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Sample records for asymmetric somatic hybrids

  1. Genome reorganization in Nicotiana asymmetric somatic hybrids analysed by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ hybridization was used to examine genome reorganization in asymmetric somatic hybrids between Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana sylvestris obtained by fusion of gamma-irradiated protoplasts from one of the parents (donor) with non-irradiated protoplasts from the other (recipient). Probing with biotinylated total genomic DNA from either the donor or the recipient species unequivocally identified genetic material from both parents in 31 regenerant plants, each originating from a different nuclear hybrid colony. This method, termed genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), allowed intergenomic translocations containing chromosome segments from both species to be recognized in four regenerants. A probe homologous to the consensus sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana telomeric repeat (5'-TTTAGGG-3')n, identified telomeres on all chromosomes, including 'mini-chromosomes' originating from the irradiated donor genome. Genomic in situ hybridization to plant chromosomes provides a rapid and reliable means of screening for recombinant genotypes in asymmetric somatic hybrids. Used in combination with other DNA probes, it also contributes to a greater understanding of the events responsible for genomic recovery and restabilization following genetic manipulation in vitro

  2. Comparative study of symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybridization between common wheat and Haynaldia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Symmetric and asymmetric protoplast fusion between long term cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Triticum aestivum (cv. Jinan 177) and protoplasts of Haynaldia villosa prepared from one-year-old embryogeneric calli was performed by PEG method. In asymmetric fusion, donor calli were treated with gamma ray at a dose of 40, 60, 80 Gy (1.3 Gy/min) respectively and then used to isolate protoplasts. Results of morphological, cytological, biochemical (isozyme) and 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis revealed that we obtained somatic hybrid lines at high frequency from both symmetric and asymmetric fusion. Hybrid plants were recovered from symmetric and low dose g-fusion combinations. GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) analysis proved exactly the existence of both parental chromosomes and the common occurrence of several kinds of translocation between them in the hybrid clones regenerated from symmetric and asymmetric fusion. And the elimination of donor DNA in hybrid clones regenerated from asymmetric fusion combinations was found to increase with the increasing gamma doses. It is concluded that transference and recombination of nuclear DNA can be achieved effectively by symmetric and asymmetric fusion, hybrids with small fragment translocation which are valuable in plant breeding can be obtained directly by asymmetric fusion.

  3. Molecular identification of asymmetric somatic hybrids between wheat and Italian ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sexual incompatibility between common wheat and Italian ryegrass was an obstacle for transferring useful traits from italian ryegrass to wheat. In order to use those desirable genetic resources to improve wheat and to create new cytoplasmic germplasm, the protoplasts of wheat and Italian ryegrass were successfully electrofused and the somatic hybrid plants were regenerated. Examination with 6 restriction enzymes, 13 probes including 9 mtDNA probes (H454, Pst24, B30, Pro I, 490, B342, pHJ2-7-1, B376, 7), 3 cpDNA probes (pHvc p1, pHvc p5 and pHvc p8) and one nuclear DNA probe-- pTA71 (rDNA) in total 73 enzyme/ probe combinations revealed rich polymorphism between the fusion partners. RFLP analysis indicated that approximately 93.4% of the regenerated plants were true somatic hybrids. AFLP analysis implied that the somatic hybrids were highly asymmetric. The RFLP analysis using mt- and cpDNA specific probes also demonstrated the non-coexistence of mitochondria and chloroplasts from the fusion partners in the somatic hybrid cells.

  4. Comparative study of symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybridization between common wheat and Haynaldia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Aifen

    2001-01-01

    [1]Li, Z. Y., Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from protoplasts isolated from embryo-genic cell suspensions of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 1992, 98: 79-85.[2]Zhou, A. F., Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Asymmetric somatic hybridization between Triticum aestivum and Haynaldia vil-losa, Science in China, Ser. C, 1996, 39(6): 617-626.[3]Zhou, A. F., Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M. et al., Effect of 60Co-g radiation on calli of Haynaldia villosa, Chinese J. of Bio-technology, 1996, 12(Supplement): 127-130.[4]Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Wang, H., Somatic hybridization and regeneration capacity complementation between common wheat (T. aestivum) and Agropyron elongatum. J. Shandong University, 1995, 30(3): 325-330.[5]Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Plant regeneration from intergeneric somatic hybridization between Triticum aestivum L. and Leymus chinensis (Trin.)Tzvel., Plant Science, 1996, 120: 197-203.[6]Doyle, J. J., Doyle, J. L., Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue, Focus, 1990, 12: 13-15.[7]Zhou, A. F., Xu, C. H., Xiang, F. N. et al., Study on the identification of somatic hybrids by PCR with 5S rDNA spacer se-quence primers, Chinese J. of Biotechnology, 1999, 15(4): 529-532.[8]Ma, J. X., Zhou, R. H., Jia, J. Z. et al., Identification of wheat-Haynaldia villosa substitution lines conferring resistance to powdery mildew using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and RFLP markers, Acta Genetica Sinica, 1997, 24(5): 447-452.[9]Zhou, R. H., Jia, J. Z., Dong, Y. C. et al., Characterization of progenies of Triticum aestivum-Psathyrostachys juncea de-rivatives by using genomic in-situ hybridization, Science in China, Ser. C, 1997, 40(6): 657-664.[10]Parokonny, A. S., Kenton, A. Y., Gleba, Y. Y. et al., Genomic reorganization in Nicotiana asymmetric somatic hybrids analysed by in situ hybridization. Plant Journal, 1992, 2: 863-874.[11]Piastuch, W. C., Bates, G. W

  5. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome ...

  6. Bromodeoxyuridine combined with UV light and gamma irradiation promotes the production of asymmetric somatic hybrid calli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree of gamma‐ or X‐ray‐induced donor chromosome elimination in asymmetric somatic hybrids is highly variable. Here the beneficial use of bromodeoxyuridine and UV light as additional chromosome destabilizing agents is described. Protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum were fused with protoplasts of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Np) that carried the kanamycin‐resistance and glucuronidase (GUS) genes on separate chromosomes. Prior to fusion, the Np donor protoplasts were pretreated with bromodeoxyuridine and then were inactivated by treatment with iodoacetate ± UV light ± 200 Gy gamma irradiation. Hybrids were selected on medium containing kanamycin. The elimination of Np DNA was assessed by scoring of the fraction of hybrid calli that expressed GUS and by dot‐blot analysis using a Np‐specific probe. gamma irradiation alone resulted in elimination of 50% of Np DNA. Pretreatment with bromodeoxyuridine (10 μM) followed by 2.5 to 5 min UV light resulted in the elimination of 35–45% of the donor genome, but incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (10 μM) followed by 2,5 to 5 min UV light and 200 Gy gamma irradiation resulted in 85 to 90% elimination of Np DNA

  7. Transfer of bacterial blight resistance from Oryza meyeriana to O.Sativa L.by asymmetric somatic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yongsheng; CHEN Baotang; YU Shunwu; ZHANG Duanpin; ZHANG Xueqin; YAN Qiusheng

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetric somatic hybrid plants were produced between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wild species [O. Meyeriana (Zoll. etMor, exSteud.)] with high resistance to rice bacterial blight. X-ray-irradiated protoplasts of the wild species were used as donor and chemically fused with iodoacetamide-inactivated protoplasts of rice cv. 02428to produce hybrids. Seventy-two plants were regenerated from 623 calli based on metabolic complementation. The morphological characters of the plants closely resembled that of the rice. Simple sequence repeats were employed to identify their hybridity. Cytological analysis of root-tips revealed that their chromosome number varied in the range of 27-38. The somatic hybrids were inoculated with strains of Xanthamonas oryzae pv. Oryzae at adult growth stage and demonstrated the resistance to bacterial blight introgression from the O. Meyeriana.

