allium for transfer of cytoplasmic male sterility to leek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, J.


    The vast majority of the present day leek cultivars is of poor quality. The genetic constitution of leek makes it a difficult crop to breed and consequently mass, or family selection methods, both of which have a low efficiency, are mainly used. F 1 hybrid breeding

  14. Enhanced asymmetric transmissions attributed to the cavity coupling hybrid resonance in a continuous omega-shaped metamaterial. (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Jin, Ren-Chao; Li, Jie; Li, Jia-Qi; Dong, Zheng-Gao


    In this paper, the infinite-length metallic bar is folded to a continuous omega-shaped resonator and then arranged as a bi-layer metamaterial, which presents a hybrid resonance and a Fabry-Perot-like cavity mode. The asymmetric transmission (AT) for linearly polarized light is powerfully enhanced at a near-infrared regime by strongly coupling the hybrid resonance to the cavity, with the maximum value of the high-efficiency AT effect reaching 0.8 at around 1364 nm. At this near-infrared band, such a high-efficiency AT effect has never been realized previously by a bi-layer metamaterial. More importantly, we demonstrate that our design is robust to the misalignments, which greatly decreases the difficulties in sample fabrications. Accordingly, the proposed omega-shaped metamaterial provides potential applications in designing polarization filters, polarization switches, and other nano-devices.

  15. Natural hybridization and asymmetric introgression at the distribution margin of two Buddleja species with a large overlap. (United States)

    Liao, Rong-Li; Ma, Yong-Peng; Gong, Wei-Chang; Chen, Gao; Sun, Wei-Bang; Zhou, Ren-Chao; Marczewski, Tobias


    crossed with B. officinalis), observed introgression was asymmetrical into B. crispa. This could be due to seeds produced by hybrids not contributing to seedlings, or other factors favoring the establishment of backcrosses towards B. crispa. However, further research will be needed to confirm these observations, as the small number of plants used for the pollination experiments could have introduced an artifact, for example if used individuals were more or less compatible than the species average, and also the small number of loci used could convey a picture of introgression that is not representative for the whole genome.

  16. High-performance aqueous asymmetric electrochemical capacitor based on graphene oxide/cobalt(II)-tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine hybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lekitima, JN


    Full Text Available A novel asymmetric electrochemical capacitor (AEC) with high energy and power densities has been developed using a graphene oxide/cobalt(II)tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine composite (GO/CoTPyzPz) as the positive electrode and graphene oxide/carbon black...

  17. Bidirectional but asymmetrical sexual hybridization between Brassica carinata and Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae). (United States)

    Cheung, Kyle W; Razeq, Fakhria M; Sauder, Connie A; James, Tracey; Martin, Sara L


    With transgenic crop development it is important to evaluate the potential for transgenes to escape into populations of wild, weedy relatives. Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata, BBCC) is easily transformed and is being investigated for uses from biodiesel fuels to biopharmaceuticals. However, little work has been done evaluating its ability to cross with relatives such as wild mustard (Sinapsis arvensis, SrSr), an abundant, cosmopolitan weedy relative. Here we conducted bidirectional crosses with Ethiopian mustard as a maternal parent in 997 crosses and paternal parent in 1,109 crosses. Hybrids were confirmed using flow cytometry and species-specific ITS molecular markers and indicate a high hybridization rate of 6.43 % between Ethiopian mustard (♀) and wild mustard (♂) and a lower, but not insignificant, hybridization rate of 0.01 % in the reverse direction. The majority of the hybrids were homoploid (BCSr) with less than 1 % of pollen production of their parents and low seed production (0.26 seeds/pollination) in crosses and backcrosses indicating a potential for advanced generation hybrids. The accession used had a significant effect on hybrid seed production with different accessions of Ethopian mustard varying in their production of hybrid offspring from 2.69 to 16.34 % and one accession of wild mustard siring almost twice as many hybrid offspring per flower as the other. One pentaploid (BBCCSr) and one hexaploid (BBCCSrSr) hybrid were produced and had higher pollen viability, though no and low seed production, respectively. As wild mustard is self-incompatible and the outcrossing rate of Ethiopian mustard has been estimated as 30 % potential for hybrid production in the wild appears to be high, though the hybridization rate found here represents a worst case scenario as it does not incorporate pre-pollination barriers. Hybridization in the wild needs to be directly evaluated as does the propensity of Ethiopian mustard to volunteer.

  18. Regeneration of interspecific somatic hybrids between Helianthus annuus L. and Helianthus maximiliani (Schrader) via protoplast electrofusion. (United States)

    Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Vasic, Dragana; Nagl, Nevena


    Helianthus maximiliani is one of the wild Helianthus species with the genes for resistance to many pathogens including Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Unfortunately, a transfer of disease resistance genes from this species into the cultivated sunflower is limited by its poor crossability with the cultivated sunflower and sterility of interspecific hybrids. To overcome this problem, mesophyll protoplasts of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum-resistant clone of H. maximiliani were electrically fused with etiolated hypocotyl protoplasts of the cultivated sunflower inbred line PH-BC1-91A. Fusion products were embedded in agarose droplets and subjected to different regeneration protocols. Developed microcalluses were released from the agarose and transferred into solid media. Shoot regeneration was achieved by culture of calluses on regeneration medium containing 2.2 mg l(-1) BAP and 0.01 mg l(-1) NAA after the treatment with a high concentration of 2,4 D for a limited period of time. A morphological and RAPD analysis confirmed a hybrid nature of the regenerated plants.

  19. Hybrid adeno-associated viral vectors utilizing transposase-mediated somatic integration for stable transgene expression in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhang

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors have been shown to be one of the most promising vectors for therapeutic gene delivery because they can induce efficient and long-term transduction in non-dividing cells with negligible side-effects. However, as AAV vectors mostly remain episomal, vector genomes and transgene expression are lost in dividing cells. Therefore, to stably transduce cells, we developed a novel AAV/transposase hybrid-vector. To facilitate SB-mediated transposition from the rAAV genome, we established a system in which one AAV vector contains the transposon with the gene of interest and the second vector delivers the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB transposase SB100X. Human cells were infected with the AAV-transposon vector and the transposase was provided in trans either by transient and stable plasmid transfection or by AAV vector transduction. We found that groups which received the hyperactive transposase SB100X showed significantly increased colony forming numbers indicating enhanced integration efficiencies. Furthermore, we found that transgene copy numbers in transduced cells were dose-dependent and that predominantly SB transposase-mediated transposition contributed to stabilization of the transgene. Based on a plasmid rescue strategy and a linear-amplification mediated PCR (LAM-PCR protocol we analysed the SB100X-mediated integration profile after transposition from the AAV vector. A total of 1840 integration events were identified which revealed a close to random integration profile. In summary, we show for the first time that AAV vectors can serve as template for SB transposase mediated somatic integration. We developed the first prototype of this hybrid-vector system which with further improvements may be explored for treatment of diseases which originate from rapidly dividing cells.

  20. Interspecific Hybridization in Pilot Whales and Asymmetric Genetic Introgression in Northern Globicephala melas under the Scenario of Global Warming. (United States)

    Miralles, Laura; Oremus, Marc; Silva, Mónica A; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva


    Pilot whales are two cetacean species (Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus) whose distributions are correlated with water temperature and partially overlap in some areas like the North Atlantic Ocean. In the context of global warming, distribution range shifts are expected to occur in species affected by temperature. Consequently, a northward displacement of the tropical pilot whale G. macrorynchus is expected, eventually leading to increased secondary contact areas and opportunities for interspecific hybridization. Here, we describe genetic evidences of recurrent hybridization between pilot whales in northeast Atlantic Ocean. Based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci, asymmetric introgression of G. macrorhynchus genes into G. melas was observed. For the latter species, a significant correlation was found between historical population growth rate estimates and paleotemperature oscillations. Introgressive hybridization, current temperature increases and lower genetic variation in G. melas suggest that this species could be at risk in its northern range. Under increasing environmental and human-mediated stressors in the North Atlantic Ocean, it seems recommendable to develop a conservation program for G. melas.

  1. Interspecific Hybridization in Pilot Whales and Asymmetric Genetic Introgression in Northern Globicephala melas under the Scenario of Global Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miralles

    Full Text Available Pilot whales are two cetacean species (Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus whose distributions are correlated with water temperature and partially overlap in some areas like the North Atlantic Ocean. In the context of global warming, distribution range shifts are expected to occur in species affected by temperature. Consequently, a northward displacement of the tropical pilot whale G. macrorynchus is expected, eventually leading to increased secondary contact areas and opportunities for interspecific hybridization. Here, we describe genetic evidences of recurrent hybridization between pilot whales in northeast Atlantic Ocean. Based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci, asymmetric introgression of G. macrorhynchus genes into G. melas was observed. For the latter species, a significant correlation was found between historical population growth rate estimates and paleotemperature oscillations. Introgressive hybridization, current temperature increases and lower genetic variation in G. melas suggest that this species could be at risk in its northern range. Under increasing environmental and human-mediated stressors in the North Atlantic Ocean, it seems recommendable to develop a conservation program for G. melas.

  2. Strongly Asymmetric Spectroscopy in Plasmon-Exciton Hybrid Systems due to Interference-Induced Energy Repartitioning (United States)

    Ding, Si-Jing; Li, Xiaoguang; Nan, Fan; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Zhou, Li; Xiao, Xudong; Wang, Qu-Quan; Zhang, Zhenyu


    Recent intense effort has been devoted to exploring different manifestations of resonant excitations of strongly coupled plasmons and excitons, but so far such studies have been limited to situations where the Fano- or Rabi-type spectra are largely symmetric at zero detuning. Using a newly developed full quantum mechanical model, here we reveal the existence of a highly asymmetric spectroscopic regime for both the Rabi splitting and transparency dip. The asymmetric nature is inherently tied to the non-negligible exciton absorbance and is caused by substantial interference-induced energy repartitioning of the resonance peaks. This theoretical framework can be exploited to reveal the quantum behaviors of the two excitation entities with varying mutual coupling strengths in both linear and nonlinear regimes. We also use prototypical systems of rhodamine molecules strongly coupled with AuAg alloyed nanoparticles and well-devised control experiments to demonstrate the validity and tunability of the energy repartitioning and correlated electronic state occupations, as captured by the variations in the asymmetric spectroscopy and corresponding nonlinear absorption coefficient as a function of the Au:Ag ratio. The present study helps to substantially enrich our microscopic understanding of strongly coupled plasmon-exciton systems.

  3. Multiple gene genealogies reveal asymmetrical hybridization and introgression among strongylocentrotid sea urchins. (United States)

    Addison, Jason A; Pogson, Grant H


    The evolution of incompatibilities between eggs and sperm is thought to play important roles in establishing and maintaining reproductive isolation among species of broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates. However, the effectiveness of gametic isolation in initiating the speciation process and/or in limiting the introgression of genes among species at later stages of divergence remains largely unknown. In the present study, we collected DNA sequence data from five loci in four species of Strongylocentrotus sea urchins (S. droebachiensis, S. pallidus, S. purpuratus, and S. franciscanus) to test whether the susceptibility of S. droebachiensis eggs to fertilization by heterospecific sperm results in gene flow between species. Despite the potential for introgression, a small but statistically significant signal of introgression was observed only between the youngest pair of sister taxa (S. pallidus and S. droebachiensis) that was strongly asymmetrical (from the former into the latter). No significant gene flow was observed for either S. purpuratus or S. franciscanus despite the ability of their sperm to readily fertilize the eggs of S. droebachiensis. Our results demonstrate that asymmetrical gamete compatibilities in strongylocentrotids can give rise to asymmetrical patterns of introgression but suggest that gamete traits alone cannot be responsible for maintaining species integrities. The genetic boundaries between strongylocentrotid urchin species in the northeast Pacific appear to be related to postzygotic isolating mechanisms that scale with divergence times and not intrinsic gametic incompatibilities per se.

  4. Glycoalkaloid profile in potato haploids derived from solanum tuberosum-S. bulbocastanum somatic hybrids. (United States)

    Carputo, Domenico; Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Aversano, Riccardo; Cimmino, Alessio; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio


    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GA) that may affect either human health or biotic stress resistance. Therefore, GA composition must be a major criterion in the evaluation of breeding products when species genomes are merged and/or manipulated. This work reports the results of GA analysis performed on unique haploid (2n=2x=24) plants obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=48) Solanum bulbocastanum-S. tuberosum hybrids through in vitro anther culture. Glycoalkaloids were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. Haploids generally showed the occurrence of parental GA. However, in several cases loss of parental GA and gain of new GA lacking in the parents was observed. It may be hypothesized that new GA profiles of our haploids is the result of either genetic recombination or combinatorial biochemistry events. To highlight differences between haploids and parents, soluble proteins and antioxidant activities were also determined. Both were always higher in haploids compared to their parents. The nature of the newly formed GAs will be further investigated, because they may represent new metabolites that can be used against pest and diseases, or are useful for human health.

  5. A novel technique to neutralize the Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust in a hybrid buoyant aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Anwar U


    Full Text Available Dorsal fin is used in swimming animals like shark for the generation of thrust as well as to meet the requirement of the lateral stability. In the case of aircraft, rudders are normally used for the said requirement. In the present work, this nature inspired idea is explored for its application to neutralize the unavoidable asymmetric thrust produced by the twin engines of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. First, the estimation of asymmetric thrust is obtained with the help of analytical techniques for maximum thrust condition at 4 degree angle of attack. The moment generated by it is utilized for the sizing of a dorsal fin which looks similar to a tapered wing and is placed aft of the center of gravity. Wind tunnel testing at subsonic speed is carried out to explore the design features of this rotatable dorsal fin. It is found that a small rotation of 5 degree can generate the required moment. However, such rotation requires a complete pneumatic/electro-mechanical system and an alternative of it is to use a cambered airfoil for the dorsal fin installed at fixed location. Such a flow controlling device can also be used as an antenna mast, which is commonly installed out the fuselage of the aircraft for communication purposes. Moreover, by incorporating this technique, a pilot doesn’t have to put an extra effort to make the aircraft stable in the presence of side wind.

  6. Genetic heterogeneity in Niemann-Pick C disease: A study using somatic cell hybridization and linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, M.T. [Lyon-Sud School of Medicine, Oullins (France)]|[Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C. [Lyon-Sud School of Medicine, Oullins (France); Duthel, S. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [and others


    The primary molecular defect underlying Niemann-Pick C disease (NPC) is still unknown. A wide spectrum of clinical and biochemical phenotypes has previously been documented. Indication of genetic heterogeneity has recently been provided for one patient. In the present study, somatic cell hybridization experiments were carried out on skin fibroblast cultures from 32 unrelated NPC patients covering the range of known clinical and biochemical phenotypes. The criterion for complementation was the restoration of a normal intracellular fluorescent pattern in polykaryons stained with filipin to document cholesterol distribution. Crosses between the various cell lines revealed a major complementation group comprising 27 unrelated patients and a second minor group comprising 5 patients. Linkage analysis in one multiplex family belonging to the minor complementation group showed that the mutated gene does not map to the 18q11-12 region assigned to the major gene. Patients in the first group spanned the whole spectrum of clinical and cellular phenotypes. No consistent clinical or biochemical phenotype was associated with the second complementation group. Three of the five group 2 patients, however, presented with a new rare phenotype associated with severe pulmonary involvement leading to death within the first year of life. No biochemical abnormality specific of either group could be demonstrated with regard to tissue lipid storage pattern, intralysosomal cholesterol storage, and regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Mutations affecting at least two different genes have thus been shown to underlie NPC. The two gene products may function together or sequentially in a common metabolic pathway affecting intracellular cholesterol transport. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Influences of different factors on the germination of encapsulated somatic embryos of Saccharum spp hybrid var C 87-51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Quiala


    Full Text Available With the objective to regenerate plants from sugarcane somatic embryos encapsulated in sodium alginate hidrogel different factors was studied. The addition of coconut water, GA3 (0.5 mg.l-1 and 6-BAP (0.2 mg.l-1 to the synthetic endosperm increased the velocity and germination percentage of somatic embryos encapsulated. The immersion treatment in 50mM solution of KNO3 during five hours improved the encapsulated somatic embryos germination percentage. ABBREVIATOR: AG3- Giberelic Acid; 6-BAP- 6-Bencilaminopurine; MS- Murashige and Skoog (1962 Key Words: sodium alginate, sugar cane, synthetic seed

  8. Compact bifluid hybrid stars: hadronic matter mixed with self-interacting fermionic asymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Basu, D.N. [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Atta, Debasis [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Government General Degree College, West Bengal (India); Imam, Kouser [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Aliah University, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Samanta, C. [Virginia Military Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, VA (United States)


    The masses and radii of non-rotating and rotating configurations of pure hadronic stars mixed with self-interacting fermionic asymmetric dark matter are calculated within the two-fluid formalism of stellar structure equations in general relativity. The Equation of State (EoS) of nuclear matter is obtained from the density dependent M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. We consider the dark matter particle mass of 1 GeV. The EoS of self-interacting dark matter is taken from two-body repulsive interactions of the scale of strong interactions. We explore the conditions of equal and different rotational frequencies of nuclear matter and dark matter and find that the maximum mass of differentially rotating stars with self-interacting dark matter to be ∝1.94 M {sub CircleDot} with radius ∝10.4 km. (orig.)

  9. Organocatalyzed asymmetric Michael addition by an efficient bifunctional carbohydrate-thiourea hybrid with mechanistic DFT analysis. (United States)

    Azad, Chandra S; Khan, Imran A; Narula, Anudeep K


    A series of thiourea based bifunctional organocatalysts having d-glucose as a core scaffold were synthesized and examined as catalysts for the asymmetric Michael addition reaction of aryl/alkyl trans-β-nitrostyrenes over cyclohexanone and other Michael donors having active methylene. Excellent enantioselectivities (<95%), diastereoselectivities (<99%), and yields (<99%) were attained under solvent free conditions using 10 mol% of 1d0. The obtained results were explained through DFT calculations using the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) basic set. The QM/MM calculations revealed the role of cyclohexanone as a solvent as well as reactant in the rate determining step imparting 31.91 kcal mol(-1) of energy towards the product formation.

  10. A hybrid pareto mixture for conditional asymmetric fat-tailed distributions. (United States)

    Carreau, Julie; Bengio, Yoshua


    In many cases, we observe some variables X that contain predictive information over a scalar variable of interest Y , with (X,Y) pairs observed in a training set. We can take advantage of this information to estimate the conditional density p(Y|X = x). In this paper, we propose a conditional mixture model with hybrid Pareto components to estimate p(Y|X = x). The hybrid Pareto is a Gaussian whose upper tail has been replaced by a generalized Pareto tail. A third parameter, in addition to the location and spread parameters of the Gaussian, controls the heaviness of the upper tail. Using the hybrid Pareto in a mixture model results in a nonparametric estimator that can adapt to multimodality, asymmetry, and heavy tails. A conditional density estimator is built by modeling the parameters of the mixture estimator as functions of X. We use a neural network to implement these functions. Such conditional density estimators have important applications in many domains such as finance and insurance. We show experimentally that this novel approach better models the conditional density in terms of likelihood, compared to competing algorithms: conditional mixture models with other types of components and a classical kernel-based nonparametric model.

  11. Ultrasmall Dual-Band Metamaterial Antennas Based on Asymmetrical Hybrid Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Xu Zhu


    Full Text Available A new type of hybrid resonant circuit model is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The resonant model consists of a right hand (RH patch part and a composite right and left handed (CRLH part (RH + CRLH, which determines a compact size and also a convenient frequency modulation characteristic for the proposed antennas. For experimental demonstration, two antennas are fabricated. The former dual-band antenna operating at f-1=3.5 GHz (Wimax and f+1=5.25 GHz (WLAN occupies an area of 0.21λ0×0.08λ0, and two dipolar radiation patterns are obtained with comparable gains of about 6.1 and 6.2 dB, respectively. The latter antenna advances in many aspects such as an ultrasmall size of only 0.16λ0×0.08λ0, versatile radiation patterns with a monopolar pattern at f0=2.4 GHz (Bluetooth, and a dipole one at f+1=3.5 GHz (Wimax and also comparable antenna gains. Circuit parameters are extracted and researched. Excellent performances of the antennas based on hybrid resonators predict promising applications in multifunction wireless communication systems.

  12. Simultaneous multi-parameter measurement using Sagnac loop hybrid interferometer based on a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric cores. (United States)

    Naeem, Khurram; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Kim, Bongkyun; Chung, Youngjoo


    We have experimentally investigated the multi-parameter sensing characteristics in a novel all-fiber Sagnac loop hybrid interferometer based on a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric cores. The sensor device was based on a combination of two types of in-fiber interferences, the intra-core-mode Sagnac interference and the inter-core-mode Mach-Zehnder interference due to the distinct birefringent properties associated with the asymmetric cores. Fast Fourier transform analysis on the transmission spectra of the device exhibited six clear peaks in the spatial frequency domain. By examining the phase shift responses of two distinct Sagnac and one Mach-Zehnder interference peaks, the response matrix that enable simultaneous measurement of torsion, strain, and temperature could be obtained. The proposed all-fiber Sagnac loop hybrid interferometer has the advantages such as simplicity of the device structure, compact device size, and capability for simultaneous sensing of multiple parameters.

  13. Design and synthesis of ternary Co3O4/carbon coated TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites for asymmetric supercapacitors. (United States)

    Kim, Myeongjin; Choi, Jaeho; Oh, Ilgeun; Kim, Jooheon


    Recently, attention has been focused on the synthesis and application of nanocomposites for supercapacitors, which can have superior electrochemical performance than single structured materials. Here, we report a carbon-coated TiO2/Co3O4 ternary hybrid nanocomposite (TiO2@C/Co) electrode for supercapacitors. A carbon layer was directly introduced onto the TiO2 surface via thermal vapor deposition. The carbon layer provides anchoring sites for the deposition of Co3O4, which was introduced onto the carbon-coated TiO2 surface by hydrazine and the thermal oxidation method. The TiO2@C/Co electrode exhibits much higher charge storage capacity relative to pristine TiO2, carbon-coated TiO2, and pristine Co3O4, showing a specific capacitance of 392.4 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) with 76.2% rate performance from 5 to 500 mV s(-1) in 1 M KOH aqueous solution electrolyte. This outstanding electrochemical performance can be attributed to the high conductivity and high pseudo-capacitive contributions of the nanoscale particles. To evaluate the capacitive performance of a supercapacitor device employing the TiO2@C/Co electrode, we have successfully assembled TiO2@C/Co//activated carbon (AC) asymmetric supercapacitors. The optimized TiO2@C/Co//AC supercapacitor could be cycled reversibly in the voltage range from 0 to 1.5 V, and it exhibits a specific capacitance of 59.35 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) with a specific capacitance loss of 15.4% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles. These encouraging results show great potential in terms of developing high-capacitive energy storage devices for practical applications.

  14. Confirmation of homozygosity for a single nucleotide substitution mutation in a Cockayne syndrome patient using monoallelic mutation analysis in somatic cell hybrids. (United States)

    McDaniel, L D; Legerski, R; Lehmann, A R; Friedberg, E C; Schultz, R A


    The identification of individuals homozygous for a specific mutation offers advantages for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of hereditary disease states. Cockayne syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, the molecular basis of which is complicated by significant genetic and clinical heterogeneity. The genes associated with both genetic complementation groups, CSA and CS-B, have been identified. We have previously identified a number of CSA mutations, including a single base substitution that introduces a stop codon (322Tyr-->Stop) mutation in the C-terminal region for at least one allele of the CSA gene in a severely affected patient. We now present data confirming the existence of homozygosity in this patient using a strategy with general applicability. Somatic cell hybrids were established by fusing patient cells with mouse A9 cells. Screening with chromosome 5 specific polymorphic markers facilitated identification of hybrid clones bearing only one of the distinct CSA alleles. Sequencing of a portion of the human CSA gene in a subset of these hybrids permitted monoallelic mutation analysis and confirmed the presence of the 322Tyr-->Stop mutation in both alleles.

  15. ADAR deaminase A-to-I editing of DNA and RNA moieties of RNA:DNA hybrids has implications for the mechanism of Ig somatic hypermutation. (United States)

    Steele, Edward J; Lindley, Robyn A


    The implications are discussed of recently published biochemical studies on ADAR-mediated A-to-I DNA and RNA deamination at RNA:DNA hybrids. The significance of these data are related to previous work on strand-biased and codon-context mutation signatures in B lymphocytes and cancer genomes. Those studies have established that there are two significant strand biases at A:T and G:C base pairs, A-site mutations exceed T-site mutations (A>T) by 2.9 fold and G-site mutations exceed C-site mutations (G>C) by 1.7 fold. Both these strand biases are inconsistent with alternative "DNA Deamination" mechanisms, yet are expected consequences of the RNA/RT-based "Reverse Transcriptase" mechanism of immunoglobulin (Ig) somatic hypermutation (SHM). The A-to-I DNA editing component at RNA:DNA hybrids that is likely to occur in Transcription Bubbles, while important, is of far lower A-to-I editing efficiency than in dsRNA substrates. The RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids is also edited at similar lower frequencies relative to the editing rate at dsRNA substrates. Further, if the A-to-I DNA editing at RNA:DNA hybrids were the sole cause of A-to-I (read as A-to-G) mutation events for Ig SHM in vivo then the exact opposite strand biases at A:T base pairs (T>A) of what is actually observed (A>T) would be predicted. It is concluded that the strand-biased somatic mutation patterns at both A:T and G:C base pairs in vivo are best interpreted by the sequential steps of the RNA/RT-based mechanism. Further, the direct DNA A-to-I deamination at Transcription Bubbles is expected to contribute to the T-to-C component of the strand-biased Ig SHM spectrum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Somatic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F


    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2......) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from.......9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were...

  17. 1D Ni-Co oxide and sulfide nanoarray/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and excellent cycling stability. (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Cui, Guanwei; Shi, Xifeng; Wong, C P; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hong


    The fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability is still a great challenge. A carbon aerogel, possessing a hierarchical porous structure, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, is an ideal backbone to support transition metal oxides and bring hope to prepare electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability. Therefore, NiCo2S4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials were synthesized by assembling Ni-Co precursor needle arrays on the surface of the channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan in this study. The 1D nanostructures grow on the channel surface of the carbon aerogel vertically and tightly, contributing to the enhanced electrochemical performance with ultrahigh energy density. The energy density of NiCo2S4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors can reach up to 55.3 Wh kg(-1) and 47.5 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 400 W kg(-1), respectively. These asymmetric devices also displayed excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of about 96.6% and 92% over 5000 cycles.

  18. Multiple and asymmetrical origin of polyploid dog rose hybrids (Rosa L. sect. Caninae (DC.) Ser.) involving unreduced gametes. (United States)

    Herklotz, V; Ritz, C M


    Polyploidy and hybridization are important factors for generating diversity in plants. The species-rich dog roses ( Rosa sect. Caninae ) originated by allopolyploidy and are characterized by unbalanced meiosis producing polyploid egg cells (usually 4 x ) and haploid sperm cells (1 x ). In extant natural stands species hybridize spontaneously, but the extent of natural hybridization is unknown. The aim of the study was to document the frequency of reciprocal hybridization between the subsections Rubigineae and Caninae with special reference to the contribution of unreduced egg cells (5 x ) producing 6 x offspring after fertilization with reduced (1 x ) sperm cells. We tested whether hybrids arose by independent multiple events or via a single or few incidences followed by a subsequent spread of hybrids. Population genetics of 45 mixed stands of dog roses across central and south-eastern Europe were analysed using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry. Hybrids were recognized by the presence of diagnostic alleles and multivariate statistics were used to display the relationships between parental species and hybrids. Among plants classified to subsect. Rubigineae , 32 % hybridogenic individuals were detected but only 8 % hybrids were found in plants assigned to subsect. Caninae . This bias between reciprocal crossings was accompanied by a higher ploidy level in Rubigineae hybrids, which originated more frequently by unreduced egg cells. Genetic patterns of hybrids were strongly geographically structured, supporting their independent origin. The biased crossing barriers between subsections are explained by the facilitated production of unreduced gametes in subsect. Rubigineae . Unreduced egg cells probably provide the highly homologous chromosome sets required for correct chromosome pairing in hybrids. Furthermore, the higher frequency of Rubigineae hybrids is probably influenced by abundance effects because the plants of subsect. Caninae are much more abundant

  19. Spatial partitioning and asymmetric hybridization among sympatric coastal steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus), coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki) and interspecific hybrids (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Slatton, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.


    Hybridization between sympatric species provides unique opportunities to examine the contrast between mechanisms that promote hybridization and maintain species integrity. We surveyed hybridization between sympatric coastal steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki) from two streams in Washington State, Olsen Creek (256 individuals sampled) and Jansen Creek (431 individuals sampled), over a 3-year period. We applied 11 O. mykiss-specific nuclear markers, 11 O. c. clarki-specific nuclear markers and a mitochondrial DNA marker to assess spatial partitioning among species and hybrids and determine the directionality of hybridization. F1 and post-F1 hybrids, respectively, composed an average of 1.2% and 33.6% of the population sampled in Jansen Creek, and 5.9% and 30.4% of the population sampled in Olsen Creek. A modest level of habitat partitioning among species and hybrids was detected. Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicated that all F 1 hybrids (15 from Olsen Creek and five from Jansen Creek) arose from matings between steelhead females and cutthroat males implicating a sneak spawning behaviour by cutthroat males. First-generation cutthroat backcrosses contained O. c. clarki mtDNA more often than expected suggesting natural selection against F1 hybrids. More hybrids were backcrossed toward cutthroat than steelhead and our results indicate recurrent hybridization within these creeks. Age analysis demonstrated that hybrids were between 1 and 4 years old. These results suggest that within sympatric salmonid hybrid zones, exogenous processes (environmentally dependent factors) help to maintain the distinction between parental types through reduced fitness of hybrids within parental environments while divergent natural selection promotes parental types through distinct adaptive advantages of parental phenotypes.

  20. Olefins-selective asymmetric carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for hybrid membrane-distillation processes for olefin/paraffin separations

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren


    In this paper, the development of asymmetric carbon molecular sieve (CMS) hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for olefin/paraffin separations based on the CMS membranes are reported. Membrane-based olefin/paraffin separations have been pursued extensively over the past decades. CMS membranes are promising to exceed the performance upper bound of polymer materials and have demonstrated excellent stability for gas separations. Previously, a substructure collapse phenomenon was found in Matrimid ® precursor derived CMS fiber. To overcome the permeance loss due to the increased separation layer thickness, 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM precursors were selected as potential new precursors for carbon membrane formation. Defect-free asymmetric 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM hollow fibers were successfully fabricated from a dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. Polymer rigidity, glass-rubber transition and asymmetric morphology were correlated. CMS hollow fiber membranes produced from 6FDA-polymer precursors showed significant improvement in permeance for ethylene/ethane and propylene/propane separations. Further studies revealed that the CMS membranes are olefins-selective, which means the membranes are able to effectively separate olefins (ethylene and propylene) from paraffins (ethane and propane). This unique feature of CMS materials enables advanced hybrid membrane-distillation process designs. By using the olefins-selective membranes, these new processes may provide advantages over previously proposed retrofitting concepts. Further applications of the membranes are explored for hydrocarbons processes. Significant energy savings and even reduced footprint may be achieved in olefins production units. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Microarray analysis of gene expression patterns in the leaf during potato tuberization in the potato somatic hybrid Solanum tuberosum and Solanum etuberosum. (United States)

    Tiwari, Jagesh Kumar; Devi, Sapna; Sundaresha, S; Chandel, Poonam; Ali, Nilofer; Singh, Brajesh; Bhardwaj, Vinay; Singh, Bir Pal


    Genes involved in photoassimilate partitioning and changes in hormonal balance are important for potato tuberization. In the present study, we investigated gene expression patterns in the tuber-bearing potato somatic hybrid (E1-3) and control non-tuberous wild species Solanum etuberosum (Etb) by microarray. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and leaves were collected at eight tuber developmental stages for microarray analysis. A t-test analysis identified a total of 468 genes (94 up-regulated and 374 down-regulated) that were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) and differentially expressed in E1-3 and Etb. Gene Ontology (GO) characterization of the 468 genes revealed that 145 were annotated and 323 were of unknown function. Further, these 145 genes were grouped based on GO biological processes followed by molecular function and (or) PGSC description into 15 gene sets, namely (1) transport, (2) metabolic process, (3) biological process, (4) photosynthesis, (5) oxidation-reduction, (6) transcription, (7) translation, (8) binding, (9) protein phosphorylation, (10) protein folding, (11) ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, (12) RNA processing, (13) negative regulation of protein, (14) methylation, and (15) mitosis. RT-PCR analysis of 10 selected highly significant genes (p ≤ 0.01) confirmed the microarray results. Overall, we show that candidate genes induced in leaves of E1-3 were implicated in tuberization processes such as transport, carbohydrate metabolism, phytohormones, and transcription/translation/binding functions. Hence, our results provide an insight into the candidate genes induced in leaf tissues during tuberization in E1-3.

  2. Genetic drift or natural selection? Hybridization and asymmetric mitochondrial introgression in two Caribbean lizards (Anolis pulchellus and Anolis krugi). (United States)

    Jezkova, T; Leal, M; Rodríguez-Robles, J A


    Hybridization and gene introgression can occur frequently between closely related taxa, but appear to be rare phenomena among members of the species-rich West Indian radiation of Anolis lizards. We investigated the pattern and possible mechanism of introgression between two sister species from Puerto Rico, Anolis pulchellus and Anolis krugi, using mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear (DNAH3, NKTR) DNA sequences. Our findings demonstrated extensive introgression of A. krugi mtDNA (k-mtDNA) into the genome of A. pulchellus in western Puerto Rico, to the extent that k-mtDNA has mostly or completely replaced the native mtDNA of A. pulchellus on this part of the island. We proposed two not mutually exclusive scenarios to account for the interspecific matings between A. pulchellus and A. krugi. We inferred that hybridization events occurred independently in several populations, and determined that k-mtDNA haplotypes harboured in individuals of A. pulchellus can be assigned to four of the five major mtDNA clades of A. krugi. Further, the spatial distribution of k-mtDNA clades in the two species is largely congruent. Based on this evidence, we concluded that natural selection was the probable driving mechanism for the extensive k-mtDNA introgression into A. pulchellus. Our two nuclear data sets yielded different results. DNAH3 showed reciprocal monophyly of A. pulchellus and A. krugi, indicating no effect of hybridization on this marker. In contrast, the two species shared nine NKTR alleles, probably due to incomplete lineage sorting. Our study system will provide an excellent opportunity to experimentally assess the behavioural and ecological mechanisms that can lead to hybridization in closely related taxa. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Assignment of the human fast skeletal troponin T gene (TNNT3) to chromosome 11p15.5: Evidence for the presence of 11pter in a monochromosome 9 somatic cell hybrid in NIGMS mapping panel 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Chengjian; Jha, P.K.; Sarkar, S. [Tufts Univ., Boston, MA (United States)] [and others


    Human fast skeletal troponin T (TnT{sub f}), the tropomyosin binding component of the multisubunit troponin complex, plays an important role in the Ca{sup 2+} regulation of striated muscle contraction. Specific primers designed from the 3{prime} end of human TnT{sub f} cDNA were used to amplify an intronic region by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This TnT{sub f}-specific PCR product was detected from two somatic cell hybrids containing human chromosomes 9 and 11, respectively, in NIGMS mapping panel 2. However, further studies with other somatic hybrid cell lines (Bios Laboratory) localized the TnT{sub f} genomic probe generated by extended PCR, showing the sublocalization of the gene to band p15.5 on chromosome 11. This locus is of specific interest, as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and various childhood and adult tumor-related abnormalities have been mapped to this region. The study also indicates the presence of an 11pter region in the NIGMS cell hybrid GM10611, which has previously been reported to contain only human chromosome 9. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Chemical analysis and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant property of a glucan isolated from an alkaline extract of a somatic hybrid mushroom of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica variety APK2. (United States)

    Maity, Kousik; Kar Mandal, Eshita; Maity, Saikat; Gantait, Sanjoy K; Das, Debsankar; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S


    A water-soluble glucan isolated from an alkaline extract of fruit bodies of a somatic hybrid mushroom PCH9FB of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica var. APK2 strains showed antioxidant properties with immune activation of macrophage, splenocyte, and thymocyte. On the basis of acid hydrolysis, methylation, periodate oxidation and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC) the structure of the repeating unit of the glucan was established as: [structure: see text]. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation induced asymmetries in mitotic recombination: evidence for a directional bias in the formation of asymmetric hybrid DNA in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, L. R.; Sobell, H. M.


    We have examined radiation-induced mitotic recombination using two alleles (his1-36, his1-49) in the his1 gene. When the haploid containing his1-36 is irradiated with varying doses of ..gamma.. rays and then mated with the unirradiated strain containing his1-49, analyses of the selected prototrophs show them to be primarily + +/+ 49. If, on the other hand, the haploid strain containing his1-49 is the irradiated parent, the prototrophic diploids are primarily + +/36 +. In control experiments, where either both strains are irradiated or not irradiated, no such asymmetries are found. These data indicate that the irradiated haploid chromosome tends to be the recipient of genetic information. We interpret these results as indicating a directional bias in the formation of hybrid DNA in radiation-induced mitotic recombination, and discuss these results in terms of current models of genetic recombination.