  8. Construction of whole genome radiation hybrid panels and map of chromosome 5A of wheat using asymmetric somatic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanen Zhou

    Full Text Available To explore the feasibility of constructing a whole genome radiation hybrid (WGRH map in plant species with large genomes, asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. was performed. The protoplasts of wheat were irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV and gamma-ray and rescued by protoplast fusion using B. scorzonerifolium as the recipient. Assessment of SSR markers showed that the radiation hybrids have the average marker retention frequency of 15.5%. Two RH panels (RHPWI and RHPWII that contained 92 and 184 radiation hybrids, respectively, were developed and used for mapping of 68 SSR markers in chromosome 5A of wheat. A total of 1557 and 2034 breaks were detected in each panel. The RH map of chromosome 5A based on RHPWII was constructed. The distance of the comprehensive map was 2103 cR and the approximate resolution was estimated to be ∼501.6 kb/break. The RH panels evaluated in this study enabled us to order the ESTs in a single deletion bin or in the multiple bins cross the chromosome. These results demonstrated that RH mapping via protoplast fusion is feasible at the whole genome level for mapping purposes in wheat and the potential value of this mapping approach for the plant species with large genomes.

  9. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome number than predicted by simple addition of parental chromosome number. The methotrexate resistance phenotype was correlated with the expression of carrot-specific dihydrofolate reductase as judged by isozyme and immunological characteristics of the enzyme. The genomic construct of these somatic hybrids made the transmission of the resistance character into the next sexual generation possible. Images PMID:16593902

  10. DNA radiation damage and asymmetric somatic hybridization: Is UV a potential substitute or supplement to ionising radiation in fusion experiments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent reports have revealed that the asymmetric nature of the nuclear genome of somatic hybrids, produced following the irradiation of one of the parents with X- or gamma rays, is generally much less than had been anticipated. As a consequence, we have begun to investigate whether UV radiation might be used as an alternative or indeed a supplement to the presently-used ionising radiation techniques in such experiments. Cell culture studies have revealed that UV radiation induces the desired physiological effects in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) protoplasts, namely, a prevention of cell division without immediate cytotoxicity. Preliminary studies using denaturing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis have shown that UV can also induce substantial physical fragmentation of DNA. When using the same techniques, less breakdown was observed following gamma radiation. All results were highly reproducible. Such results augur well for the potential use of UV in asymmetric somatic cell fusion experiments. (author)

  11. Transfer of small chromosome fragments of Agropyron elongatum to wheat chromosome via asymmetric somatic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The chromosome constitution of hybrids and chromatin patterns of Agropyron elongatum(Host)Neviski in F5 somatic hybrid lines Ⅱ -1-3 and I-1-9 between Triticum aestivum L.and A.Elongatum were analyzed.Based on the statistic data of pollen mother cells,F5 I-1-9 and Ⅱ-1-3 had 20-21 bivalents with a frequency of 84.66% and 85.28%,of which,89.83% and 89.57% were ring bivalents.The result indicated that both hybrid lines were basically stable in the chromosome constitution and behavior.RAPD analysis showed that the two hybrids contained biparental and integrated DNA.GISH(Genome in situ hybridization)revealed that in the form of small chromosome segments,A.Elongatum chromatin was scattered on 4-6 wheat chromosomes near by the region of centromere and telomere in the two hybrid lines.SSR analysis indicated that A.Elongatum DNA segments were distributed on the 2A,5B,6B and 2D wheat chromosomes in the hybrids,which was in accordance with the GISH results that small-segments intercalated poly-site.

  12. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin; Chen, Huimin

    2003-06-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions ofyoung-embryo-derived calli, which were nonregenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% ofthe same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity ofless than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of 300 muW/cm(2) for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts ofthe recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants. PMID:18763139

  13. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向凤宁; 夏光敏; 陈惠民

    2003-01-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions of young-embryo-derived calli, whichwere non- regenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% of the same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity of less than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of300 μW/cm2 for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts of the recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants.

  14. DNA Transfer from Wild Millet to Common Wheat by Asymmetric Somatic Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGAi-Xia; XIAGuang-Min; CHENHui-Min

    2004-01-01

    Following differing periods of long-term subculture and selection, two types of calli of the same wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinan 177) were obtained. The one (named Cha 9) grew fast and easily formed cell suspensions that were non-regenerable, but the protoplasts possessed a high division capacity. The other (named 176) was regenerable, but the derived protoplasts grew slowly. Fusion combination between either Cha 9 or 176 protoplasts and UV-treated wild millet (SetaHa italica L. Beaur.) protoplasts failed to produce regenerated green plants. However, when the two types of wheat protoplasts were mixed together as recipient and fused with wild millet, green plants were obtained. The hybrid nature of regener-ated calli and plants was confirmed by the analysis of cytological, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequences and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The chloroplast genomes of hybrids were analyzed with several wheat-specific chloroplast microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) primers. A hybrid clone carrying recipient DNA of Cha 9 and 176, as well as both nuclear and chloroplast donor DNA had a high regeneration capacity and produced more vigorous green plants than did the other clones.

  15. Somatic hybridization between Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, H.C.H.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes an analysis of the possibilities and limitations of asymmetric somatic hybridization between tomato and potato. For this, nitrate reductase-deficient tomato mutants were isolated and characterized. It was shown that two of these mutations could be used as selectable markers in

  16. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  17. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Somatic Hybrid Introgression Lines Between Wheat and Tall Wheatgrass

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-01-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the pr...

  18. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-04-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the presence of a number of short introgressed tall wheatgrass chromatin segments. DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences, including sequences deletions, altered regulation of gene expression, changed patterns of cytosine methylation, and the reactivation of retrotransposons. Phenotypic variations appear to result from altered repetitive sequences combined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and/or retrotransposon transposition. The extent of genetic and epigenetic variation due to the maintenance of parent wheat cells in tissue culture was assessed and shown to be considerably lower than had been induced in the introgression lines. Asymmetric somatic hybridization provides appropriate material to explore the nature of the genetic and epigenetic variations induced by genomic shock. PMID:25670745

  19. Intermediate fertile Triticum aestivum (+) Agropyron elongatum somatic hybrids are generated by low doses of UV irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Xia CHENG; Guang Min XIA; Da Ying ZHI; Hui Min CHEN

    2004-01-01

    We report the production and characterization of somatic hybrids between Triticum aestivum L. and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nevishi (the synonym is Thinopyrum ponticum). Asymmetric protoplast fusion was performed between Agropyron elongatum protoplasts irradiated with a low UV dose and protoplasts of wheat taken from nonregenerable suspension cultures. More than 40 green plantlets were obtained from 15 regenerated clones and one of them produced seeds. The phenotypes of the hybrid plants and seeds were intermediate between wheat and Agropyron elongatum. All of the regenerated calli and plants were verified as intergeneric hybrids on the basis of morphological observation and analysis of isozyme,cytological,5SrDNA spacer sequences and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial genome revealed evidence of random segregation and recombination of mtDNA.

  20. Asymmetric dimethylarginine in somatically healthy schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase, and the L-arginine:ADMA ratio are markers of endothelial dysfunction that predict mortality and adverse outcome in...... a range of cardiovascular disorders. Increased ADMA levels may also lead to increased oxidative stress. We hypothesized that ADMA and the L-arginine:ADMA ratio are increased in somatically healthy schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (AAP), and that the ADMA and the L......-arginine: ADMA ratio are positively correlated to measures of oxidative stress. METHODS: We included 40 schizophrenia patients treated with AAP, but without somatic disease or drug abuse, and 40 healthy controls. Plasma concentrations of ADMA and L-arginine were determined by high-performance liquid...

  1. Characterization of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Compositions of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sweet Orange and Sour Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJi-Hong; XUXiao-Yong; DENGXiu-Xin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the present research, flow cytometry (FCM), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cleavedamplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) were employed to analyze somatic hybrid plants derived from electrofusion between embryogenic protoplasts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti) and leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange (C. aurantium L). FCM showed that all of the somatic hybrid plants had two-fold fluorescence intensity values of the diploid control, indicating that they were tetraploids. SSR and CAPS were used to characterize the compositions of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the somatic hybnd plants. As for SSR four primer pairs were tried and two showed polymorphisms between the fusion parents. With both pnmer pairs the somatic hybrid plants encompassed DNA bands from both parents, indicating that they were heterokaryonic hybrids. Amplification with some universal primers, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases, could distinguish the fusion parents from each other. As far as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA compositions were concerned the somatic hybrid plants shared the same banding patterns as the embryogenic parents for all of the polymorphic primer/enzyme combinations. The results herein demonstrated that the somatic hybrid plants inherited their nuclear genome from both fusion parents, whereas the cytoplasmic genomes were possibly only contributed by the embryogenic parent. Merits of the analytical methods and nuclear and cytoplasmic inheritance of citrus tetraploid somatic hybrids, together with their application, are discussed herein.

  2. Gamma fusion between Lycopersicon esulentum (donor) and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (recipient) and the production of highly asymmetric hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of asymmetric hybridization is to overcome sexual barriers in widecrosses and to transfer fragments of chromosome, generated by irradiation and containing an uncloned, uncharacterized multigenic trait, from the donor to the recipient partner. Symmetric somatic fusion combines the entired nuclear genome of the receptor and the donor partners, while the transfer and integration of only a fragment of donor genome is required. Therefore, induced asymmetric fusion, i.e. partial transfer of the donor genome following heavy irradiation of the donor partner, may provide a solution to this problem. 6 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Progress towards sugar beet improvement through somatic hybridization. Pt. 1. Inactivation of nuclei and cytoplasm in donor and recipient protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolation and culture of suspension-derived protoplasts from two sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) genotypes are described. Immobilization of protoplasts in agarose resulted in high frequency divisions and microcallus regeneration, with plating efficiency (PE) being clearly genotype-dependent. In further studies towards asymmetric fusion experiments, the effect of different doses of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and iodoacetic acid (IA) on protoplast physiology was assessed. Viability of both treated (UV, IA) and untreated protoplasts (control) was determined by FDA staining, and the biological effect was evaluated by testing the ability of protoplasts to divide and to form calli. The results are discussed in terms of the applicability of the methods for the production of asymmetric protoplasts suitable for somatic hybridization within the genus Beta. (author)

  4. Differential staining of interspecific chromosomes in somatic cell hybrids by alkaline Giemsa stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, K K; Chen, S; Ruddle, F H

    1976-03-01

    Staining of chromosome preparations of Chinese hamster-human hybrid cells and mouse-chimpanzee hybrids with alkaline Giemsa has yielded color differentiation of the interspecific chromosomes. Bicolor chromosomes, indicating apparent translocations also are observed for each of these hybrids. The specific color differences observed provide a rapid means of recognizing and aiding in the identification of the interspecific chromosomes and apparent translocations in these somatic cell hybrids. PMID:1028166

  5. Characterization of somatic hybrid plants and further exploitation of a selective systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H H

    1976-01-01

    Efficient selection systems are necessary in order to recover hybrids produced by fusion of somatic cell protoplasts. Since few such systems have been developed, those presently available deserve full exploitation. We have used a model system involving interspecific tumorous Nicotiana hybrids that can be cultured, and hence selected, on media that fail to support or give less vigorous growth of the parental species. Mature interspecific parasexual hybrid plants were produced by this means in 1972 and, more recently, this result has been verified and extended. This paper reports on: the characterization of first generation somatic hybrid plants and their second generation progeny; an experimental setup designed to determine if parasexual techniques can extend the range of hybridization beyond that possible by sexual methods; and an experimental setup, involving the Nicotiana tumor selection system, aimed at demonstrating genetic transformation in higher plants.

  6. Intergeneric somatic hybrid plantlets between Dianthus barbatus and Gypsophila paniculata obtained by electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M; Hoshino, Y; Mii, M

    1996-02-01

    Hypocotyl-derived protoplasts of Dianthus barbatus that had been pretreated with iodoacetamide were fused electrically with cell suspension culture-derived protoplasts of Gypsophila paniculata that could divide to form callus but could not regenerate shoots under the culture conditions used in this study. Electrofusion-derived calli which produced shoots were selected as putative somatic hybrids, and plantlets were subsequently regenerated from 2 of these selected calli. These plantlets, which in vitro produced flowers precociously, were identified as intergeneric somatic hybrids by nuclear ribosomal DNA analysis. Normal plants have not been established up to the present. PMID:24166164

  7. Viral Hybrid Vectors for Somatic Integration - Are They the Better Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Ehrhardt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent history of clinical trials in viral gene therapy has taught us important lessons about vector design and safety issues. Much effort was spent on analyzing genotoxicity after somatic integration of therapeutic DNA into the host genome. Based on these findings major improvements in vector design including the development of viral hybrid vectors for somatic integration have been achieved. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of available hybrid vectors utilizing viruses for high transduction efficiencies in concert with various integration machineries for random and targeted integration patterns. It discusses advantages but also limitations of each vector system.

  8. Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33 was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F1 plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets.

  9. Rescue of marker phenotypes mediated by somatic cell hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation prior to virus-induced cell fusion on the frequency of hybrid production has been measured as a function of radiation dose. The Chinese hamster line wg3h (HGPRT-) was crossed with the TK- mutants; Chinese hamster A23 or mouse 3T34E, and hybrids were selected in HAT medium. Irradiation of one (marker rescue) or both (mutual rescue) partners before fusion yielded qualitatively different results. After X-irradiation, marker rescue curves were of single-hit type, with D0 values about five-fold greater than the irradiated parent cell. Mutual rescue curves were of the multi-hit type, with zero-dose extrapolation value (n) greater than that of the more resistant partner, but no significant alteration in D0. Qualitatively similar results were obtained after U.V.- irradiation, but the probability of rescue per surviving parent cell was

  10. Dimethomorph and metalaxyl sensitivity in somatic hybrids of Phytophthora parasitica obtained by protoplast fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Chabanne, Kamel; Leroux, P; Bompeix, G.; Maia, N.

    1996-01-01

    Protoplasts were successfully isolated from wild-type and mutant strains of #Phytophthora nicotianae$ var. #parasitica$ using Novozym 234. Putative somatic hybrids were recovered following protoplast fusions from the first time to dimethomorph resistant strain P 310 (Dim r) or metalaxyl P 26 (Met r) by selection on agar amended with dimethomorph and metalaxyl. Fusion products from this cross were resistant to dimethomorph and metalaxyl. Zoospore progeny from the fusion products retained this ...

  11. Somatic hybrids between Arabidopsis thaliana and cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, H; Glimelius, K

    2003-08-01

    Somatic hybrids were produced by protoplast fusion between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia and a male-sterile radish line MS-Gensuke ( Raphanus sativus) with the Ogura cytoplasm. Forty-one shoots were differentiated from the regenerated calli and established as shoot cultures in vitro. About 20 of these shoots were judged to be hybrids based on growth characteristics and morphology. Molecular analyses of 11 shoots were performed, confirming the hybrid features. Of these 11 shoots, eight were established as rooted plants in the greenhouse. Polymerase chain reaction and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the nuclear genomes of all analyzed shoots and plants confirmed that they contained hybrid DNA patterns. Their chromosome numbers also supported the hybrid nature of the plants. Investigations of the organelles in the hybrids revealed that the chloroplast (cp) genome was exclusively represented by radish cpDNA, while the mitochondrial DNA configuration showed a combination of both parental genomes as well as fragments unique to the hybrids. Hybrid plants that flowered were male-sterile independent of the presence of the Ogura CMS-gene orf138. PMID:12827437

  12. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; TAKEDA, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth i...

  13. Establishment and Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Brassica napus by Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qiong; LI Yun-chang; MEI De-sheng; FANG Xiao-ping; Lise N Hansen; Sven B Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Exploitation of novel cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS)is a main approach for widening the cytoplasmic genetic background of hybrid oilseed rape and avoiding epidemic risk in oilseed rape production.In this study,symmetric somatic hybrids between Brassicanapus var.Zhongshuang4 and Sinapis arvensis(Yeyou18)were produced by protoplast fusion.Two of the six established hybrids were male sterile showing trace or no pollen release upon flowering with non-or slightly extended stamens.Using Zhongshuang4 as a recurrent parent to pollinate the male sterile plants,the ratio of male sterile plants increased with the number of backcrosses.As early as in BC3 generation,most of the sterile families had nearly 100%sterile plants.Up to BC4 generation,the male sterility became stable and no fertility segregation was observed.All F1 progenies from tested crosses using restorer and maintainer lines of Polima CMS were 100%sterile,indicating that the established CMS by somatic hybridization is different from Polima CMS.The origin of the cytoplasm and potential use of this hovel CMS in oilseed rape breeding were discussed.Key wotds:Oilseed rape,Protoplast fusion,Cytoplasmic male sterility,Sinapis arvensis

  14. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase for somatic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W; Muck-Hausl, M.; Wang, J.; C. Sun; Gebbing, M.; Miskey, C.; Ivics, Z.; Izsvak, Z; Ehrhardt, A.