  6. The Vitrofural use in the chemical sterilization of the artificial endosperms of encapsulated somatic embryos of Saccharum spp hybrid var Cuba 87- 51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Quiala


    Full Text Available The effect of the Vitrofural in the control of pollutants in the capsule study was carried out, as well as its toxic effect on the somatic embryos of sugar cane. Different dose of this compound was used (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 mg l-1, these they were applied to the cultivation medium with nudes somatic embryos, which was used previously autoclaved and without autoclaved, later these same doses were added to the synthetic endosperm. The Vitrofural can be employed in the chemical sterilization of the cultivation medium for the germination in vitro of the somatic embryos, as well as in the chemical protection of the synthetic endosperm, that which allowed to eliminate the autoclaved of the encapsulation medium, as well as to reduce the concentration of the agents gelificantes in 33% and to carry out all the operations under non sterile conditions. Key words: Encapsulation, sugarcane, synthetic seed

  7. Structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant property of a novel polysaccharide isolated from the aqueous extract of a somatic hybrid mushroom of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica variety APK2. (United States)

    Maity, Kousik; Kar Mandal, Eshita; Maity, Saikat; Gantait, Sanjoy K; Das, Debsankar; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S


    A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from the aqueous extract of the fruit bodies of somatic hybrid PCH9FB, obtained through intergeneric protoplast fusion between the strains Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica var. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, the polysaccharide was found to contain galactose, fucose, and glucose in a molar ratio of nearly 2:1:2. Methylation analysis and NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC) showed that the structure of the repeating unit present in the polysaccharide was This molecule showed macrophage, splenocyte, thymocyte activation as well as antioxidant property. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Entry of diphtheria toxin into cells: possible existence of cellular factor(s) for entry of diphtheria toxin into cells was studied in somatic cell hybrids and hybrid toxins



    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were found to be very insensitive to diphtheria toxin. We formed 37 hybrids from Ehrlich tumor cells and diphtheria toxin-sensitive human fibroblasts. The effects of diphtheria toxin on protein synthesis in those hybrids were examined. The hybrids were divided into three groups on the basis of toxin sensitivity. Group A hybrids were as sensitive to diphtheria toxin as human fibroblasts, Group C were as resistant as Ehrlich tumor cells, and Group B had intermediate ...

  9. Additional results and discussion to the paper: Asymmetric viability of reciprocal-cross hybrids between crested and marbled newts (Triturus cristatus and T. marmoratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Jehle, R.; Bardakci, F.; Burke, T.; Wallis, G.P.


    Hybridization between divergent lineages often results in reduced hybrid viability. Here we report findings from a series of independent molecular analyses over several seasons on four life stages of F1 hybrids between the newts Triturus cristatus and T. marmoratus. These two species form a bimodal

  10. Somatic PI3K activity regulates transition to the spermatocyte stages ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Gupta


    Apr 22, 2017 ... harbours two types of stem cell populations, the germline stem cells (GSCs) and the somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs), that are physically attached to a set of terminally differentiated somatic cells, called the hub, at the apical end of the testis (Hardy et al. 1979). A gonialblast, formed through an asymmetric ...

  11. Somatic symptom disorder (United States)

    ... disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder ... JF, Fava M, et al, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  12. Somatization, Paranoia, and Language. (United States)

    Oxman, Thomas E.; And Others


    Free speech of subjects with somatization and paranoia was analyzed to identify and compare self-concept dimensions reflected in their lexical choices. The somatization disorder group conveyed a sense of negativism, distress, and preoccupation with an uncertain self-identity. The paranoid patients portrayed an artificially positive, grandiose…

  13. Porous NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-halloysite hybrid self-assembled from nanosheets for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Hui, E-mail:; Dong, Hong; Wang, Yucheng; Xu, Jiayu; Jia, Dianzeng


    Highlights: • The NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL nanomaterial is achieved via two-step hydrothermal approach. • The unique structures are assembled self-assembly by nanosheets. • The obtained electrode exhibits high capacitance and excellent retention. • An asymmetric supercapacitor also displays high energy density and outstanding cycling stability. • The high-performance of the device is possibly due to the introduction of HL and formation of composed nanosheets. - Abstract: The porous nanostructures have drawn considerable attention because of their abundant pore volume and unique properties that provide outstanding performance in catalysis and energy storage applications. This study proposes the growth mechanism of porous NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4} composited with halloysite (HL) via a self-assembly method using halloysite as a template and component. Electrochemical tests showed that the NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL exhibited an ultrahigh specific capacitance (Csp) (589C g{sup −1} at 1A g{sup −1}) and good cycle stability (Csp retention of 86% after 1000 cycles). The desirable capacitive performance of the NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL can be attributed to the large specific surface area and short diffusion path for electrons and ions in the hierarchical porous structure. The superior electrochemical performances with the energy density of 35.48 W h kg{sup −1} at a power density of 199.9 W kg{sup −1} were achieved in an assembled aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device using NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL as a positive electrode and N-doped graphene (NG) as a negative electrode. Moreover, the NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL//NG asymmetric supercapacitor achieved outstanding cycle stability (also retained 83.2% after 1700 cycles). The high-performance of the ASC device will undoubtedly make the porous NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL as potential electrode materials attractive in energy storage systems.

  14. Somatic Literacy. Bringing Somatic Education into Physical Education. (United States)

    Linden, Paul


    Examines the profession of physical education and what it could become if it embraced somatic work, explaining the basic concepts and processes of somatic education. Somatic education focuses on the interactions of posture, movement, emotion, thought, self-concept, and cultural values. A case study details somatic education in practice. (SM)

  15. Clinical approaches to somatization. (United States)

    Busch, Fredric N


    Somatization is the experience and expression of psychological distress through bodily symptoms. Somatization can be conceptualized as an emotional state that has not been represented symbolically or as a defense against intolerable emotions and fantasies. Bodily concerns can also function as a means of seeking responsiveness from others. Alexithymia refers to a difficulty identifying and symbolizing emotional states that has been found to be associated with somatization. When functioning as a defense, a focus on the body can be used to avoid frightening or intolerable feelings and fantasies, or to ward off aggressive fantasies by viewing oneself as physically damaged. Systematic studies have demonstrated the presence of the defense of somatization in mood disorders, particularly anxiety and panic disorders. In treating anxiety disorders, the therapist helps the patient to determine the nature of emotions and fantasies that the patient is defending against, particularly fears and conflicts surrounding anger and separation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Somatization in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara


    The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we...... consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR)....

  17. Asymmetric Ashes (United States)


    that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy

  18. Somatic Embryogenesis in Two Orchid Genera (Cymbidium, Dendrobium). (United States)

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Winarto, Budi


    The protocorm-like body (PLB) is the de facto somatic embryo in orchids. Here we describe detailed protocols for two orchid genera (hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon 'Day Light' and Dendrobium 'Jayakarta', D. 'Gradita 31', and D. 'Zahra FR 62') for generating PLBs. These protocols will most likely have to be tweaked for different cultivars as the response of orchids in vitro tends to be dependent on genotype. In addition to primary somatic embryogenesis, secondary (or repetitive) somatic embryogenesis is also described for both genera. The use of thin cell layers as a sensitive tissue assay is outlined for hybrid Cymbidium while the protocol outlined is suitable for bioreactor culture of D. 'Zahra FR 62'.

  19. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis induction in Iranian melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 11, 2011 ... flexuosus. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8(22): 6228–6232. Deakin JR, Bohn GW, Whitaker TW (1971). Interspecific hybridization in. Cucumis. Econ. Bot., 25: 195-211. Debeaujon I, Branchard M (1992). Induction of somatic embryogenesis and caulogenesis from cotyledon and leaf protoplast derived colonies of melon ...

  20. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and thin cell layers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil palm hybrid BRS Manicoré is important for plantations in the north of Brazil, as it is resistant to fatal yellowing and is compact. Seed germination is slow and reduced, so somatic embryogenesis is a promising alternative for its propagation. Two kinds of starting explants were used: Zygotic embryos (ZE) and thin cell layers ...

  1. Somatic diversification of immunoglobulins. (United States)

    Rudikoff, S; Pawlita, M; Pumphrey, J; Heller, M


    A series of three IgM, kappa monoclonal antibodies arising from a fusion of BALB/c spleen cells from mice immunized with beta-(1,6)-galactan-containing antigens have been analyzed. These three lines were found (i) to have homologous protein sequences in the heavy chain D region and at the sites of recombination between the heavy chain variable and D segment (VH-D) and the D and joining segment (D-JH), although amino acid substitutions were observed in both the heavy and light chain variable regions; (ii) to use identical heavy and light chain joining segments; and (iii) to demonstrate two identical (productive and nonproductive) kappa-chain rearrangements. A likely explanation for these observations is that the three lines are clonally related (arise from a common precursor) and that the observed heavy and light chain variable segment substitutions represent somatic point mutations. Because these antibodies are all of the IgM class, the results indicate that a somatic mutational mechanism is activated early in B-cell ontogeny and operates at both the heavy and light chain loci. Furthermore, the somatic mutation process appears to continue during the development of a given cell line, but is independent of class switching.

  2. Hybridization and management of oak populations (United States)

    Oliver Gailing


    Hybridization can result in the transfer of adaptations among species and may contribute to speciation processes. On the other hand, hybridization can also result in a loss of species diversity due to asymmetric gene flow between species (genetic swamping) and in low hybrid fitness. An understanding of the outcomes of interspecific hybridization is crucial for the...

  3. Somatization in refugees: a review. (United States)

    Rohlof, Hans G; Knipscheer, Jeroen W; Kleber, Rolf J


    To present a review of the literature concerning medically unexplained physical symptoms in refugees. We outline a variety of definitions and explanations of somatization, as well as the role of culture in the concept of disease. In addition, we present a review of the epidemiological literature about somatization in refugees. Refugees from non-Western countries exhibit more unexplained somatic symptoms than the general Western population. Although different studies have employed different methodologies and are therefore difficult to compare, it can be concluded that refugees form a particular population in which somatization is prominent. Potential, not mutually exclusive, explanations of the high number of somatic symptoms in the refugee population include general psychopathology, specifically traumatisation, results of torture, and stigmatisation of psychiatric care. There are implications for assessment, clinical treatment and further research concerning somatization in refugees.

  4. Somatic sex determination. (United States)

    Zarkower, David


    C. elegans occurs in two natural sexes, the XX hermaphrodite and the XO male, which differ extensively in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. All somatic differences between the sexes result from the differential activity of a "global" sex determination regulatory pathway. This pathway also controls X chromosome dosage compensation, which is coordinated with sex determination by the action of the three SDC proteins. The SDC proteins control somatic and germline sex by transcriptional repression of the her-1 gene. HER-1 is a secreted protein that controls a regulatory module consisting of a transmembrane receptor, TRA-2, three intracellular FEM proteins, and the zinc finger transcription factor TRA-1. The molecular workings of this regulatory module are still being elucidated. Similarity of TRA-2 to patched receptors and of TRA-1 to GLI proteins suggests that parts of the global pathway originally derived from a Hedgehog signaling pathway. TRA-1 controls all aspects of somatic sexual differentiation, presumably by regulating a variety of tissue- and cell-specific downstream targets, including the cell death regulator EGL-1 and the male sexual regulator MAB-3. Sex determination evolves rapidly, and conservation of sexual regulators between phyla has been elusive. An apparent exception involves DM domain proteins, including MAB-3, which control sexual differentiation in nematodes, arthropods, and vertebrates. Important issues needing more study include the detailed molecular mechanisms of the global pathway, the identities of additional sexual regulators acting in the global pathway and downstream of TRA-1, and the evolutionary history of the sex determination pathway. Recently developed genetic and genomic technologies and comparative studies in divergent species have begun to address these issues.

  5. Asymmetric Divisions in Oogenesis. (United States)

    Bilinski, Szczepan M; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Kloc, Malgorzata

    In the majority of animals, the oocyte/egg is structurally, molecularly, and functionally asymmetric. Such asymmetry is a prerequisite for a flawless fertilization and faithful segregation of maternal determinants during subsequent embryonic development. The oocyte asymmetry develops during oogenesis and must be maintained during consecutive and obligatorily asymmetric oogonial divisions, which depending on the species lead to the formation of either oocyte alone or oocyte and nurse cell complex. In the following chapter, we summarize current knowledge on the asymmetric oogonial divisions in invertebrate (insects) and vertebrate (Xenopus) species.

  6. Intergeneric hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus containing traits of agronomic importance for oilseed rape breeding. (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Hansen, N.; Laursen, J.; Dixelius, C.; Andersen, B.


    Protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus for transfer of valuable traits to oilseed rape resulted in 257 somatic hybrid plants. Hybridity was confirmed by morphological, cytological and molecular means. Symmetric fusions gave rise to 131 plants. Fifty eight of these plants had an intermediate morphology and contained nuclear DNA corresponding to the sum of the parental species. All 131 plants were sterile with no pollen grains observed upon flowering. Another 126 plants were derived from asymmetric fusions in which protoplasts of the donor parent O. violaceus were irradiated by 100 or 200-Gy X-rays prior to fusion. Morphologically these plants showed a larger variation compared to the plants regenerated from symmetric fusion experiments. In contrast to plants obtained from symmetric fusions, fertile hybrids were recovered among regenerants from the asymmetric fusions. Twenty four of these plants released viable pollen grains and 14 of the determined 17 plants set seeds after either selfing or backcrossing to B. napus. Fourteen male-sterile plants were identified with female fertility. This observed male sterility most-likely originated from alloplasmic recombination and would be of great potential for the development of a new cytoplasmic male sterility system. The fatty acid composition of the fertile hybrids and their progenies showed a biased distribution towards the B. napus parent, which has a high erucic acid-content type. However, increased levels of palmitic and linoleic acids compared to B. napus were found in subsequent generations, as well as a reduced level of erucic acid.

  7. Fusion of protoplasts with irradiated micro protoplasts as a tool for radiation hybrid panel in citrus;Fusao de protoplastos com microprotoplastos irradiados como ferramenta para painel hibrido de radiacao em citros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de, E-mail: debona@iapar.b [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Administrativo do Governo do Estado; Stelly, David, E-mail: stelly@tamu.ed [Texas A and M University (Tamu), College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Miller Junior, J. Creighton, E-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.ed [Texas A and M University (Tamu), College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences; Louzada, Eliezer Silva, E-mail: elouzada@ag.tamu.ed [Texas A and M University, (Tamuk), Weslaco, TX (United States)


    The objective of this work was to combine asymmetric somatic hybridization (donor-recipient fusion or gamma fusion) to microprotoplast-mediated chromosome transfer, as a tool to be used for chromosome mapping in Citrus. Swinglea glutinosa micro protoplasts were irradiated either with 50, 70, 100 or 200 gamma rays and fused to cv. Ruby Red grapefruit or Murcott tangor protoplasts. Cell colonies were successfully formed and AFLP analyses confirmed presence of S. glutinosa in both 'Murcott' tangor and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit genomes. (author)

  8. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux


    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  9. [Psychic disorders and somatic suffering]. (United States)

    Canneva, Jean


    To what extent should somatic treatment be taken into account when psychic suffering dominates? How can this care be anticipated when healthcare workers and carers are confronted with patients who do not express what they want? Greatest attention must be paid to somatic care by anticipating body function and relying on the support of the families and the skills of the professionals.

  10. Somatic Symptom Disorders in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson


    Full Text Available Physical symptoms without any identifiable structural or biochemical abnormalities on detailed clinical examination and investigations, are common in children. Some children may have persistent physical discomfort which can lead to debilitating impact on their academic and social functioning. These children seek repeated medical consultations and are usually subjected to unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. It is extremely important to understand that emotional factors can contribute to the development as well as maintenance of impairing physical symptoms. There is scientific evidence for the association of anxiety and functional somatic symptoms in children. The diagnostic category which was previously called somatoform disorders is now included in somatic symptom disorders. The main feature of the somatic symptom disorders is the excessive concern with somatic symptoms. Detailed clinical examination and investigations will not reveal any abnormalities to explain the symptoms. The somatic symptom disorders are common in childhood. Cognitive behavioural therapy by experts in child guidance, will relieve the somatic symptoms related to anxiety and stress. If not intervened at the earliest, the persistent physical symptoms associated with emotional stress will cause significant functional disability in childhood. Unnecessary invasive medical interventions cause more agony to the child. These children also have high risk for developing anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in young adulthood. Hence, early intervention using cognitive behavioural techniques should be provided to all children with somatic symptom disorders, which will definitely improve their quality of life.

  11. Asymmetrical field emitter (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.


    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  12. DNA-based hybrid catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination

  13. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare


    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  14. Antioxidant enzymes activities during secondary somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis was achieved from immature cotyledon explants of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) cave. "Chandler" on DKW medium. Secondary somatic embryogenesis, the process by which adventitious embryos are formed from primary somatic embryos, is frequent during somatic embryogenesis in Persian ...

  15. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca


    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  16. Asymmetric hybridization between non-native winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), and native Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata, in the Northeastern United States, assessed with novel microsatellites and SNPs (United States)

    N.P. Havill; J. Elkinton; J.C. Andersen; S.B. Hagen; Hannah J. Broadley; G.J. Boettner; A. Caccone


    The European winter moth, Operophtera brumata, is a non-native pest in the Northeastern USA causing defoliation of forest trees and crops such as apples and blueberries. This species is known to hybridize with O. bruceata, the Bruce spanworm, a native species across North America, although it is not known if there are hybrid...

  17. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B


    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain

  18. How Is Nature Asymmetric?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. How Is Nature Asymmetric? - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation ... Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  19. Highly asymmetric rice genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian-Qun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals in the same species are assumed to share the same genomic set. However, it is not unusual to find an orthologous gene only in small subset of the species, and recent genomic studies suggest that structural rearrangements are very frequent between genomes in the same species. Two recently sequenced rice genomes Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare and O. sativa L. var. 93-11 provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the extent of the gene repertoire polymorphism, even though the genomic data of 93-11 derived from whole-short-gun sequencing is not yet as complete as that of Nipponbare. Results We compared gene contents and the genomic locations between two rice genomes. Our conservative estimates suggest that at least 10% of the genes in the genomes were either under presence/absence polymorphism (5.2% or asymmetrically located between genomes (4.7%. The proportion of these "asymmetric genes" varied largely among gene groups, in which disease resistance (R genes and the RLK kinase gene group had 11.6 and 7.8 times higher proportion of asymmetric genes than housekeeping genes (Myb and MADS. The significant difference in the proportion of asymmetric genes among gene groups suggests that natural selection is responsible for maintaining genomic asymmetry. On the other hand, the nucleotide diversity in 17 R genes under presence/absence polymorphism was generally low (average nucleotide diversity = 0.0051. Conclusion The genomic symmetry was disrupted by 10% of asymmetric genes, which could cause genetic variation through more unequal crossing over, because these genes had no allelic counterparts to pair and then they were free to pair with homologues at non-allelic loci, during meiosis in heterozygotes. It might be a consequence of diversifying selection that increased the structural divergence among genomes, and of purifying selection that decreased nucleotide divergence in each R gene locus.

  20. [Severe depression : concomitant somatic disease]. (United States)

    Cottencin, O


    The association of somatic disease with a depressive disorder is not uncommon and affects 25% of general hospital inpatient populations. Although not well incorporated into management it is a source of mutual worsening of the two diseases. Several questions arise with this association. Firstly, it is essential to establish whether the depressive disorder is primary or secondary as these situations occasionally involve different (and even opposite) diagnostic and treatment approaches. It is then important to establish whether or not the disorder is adaptatory in nature : although an adaptatory problem does not have the same impact as depression on somatic outcome, it can progress to endogenous depression. Finally it is essential to identify the extent of suicidal risk, which is not only due to the depression but more to the feeling of despair (which is common in patients suffering from severe somatic illness). We will then examine the severity of these interlinked depressions in terms of the diagnostic difficulties (from confusion of symptoms to considering them to be unimportant). We shall then describe all of the consequences of the somatic disease on the prognosis of the depression and vice versa. Finally we will examine the question of severity from the perspective of the most widely studied associated diseases. Whilst the presence of an incapacitating somatic disease is a risk factor for depression in these vulnerable people, depression associated with the different major somatic diseases is a poor prognostic indicator. Somatic co-morbidities are still underestimated and are a factor responsible for chronic progression, deterioration and increased risk of suicide. Copyright 2009 L'Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  1. Kat3 coactivators in somatic stem cells and cancer stem cells: biological roles, evolution, and pharmacologic manipulation. (United States)

    Thomas, Paul D; Kahn, Michael


    Long-lived somatic stem cells regenerate adult tissues throughout our lifetime. However, with aging, there is a significant deterioration in the function of stem and progenitor cells, which contribute to diseases of aging. The decision for a long-lived somatic stem cell to become activated and subsequently to undergo either a symmetric or an asymmetric division is a critical cellular decision process. The decision to preferentially divide symmetrically or asymmetrically may be the major fundamental intrinsic difference between normal somatic stem cells and cancer stem cells. Based upon work done primarily in our laboratory over the past 15 years, this article provides a perspective on the critical role of somatic stem cells in aging. In particular, we discuss the importance of symmetric versus asymmetric divisions in somatic stem cells and the role of the differential usage of the highly similar Kat3 coactivators, CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300, in stem cells. We describe and propose a more complete model for the biological mechanism and roles of these two coactivators, their evolution, and unique roles and importance in stem cell biology. Finally, we discuss the potential to pharmacologically manipulate Kat3 coactivator interactions in endogenous stem cells (both normal and cancer stem cells) to potentially ameliorate the aging process and common diseases of aging.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini


    Full Text Available porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germinationand that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol ofregeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculatedon WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein orglutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D(22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed caseinor glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture mediumcontaining NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction(8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein andthe development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promotedin WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containinghydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. Duringthe maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages.The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histologicalstudies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini


    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germination and that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol of regeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculated on WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D (22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture medium containing NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction (8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein and the development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promoted in WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containing hydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. During the maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages. The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histological studies.

  4. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)


    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  5. Asymmetric Reprogramming Capacity of Parental Pronuclei in Mouse Zygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Liu


    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that reprogramming factors are sequestered in the pronuclei of zygotes after fertilization, because zygotes enucleated at the M phase instead of interphase of the first mitosis can support the development of cloned embryos. However, the contribution of the parental pronucleus derived from either the sperm or the oocyte in reprogramming remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the parental pronuclei have asymmetric reprogramming capacities and that the reprogramming factors reside predominantly in the male pronucleus. As a result, only female pronucleus-depleted (FPD mouse zygotes can reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state and support the full-term development of cloned embryos; male pronucleus-depleted (MPD zygotes fail to support somatic cell reprogramming. We further demonstrate that fusion of an additional male pronucleus into a zygote greatly enhances reprogramming efficiency. Our data provide a clue to further identify critical reprogramming factors in the male pronucleus.

  6. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  7. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy


    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  8. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games. (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph


    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  9. Somatic gene therapy for dyslipidemias. (United States)

    Belalcazar, M; Chan, L


    Somatic gene transfer is a valuable tool for the in vivo evaluation of lipoprotein metabolism. It has been used to dissect metabolic pathways, to establish structure-function relationships of various gene products, and to evaluate conventional lipid-lowering and novel therapeutic genes for the treatment of lipoprotein disorders. In this article we review some general aspects of somatic gene therapy and the different vehicles used for the delivery of therapeutic genes. We highlight some recent advances in adenoviral vector development that make this vector an attractive system for clinical trials.

  10. Application of Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. (United States)

    Guan, Yuan; Li, Shui-Gen; Fan, Xiao-Fen; Su, Zhen-Hong


    Somatic embryogenesis is a developmental process where a plant somatic cell can dedifferentiate to a totipotent embryonic stem cell that has the ability to give rise to an embryo under appropriate conditions. This new embryo can further develop into a whole plant. In woody plants, somatic embryogenesis plays a critical role in clonal propagation and is a powerful tool for synthetic seed production, germplasm conservation, and cryopreservation. A key step in somatic embryogenesis is the transition of cell fate from a somatic cell to embryo cell. Although somatic embryogenesis has already been widely used in a number of woody species, propagating adult woody plants remains difficult. In this review, we focus on molecular mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis and its practical applications in economic woody plants. Furthermore, we propose a strategy to improve the process of somatic embryogenesis using molecular means.

  11. Somatic embryogenesis in Mucuna pruriens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 16, 2009 ... This study reports the induction of somatic embryos in Mucuna pruriens. Different explants cultured on. MS medium supplemented with 11.31 µM 2,4-D produced golden yellow embryogenic callus that induced synchronized embryo development on MS basal liquid medium. Organization of pre-embryonic.

  12. Cultural models and somatic syndromes. (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Sartorius, Norman


    To review the relevance of cultural models in the generation and amplification of somatic symptoms and syndromes. Based on a selective review of literature, we examine evidence that cultural and personal explanatory models can contribute to the pathogenesis, symptomatology, and chronicity of medically unexplained symptoms and functional somatic syndromes. In the contemporary world, culture involves flows of information, roles, and institutions that offer individuals multiple models for understanding illness. Cultural models include 1) explanatory models, which make causal attributions and impute specific mechanisms or processes of pathophysiology; 2) prototypes, which are salient images or exemplars drawn from personal experience, family, friends, mass media, and popular culture that are used to reason analogically about one's own condition; and 3) implicit models and procedural knowledge that may be difficult to articulate because they are embedded in body practices and ways of experiencing distress. Symptom attributions and explanations can participate in vicious circles of symptom amplification that give rise to culture-specific varieties of panic disorder, hypochondriacal worry, and medically unexplained symptoms. Clinical research using the methods of experimental cognitive and social psychology as well as community-based ethnographic and ecological research are needed to advance our understanding of the impact of personal and cultural models on somatic distress. Nevertheless, the current state of knowledge on social and cultural dimensions of somatic syndromes suggests a typology of forms of psychosomatic and sociosomatic looping that has implications for the nosology of somatoform disorders.

  13. Asymmetric fluorocyclizations of alkenes. (United States)

    Wolstenhulme, Jamie R; Gouverneur, Véronique


    CONSPECTUS: The vicinal fluorofunctionalization of alkenes is an attractive transformation that converts feedstock olefins into valuable cyclic fluorinated molecules for application in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, medical, and material sectors. The challenges associated with asymmetric fluorocyclizations induced by F(+) reagents are distinct from other types of halocyclizations. Processes initiated by the addition of an F(+) reagent onto an alkene do not involve the reversible formation of bridged fluoronium ions but generate acyclic β-fluorocationic intermediates. This mechanistic feature implies that fluorocyclizations are not stereospecific. A discontinuity exists between the importance of this class of fluorocyclization and the activation modes currently available to implement successful catalysis. Progress toward fluorocyclization has been achieved by investing in neutral and cationic [NF] reagent development. The body of work on asymmetric fluorination using chiral cationic [NF](+) reagents prepared by fluorine transfer from the dicationic [NF](2+) reagent Selectfluor to quinuclidines, inspired the development of asymmetric F(+)-induced fluorocyclizations catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids; for catalysis, the use of N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide, which is less reactive than Selectfluor, ensures that the achiral F(+) source remains unreactive toward the alkene. These organocatalyzed enantioselective fluorocyclizations can be applied to indoles to install the fluorine on a quaternary benzylic stereogenic carbon center and to afford fluorinated analogues of natural products featuring the hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole or the tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-b]indole skeleton. In an alternative approach, the poor solubility of dicationic Selectfluor bis(tetrafluoroborate) in nonpolar solvent was exploited with anionic phase transfer catalysis as the operating activation mode. Exchange of the tetrafluoroborate ions of Selectfluor with bulky lipophilic chiral anions (e

  14. Catalytic asymmetric fluorinations. (United States)

    Bobbio, Carla; Gouverneur, Véronique


    The appearance of structurally diverse fluorinating reagents displaying a large spectrum of reactivity has been critical to the development of the catalytic asymmetric fluorination processes known to date. In this article, we discuss how this area of research emerged and which strategies have allowed for the successful development of both nucleophilic and electrophilic catalytic enantioselective fluorinations. We also present the fundamental understanding of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the most efficient processes and highlight the first synthetic application with the preparation of a complex fluorinated target.

  15. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James


    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  16. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus


    were pioneered by Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder who discovered what later became known as the Diels Alder reaction. The Diels Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition in which a π4 component reacts with a π2 component via a cyclic transition state to generate a 6 membered ring. This reaction...... undergo cascade reactions with different electron deficient dienophiles in Diels Alder – nucleophilic ring closing reactions. This methodology opens up for the direct asymmetric formation of hydroisochromenes and hydroisoquinolines which may possess interesting biological activities. It is also...

  17. The Transgressive Possibilities of Foregrounding Somatic Values (United States)

    Schupp, Karen


    In this article, the author reflects on how somatic values, which are interrelated to yet distinct from somatic principles, direct her pedagogical approach to and the content of an eight-week module for postsecondary dance major students in the United States titled Applied Personal Movement Practices I. The prioritization of somatic values (the…

  18. Somatic retrotransposition in human cancer revealed by whole-genome and exome sequencing. (United States)

    Helman, Elena; Lawrence, Michael S; Stewart, Chip; Sougnez, Carrie; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew


    Retrotransposons constitute a major source of genetic variation, and somatic retrotransposon insertions have been reported in cancer. Here, we applied TranspoSeq, a computational framework that identifies retrotransposon insertions from sequencing data, to whole genomes from 200 tumor/normal pairs across 11 tumor types as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Pan-Cancer Project. In addition to novel germline polymorphisms, we find 810 somatic retrotransposon insertions primarily in lung squamous, head and neck, colorectal, and endometrial carcinomas. Many somatic retrotransposon insertions occur in known cancer genes. We find that high somatic retrotransposition rates in tumors are associated with high rates of genomic rearrangement and somatic mutation. Finally, we developed TranspoSeq-Exome to interrogate an additional 767 tumor samples with hybrid-capture exome data and discovered 35 novel somatic retrotransposon insertions into exonic regions, including an insertion into an exon of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. The results of this large-scale, comprehensive analysis of retrotransposon movement across tumor types suggest that somatic retrotransposon insertions may represent an important class of structural variation in cancer. © 2014 Helman et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Asymmetric inclusion process. (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri


    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites' occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  20. Cloning of B-1,3-glucanases expressed during Cichorium somatic embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helleboid, S.; Chapman, A.; Hendriks, T.; Inze, D.; Vasseur, J.; Hilbert, J.L.


    Three different β-1,3-glucanase cDNA fragments, CG1, CG2 and CG3, were obtained by RT-PCR from RNA isolated from Cichorium hybrid `474' leaf fragments cultured for 11 days under somatic embryogenesis-inducing conditions. When expressed in Escherichia coli the proteins encoded by the three cDNAs were

  1. Symmetric Decomposition of Asymmetric Games. (United States)

    Tuyls, Karl; Pérolat, Julien; Lanctot, Marc; Ostrovski, Georg; Savani, Rahul; Leibo, Joel Z; Ord, Toby; Graepel, Thore; Legg, Shane


    We introduce new theoretical insights into two-population asymmetric games allowing for an elegant symmetric decomposition into two single population symmetric games. Specifically, we show how an asymmetric bimatrix game (A,B) can be decomposed into its symmetric counterparts by envisioning and investigating the payoff tables (A and B) that constitute the asymmetric game, as two independent, single population, symmetric games. We reveal several surprising formal relationships between an asymmetric two-population game and its symmetric single population counterparts, which facilitate a convenient analysis of the original asymmetric game due to the dimensionality reduction of the decomposition. The main finding reveals that if (x,y) is a Nash equilibrium of an asymmetric game (A,B), this implies that y is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table A, and x is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table B. Also the reverse holds and combinations of Nash equilibria of the counterpart games form Nash equilibria of the asymmetric game. We illustrate how these formal relationships aid in identifying and analysing the Nash structure of asymmetric games, by examining the evolutionary dynamics of the simpler counterpart games in several canonical examples.


    Reggars, John W.


    It is not uncommon, within general practice, for patients to present with somatic or musculoskeletal pain of visceral origin. Furthermore patients may present with two separate and co-existing conditions within the same anatomical region making the clinical diagnosis confusing and complex. The following case study describes one such case which presented to a chiropractor. A discussion of examination findings, diagnostic dilemmas in such cases, differential diagnoses considered, diagnostic tests and appropriate therapy are discussed.

  3. Minimal asymmetric dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M. Boucenna


    Full Text Available In the early Universe, any particle carrying a conserved quantum number and in chemical equilibrium with the thermal bath will unavoidably inherit a particle–antiparticle asymmetry. A new particle of this type, if stable, would represent a candidate for asymmetric dark matter (DM with an asymmetry directly related to the baryon asymmetry. We study this possibility for a minimal DM sector constituted by just one (generic SU(2L multiplet χ carrying hypercharge, assuming that at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition an effective operator enforces chemical equilibrium between χ and the Higgs boson. We argue that limits from DM direct detection searches severely constrain this scenario, leaving as the only possibilities scalar or fermion multiplets with hypercharge y=1, preferentially quintuplets or larger SU(2 representations, and with a mass in the few TeV range.

  4. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia


    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  5. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen


    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  6. Electrostatic-Induced Assembly of Graphene-Encapsulated Carbon@Nickel-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Core-Shell Spheres Hybrid Structure for High-Energy and High-Power-Density Asymmetric Supercapacitor. (United States)

    Wu, Shuxing; Hui, Kwan San; Hui, Kwun Nam; Kim, Kwang Ho


    Achieving high energy density while retaining high power density is difficult in electrical double-layer capacitors and in pseudocapacitors considering the origin of different charge storage mechanisms. Rational structural design became an appealing strategy in circumventing these trade-offs between energy and power densities. A hybrid structure consists of chemically converted graphene-encapsulated carbon@nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide core-shell spheres as spacers among graphene layers (G-CLS) used as an advanced electrode to achieve high energy density while retaining high power density for high-performance supercapacitors. The merits of the proposed architecture are as follows: (1) CLS act as spacers to avoid the close restacking of graphene; (2) highly conductive carbon sphere and graphene preserve the mechanical integrity and improve the electrical conductivity of LDHs hybrid. Thus, the proposed hybrid structure can simultaneously achieve high electrical double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance resulting in the overall highly active electrode. The G-CLS electrode exhibited high specific capacitance (1710.5 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 ) under three-electrode tests. An ASC fabricated using the G-CLS as positive electrode and reduced graphite oxide as negative electrode demonstrated remarkable electrochemical performance. The ASC device operated at 1.4 V and delivered a high energy density of 35.5 Wh kg -1 at a 670.7 W kg -1 power density at 1 A g -1 with an excellent rate capability as well as a robust long-term cycling stability of up to 10 000 cycles.

  7. An Algorithm for Defining Somatization in Children (United States)

    Postilnik, Inna; Eisman, Howard D.; Price, Rebecca; Fogel, Joshua


    Introduction Defining somatization in pediatric populations presents a unique challenge, because DSM-IV somatization criteria may be inadequate for identifying a child with somatization. Two approaches exist. Child somatization has frequently been rooted in a questionnaire model, focusing on child or parent responses to assess how well a child conforms to a specific mental health profile. Others use a medical diagnosis model, designating a child with somatization as those for whom a limited number of medical measures have failed to reveal a pathological source of symptoms. Method We incorporate concepts based upon a literature review from January 1994 to June 2005 of PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL on classification and diagnosis of somatization in children ages 6 to 12. Our goal is to understand in depth the topic and suggest a way to better understand and classify somatization in children. Results We incorporate an integrative approach toward defining child somatization and propose an algorithm to step-by-step classify children with somatic symptoms into three distinct groups: sick, somatizers, and well. This approach includes information from self-report questionnaire, physician questionnaire, and the child’s medical chart. Conclusion This new algorithm suggests an approach for differentiating primary care pediatric clinic visitors into three distinct groups. Although used in clinical practice, empirical validation is necessary to further validate this algorithm. PMID:18392196

  8. Somatic Mutations of tradescantia 4430 treated with radiation and mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jeon; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Yup [Dept.of Science and Biotechnology, Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    Tradescantia 4430 clone is an interspecific hybrid made by artificially crossing T. hirsutiflora with T. subacaulis. It has hereditary heteromorphy in its flower color, blue dominant and pink recessive. The hybrid clone is exttremely sensitive to ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens. Groups of inflorescence cuttings were irradiated with 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Gy. After irradiation, the cuttings were maintained at 24 degrees C under a controlled light:dark (14 : 10) cycle. Five days after irradiation, mutations started to increase rapidly and reached a maximum rate during 8⁓10 days after irradiation. Mutation frequencies increased with radiation dose and with mercury concentration. In conclusion irradiation as well as mercury caused a dose- or concentration-response relationship in the somatic mutation frequencies of Tradescantia 4430. Tradescantia 4430 proved to be a good material for studying the combined effect of radiation and mercury.