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We foun...

  15. Integration Profile and Safety of an Adenovirus Hybrid-Vector Utilizing Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase for Somatic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenli; Muck-Hausl, Martin; Wang, Jichang; Sun, Chuanbo; Gebbing, Maren; Miskey, Csaba; Ivics, Zoltan; Izsvak, Zsuzsanna; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We foun...

  16. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-05-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis. PMID:26833260

  17. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis. PMID:26833260

  18. A somatic cell hybrid panel for pig regional gene mapping characterized by molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerle, M; Echard, G; Robic, A; Mairal, A; Dubut-Fontana, C; Riquet, J; Pinton, P; Milan, D; Lahbib-Mansais, Y; Gellin, J

    1996-01-01

    A panel of 27 pig x rodent somatic cell hybrids was produced and characterized cytogenetically. The first step of this study consisted of hybridizing a SINE probe to GTG-banded metaphases of each hybrid clone in order to count and identify the normal pig chromosomes and to detect rearranged ones. The second step consisted of using the DNA of each clone as a probe after pIRS-PCR (porcine interspersed repetitive sequence-polymerase chain reaction) amplification to highly enrich it in pig sequences. These probes, hybridized to normal pig metaphase chromosomes, enabled the identification of the complete porcine complement in the hybrid lines. Whole chromosomes and fragments were characterized quickly and precisely, and results were compared. In addition to this cytogenetic characterization, molecular verification was also carried out by using primers specific to six microsatellites and to one gene previously mapped to pig chromosomes. The results obtained allow us to conclude that we have produced a panel that is informative for all porcine chromosomes. This panel constitutes a highly efficient tool to establish not only assignments of genes and markers but also regional localizations on pig chromosomes. PMID:8697807

  19. Hybrid Asymmetric Space Vector Modulation for inverter based direct torque control induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumar Sundararaju

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes novel hybrid asymmetric space vector modulation technique for inverter operated direct torque control induction motor drive. The hybridization process is performed by the combination of continuous asymmetric space vector modulation pulse width technique (ASVPWM and fuzzy operated discontinuous ASVPWM technique. Combination process is based on pulse mismatching technique. Pulse mismatching technique helps to reduce the active region of the switch. Finally, optimal pulses are applied to control the inverter. The optimal hybrid pulse condense switching losses of the inverter and also improves the operating performance of the direct torque control (DTC based drive system like smooth dynamic response in speed reversal, minimum torque error, settling time of speed. Simulation results of proposed hybrid asymmetric space vector pulse width modulation technique to direct torque control (HASVPWM-DTC approach has been carried out by using Matlab-Simulink environment.

  20. Evidence for asymmetrical hybridization despite pre- and post-pollination reproductive barriers between two Silene species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Montgomery, Benjamin R; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widespread among plants; nevertheless, pre- and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms may maintain species integrity for interfertile species in sympatry despite some gene flow. Interspecific hybridization and potential isolating barriers were evaluated between co-flowering Silene asclepiadea and Silene yunnanensis in an alpine community in southwest China. We investigated morphological and molecular (nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast gene sequence) variation in sympatric populations of S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis. Additionally, we analyzed pollinator behaviour and compared reproductive success between the putative hybrids and their parental species. Both the molecular and morphological data indicate that there were putative natural hybrids in the field, with S. asclepiadae the ovule parent and S. yunnanensis the pollen parent. Bumblebees were the primary visitors to S. asclepiadae and putative hybrids, while butterflies were the primary visitors to S. yunnanensis Pollen production and viability were significantly lower in putative hybrids than the parental species. The direction of hybridization is quite asymmetric from S. yunnanensis to S. asclepiadea Protandry combined with later peak flowering of S. yunnanensis, and pollinator preference may have contributed to the asymmetric pattern of hybridization, but putative hybrids were rare. Our results thus suggest that despite gene flow, S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis can maintain species boundaries, perhaps as a result of floral isolation and low fecundity of the hybrids. PMID:27178066

  1. Nanostructured cobalt sulfide-on-fiber with tunable morphology as electrodes for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2014-01-01

    Porous cobalt sulfide (Co9S8) nanostructures with tunable morphology, but identical crystal phase and composition, have been directly nucleated over carbon fiber and evaluated as electrodes for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. As the morphology is changed from two-dimensional (2D) nanoflakes to 3D octahedra, dramatic changes in supercapacitor performance are observed. In three-electrode configuration, the binder-free Co9S82D nanoflake electrodes show a high specific capacitance of 1056 F g-1at 5 mV s-1vs. 88 F g-1for the 3D electrodes. As sulfides are known to have low operating potential, for the first time, asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors are constructed from Co9S8nanostructures and activated carbon (AC), providing an operation potential from 0 to 1.6 V. At a constant current density of 1 A g-1, the 2D Co9S8, nanoflake//AC asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor exhibits a gravimetric cell capacitance of 82.9 F g-1, which is much higher than that of an AC//AC symmetric capacitor (44.8 F g-1). Moreover, the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor shows an excellent energy density of 31.4 W h kg-1at a power density of 200 W Kg-1and an excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of ∼90% after 5000 cycles. This journal is

  2. Asymmetric magnetic reconnection with out-of-plane shear flows in a two dimensional hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of out-of-plane shear flows on asymmetric magnetic reconnect are investigated in a two-dimensional (2D) hybrid model with an initial Harris sheet equilibrium. It is found that the out-of-plane flow with an in-plane shear can significantly change the asymmetric reconnection process as well as the related geometry. The magnetic flux, out-of-plane magnetic field, in-plane flow vorticity, plasma density, and the reconnection rate are discussed in detail. The results are in comparison with the cases without the shear flows to further understand the effect

  3. Loss of Wild-Type ATRX Expression in Somatic Cell Hybrids Segregates with Activation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Kylie Bower; Napier, Christine E.; Cole, Sara L.; Dagg, Rebecca A.; Lau, Loretta M. S.; Duncan, Emma L; Moy, Elsa L.; Reddel, Roger R

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is a non-telomerase mechanism of telomere lengthening that occurs in about 10% of cancers overall and is particularly common in astrocytic brain tumors and specific types of sarcomas. Somatic cell hybridization analyses have previously shown that normal telomerase-negative fibroblasts and telomerase-positive immortalized cell lines contain repressors of ALT activity, indicating that activation of ALT results from loss of one or more unidentified repr...

  4. Comparison between 9-level hybrid asymmetric and conventional multi-level inverters for medium voltage application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid asymmetric 2-cell 9-level inverter is analysed and compared with two conventional multilevel inverters: the 9-level cascaded H-bridge and the 3-level diode clamped inverter, when used to drive an induction motor of 4.16kV/500kVA. In this analysis, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), First...... reduction in size, weight and volume of the LC-filter....