  9. Asymmetric bifurcated halogen bonds. (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Marek, Radek


    Halogen bonding (XB) is being extensively explored for its potential use in advanced materials and drug design. Despite significant progress in describing this interaction by theoretical and experimental methods, the chemical nature remains somewhat elusive, and it seems to vary with the selected system. In this work we present a detailed DFT analysis of three-center asymmetric halogen bond (XB) formed between dihalogen molecules and variously 4-substituted 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. The energy decomposition, orbital, and electron density analyses suggest that the contribution of electrostatic stabilization is comparable with that of non-electrostatic factors. Both terms increase parallel with increasing negative charge of the electron donor molecule in our model systems. Depending on the orientation of the dihalogen molecules, this bifurcated interaction may be classified as 'σ-hole - lone pair' or 'σ-hole - π' halogen bonds. Arrangement of the XB investigated here deviates significantly from a recent IUPAC definition of XB and, in analogy to the hydrogen bonding, the term bifurcated halogen bond (BXB) seems to be appropriate for this type of interaction.

  10. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas


    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population....... The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health. RESULTS: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0%) had a profile characterized...... population-based studies with specific focus on symptom burden....

  11. Alexithymia and somatization in general population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mattila, Aino K; Kronholm, Erkki; Jula, Antti; Salminen, Jouko K; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Mielonen, Riitta-Liisa; Joukamaa, Matti


    Even though the association between alexithymia and somatization seems plausible according to several studies with selected populations, it has not been verified in carefully controlled and nationally...

  12. Somatization Increases Disability Independent of Comorbidity (United States)

    Orav, E. John; Bates, David W.; Barsky, Arthur J.


    Background Somatoform disorders are an important factor in functional disability and role impairment, though their independent contribution to disability has been unclear because of prevalent medical and psychiatric comorbidity. Objectives To assess the extent of the overlap of somatization with other psychiatric disorders and medical problems, to compare the functional disability and role impairment of somatizing and non-somatizing patients, and to determine the independent contribution of somatization to functional disability and role impairment. Design Patients were surveyed with self-report questionnaires assessing somatization, psychiatric disorder, and role impairment. Medical morbidity was indexed with a computerized medical record audit. Participants Consecutive adults making scheduled visits to their primary care physicians at two hospital-affiliated primary care practices on randomly chosen days. Measurements Intermediate activities of daily living, social activities, and occupational disability. Results Patients with somatization, as well as those with serious medical and psychiatric illnesses, had significantly more impairment of activities of daily life and social activities. When these predictors were considered simultaneously in a multivariable regression, the association with somatization remained highly significant and was comparable to or greater than many major medical conditions. Conclusions Patients with somatization had substantially greater functional disability and role impairment than non-somatizing patients. The degree of disability was equal to or greater than that associated with many major, chronic medical disorders. Adjusting the results for psychiatric and medical co-morbidity had little effect on these findings. PMID:19031038

  13. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach


    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  14. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle life....

  15. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian


    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  16. Asymmetric Ion-Pairing Catalysis (United States)

    Brak, Katrien


    Charged intermediates and reagents are ubiquitous in organic transformations. The interaction of these ionic species with chiral neutral, anionic, or cationic small molecules has emerged as a powerful strategy for catalytic, enantioselective synthesis. This review describes developments in the burgeoning field of asymmetric ion-pairing catalysis with an emphasis on the insights that have been gleaned into the structural and mechanistic features that contribute to high asymmetric induction. PMID:23192886

  17. Asymmetric Junctions Boost in-Plane Thermal Transport in Pillared Graphene. (United States)

    Sakhavand, Navid; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh


    Hybrid 3D nanoarchitectures by covalent connection of 1D and 2D nanomaterials are currently in high demands to overcome the intrinsic anisotropy of the parent materials. This letter reports the junction configuration-mediated thermal transport properties of Pillared Graphene (PGN) using reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The asymmetric junctions can offer ∼20% improved in-plane thermal transport in PGN, unlike the intuition that their wrinkled graphene sheets cause phonon scattering. This asymmetric trait, which entails lower phonon scattering provides a new degree of freedom to boost thermal properties of PGN and potentially other hybrid nanostructures.

  18. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  19. Direct somatic embryogenesis in Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Collado


    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King is difficult to be propagated by tissue culture and there is not an efficient system via organogenesis, due to problems of microbial contamination, phenolic oxidation and death of tissue in the phase of in vitro establishment of explants. In order to establish a protocol for obtaining somatic embryos, zygotic embryos were used as initial plant material. Three combinations of 2,4-D with kinetin were studied, to obtain the formation of somatic embryos. After six weeks of culture, the number of explants with high and low somatic embryogenesis frequency were determined. So that the somatic embryos in globular stage reach the final stages of torpedo and cotyledonal, these were placed in three treatments with 6-BAP (0.2, 0.4 y 0.6 mg.l-1. The number of somatic embryos that reached the torpedo and cotyledonal stages were evaluated after 30 days of culture. Results demonstrated that direct somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos is obtained in the culture medium composed by MS salts with 4.0 mg.l-1 of 2,4-D and 1.0 mg.l-1 of kinetin. Higher percentage of somatic embryos in cotiledonal stage (91.7 %, was obtained with 0.4 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP. Key word: forestry, growth regulator, mahogany, somatic embryo, tissue culture

  20. Efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 21, 2012 ... [Murashige and Skoog, (1962) basal salts; B5 vitamins complex. (Gamborg et al., 1968); 2% sucrose and 0.8% ... were reduced in the developing plantlets (Webb et al.,. 1983; Eudes et al., 2003). Callus in CPF-237 ... in size after 4-weeks of culture; d, developing somatic embryos in 4-weeks old somatic ...

  1. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin


    Sep 7, 2016 ... from the Mars Center for Cocoa Science (MCCS) germplasm collection. Evaluation of a pilot scale production of plantlets from nine commercial cacao clones by somatic embryogenesis. Primary somatic embryogenesis procedures. Immature cacao flowers (approximately 900 in total), 6-8 mm in length, from ...

  2. Psychobiological differences between depression and somatization. (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Hennings, Anika; Riemer, Sabine; Euteneuer, Frank


    Comorbidity studies have shown that depression and somatization (multiple somatoform symptoms) often overlap. Therefore it has been suggested to classify at least some patients with somatization syndromes under the category of depressive disorders. We wanted to investigate whether psychobiological investigations confirm the lumping of somatization and depression, or whether psychobiological pathways favor distinguishing these disorders. An overview is presented summarizing psychobiological studies including patients with depression and/or somatization-associated syndromes. We focus on the following topics: heritability, polymorphisms in special candidate genes, immune activation, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, serotonergic pathways, monoamino acids, and fatty acid concentrations. Immunological activation seems to be associated with specific features of somatoform disorders, namely, sickness behavior and pain thresholds. Genetic factors can also contribute to somatic complaints, e.g., via serotonergic pathways, HPA-axis response, immune activation, and other biological systems that contribute to the self-description of not being healthy. Some results indicate that psychobiological aspects of depression and somatization overlap in part (e.g., the relevance of serotonergic pathways), but there is clearly more evidence for discrepancies of psychobiological pathways in depression and somatization (e.g., the relevance of proinflammatory immune processes; HPA-axis activity; monoamino acid availability; omega-3-concentration; the role of triallelic subtypes of 5-HTTLPR). Many psychobiological pathways act differently in depression and somatization. These differences in psychobiology favor the distinction of these syndromes in classification approaches. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  4. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial clones of Theobroma cacao L. ... Overall, flower petals performed better than staminodes, and our best performing genotype yielded an average of 7-10 embryos produced in brown callus explants with embryogenic response during primary somatic ...

  5. Chitinases and arabinogalactan proteins in somatic embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengel, van A.J.


    In vitro cultured carrot suspension cells can function as starting material for the generation of somatic embryos. Compounds secreted by suspension cells can influence the process of somatic embryogenesis. One class of such compounds, the secreted EP3 endochitinases,

  6. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of somatic embryogenesis in Juniperus communis has been conducted as a preliminary study for the further development of somatic embryogenesis, micropropagation and long-term conservation/cryopreservation in Juniperus procera, which is economically and ecologically important and endangered forest ...

  7. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study of somatic embryogenesis in Juniperus communis has been conducted as a preliminary study for the further development of somatic embryogenesis, micropropagation and long-term conservation/cryopreservation in Juniperus procera, which is economically and ecologically important and ...

  8. Somatic mutations in aging, cancer and neurodegeneration. (United States)

    Kennedy, Scott R; Loeb, Lawrence A; Herr, Alan J


    The somatic mutation theory of aging posits that the accumulation of mutations in the genetic material of somatic cells as a function of time results in a decrease in cellular function. In particular, the accumulation of random mutations may inactivate genes that are important for the functioning of the somatic cells of various organ systems of the adult, result in a decrease in organ function. When the organ function decreases below a critical level, death occurs. A significant amount of research has shown that somatic mutations play an important role in aging and a number of age related pathologies. In this review, we explore evidence for increases in somatic nuclear mutation burden with age and the consequences for aging, cancer, and neurodegeneration. We then review evidence for increases in mitochondrial mutation burden and the consequences for dysfunction in the disease processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Asymmetric Supercapacitor for Long-Duration Power Storage (United States)

    Rangan, Krishnaswamy K.; Sudarshan, Tirumalai S.


    A document discusses a project in which a series of novel hybrid positive electrode materials was developed and tested in asymmetric capacitors with carbon negative electrodes. The electrochemical performance of the hybrid capacitors was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and a DC charge/discharge test. The hybrid capacitor exhibited ideal capacitor behavior with an extended operating voltage of 1.6 V in aqueous electrolyte, and energy density higher than activated carbon-based supercapacitors. Nanostructured MnO2 is a promising material for electrochemical capacitors (ECS) because of its low cost, environmentally friendly nature, and reasonably high specific capacitance. The charge capacity of the capacitors can be further improved by increasing the specific surface area of the MnO2 electrode material. The power density and space radiation stability of the capacitors can be enhanced by coating the MnO2 nanoparticles with conducting polymers. The conducting polymer coating also helps in radiation-hardening the ECS.

  10. Somatic Expression of Psychological Problems (Somatization: Examination with Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Seda Çolak


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to define which psychological symptoms (somatization, depression, obsessive ‐ compulsive, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism cause somatic reactions at most. Total effect of these psychological symptoms on somatic symptoms had been investigated. Study was carried out with structural equation model to research the relation between the psychological symptoms and somatization. The main material of the research is formed by the data obtained from 492 people. SCL‐90‐R scale was used in order to obtain the data. As a result of the structural equation analysis, it has been found that 1Psychoticism, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation do not predict somatic symptoms.2There is a negative relation between interpersonal sensitivity level mand somatic reactions.3Anxiety symptoms had been found as causative to occur the highest level of somatic reactions.

  11. Baseline Testing of the Club Car Carryall With Asymmetric Ultracapacitors (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.


    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the Club Car Carryall with asymmetric ultracapacitors as a way to reduce pollution in industrial settings, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The Club Car Carryall provides an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in electric vehicle technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via non-traditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The Carryall is a state of the art, ground up, electric utility vehicle. A unique aspect of the project was the use of a state of the art, long life ultracapacitor energy storage system. Innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The Carryall was tested with the standard lead acid battery energy storage system, as well as with an asymmetric ultracapacitor energy storage system. The report concludes that the Carryall provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of asymmetric ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  12. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings. (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana


    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  13. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong


    The employment of metal salts is quite limited in asymmetric catalysis, although it would provide an additional arsenal of safe and inexpensive reagents to create molecular functions with high optical purity. Cation chelation by polyethers increases the salts' solubility in conventional organic...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...

  14. Does asymmetric correlation affect portfolio optimization? (United States)

    Fryd, Lukas


    The classical portfolio optimization problem does not assume asymmetric behavior of relationship among asset returns. The existence of asymmetric response in correlation on the bad news could be important information in portfolio optimization. The paper applies Dynamic conditional correlation model (DCC) and his asymmetric version (ADCC) to propose asymmetric behavior of conditional correlation. We analyse asymmetric correlation among S&P index, bonds index and spot gold price before mortgage crisis in 2008. We evaluate forecast ability of the models during and after mortgage crisis and demonstrate the impact of asymmetric correlation on the reduction of portfolio variance.

  15. Hydroxamic acids in asymmetric synthesis. (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi


    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst's center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Because of their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which uses the titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities.

  16. Somatic presentations of distress in China. (United States)

    Zaroff, Charles M; Davis, J Mark; Chio, Pit Hoi; Madhavan, Deepak


    Somatic presentations of distress are common cross-culturally and are thought to predominate in Asian cultures such as that of China. From an etic perspective, researchers utilizing empirically validated standardized assessment measures find that somatic symptoms are no more common in individuals of Chinese descent than they are in individuals of European descent. In contrast, patient presentations are heavily influenced by culture and are associated with patterns of illness behavior. The objective of the current review is to determine the culture-specific factors contributing to somatic presentations and descriptions of distress in China. The current review was based on a literature search of PubMed and PsychInfo using the terms 'China,' 'Asia,' 'somatoform,' 'somatization,' and 'psychogenic.' Factors contributing to somatic presentations of distress in China include stigma and help-seeking behavior, and assessment approaches that ignore culture-specific patterns of symptom reporting, fail to incorporate somatic metaphor and Chinese conceptualizations of distress that emphasize bodily sensation, and ignore the role that culture-specific normative data and culture specific response patterns may produce on assessment results. From an emic perspective, there are numerous factors contributing to the appearance of a predominantly somatic presentation of distress in China. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  17. [Somatization disorder - an overdiagnosed but underestimated illness]. (United States)

    Karvonen, Juha T; Läksy, Kristian; Räsänen, Sami


    Physical symptoms often occur in the absence of physical illness. This is termed somatization when the symptoms are caused by psychic factors. When abundant symptoms affect the functional capacity and cause subjective harm and seeking healthcare services, a psychic disorder may be in question. Somatization may be associated with numerous psychic disorders. It may, however, also be a question of a somatoform disorder having a physical symptom picture. Somatization disorder is one of the somatoform disorders. Recognition of the disorder is often the problem in its treatment. Establishing a long-term treatment relationship actually forms the basis for therapy.

  18. The rich somatic life of Wolbachia. (United States)

    Pietri, Jose E; DeBruhl, Heather; Sullivan, William


    Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont infecting most arthropod and some filarial nematode species that is vertically transmitted through the maternal lineage. Due to this primary mechanism of transmission, most studies have focused on Wolbachia interactions with the host germline. However, over the last decade many studies have emerged highlighting the prominence of Wolbachia in somatic tissues, implicating somatic tissue tropism as an important aspect of the life history of this endosymbiont. Here, we review our current understanding of Wolbachia-host interactions at both the cellular and organismal level, with a focus on Wolbachia in somatic tissues. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ultrasensitive detection of coliforms by means of direct asymmetric PCR combined with disposable magnetic amperometric genosensors. (United States)

    Loaiza, Oscar A; Campuzano, Susana; Pedrero, María; García, Pedro; Pingarrón, José M


    An extremely sensitive procedure for the isolation and detection of DNA from bacterial cell cultures is described. Direct asymmetric PCR amplified products from E. coli cultures are specifically detected, at a concentration level as low as 0.01 cfu mL(-1) (cfu, colony forming unit), using disposable magnetic DNA hybridization amperometric sensors with no need for culture preconcentration steps.

  20. Asymmetric hydrogenation using monodentate phosphoramidite ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Lefort, Laurent; De Vries, Johannes G.


    Monodentate phosphoramidites are excellent ligands for Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations of substituted olefins. Enantioselectivities between 95 and 99% were obtained in the asymmetric hydrogenation of protected alpha- and beta-dehydroamino acids and esters, itaconic acid and esters, aromatic

  1. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education. (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey


    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers' overall well-being.

  2. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul


    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b...

  3. Structure of asymmetrical peptide dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okrugin, B.M.; Neelov, I.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Borisov, Oleg V.


    Structural properties of asymmetric peptide dendrimers up to the 11th generation are studied on the basis of the self-consistent field Scheutjens-Fleer numerical approach. It is demonstrated that large scale properties such as, e.g., the gyration radius, are relatively weakly affected by the

  4. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin


    Sep 7, 2016 ... The first objective of this study was to assess and optimize somatic embryo production in a genetically ... largely empirical science to evolve into the foundation of ... accessible, 3) genetic and epigenetic uniformity in the.

  5. Somatic polyploidization and characterization of induced polyploids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic polyploidization and characterization of induced polyploids of Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea cayenensis. Pachakkil Babil, Midori Iino, Yukiko Kashihara, Ryo Matsumoto, Hidehiko Kikuno, Antonio Lopez-Montes, Hironobu Shiwachi ...

  6. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma cacao L. Biochemical difference related to sulphur metabolism between embryogenic and non embryogenic calli. Minyaka Emile, Niemenak Nicolas, Issali Emmanuel Auguste, Sangare Abdourahamane, Denis Ndoumou Omokolo ...

  7. Relationship between five climatic parameters and somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between five climatic parameters and somatic embryogenesis from sporophytic floral explants of Theobroma cacao L. AE Issal, A Traore, JL Konan, J Mpika, E Minyaka, JAK Ngoran, A Sangare ...

  8. Biological phenotypes underpin the physio-somatic symptoms of somatization, depression, and chronic fatigue syndrome. (United States)

    Anderson, G; Berk, M; Maes, M


    Somatization is a symptom cluster characterized by 'psychosomatic' symptoms, that is, medically unexplained symptoms, and is a common component of other conditions, including depression and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). This article reviews the data regarding the pathophysiological foundations of 'psychosomatic' symptoms and the implications that this has for conceptualization of what may more appropriately be termed physio-somatic symptoms. This narrative review used papers published in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar electronic databases using the keywords: depression and chronic fatigue, depression and somatization, somatization and chronic fatigue syndrome, each combined with inflammation, inflammatory, tryptophan, and cell-mediated immune (CMI). The physio-somatic symptoms of depression, ME/CFS, and somatization are associated with specific biomarkers of inflammation and CMI activation, which are correlated with, and causally linked to, changes in the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway. Oxidative and nitrosative stress induces damage that increases neoepitopes and autoimmunity that contribute to the immuno-inflammatory processes. These pathways are all known to cause physio-somatic symptoms, including fatigue, malaise, autonomic symptoms, hyperalgesia, intestinal hypermotility, peripheral neuropathy, etc. Biological underpinnings, such as immune-inflammatory pathways, may explain, at least in part, the occurrence of physio-somatic symptoms in depression, somatization, or myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and thus the clinical overlap among these disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Somatic surveillance: corporeal control through information networks


    Monahan, Torin; Wall, Tyler


    Somatic surveillance is the increasingly invasive technological monitoring of and intervention into body functions. Within this type of surveillance regime, bodies are recast as nodes on vast information networks, enabling corporeal control through remote network commands, automated responses, or self-management practices. In this paper, we investigate three developments in somatic surveillance: nanotechnology systems for soldiers on the battlefield, commercial body-monitoring systems for hea...

  10. Living in Movement: Development of Somatic Practices in Different Cultures. (United States)

    Fortin, Sylvie


    Provides a transcultural perspective on somatics, reflecting on the evolution of somatics in different dance communities around the world, noting shifts that have occurred within specific cultural contexts, and discussing the presence of somatics in academia with the challenge of conducting research that retains somatic integrity. The article…

  11. Dance and Somatic Inquiry in Studios and Community Dance Programs. (United States)

    Eddy, Martha Hart


    Addresses pragmatic aspects of somatics in the public sector, investigating the fit of somatics within various institutions and settings, including universities, professional schools, and community programs. The article explores issues such as somatic movement approaches, certification, academic degrees in somatic study, confusions within the…

  12. The use of somatic embryogenesis for plant propagation in cassava

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, K.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.


    In cassava, somatic embryogenesis starts with the culture of leaf explants on solid Murashige and Skoog-based medium supplemented with auxins. Mature somatic embryos are formed within 6 wk. The cotyledons of the primary somatic embryos are used as explants for a new cycle of somatic embryogenesis.

  13. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev


    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  14. A Note on Asymmetric Thick Branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bazeia


    Full Text Available We study asymmetric thick braneworld scenarios, generated after adding a constant to the superpotential associated with the scalar field. We study in particular models with odd and even polynomial superpotentials, and we show that asymmetric brane can be generated irrespective of the potential being symmetric or asymmetric. We study in addition the nonpolynomial sine-Gordon like model, also constructed with the inclusion of a constant in the standard superpotential, and we investigate gravitational stability of the asymmetric brane. The results suggest robustness of the new braneworld scenarios and add further possibilities of the construction of asymmetric branes.

  15. Somatic mutations in cerebral cortical malformations. (United States)

    Jamuar, Saumya S; Lam, Anh-Thu N; Kircher, Martin; D'Gama, Alissa M; Wang, Jian; Barry, Brenda J; Zhang, Xiaochang; Hill, Robert Sean; Partlow, Jennifer N; Rozzo, Aldo; Servattalab, Sarah; Mehta, Bhaven K; Topcu, Meral; Amrom, Dina; Andermann, Eva; Dan, Bernard; Parrini, Elena; Guerrini, Renzo; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel F; Leventer, Richard J; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai Lin; Barkovich, A James; Sahin, Mustafa; Chang, Bernard S; Bamshad, Michael; Nickerson, Deborah A; Shendure, Jay; Poduri, Annapurna; Yu, Timothy W; Walsh, Christopher A


    Although there is increasing recognition of the role of somatic mutations in genetic disorders, the prevalence of somatic mutations in neurodevelopmental disease and the optimal techniques to detect somatic mosaicism have not been systematically evaluated. Using a customized panel of known and candidate genes associated with brain malformations, we applied targeted high-coverage sequencing (depth, ≥200×) to leukocyte-derived DNA samples from 158 persons with brain malformations, including the double-cortex syndrome (subcortical band heterotopia, 30 persons), polymicrogyria with megalencephaly (20), periventricular nodular heterotopia (61), and pachygyria (47). We validated candidate mutations with the use of Sanger sequencing and, for variants present at unequal read depths, subcloning followed by colony sequencing. Validated, causal mutations were found in 27 persons (17%; range, 10 to 30% for each phenotype). Mutations were somatic in 8 of the 27 (30%), predominantly in persons with the double-cortex syndrome (in whom we found mutations in DCX and LIS1), persons with periventricular nodular heterotopia (FLNA), and persons with pachygyria (TUBB2B). Of the somatic mutations we detected, 5 (63%) were undetectable with the use of traditional Sanger sequencing but were validated through subcloning and subsequent sequencing of the subcloned DNA. We found potentially causal mutations in the candidate genes DYNC1H1, KIF5C, and other kinesin genes in persons with pachygyria. Targeted sequencing was found to be useful for detecting somatic mutations in patients with brain malformations. High-coverage sequencing panels provide an important complement to whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing in the evaluation of somatic mutations in neuropsychiatric disease. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others.).

  16. Geodesics in Asymmetric Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennucci Andrea C. G.


    Full Text Available In a recent paper [17] we studied asymmetric metric spaces; in this context we studied the length of paths, introduced the class of run-continuous paths; and noted that there are different definitions of “length spaces” (also known as “path-metric spaces” or “intrinsic spaces”. In this paper we continue the analysis of asymmetric metric spaces.We propose possible definitions of completeness and (local compactness.We define the geodesics using as admissible paths the class of run-continuous paths.We define midpoints, convexity, and quasi-midpoints, but without assuming the space be intrinsic.We distinguish all along those results that need a stronger separation hypothesis. Eventually we discuss how the newly developed theory impacts the most important results, such as the existence of geodesics, and the renowned Hopf-Rinow (or Cohn-Vossen theorem.

  17. Electron Jet of Asymmetric Reconnection (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retino, A.; hide


    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E(sub parallel lines) amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV/m and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.

  18. Alexithymia and Somatization in Depressed Patients: The Role of the Type of Somatic Symptom Attribution. (United States)

    Taycan, Okan; Özdemir, Armağan; Erdoğan Taycan, Serap


    This study aimed to establish the association between alexithymia and various factors, mainly somatization, and to determine the predictors of alexithymia in depressed patients. A total of 90 patients with major depressive disorder who met The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria were administered the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Beck Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), Somatosensory Amplification Scale, and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire. The patients were classified into two groups as alexithymic and non-alexithymic with respect to the TAS cut-off points (≥59=alexithymic). Predictors of alexithymia were tested by multiple linear regression analysis. Of all patients, 36 (40%) were in the alexithymic group. The percentage of women, depression severity, level of general psychopathology and distress, and somatic symptom reporting (SCL-90), as well as the tendency to somatosensory amplification and three forms of somatic symptom attributions, were significantly higher in alexithymic patients than in non-alexithymic patients. Furthermore, age, depression severity, somatic symptom reporting, and the tendency to attribute physical symptoms to somatic causes were predictors of alexithymia. The results indicated an intimate association between alexithymia and somatization in depressed patients. Therefore, when evaluating depressed patients with alexithymia, their tendency for somatization should be considered, and alexithymic individuals should be assessed with particular attention, considering that somatization can mask the underlying depressive condition.

  19. Asymmetric enrichment of PIE-1 in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote mediated by binary counterdiffusion. (United States)

    Daniels, Brian R; Perkins, Edward M; Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Sun, Sean X; Wirtz, Denis


    To generate cellular diversity in developing organisms while simultaneously maintaining the developmental potential of the germline, germ cells must be able to preferentially endow germline daughter cells with a cytoplasmic portion containing specialized cell fate determinants not inherited by somatic cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans, germline inheritance of the protein PIE-1 is accomplished by first asymmetrically localizing the protein to the germplasm before cleavage and subsequently degrading residual levels of the protein in the somatic cytoplasm after cleavage. Despite its critical involvement in cell fate determination, the enrichment of germline determinants remains poorly understood. Here, combining live-cell fluorescence methods and kinetic modeling, we demonstrate that the enrichment process does not involve protein immobilization, intracellular compartmentalization, or localized protein degradation. Instead, our results support a heterogeneous reaction/diffusion model for PIE-1 enrichment in which the diffusion coefficient of PIE-1 is reversibly reduced in the posterior, resulting in a stable protein gradient across the zygote at steady state.

  20. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.


    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  1. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model


    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.


    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical...

  2. Up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin


    Bulk toroidal rotation has proven capable of stabilising both dangerous MHD modes and turbulence. In this thesis, we explore a method to drive rotation in large tokamaks: up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. We seek to maximise this rotation by finding optimal up-down asymmetric flux surface shapes. First, we use the ideal MHD model to show that low order external shaping (e.g. elongation) is best for creating up-down asymmetric flux surfaces throughout the device. Then, we calculate realistic up-down asymmetric equilibria for input into nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence analysis. Analytic gyrokinetics shows that, in the limit of fast shaping effects, a poloidal tilt of the flux surface shaping has little effect on turbulent transport. Since up-down symmetric surfaces do not transport momentum, this invariance to tilt implies that devices with mirror symmetry about any line in the poloidal plane will drive minimal rotation. Accordingly, further analytic investigation suggests that non-mirror symmetri...

  3. Assessment of somatic symptoms in British secondary school children using the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI). (United States)

    Vila, Mar; Kramer, Tami; Hickey, Nicole; Dattani, Meera; Jefferis, Helen; Singh, Mandeep; Garralda, M Elena


    To present normative and psychometric data on somatic symptoms using the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) in a nonclinical sample of British young people, and to assess associations with stress and functional impairment. A total of 1,173 students (11- to 16-years old) completed the CSI and self-report psychopathology measures. The median CSI total score was 12 (5, 23). Headaches, feeling low in energy, sore muscles, faintness, and nausea were most frequent. Girls scored higher than boys, and respondents aged 13-14 years lower than younger children. The CSI showed good internal consistency and exploratory factor analysis yielded three factors: pain/weakness, gastrointestinal, and pseudoneurological. A quarter of respondents reported somatic symptoms were made worse by stress. CSI scores were moderately significantly correlated with impairment and emotional symptoms. The CSI, complemented by information on functional impairment and stress is an appropriate measure of recent somatic symptoms and somatization risk in young people for use in the UK.

  4. Hsp70A and GlsA interact as partner chaperones to regulate asymmetric division in Volvox. (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Pappas, Valeria; Hallmann, Armin; Miller, Stephen M


    GlsA, a J-protein chaperone, is required for the asymmetric divisions that set aside germ and somatic cell precursors during embryogenesis in Volvox carteri, and previous evidence indicated that this function requires an intact Hsp70-binding site. To determine if Hsp70A, the only known cytoplasmic Hsp70 in V. carteri, is the chaperone partner of GlsA, we investigated the localization of the two proteins during critical stages of embryogenesis and tested their capacity to interact. We found that a substantial fraction of Hsp70A co-localizes with GlsA, both in interphase and mitotic blastomeres. In addition, Hsp70A coimmunoprecipitated with GlsA, and co-expression of GlsA and Hsp70A variants partially rescued the Gls phenotype of a glsA mutant, whereas neither variant by itself rescued the mutant phenotype. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that GlsA is about equally abundant in all blastomeres at all cleavage stages examined but that Hsp70A is more abundant in anterior (asymmetrically dividing) blastomeres than in posterior (symmetrically dividing) blastomeres during the period of asymmetric division. We conclude that Hsp70A and GlsA function as chaperone partners that regulate asymmetric division and that the relative abundance of Hsp70A in asymmetrically dividing embryos may determine which blastomeres divide asymmetrically and which do not.

  5. Hybrid Warfare – A Form of Asymmetric Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura-Maria Herța


    ... century features novel aspects. Several concepts have been coined in order to describe the nature and dynamic of warfare in a post-clausewitzian/post-conventional era, such as new wars, Fourth Generation Warfare, compound wars...

  6. Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer. (United States)

    Ju, Young Seok; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Gerstung, Moritz; Martincorena, Inigo; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Davies, Helen R; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Gundem, Gunes; Shlien, Adam; Bolli, Niccolo; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Nangalia, Jyoti; Massie, Charles E; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Vassiliou, George S; Green, Anthony R; Du, Ming-Qing; Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Pimanda, John E; Teh, Bin Tean; Munshi, Nikhil; Greaves, Mel; Vyas, Paresh; El-Naggar, Adel K; Santarius, Tom; Collins, V Peter; Grundy, Richard; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, D Neil; Malkin, David; Foster, Christopher S; Warren, Anne Y; Whitaker, Hayley C; Brewer, Daniel; Eeles, Rosalind; Cooper, Colin; Neal, David; Visakorpi, Tapio; Isaacs, William B; Bova, G Steven; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Futreal, P Andrew; Lynch, Andy G; Chinnery, Patrick F; McDermott, Ultan; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J


    Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic substitutions, which exhibited dramatic replicative strand bias, predominantly C > T and A > G on the mitochondrial heavy strand. This strand-asymmetric signature differs from those found in nuclear cancer genomes but matches the inferred germline process shaping primate mtDNA sequence content. A number of mtDNA mutations showed considerable heterogeneity across tumor types. Missense mutations were selectively neutral and often gradually drifted towards homoplasmy over time. In contrast, mutations resulting in protein truncation undergo negative selection and were almost exclusively heteroplasmic. Our findings indicate that the endogenous mutational mechanism has far greater impact than any other external mutagens in mitochondria and is fundamentally linked to mtDNA replication.

  7. Genetic chimerism of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay 96 is maintained through organogenesis but not somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butterlin Gisèle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine can be a periclinal chimera plant which is composed at least of two distinct cell layers (L1, L2. When the cell layers of this plant are separated by passage through somatic embryogenesis, regenerated plants could show distinct DNA profiles and a novel phenotype which proved different from that of the parent plant. Results Genetically Chardonnay clone 96 is a periclinal chimera plant in which is L1 and L2 cell layers are distinct. Plants obtained via organogenesis through meristematic bulks are shown to be composed of both cell layers. However, plants regenerated through somatic embryogenesis starting from anthers or nodal explants are composed only of L1 cells. These somaclones do not show phenotypic differences to the parental clone up to three years after regeneration. Interestingly, the only somaclone showing an atypical phenotype (asymmetric leave shows a genotypic modification. Conclusion These results suggest that the phenotype of Chardonnay 96 does not result from an interaction between the two distinct cell layers L1 and L2. If phenotype conformity is further confirmed, somatic embryogenesis will result in true-to-type somaclones of Chardonnay 96 and would be well suitable for gene transfer.

  8. glsA, a Volvox gene required for asymmetric division and germ cell specification, encodes a chaperone-like protein. (United States)

    Miller, S M; Kirk, D L


    The gls genes of Volvox are required for the asymmetric divisions that set apart cells of the germ and somatic lineages during embryogenesis. Here we used transposon tagging to clone glsA, and then showed that it is expressed maximally in asymmetrically dividing embryos, and that it encodes a 748-amino acid protein with two potential protein-binding domains. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of these, the J domain (by which Hsp40-class chaperones bind to and activate specific Hsp70 partners) abolishes the capacity of glsA to rescue mutants. Based on this and other considerations, including the fact that the GlsA protein is associated with the mitotic spindle, we discuss how it might function, in conjunction with an Hsp70-type partner, to shift the division plane in asymmetrically dividing cells.

  9. Somatic Host Cell Alterations in HPV Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R. Litwin


    Full Text Available High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC-driven mutations and genomic instability leading to copy number variations and large chromosomal rearrangements. HPV-associated cancers have recurrent somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN, human leukocyte antigen A and B (HLA-A and HLA-B-A/B, and the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ pathway, and rarely have mutations in the tumor protein p53 (TP53 and RB transcriptional corepressor 1 (RB1 tumor suppressor genes. There are some variations by tumor site, such as NOTCH1 mutations which are primarily found in head and neck cancers. Understanding the somatic events following HPV infection and persistence can aid the development of early detection biomarkers, particularly when mutations in precancers are characterized. Somatic mutations may also influence prognosis and treatment decisions.

  10. Somatic Host Cell Alterations in HPV Carcinogenesis. (United States)

    Litwin, Tamara R; Clarke, Megan A; Dean, Michael; Wentzensen, Nicolas


    High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-driven mutations and genomic instability leading to copy number variations and large chromosomal rearrangements. HPV-associated cancers have recurrent somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha ( PIK3CA ) and phosphatase and tensin homolog ( PTEN ), human leukocyte antigen A and B ( HLA-A and HLA-B ) -A/B , and the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway, and rarely have mutations in the tumor protein p53 ( TP53 ) and RB transcriptional corepressor 1 ( RB1 ) tumor suppressor genes. There are some variations by tumor site, such as NOTCH1 mutations which are primarily found in head and neck cancers. Understanding the somatic events following HPV infection and persistence can aid the development of early detection biomarkers, particularly when mutations in precancers are characterized. Somatic mutations may also influence prognosis and treatment decisions.

  11. Asymmetrical reinforcement and Wolbachia infection in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jaenike


    Full Text Available Reinforcement refers to the evolution of increased mating discrimination against heterospecific individuals in zones of geographic overlap and can be considered a final stage in the speciation process. One the factors that may affect reinforcement is the degree to which hybrid matings result in the permanent loss of genes from a species' gene pool. Matings between females of Drosophila subquinaria and males of D. recens result in high levels of offspring mortality, due to interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia infection of D. recens. Such hybrid inviability is not manifested in matings between D. recens females and D. subquinaria males. Here we ask whether the asymmetrical hybrid inviability is associated with a corresponding asymmetry in the level of reinforcement. The geographic ranges of D. recens and D. subquinaria were found to overlap across a broad belt of boreal forest in central Canada. Females of D. subquinaria from the zone of sympatry exhibit much stronger levels of discrimination against males of D. recens than do females from allopatric populations. In contrast, such reproductive character displacement is not evident in D. recens, consistent with the expected effects of unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility. Furthermore, there is substantial behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria, because females from populations sympatric with D. recens discriminate against allopatric conspecific males, whereas females from populations allopatric with D. recens show no discrimination against any conspecific males. Patterns of general genetic differentiation among populations are not consistent with patterns of behavioral discrimination, which suggests that the behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria results from selection against mating with Wolbachia-infected D. recens. Interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility may contribute not only to post-mating isolation, an effect already widely recognized, but also to

  12. Regulation of somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). A molecular approach to the characterization of specific developmental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabala, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics


    Embryo development is a complex process involving a set of strictly regulated events. The regulation of these events is poorly understood especially during the early stages of embryo development. Somatic embryos go through the same developmental stages as zygotic embryos making them an ideal model system for studying the regulation of embryo development. We have used embryogenic cultures of Picea abies to study some aspects of the regulation of embryo development in gymnosperms. The bottle neck during somatic embryogenesis is the switch from the proliferation stage to the maturation stage. This switch is initiated by giving somatic embryos a maturation treatment i.e. the embryos are treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Somatic embryos which respond to ABA by forming mature somatic embryos were stimulated to secret a 70 kDa protein, AF70. The af70 gene was isolated and characterised. The expression of the af70 gene was constitutive in embryos but was highly ABA-induced in seedlings. Moreover, expression of this gene was stimulated during cold acclimation of Picea abies seedlings. A full length Picea abies cDNA clone Pa18, encoding a protein with the characteristics of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), was isolated and characterised. The Pa18 gene is constitutively expressed in embryogenic cultures of Picea abies representing different stages of development as well as in nonembryogenic callus and seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that Pa18 gene is expressed in all embryonic cells of proliferating somatic embryos but the expression of the gene in mature somatic and zygotic embryos is restricted to the outer cell layer. Southern blot analysis at different stringencies was consistent with a single gene. An alteration in expression of Pa18 causes disturbance in the formation of the proper outer cell layer in the maturing somatic embryos. In addition to its influence on embryo development the Pa18 gene product also inhibits growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 195

  13. [Somatization Symptoms in Lung Cancer Patients and Correlative Analysis between Anxiety, Depression and Somatization Symptoms]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyao; Zhang, Xiaoye


    Lung cancer is a serious threat to human health and its morbidity and mortality in recent years has always been ranked first in the country. Lung cancer patients are often associated with anxiety, depression and other emotional problems, and anxiety, depression and other emotional problems will further lead to a series of somatic symptoms. At present, we lack the clinical understanding of somatization symptoms in patients with lung cancer and related clinical studies are not too much. This research is to study the features of clinical manifestation of lung cancer patients with somatization symptoms and correlative analysis between anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms in medical oncology department of general hospital. Lung cancer patients who met somatization symptoms diagnostic standard were assessed with the self-constructed somatic symptoms investigation questionnaire, the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) and anxiety and depression were recorded by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). The detection rate of the anxiety, depression and the number of patients with different severity somatization symptoms were calculated, the relationship between the PHQ-15 scores and anxiety and/or depression and the distribution of the different frequency somatization symptoms were analyzed. There were 43 patients with anxiety and/or depression in the 50 lung cancer patients with somatization symptoms. Prevalence rates of anxiety, depression and anxiety combined with depression were 10%, 10% and 66% respectively. The more severity the somatization symptoms are, the higher detection rates of anxiety combined with depression are. Significant positive correlations were observed between PHQ-15 scores, PHQ-15 positive symptom numbers and HAMA scores (r=0.752, Psomatization symptoms were fatigue (96%), weakness (88%), sleep disturbance (84%), dizziness (82%), and pain in extremities (80%). There was no

  14. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging (United States)

    Jung, Yunjoon


    Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

  15. [Revertant somatic mosaicism in primary immunodeficiency diseases]. (United States)

    Wada, Taizo


    Revertant somatic mosaicism has been described in an increasing number of genetic disorders including primary immunodeficiency diseases. Both back mutations leading to restoration of wild-type sequences and second-site mutations resulting in compensatory changes have been demonstrated in mosaic individuals. Recent studies identifying revertant somatic mosaicism caused by multiple independent genetic changes further support its frequent occurrence in primary immunodeficiency diseases. Revertant mosaicism acquires a particular clinical relevance because it may lead to selective growth advantage of the corrected cells, resulting in improvement of disease symptoms or atypical clinical presentations. This phenomenon also provides us unique opportunities to evaluate the biological effects of restored gene expression in different cell lineages. Here we review the recent findings of revertant somatic mosaicism in primary immunodeficiency diseases and discuss its clinical implications.

  16. Cloning endangered gray wolves (Canis lupus) from somatic cells collected postmortem. (United States)

    Oh, H J; Kim, M K; Jang, G; Kim, H J; Hong, S G; Park, J E; Park, K; Park, C; Sohn, S H; Kim, D Y; Shin, N S; Lee, B C


    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether nuclear transfer of postmortem wolf somatic cells into enucleated dog oocytes, is a feasible method to produce a cloned wolf. In vivo-matured oocytes (from domestic dogs) were enucleated and fused with somatic cells derived from culture of tissue obtained from a male gray wolf 6h after death. The reconstructed embryos were activated and transferred into the oviducts of naturally synchronous domestic bitches. Overall, 372 reconstructed embryos were transferred to 17 recipient dogs; four recipients (23.5%) were confirmed pregnant (ultrasonographically) 23-25 d after embryo transfer. One recipient spontaneously delivered two dead pups and three recipients delivered, by cesarean section, four cloned wolf pups, weighing 450, 190, 300, and 490g, respectively. The pup that weighed 190g died within 12h after birth. The six cloned wolf pups were genetically identical to the donor wolf, and their mitochondrial DNA originated from the oocyte donors. The three live wolf pups had a normal wolf karyotype (78, XY), and the amount of telomeric DNA, assessed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization, was similar to, or lower than, that of the nuclear donor. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the successful cloning of an endangered male gray wolf via interspecies transfer of somatic cells, isolated postmortem from a wolf, and transferred into enucleated dog oocytes. Therefore, somatic cell nuclear transfer has potential for preservation of canine species in extreme situations, including sudden death.

  17. Coherent Somatic Mutation in Autoimmune Disease (United States)

    Ross, Kenneth Andrew


    Background Many aspects of autoimmune disease are not well understood, including the specificities of autoimmune targets, and patterns of co-morbidity and cross-heritability across diseases. Prior work has provided evidence that somatic mutation caused by gene conversion and deletion at segmentally duplicated loci is relevant to several diseases. Simple tandem repeat (STR) sequence is highly mutable, both somatically and in the germ-line, and somatic STR mutations are observed under inflammation. Results Protein-coding genes spanning STRs having markers of mutability, including germ-line variability, high total length, repeat count and/or repeat similarity, are evaluated in the context of autoimmunity. For the initiation of autoimmune disease, antigens whose autoantibodies are the first observed in a disease, termed primary autoantigens, are informative. Three primary autoantigens, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), phogrin (PTPRN2) and filaggrin (FLG), include STRs that are among the eleven longest STRs spanned by protein-coding genes. This association of primary autoantigens with long STR sequence is highly significant (). Long STRs occur within twenty genes that are associated with sixteen common autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis. The repeat within the TTC34 gene is an outlier in terms of length and a link with systemic lupus erythematosus is proposed. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that many autoimmune diseases are triggered by immune responses to proteins whose DNA sequence mutates somatically in a coherent, consistent fashion. Other autoimmune diseases may be caused by coherent somatic mutations in immune cells. The coherent somatic mutation hypothesis has the potential to be a comprehensive explanation for the initiation of many autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988487

  18. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning. (United States)


    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)," last published in Fertil Steril 2000;74:873-6. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas


    . The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health. RESULTS: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0%) had a profile characterized...... by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease...

  20. Females drive asymmetrical introgression from rare to common species in Darwin's tree finches. (United States)

    Peters, K J; Myers, S A; Dudaniec, R Y; O'Connor, J A; Kleindorfer, S


    The consequences of hybridization for biodiversity depend on the specific ecological and evolutionary context in which it occurs. Understanding patterns of gene flow among hybridizing species is crucial for determining the evolutionary trajectories of species assemblages. The recently discovered hybridization between two species of Darwin's tree finches (Camarhynchus parvulus and C. pauper) on Floreana Island, Galápagos, presents an exciting opportunity to investigate the mechanisms causing hybridization and its potential evolutionary consequences under conditions of recent habitat disturbance and the introduction of invasive pathogens. In this study, we combine morphological and genetic analysis with pairing observations to explore the extent, direction and drivers of hybridization and to test whether hybridization patterns are a result of asymmetrical pairing preference driven by females of the rarer species (C. pauper). We found asymmetrical introgression from the critically endangered, larger-bodied C. pauper to the common, smaller-bodied C. parvulus, which was associated with a lack of selection against heterospecific males by C. pauper females. Examination of pairing data showed that C. parvulus females paired assortatively, whereas C. pauper females showed no such pattern. This study shows how sex-specific drivers can determine the direction of gene flow in hybridizing species. Furthermore, our results suggest the existence of a hybrid swarm comprised of C. parvulus and hybrid birds. We discuss the influence of interspecific abundance differences and susceptibility to the invasive parasite Philornis downsi on the observed hybridization and recommend that the conservation of this iconic species group should be managed jointly rather than species-specific. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. LG tools for asymmetric wargaming (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Alex; Yakhnis, Vladimir


    Asymmetric operations represent conflict where one of the sides would apply military power to influence the political and civil environment, to facilitate diplomacy, and to interrupt specified illegal activities. This is a special type of conflict where the participants do not initiate full-scale war. Instead, the sides may be engaged in a limited open conflict or one or several sides may covertly engage another side using unconventional or less conventional methods of engagement. They may include peace operations, combating terrorism, counterdrug operations, arms control, support of insurgencies or counterinsurgencies, show of force. An asymmetric conflict can be represented as several concurrent interlinked games of various kinds: military, transportation, economic, political, etc. Thus, various actions of peace violators, terrorists, drug traffickers, etc., can be expressed via moves in different interlinked games. LG tools allow us to fully capture the specificity of asymmetric conflicts employing the major LG concept of hypergame. Hypergame allows modeling concurrent interlinked processes taking place in geographically remote locations at different levels of resolution and time scale. For example, it allows us to model an antiterrorist operation taking place simultaneously in a number of countries around the globe and involving wide range of entities from individuals to combat units to governments. Additionally, LG allows us to model all sides of the conflict at their level of sophistication. Intelligent stakeholders are represented by means of LG generated intelligent strategies. TO generate those strategies, in addition to its own mathematical intelligence, the LG algorithm may incorporate the intelligence of the top-level experts in the respective problem domains. LG models the individual differences between intelligent stakeholders. The LG tools make it possible to incorporate most of the known traits of a stakeholder, i.e., real personalities involved in

  2. Loan sales under asymmetric information


    Vargas Martínez, Mónica


    Loans are illiquid assets that can be sold in a secondary market even that buyers have no certainty about their quality. I study a model in which a lender has access to new investment opportunities when all her assets are illiquid. To raise funds, the lender may either borrow using her assets as collateral, or she can sell them in a secondary market. Given asymmetric information about assets quality, the lender cannot recover the total value of her assets. There is then a role for the governm...

  3. The association between somatization and disability in primary care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leeuw, G.; Gerrits, M.J.G.; Terluin, B.; Numans, M.E.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.; van der Horst, H.E.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.


    Background: Patient encounters for medically unexplained physical symptoms are common in primary health care. Somatization ('experiencing and reporting unexplained somatic symptoms') may indicate concurrent or future disability but this may also partly be caused by psychiatric disorders. The aim of

  4. [Interdependance between somatic symptoms, sleep and dreams]. (United States)

    Todorov, Assya


    Even in an established illness, somatic complains can hide other emotional inquiries. The therapist, always with a kind attitude, can ask more about patient's sexual life. This can be use of having a better idea of patient's life and problems. Talking about dreams can also be useful: it gives new and surprising elements about patient's personality and helps to progress on healing's way.

  5. Depression, disability and somatic diseases among elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dekker, Janny; De Waal, M.W.M.; Van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Comijs, H.C.


    Objective: Depression among older adults is associated with both disability and somatic disease. We aimed to further understand this complicated relationship and to study the possible modifying effect of increasing age. Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Outpatient and inpatient clinics of

  6. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.


    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  7. Somatization in Parkinson's Disease: A systematic review. (United States)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara; Onofrj, Marco; Morberg, Bo Mohr; Thomas, Astrid; Bonanni, Laura; Fulcheri, Mario


    The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a comprehensive electronic literature research strategy on ISI Web-of-Science, PsychINFO, PubMed, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Out of 2.926 initial records, only a total of 9 studies were identified as clearly relevant and analyzed in this systematic review. The prevalence of somatization in PD has been found to range between 7.0% and 66.7%, with somatoform disorders acting as clinical factor significantly contributing to predict a progressive cognitive impairment. We highlighted that somatization is a highly prevalent comorbidity affecting PD. However, the clinical consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Somatic embryogenesis and polyamines in woody plants (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha; Liisa Kaarina Simola


    The formation of whole plants from cultured cells is interesting not only because of its applications for mass propagation but also as a prime example of the process of controlled development and differentiation in plants. Cultures capable of producing somatic embryos with high frequency provide ideal experimental systems to study and understand the biochemical basis...

  9. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of recalcitrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many restrictive factors still remain in cotton tissue culture such as long duration, unpredictability and a high degree of genotype dependence. The main objective of this study was to develop a protocol allowing consistent somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from five recalcitrant cotton cultivars. Our results ...

  10. Genetic transformation of olive somatic embryos through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 20, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic transformation of olive somatic embryos through Agrobacterium tumefaciens and regeneration of transgenic plants. Mahboobeh Jafarzadeh-Bajestani 1#, Maryam Khodai-Kalaki 1#, Nasrin Motamed1*, Omidreza. Noorayin2. 1The University College of science, Faculty ...

  11. Symptomatology and comorbidity of somatization disorder amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Individuals with somatization may be the most difficult to manage because of the diverse and frequent complaints across many organ systems. They often use impressionistic language to describe circumstantial symptoms which though bizarre, may resemble genuine diseases. The disorder is best understood ...

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Eggplant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 20, 2013 ... Two as well as three way interactions of three eggplant genotypes, media compositions and explants. (hypocotyl, cotyledon and ... hypocotyl of BR-16 was not able to induce somatic embryogenesis on MS media fortified with 1.5 mgl-1 IBA + 1.0 mgl-1 BAP. ..... Manipulation of Plants. Oxford University Press ...

  13. Somatic Symptoms in Traumatized Children and Adolescents (United States)

    Kugler, Brittany B.; Bloom, Marlene; Kaercher, Lauren B.; Truax, Tatyana V.; Storch, Eric A.


    Childhood exposure to trauma has been associated with increased rates of somatic symptoms (SS), which may contribute to diminished daily functioning. One hundred and sixty-one children residing at a residential treatment home who had experienced neglect and/or abuse were administered the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), the…

  14. Sexual Abuse: Somatic and Emotional Reactions. (United States)

    Rimza, Mary Ellen; And Others


    Chart reviews and telephone interviews with 72 sexual abuse victims found that 48 of the children had symptoms similar to the "rape trauma" syndrome. Two-thirds of victims commonly had somatic complaints (such as abdominal pain) and emotional/behavioral problems (runaway behavior, suicide attempts). (DB)

  15. Depression, disability and somatic diseases among elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dekker, J.H.; de Waal, M.W.M.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Comijs, H.C.


    Objective Depression among older adults is associated with both disability and somatic disease. We aimed to further understand this complicated relationship and to study the possible modifying effect of increasing age. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting Outpatient and inpatient clinics of

  16. Depression, disability and somatic diseases among elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dekker, J.H.; Waal, M.W.M. de; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Comijs, H.C.


    Objective: Depression among older adults is associated with both disability and somatic disease. We aimed to further understand this complicated relationship and to study the possible modifying effect of increasing age. Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Outpatient and inpatient clinics of

  17. Somatic Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence. (United States)

    Siegel, Lawrence J.


    Briefly reviews number of theories which address role of psychological factors in etiology of somatic disorders. Focuses on psychological treatment approaches that have been used to alleviate or reduce symptomatic behaviors associated with eating disorders, elimination disorders, and headaches in children. Discusses role of school psychologists in…

  18. symptomatology and comorbidity of somatization disorder amongst

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. General Outpatients Department, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ekiti State, Nigeria. 2. General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital, Ibadan. 3. Family ... underlying mental disorder, manifesting solely as somatic symptoms or with comorbidity. .... group at ratio 1:1, using age (with difference.

  19. Asymmetric liberations in exterior resonances (United States)

    Beauge, C.


    The purpose of this paper is to present a general analysis of the planar circular restricted problem of three bodies in the case of exterior mean-motion resonances. Particularly, our aim is to map the phase space of various commensurabilities and determine the singular solutions of the averaged system, comparing them to the well-known case of interior resonances. In some commensurabilities (e.g. 1/2, 1/3) we show the existence of asymmetric librations; that is, librations in which the stationary value of the critical angle theta = (p+q) lambda1-p lambda-q pi is not equal to either zero or pi. The origin, stability and morphogenesis of these solutions are discussed and compared to symmetric librations. However, in some other resonances (e.g. 2/3, 3/4), these fixed points of the mean system seem to be absent. Librations in such cases are restricted to theta = O mod(pi). Asymmetric singular solutions of the plane circular problem are unknown in the case of interior resonances and cannot be reproduced by the reduced Andoyer Hamiltonian known as the Second Fundamental Model for Resonance. However, we show that the extended version of this Hamiltonian function, in which harmonics up to order two are considered, can reproduce fairly well the principal topological characteristics of the phase space and thereby constitutes a simple and useful analytical approximation for these resonances.

  20. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.


    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  1. Thin lenses of asymmetric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris


    Full Text Available It is generally supposed that thin systems, including refracting surfaces and thin lenses, have powers that are necessarily symmetric.  In other words they have powers which can be represented assymmetric dioptric power matrices and in the familar spherocylindrical form used in optometry and ophthalmology.  This paper shows that this is not correct and that it is indeed possible for a thin system to have a power that is not symmetric and which cannot be expressed in spherocylindrical form.  Thin systems of asymmetric power are illustratedby means of a thin lens that is modelled with small prisms and is chosen to have a dioptric power ma-trix that is antisymmetric.  Similar models can be devised for a thin system whose dioptric power matrix is any  2 2 ×  matrix.  Thus any power, symmetric, asymmetric or antisymmetric, is possible for a thin system.  In this sense our understanding of the power of thin systems is now complete.

  2. Drift waves, intense parallel electric fields, and turbulence associated with asymmetric magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Chen, L.-J.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Eriksson, S.; Usanova, M. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Holmes, J. C.; Sturner, A. P.; Malaspina, D. M.; Newman, D. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M. R.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Burch, J. L.; Webster, J. M.; Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Cassak, P. A.; Swisdak, M.; Shay, M. A.; Graham, D. B.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Hesse, M.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Retino, A.; Phan, T. D.; Goldman, M. V.; Stawarz, J. E.; Schwartz, S. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Hwang, K.-J.; Nakamura, R.; Wang, S.


    Observations of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause often display asymmetric structures that are accompanied by strong magnetic field (B) fluctuations and large-amplitude parallel electric fields (E||). The B turbulence is most intense at frequencies above the ion cyclotron frequency and below the lower hybrid frequency. The B fluctuations are consistent with a thin, oscillating current sheet that is corrugated along the electron flow direction (along the X line), which is a type of electromagnetic drift wave. Near the X line, electron flow is primarily due to a Hall electric field, which diverts ion flow in asymmetric reconnection and accompanies the instability. Importantly, the drift waves appear to drive strong parallel currents which, in turn, generate large-amplitude ( 100 mV/m) E|| in the form of nonlinear waves and structures. These observations suggest that turbulence may be common in asymmetric reconnection, penetrate into the electron diffusion region, and possibly influence the magnetic reconnection process.

  3. Sleep and somatic complaints in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlarb AA


    Full Text Available Angelika A Schlarb,1,* Merle Claßen,1,* Sara M Hellmann,1 Claus Vögele,2 Marco D Gulewitsch3 1Faculty of Psychology and Sports Science, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany; 2Faculty of Psychology, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg; 3Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sleep problems are common among university students. Poor sleep is associated with impaired daily functioning, increased risk of psychiatric symptoms, and somatic complaints such as pain. Previous results suggest that poor sleep exacerbates pain, which in turn negatively affects sleep. The purpose of the present study was to determine prevalence rates, comorbidity, and role of depression as a factor of moderating the relationship between sleep and physical complaints in German university students. Samples and methods: In total, 2443 German university students (65% women completed a web survey. Self-report measures included the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, three modules of the Patient Health Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on the functional somatic syndromes (FSSs. Results: More than one-third (36.9% reported poor sleep as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Somatoform syndrome was identified in 23.5%, and the prevalence of any FSS was 12.8%. Self-reported sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep disturbances, use of sleep medications, and daytime dysfunctioning were significant predictors of somatoform syndrome, whereas sleep efficiency and sleep duration influenced somatic complaints indirectly. Moderate correlations were found between stress, anxiety, somatoform syndrome, depression, and overall sleep quality. The effect of somatic complaints on sleep quality was associated with the severity of depression. Anxiety shows direct effects on somatization and depression but only indirect associations with sleep quality

  4. Somatization in a primary care service for immigrants. (United States)

    Aragona, Massimiliano; Rovetta, Erica; Pucci, Daniela; Spoto, Jolanda; Villa, Anna Maria


    To study somatization in a large sample of immigrants attending a first visit to a primary care service. Differences in somatization among four large immigrant groups (Europeans, Asians, South Americans, and Africans) and 16 subgroups based on nationality were assessed. A total of 3105 patients were asked to participate in the study, of whom 3051 completed the 21-item version of the Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI-21). Patients scoring 14 or higher on the BSI-21 were considered to be somatizers. A multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for intervening variables tested the relative risk of somatization in and among the groups. Among the 3051 patients who completed the BSI-21, 782 (25.6%) were somatizers. Somatizers were significantly more prevalent among South Americans (30.1%). After adjusting for covariates, Asians and Europeans, but not Africans, showed a significantly lower risk of somatization compared to South Americans. Among national subgroups, somatization occurred more frequently in Peruvians (32.9%). Compared to Peruvians, migrants from Eastern Europe, Morocco, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and El Salvador demonstrated a significantly lower risk of somatization. Approximately one-fourth of socially disadvantaged immigrants who accessed primary care services used somatization to express their distress. However, the likelihood of somatization varied widely among the different groups, and was significantly higher in South Americans and in some African groups, and lower in some Asian groups.

  5. Core Outcome Domains for Clinical Trials on Somatic Symptom Disorder, Bodily Distress Disorder, and Functional Somatic Syndromes: European Network on Somatic Symptom Disorders Recommendations. (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Burton, Chris; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Henningsen, Peter; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Kop, Willem J; Löwe, Bernd; Martin, Alexandra; Malt, Ulrik; Rosmalen, Judith; Schröder, Andreas; Shedden-Mora, Meike; Toussaint, Anne; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina

    The harmonization of core outcome domains in clinical trials facilitates comparison and pooling of data, and simplifies the preparation and review of research projects and comparison of risks and benefits of treatments. Therefore, we provide recommendations for the core outcome domains that should be considered in clinical trials on the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions for somatic symptom disorder, bodily distress disorder, and functional somatic syndromes. The European Network on Somatic Symptom Disorders group of more than 20 experts in the field met twice in Hamburg to discuss issues of assessment and intervention research in somatic symptom disorder, bodily distress disorder, and functional somatic syndromes. The consensus meetings identified core outcome domains that should be considered in clinical trials evaluating treatments for somatic symptom disorder and associated functional somatic syndromes. The following core domains should be considered when defining ascertainment methods in clinical trials: a) classification of somatic symptom disorder/bodily distress disorder, associated functional somatic syndromes, and comorbid mental disorders (using structured clinical interviews), duration of symptoms, medical morbidity, and prior treatments; b) location, intensity, and interference of somatic symptoms; c) associated psychobehavioral features and biological markers; d) illness consequences (quality of life, disability, health care utilization, health care costs; e) global improvement and treatment satisfaction; and f) unwanted negative effects. The proposed criteria are intended to improve synergies of clinical trials and to facilitate decision making when comparing different treatment approaches. These recommendations should not result in inflexible guidelines, but increase consistency across investigations in this field.

  6. Somatic hybridization in Nicotiana: Segregation of organellar traits among hybrid and cybrid plants. (United States)

    Glimelius, K; Chen, K; Bonnett, H T


    Protoplasts from a nitrate reductase-deficient mutant of Nicotiana tabacum L. were fused with protoplasts from a stamen-less, cytoplasmically malesterile cultivar of tobacco containing the cytoplasm from N. suaveolens Lehm. Plants were regenerated from the fused protoplasts and characterized with respect to stamen development, chromosome number, and chloroplast composition. Of 29 regenerated plants, stamen production was restored in 26 plants and pollen production in 22. One plant was male sterile and two plants have never flowered. Analysis of the electrophoretic mobility of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) showed that 19 of the plants contained RuBPcase of the N. suaveolens type, six plants contained enzyme of the N. tabacum type, and four plants contained both types. Analysis of resistance to tentoxin in seedlings from 20 of the plants demonstrated that 14 had N. suaveolens-type chloroplasts, three had N. tabacum type, and three contained both types. Many of the plants which produced stamens and pollen still contained chloroplasts of the N. suaveolens type. Thus, the trait of cytoplasmic male sterility in tobacco is not an expression of the type of chloroplast genetic material.

  7. DNA-based hybrid catalysis. (United States)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard


    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Asymmetric Warfare and the Will to Win

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera, Cary


    This thesis explores the will to win in asymmetric war. Asymmetric war, in which one side has an overwhelming advantage over its opponent, will likely be the war of the future for the United States in the post-Cold War uni-polar world...

  9. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max


    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis. I...

  10. Asymmetric Quantum Codes on Toric Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.


    Asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes are quantum codes defined over biased quantum channels: qubit-flip and phase-shift errors may have equal or different probabilities. The code construction is the Calderbank-Shor-Steane construction based on two linear codes. We present families of toric...... surfaces, toric codes and associated asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes....

  11. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach


    Chauhan, Pankaj; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh


    Summary Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  12. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach (United States)

    Chauhan, Pankaj


    Summary Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques. PMID:23243475

  13. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L


    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  14. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chauhan


    Full Text Available Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  15. Microarray analysis of siberian ginseng cyclic somatic embryogenesis culture systems provides insight into molecular mechanisms of embryogenic cell cluster generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Zhou

    Full Text Available Four systems of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim were used to study the mechanism of embryonic cell cluster generation. The first, direct somatic embryo induction (DSEI, generates secondary embryos directly from the primary somatic embryos; the second, direct embryogenic cell cluster induction (DEC, induces embryogenic cell clusters directly from somatic embryos in agar medium. Subsequently, we found that when DEC-derived somatic embryos are transferred to suspension culture or a bioreactor culture, only somatic embryos are induced, and embryogenic cell clusters cannot form. Therefore, these new lines were named DEC cultured by liquid medium (ECS and DEC cultured by bioreactor (ECB, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that DEC epidermal cells contained a variety of inclusions, distinct from other lines. A cDNA library of DEC was constructed, and 1,948 gene clusters were obtained and used as probes. RNA was prepared from somatic embryos from each of the four lines and hybridized to a microarray. In DEC, 7 genes were specifically upregulated compared with the other three lines, and 4 genes were downregulated. EsXTH1 and EsPLT1, which were among the genes upregulated in DEC, were cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Real-time quantitative PCR showed EsXTH1 was more highly expressed in DEC than in other lines throughout the culture cycle, and EsPLT1 expression in DEC increased as culture duration increased, but remained at a low expression level in other lines. These results suggest that EsXTH1 and EsPLT1 may be the essential genes that play important roles during the induction of embryogenic cell clusters.

  16. Production and cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus. (United States)

    Li, Z; Liu, H L; Luo, P


    The intergeneric hybrid between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus was obtained by means of embryo culture technique with the latter as the pollen parent. The hybrid was morphologically intermediate between its parents, but could produce a lot of seeds when selfed. Somatic separation of the genomes from the two parental species was observed during the mitotic divisions of some of the hybrid cells. Thus, the hybrid became the mixoploid in nature, consisting of haploid and diploid cells of B. napus, and a nuclear - cytoplasmic hybrid, with the cytoplasm of B. napus and the nuclei of O. violaceus, and the hybrid cells. Pollen mother cells with 19, 12 and 6 bivalents, respectively, were produced by the hybrid. From the selfed progeny of the hybrid, mainly two kinds of plants, B. napus and the hybrid, were found. The hybrid plants of the selfed progeny again produced two kinds of plants, B. napus and the hybrid.

  17. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić


    Full Text Available ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a technologythat allows transmission at 8.488 Mbps over the existingtelephone copper line (speed range depending on the distance.ADSL circuit connects the ADSL modems by twisted-pairtelephone lines creating three infonnation channels: high speedsimplex (maximum 9 Mbps, medium speed duplex channel(maximum 2 Mbps and plain old telephone service channel.ADSL technology supports up to seven synchronous channelsthat can be configured to meet the needs of the end user.One could simultaneously view four movies stored in MPEG 1fonnat on separate television sets (MPEG 1 transmitted at 1.5Mbps, hold a video-conference (transmitted at 348 kbps,download data files from a server at 128 kbps via ISDN andeven receive a telephone call.

  18. Research on asymmetric searchable encryption (United States)

    Yu, Zonghua; Wu, Yudong


    Cloud server side to ease the user's local storage pressure at the same time, there are hidden data on the hidden dangers, the user often choose to upload the data in the form of cipher text to the cloud server. However, the classic data encryption and decryption algorithms are not provided search function, affecting the user's efficiency. To this end, an asymmetric searchable encryption scheme is proposed. The scheme can be used for any person can generate a trapdoor, cipher text can be free modified, the key pair generated by the user themselves, encrypt the identity, S-shaped virtual and other five loopholes to improve. The analysis results show that the scheme solves the above five vulnerabilities in the original scheme, so that the information semantics of both parties of communication can be guaranteed.

  19. Asymmetric MoS2 /Graphene/Metal Sandwiches: Preparation, Characterization, and Application. (United States)

    Toth, Peter S; Velický, Matĕj; Bissett, Mark A; Slater, Thomas J A; Savjani, Nicky; Rabiu, Aminu K; Rakowski, Alexander M; Brent, Jack R; Haigh, Sarah J; O'Brien, Paul; Dryfe, Robert A W


    The polarizable organic/water interface is used to construct MoS2 /graphene nanocomposites, and various asymmetrically dual-decorated graphene sandwiches are synthesized. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and 3D electron tomography confirm their structure. These dual-decorated graphene-based hybrids show excellent hydrogen evolution activity and promising capacitance performance. © 2016 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals differential gene expression between asymmetric and symmetric zygotic divisions in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Xiang Hu

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell divisions occur widely during many developmental processes in plants. In most angiosperms, the first zygotic cell division is asymmetric resulting in two daughter cells of unequal size and with distinct fates. However, the critical molecular mechanisms regulating this division remain unknown. Previously we showed that treatment of tobacco zygotes with beta-glucosyl Yariv (βGlcY could dramatically alter the first zygotic asymmetric division to produce symmetric two-celled proembryos. In the present study, we isolated zygotes and two-celled asymmetric proembryos in vivo by micromanipulation, and obtained symmetric, two-celled proembryos by in vitro cell cultures. Using suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH and macroarray analysis differential gene expression between the zygote and the asymmetric and symmetric two-celled proembryos was investigated. After sequencing of the differentially expressed clones, a total of 1610 EST clones representing 685 non-redundant transcripts were obtained. Gene ontology (GO term analysis revealed that these transcripts include those involved in physiological processes such as response to stimulus, regulation of gene expression, and localization and formation of anatomical structures. A homology search against known genes from Arabidopsis indicated that some of the above transcripts are involved in asymmetric cell division and embryogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the up- or down-regulation of the selected candidate transcripts during zygotic division. A few of these transcripts were expressed exclusively in the zygote, or in either type of the two-celled proembryos. Expression analyses of select genes in different tissues and organs also revealed potential roles of these transcripts in fertilization, seed maturation and organ development. The putative roles of few of the identified transcripts in the regulation of zygotic division are discussed. Further functional work on these

  1. Multiple somatic symptoms in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, D. P.; Reed, G. M.; Robles, R.


    Objective A World Health Organization (WHO) field study conducted in five countries assessed proposals for Bodily Stress Syndrome (BSS) and Health Anxiety (HA) for the Primary Health Care Version of ICD-11. BSS requires multiple somatic symptoms not caused by known physical pathology and associat...... without identifiable physical pathology. Although highly co-occurring with each other and with mood and anxiety disorders, BSS and HA represent distinct constructs that correspond to important presentations in primary care. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.......Objective A World Health Organization (WHO) field study conducted in five countries assessed proposals for Bodily Stress Syndrome (BSS) and Health Anxiety (HA) for the Primary Health Care Version of ICD-11. BSS requires multiple somatic symptoms not caused by known physical pathology and associated...

  2. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis? (United States)



    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result from these disorders, because these occur mainly within primary care and secondary medical services. Difficulties in diagnosis and a tendency to regard them as purely secondary phenomena of depression, anxiety and related disorders mean that general psychiatry may continue to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. If general psychiatry embraced these disorders more fully, however, it might lead to better prevention and treatment of depression as well as helping to prevent the severe disability that may arise in association with these disorders. PMID:17139341

  3. Direct somatic embryogenesis in Coffea canephora. (United States)

    Quiroz-Figueroa, Francisco; Monforte-González, Miriam; Galaz-Avalos, Rosa M; Loyola-Vargas, Victor M


    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) provides a useful model to study embryo development in plants. In contrast to zygotic embryogenesis, SE can easily be observed, the culture conditions can be controlled, and large quantities of embryos can be easily obtained. In Coffea spp several model systems have been reported for in vitro SE induction. SE for coffee was first reported in Coffea canephora. Several systems have been developed since then, including SE from callus cultures derived from leaf explants; a two-phase experimental protocol for SE from leaves of Coffea arabica; and from leaf explants of Arabusta or C. arabica using a medium with cytokinins. Here we report a protocol using young leaves from in vitro seedling pre-conditioned with growth regulators. This is a simplified method to obtain a faster and more efficient protocol to produce direct somatic embryos in C. canephora.

  4. Neuroendocrine regulation of somatic growth in fishes. (United States)

    Dai, XiangYan; Zhang, Wei; Zhuo, ZiJian; He, JiangYan; Yin, Zhan


    Growth is a polygenic trait that is under the influence of multiple physiological pathways regulating energy metabolism and muscle growth. Among the possible growth-regulating pathways in vertebrates, components of the somatotropic axis are thought to have the greatest influence. There is growing body of literature focusing on the somatotropic axis and its role regulating growth in fish. This includes research into growth hormone, upstream hypothalamic hormones, insulin-like growth factors, and downstream signaling molecules. Many of these signals have both somatic effects stimulating the growth of tissues and metabolic effects that play a role in nutrient metabolism. Signals of other endocrine axes exhibit profound effects on the function of the somatotropic axis in vivo. In this review we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the teleost fish endocrine somatotropic axis, including emerging research using genetic modified models. These studies have revealed new aspects and challenges associated with regulation of the important steps of somatic growth.

  5. Is Pilates a Somatic Education Method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pereira


    Full Text Available This paper renews the discussion about the relevance of the Pilates method to the field of Somatic Education. The impact of marketing – which sells the method as a fitness activity – and the academic research on the application of the method in the treatment of various medical disorders, as well as its role in the construction of contemporary dance aesthetics, are put into perspective.

  6. Is Pilates a Somatic Education Method?


    Débora Pereira


    This paper renews the discussion about the relevance of the Pilates method to the field of Somatic Education. The impact of marketing – which sells the method as a fitness activity – and the academic research on the application of the method in the treatment of various medical disorders, as well as its role in the construction of contemporary dance aesthetics, are put into perspective.

  7. Comprehensive somatic genome alterations of urachal carcinoma. (United States)

    Lee, Seungchul; Lee, Jingu; Sim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yeonghun; Moon, Kyung Chul; Lee, Cheol; Park, Woong-Yang; Kim, Nayoung Kd; Lee, Se-Hoon; Lee, Hyunju


    Urachal cancer is a rare cancer that develops in the urachus. Because of its rarity, standard treatment therapies for urachal cancer are not established, and chemotherapeutic regimens for bladder cancer have been unsuccessful for patients with urachal cancer. Hence, we aim to understand a systematic molecular characterisation of urachal cancer. We identified somatic single-nucleotide variations (SNVs)/indels and somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) in the 17 patients by using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and OncoScan platform (Affymetrix) as follows: tumour-normal paired sequencing (WES, n=10), tumour-only sequencing (WES, n=1; targeted deep sequencing, n=16), and OncoScan (n=17). Our analyses identified 27 genes with somatic SNVs and indels, as well as six genes (APC, COL5A1, KIF26B, LRP1B, SMAD4 and TP53) that were recurrent in at least two patients. By analysing the SCNAs, we found that the extent of chromosomal amplification was highly associated with the patient's cancer stage. Interestingly, 35% (6/17) of the patients had focal DNA amplifications in fibroblast growth factor receptor family genes. The integration of somatic SNVs, indels and SCNAs revealed significant alterations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways. Our genome-wide analysis of urachal cancer suggests that molecular characteristics may be important for the treatment of urachal cancer. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin


    Sep 7, 2016 ... de mejoramientogénetico del CATIE,” M.S. thesis, Escuela de. Posgrado, Programa de educación para el desarrollo y la conservación del Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y. Enseñanza, Turrialba, ON Costa Rica. pp. 1-92. Sondahl M R, Liu S, Bellato C (1993). Cacao somatic embryogenesis.

  9. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Mouse (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since “Dolly,” the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, this technique has been proven to work in more than 10 mammalian species. Among them, the mouse provides the best model for both basic and applied research of somatic cloning because of its abounding genetic resources, rapid sexual maturity and propagation, minimal requirements for housing, etc. This chapter describes a basic protocol for mouse cloning using cumulus cells, the most popular cell type for NT, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. In particular, we focus on a new, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which increases both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates from twofold to fivefold. This new method including TSA will be helpful to establish mouse cloning in many laboratories.