  5. Asymmetrical gene flow in a hybrid zone of Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae species with contrasting mating systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa E Wallace

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical gene flow, which has frequently been documented in naturally occurring hybrid zones, can result from various genetic and demographic factors. Understanding these factors is important for determining the ecological conditions that permitted hybridization and the evolutionary potential inherent in hybrids. Here, we characterized morphological, nuclear, and chloroplast variation in a putative hybrid zone between Schiedea menziesii and S. salicaria, endemic Hawaiian species with contrasting breeding systems. Schiedea menziesii is hermaphroditic with moderate selfing; S. salicaria is gynodioecious and wind-pollinated, with partially selfing hermaphrodites and largely outcrossed females. We tested three hypotheses: 1 putative hybrids were derived from natural crosses between S. menziesii and S. salicaria, 2 gene flow via pollen is unidirectional from S. salicaria to S. menziesii and 3 in the hybrid zone, traits associated with wind pollination would be favored as a result of pollen-swamping by S. salicaria. Schiedea menziesii and S. salicaria have distinct morphologies and chloroplast genomes but are less differentiated at the nuclear loci. Hybrids are most similar to S. menziesii at chloroplast loci, exhibit nuclear allele frequencies in common with both parental species, and resemble S. salicaria in pollen production and pollen size, traits important to wind pollination. Additionally, unlike S. menziesii, the hybrid zone contains many females, suggesting that the nuclear gene responsible for male sterility in S. salicaria has been transferred to hybrid plants. Continued selection of nuclear genes in the hybrid zone may result in a population that resembles S. salicaria, but retains chloroplast lineage(s of S. menziesii.

  6. Loss of wild-type ATRX expression in somatic cell hybrids segregates with activation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Bower

    Full Text Available Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT is a non-telomerase mechanism of telomere lengthening that occurs in about 10% of cancers overall and is particularly common in astrocytic brain tumors and specific types of sarcomas. Somatic cell hybridization analyses have previously shown that normal telomerase-negative fibroblasts and telomerase-positive immortalized cell lines contain repressors of ALT activity, indicating that activation of ALT results from loss of one or more unidentified repressors. More recently, ATRX or DAXX was shown to be mutated both in tumors with telomere lengths suggestive of ALT activity and in ALT cell lines. Here, an ALT cell line was separately fused to each of four telomerase-positive cell lines, and four or five independent hybrid lines from each fusion were examined for expression of ATRX and DAXX and for telomere lengthening mechanism. The hybrid lines expressed either telomerase or ALT, with the other mechanism being repressed. DAXX was expressed normally in all parental cell lines and in all of the hybrids. ATRX was expressed normally in each of the four telomerase-positive parental cell lines and in every telomerase-positive hybrid line, and was abnormal in the ALT parental cells and in all but one of the ALT hybrids. This correlation between ALT activity and loss of ATRX expression is consistent with ATRX being a repressor of ALT.

  7. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  8. Enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui; Huang, Nuo; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Houyu; Chen, Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (EHACO-OFDM) scheme, which benefits from the simultaneous transmission of ACO-OFDM, pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation, and direct-current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM). Since the entire available bandwidth is utilized for data modulation, this scheme can achieve higher spectral efficiency than HACO-OFDM and ACO-OFDM. Moreover, as a smaller DC bias is introduced in our scheme, it is more power efficient than asymmetrically clipped DC-biased optical OFDM (ADO-OFDM) and DCO-OFDM. A modified receiver is also designed for this system, taking advantage of an iterative algorithm and a pairwise averaging. It has been shown by simulation that our three-path simultaneous transmission scheme can surpass the existing mixed OFDM-based schemes at high data rates. In addition, compared with the noniterative receiver, the modified receiver exhibits significant gains.

  9. Ultrahigh Purcell factor in low-threshold nanolaser based on asymmetric hybrid plasmonic cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    A low-threshold nanolaser with all three dimensions at the subwavelength scale is proposed and investigated. The nanolaser is constructed based on an asymmetric hybrid plasmonic F-P cavity with Ag-coated end facets. Lasing characteristics are calculated using finite element method at the wavelength of 1550 nm. The results show that owing to the low modal loss, large modal confinement factor of the asymmetric plasmonic cavity structure, in conjunction with the high reflectivity of the Ag reflectors, a minimum threshold gain of 240 cm(-1) is predicted. Furthermore, the Purcell factor as large as 2518 is obtained with optimized structure parameters to enhance rates of spontaneous and stimulated emission. PMID:27616768

  10. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase for somatic integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhang

    Full Text Available We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We found that in all mice which received the hyperactive SB transposase, transgene expression levels were stabilized in a dose-dependent manner and that the highest vector dose was accompanied by fatalities in mice. To analyze potential genotoxic side-effects due to somatic integration into host chromosomes, we performed a genome-wide integration site analysis using linker-mediated PCR (LM-PCR and linear amplification-mediated PCR (LAM-PCR. Analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from HSB5 treated female and male mice revealed a total of 1327 unique transposition events. Overall the chromosomal distribution pattern was close-to-random and we observed a random integration profile with respect to integration into gene and non-gene areas. Notably, when using the LM-PCR protocol, 27 extra-chromosomal integration events were identified, most likely caused by transposon excision and subsequent transposition into the delivered adenoviral vector genome. In total, this study provides a careful evaluation of the safety profile of adenovirus/Sleeping Beauty transposase hybrid-vectors. The obtained information will be useful when designing future preclinical studies utilizing hybrid-vectors in small and large animal models.

  11. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI HuaLin; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, ChinaThirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross between Yiben No,4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. x2(Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However,these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA,skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribution was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  12. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross be- tween Yiben No.4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. χ2 (Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However, these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA, skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribu- tion was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  13. Abortive Process of a Novel Rapeseed Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line Derived from Somatic Hybrids Between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; GAO Ya-nan; KONG Yue-qin; JIANG Jin-jin; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Yong-tai; WANG You-ping

    2014-01-01

    Somatic hybridization is performed to obtain significant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines, whose CMS genes are derived either from the transfer of sterile genes from the mitochondrial genome of donor parent to the counterpart of receptor or production of new sterile genes caused by mitochondrial genome recombination of the biparent during protoplast fusion. In this study, a novel male sterile line, SaNa-1A, was obtained from the somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. The normal anther development of the maintainer line, SaNa-1B, and the abortive process of SaNa-1A were described through phenotypic observations and microtome sections. The lforal organ of the sterile line SaNa-1A was sterile with a shortened iflament and delfated anther. No detectable pollen grains were found on the surface of the sterile anthers. Semi-thin sections indicated that SaNa-1A aborted in the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage when vacuolization of the tapetum and PMCs began. The tapetum radically elongated and became highly vacuolated, occupying the entire locule together with the vacuolated microspores. Therefore, SaNa-1A is different from other CMS lines, such as ogu CMS, pol CMS and nap CMS as shown by the abortive process of the anther.

  14. Interfacial strain and defects in asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayence, Arnaud; Wéry, Madeleine; Tran, Dung Trung; Wetterskog, Erik; Svedlindh, Peter; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Bergström, Lennart

    2016-07-01

    Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds.Asymmetric Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles have been obtained by a seed-mediated thermal decomposition-based synthesis route. The use of benzyl ether as the solvent was found to promote the orientational growth of Mn1-xO onto the iron oxide nanocube seeds yielding mainly dimers and trimers whereas 1-octadecene yields large nanoparticles. HRTEM imaging and HAADF-STEM tomography performed on dimers show that the growth of Mn1-xO occurs preferentially along the edges of iron oxide nanocubes where both oxides share a common crystallographic orientation. Fourier filtering and geometric phase analysis of dimers reveal a lattice mismatch of 5% and a large interfacial strain together with a significant concentration of defects. The saturation magnetization is lower and the coercivity is higher for the Fe-Mn oxide hybrid nanoparticles compared to the iron oxide nanocube seeds. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials characterization, powder X-ray diffraction, EFTEM images, EELS spectra, HAADF-STEM. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01373b

  15. Expression of members of immunoglobulin gene family in somatic cell hybrids between human B and T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozbor, D.; Burioni, R.; Ar-Rushdi, A.; Zmijewski, C.; Croce, C.M.

    1987-07-01

    Somatic cell hybrids were obtained between human T and B cells and tested for the expression of differentiated traits of both cell lineages. The T-cell parent SUP-T1 is CD3/sup -/, CD4/sup +/, CD1/sup +/, CD8/sup +/, is weakly positive for HLA class I determinants, and has an inversion of chromosome 14 due to a site-specific recombination event between an immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene and the joining segment of the T-cell receptor ..cap alpha.. chain. The B-cell parent, the 6-thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant mutant GM1500, is a lymphoblastoid cell line that secretes IgG2, K chains, and expresses B1, B532, and HLA class I and II antigens. All hybrids expressed characteristics of B cells (Ig/sup +/, B1/sup +/, B532/sup +/, EBNA/sup +/, HLA antigens), whereas only CD4 among the T-cell markers was expressed. The level of T-cell receptor ..beta..-chain transcript was greatly reduced and no RNA of the chimeric T-cell receptor ..cap alpha..-chain joining segment-immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region was detected. Southern blot analysis indicated that absence of T-cell differentiation markers in the hybrids was not due to chromosomal loss. Rather, some B-cell-specific factor present in the hybrids may account for the suppression.

  16. Expression of members of immunoglobulin gene family in somatic cell hybrids between human B and T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic cell hybrids were obtained between human T and B cells and tested for the expression of differentiated traits of both cell lineages. The T-cell parent SUP-T1 is CD3-, CD4+, CD1+, CD8+, is weakly positive for HLA class I determinants, and has an inversion of chromosome 14 due to a site-specific recombination event between an immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene and the joining segment of the T-cell receptor α chain. The B-cell parent, the 6-thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant mutant GM1500, is a lymphoblastoid cell line that secretes IgG2, K chains, and expresses B1, B532, and HLA class I and II antigens. All hybrids expressed characteristics of B cells (Ig+, B1+, B532+, EBNA+, HLA antigens), whereas only CD4 among the T-cell markers was expressed. The level of T-cell receptor β-chain transcript was greatly reduced and no RNA of the chimeric T-cell receptor α-chain joining segment-immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region was detected. Southern blot analysis indicated that absence of T-cell differentiation markers in the hybrids was not due to chromosomal loss. Rather, some B-cell-specific factor present in the hybrids may account for the suppression

  17. Somatic Chromosomes of the Bornean Sambar Deer and Rusa Deer Interspecific Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Idris; Saidi Moin

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Hybridization has potential benefits to the Malaysian farmed deer industries in terms of increased growth rate and increased proportion of muscle and an improved alignment of feed supply and annual energy requirement. Species or subspecies of different chromosome constitution could mate to produce healthy hybrid offspring in a normal ratio of males and females. If any of the hybrid offspring were sterile, the sterile offspring would be the heterogametic offspring. The study...

  18. Coupling and control in coherently driven and asymmetrically synchronized hybrid electron-nuclear spin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, V.

    2016-02-01

    We study the coupling and control adaptation of a hybrid electron-nuclear spin system using the laser mediated proton beam in MeV energy regime. The asymmetric control mechanism is based on exact optimization of both: the measure of exchange interaction and anisotropy of the hyperfine interaction induced in the resonance with optimal channeled protons (CP) superfocused field, allowing manipulation over arbitrary localized spatial centers while addressing only the electron spin. Using highly precise and coherent proton channeling regime we have obtained efficient pulse shaping separator technique aimed for spatio-temporal engineering of quantum states, introducing a method for control of nuclear spins, which are coupled via anisotropic hyperfine interactions in isolated electron spin manifold, without radio wave (RW) pulses. The presented method can be efficiently implemented in synchronized spin networks with the purpose to facilitate preservation and efficient transfer of experimentally observed quantum particle states, contributing to the overall background noise reduction.

  19. Hexaphyrin-Cyclodextrin Hybrids: A Nest for Switchable Aromaticity, Asymmetric Confinement, and Isomorphic Fluxionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménand, Mickaël; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Boitrel, Bernard; Le Gac, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Conformational control over the highly flexible π-conjugated system of expanded porphyrins is a key step toward the fundamental understanding of aromaticity and for the development of molecular electronics. We have synthesized unprecedented hexaphyrin-cyclodextrin (HCD) capped hybrids in which the hexaphyrin part is constrained in a planar rectangular conformation in either a 26 or a 28 π-electron oxidation state ([26]/[28]HCD). These structures display strong aromaticity and antiaromaticity, respectively, exhibit markedly different chiroptical properties, and are interconvertible upon the addition of DDQ or NaBH(OAc)3, thus affording a rare switchable aromatic-antiaromatic system with a free-base expanded porphyrin. Conformational analysis revealed discrimination of the two coordination sites of the hexaphyrin, one of which was coupled to a confined asymmetric environment, and fluxional behavior consisting of apparent rotation of the hexaphyrin cap through a shape-shifting mechanism. PMID:26514249

  20. Surface design and engineering of hierarchical hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with improved electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Demetra S; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-06-01

    With the current rising world demand for energy sufficiency, there is an increased necessity for the development of efficient energy storage devices. To address these needs, the scientific community has focused on the improvement of the electrochemical properties of the most well known energy storage devices; the Li-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors. Despite the fact that supercapacitors exhibit high power densities, good reversibility and long cycle life, they still exhibit lower energy densities than batteries, which limit their practical application. Various strategies have been employed to circumvent this problem, specifically targetting an increase in the specific capacitance and the broadening of the potential window of operation of these systems. In recent years, sophisticated surface design and engineering of hierarchical hybrid nanostructures has facilitated significant improvements in the specific and volumetric storage capabilities of supercapacitors. These nanostructured electrodes exhibit higher surface areas for ion adsorption and reduced ion diffusion lengths for the electrolyte ions. Significant advances have also been achieved in broadening the electrochemical window of operation of these systems, as realized via the development of asymmetric two-electrode cells consisting of nanocomposite positive and negative electrodes with complementary electrochemical windows, which operate in environmentally benign aqueous media. We provide an overview of the diverse approaches, in terms of chemistry and nanoscale architecture, employed recently for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors of improved electrochemical performance. PMID:25711524

  1. Somatic Chromosomes of the Bornean Sambar Deer and Rusa Deer Interspecific Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hybridization has potential benefits to the Malaysian farmed deer industries in terms of increased growth rate and increased proportion of muscle and an improved alignment of feed supply and annual energy requirement. Species or subspecies of different chromosome constitution could mate to produce healthy hybrid offspring in a normal ratio of males and females. If any of the hybrid offspring were sterile, the sterile offspring would be the heterogametic offspring. The study investigated the use of chromosome banding method to detect chromosomal variation and to define the chromosome homology and the possibility of the Bornean Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei and Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis hybrids to reproduce. Approach: Samples were collected from the Livestock Breeding Station, Sabrang, Keningau, Sabah, East Malaysia. The animals studied consisted of two deer subspecies namely the Bornean Sambar deer, Rusa deer and their hybrids. The karyotypes of the Bornean Sambar deer, Rusa deer and their F1 hybrids have been investigated by solid giemsa staining, G-banding and Ag-NOR banding techniques. Results: Rusa and Bornean Sambar have different chromosome number; 60 and 62 respectively, but share the same fundamental number of chromosome arm, 70. The hybrids have 2n = 61, consisting of 9 metacentric to submetacentric autosomes and 24 pairs of acrocentric autosomes with two acrocentrics and one submetacentric chromosome being unpaired. The morphology of the sex chromosomes in the F1 hybrids was similar to that of the parental species. The Ag-NOR pattern and the conventional Giemsa staining of chromosomes were effective as markers in the characterization of the karyotypes of the parental lines and hybrids because of the presence of active NORs on different chromosomes of different species. G-band, in contrast, showed complete homology in the presence of euchromatic bands and heterochromatin blocks respectively on each chromosome

  2. Regeneration and interspecific somatic hybridization in Allium for transfer of cytoplasmic male sterility to leek.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, J.

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of the present day leek cultivars is of poor quality. The genetic constitution of leek makes it a difficult crop to breed and consequently mass, or family selection methods, both of which have a low efficiency, are mainly used. F 1 hybrid breeding seems the appropriate s

  3. Regeneration and interspecific somatic hybridization in Allium for transfer of cytoplasmic male sterility to leek.

    OpenAIRE

    Buiteveld, J

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of the present day leek cultivars is of poor quality. The genetic constitution of leek makes it a difficult crop to breed and consequently mass, or family selection methods, both of which have a low efficiency, are mainly used. F 1 hybrid breeding seems the appropriate strategy for improvement of leek. With such a breeding system a higher uniformity of the crop, better fixation of desirable traits, such as pest and disease resistance and a better exploitation of heterosis ef...