  10. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Thomassen, Mads; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke


    and matched normal tissue in order to detect somatic mutations. The advent of many new somatic variant callers creates a need for comparison and validation of the tools, as no de facto standard for detection of somatic mutations exists and only limited comparisons have been reported. We have performed......Next generation sequencing is extensively applied to catalogue somatic mutations in cancer, in research settings and increasingly in clinical settings for molecular diagnostics, guiding therapy decisions. Somatic variant callers perform paired comparisons of sequencing data from cancer tissue...... a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2...

  11. Innovation at UNICEF: How to Help Balance an Asymmetric World

    KAUST Repository

    Fabian, Christopher


    Using science, technology, and venture investment to help balance an asymmetric world How do we find solutions to the greatest challenges facing humanity? UNICEF\\'s Office of Innovation ( helps the world\\'s leading children\\'s organization use new methods and approaches to identify, invest in, and scale open source technologies that benefit children, and the world. This talk will share our approach to developing solutions to billion-person problems - a hybrid between the world of Silicon Valley venture capital and the world of global development, policy, and governmental change. Chris will discuss using data, science, and failure to drive investment and development decisions, as well as issues in developing good companies that also want to do good. Examples from Uganda, Estonia, China, Nigeria, and more show that new portfolios of (sometimes surprisingly simple) technologies can create global collaborations around issues important to us all.

  12. Email authentication using symmetric and asymmetric key algorithm encryption (United States)

    Halim, Mohamad Azhar Abdul; Wen, Chuah Chai; Rahmi, Isredza; Abdullah, Nurul Azma; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Ab.


    Protection of sensitive or classified data from unauthorized access, hackers and other personals is virtue. Storage of data is done in devices such as USB, external hard disk, laptops, I-Pad or at cloud. Cloud computing presents with both ups and downs. However, storing information elsewhere increases risk of being attacked by hackers. Besides, the risk of losing the device or being stolen is increased in case of storage in portable devices. There are array of mediums of communications and even emails used to send data or information but these technologies come along with severe weaknesses such as absence of confidentiality where the message sent can be altered and sent to the recipient. No proofs are shown to the recipient that the message received is altered. The recipient would not find out unless he or she checks with the sender. Without encrypted of data or message, sniffing tools and software can be used to hack and read the information since it is in plaintext. Therefore, an electronic mail authentication is proposed, namely Hybrid Encryption System (HES). The security of HES is protected using asymmetric and symmetric key algorithms. The asymmetric algorithm is RSA and symmetric algorithm is Advance Encryption Standard. With the combination for both algorithms in the HES may provide the confidentiality and authenticity to the electronic documents send from the sender to the recipient. In a nutshell, the HES will help users to protect their valuable documentation and data from illegal third party user.

  13. Somatic genomic variations in extra-embryonic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Jingly F.; Ferlatte, Christy; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.


    In the mature chorion, one of the membranes that exist during pregnancy between the developing fetus and mother, human placental cells form highly specialized tissues composed of mesenchyme and floating or anchoring villi. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we found that human invasive cytotrophoblasts isolated from anchoring villi or the uterine wall had gained individual chromosomes; however, chromosome losses were detected infrequently. With chromosomes gained in what appeared to be a chromosome-specific manner, more than half of the invasive cytotrophoblasts in normal pregnancies were found to be hyperdiploid. Interestingly, the rates of hyperdiploid cells depended not only on gestational age, but were strongly associated with the extraembryonic compartment at the fetal-maternal interface from which they were isolated. Since hyperdiploid cells showed drastically reduced DNA replication as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, we conclude that aneuploidy is a part of the normal process of placentation potentially limiting the proliferative capabilities of invasive cytotrophoblasts. Thus, under the special circumstances of human reproduction, somatic genomic variations may exert a beneficial, anti-neoplastic effect on the organism.

  14. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian


    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  15. Nondeterministic self-assembly with asymmetric interactions (United States)

    Tesoro, S.; Göpfrich, K.; Kartanas, T.; Keyser, U. F.; Ahnert, S. E.


    We investigate general properties of nondeterministic self-assembly with asymmetric interactions, using a computational model and DNA tile assembly experiments. By contrasting symmetric and asymmetric interactions we show that the latter can lead to self-limiting cluster growth. Furthermore, by adjusting the relative abundance of self-assembly particles in a two-particle mixture, we are able to tune the final sizes of these clusters. We show that this is a fundamental property of asymmetric interactions, which has potential applications in bioengineering, and provides insights into the study of diseases caused by protein aggregation.

  16. Chiral fullerenes from asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Maroto, Enrique E; Izquierdo, Marta; Reboredo, Silvia; Marco-Martínez, Juan; Filippone, Salvatore; Martín, Nazario


    Fullerenes are among the most studied molecules during the last three decades, and therefore, a huge number of chemical reactions have been tested on these new carbon allotropes. However, the aim of most of the reactions carried out on fullerenes has been to afford chemically modified fullerenes that are soluble in organic solvents or even water in the search for different mechanical, optical, or electronic properties. Therefore, although a lot of effort has been devoted to the chemical functionalization of these molecular allotropes of carbon, important aspects in the chemistry of fullerenes have not been properly addressed. In particular, the synthesis of chiral fullerenes at will in an efficient manner using asymmetric catalysis has not been previously addressed in fullerene science. Thus, despite the fact that the chirality of fullerenes has always been considered a fundamental issue, the lack of a general stereoselective synthetic methodology has restricted the use of enantiopure fullerene derivatives, which have usually been obtained only after highly expensive HPLC isolation on specific chiral columns or prepared from a pool of chiral starting materials. In this Account, we describe the first stereodivergent catalytic enantioselective syntheses in fullerene science, which have allowed the highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure derivatives with total control of the stereochemical result using metallic catalysts and/or organocatalysts under very mild conditions. Density functional theory calculations strongly support the experimental findings for the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new stereocenters, which has also been ascertained by application of the sector rule and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of the curved double bond of fullerene cages as a two-π-electron component in a variety of stereoselective cycloaddition reactions represents a challenging goal considering that, in contrast to most of the substituted

  17. Asymmetric segregation of damaged cellular components in spatially structured multicellular organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Strandkvist

    Full Text Available The asymmetric distribution of damaged cellular components has been observed in species ranging from fission yeast to humans. To study the potential advantages of damage segregation, we have developed a mathematical model describing ageing mammalian tissue, that is, a multicellular system of somatic cells that do not rejuvenate at cell division. To illustrate the applicability of the model, we specifically consider damage incurred by mutations to mitochondrial DNA, which are thought to be implicated in the mammalian ageing process. We show analytically that the asymmetric distribution of damaged cellular components reduces the overall damage level and increases the longevity of the cell population. Motivated by the experimental reports of damage segregation in human embryonic stem cells, dividing symmetrically with respect to cell-fate, we extend the model to consider spatially structured systems of cells. Imposing spatial structure reduces, but does not eliminate, the advantage of asymmetric division over symmetric division. The results suggest that damage partitioning could be a common strategy for reducing the accumulation of damage in a wider range of cell types than previously thought.

  18. Quantitatively increased somatic transposition of transposable elements in Drosophila strains compromised for RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwu Xie

    Full Text Available In Drosophila melanogaster, small RNAs homologous to transposable elements (TEs are of two types: piRNA (piwi-interacting RNA with size 23-29nt and siRNA (small interfering RNA with size 19-22nt. The siRNA pathway is suggested to silence TE activities in somatic tissues based on TE expression profiles, but direct evidence of transposition is lacking. Here we developed an efficient FISH (fluorescence in Situ hybridization based method for polytene chromosomes from larval salivary glands to reveal new TE insertions. Analysis of the LTR-retrotransposon 297 and the non-LTR retroposon DOC shows that in the argonaut 2 (Ago2 and Dicer 2 (Dcr2 mutant strains, new transposition events are much more frequent than in heterozygous strains or wild type strains. The data demonstrate that the siRNA pathway represses TE transposition in somatic cells. Nevertheless, we found that loss of one functional copy of Ago2 or Dcr2 increases somatic transpositions of the elements at a lower level depending on the genetic background, suggesting a quantitative role for RNAi core components on mutation frequency.

  19. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga


    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  20. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga


    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  1. Asymmetrical Warfare, Transformation, and Foreign Language Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porter, Clifford F


    .... There is no doubt that the current global war on terrorism is an asymmetrical war against an unpredictable enemy rather than the predictable or symmetrical threats against self-important dictators or the Soviet Union...

  2. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing. (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng


    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  3. Congenital asymmetric crying face: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Kara


    Full Text Available Congenital asymmetric crying face is an anomalia caused by unilateral absence or weakness of depressor anguli oris muscle The major finding of the disease is the absence or weakness in the outer and lower movement of the commissure during crying. The other expression muscles are normal and the face is symmetric at rest. The asymmetry in congenital asymmetric crying face is most evident during infancy but decreases by age. Congenital asymmetric crying face can be associated with cervicofacial, musclebone, respiratory, genitourinary and central nervous system anomalia. It is diagnosed by physical examination. This paper presents a six days old infant with Congenital asymmetric crying face and discusses the case in terms of diagnosis and disease features.

  4. Modeling Asymmetric Volatility In Oil Prices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Aun Hassan


    .... The paper uses daily crude oil price data for the past 10 years to test and model the oil price volatility by fitting different variations of GARCH including a univariate asymmetric GARCH model to the series...

  5. Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ik Jae


    Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.

  6. Designing Asymmetric Multiferroics with Strong Magnetoelectric Coupling


    Lu, X. Z.; Xiang, H. J.


    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Unfortunately, single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature has not been discovered. Here, we propose the concept of a new type of multiferroics, namely, "asymmetric multiferroic". In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from ...

  7. Stable Bound States of Asymmetric Dark Matter


    Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue


    The simplest renormalizable effective field theories with asymmetric dark matter bound states contain two additional gauge singlet fields one being the dark matter and the other a mediator particle that the dark matter annihilates into. We examine the physics of one such model with a Dirac fermion as the dark matter and a real scalar mediator. For a range of parameters the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter to the mediator gives rise to stable asymmetric dark matter bound states. We derive pr...

  8. Indirect somatic embryogenesis in cassava for genetic modification purposes. (United States)

    Raemakers, Krit; Pereira, Isolde; van Putten, Herma Koehorst; Visser, Richard


    In cassava both direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis is described. Direct somatic embryogenesis starts with the culture of leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with auxins. Somatic embryos undergo secondary somatic embryogenesis when cultured on the same medium. Indirect somatic embryogenesis is initiated by subculture of directly induced embryogenic tissue on auxin-supplemented medium with Gresshoff and Doy salts and vitamins. A very fine friable embryogenic callus (FEC) is formed after a few rounds of subculture and stringent selection. This FEC is maintained by subculture on auxin supplemented medium. Lowering of the auxin concentration allows the FEC to form mature somatic embryos that develop into plants when transferred to a cytokinin-supplemented medium.

  9. Predictive factors for somatization in a trauma sample (United States)


    Background Unexplained somatic symptoms are common among trauma survivors. The relationship between trauma and somatization appears to be mediated by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only few studies have focused on what other psychological risk factors may predispose a trauma victim towards developing somatoform symptoms. Methods The present paper examines the predictive value of PTSD severity, dissociation, negative affectivity, depression, anxiety, and feeling incompetent on somatization in a Danish sample of 169 adult men and women who were affected by a series of explosions in a firework factory settled in a residential area. Results Negative affectivity and feelings of incompetence significantly predicted somatization, explaining 42% of the variance. PTSD was significant until negative affectivity was controlled for. Conclusion Negative affectivity and feelings of incompetence significantly predicted somatization in the trauma sample whereas dissociation, depression, and anxiety were not associated with degree of somatization. PTSD as a risk factor was mediated by negative affectivity. PMID:19126224

  10. [Direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis in Freesia refracta]. (United States)

    Wang, L; Duan, X G; Hao, S


    Somatic embryogenesis can be induced in tissue cultures of Freesia refracta either directly from the epidermal cells of explant, or indirectly via intervening callus. In direct pathway, somatic embryos were in contact with maternal tissue in a suspensor-like structure. In indirect pathway, the explants first proliferacted to give rise to calluses before embryoids were induced. The two sorts of calluses were defined to embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus according to producing of somatic embryos. An indirect somatic embryo is developed from a pre-embryogenically determined cell. This kind of somatic embryo has no suspensor structure instead of a complex with maternal tissue. Somatic embryos have their own vascular tissues, and can develop new plantlets independently.

  11. Characteristics of Braced Excavation under Asymmetrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjie Xu


    Full Text Available Numerous excavation practices have shown that large discrepancies exist between field monitoring data and calculated results when the conventional symmetry-plane method (with half-width is used to design the retaining structure under asymmetrical loads. To examine the characteristics of a retaining structure under asymmetrical loads, we use the finite element method (FEM to simulate the excavation process under four different groups of asymmetrical loads and create an integrated model to tackle this problem. The effects of strut stiffness and wall length are also investigated. The results of numerical analysis clearly imply that the deformation and bending moment of diaphragm walls are distinct on different sides, indicating the need for different rebar arrangements when the excavation is subjected to asymmetrical loads. This study provides a practical approach to designing excavations under asymmetrical loads. We analyze and compare the monitoring and calculation data at different excavation stages and find some general trends. Several guidelines on excavation design under asymmetrical loads are drawn.

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis in Yam (Dioscorea rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Elías Suárez Padrón


    Full Text Available Embryogenic yam (Dioscorea rotundata cultures were induced from petioles of leaves of in vitro grown plants on medium supplemented with different 2.4-D concentrations. Cultures were maintained either on semisolid or in liquid MS medium supplemented with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. The effect of sucrose concentration on somatic embryo development was also evaluated and the effects of different BAP concentrations on somatic embryo conversion were determined. Treatments were distributed using a complete randomized design. The highest rate of induction occurred with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. Sucrose at 131.46 mM significantly enhanced somatic embryo development. The conversion rate was not affected by BAP.Cultivos embriogénicos de ñame (Dioscorea rotundata fueron inducidos a partir de explantes consistentes de hojas con peciolos, aisladas de plantas establecidas en condiciones in vitro, en presencia de diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D. Los cultivos inducidos fueron mantenidos en medio MS líquido o semisólido suplido con 4,52 µM 2,4-D. El efecto de las concentraciones de sacarosa sobre el desarrollo de embriones somáticos y el efecto de varias concentraciones de BAP sobre la tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas también fueron evaluados. Todos los tratamientos fueron distribuidos usando un diseño completamente al azar. El mayor porcentaje de inducción de tejidos embriogénicos ocurrió con 4,52 µM de 2,4-D. La adición de 131,46 mM de sacarosa incrementó significativamente el desarrollo de embriones somáticos. La tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas no fue afectada por las concentraciones de BAP.

  13. Ancient origin of somatic and visceral neurons (United States)


    Background A key to understanding the evolution of the nervous system on a large phylogenetic scale is the identification of homologous neuronal types. Here, we focus this search on the sensory and motor neurons of bilaterians, exploiting their well-defined molecular signatures in vertebrates. Sensorimotor circuits in vertebrates are of two types: somatic (that sense the environment and respond by shaping bodily motions) and visceral (that sense the interior milieu and respond by regulating vital functions). These circuits differ by a small set of largely dedicated transcriptional determinants: Brn3 is expressed in many somatic sensory neurons, first and second order (among which mechanoreceptors are uniquely marked by the Brn3+/Islet1+/Drgx+ signature), somatic motoneurons uniquely co-express Lhx3/4 and Mnx1, while the vast majority of neurons, sensory and motor, involved in respiration, blood circulation or digestion are molecularly defined by their expression and dependence on the pan-visceral determinant Phox2b. Results We explore the status of the sensorimotor transcriptional code of vertebrates in mollusks, a lophotrochozoa clade that provides a rich repertoire of physiologically identified neurons. In the gastropods Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica, we show that homologues of Brn3, Drgx, Islet1, Mnx1, Lhx3/4 and Phox2b differentially mark neurons with mechanoreceptive, locomotory and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis, we show that Phox2 marks the stellate ganglion (in line with the respiratory — that is, visceral— ancestral role of the mantle, its target organ), while the anterior pedal ganglion, which controls the prehensile and locomotory arms, expresses Mnx. Conclusions Despite considerable divergence in overall neural architecture, a molecular underpinning for the functional allocation of neurons to interactions with the environment or to homeostasis was inherited from the urbilaterian ancestor by


    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bechara, Antoine


    Similar to patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) lesions, substance abusers show altered decision-making, characterized by a tendency to choose the immediate reward, at the expense of negative future consequences. The somatic-marker model proposes that decision-making depends on neural substrates that regulate homeostasis, emotion and feeling. According to this model, there should be a link between alterations in processing emotions in substance abusers, and their impairments in decision-making. A growing evidence from neuroscientific studies indicate that core aspects of addiction may be explained in terms of abnormal emotional/homeostatic guidance of decision-making. Behavioural studies have revealed emotional processing and decision-making deficits in substance abusers. Neuroimaging studies have shown that altered decision-making in addiction is associated with abnormal functioning of a distributed neural network critical for the processing of emotional information, and the experience of “craving”, including the VMPC, the amygdala, the striatum, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the insular/somato-sensory cortices, as well as non-specific neurotransmitter systems that modulate activities of neural processes involved in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to review this growing evidence, and to examine the extent of which these studies support a somatic-marker theory of addiction. We conclude that there are at least two underlying types of dysfunctions where emotional signals (somatic-markers) turns in favor of immediate outcomes in addiction: (1) a hyperactivity in the amygdala or impulsive system, which exaggerates the rewarding impact of available incentives, and (2) hypoactivity in the prefrontal cortex or reflective system, which forecasts the long-term consequences of a given action. PMID:18722390

  15. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer


    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully under...



    Adriana María Gallego Rúa; Ana María Henao Ramírez; Aura Inés Urrea Trujillo; Lucía Atehortúa Garcés


    ABSTRACTIn order to understand the causes of lack of regeneration in cacao somatic embryos, two cacao varieties with different responses to regeneration potential were described based on their capacity to store different compounds. It is well known that seed reserves play a central role in the regenerative capability of somatic embryos; thus, we followed histochemical changes and reserve fluctuations of proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the two cac...

  17. [Stress theories and the somatization process]. (United States)

    Dantzer, R


    Stress theories aim at understanding pathophysiology of psychosomatic disorders. The first stress theories have been inspired by the principles of homeostasis. They view the response to stressors as a quasi reflex reaction which aims at normalizing disturbed homeostasis. More modern stress theories emphasize the intermediate role of cognitive and behavioural processes in the determinism of neuroendocrine and neurovegetative responses to stressors. Active attempts to control the situation are associated with activation of the sympathetic and adrenal medullary system whereas loss of control is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Since the functional consequences of the activation of each of these physiological systems are not the same, the risk factors corresponding to each coping strategy are not the same. Whatever their details, physiological and psychobiological stress theories all emphasize the influence of psychic factors on bodily functions. However, mental states do not function independently of bodily functions. In the case of the influences of stress on immunity for instance, it has been shown that these influences represent the counterpart of feedback regulatory mechanisms in which the ability of the brain to regulate immune responses depends on the capacity of the immune system to influence brain functions. Activation of the immune system during infection or inflammation is accompanied by profound metabolic, neuroendocrine and behavioural changes which are mediated by the effects of immune products known as cytokines on brain cell targets. In view of the reciprocal relationships between peripheral organic systems and the brain, a purely psychosomatic view, from the psyche to the soma, is therefore no longer tenable. In addition, biological accounts of somatization processes run into the risk of minimizing the importance of perception and representation of somatic symptoms. Amplification of somatic symptoms is a common

  18. Asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beams. (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Skidanov, R V; Soifer, V A


    We propose a three-parameter family of asymmetric Bessel-Gauss (aBG) beams with integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aBG beams are described by the product of a Gaussian function by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind of complex argument, having finite energy. The aBG beam's asymmetry degree depends on a real parameter c≥0: at c=0, the aBG beam is coincident with a conventional radially symmetric Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam; with increasing c, the aBG beam acquires a semicrescent shape, then becoming elongated along the y axis and shifting along the x axis for c≫1. In the initial plane, the intensity distribution of the aBG beams has a countable number of isolated optical nulls on the x axis, which result in optical vortices with unit topological charge and opposite signs on the different sides of the origin. As the aBG beam propagates, the vortex centers undergo a nonuniform rotation with the entire beam about the optical axis (c≫1), making a π/4 turn at the Rayleigh range and another π/4 turn after traveling the remaining distance. At different values of the c parameter, the optical nulls of the transverse intensity distribution change their position, thus changing the OAM that the beam carries. An isolated optical null on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. A vortex laser beam shaped as a rotating semicrescent has been generated using a spatial light modulator.

  19. Molecular detection of chromosomal abnormalities in germ and somatic cells of aged male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, X.; Baulch, J.; Quintana, L.; Ramsey, M.; Breneman, J.; Tucker, J.; Wyrobek, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Collins, B.; Allen, J. [EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Holland, N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Three cytogenetic methods were applied to eight B6C3F1 male mice aged 22.5 - 30.5mo to determine if advanced age was associated with an elevated risk of producing chromosomally defective germinal and somatic cells; sperm aneuploidy analysis by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization for three chromosomes, spermatid micronucleus analysis with anti-kinetochore antibodies, and translocation analysis of somatic metaphases by {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} for two chromosomes. Eight mice aged 2.4mo served as controls. Sperm aneuploidy was measured by multi-color fluorescence in situ co-hybridization with DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, scoring 10,000 cells per animal. The aged group showed significant 1.5 - 2.0 fold increases in the hyperhaploidy phenotypes X-X-8, Y-Y-8, 8-8-Y, and 8-8-X with the greater effects appearing in animals aged >29mo. The aged group also showed significantly increased frequencies of micronucleated spermatids (2.0 vs 0.4 per 1000; all were kinetochore negative). Analysis of metaphase chromosomes from blood by {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} of chromosomes 2 and 8 yielded 4 translocation per 858 cell-equivalents in the aged group which was a non-significant elevation over 0/202 in controls. Although interpretation must be cautious due to the small number of animals analyzed, these findings suggest that advanced paternal age may be a risk factor for chromosomal abnormalities of reproductive and somatic importance.

  20. Assessment of Somatization and Medically Unexplained Symptoms in Later Life. (United States)

    van Driel, T J W; Hilderink, P H; Hanssen, D J C; de Boer, P; Rosmalen, J G M; Oude Voshaar, R C


    The assessment of medically unexplained symptoms and "somatic symptom disorders" in older adults is challenging due to somatic multimorbidity, which threatens the validity of somatization questionnaires. In a systematic review study, the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) and the somatization subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90-item version (SCL-90 SOM) are recommended out of 40 questionnaires for usage in large-scale studies. While both scales measure physical symptoms which in younger persons often refer to unexplained symptoms, in older persons, these symptoms may originate from somatic diseases. Using empirical data, we show that PHQ-15 and SCL-90 SOM among older patients correlate with proxies of somatization as with somatic disease burden. Updating the previous systematic review, revealed six additional questionnaires. Cross-validation studies are needed as none of 46 identified scales met the criteria of suitability for an older population. Nonetheless, specific recommendations can be made for studying older persons, namely the SCL-90 SOM and PHQ-15 for population-based studies, the Freiburg Complaint List and somatization subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory 53-item version for studies in primary care, and finally the Schedule for Evaluating Persistent Symptoms and Somatic Symptom Experiences Questionnaire for monitoring treatment studies.

  1. Somatic Symptom Disorder in Semantic Dementia: The Role of Alexisomia. (United States)

    Gan, Joanna J; Lin, Andrew; Samimi, Mersal S; Mendez, Mario F

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic knowledge. SD may be associated with somatic symptom disorder due to excessive preoccupation with unidentified somatic sensations. To evaluate the frequency of somatic symptom disorder among patients with SD in comparison to comparably demented patients with Alzheimer׳s disease. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using clinical data from a referral-based behavioral neurology program. Fifty-three patients with SD meeting criteria for imaging-supported semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (another term for SD) were compared with 125 patients with clinically probable Alzheimer disease. Logistic regression controlled for sex, age, disease duration, education, overall cognitive impairment, and depression. The prevalence of somatic symptom disorder was significantly higher among patients with SD (41.5%) compared to patients with Alzheimer disease (11.2%) (odds ratio = 6:1; p Cotard syndrome or the delusion that unidentified somatic symptoms signify death or deterioration. SD, a disorder of semantic knowledge, is associated with somatic symptom disorder from impaired identification of somatic sensations. Their inability to read and name somatic sensations, or "alexisomia," results in disproportionate and persistent concern about somatic sensations with consequent significant disability. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Asymmetricity Between Sister Cells of Pluripotent Stem Cells at the Onset of Differentiation. (United States)

    Nakamura, Shogo; Maruyama, Atsushi; Kondo, Yuki; Kano, Ayumu; De Sousa, Olga M; Iwahashi, Masahiro; Hexig, Bayar; Akaike, Toshihiro; Li, Jingyue; Hayashi, Yohei; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi


    Various somatic stem cells divide asymmetrically; however, it is not known whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) divide symmetrically or asymmetrically, not only while maintaining an undifferentiated state but also at the onset of differentiation. In this study, we observed single ESCs using time-lapse imaging and compared sister cell pairs derived from the same mother cell in either the maintenance or differentiation medium. Mouse ESCs were cultured on E-cadherin-coated glass-based dishes, which allowed us to trace single cells. The undifferentiated cell state was detected by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Nanog promoter, which is active only in undifferentiated cells. Cell population analysis using flow cytometry showed that the peak width indicating distribution of GFP expression broadened when cells were transferred to the differentiation medium compared to when they were in the maintenance medium. This finding suggested that the population of ESCs became more heterogeneous at the onset of differentiation. Using single-cell analysis by time-lapse imaging, we found that although the total survival ratio decreased by changing to differentiation medium, the one-live-one-dead ratio of sister cell pairs was smaller compared with randomly chosen non-sister cell pairs, defined as an unsynchronized cell pair control, in both media. This result suggested that sister cell pairs were more positively synchronized with each other compared to non-sister cell pairs. The differences in interdivision time (the time interval between mother cell division and the subsequent cell division) between sister cells was smaller than that between non-sister cell pairs in both media, suggesting that sister cells divided synchronously. Although the difference in Nanog-GFP intensity between sister cells was smaller than that between non-sister cells in the maintenance medium, it was the same in differentiation medium, suggesting asymmetrical Nanog-GFP intensity. These

  3. Functional analysis of the Volvox carteri asymmetric division protein GlsA. (United States)

    Pappas, Valeria; Miller, Stephen M


    The Zuotin-family J protein chaperone GlsA is essential for the asymmetric divisions that establish germ and somatic cell initials during embryogenesis in the green alga Volvox carteri, but it is not known on what cellular process GlsA acts to carry out this function. Most GlsA protein is nuclear, and GlsA possesses two SANT domains, suggesting that GlsA may function as a transcriptional regulator. On the other hand, close homologs from yeast and mice are ribosome-associated factors that regulate translation fidelity, implying GlsA might also regulate translation. Here we set out to gain additional evidence regarding the function of GlsA, specifically with respect to its possible involvement in transcription and translation. We found that like zuotin mutants, glsA mutants are ultrasensitive to both cold and to the ribosome-binding aminoglycoside antibiotic paromomycin, so some fraction of GlsA is likely to be ribosome associated. We also found that GlsA co-immunoprecipitates with histones and that this interaction is dependent on the presence of intact SANT domains. Through rescue experiments using transgenes that encode GlsA variants, we determined that the growth and asymmetric division defects of the glsA mutant are separable-a GlsA variant that rescued the growth defects did not completely rescue the asymmetric division phenotype. Considered in total, our results suggest that GlsA acts both at the level of translation and transcription, but the function that is essential for tolerance to paromomycin and cold is not sufficient for asymmetric cell division.

  4. The association between somatization and disability in primary care patients. (United States)

    van der Leeuw, G; Gerrits, M J; Terluin, B; Numans, M E; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M; van der Horst, H E; Penninx, B W J H; van Marwijk, H W J


    Patient encounters for medically unexplained physical symptoms are common in primary health care. Somatization ('experiencing and reporting unexplained somatic symptoms') may indicate concurrent or future disability but this may also partly be caused by psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between somatization and disability in primary care patients with and without anxiety or depressive disorder. Data were obtained from 1545 primary care patients, participating in the longitudinal Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Somatization was assessed using the somatization scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Disability was determined by the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHO-DAS II). The relationships between somatization and both the total and subdomain scores of the WHO-DAS II were measured cross-sectionally and longitudinally after one year of follow-up using linear regression analysis. We examined whether anxiety or depressive disorder exerted a modifying effect on the somatization-disability association. Cross-sectionally and longitudinally, somatization was significantly associated with disability. Somatization accounted cross-sectionally for 41.8% of the variance in WHO-DAS disability and, longitudinally, for 31.7% of the variance in disability after one year of follow-up. The unique contribution of somatization to disability decreased to 16.7% cross-sectionally and 15.7% longitudinally, when anxiety and/or depressive disorder was added to the model. Somatization contributes to the presence of disability in primary care patients, even when the effects of baseline demographic and health characteristics and anxiety or depressive disorder are taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Porous asymmetric SiO2-g-PMMA nanoparticles produced by phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Munirasu, Selvaraj


    A new kind of asymmetric organic-inorganic porous structure has been proposed. Asymmetric lattices of polymer grafted silica nanoparticles were manufactured by casting and phase inversion in water. Silica nanoparticles were first functionalized with 3-(dimethylethoxysilyl)propyl-2-bromoisobutyrate, followed by grafting of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) segments, performed by atom-transfer radical polymerization. Mechanically stable self-standing films were prepared by casting a dispersion of functionalized nanoparticles in different solvents and immersion in water. The resulting asymmetrically porous morphology and nanoparticle assembly was characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The PMMA functionalized SiO2 hybrid material in acetone or acetone/dioxane led to the best-assembled structures. Porous asymmetric membranes were prepared by adding free PMMA and PMMA terminated with hydrophilic hydroxyl group. Nitrogen flow of 2800 L m-2 h -1 was measured at 1.3 bar demonstrating the porosity and potential application for membrane technology. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  6. Asymmetrical soft palate cleft repair: preliminary results. (United States)

    Bütow, K-W; Engelbrecht, H; Naidoo, S


    The reconstructions of the asymmetrical soft palate cleft is a surgical challenge when it comes to achieving symmetry and optimal soft palate muscular function. Three different versions of the intravelar veloplasty have been used: the intravelar veloplasty (1969) (type I), the modification according to anatomical defects (1991) (type II), and the modification using part of Sommerlad's technique and part of Ivanov's technique (2008) (type III). The perioperative outcomes of the type II and type III intravelar veloplasty were assessed and compared in asymmetrical cleft cases. Two hundred and seventy-seven soft palate clefts were reconstructed: 153 type II and 124 type III. Of these, 49 were asymmetrical (17.7%); 23 underwent the type II procedure and 26 the type III procedure. Of the type II procedure cases, 30.4% remained asymmetrical postoperatively compared to 3.8% of the type III cases. The uvula appeared subjectively atrophic in 47.8% of the type II cases and in 7.7% of type III cases. Oro-nasal fistula occurred in 13.0% of the type II cases and 3.8% of the type III cases. Speech results will only be assessed after 4 years of age. The type III modified intravelar veloplasty has had a major beneficial impact on patients who had an asymmetrical soft palate cleft. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division. (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Conradt, Barbara


    Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  8. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hatzold


    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  9. A sampling theory for asymmetric communities. (United States)

    Noble, Andrew E; Temme, Nico M; Fagan, William F; Keitt, Timothy H


    We introduce the first analytical model of asymmetric community dynamics to yield Hubbell's neutral theory in the limit of functional equivalence among all species. Our focus centers on an asymmetric extension of Hubbell's local community dynamics, while an analogous extension of Hubbell's metacommunity dynamics is deferred to an appendix. We find that mass-effects may facilitate coexistence in asymmetric local communities and generate unimodal species abundance distributions indistinguishable from those of symmetric communities. Multiple modes, however, only arise from asymmetric processes and provide a strong indication of non-neutral dynamics. Although the exact stationary distributions of fully asymmetric communities must be calculated numerically, we derive approximate sampling distributions for the general case and for nearly neutral communities where symmetry is broken by a single species distinct from all others in ecological fitness and dispersal ability. In the latter case, our approximate distributions are fully normalized, and novel asymptotic expansions of the required hypergeometric functions are provided to make evaluations tractable for large communities. Employing these results in a bayesian analysis may provide a novel statistical test to assess the consistency of species abundance data with the neutral hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A nine-level hybrid symmetric cascaded multilevel converter for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indrajit Sarkar

    Therefore, due to this limitation of asymmetric or hybrid cascaded converters on input power quality, the use of these converters is popular for electric vehicle applications, and have limited industrial use [20]. Several attempts have been made to increase the number of output voltage levels of symmetric CHB–MLCs as well.

  11. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats (United States)


    leadership .60 Why Adversaries Will Use Hybrid Warfare Desert Storm, operations in former Yugoslavia, as well as Afghanistan and Iraq, demonstrated...February 26, 2013). 128 Manwaring, The Complexity of Modern Asymmetric Warfare, 130-131 129 Ben Sherwood , President of ABC News, discussion with author

  12. Gene expression analysis of the ovary of hybrid females of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone John H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybrids of frogs of the genus Xenopus result in sterile hybrid males and fertile hybrid females. Previous work has demonstrated a dramatic asymmetrical pattern of misexpression in hybrid males compared to the two parental species with relatively few genes misexpressed in comparisons of hybrids and the maternal species (X. laevis and dramatically more genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to the paternal species (X. muelleri. In this work, we examine the gene expression pattern in hybrid females of X. laevis × X. muelleri to determine if this asymmetrical pattern of expression also occurs in hybrid females. Results We find a similar pattern of asymmetry in expression compared to males in that there were more genes differentially expressed between hybrids and X. muelleri compared to hybrids and X. laevis. We also found a dramatic increase in the number of misexpressed genes with hybrid females having about 20 times more genes misexpressed in ovaries compared to testes of hybrid males and therefore the match between phenotype and expression pattern is not supported. Conclusion We discuss these intriguing findings in the context of reproductive isolation and suggest that divergence in female expression may be involved in sterility of hybrid males due to the inherent sensitivity of spermatogenesis as defined by the faster male evolution hypothesis for Haldane's rule.

  13. Somatics in the Dance Studio: Embodying Feminist/Democratic Pedagogy (United States)

    Burnidge, Anne


    Since the 1970s, somatics have increasingly become a part of the dance training landscape. Although the psychophysical benefits seem sufficient in themselves to warrant inclusion in dance, this article explores another possible outcome of embracing somatic pedagogical principles, a change that affects not "what" is taught in a dance class, but…

  14. Improving somatic health of outpatients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Oud, Marian J. T.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Loonen, A.J.M.


    Background: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience a 13-to 30-year reduction in life expectancy compared with the general population. The majority of these deaths can be attributed to somatic health problems. The risk on somatic health problems is partly increased due to a reduced

  15. Desiccation tolerance of somatic embryoids = [Uitdroogtolerantie van somatische embryoiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteroo, F.A.A.


    This thesis describes the research performed on the subject "Desiccation tolerance in somatic embryoids". Somatic embryoids are bipolar structures formed in tissue culture, with both a shoot and a root apex, which resemble very much zygotic embryos found in seeds. Through simultaneous

  16. Influence of plant growth regulators on somatic embryogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generating somatic embryos from the inner teguments of hevea seeds is difficult. Like other ligneous plants, the rubber-tree is generally considered to be recalcitrant with regard to somatic embryogenesis. In this study, the ability of callus from inner integument explants to develop embryogenic callus lines was highlighted.

  17. Comparison of callus induction and somatic embryogenesis of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kerman genotype did not show embryogenesis. In the histological studies, the different development stages of the embryos (globular, heart, torpedo and cotyledonary) together with callus cells were showed. Key words: Hypocotyl explants, somatic embryo, in vitro regeneration, germination, somatic embryogenesis ...

  18. Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of hermaphrodite Carica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In culture medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic, FEC overgrew into a yellowish friable mass that fully covered the leaf explants. The somatic embryogenesis process occurred asynchronously, with new globular embryos continuously forming from the FEC. Torpedo and early cotyledonary somatic embryos ...

  19. [Access to somatic care for patients undergoing psychiatric treatment]. (United States)

    Cabaret, Wanda


    In France, there is no across-the-board formal connection between psychiatric and somatic treatment and the somatic care of patients undergoing psychiatric treatment remains very heterogeneous and inadequate. Despite some attempts at providing structure, it is the place of the physician which must be examined and optimised.

  20. The association between somatization and disability in primary care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leeuw, G.; Gerrits, M.J.; Terluin, B.; Numans, M.E.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; van der Horst, H.; Penninx, B.W.; Van Marwijk, H.W.