  4. Identification of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) homologous loci by direct sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and PCR amplification of somatic cell hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purandare, S.M.; Neil, S.M.; Brothman, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)]|[Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-10

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we have identified seven NF1-related loci, two separate loci on chromosome 2, at bands 2q21 and 2q33-q34, and one locus each on five other chromosomes at bands 14q11.2, 15q11.2, 18p11.2, 21q11.2-q21, and 22q11.2. Application of PCR using NF1 primer pairs and genomic DNA from somatic cell hybrids confirmed the above loci, identified additional loci on chromosomes 12 and 15, and showed that the various loci do not share homology beyond NF1 exon 27b. Sequenced PCR products representing segments corresponding to NF1 exons from these loci demonstrated greater than 95% sequence identity with the NF1 locus. We used sequence differences between bona fide NF1 and NF1-homologous loci to strategically design primer sets to specifically amplify 30 of 36 exons within the 5{prime} end of the NF1 gene. These developments have facilitated mutation analysis at the NF1 locus using genomic DNA as template. 41 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. A Hybrid Cascade Converter Topology With Series-Connected Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Diode-Clamped H-Bridge Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz; Ghosh, Arindam; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    A novel H-bridge multilevel pulsewidth modulation converter topology based on a series connection of a high-voltage diode-clamped inverter and a low-voltage conventional inverter is proposed in this paper. A dc link voltage arrangement for the new hybrid and asymmetric solution is presented to have...... configuration to approach a very low total harmonic distortion of voltage and current, which leads to the possible elimination of the output filter. Regarding the proposed configuration, a new cascade inverter is verified by cascading an asymmetrical diode-clamped inverter, in which 19 levels can be synthesized...... in output voltage with the same number of components. To balance the dc link capacitor voltages for the maximum output voltage resolution as well as synthesize asymmetrical dc link combination, a new multi-output boost converter is utilized at the dc link voltage of a seven-level H-bridge diode-clamped...

  6. Adaptation of the interspersed repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction to the isolation of mouse DNA probes from somatic cell hybrids on a hamster background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy for the rapid isolation of DNA probes from radiation-fusion Chinese hamster cell hybrids containing overlapping portions of the murine X chromosome based on the interspersed repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction (IRS-PCR) previously used with human somatic cell hybrids has been developed. This specific amplification of mouse DNA on a hamster background depends on the use of primers directed to the B2 short interspersed repeat element family and the R repeat, from the long interspersed repeat element family, L1. Two sets of amplification conditions, which gave specific amplification of mouse DNA from either a mouse X-monochromosomal hybrid or irradiation-fusion hybrids having reduced X content, were defined. The mouse X-only chromosome hybrid yielded approximately 20 discrete reproducible bands, while the irradiation-fusion hybrids yielded between 1 and 10 discrete products. Comparison of different irradiation-fusion hybrids has allowed the definition of both specific and shared products corresponding to different regions within the overlapping X-chromosome fragments present within these hybrids. Use of such hybrids and the IRS-PCR technique has allowed the isolation of probes corresponding to the central region of the mouse X chromosome that contains the X-inactivation center. The method should be widely applicable to the isolation of mouse DNA sequences from mouse hybrid cell lines on either human or Chinese hamster backgrounds

  7. Mapping of Microsatellite SW943 to Porcine Chromosome 12p11-(2/3p13) Using Primed in situ Synthesis and Somatic Cell Hybrid Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bang; WANG Yong-qiang; ZHANG Qing-de; YU Mei; ZHAO Shu-hong; XIONG Tong-an; LI Kui

    2002-01-01

    The porcine microsatellite SW943 was regionally localized on 12p11-(2/3p13) by the two methods: the Primed in situ (PRINS) labelling on the pachytene bivalents of pigs using the Dig-11-dUTP as the report molecule and pig × rodent Somatic Cell Hybrid PaneI(SCHP) which contains 27 cell lines through PCR amplification. Advantages and disadvantages of the two methods for physical mapping of microsatellites were also discussed.

  8. Cis-by-Trans regulatory divergence causes the asymmetric lethal effects of an ancestral hybrid incompatibility gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamoni Maheshwari

    Full Text Available The Dobzhansky and Muller (D-M model explains the evolution of hybrid incompatibility (HI through the interaction between lineage-specific derived alleles at two or more loci. In agreement with the expectation that HI results from functional divergence, many protein-coding genes that contribute to incompatibilities between species show signatures of adaptive evolution, including Lhr, which encodes a heterochromatin protein whose amino acid sequence has diverged extensively between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans by natural selection. The lethality of D. melanogaster/D. simulans F1 hybrid sons is rescued by removing D. simulans Lhr, but not D. melanogaster Lhr, suggesting that the lethal effect results from adaptive evolution in the D. simulans lineage. It has been proposed that adaptive protein divergence in Lhr reflects antagonistic coevolution with species-specific heterochromatin sequences and that defects in LHR protein localization cause hybrid lethality. Here we present surprising results that are inconsistent with this coding-sequence-based model. Using Lhr transgenes expressed under native conditions, we find no evidence that LHR localization differs between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, nor do we find evidence that it mislocalizes in their interspecific hybrids. Rather, we demonstrate that Lhr orthologs are differentially expressed in the hybrid background, with the levels of D. simulans Lhr double that of D. melanogaster Lhr. We further show that this asymmetric expression is caused by cis-by-trans regulatory divergence of Lhr. Therefore, the non-equivalent hybrid lethal effects of Lhr orthologs can be explained by asymmetric expression of a molecular function that is shared by both orthologs and thus was presumably inherited from the ancestral allele of Lhr. We present a model whereby hybrid lethality occurs by the interaction between evolutionarily ancestral and derived alleles.

  9. North African hybrid sparrows (Passer domesticus, P. hispaniolensis) back from oblivion - ecological segregation and asymmetric mitochondrial introgression between parental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Belkacem, Abdelkrim; Gast, Oliver; Stuckas, Heiko; Canal, David; LoValvo, Mario; Giacalone, Gabriele; Päckert, Martin

    2016-08-01

    A stabilized hybrid form of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the Spanish sparrow (P. hispaniolensis) is known as Passer italiae from the Italian Peninsula and a few Mediterranean islands. The growing attention for the Italian hybrid sparrow and increasing knowledge on its biology and genetic constitution greatly contrast the complete lack of knowledge of the long-known phenotypical hybrid sparrow populations from North Africa. Our study provides new data on the breeding biology and variation of mitochondrial DNA in three Algerian populations of house sparrows, Spanish sparrows, and phenotypical hybrids. In two field seasons, the two species occupied different breeding habitats: Spanish sparrows were only found in rural areas outside the cities and bred in open-cup nests built in large jujube bushes. In contrast, house sparrows bred only in the town centers and occupied nesting holes in walls of buildings. Phenotypical hybrids were always associated with house sparrow populations. House sparrows and phenotypical hybrids started breeding mid of March, and most pairs had three successive clutches, whereas Spanish sparrows started breeding almost one month later and had only two successive clutches. Mitochondrial introgression is strongly asymmetric because about 75% of the rural Spanish sparrow population carried house sparrow haplotypes. In contrast, populations of the Italian hybrid form, P. italiae, were genetically least diverse among all study populations and showed a near-fixation of house sparrow haplotypes that elsewhere were extremely rare or that were even unique for the Italian Peninsula. Such differences between mitochondrial gene pools of Italian and North African hybrid sparrow populations provide first evidence that different demographic histories have shaped the extant genetic diversity observed on both continents. PMID:27551376

  10. Bidirectional but asymmetrical sexual hybridization between Brassica carinata and Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kyle W; Razeq, Fakhria M; Sauder, Connie A; James, Tracey; Martin, Sara L