    Background Patient encounters for medically unexplained physical symptoms are common in primary health care. Somatization (‘experiencing and reporting unexplained somatic symptoms’) may indicate concurrent or future disability but this may also partly be caused by psychiatric disorders. The aim of

  1. Regeneration of Algerian germplasm by stigma/style somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stigma/style somatic embryogenesis is one of the efficient methods in plant regeneration of most Citrus ssp., without inducing somaclonal variations. Furthermore, somatic embryogenesis from style/stigma proved to be effective in the elimination of the main citrus virus and virus-like diseases. This technique was applied on ...

  2. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt was made to study the somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from the in vitro leaf explants of Rumex vesicarius L. a renowned medicinal plant, which belongs to polygonaceae family. Effective in vitro regeneration of R. vesicarius was achieved via young leaf derived somatic embryo cultures.

  3. Noise and somatic symptoms : A role for personality traits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, W. L.; Morley, D. W.; Stolk, R. P.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    Objectives: We investigated the role of a stress-sensitive personality on relations between noise, noise annoyance and somatic symptom reporting. First, we investigated the cross-sectional association of road traffic noise exposure and somatic symptoms, and its modification by hostility and

  4. Depression, Health, and Somatic Complaints in Older Adults. (United States)

    Mahurin, Kathleen A.; Gatz, Margaret

    Although depression is considered to be common in the elderly, reliable rates of prevalence are lacking. Studies have shown that age differences on measures of depressive symptomatology can be attributed to higher levels of somatic complaints. In order to examine whether the association between somatic and depressive symptoms varies as a function…

  5. Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis was then confirmed to be schizophrenia with olfactory and somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) features. This presentation suggests unique ways in which schizophrenia could present, including somatic and olfactory delusions and features of OCD, which may significantly influence ...

  6. Delusional disorder-somatic type (or body dysmorphic disorder) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    schizophrenia.17. Delusional disorder-somatic type. (or body dysmorphic disorder) and schizophrenia: a case report. BA Issa. Department of Behavioural Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. Abstract. With regard to delusional disorder-somatic subtype there may be a relationship with body ...

  7. Domain landscapes of somatic mutations in cancer. (United States)

    Nehrt, Nathan L; Peterson, Thomas A; Park, DoHwan; Kann, Maricel G


    Large-scale tumor sequencing projects are now underway to identify genetic mutations that drive tumor initiation and development. Most studies take a gene-based approach to identifying driver mutations, highlighting genes mutated in a large percentage of tumor samples as those likely to contain driver mutations. However, this gene-based approach usually does not consider the position of the mutation within the gene or the functional context the position of the mutation provides. Here we introduce a novel method for mapping mutations to distinct protein domains, not just individual genes, in which they occur, thus providing the functional context for how the mutation contributes to disease. Furthermore, aggregating mutations from all genes containing a specific protein domain enables the identification of mutations that are rare at the gene level, but that occur frequently within the specified domain. These highly mutated domains potentially reveal disruptions of protein function necessary for cancer development. We mapped somatic mutations from the protein coding regions of 100 colon adenocarcinoma tumor samples to the genes and protein domains in which they occurred, and constructed topographical maps to depict the "mutational landscapes" of gene and domain mutation frequencies. We found significant mutation frequency in a number of genes previously known to be somatically mutated in colon cancer patients including APC, TP53 and KRAS. In addition, we found significant mutation frequency within specific domains located in these genes, as well as within other domains contained in genes having low mutation frequencies. These domain "peaks" were enriched with functions important to cancer development including kinase activity, DNA binding and repair, and signal transduction. Using our method to create the domain landscapes of mutations in colon cancer, we were able to identify somatic mutations with high potential to drive cancer development. Interestingly, the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roostika


    Full Text Available Pruatjan (Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. is an Indonesian endangered plant which has various medicinal properties such as aphrodisiac, diuretic, and tonic. The plant is commonly harvested from its natural habitat, therefore it becomes endangered. Regeneration of pruatjan through organogenesis has been studied, but its shoot multiplication was very low (5 shoots per explant. The study aimed to investigate the best regeneration technique of pruatjan through somatic embryogenesis. This research was conducted at the tissue culture laboratory, Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development in 2004-2005. Callus formation of pruatjan was induced from the petioles and leaves in Driver and Kuniyaki’s (DKW based medium containing 2,4-D combined with picloram at the level of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 1.5 ppm. Embryogenic calli were then transferred into embryo development medium in two ways. First, they were directly transferred into media containing IBA/NAA at the level of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm. Second, they were indirectly transferred into media containing 2.0 ppm 2,4-D and 0.3% casein hydrolysate prior to the IBA/ NAA media. Parameters evaluated were fresh weight, dry weight, time initiation of embryogenic callus formation, and total number of embryos. The result showed that calli of pruatjan were successfully induced from the petioles and leaves. The best calli were induced from the leaves in the DKW medium containing 2.0 ppm 2,4-D and 0.5 ppm picloram. Embryo development of the calli was best if they were first grown in the media containing 2.0 ppm 2,4-D and 0.3% casein hydrolysate then transferred to the IBA/NAA media. The total number of somatic embryos was counted up to 103 on the medium containing 1.5 ppm IBA. This study indicated that pruatjan somatic embryogenesis regeneration required three different media, i.e. for callus induction, development and maturation, and for

  9. [Premenstrual symptomatology, somatization and physical anhedonia]. (United States)

    Bridou, M; Aguerre, C


    Physical (headache, abdominal pain, e.g.), emotional (irritability, diminution of self-esteem, e.g.) and/or behavioral disturbances (fatigue, decrease of libido, e.g.) appear frequently during the premenstrual phase of menstrual cycles. Of moderate to severe intensity, these varied symptoms sometimes hinder the usual personal, social and/or professional functioning by generating significant suffering. Thus, premenstrual syndrome (PS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD) are closely related to depressive disorders in many prior studies. In spite of solid links associating depression with premenstrual disorders in the literature, the psychological dimension of the premenstrual symptomatology still remains underestimated. The objective of this study is to examine the nature of possible relationships between a moderate premenstrual symptomatology and different modes of information processing with physical and emotional stimuli, such as somatization and physical anhedonia, well-known symptoms of depressive disorders. One hundred and five students in psychology from the François Rabelais university (France), aged between 18 to 50 years old (M=20.98, SD=3.43), were invited to fill in French versions of the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire [25] (Moos, 1991), the somatization subscale of the Symptom Check-List 90 [26] (Derogatis & Cleary, 1977), and the Physical Anhedonia Scale [28] (Chapman et al., 1976). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated and a multiple regression analysis was conducted with Statistica software. Main results reveal that premenstrual symptomatology is positively related to somatization (r=0.58; Psomatization (β=0.55; P<0.001) may take part in the appearance of a premenstrual symptomatology. These results allow us to enrich our knowledge on the origin and the nature of the premenstrual symptomatology, which would be physiological, psychological and social, in order to adapt and widen the therapeutic options by proposing, in parallel

  10. Asymmetric microscope. Fusho no kenbisho [exclamation point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tadashi. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))


    It is difficult for a conventional optical analysis means to determine the configuration of a substance with an ultra low optical purity. Recently, an asymmetric microscope has been reported as a new concept for solving the above-mentioned problem. Specifically, a product with slight asymmetry is obtained by using the substance with an ultra low optical purity as the chiral initiation, and then the asymmetry of the product is amplified dramatically due to the asymmetric autocatalysis, thus obtaining a product having a high optical purity. A new means is to determine the configuration of the original substance having the low optical purity from the configuration of the substance having the high optical purity. According to this method, the chirality of the substance having the low optical purity is transcribed to alkanol, and the chirality is amplified due to the asymmetric autocatalysis, thus the absolute configuration of the original compound can be determined from the absolute configuration of the final product. (NEDO)

  11. Multi-agent Bargaining under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Marcus; Genesove, David

    information aspect is due to partly unobserved individual valuations of an elevator. We tailor Hellwig (2003) to the features of the retrofitting problem and use this to predict which building characteristics should make it easier for owners to agree. Data from Copenhagen broadly support the model......It is well know that asymmetric information might lead to underprovision of public goods. To test the theoretical prediction, we study the decision to retrofit an elevator into an old apartment building, in which each owner has to agree on how the investment cost is split. The asymmetric......'s predictions. We use transaction data to estimate the market value of an elevator and conclude that for approximately 30-40 percent of the buildings without an elevator the aggregate increase in value exceeds the investment cost....

  12. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias


    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  13. Predictive factors for somatization in a trauma sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Unexplained somatic symptoms are common among trauma survivors. The relationship between trauma and somatization appears to be mediated by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only few studies have focused on what other psychological risk factors may predispose...... a trauma victim towards developing somatoform symptoms. METHODS: The present paper examines the predictive value of PTSD severity, dissociation, negative affectivity, depression, anxiety, and feeling incompetent on somatization in a Danish sample of 169 adult men and women who were affected by a series...... of incompetence significantly predicted somatization in the trauma sample whereas dissociation, depression, and anxiety were not associated with degree of somatization. PTSD as a risk factor was mediated by negative affectivity....

  14. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model.

  15. Somatic point mutation calling in low cellularity tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin S Kassahn

    Full Text Available Somatic mutation calling from next-generation sequencing data remains a challenge due to the difficulties of distinguishing true somatic events from artifacts arising from PCR, sequencing errors or mis-mapping. Tumor cellularity or purity, sub-clonality and copy number changes also confound the identification of true somatic events against a background of germline variants. We have developed a heuristic strategy and software ( for somatic mutation calling in samples with low tumor content and we show the superior sensitivity and precision of our approach using a previously sequenced cell line, a series of tumor/normal admixtures, and 3,253 putative somatic SNVs verified on an orthogonal platform.

  16. Resolving the prevalence of somatic transposition inDrosophila. (United States)

    Treiber, Christoph D; Waddell, Scott


    Somatic transposition in mammals and insects could increase cellular diversity and neural mobilization has been implicated in age-dependent decline. To understand the impact of transposition in somatic cells it is essential to reliably measure the frequency and map locations of new insertions. Here we identified thousands of putative somatic transposon insertions in neurons from individual Drosophila melanogaster using whole-genome sequencing. However, the number of de novo insertions did not correlate with transposon expression or fly age. Analysing our data with exons as 'immobile genetic elements' revealed a similar frequency of unexpected exon translocations. A new sequencing strategy that recovers transposon: chromosome junction information revealed most putative de novo transposon and exon insertions likely result from unavoidable chimeric artefacts. Reanalysis of other published data suggests similar artefacts are often mistaken for genuine somatic transposition. We conclude that somatic transposition is less prevalent in Drosophila than previously envisaged.

  17. Progression inference for somatic mutations in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif E. Peterson


    Full Text Available Computational methods were employed to determine progression inference of genomic alterations in commonly occurring cancers. Using cross-sectional TCGA data, we computed evolutionary trajectories involving selectivity relationships among pairs of gene-specific genomic alterations such as somatic mutations, deletions, amplifications, downregulation, and upregulation among the top 20 driver genes associated with each cancer. Results indicate that the majority of hierarchies involved TP53, PIK3CA, ERBB2, APC, KRAS, EGFR, IDH1, VHL, etc. Research into the order and accumulation of genomic alterations among cancer driver genes will ever-increase as the costs of nextgen sequencing subside, and personalized/precision medicine incorporates whole-genome scans into the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  18. Somatization is associated with non-adherence to opioid prescriptions. (United States)

    Trafton, Jodie A; Cucciare, Michael A; Lewis, Eleanor; Oser, Megan


    Non-adherence to opioid prescriptions can decrease the safety and efficacy of opioid therapy. Identifying factors associated with over- and under-use of opioids in patients presenting with pain may improve prescribing and pain management. Patients presenting with pain often also present with somatization, and somatization is associated with both excessive use of and non-adherence to medications. This study examines the relationship between somatization and non-adherence (over- and under-use) to opioid prescriptions in the Veteran sample. One hundred and ninety-one Veterans who received an opioid prescription at a Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System in the prior year participated by completing a 1.5 hour semistructured interview which included assessments of depressive symptoms, somatization, medication side effects, and opioid pain medication usage. The percentage of patients non-adherent to opioid prescriptions increased as a function of somatization: Compared to no somatization, all levels of somatization were associated with higher rates of underuse, while severe somatization was associated with increased rates of overuse. Consistent with previous studies of medication non-adherence, increased depression and medication side effects were associated with decreased adherence to opioid prescriptions. However, in exploratory analyses, somatization mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and opioid-use patterns as well as medication side effects and opioid use patterns. This article sought to explore the relationship between somatization and adherence to prescription opioid medications. Our findings suggest that pain management treatment plans may be optimized by addressing patient distress about physical symptoms when considering the use of prescription opioid medications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. [Somatic complaints, emotional awareness and maladjustment in schoolchildren]. (United States)

    Ordóñez, A; Maganto, C; González, R


    Somatic complaints are common in childhood. Research has shown their relationship with emotional awareness and maladjustment. The study had three objectives: 1) to analyze the prevalence of somatic complaints; 2) To explore the relationships between the variables evaluated: somatic complaints, differentiating emotions, verbal sharing of emotions, not hiding emotions, body awareness, attending to others' emotions, analysis of emotions, and personal, social, family, and school maladjustments; and 3) To identify predictors of somatic complaints. The study included a total of 1,134 randomly selected schoolchildren of both sexes between 10-12 years old (M=10.99; SD=0.88). The Somatic Complaint List, Emotional Awareness Questionnaire, and Self-reported Multifactor Test of Childhood Adaptation were used to gather information. The results showed that the prevalence of somatic complaints was 90.2%, with fatigue, headache and stomachache being the most frequently. Dizziness and headache were more common in girls, and the frequency of complaints decreases with age. Somatic complaints are negatively related to emotional awareness, and positively related to maladjustment. The variables that contribute the most to the prediction of somatic complaints are personal maladjustment (25.1%) and differentiating emotions (2.5%). The study shows that personal maladjustment is the best predictor of somatic complaints; the more emotional awareness and better adapted the child, the fewer somatic complaints they lodge. Childhood is a stage with significant physical discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells. (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun


    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  1. Algebraic Davis decomposition and asymmetric Doob inequalities


    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier


    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let $(\\M,\\tau)$ be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a weak-$*$ dense filtration of von Neumann subalgebras $(\\M_n)_{n \\ge 1}$. Let $\\E_n$ denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for $1 < p < 2$ and $x \\in L_p(\\M,\\tau)$ one can find $a, b \\in L_p(\\M,\\tau)$ and contractions $u_n, v_...

  2. Asymmetric multiscale behavior in PM2.5 time series: Based on asymmetric MS-DFA (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Zhiwei; Ni, Liping


    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mm or less (PM2.5) is one of the most serious air pollution, considered most harmful for people by World Health Organisation. In this paper, we utilized the asymmetric multiscale detrended fluctuation analysis (A-MSDFA) method to explore the existence of asymmetric correlation properties for PM2.5 daily average concentration in two USA cities (Fresno and Los Angeles) and two Chinese cities (Hong Kong and Shanghai), and to assess the properties of these asymmetric correlations. The results show the existences of asymmetric correlations, and the degree of asymmetric for two USA cities is stronger than that of two Chinese cities. Further, most of the local exponent β(n) are smaller than 0.5, which indicates the existence of anti-persistent long-range correlation for PM2.5 time series in four cities. In addition, we reanalyze the asymmetric correlation by the A-MSDFA method with secant rolling windows of different sizes, which can investigate dynamic changes in the multiscale correlation for PM2.5 time series with changing window size. Whatever window sizes, the correlations are asymmetric and display smaller asymmetries at small scales and larger asymmetries at large scales. Moreover, the asymmetries become increasingly weaker with the increase of window sizes.

  3. Cell-sized asymmetric lipid vesicles facilitate the investigation of asymmetric membranes (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Takeuchi, Shoji


    Asymmetric lipid giant vesicles have been used to model the biochemical reactions in cell membranes. However, methods for producing asymmetric giant vesicles lead to the inclusion of an organic solvent layer that affects the mechanical and physical characteristics of the membrane. Here we describe the formation of asymmetric giant vesicles that include little organic solvent, and use them to investigate the dynamic responses of lipid molecules in the vesicle membrane. We formed the giant vesicles via the inhomogeneous break-up of a lipid microtube generated by applying a jet flow to an asymmetric planar lipid bilayer. The asymmetric giant vesicles showed a lipid flip-flop behaviour in the membrane, superficially similar to the lipid flip-flop activity observed in apoptotic cells. In vitro synthesis of membrane proteins into the asymmetric giant vesicles revealed that the lipid asymmetry in bilayer membranes improves the reconstitution ratio of membrane proteins. Our asymmetric giant vesicles will be useful in elucidating lipid-lipid and lipid-membrane protein interactions involved in the regulation of cellular functions.

  4. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Seyfettin EROL


    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main security issues for the West and especially for NATO after the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Russian military strategies, called “hybrid warfare” by the western countries, resulted in the successful annexation of Crimea and, caused a serious security problem for the West resulting important structural and functional changes for the military system of NATO. Russian activities, which have been based on surprise, ambiguity and deniability, presented a unique example for hybrid warfare studies.

  5. Asymmetric electrooptic response in a nematic liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dascalu, Constanta [Politechnica University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)


    An asymmetric electrooptic response in nematic liquid crystal (LC) has been obtained. The liquid crystal hybrid cell was made by using a standard configuration. One of the ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) electrodes was covered with a surfactant, which induces a homeotropic alignment. The second of the indium tin oxide electrodes was covered by a thin layer of photopolymer, which was previously mixed with an acid, which favours a process of release of protons. Such cations are responsible of electrochemical process in the LC leading to an asymmetric electrooptic response, which depend on the polarity of the applied electric field. This fact is due to an internal field, which change the effective voltage thresholds for the reorientation of the liquid crystal. During the anodic polarization, the optical switching is inhibited because the effective field decreases below the threshold value. On contrary for the opposite polarization the effective field is enough to determine a homeotropic alignment. [Spanish] Se ha obtenido una respuesta electro-optica asimetrica en cristales liquidos neumaticos. La celula hibrida de cristal liquido fue construida utilizando una configuracion estandar. Uno de los electrodos ITO fue cubierto con una pelicula delgada de material organico para inducir una alineacion homeotropa. El otro electrodo ITO fue cubierto con una pelicula delgada de fotopolimero anteriormente mezclada con un acido para favorecer la emision de protones. Estos cationes son responsables del proceso electroquimico en LC, conduciendo a una respuesta electro-optica asimetrica que depende de la polaridad del campo electrico aplicado. Este efecto es originado por un campo interno que cambia el umbral efectivo del voltaje para la reorientacion del cristal liquido. Durante la polarizacion anodica, la conmutacion optica se inhibe debido a que el campo efectivo disminuye abajo del valor del umbral. Por el contrario, para la polarizacion opuesta el campo efectivo es suficiente para

  6. Understanding the medically unexplained: emotional and familial influences on children's somatic functioning. (United States)

    Gilleland, J; Suveg, C; Jacob, M L; Thomassin, K


    Many youth experience impairing, unexplained somatic complaints. Psychosocial models of child somatization have primarily focused on parent somatic functioning. Although helpful in understanding child somatization, this narrow focus on parental factors leaves a large proportion of the variance unaccounted for when explaining children's general somatic functioning. The goal of this investigation is to extend current models of child somatization by collectively examining the influence of parent somatization and child emotional functioning. Forty-two children (50% male; M age = 9.11) reported on their somatic symptoms, emotion awareness skills, and negative affect. Parents reported on their own somatic symptoms and their child's somatic symptoms and emotion regulation skills. Regression analyses indicated that poor awareness of emotional experiences and frequency of negative effect predicted child-reported somatic symptoms. Parental somatic symptoms and parent reports of children's emotion regulation difficulties predicted mother-reported child somatic symptoms. Only parental somatic symptoms significantly predicted father-reported child somatic symptoms. These results suggest that models of child somatization should consider both family - (e.g. parent somatization) and child-level (e.g. emotional functioning) variables. The discrepancies between parent and child report of youth somatic symptoms underscore the importance of including multiple reporters on symptomatology in research and clinical settings. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  7. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server


    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  8. Extending a structural model of somatization to South Koreans: Cultural values, somatization tendency, and the presentation of depressive symptoms. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu; Min, Seongho; Sun, Jiahong; Kim, Se Joo; Ahn, Joung-Sook; Peng, Yunshi; Noh, Samuel; Ryder, Andrew G


    Somatization refers to the tendency to emphasize somatic symptoms when experiencing a psychiatric disturbance. This tendency has been widely reported in patients from East Asian cultural contexts suffering from depression. Recent research in two Chinese samples have demonstrated that the local cultural script for depression, involving two aspects-the experience and expression of distress (EED) and conceptualization and communication of distress (CCD)-can be evoked to help explain somatization. Given the beliefs and practices broadly shared across Chinese and South Korean cultural contexts, the current study seeks to replicate this explanatory model in South Koreans. Our sample included 209 psychiatric outpatients from Seoul and Wonju, South Korea. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess somatization tendency, adherence to traditional values, and psychological and somatic symptoms of depression. Results from SEM showed that the EED and CCD factors of somatization tendency were differently associated with cultural values and somatic symptoms, replicating our previous findings in Chinese outpatients. The reliance on a brief self-report measure of somatization tendency, not originally designed to assess separate EED and CCD factors, highlights the need for measurement tools for the assessment of cultural scripts in cross-cultural depression research. The replication of the Chinese structural model of somatization in South Korea lends empirical support to the view that somatization can be understood as the consequence of specific cultural scripts. These scripts involve the experience and expression of distress as well as culturally meaningful ways in which this distress is conceptualized and communicated to others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Roostika


    Full Text Available Smooth Cayenne is the largest pineapple type cultivated in Indonesia, but its vegetative planting materials for mass propagation are limited. Somatic embryogenesis is a potential method to be applied. The aim of this study was to investigate the somatic embryogenesis regeneration under the effect of picloram and light. Callus formation was induced by picloram (21, 41 and 62 μM added with 9 μM thidiazuron. The calli were transferred onto MS or Bac medium  enriched with N-organic compounds with or without addition of 21 μM picloram under dark or light condition. The compact calli were subcultured onto MS medium supplemented with 4.65 μM kinetin, while the friable calli were  transferred onto BIG medium (modified MS + 1.1 μM benzyl adenine + 0.9 μM indole butyric acid + 0.09 μM giberelic acid or B medium (MS + 0.018 mM benzyl adenine. The results showed that the events of somatic embryogenesis were started from cell polarization, asymmetrical division, proembryo formation as  embryogenic tissues and friable embryogenic tissues, and embryo development. The best treatment for callus induction was 21 μM picloram. The addition of 21 μM picloram on N-organic enriched medium and the use of light condition  proliferated embryogenic calli. The N-organic enriched Bac medium and light condition yielded the highest number of mature somatic embryos (17 embryos perexplant in 2 months. The B medium was better than BIG medium to develop  somatic embryos from friable embryogenic tissues. The somatic embryogenesis method presented is potential for pineapple mass propagation and artificial seedproduction.Abstrak Bahasa IndonesiaSmooth Cayenne merupakan kultivar nenas yang banyak dibudidayakan di  Indonesia, namun ketersediaan benih untuk perbanyakan massal masih terbatas. Embriogenesis somatikadalah metode yang potensial untuk produksi bibit secara massal. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mempelajari pengaruh pikloram dan pencahayaan terhadap regenerasi

  10. Single cell analysis demonstrating somatic mosaicism involving 11p in a patient with paternal isodisomy and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, F.Z.; McCaskill, C.; Subramanian, S. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others


    Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) is characterized by numerous growth abnormalities including exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism, and hemihypertrophy or hemihyperplasia. The {open_quotes}BWS gene{close_quotes} appears to be maternally repressed and is suspected to function as a growth factor or regulator of somatic growth, since activation of this gene through a variety of mechanisms appears to result in somatic overgrowth and tumor development. Mosaic paternal isodisomy of 11p has been observed previously by others in patients with BWS by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. The interpretation of these results was primarily based on the intensities of the hybridization signals for the different alleles. In our study, we demonstrate somatic mosaicism directly through PCR and single cell analysis. Peripheral blood was obtained from a patient with BWS and initial genomic DNA analysis by PCR was suggestive of somatic mosaicism for paternal isodisomy of 11p. Through micromanipulation, single cells were isolated and subjected to primer extention preamplification. Locus-specific microsatellite marker analyses by PCR were performed to determine the chromosome 11 origins in the preamplified individual cells. Two populations of cells were detected, a population of cells with normal biparental inheritance and a population of cells with paternal isodisomy of 11p and biparental disomy of 11q. Using the powerful approach of single cell analysis, the detected somatic mosaicism provides evidence for a mitotic recombinational event that has resulted in loss of the maternal 11p region and gain of a second copy of paternal 11p in some cells. The direct demonstration of mosaicism may explain the variable phenotypes and hemihypertrophy often observed in BWS.

  11. [Somatic development of asthmatic children and youth]. (United States)

    Szilágyi-Pagowska, I


    Systemic diseases especially the chronic ones, causing substance and oxygen insufficiency may lead to disturbances in growth, in the nutritional status and slowing of the maturation processes. Bronchial asthma is the most frequent inflammatory chronic disease of the respiratory system and it is estimated, that 5-10% of the population in the development period suffers from it. Somatic development retardation, disturbances in the nutritional status and maturation may be caused by respiratory insufficiency leading to anoxia, improper nutritional habits, recurrent or chronic infections, long-term physical and mental stress, limited physical activity and also pharmacological therapy. THE AIM of this work was to conduct, in children with bronchial asthma, the evaluation of: somatic development, body proportions, nutritional status, sexual maturation depending on the duration and degree of severity of the disease. The second aim was to assess whether the assumed standard for complex treatment depending on the severity of the diseases may lead to normal somatic development. In the research comprised 508 children (3 1 5 boys and 93 girls) between 7 and 1 5 years of age, treated for bronchial asthma in the Paediatric Department of the Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Rabka. Due to the multiplicity of factors influencing the course of development, the following were observed in the studied groups: birth weight and length, average height of parents (selected genetic factors); place of domicile and educational level of the parents (social-economic factors). The study concerned children born with normal birth weight and length. Evaluation of the impact of genetic factors, was based on the analysis of parent's height; it did not differ in the studied groups with regard to the women's or men's height in the average population. The majority of the studied children lived in towns, every third child lived in the country. Parents of the studied children suffering from

  12. Empirical Testing of an Algorithm for Defining Somatization in Children (United States)

    Eisman, Howard D.; Fogel, Joshua; Lazarovich, Regina; Pustilnik, Inna


    Introduction A previous article proposed an algorithm for defining somatization in children by classifying them into three categories: well, medically ill, and somatizer; the authors suggested further empirical validation of the algorithm (Postilnik et al., 2006). We use the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to provide this empirical validation. Method Parents of children seen in pediatric clinics completed the CBCL (n=126). The physicians of these children completed specially-designed questionnaires. The sample comprised of 62 boys and 64 girls (age range 2 to 15 years). Classification categories included: well (n=53), medically ill (n=55), and somatizer (n=18). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical comparisons. Discriminant function analysis was conducted with the CBCL subscales. Results There were significant differences between the classification categories for the somatic complaints (p=somatizers and 66% of well were accurately classified, while only 35% of medically ill were accurately classified. Conclusion The somatization classification algorithm proposed by Postilnik et al. (2006) shows promise for classification of children and adolescents with somatic symptoms. PMID:18421368

  13. Somatization in major depression--clinical features and genetic associations. (United States)

    Klengel, T; Heck, A; Pfister, H; Brückl, T; Hennings, J M; Menke, A; Czamara, D; Müller-Myhsok, B; Ising, M


    To identify clinical variables and genetic variations within monoaminergic genes known to be implicated in pain perception that are associated with the occurrence of somatization symptoms in patients with major depression. Somatization was evaluated using the respective subscale of the Symptom Checklist SCL-90-R. Six monoaminergic genes were identified showing an involvement in pain perception and somatization according to the literature: COMT, HTR2A, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, DRD4, and TPH1. One hundred and eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes were genotyped using Illumina BeadChips in a sample of 398 at least moderately to severely depressed in-patients participating in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project. Thirty SNPs exhibit nominally significant associations with somatization. One SNP (rs9534505) located in intron 2 of the HTR2A gene withstood correction for multiple testing. Clinical data provide further evidence for strong impact of somatization on the presentation of depressive symptoms and description of a patient subgroup with unfavorable clinical outcome. Our results demonstrate the influence of a HTR2A polymorphism on aspects of somatization in major depression, which co-occurs with an unfavorable antidepressant treatment outcome. These results confirm and expand previous findings on somatization as a risk factor for treatment outcome in major depression. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. History of Somatization is Associated with Prolonged Recovery from Concussion (United States)

    Root, Jeremy M; Zuckerbraun, Noel S.; Wang, Li; Winger, Dan; Brent, David; Kontos, Anthony; Hickey, Robert


    Objective To determine the association between a history of somatization and prolonged concussion symptoms, including sex differences in recovery. Study design A prospective cohort study of 10–18 year olds with an acute concussion was conducted from July 2014 to April 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric emergency department. 120 subjects completed the validated Children’s Somatization Inventory (CSI) for pre-injury somatization assessment and Post-Concussion Symptoms Score (PCSS) at diagnosis. PCSS was re-assessed by phone at 2- and 4-weeks. CSI was assessed in quartiles with a generalized estimating equation model to determine relationship of CSI to PCSS over time. Results The median age of our study participants was 13.8 years (interquartile range: 11.5, 15.8), 60% male, with analyses carried out separately for each sex. Our model showed a positive interaction between total CSI score, PCSS and time from concussion for females p somatization had higher PCSS than the other three CSI quartiles at each time point (B −26.7 to −41.1, p-values somatization had higher concussion symptom scores over time. Females in the highest somatization quartile had prolonged concussion recovery with persistently high symptom scores at 4 weeks. Somatization may contribute to sex differences in recovery, and assessment at the time of concussion may help guide management and target therapy. PMID:27059916

  15. Peer emotion socialization and somatic complaints in adolescents. (United States)

    Parr, Naomi J; Zeman, Janice; Braunstein, Kara; Price, Natalee


    Somatic symptoms tend to increase during early adolescence and although youth's social environments and emotional functioning play a role in somatic symptoms, few studies have examined mechanisms through which social interaction could influence youth's somatic wellbeing. Participants were 132 youth (61.6% girls, Mage = 12.61 years, 84.7% Caucasian) and their mothers. Reciprocated best-friend dyads participated in a video-taped problem discussion task to assess peer emotion socialization responses. Two supportive friend responses (i.e., emotion-focused, problem-focused) and two unsupportive responses (i.e., punitive, neglect) were examined. Mothers reported on their child's somatic complaints. Friends who provided emotion-focused, problem-focused, punitive, and neglect responses to their close friend's emotional disclosures had significantly fewer somatic symptoms. However, youth who received punitive responses to their emotional disclosures from their close friends had more somatic complaints. These findings provide initial evidence of a link between emotion socialization responses within close friendships and somatic complaints in early adolescence. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The visceromotor and somatic afferent nerves of the penis. (United States)

    Diallo, Djibril; Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Quillard, Jeanine; Ba, Nathalie; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Benoit, Gérard; Bedretdinova, Dina; Bessede, Thomas


    Innervation of the penis supports erectile and sensory functions. This article aims to study the efferent autonomic (visceromotor) and afferent somatic (sensory) nervous systems of the penis and to investigate how these systems relate to vascular pathways. Penises obtained from five adult cadavers were studied via computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). The number of autonomic and somatic nerve fibers was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Proximally, penile innervation was mainly somatic in the extra-albugineal sector and mainly autonomic in the intracavernosal sector. Distally, both sectors were almost exclusively supplied by somatic nerve fibers, except the intrapenile vascular anastomoses that accompanied both somatic and autonomic (nitrergic) fibers. From this point, the neural immunolabeling within perivascular nerve fibers was mixed (somatic labeling and autonomic labeling). Accessory afferent, extra-albugineal pathways supplied the outer layers of the penis. There is a major change in the functional type of innervation between the proximal and distal parts of the intracavernosal sector of the penis. In addition to the pelvis and the hilum of the penis, the intrapenile neurovascular routes are the third level where the efferent autonomic (visceromotor) and the afferent somatic (sensory) penile nerve fibers are close. Intrapenile neurovascular pathways define a proximal penile segment, which guarantees erectile rigidity, and a sensory distal segment. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.). (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasim


    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is well known for edible fruit, environment friendly pharmaceutical and commercial products for both national and international market. The conventional propagation and in vitro organogenesis do not meet the demand for the good quality planting materials. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (P. guajava L.) has been developed to fill up the gap. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlets regeneration are achieved from 10-week post-anthesis zygotic embryo explants by 8-day inductive treatment with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on MS agar medium containing 5% sucrose. Subsequent development and maturation of somatic embryos occur after 8 days on MS basal medium supplemented with 5% sucrose without plant growth regulator. The process of somatic embryogenesis shows the highest relative efficiency in 8-day treatment of zygotic embryo explants with 1.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D. High efficiency germination of somatic embryos and plantlet regeneration takes place on half strength semisolid MS medium amended with 3% sucrose within 2 weeks of subculture. Somatic plantlets are grown for additional 2 weeks by subculturing in MS liquid growth medium containing 3% sucrose. Well-grown plantlets from liquid medium have survived very well following 2-4 week hardening process. The protocol of somatic embryogenesis is optimized for high efficiency micropropagation of guava species.

  18. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2013 ... The Internet is an insecure open network and its use and connectivity have witnessed a significant growth, and this has made it vulnerable to all forms of attacks. A threat to a network can cause harm or interrupt the network. In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using asymmetric.

  19. Settling dynamics of asymmetric rigid fibers (United States)

    E.J. Tozzi; C Tim Scott; David Vahey; D.J. Klingenberg


    The three-dimensional motion of asymmetric rigid fibers settling under gravity in a quiescent fluid was experimentally measured using a pair of cameras located on a movable platform. The particle motion typically consisted of an initial transient after which the particle approached a steady rate of rotation about an axis parallel to the acceleration of gravity, with...

  20. Computing modal dispersion characteristics of radially Asymmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine how the modal characteristics change as circular Bragg fiber is changed to asymmetric Bragg fiber. The key to this transfer matrix method (TMM) is the accurate calculation of the propagation constants of modes. And validity of this method is verified by FDTD method. We compare these results with obtained from ...

  1. Organocatalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Johannes G.; Mrsic, Natasa; Mršić, Nataša


    The asymmetric organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation of imines can be accomplished in good yields with high enantioselectivities through the use of BINOL-derived phosphoric acids as catalysts and Hantzsch esters or benzothiazoles as the hydride source. The same method can also be applied to the

  2. Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A

    We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into

  3. Asymmetric volatility connectedness on the forex market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš


    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2017), s. 39-56 ISSN 0261-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14179S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : volatility * connectedness * asymmetric effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.853, year: 2016 http:// library

  4. Asymmetric Drift and the Stellar Velocity Ellipsoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.


    We present the decomposition of the stellar velocity ellipsoid using stellar velocity dispersions within a 40° wedge about the major-axis (smaj), the epicycle approximation, and the asymmetric drift equation. Thus, we employ no fitted forms for smaj and escape interpolation errors resulting from

  5. Dynamic Conditional Correlations for Asymmetric Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThe paper develops two Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models, namely the Wishart DCC (WDCC) model and the Matrix-Exponential Conditional Correlation (MECC) model. The paper applies the WDCC approach to the exponential GARCH (EGARCH) and GJR models to propose asymmetric DCC models.

  6. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.


    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  7. Spectral inequalities for the quantum asymmetric top

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourget, Alain; McMillen, Tyler [Department of Mathematics, California State University (Fullerton), McCarthy Hall 154, Fullerton, CA 92834 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We consider the spectrum of the quantum asymmetric top. Unlike in the case when two or three moments of inertia are equal, when the moments of inertia are distinct all degeneracy in the spectrum of the operator is removed. We derive inequalities for the spectra based on recent results on the interlacing of Van Vleck zeros.

  8. Palladium catalysed asymmetric alkylation of benzophenone Schiff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 4. Palladium catalysed asymmetric alkylation of benzophenone Schiff base glycine esters in ionic liquids. Dae Hyun Kim Jin Kyu Im Dae Won Kim Minserk Cheong Hoon Sik Kim Deb Kumar Mukherjee. Volume 123 Issue 4 July 2011 pp 467-476 ...

  9. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Internet is an insecure open network and its use and connectivity have witnessed a significant growth, and this has made it vulnerable to all forms of attacks. A threat to a network can cause harm or interrupt the network. In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using asymmetric cryptography, with ...

  10. Mixed gas plasticization phenomena in asymmetric membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Tymen


    This thesis describes the thorough investigation of mixed gas transport behavior of asymmetric membranes in the separation of feed streams containing plasticizing gases in order to gain more insights into the complicated behavior of plasticization. To successfully employ gas separation membranes in

  11. The role of GlsA in the evolution of asymmetric cell division in the green alga Volvox carteri. (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Fowler, Rachel; Tam, Lai-wa; Edwards, Lisseth; Miller, Stephen M


    Volvox carteri, a green alga in the order Volvocales, contains two completely differentiated cell types, small motile somatic cells and large reproductive cells called gonidia, that are set apart from each other during embryogenesis by a series of visibly asymmetric cell divisions. Mutational analysis has revealed a class of genes (gonidialess, gls) that are required specifically for asymmetric divisions in V. carteri, but that are dispensable for symmetric divisions. Previously we cloned one of these genes, glsA, and showed that it encodes a chaperone-like protein (GlsA) that has close orthologs in a diverse set of eukaryotes, ranging from fungi to vertebrates and higher plants. In the present study we set out to explore the role of glsA in the evolution of asymmetric division in the volvocine algae by cloning and characterizing a glsA ortholog from one of the simplest members of the group, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which does not undergo asymmetric divisions. This ortholog (which we have named gar1, for glsA related) is predicted to encode a protein that is 70% identical to GlsA overall, and that is most closely related to GlsA in the same domains that are most highly conserved between GlsA and its other known orthologs. We report that a gar1 transgene fully complements the glsA mutation in V. carteri, a result that suggests that asymmetric division probably arose through the modification of a gene whose product interacts with GlsA, but not through a modification of glsA itself.

  12. Y-chromosome evidence supports asymmetric dog introgression into eastern coyotes. (United States)

    Wheeldon, Tyler J; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N; Wilson, Paul J


    Hybridization has played an important role in the evolutionary history of Canis species in eastern North America. Genetic evidence of coyote-dog hybridization based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is lacking compared to that based on autosomal markers. This discordance suggests dog introgression into coyotes has potentially been male biased, but this hypothesis has not been formally tested. Therefore, we investigated biparentally, maternally, and paternally inherited genetic markers in a sample of coyotes and dogs from southeastern Ontario to assess potential asymmetric dog introgression into coyotes. Analysis of autosomal microsatellite genotypes revealed minimal historical and contemporary admixture between coyotes and dogs. We observed only mutually exclusive mtDNA haplotypes in coyotes and dogs, but we observed Y-chromosome haplotypes (Y-haplotypes) in both historical and contemporary coyotes that were also common in dogs. Species-specific Zfy intron sequences of Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs confirmed their homology and indicated a putative origin from dogs. We compared Y-haplotypes observed in coyotes, wolves, and dogs profiled in multiple studies, and observed that the Y-haplotypes shared between coyotes and dogs were either absent or rare in North American wolves, present in eastern coyotes, but absent in western coyotes. We suggest the eastern coyote has experienced asymmetric genetic introgression from dogs, resulting from predominantly historical hybridization with male dogs and subsequent backcrossing of hybrid offspring with coyotes. We discuss the temporal and spatial dynamics of coyote-dog hybridization and the conditions that may have facilitated the introgression of dog Y-chromosomes into coyotes. Our findings clarify the evolutionary history of the eastern coyote.

  13. Hybrid virtues


    Prijić – Samaržija, Snježana


    The controversies about cases such us of epistemic injustice, epistemic paternalism and epistocracy indicate that knowledge needs to be considered as socially situated phenomena and, consequently, that epistemic attitudes, social practices and institutions require evaluation from both an epistemic and an ethical/political perspective. The project titled as ethics of knowing and, especially, promising concept of hybrid virtues or corresponding hybrid view provides a desirable framework for the...

  14. Hybrid intermediaries


    Cetorelli, Nicola


    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  15. Comparative expression pattern analysis of WUSCHEL-related homeobox 2 (WOX2) and WOX8/9 in developing seeds and somatic embryos of the gymnosperm Picea abies. (United States)

    Palovaara, Joakim; Hallberg, Henrik; Stasolla, Claudio; Hakman, Inger


    • In seed plants, current knowledge concerning embryonic pattern formation by polar auxin transport (PAT) and WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) gene activity is primarily derived from studies on angiosperms, while less is known about these processes in gymnosperms. In view of the differences in their embryogeny, and the fact that somatic embryogenesis is used for mass propagation of conifers, a better understanding of embryo development is vital. • The expression patterns of PaWOX2 and PaWOX8/9 were followed with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) during seed and somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies), and in somatic embryos treated with the PAT inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). • Both PaWOX2 and PaWOX8/9 were highly expressed at the early growth stages of zygotic and somatic embryos, and shared a similar expression pattern over the entire embryo. At later embryo stages, high expression of PaWOX8/9 became restricted to cotyledon primordia, epidermis, procambium and root apical meristem (RAM), which became most evident in NPA-treated somatic embryos, while expression of PaWOX2 was much lower. • Our results suggest an ancestral role of WOX in seed plant embryo development, and strengthen the proposed connection between PAT, PIN-FORMED (PIN) and WOX in the regulation of embryo patterning in seed plants.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of predicting somatization from patients' ICD-9 diagnoses. (United States)

    Smith, Robert C; Gardiner, Joseph C; Luo, Zhehui; Rost, Kathryn


    To hypothesize in a new and different population that administrative database (ADB) screening would identify somatizing patients by increasing numbers of visits, female gender, and greater percent of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition (ICD-9) primary diagnosis codes in musculoskeletal, nervous, gastrointestinal (GI), and ill-defined body systems. We labeled these codes as having "somatization potential." Our earlier study demonstrated that ICD-9 codes and other data from the ADB effectively identified somatization. Using a prospective observational design in a staff model health maintenance organization, we evaluated 1364 patients aged 18 to 65 years who had > or =8 visits yearly in the 2 years before study. Clinician raters applied a reliable method of medical chart review to identify patients meeting the criteria for somatization. We randomly selected 2/3 for the derivation set (n = 901) for logistic regression to evaluate the contribution of potential ADB correlates (age, gender, all encounters, primary diagnosis codes (ICD-9), revenue codes, and charges) of a diagnosis of somatization. This prediction rule was then applied to the remaining 1/3 of subjects, the validation set (n = 463). Patients averaged 47.1 years, 12.8 visits per year, and 71.6% were female; 319 had somatization. Age, visits, and somatization potential were associated with clinician-rated somatization, with a c-statistic 0.72 in the derivation set and 0.68 in the validation set. These data support our earlier findings that selected ICD-9 diagnoses in the ADB predict somatization, suggesting their potential in identifying a common, costly, and usually unrecognized problem.

  17. Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco


    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown...... component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton...... flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric....

  18. Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide with Different Polyoxometalates as Positive and Negative Electrodes. (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Chodankar, Nilesh R; Vinu, Ajayan; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Gomez-Romero, Pedro


    Nanofabrication using a "bottom-up" approach of hybrid electrode materials into a well-defined architecture is essential for next-generation miniaturized energy storage devices. This paper describes the design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polyoxometalate (POM)-based hybrid electrode materials and their successful exploitation for asymmetric supercapacitors. First, redox active nanoclusters of POMs [phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12 ) and phosphotungstic acid (PW12 )] were uniformly decorated on the surface of rGO nanosheets to take full advantage of both charge-storing mechanisms (faradaic from POMs and electric double layer from rGO). The as-synthesized rGO-PMo12 and rGO-PW12 hybrid electrodes exhibited impressive electrochemical performances with specific capacitances of 299 (269 mF cm-2 ) and 370 F g-1 (369 mF cm-2 ) in 1 m H2 SO4 as electrolyte at 5 mA cm-2 . An asymmetric supercapacitor was then fabricated using rGO-PMo12 as the positive and rGO-PW12 as the negative electrode. This rGO-PMo12 ∥rGO-PW12 asymmetric cell could be successfully cycled in a wide voltage window up to 1.6 V and hence exhibited an excellent energy density of 39 Wh kg-1 (1.3 mWh cm-3 ) at a power density of 658 W kg-1 (23 mW cm-3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Determinant of asymmetric risks in Nigerian loan market: any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bank lending in Nigeria was dominated by the presence of asymmetric information, a wedge to financial intermediation. Using probit and correlation test methodology, evidence of low level asymmetric risk was found and the determinants of asymmetric risks in the market were not significantly different. The size of default ...

  20. Somatization: the under-recognized factor in nonspecific eczema. The Hordaland Health Study (HUSK). (United States)

    Klokk, M; Stansfeld, S; Overland, S; Wilhelmsen, I; Gotestam, K G; Steinshamn, S; Mykletun, A


    Psychodermatology has focused primarily on depression and anxiety in eczema. Skin symptoms are listed among many others for the ICD-10 diagnosis of somatization disorder. Somatization (unexplained somatic symptoms) is highly prevalent in the general population, but its association with eczema is yet to be empirically investigated. We therefore explored the association between somatization and eczema by examining the extent of somatization in eczema compared with allergic rhinitis, and by examining if eczema was more strongly associated with somatization than with anxiety and depression. Finally, we aimed to examine the relationship between the site of eczema and somatization for individual somatic symptoms and for somatic symptoms as a whole. For this population-based cross-sectional study we employed data from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) with 15,225 participants aged 41-48 years. Information on nonspecific eczema, allergic rhinitis, somatization, anxiety, depression and other covariates was obtained by self-report. The association between nonspecific eczema and somatization was strong and followed a dose-response pattern, as did all somatic symptoms in our index of somatization when analysed separately. The association between nonspecific eczema and somatization was stronger than that between rhinitis and somatization, and also the association between nonspecific eczema and anxiety and depression. In multivariate models, somatization accounted for most of the association between nonspecific eczema and anxiety/depression. In contrast, the association between nonspecific eczema and somatization was robust for adjustment for anxiety/depression. Somatization was strongly associated with nonspecific eczema. This applies to a whole range of somatic symptoms constituting the construct of somatization. There is hardly any mention of somatization in leading dermatological journals, in contrast to anxiety and depression which are frequently reported in eczema. We

  1. Coupling effects on photoluminescence of exciton states in asymmetric quantum dot molecules. (United States)

    Fino, Nelson R; Camacho, Angela S; Ramírez, Hanz Y


    We present a theoretical study of photoluminescence from exciton states in InAs/GaAs asymmetric dot pairs, where interdot coupling is reached via magnetic field in the Faraday configuration. Electronic structure is obtained by finite element calculations, and Coulomb effects are included using a perturbative approach. According to our simulated spectra, bright excited states may become optically accessible at low temperatures in hybridization regimes where intermixing with the ground state is achieved. Our results show effective magnetic control on the energy, polarization and intensity of emitted light, and suggest these coupled nanostructures as relevant candidates for implementation of quantum optoelectronic devices.

  2. Depression, somatization, and somatic dysfunction in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain: results from the OSTEOPATHIC Trial. (United States)

    Licciardone, John C; Gatchel, Robert J; Kearns, Cathleen M; Minotti, Dennis E


    Depression and somatization are often present in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). To measure the presence of depression and somatization in patients with chronic LBP and to study the associations of depression and somatization with somatic dysfunction, LBP severity, back-specific functioning, and general health. Cross-sectional study using baseline measures collected within a randomized controlled trial. University-based study in Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas. A total of 202 adult research participants with nonspecific chronic LBP. Depression was self-reported and also measured with the Modified Zung Depression Index (MZDI). Somatization was measured with the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire (MSPQ). The MZDI and MSPQ scores were used to classify patients as "normal," "at risk," or "distressed" using the Distress and Risk Assessment Method. Somatic dysfunction was assessed using the Outpatient Osteopathic SOAP Note Form. A 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS), the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) were used to measure LBP severity, back-specific functioning, and general health, respectively. There were 53 patients (26%) and 44 patients (22%) who were classified as having depression on the basis of self-reports and the MZDI cut point, respectively. A total of 38 patients (19%) were classified as having somatization on the basis of the MSPQ cut point. There were significant correlations among self-reported depression and the MZDI and MSPQ scores (Psomatization, and LBP in this study are consistent with the findings of previous studies. These associations, coupled with the findings that MZDI and MSPQ scores are correlated with somatic dysfunction, may have important implications for the use of osteopathic manual treatment in patients with chronic LBP.

  3. Spaceflight reduces somatic embryogenesis in orchardgrass (Poaceae) (United States)

    Conger, B. V.; Tomaszewski, Z. Jr; McDaniel, J. K.; Vasilenko, A.


    Somatic embryos initiate and develop from single mesophyll cells in in vitro cultured leaf segments of orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Segments were plated at time periods ranging from 21 to 0.9 d (21 h) prior to launch on an 11 d spaceflight (STS-64). Using a paired t-test, there was no significant difference in embryogenesis from preplating periods of 14 d and 21 d. However, embryogenesis was reduced by 70% in segments plated 21 h before launch and this treatment was significant at P=0.0001. The initial cell divisions leading to embryo formation would be taking place during flight in this treatment. A higher ratio of anticlinal:periclinal first cell divisions observed in the flight compared to the control tissue suggests that microgravity affects axis determination and embryo polarity at a very early stage. A similar reduction in zygotic embryogenesis would reduce seed formation and have important implications for long-term space flight or colonization where seeds would be needed either for direct consumption or to grow another generation of plants.

  4. Somatic Embryogenesis of Abies cephalonica Loud. (United States)

    Krajňáková, Jana; Häggman, Hely


    Greek fir (Abies cephalonica Loudon) belongs to the Mediterranean fir species and is widely distributed in the mountains of Central and Southern Greece. Considering a climatic scenario, infestation by pathogens or insects and fire episodes, it has been proposed that Mediterranean firs could be in danger in some parts of their present range but, on the other hand, could also replace other species in more northern zones with temperate humid climates (e.g., silver fir, Abies alba Mill.). As fir species are generally highly productive and therefore important for commercial forestry, they have traditionally been involved in conventional tree improvement programs. A lot of effort has been put into the development of vegetative propagation methods for firs, in order to rapidly gain the benefits of traditional breeding to be utilized in reforestation. The present paper provides up to date information on protocols for somatic embryogenesis (i.e., the most promising in vitro method for vegetative propagation) of Greek fir. Moreover, the protocols for cryopreservation and long-term storage of embryogenic material are described as well.

  5. Activation of ribosomal RNA genes in porcine embryos produced in vitro or by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Jakobsen, Anne Sørig


    The onset of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis occurs during the second half of the third cell cycle, that is, at the four-cell stage, in porcine embryos developed in vivo. In the present study the onset of rRNA synthesis was investigated in porcine embryos produced in vitro (IVP) or by somatic cell...... nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with an rDNA probe and subsequent visualization of the nucleolar proteins by silver staining. In the 205 IVP embryos investigated, all two-cell embryos (n = 34) were categorized as transcriptionally inactive. At the late four...

  6. Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote banana (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis. (United States)

    Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S


    Banana is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve banana varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for banana improvement is imperative. But the low rate that banana embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote banana somatic embryogenesis is critical for banana genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of banana immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote banana embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve banana somatic embryogenesis.

  7. Encapsulation of Date Palm Somatic Embryos: Synthetic Seeds. (United States)

    Bekheet, Shawky A


    Synthetic seed or encapsulated somatic embryos may be used for propagation, storage, and exchange of plant germplasm and have many diverse applications in date palm cultivation. They have advantages over conventional use of offshoot material for germplasm propagation, maintenance, exchange, and transportation. This chapter describes a protocol for date palm synthetic seed production by encapsulation of somatic embryos with sodium alginate. Among three concentrations used, 3% sodium alginate followed by dropping into 2.5% calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution shows the best concentration of gel matrix for both maintenance and recovery. In addition, storage of the encapsulated date palm somatic embryos at 5 °C improves the survival and conversion into plantlets; otherwise, 20 g/L sucrose in the culture medium enhances conversion of the recovered somatic embryos to plantlets. This protocol is promising for in vitro conservation and international exchange of date palm germplasm.

  8. Depression, anxiety, distress and somatization in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mohamed Shalaby Samaha


    Conclusions: Asthmatic patients are at high risk of psychiatric problems, particularly depression, anxiety and somatization. Asthmatic patients need psychotherapy besides their medication of asthma to obtain better asthma out come and management.

  9. High-throughput Phenotyping of Lung Cancer Somatic Mutations. (United States)

    Berger, Alice H; Brooks, Angela N; Wu, Xiaoyun; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Chouinard, Candace; Piccioni, Federica; Bagul, Mukta; Kamburov, Atanas; Imielinski, Marcin; Hogstrom, Larson; Zhu, Cong; Yang, Xiaoping; Pantel, Sasha; Sakai, Ryo; Watson, Jacqueline; Kaplan, Nathan; Campbell, Joshua D; Singh, Shantanu; Root, David E; Narayan, Rajiv; Natoli, Ted; Lahr, David L; Tirosh, Itay; Tamayo, Pablo; Getz, Gad; Wong, Bang; Doench, John; Subramanian, Aravind; Golub, Todd R; Meyerson, Matthew; Boehm, Jesse S


    Recent genome sequencing efforts have identified millions of somatic mutations in cancer. However, the functional impact of most variants is poorly understood. Here we characterize 194 somatic mutations identified in primary lung adenocarcinomas. We present an expression-based variant-impact phenotyping (eVIP) method that uses gene expression changes to distinguish impactful from neutral somatic mutations. eVIP identified 69% of mutations analyzed as impactful and 31% as functionally neutral. A subset of the impactful mutations induces xenograft tumor formation in mice and/or confers resistance to cellular EGFR inhibition. Among these impactful variants are rare somatic, clinically actionable variants including EGFR S645C, ARAF S214C and S214F, ERBB2 S418T, and multiple BRAF variants, demonstrating that rare mutations can be functionally important in cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Somatic pain sensitivity of conscious rats with chronic gastric ulcers]. (United States)

    Iarushkina, N I; Bogdanov, A I; Filaretova, L P


    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of gastric ulcers on somatic nociception in conscious rats. The formation of kissing gastric ulcers was induced by luminal application of 60% acetic. Somatic pain sensitivity was tested by tail flick latency. Application of acetic acid resulted in gastric ulcer formation, somatic hyperalgesia and the appearance of typical signs of chronic stress (a long-lasting increase of plasma corticosterone level, adrenal gland hypertrophy and thymus gland involution). Natural healing of gastric ulcers was accompanied by restoration of pain sensitivity and attenuation of typical signs of chronic stress. Both natural healing of gastric ulcers and restoration of pain sensitivity were prevented by daily indomethacin administration. The results suggest that the formation of chronic gastric ulcers may trigger somatic hypersensitivity.

  11. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors (United States)

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong


    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  12. Recurrent Somatic Structural Variations Contribute to Tumorigenesis in Pediatric Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Chen


    Full Text Available Pediatric osteosarcoma is characterized by multiple somatic chromosomal lesions, including structural variations (SVs and copy number alterations (CNAs. To define the landscape of somatic mutations in pediatric osteosarcoma, we performed whole-genome sequencing of DNA from 20 osteosarcoma tumor samples and matched normal tissue in a discovery cohort, as well as 14 samples in a validation cohort. Single-nucleotide variations (SNVs exhibited a pattern of localized hypermutation called kataegis in 50% of the tumors. We identified p53 pathway lesions in all tumors in the discovery cohort, nine of which were translocations in the first intron of the TP53 gene. Beyond TP53, the RB1, ATRX, and DLG2 genes showed recurrent somatic alterations in 29%–53% of the tumors. These data highlight the power of whole-genome sequencing for identifying recurrent somatic alterations in cancer genomes that may be missed using other methods.

  13. Journeying as Amateur and Professional – A Somatic Movement Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Eddy


    Full Text Available This account is an interactive case study co-authored by a teacher and her student on the topic of moving from amateur to professional. It highlights the role of somatic education in equalizing the experience of amateurs and professionals as well as pointing to specific curricula, public performances, participatory events and volunteer work that are made uniquely available to students of programs related to Dynamic EmbodimentTM Somatic Movement Therapy (known as the Somatic Movement Therapy Training – SMTT from 1991-2005. Written in first-person narrative style (Powdermaker 1966, this inquiry supports the primary methodology of somatic education – the process of self-discovery “from within” (Hanna 1976 emphasizing the physical body with a focus on bodily proprioception and kinesthetic awareness – as well as the humanistic nature of the student-teacher relationship and the value of each in performance and education.

  14. Somatic muscle development in Sepia officinalis (cephalopoda - mollusca): a new role for NK4. (United States)

    Navet, Sandra; Bassaglia, Yann; Baratte, Sébastien; Martin, Madeleine; Bonnaud, Laure


    Cephalopods are emerging as new developmental models. These lophotrochozoans exhibit numerous morphological peculiarities among molluscs, not only regarding their nervous system but also regarding their circulatory system, which is closed and includes three hearts. However, the molecular control of cardiac myogenesis in lophotrochozoans is largely unknown. In other groups, cardiac development depends on numerous different genes, among them NK4 seems to have a well-conserved function throughout evolution. In this study, we assessed the expression pattern of SoNK4, the Sepia officinalis NK4 homologue, during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. SoNK4 expression begins before morphogenesis, is not restricted to prospective cardiac muscles but above all concerns mesodermal structures potentially rich in muscles such as arms and mantle. These results suggest an important role of SoNK4 in locomotory (somatic) muscles development of Sepia officinalis, and thus a new role for NK4.

  15. Asymmetric total synthesis of Apocynaceae hydrocarbazole alkaloids (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. (United States)

    Du, Ji-Yuan; Zeng, Chao; Han, Xiao-Jie; Qu, Hu; Zhao, Xian-He; An, Xian-Tao; Fan, Chun-An


    An unprecedented asymmetric catalytic tandem aminolysis/aza-Michael addition reaction of spirocyclic para-dienoneimides has been designed and developed through organocatalytic enantioselective desymmetrization. A unified strategy based on this key tandem methodology has been divergently explored for the asymmetric total synthesis of two natural Apocynaceae alkaloids, (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. The present studies not only enrich the tandem reaction design concerning the asymmetric catalytic assembly of a chiral all-carbon quaternary stereocenter contained in the densely functionalized hydrocarbazole synthons but also manifest the potential for the application of the asymmetric catalysis based on the para-dienone chemistry in asymmetric synthesis of natural products.

  16. Histology of somatic embryogenesis in rice (Oryza sativa cv. 5272)


    Vega, Rafael; Vásquez, Nelly; Ana M Espinoza; Andrés M Gatica; Valdez-Melara, Marta


    Rice (Oryza sativa cv. 5272) embryogenic calli were obtained from mature zygotic embryos culture on Murashige & Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Histological analysis of somatic embryogenesis revealed that after two weeks of culture of explants on the callus induction medium, somatic embryo development began with a cluster of proembryogenic cells in the peripheral region of the calli. The outer cell layer of embryogenic calli consisted of small a...

  17. Teaching at the interface of dance science and somatics. (United States)

    Geber, Pamela; Wilson, Margaret


    This article introduces a combined scientific and somatic approach to teaching and learning about the body, and explains how it can be of benefit to dancers and dance educators. The study of the science of movement (kinesiology) and a somatic approach to teaching are initially defined and described as distinct entities; following this, a model for integration of the two is presented. The authors advocate for such a combination in order to enhance dancing.

  18. Somatic Knowledge: The Body as Content and Methodology in Dance Education. (United States)

    Green, Jill


    Explores applications of somatics to school and university curricula, addressing somatic knowledge as content and methodology in dance education, proposing strategies for bringing the body back into dance and dance curricula, exploring cultural diversity issues within dance and somatic education, and concluding that somatic knowledge and practice…

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  7. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients. (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye


    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  8. The Role of Somatic L1 Retrotransposition in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Scott


    Full Text Available The human LINE-1 (or L1 element is a non-LTR retrotransposon that is mobilized through an RNA intermediate by an L1-encoded reverse transcriptase and other L1-encoded proteins. L1 elements remain actively mobile today and continue to mutagenize human genomes. Importantly, when new insertions disrupt gene function, they can cause diseases. Historically, L1s were thought to be active in the germline but silenced in adult somatic tissues. However, recent studies now show that L1 is active in at least some somatic tissues, including epithelial cancers. In this review, we provide an overview of these recent developments, and examine evidence that somatic L1 retrotransposition can initiate and drive tumorigenesis in humans. Recent studies have: (i cataloged somatic L1 activity in many epithelial tumor types; (ii identified specific full-length L1 source elements that give rise to somatic L1 insertions; and (iii determined that L1 promoter hypomethylation likely plays an early role in the derepression of L1s in somatic tissues. A central challenge moving forward is to determine the extent to which L1 driver mutations can promote tumor initiation, evolution, and metastasis in humans.

  9. The Optical Janus Effect: Asymmetric Structural Color Reflection Materials. (United States)

    England, Grant T; Russell, Calvin; Shirman, Elijah; Kay, Theresa; Vogel, Nicolas; Aizenberg, Joanna


    Structurally colored materials are often used for their resistance to photobleaching and their complex viewing-direction-dependent optical properties. Frequently, absorption has been added to these types of materials in order to improve the color saturation by mitigating the effects of nonspecific scattering that is present in most samples due to imperfect manufacturing procedures. The combination of absorbing elements and structural coloration often yields emergent optical properties. Here, a new hybrid architecture is introduced that leads to an interesting, highly directional optical effect. By localizing absorption in a thin layer within a transparent, structurally colored multilayer material, an optical Janus effect is created, wherein the observed reflected color is different on one side of the sample than on the other. A systematic characterization of the optical properties of these structures as a function of their geometry and composition is performed. The experimental studies are coupled with a theoretical analysis that enables a precise, rational design of various optical Janus structures with highly controlled color, pattern, and fabrication approaches. These asymmetrically colored materials will open applications in art, architecture, semitransparent solar cells, and security features in anticounterfeiting materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Asymmetric micro-Doppler frequency comb generation via magnetoelectric coupling (United States)

    Filonov, Dmitry; Steinberg, Ben Z.; Ginzburg, Pavel


    Electromagnetic scattering from moving bodies, being an inherently time-dependent phenomenon, gives rise to a generation of new frequencies, which can be used to characterize the motion. Whereas an ordinary motion along a linear path produces a constant Doppler shift, an accelerated scatterer can generate a micro-Doppler frequency comb. The spectra produced by rotating objects were studied and observed in a bistatic lock-in detection scheme. The internal geometry of a scatterer was shown to determine the spectrum, and the degree of structural asymmetry was suggested to be identified via signatures in the micro-Doppler comb. In particular, hybrid magnetoelectric particles, showing an ultimate degree of asymmetry in forward and backward scattering directions, were investigated. It was shown that the comb in the backward direction has signatures at the fundamental rotation frequency and its odd harmonics, whereas the comb of the forward scattered field has a prevailing peak at the doubled frequency and its multiples. Additional features of the comb were shown to be affected by the dimensions of the particle and by the strength of the magnetoelectric coupling. Experimental verification was performed with a printed circuit board antenna based on a wire and a split ring, while the structure was illuminated at a 2 GHz carrier frequency. Detailed analysis of micro-Doppler combs enables remote detection of asymmetric features of distant objects and could find use in a span of applications, including stellar radiometry and radio identification.

  11. Settling dynamics of asymmetric rigid fibers (United States)

    Tozzi, E. J.; Scott, C. T.; Vahey, D.; Klingenberg, D. J.


    The three-dimensional motion of asymmetric rigid fibers settling under gravity in a quiescent fluid was experimentally measured using a pair of cameras located on a movable platform. The particle motion typically consisted of an initial transient after which the particle approached a steady rate of rotation about an axis parallel to the acceleration of gravity, with its center of mass following a helical trajectory. Numerical and analytical methods were used to predict translational and angular velocities as well as the evolution of the fiber orientation as a function of time. A comparison of calculated and measured values shows that it is possible to quantitatively predict complex motions of particles that have highly asymmetric shape. The relations between particle shape and settling trajectory have potential applications for hydrodynamic characterization of fiber shapes and fiber separation.

  12. Enhancing molecule fluorescence with asymmetrical plasmonic antennas. (United States)

    Lu, Guowei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianyue; Shen, Hongming; Perriat, Pascal; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Gu, Ying; He, Yingbo; Wang, Yuwei; Gong, Qihuang


    We propose and justify by the finite-difference time-domain method an efficient strategy to enhance the spontaneous emission of a fluorophore with a multi-resonance plasmonic antenna. The custom-designed asymmetrical antenna consists of two plasmonic nanoparticles with different sizes and is able to couple efficiently to free space light through multiple localized surface plasmon resonances. This design simultaneously permits a large near-field excitation near the antenna as well as a high quantum efficiency, which results in an unusual and significant enhancement of the fluorescence of a single emitter. Such an asymmetrical antenna presents intrinsic advantages over single particle or dimer based antennas made using two identical nanostructures. This promising concept can be exploited in the large domain of light-matter interaction processes involving multiple frequencies.

  13. Defect induced asymmetric pit formation on hydroxyapatite. (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Young; Wang, Eddie; Chung, Alice; Chang, Neil; Saiz, Eduardo; Choe, Uh-Joo; Koobatian, Maxwell; Lee, Seung-Wuk


    Defect sites on bone minerals play a critical role in bone remodeling processes. We investigated single crystal hydroxyapatite (100) surfaces bearing crystal defects under acidic dissolution conditions using real-time in situ atomic force microscopy. At defect sites, surface structure-dependent asymmetric hexagonal etch pits were formed, which dominated the overall dissolution rate. Meanwhile, dissolution from the flat terraces proceeded by stochastic formation of flat bottom etch pits. The resulting pit shapes were intrinsically dictated by the HAP crystal structure. Computational modeling also predicted different step energies associated with different facets of the asymmetric etch pits. Our microscopic observations of HAP dissolution are significant for understanding the effects of local surface structure on the bone mineral remodeling process and provide useful insights for the design of novel therapies for treating osteoporosis and dental caries.

  14. Asymmetric synthesis and sensory evaluation of sedanenolide. (United States)

    Oguro, Daichi; Watanabe, Hidenori


    The synthesis and sensory evaluation of enantiomeric sets of sedanenolide (1) and 3-butylphthalide (3) are described. The asymmetric synthesis was achieved via the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of chiral propargylester (5) which was prepared from optically active propargyl alcohol (4) and 2,4-pentadienoic acid. The sensory evaluation of these enantiomers revealed that there were distinct differences between their aroma character and odor threshold.

  15. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates. (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L


    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of α,β-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good yields and high enantiomeric excess. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated through stereospecific transformations into multifunctional optically active compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li


    In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....

  17. Asymmetric monetary policy effects in EMU


    Clausen, Volker; Hayo, Bernd


    This paper uses a semi-structural dynamic modelling approach to investigate asymmetric monetary transmission in Europe. A system of equations containing reaction functions for monetary policy, output and inflation equations is simultaneously estimated for France, Germany, and Italy. Extensive cross equation tests show that relatively large differences in simulated impulse responses are still consistent with the notion that the transmission mechanism is homogeneous across the three major EMU c...

  18. Predicting tensorial electrophoretic effects in asymmetric colloids (United States)

    Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, T. A.


    We formulate a numerical method for predicting the tensorial linear response of a rigid, asymmetrically charged body to an applied electric field. This prediction requires calculating the response of the fluid to the Stokes drag forces on the moving body and on the countercharges near its surface. To determine the fluid's motion, we represent both the body and the countercharges using many point sources of drag known as Stokeslets. Finding the correct flow field amounts to finding the set of drag forces on the Stokeslets that is consistent with the relative velocities experienced by each Stokeslet. The method rigorously satisfies the condition that the object moves with no transfer of momentum to the fluid. We demonstrate that a sphere represented by 1999 well-separated Stokeslets on its surface produces flow and drag force like a solid sphere to 1% accuracy. We show that a uniformly charged sphere with 3998 body and countercharge Stokeslets obeys the Smoluchowski prediction [F. Morrison, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 210 (1970), 10.1016/0021-9797(70)90171-2] for electrophoretic mobility when the countercharges lie close to the sphere. Spheres with dipolar and quadrupolar charge distributions rotate and translate as predicted analytically to 4% accuracy or better. We describe how the method can treat general asymmetric shapes and charge distributions. This method offers promise as a way to characterize and manipulate asymmetrically charged colloid-scale objects from biology (e.g., viruses) and technology (e.g., self-assembled clusters).

  19. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin


    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  20. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan


    Asymmetric supercapacitors provide a promising approach to fabricate capacitive energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. In this work, asymmetric supercapacitors with excellent performance have been fabricated using ternary (Ni, Co)0.85Se on carbon fabric as bind-free positive electrode and porous free-standing graphene films as negative electrode. Owing to their metal-like conductivity (~1.67×106 S m−1), significant electrochemical activity, and superhydrophilic nature, our nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid supercapacitors can afford impressive areal capacitance and stack capacitance of 529.3 mF cm−2 and 6330 mF cm−3 at 1 mA cm−2, respectively. More impressively, our optimized asymmetric device operating at 1.8 V delivers a very high stack energy density of 2.85 mWh cm−3 at a stack power density of 10.76 mW cm−3, as well as 85% capacitance retention after 10,000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. Even at a high stack power density of 1173 mW cm−3, this device still deliveries a stack energy density of 1.19 mWh cm−3, superior to most of the reported supercapacitors.

  1. Bucking the Trend in Wolf-Dog Hybridization: First Evidence from Europe of Hybridization between Female Dogs and Male Wolves (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Männil, Peep; Ozolins, Janis; Krzywinski, Andrzej; Saarma, Urmas


    Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization. PMID:23056315

  2. Bucking the trend in wolf-dog hybridization: first evidence from europe of hybridization between female dogs and male wolves. (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Männil, Peep; Ozolins, Janis; Krzywinski, Andrzej; Saarma, Urmas


    Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.

  3. Bucking the trend in wolf-dog hybridization: first evidence from europe of hybridization between female dogs and male wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Hindrikson

    Full Text Available Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.

  4. Acoustics of finite asymmetric exotic beams: Examples of Airy and fractional Bessel beams (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.


    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the properties of finite asymmetric exotic scalar (acoustic) beams with unusual properties using the angular spectrum decomposition in plane waves. Such beams possess intrinsic uncommon characteristics that make them attractive from the standpoint of particle manipulation, handling and rotation, and possibly other applications in particle clearing and separation. Assuming a specific apodization function at the acoustic source, the angular spectrum function is calculated and used to synthesize the radiated pressure field (i.e., excluding evanescent waves that decay away from the source) in the forward direction of wave motion (i.e., away from the source). Moreover, a generalized hybrid method combining the angular spectrum approach with the multipole expansion formalism in spherical coordinates is developed, which is applicable to any finite beam of arbitrary wavefront. The improved approach allows adequate computation of the resonance scattering, radiation force, and spin torque components on an object of arbitrary shape, located on or off the axis of the incident beam in space. Considering the illustrative example of a viscous fluid sphere submerged in a non-viscous liquid and illuminated by finite asymmetric beams such as the Airy and the Bessel vortex beam with fractional order, numerical computations for the scattering, radiation force, and torque components are performed with an emphasis on the distance from the source, the arbitrary location of the particle ,and the asymmetric nature of the incident field. Moreover, beamforming calculations are presented with supplementary animations for the pressure field distribution in space, with an emphasis on the intrinsic properties of the selected beams. The numerical predictions illustrate the scattering, radiation force, and spin torque properties depending on the beam parameters and the distance separating the sphere from the source. This study provides a generalized

  5. Hybrid Warfare (United States)


    military vocabulary to describe these observed phenomena. After an intense focus on large-scale conventional conflicts during the Cold War, with episodic...requiring the mastery of both grammars.85 It follows that hybrid warfare requires the blending of both grammars. The Theoretical Lineage of

  6. Asymmetrical lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs may promote asymmetrical hip joint development. (United States)

    Flückiger, Mark A; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joseph P


    This study examines the relationship between the morphology of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV) and asymmetrical development of the hip joints in dogs. A total of 4000 dogs which had been consecutively scored for canine hip dysplasia were checked for the presence of a LTV. A LTV was noted in 138 dogs and classified depending on the morphology of the transverse processes and the degree of contact with the ilium. In dogs with an asymmetrical LTV, the hip joint was significantly more predisposed to subluxation and malformation on the side of the intermediate or sacral-like transverse process (p hip joint conformation was less affected on the side featuring a free transverse process (p hip joint, and secondary osteoarthritis. Asymmetrical hip conformation may therefore be the sequela of a LTV and mask or aggravate genetically induced canine hip dysplasia.

  7. Nickel cobaltite nanosheets strongly anchored on boron and nitrogen co-doped graphene for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors (United States)

    Jiao, Xinyan; Xia, Xifeng; Liu, Peng; Lei, Wu; Ouyang, Yu; Hao, Qingli


    Strongly coupled boron and nitrogen co-doped graphene (BN-G) hybrids with nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanosheets (NCO/BN-G) were fabricated by a facile soft-chemical method for asymmetric supercapacitors with high-performance. The strong interaction between BN-G and NiCo2O4 nanosheets are explored by various techniques. The effect of heteroatom doping on electrochemical properties of the hybrids is systematically investigated. The strong synergistic effect between NiCo2O4 and BN-G leads to a specific capacitance of 106.5 mA h g-1 at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 and capacitance retention of 96.8% after 10 000 cycles at 5 A g-1, much better than those of the pure NiCo2O4 and its hybrid with N-doped graphene. Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor device, assembled with NCO/BN-G and activated carbon (NCO/BN-G//AC), exhibits a maximum energy density of 45.6 Wh kg-1 and an excellent cycling stability. The improved electrochemical performance of the NCO/BN-G hybrid is attributed to the good conductivity of BN-G and the synergistic effect between NiCo2O4 nanosheets and BN-G combined together through a plane-to-plane contact mode.

  8. Callus formation from immature inflorescence of cedar and hybrids mahogany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Daquinta


    Full Text Available Meliaceas have great importance in the construction and furniture production, among other applications. Swietenia mahogany x Swietenia macrophylla is a hybrid originally from the Caribbean islands, in Cuba its known as hybrid mahogany. In Swietenia hybrid and Cedrela odorata the natural propagation is by seed and asexual by graft.These forms of propagation are limited, in the production of these species. Biotechnological techniques may help to find new ways for its propagation. The objective of this paper was to provide callus formation in Swietenia mahogany x Swietenia macrophylla and Cedrela odorata for the in vitro propagation. Mature trees of 40 years old (Swietenia hybrids and Cedrela odorata were used. Young inflorescences from branches were taken from these plants, which were disinfected with the same protocol reported for other Meliaceas and they were established in the culture medium MS + 0-1 mg.l-1 Thidiazuron. Callus nodular with good morphogenic characteristics were obtained. The somatic embryos were achieved in the darkness in Swietenia mahogany x Swietenia macrophylla Key words: mahogany hybrid, Red Cedar, somatic embryos, Thidiazuron Abbreviations: Thidiazuron- N-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl-N-phenylurea

  9. The somatic generation of immune recognition. 1971. (United States)

    Jerne, Niels Kaj


    Antibody specificity is determined by structural v-genes that code for the amino acid sequences of the variable regions of antibody polypeptide chains. The present hypothesis proposes that the germ-cells of an animal carry a set of v-genes determining the combining sites of antibodies directed against a complete set of certain class of histocompatibility antigens of the species to which this animal belongs. The evolutionary development of this set of v-genes in phylogeny is traced back to the requirements for cell to cell recognition in all metazoa. The hypothesis leads to a distinction between two populations of antigen-sensitive cells. One population consists of cells forming antibodies against foreign antigens; these lymphocytes have arisen as mutants in clones descending from lymphocytic stem cells which expressed v-genes belonging to the subset (subset S) coding for antibody against histocompatibility antigens that the individual happens to possess. The other population consists of allograft rejecting lymphocytes that express v-genes of the remaining subset (subset A) coding for antibody against histocompatibility antigens of the species that the individual does not possess. The primary lymphoid organs are viewed as mutant-breeding organs. In these organs (e.g. in the thymus), the proliferation of lymphocytes expressing the v-genes of subset S and the subsequent suppression of the cells of these "forbidden" clones, leads to the selection of mutants cells expressing v-genes that have been modified by spontaneous random somatic mutation. This process generates self-tolerance as well as a diverse population of antigen-sensitive cells that reflects antibody diversity. The proliferation in the primary lymphoid organs of lymphocytes expressing v-genes of subset A generates the antigen-sensitive cell population that is responsible for allo-aggression. The theory explains how a functional immune system can develop through a selection pressure exerted by self

  10. Bovine ooplasm partially remodels primate somatic nuclei following somatic cell nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Beyhan, Zeki; Rodriguez, Ramon M; Ross, Pablo J; Iager, Amy E; Kaiser, German G; Chen, Ying; Cibelli, Jose B


    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) has the potential to become a useful tool to address basic questions about the nucleus-cytoplasm interactions between species. It has also been proposed as an alternative for the preservation of endangered species and to derive autologous embryonic stem cells. Using chimpanzee/ bovine iSCNT as our experimental model we studied the early epigenetic events that take place soon after cell fusion until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Our analysis suggested partial EGA in iSCNT embryos at the eight-cell stage, as indicated by Br-UTP incorporation and expression of chimpanzee embryonic genes. Oct4, Stella, Crabp1, CCNE2, CXCL6, PTGER4, H2AFZ, c-MYC, KLF4, and GAPDH transcripts were expressed, while Nanog, Glut1, DSC2, USF2, Adrbk1, and Lin28 failed to be activated. Although development of iSCNT embryos did not progress beyond the 8- to 16-cell stage, chromatin remodeling events, monitored by H3K27 methylation, H4K5 acetylation, and global DNA methylation, were similar in both intra- and interspecies SCNT embryos. However, bisulfite sequencing indicated incomplete demethylation of Oct4 and Nanog promoters in eight-cell iSCNT embryos. ATP production levels were significantly higher in bovine SCNT embryos than in iSCNT embryos, TUNEL assays did not reveal any difference in the apoptotic status of the nuclei from both types of embryos. Collectively, our results suggest that bovine ooplasm can partially remodel chimpanzee somatic nuclei, and provides insight into some of the current barriers iSCNT must overcome if further embryonic development is to be expected.

  11. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres. (United States)

    Riaz, Amjad; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Li, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wan, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi


    Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of "genetically tailored" human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved. Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.

  12. Clinical significance of somatic mutation in unexplained blood cytopenia (United States)

    Gallì, Anna; Travaglino, Erica; Ambaglio, Ilaria; Rizzo, Ettore; Molteni, Elisabetta; Elena, Chiara; Ferretti, Virginia Valeria; Catricalà, Silvia; Bono, Elisa; Todisco, Gabriele; Bianchessi, Antonio; Rumi, Elisa; Zibellini, Silvia; Pietra, Daniela; Boveri, Emanuela; Camaschella, Clara; Toniolo, Daniela; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Ogawa, Seishi; Cazzola, Mario


    Unexplained blood cytopenias, in particular anemia, are often found in older persons. The relationship between these cytopenias and myeloid neoplasms like myelodysplastic syndromes is currently poorly defined. We studied a prospective cohort of patients with unexplained cytopenia with the aim to estimate the predictive value of somatic mutations for identifying subjects with, or at risk of, developing a myeloid neoplasm. The study included a learning cohort of 683 consecutive patients investigated for unexplained cytopenia, and a validation cohort of 190 patients referred for suspected myeloid neoplasm. Using granulocyte DNA, we looked for somatic mutations in 40 genes that are recurrently mutated in myeloid malignancies. Overall, 435/683 patients carried a somatic mutation in at least 1 of these genes. Carrying a somatic mutation with a variant allele frequency ≥0.10, or carrying 2 or more mutations, had a positive predictive value for diagnosis of myeloid neoplasm equal to 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. Spliceosome gene mutations and comutation patterns involving TET2, DNMT3A, or ASXL1 had positive predictive values for myeloid neoplasm ranging from 0.86 to 1.0. Within subjects with inconclusive diagnostic findings, carrying 1 or more somatic mutations was associated with a high probability of developing a myeloid neoplasm during follow-up (hazard ratio = 13.9, P neoplasms. PMID:28424163

  13. Pituitary volumes are reduced in patients with somatization disorder. (United States)

    Yildirim, Hanefi; Atmaca, Murad; Sirlier, Burcu; Kayali, Alperen


    Despite of the suggested physiological relationship between somatoform disorder and disturbances in HPA axis function no volumetric study of pituitary volumes in somatization disorder has been carried out. Therefore, we aimed to use structural MRI to evaluate the pituitary volumes of the patients with somatization disorder. Eighteen female patients with somatization disorder according to DSM-IV and same number of healthy controls were included into the study. All subjects were scanned using a 1.5-T General Electric (GE; Milwaukee, USA) scanner. Pituitary volume measurements were determined by using manuallly tracings according to standard antomical atlases. It was found significantly smaller pituitary volumes of the whole group of somatization patients compared to healthy (t=-3.604, p=0.001). ANCOVA predicting pituitary volumes demonstrated a significant main effect of diagnostic group (F=13.530, p0.05) or age (F=1.159, p>0.05). It was determined that there was no significant correlation between smaller pituitary volumes and the duration of illness (r=0.16, p>0.05) in the patient group. In conclusion, we suggest that the patients with somatization disorder might have significantly smaller pituitary volumes compared to healthy control subjects.

  14. Hippocampus and amygdalar volumes in patients with somatization disorder. (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Sirlier, Burcu; Yildirim, Hanefi; Kayali, Alperen


    In regard to somatization disorder which covers an important section of our patient population, there is no systematic structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in the literature. Therefore, we aimed to use structural MRI to evaluate the hippocampus amygdalar complex which is associated with both stress and regulation of emotion that are main basis clinical presentation of somatization disorder in the patients with somatization disorder. Totally 40 subjects (20 patients with somatization disorder and 20 healthy controls) were enrolled. Intracranial volume (ICV), whole brain volume, gray and white matter volumes, and hippocampus and amygdalar volumes of the subjects were measured. In regard to unadjusted mean volumes of measured structures, the patients had significantly smaller mean volumes of the left and right amygdala. However, two groups did not differ significantly in terms of whole brain, total gray and white matter or hippocampus volumes. The repeated measures ANCOVA predicting left and right amygdala volumes demonstrated a significant main effect of diagnostic group. In conclusion, the findings of the present study revealed that the patients with somatization disorder had significantly smaller mean volumes of the left and right amygdala without any differences in regard to whole brain, total gray and white matter or hippocampus volumes. On the basis of the current findings, it seems reasonable to evaluate that abnormalities in connectivity and/or metabolism dimensions and to examine the effects of drugs or psychotherapeutic approaches could be especially informative. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Cryopreservation of somatic embryos of paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.). (United States)

    Scocchi, Adriana; Vila, Silvia; Mroginski, Luis; Engelmann, Florent


    In paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.), immature zygotic embryos sampled from immature fruits are the starting material for the production of somatic embryos. These somatic embryos are employed for freezing experiments. Immature fruits could be stored at 25 degrees C for up to 80 days without impairing the embryogenic potential of zygotic embryos, which represents a four-fold increase in immature fruit storage duration, compared with previous studies. Among the three cryopreservation techniques tested for freezing paradise tree somatic embryos, namely desiccation, encapsulation-dehydration and pregrowth-dehydration, only encapsulation-dehydration and pregrowth-dehydration led to successful results. The optimal protocol was the following: i) somatic embryos (encapsulated or not) pretreated in liquid Murashige & Skoog medium with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.5 M/0.75 M/1.0 M); ii) dehydrated with silica gel to 21 - 26% moisture content (fresh weight basis), for encapsulation-dehydration, or to 19% moisture content, for pregrowth-dehydration; iii) frozen at 1 degree C/min from 20 degrees C to -30 degrees C with a programmable freezing apparatus; iv) rapid immersion in liquid nitrogen. The highest recovery achieved was 36% with encapsulation-dehydration and 30% with pregrowth-dehydration. Regrowth of frozen embryos was direct in most cases, as secondary embryogenesis originating from the root pole was observed on only around 10% of cryopreserved somatic embryos. Plants recovered from cryopreserved embryos presented the same phenotypic traits as non-frozen control plants.

  16. Interploidal hybridization and mating patterns in the Sphagnum subsecundum complex. (United States)

    Ricca, M; Szövényi, P; Temsch, E M; Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J


    Polyploidization is thought to result in instant sympatric speciation, but several cases of hybrid zones between one of the parental species and its polyploid derivative have been documented. Previous work showed that diploid Sphagnum lescurii is an allopolyploid derived from the haploids S. lescurii (maternal progenitor) and S. subsecundum (paternal progenitor). Here, we report the results from analyses of a population where allodiploid and haploid S. lescurii co-occur and produce sporophytes. We tested (i) whether haploids and diploids form hybrid triploid sporophytes; (ii) how hybrid and nonhybrid sporophytes compare in fitness; (iii) whether hybrid sporophytes form viable spores; (iv) the ploidy of any viable gametophyte offspring from hybrid sporophytes; (v) the relative viability of sporelings derived from hybrid and nonhybrid sporophytes; and (vi) if interploidal hybridization results in introgression between the allopolyploid and its haploid progenitor. We found that triploid hybrid sporophytes do occur and are larger than nonhybrid sporophytes, but exhibit very low germination percentages and produce sporelings that develop more slowly than those from nonhybrid sporophytes. All sporophytes attached to haploid gametophytes were triploid and were sired by diploid males, but all sporophytes attached to diploid gametophytes were tetraploid. This asymmetric pattern of interploidal hybridization is related to an absence of haploid male gametophytes in the population. Surprisingly, all sporelings from triploid sporophytes were triploid, yet were genetically variable, suggesting some form of aberrant meiosis that warrants further study. There was limited (but some) evidence of introgression between allodiploid and haploid S. lescurii. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya


    Full Text Available conventional glass reinforced plastics with biocomposites that exhibit structural and functional stability during storage and use and yet are susceptible to environmental degradation upon disposal. An interesting approach in fabricating biocomposites... natural fibre / biofibre in a matrix. Hybridization with glass fibre provides a method to improve the mechanical properties of natural fibre composites and its effect in different modes of stress depends on the design and construction of the composites...

  18. Preview-based Asymmetric Load Reduction of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mathias; Filsø, Jakob; Soltani, Mohsen


    Fatigue loads on wind turbines caused by an asymmetric wind field become an increasing concern when the scale of wind turbines increases. This paper presents a model based predictive approach to reduce asymmetric loads by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) measurements. The Model Predictive...... to the same controller without LIDAR data. The results showed that the MPC with LIDAR was able to reduce the asymmetric loads compared to the MPC without LIDAR while still maintaining the power reference....

  19. Asymmetric joint multifractal analysis in Chinese stock markets (United States)

    Chen, Yuwen; Zheng, Tingting


    In this paper, the asymmetric joint multifractal analysis method based on statistical physics is proposed to explore the asymmetric correlation between daily returns and trading volumes in Chinese stock markets. The result shows asymmetric multifractal correlations exist between return and trading volume in Chinese stock markets. Moreover, when the stock indexes are upward, the fluctuations of returns are always weaker than when they are downward, whether the trading volumes are more or less.

  20. Combined shear/compression structural testing of asymmetric sandwich structures


    Castanié, Bruno; Barrau, Jean-Jacques; Jaouen, Jean-Pierre; Rivallant, Samuel


    Asymmetric sandwich technology can be applied in the design of lightweight, non-pressurized aeronautical structures such as those of helicopters. A test rig of asymmetric sandwich structures subjected to compression/shear loads was designed, validated, and set up. It conforms to the standard certification procedure for composite aeronautical structures set out in the “test pyramid”, a multiscale approach. The static tests until failure showed asymmetric sandwich structures to be extremely res...

  1. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)


    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  2. On asymmetric causal relationships in Petropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Feyza


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine whether the First Law of Petropolitics denominated by Friedman in 2006 is valid for OPEC countries. To do this, this paper analyses the relationship between political risk and oil supply by applying the asymmetric panel causality test suggested by Hatemi-J (2011 to these countries for the period 1984-2014. The results show that the First Law of Petropolitics is valid for Angola, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE, given that positive oil supply shocks significantly lead to negative political stability shocks, and negative oil supply shocks significantly lead to positive shocks in political stability.

  3. RHIC operation with asymmetric collisions in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Aschenauer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Atoian, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ottavio, T. D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Drees, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hayes, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laster, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Makdisi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marr, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morris, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Narayan, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nemesure, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poblaguev, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schmidke, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severino, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shrey, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yip, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    To study low-x shadowing/saturation physics as well as other nuclear effects [1], [2], proton-gold (p-Au, for 5 weeks) and proton-Aluminum (p-Al, for 2 weeks) collisions were provided for experiments in 2015 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with polarized proton beam in the Blue ring and Au/Al beam in the Yellow ring. The special features of the asymmetric run in 2015 will be introduced. The operation experience will be reviewed as well in the report.

  4. Chiral Diamine-catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Da-zhen; WU Lu-lu; WANG Yong-mei


    A highly efficient catalytic system composed of a simple and commercially available chiral primary diamine (1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine(6) and trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) was employed for asymmetric Aldol reaction in i-PrOH at room temperature.A loading of 10%(molar fraction) catalyst 6 with TFA as a cocatalyst could catalyze the Aldol reactions of various ketones or aldehydes with a series of aromatic aldehydes,furnishing Aldol products in moderate to high yields(up to >99%) with enantioselectivities of up to >99% and diastereoselectivities of up to 99:1.

  5. Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada


    Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.

  6. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric oxidation of sulfides. (United States)

    O'Mahony, Graham E; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Anita R


    Copper-catalyzed asymmetric sulfoxidation of aryl benzyl and aryl alkyl sulfides, using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant, has been investigated. A relationship between the steric effects of the sulfide substituents and the enantioselectivity of the oxidation has been observed, with up to 93% ee for 2-naphthylmethyl phenyl sulfoxide, in modest yield in this instance (up to 30%). The influence of variation of solvent and ligand structure was examined, and the optimized conditions were then used to oxidize a number of aryl alkyl and aryl benzyl sulfides, producing sulfoxides in excellent yields in most cases (up to 92%), and good enantiopurities in certain cases (up to 84% ee).

  7. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddaboina Venkataiah


    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis was achieved in cotyledon and leaf explants of Capsicum baccatum, when cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5–5.0 mg l−1 in combination with Kinetin (Kn, 0.5 mg l−1 and 3% sucrose. Various stages were observed during the development of somatic embryos, including globular, heart, and torpedo-stages. Torpedo stage embryos were separated from the explants and subcultured on medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators for maturation. Maximum percentage (55% of somatic embryo germination and plantlet formation was found at 1.0 mg l−1 BA. Finally, about 68% of plantlets were successfully established under field conditions. The regenerated plants were morphologically normal, fertile and able to set viable seeds.

  8. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells. (United States)

    Yu, Junying; Vodyanik, Maxim A; Smuga-Otto, Kim; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica; Frane, Jennifer L; Tian, Shulan; Nie, Jeff; Jonsdottir, Gudrun A; Ruotti, Victor; Stewart, Ron; Slukvin, Igor I; Thomson, James A


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells. These induced pluripotent human stem cells have normal karyotypes, express telomerase activity, express cell surface markers and genes that characterize human ES cells, and maintain the developmental potential to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three primary germ layers. Such induced pluripotent human cell lines should be useful in the production of new disease models and in drug development, as well as for applications in transplantation medicine, once technical limitations (for example, mutation through viral integration) are eliminated.

  9. Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling


    AIMS: To (1) estimate sex-specific risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases in alcohol-dependent individuals versus a control population, and in the same population to (2) estimate sex-specific risks of dying from the examined somatic diseases. DESIGN: Register-based matched cohort...... Classification of Diseases (ICD). The main predictor variable was diagnosis of alcohol dependence according to ICD. FINDINGS: Alcohol-dependent men and women compared with controls had statistically significantly higher risks of all disease groups and the majority of subgroups when analysed as disease events...... = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.6-7.0). Similar results were found when disease groups and subgroups were analysed as causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol-dependent men and women have significantly higher risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases, both as disease events and as causes of death, relative...

  10. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mattii


    Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....

  11. Somatic comorbidity among migrants with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolk, Mette; Byberg, Stine; Carlsson, Jessica


    BACKGROUND: In a cohort of migrants in Denmark, we compared somatic disease incidence among migrants diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. METHODS: The study builds on a unique cohort of migrants who obtained...... for the implementation of the project (No 2012-41-0065). RESULTS: Our results showed that migrants diagnosed with PTSD and depression had significantly higher rates of somatic diseases compared with migrants without diagnosed psychiatric disorders - especially, infectious disease (IRR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.45-2.48; p ....01), neurological disease (IRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.91-2.91; p Migrants with PTSD and depression had a significantly higher rates of somatic comorbidity compared...

  12. Somatic Diseases and Conditions Before the First Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael E


    .93-2.62), nutritional or metabolic disorders (IRR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.39-1.77), circulatory system diseases (IRR = 1.63, 95% CI= 1.38-1.92), and brain injury (IRR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.45-1.72). CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of potential etiological factors could have contributed to the observed associations, including genetic......OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with excess physical comorbidity. Yet, to our knowledge, large studies are lacking on the associations with somatic diseases before the onset of schizophrenia. The authors conducted a nationwide study of the full spectrum of treated somatic diseases before...... the first diagnosis of schizophrenia. METHOD: Nationwide sample of the Danish population consisting of singletons (n = 954351) born 1977-1993 and followed from birth to 2009, during which period 4371 developed schizophrenia. Somatic diagnoses at all general hospital contacts (admitted or outpatient care...

  13. Somatic Symptoms among Children and Adolescents in Poland: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study of the Children Somatization Inventory (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Bokszczanin, Anna; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane


    The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short version of the Children’s Somatization Inventory (CSI-24) in Poland. The CSI-24 is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess somatic symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 733 children and adolescents, aged 12–17 years, participated in this research. The participants for this study were recruited from urban and suburban schools of Opole province in South Western Poland. In addition to the CSI-24, all participants completed the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The correlated four-factor model that included four-correlated dimensions (pain/weakness, gastrointestinal problems, cardiovascular symptoms, and pseudoneurological problems) showed a better fit compared to the single-factor model. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the CSI-24 was 0.91. Somatic symptoms correlated significantly highly with the SCAS total scores and the SDQ emotional subscale, suggesting good construct validity. Somatic symptoms had low correlation with the SDQ behavioral problems symptoms, suggesting adequate discriminant validity. The CSI-24 reliably measured somatic symptoms in children and adolescents in Poland. PMID:24400299

  14. Remodeling somatic nuclei via exogenous expression of protamine 1 to create spermatid-like structures for somatic nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Czernik, Marta; Iuso, Domenico; Toschi, Paola; Khochbin, Saadi; Loi, Pasqualino


    This protocol describes how to convert the chromatin structure of sheep and mouse somatic cells into spermatid-like nuclei through the heterologous expression of the protamine 1 gene (Prm1). Furthermore, we also provide step-by-step instructions for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of Prm1-remodeled somatic nuclei in sheep oocytes. There is evidence that changing the organization of a somatic cell nucleus with that which mirrors the spermatozoon nucleus leads to better nuclear reprogramming. The protocol may have further potential application in determining the protamine and histone footprints of the whole genome; obtaining 'gametes' from somatic cells; and furthering understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the maintenance of DNA methylation in imprinted control regions during male gametogenesis. The protocol is straightforward, and it requires 4 weeks from the establishment of the cell lines to their transfection and the production of cloned blastocysts. It is necessary for researchers to have experience in cell biology and embryology, with basic skills in molecular biology, to carry out the protocol.

  15. Detection of genetically modified crops using multiplex asymmetric polymerase chain reaction and asymmetric hyperbranched rolling circle amplification coupled with reverse dot blot. (United States)

    Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Guan, Qingfeng; Tian, Fang; Wang, Jianhua


    To meet the ever-increasing demand for detection of genetically modified crops (GMCs), low-cost, high-throughput and high-accuracy detection assays are needed. The new multiplex asymmetric polymerase chain reaction and asymmetric hyper-branched rolling circle amplification coupled with reverse dot blot (RDB) systems were developed to detect GMCs. Thirteen oligonucleotide probes were designed to identify endogenous targets (Lec1, Hmg and Sad1), event-specific targets (RRS-5C, RRS-3C, Bt176-3C and MON810-3C), screening targets (35S promoter and NOS terminator), and control targets (18S and PLX). Optimised conditions were as follows: tailed hybridization probes (1-2 pmol/l) were immobilized on a membrane by baking for 2h, and a 10:1 ratio of forward to reverse primers was used. The detection limits were 0.1 μg/l of 2% RRS and 0.5 ng/l of DNA from genetically modified (GM) soybean. These results indicate that the RDB assay could be used to detect multiplex target genes of GMCs rapidly and inexpensively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The NF1 somatic mutational landscape in sporadic human cancers. (United States)

    Philpott, Charlotte; Tovell, Hannah; Frayling, Ian M; Cooper, David N; Upadhyaya, Meena


    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) #162200) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumour predisposition syndrome. Heritable constitutional mutations in the NF1 gene result in dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK pathway and are causative of NF1. The major known function of the NF1 gene product neurofibromin is to downregulate RAS. NF1 exhibits variable clinical expression and is characterized by benign cutaneous lesions including neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules, as well as a predisposition to various types of malignancy, such as breast cancer and leukaemia. However, acquired somatic mutations in NF1 are also found in a wide variety of malignant neoplasms that are not associated with NF1. Capitalizing upon the availability of next-generation sequencing data from cancer genomes and exomes, we review current knowledge of somatic NF1 mutations in a wide variety of tumours occurring at a number of different sites: breast, colorectum, urothelium, lung, ovary, skin, brain and neuroendocrine tissues, as well as leukaemias, in an attempt to understand their broader role and significance, and with a view ultimately to exploiting this in a diagnostic and therapeutic context. As neurofibromin activity is a key to regulating the RAS/MAPK pathway, NF1 mutations are important in the acquisition of drug resistance, to BRAF, EGFR inhibitors, tamoxifen and retinoic acid in melanoma, lung and breast cancers and neuroblastoma. Other curiosities are observed, such as a high rate of somatic NF1 mutation in cutaneous melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian carcinoma and glioblastoma which are not usually associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Somatic NF1 mutations may be critical drivers in multiple cancers. The mutational landscape of somatic NF1 mutations should provide novel insights into our understanding of the pathophysiology of cancer. The identification of high frequency of somatic NF1 mutations in sporadic tumours indicates that neurofibromin is

  17. Fusion of protoplasts with irradiated microprotoplasts as a tool for radiation hybrid panel in citrus Fusão de protoplastos com microprotoplastos irradiados como ferramenta para painel híbrido de radiação em citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Maria de Bona


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to combine asymmetric somatic hybridization (donor-recipient fusion or gamma fusion to microprotoplast-mediated chromosome transfer, as a tool to be used for chromosome mapping in Citrus. Swinglea glutinosa microprotoplasts were irradiated either with 50, 70, 100 or 200 gamma rays and fused to cv. Ruby Red grapefruit or Murcott tangor protoplasts. Cell colonies were successfully formed and AFLP analyses confirmed presence of S. glutinosa in both 'Murcott' tangor and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit genomes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi combinar hibridação somática assimétrica (fusão doador-recipiente ou fusão gama e transferência cromossômica mediada por microprotoplastos como uma ferramenta para o mapeamento cromossômico em Citrus. Microprotoplastos de Swinglea glutinosa foram irradiados com doses de 50, 70, 100 ou 200 raios gama e fusionados com protoplastos de pomelo cv. Ruby Red ou de tangor Murcott. Houve sucesso na formação de colônias de células, e a análise AFLP confirmou a presença de S. glutinosa nos genomas do tangor 'Murcott' e do pomelo 'Ruby Red'.

  18. Linking somatic genetic alterations in cancer to therapeutics. (United States)

    Stuart, Darrin; Sellers, William R


    Somatic genetic alterations provide the foundation for the evolution of human tumors as well as significant opportunity for therapeutic intervention. This review will cover the growing list of examples where somatic genetic alterations have successfully been coupled with a targeted agent resulting in positive clinical outcome. For example, recent data from randomized clinical trials support the earlier observations that EGFR mutant lung tumors are most likely to respond to EGFR kinase inhibitors, while wild-type tumors rarely respond. Emerging data indicate that this principle may also apply to such intractable diseases such as melanoma which has long been refractory to conventional chemotherapeutics.

  19. Concreteness, dreams, and metaphor: their import in a somatizing patient. (United States)

    Kohutis, Eileen A


    One of the most challenging types of patients that psychoanalysts encounter in clinical practice are those who are concrete and who also suffer from somatic or somatoform disorders. These patients come for treatment, appear motivated to change, yet they do not change in expectable ways. This paper presents the case of a woman who was concrete and had numerous somatic symptoms. Although she had little interest in talking about her feelings, she expressed herself and her ailments through dreams and it was through her use of dreams that she changed. Dreams were a type of metaphor where the concrete and the symbolic functioned to promote growth.

  20. Somatic Embryogenesis in Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). (United States)

    Capuana, Maurizio


    Embryogenic cultures of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) can be obtained from different organs and tissues. We describe here the induction from stamen filaments and the procedures applied for the successive phases of somatic embryo development and maturation. Embryogenic tissues are obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 9.0 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Somatic embryos develop after transfer to hormone-free medium enriched with glutamine. Maturation and germination of isolated embryos are achieved by transfer to medium containing polyethylene glycol 4000 and activated charcoal, successive desiccation treatment, and cold storage at 4 °C for 8 weeks.

  1. Death anxiety as related to somatic symptoms in two cultures. (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David


    Two undergraduate samples from Kuwait (52 men, 157 women; M age = 21.2 yr., SD =2.1) and the USA (46 men, 145 women; M age = 22.4 yr., SD = 5.3) answered the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, and the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. The Kuwaiti sample obtained significantly higher mean scores on all the scales than the American sample. Scores on the Somatic Symptoms Inventory were positively correlated with Death Anxiety scores, indicating that people who enjoy good physical health are less concerned with death.

  2. Teachers’ identification of anxiety and somatic symptoms in their pupils


    Neil, L. E.


    Anxiety and somatic symptoms are some of the most common and debilitating mental health problems in childhood yet frequently go unnoticed and untreated. UK schools have been urged to take a more prominent role in promoting good mental health in their pupils; yet whether their teachers can recognise children’s anxiety and somatic symptoms, and how teachers identify these symptoms has not been investigated. This two-stage study involved 1346 7-11 year old children, their class teachers and a su...

  3. At Low SNR Asymmetric Quantizers Are Better

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Tobias


    We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a one-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by 2/pi, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately two decibels. Here it is shown that this power loss can be entirely avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. We prove that in order to avoid this power loss flash-signaling input-distributions are essential. Consequently, one-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: as we prove, at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all one-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case we show that a one-bit output quantizer ...

  4. Asymmetric DSL Technology of Signal Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević


    Full Text Available Asymmetric flow of information is the key feature of theADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop technology, i.e.higher data transmission rate towards the user than from theuser towards the network. Characteristic is the short messagesending by the user with a certain request to the se!Ver. These!Ver responds to the request by a significantly longer messageof various electronic forms (data, digitized speech, pictures orvideo. Therefore, this technology is most often used by smalland medium users. ADSL is currently the only commerciallyavailable DSL technology which is still experiencing the breakthroughon the seiVice market. It enables faster access to theInternet, LAN (Local Area Network, videoconferencing, VoD(Video on Demand and interactive multimedia. In order tostandardize such se/Vices, the !TU (International TelecommunicationsUnion G. 992.1 (standardized DMT-discrete multi-tone line coding technology and ANSJ (American NationalStandards Institution Tl.413-95!98 are used for ADSL. DMT(Discrete Multi Tone, as the more popular one, uses the linecoding technique, which splits a certain frequency range intoseveral sub-channels. Most of these sub-channels are used forupstream and downstream transmission of speech and data,whereas some are used as pilot signals or kept in rese/Ve. Suchmodulation technique expands the frequency spectrum, allowingthe usage ofbroadband se/Vices per one pair of wires. In thisway the sharing of speech and data se/Vice transmission is realized.

  5. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics (United States)

    Pinier, Jeremy T


    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  6. Algebraic Davis Decomposition and Asymmetric Doob Inequalities (United States)

    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier


    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let {({M}, τ)} be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a filtration of von Neumann subalgebras {({M}_n)_{n ≥ 1}}, whose union {bigcup_{n≥1}{M}_n} is weak-* dense in {{M}}. Let {{E}_n} denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for {1 Hardy spaces {{H}_p^r({M})} and {{H}_p^c({M})} respectively. In particular, this solves a problem posed by the Defant and Junge in 2004. In the case p = 1, our results establish a noncommutative form of the Davis celebrated theorem on the relation betwe en martingale maximal and square functions in L 1, whose noncommutative form has remained open for quite some time. Given {1 ≤ p ≤ 2}, we also provide new weak type maximal estimates, which imply in turn left/right almost uniform convergence of {{E}_n(x)} in row/column Hardy spaces. This improves the bilateral convergence known so far. Our approach is based on new forms of Davis martingale decomposition which are of independent interest, and an algebraic atomic description for the involved Hardy spaces. The latter results are new even for commutative von Neumann algebras.

  7. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles]. (United States)

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B


    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  9. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang


    Full Text Available A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our time-lapse studies suggest that cytoophidia are dynamic. Once the mother cell divides, the cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia independently partition into one of the two daughter cells. Although the two daughter cells differ from one another morphologically, they possess similar chances of inheriting the cytoplasmic cytoophidium from the mother cell, suggesting that the partition of cytoophidium is a stochastic process. Our findings on asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in S. pombe offer an exciting opportunity to study the inheritance of metabolic enzymes in a well-studied model system.

  10. Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Epidermis (United States)

    Poulson, Nicholas D.; Lechler, Terry


    Generation of three-dimensional tissue with distinct cell types is required for the development of all organs. On its own, mitotic spindle orientation allows tissues to change in length or shape. In combination with intrinsic or extrinsic cues this can also be coupled to the generation of diverse cell fates - a process known as asymmetric cell division (ACD). Understanding ACD’s has been greatly aided by studies in invertebrate model systems, where genetics and live imaging have provided the basis for much of what we know. ACD’s also drive the development and differentiation of the epidermis in mammals. While similar to the invertebrate models, the epidermis is distinct in balancing symmetric and asymmetric divisions to yield a tissue of the correct surface area and thickness. Here we review the roles of spindle orientation in driving both morphogenesis and cell fate decisions. We highlight the epidermis as a unique model system to study not only basic mechanisms of ACD, but also to study their regulation during development. PMID:22449491

  11. Reexamining the Factor structure of somatization using the children's somatization inventory (CSI-24) in a community sample. (United States)

    Lavigne, John V; Saps, Miguel; Bryant, Fred B


    Pediatric somatization studies have used the 35-item Child Somatization Inventory (CSI-35) or psychometrically refined 24-item CSI (CSI-24). Exploratory factor analysis of the CSI-24 has identified a single factor that did not show good model fit in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Further evaluation of the CSI-24 factor structure is needed. The present study examined alternative factor structures of the CSI-24 in a community sample (N = 233, ages 8-15). The CFA showed good fit for a single CSI-24 factor, better fit for multiple factor models, and best fit for a single, six-item factor. Construct validity for that factor was found in significant correlations with anxiety, depression, functional disability, and quality of life. Results are consistent with a single somatization factor, but research is needed to verify the factor structure in different, race/ethnic/demographic, and clinical groups.

  12. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids (United States)

    Ren, Yuanhang; Wang, Meiyin; Chen, Xueying; Yue, Bin; He, Heyong


    Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM) compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:28788017

  13. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhang Ren


    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  14. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic-Inorganic Hybrids. (United States)

    Ren, Yuanhang; Wang, Meiyin; Chen, Xueying; Yue, Bin; He, Heyong


    Organic-inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM) compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  15. Efficient One-Step Fusion PCR Based on Dual-Asymmetric Primers and Two-Step Annealing. (United States)

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Jinjin; Thygesen, Anders


    Gene splicing by fusion PCR is a versatile and widely used methodology, especially in synthetic biology. We here describe a rapid method for splicing two fragments by one-round fusion PCR with a dual-asymmetric primers and two-step annealing (ODT) method. During the process, the asymmetric intermediate fragments were generated in the early stage. Thereafter, they were hybridized in the subsequent cycles to serve as template for the target full-length product. The process parameters such as primer ratio, elongation temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. In addition, the fusion products produced with this method were successfully applied in seamless genome editing. The fusion of two fragments by this method takes less than 0.5 day. The method is expected to facilitate various kinds of complex genetic engineering projects with enhanced efficiency.

  16. Hybrid Gear (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)


    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  17. Somatic symptom overlap in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores following myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Pilote, Louise; Dozois, David J. A.; Beck, Aaron T.; Dobson, Keith S.; Fuss, Samantha; de Jonge, Peter; Grace, Sherry L.; Stewart, Donne E.; Ormel, Johan; Abbey, Susan E.

    Background Depression measures that include somatic symptoms may inflate severity estimates among medically ill patients, including those with cardiovascular disease. Aims To evaluate whether people receiving in-patient treatment following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) had higher somatic symptom

  18. Psychological interventions in chronic somatic disease : Concluding remarks and future developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Jan. P. C.; van Middendorp, Henriet


    In this paper concluding our series on psychological interventions in chronic somatic disease, some general themes relevant for a diversity of chronic somatic diseases are described: multimorbidity, generic versus illness specific aspects and comorbidity. Further, we will reflect on the

  19. A cancer cell-line titration series for evaluating somatic classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denroche, Robert E; Mullen, Laura; Timms, Lee; Beck, Timothy; Yung, Christina K; Stein, Lincoln; McPherson, John D; Brown, Andrew M K


    .... We present here a cell-line titration series dataset that can be used to evaluate somatic variant calling pipelines with the goal of reliably calling true somatic mutations at low allele frequencies...

  20. Failure to Identify Somatic Mutations in Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia by Whole Exome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lyu


    Conclusions: This study is not alone in the failure to identify pathogenic somatic variations in MZ twins, suggesting that exonic somatic variations are extremely rare. Further efforts are warranted to explore the potential genetic mechanism of SCZ.