    2015-05-01

    With transgenic crop development it is important to evaluate the potential for transgenes to escape into populations of wild, weedy relatives. Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata, BBCC) is easily transformed and is being investigated for uses from biodiesel fuels to biopharmaceuticals. However, little work has been done evaluating its ability to cross with relatives such as wild mustard (Sinapsis arvensis, SrSr), an abundant, cosmopolitan weedy relative. Here we conducted bidirectional crosses with Ethiopian mustard as a maternal parent in 997 crosses and paternal parent in 1,109 crosses. Hybrids were confirmed using flow cytometry and species-specific ITS molecular markers and indicate a high hybridization rate of 6.43 % between Ethiopian mustard (♀) and wild mustard (♂) and a lower, but not insignificant, hybridization rate of 0.01 % in the reverse direction. The majority of the hybrids were homoploid (BCSr) with less than 1 % of pollen production of their parents and low seed production (0.26 seeds/pollination) in crosses and backcrosses indicating a potential for advanced generation hybrids. The accession used had a significant effect on hybrid seed production with different accessions of Ethopian mustard varying in their production of hybrid offspring from 2.69 to 16.34 % and one accession of wild mustard siring almost twice as many hybrid offspring per flower as the other. One pentaploid (BBCCSr) and one hexaploid (BBCCSrSr) hybrid were produced and had higher pollen viability, though no and low seed production, respectively. As wild mustard is self-incompatible and the outcrossing rate of Ethiopian mustard has been estimated as 30 % potential for hybrid production in the wild appears to be high, though the hybridization rate found here represents a worst case scenario as it does not incorporate pre-pollination barriers. Hybridization in the wild needs to be directly evaluated as does the propensity of Ethiopian mustard to volunteer. PMID:25698113

  11. Interspecific Hybridization in Pilot Whales and Asymmetric Genetic Introgression in Northern Globicephala melas under the Scenario of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Laura; Oremus, Marc; Silva, Mónica A.; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Pilot whales are two cetacean species (Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus) whose distributions are correlated with water temperature and partially overlap in some areas like the North Atlantic Ocean. In the context of global warming, distribution range shifts are expected to occur in species affected by temperature. Consequently, a northward displacement of the tropical pilot whale G. macrorynchus is expected, eventually leading to increased secondary contact areas and opportunities for interspecific hybridization. Here, we describe genetic evidences of recurrent hybridization between pilot whales in northeast Atlantic Ocean. Based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci, asymmetric introgression of G. macrorhynchus genes into G. melas was observed. For the latter species, a significant correlation was found between historical population growth rate estimates and paleotemperature oscillations. Introgressive hybridization, current temperature increases and lower genetic variation in G. melas suggest that this species could be at risk in its northern range. Under increasing environmental and human-mediated stressors in the North Atlantic Ocean, it seems recommendable to develop a conservation program for G. melas. PMID:27508496

  12. Interspecific Hybridization in Pilot Whales and Asymmetric Genetic Introgression in Northern Globicephala melas under the Scenario of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Laura; Oremus, Marc; Silva, Mónica A; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Pilot whales are two cetacean species (Globicephala melas and G. macrorhynchus) whose distributions are correlated with water temperature and partially overlap in some areas like the North Atlantic Ocean. In the context of global warming, distribution range shifts are expected to occur in species affected by temperature. Consequently, a northward displacement of the tropical pilot whale G. macrorynchus is expected, eventually leading to increased secondary contact areas and opportunities for interspecific hybridization. Here, we describe genetic evidences of recurrent hybridization between pilot whales in northeast Atlantic Ocean. Based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci, asymmetric introgression of G. macrorhynchus genes into G. melas was observed. For the latter species, a significant correlation was found between historical population growth rate estimates and paleotemperature oscillations. Introgressive hybridization, current temperature increases and lower genetic variation in G. melas suggest that this species could be at risk in its northern range. Under increasing environmental and human-mediated stressors in the North Atlantic Ocean, it seems recommendable to develop a conservation program for G. melas. PMID:27508496

  13. Fabrication of Uniform Janus Micorparticles by Photopolymerization-Driven Phase Separation and their Asymmetric Hybridization with Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jangwoo; Kim, Jeong Won; Kim, Jin Woong

    2015-03-01

    In the field of colloid science, there is growing interest in synthesis of anisotropic particles, since they are desirable for controlling light scattering. These anisotropic particles have been developed by using sophisticated techniques, including clusterization, stamping, microfluidics, and controlled nucleation and precipitation. This study introduces a facile approach for fabrication of uniform Janus microparticles with anisotropic phases as well as selected surface chemistry. The technique we employed to synthesize these microparticles was the seeded swelling and polymerization method, in which complete compartmentalization of the particles into two distinct phases occurred upon polymerizing the monomer-swollen droplets. Then, we patched nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles, onto one of the compartmentalized phases of the Janus microparticles. Finally we demonstrate that these asymmetrically hybridized Janus microparticles are of great importance and play a role in the designated colloidal 2D array.

  14. A novel technique to neutralize the Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust in a hybrid buoyant aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Anwar U

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal fin is used in swimming animals like shark for the generation of thrust as well as to meet the requirement of the lateral stability. In the case of aircraft, rudders are normally used for the said requirement. In the present work, this nature inspired idea is explored for its application to neutralize the unavoidable asymmetric thrust produced by the twin engines of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. First, the estimation of asymmetric thrust is obtained with the help of analytical techniques for maximum thrust condition at 4 degree angle of attack. The moment generated by it is utilized for the sizing of a dorsal fin which looks similar to a tapered wing and is placed aft of the center of gravity. Wind tunnel testing at subsonic speed is carried out to explore the design features of this rotatable dorsal fin. It is found that a small rotation of 5 degree can generate the required moment. However, such rotation requires a complete pneumatic/electro-mechanical system and an alternative of it is to use a cambered airfoil for the dorsal fin installed at fixed location. Such a flow controlling device can also be used as an antenna mast, which is commonly installed out the fuselage of the aircraft for communication purposes. Moreover, by incorporating this technique, a pilot doesn’t have to put an extra effort to make the aircraft stable in the presence of side wind.

  15. A novel technique to neutralize the Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust in a hybrid buoyant aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Anwar U.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.; Sulaeman, Erwin; J. S Ali, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Dorsal fin is used in swimming animals like shark for the generation of thrust as well as to meet the requirement of the lateral stability. In the case of aircraft, rudders are normally used for the said requirement. In the present work, this nature inspired idea is explored for its application to neutralize the unavoidable asymmetric thrust produced by the twin engines of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. First, the estimation of asymmetric thrust is obtained with the help of analytical techniques for maximum thrust condition at 4 degree angle of attack. The moment generated by it is utilized for the sizing of a dorsal fin which looks similar to a tapered wing and is placed aft of the center of gravity. Wind tunnel testing at subsonic speed is carried out to explore the design features of this rotatable dorsal fin. It is found that a small rotation of 5 degree can generate the required moment. However, such rotation requires a complete pneumatic/electro-mechanical system and an alternative of it is to use a cambered airfoil for the dorsal fin installed at fixed location. Such a flow controlling device can also be used as an antenna mast, which is commonly installed out the fuselage of the aircraft for communication purposes. Moreover, by incorporating this technique, a pilot doesn't have to put an extra effort to make the aircraft stable in the presence of side wind.

  16. Identification of Somatic Hybrids Between Panax ginseng and Daucus carrot%人参与胡萝卜体细胞杂交杂种愈伤的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林阅兵; 张颖; 王义; 王昱; 张美萍

    2012-01-01

    Kinship relations of Panax ginseng are relatively far from Daucus carrot.Good traits of medicinal plants such like output qualith etc controlled by multiple gene through part of the gene transfer does not reflect all the material basis of the plants.Both of the parents to nuclear genes and cytoplasmic may be involved recombination in gene fusion events to propduce large amounts of a variety of individual genetic variation. Somatic hybrids between Panax ginseng and Daucus carrot by Electric fusion,screening for group of somatic cell hybrids,to obtain new germplasm. Foster innovation of variety achieve the purpose of improved species.We obtained 8 pieces of hybrid calli clone from the 25 calli clone systems after fusion, and identificated them through the morphology, cytology, isezyme, SDS-PAGE and other methods. We analyzed the index of physiological, biochemical and active ingredients of the hybrids, the results showed that the 8 hybrid calli contained Panax ginseng saponin, the contents of the 5 calli in them were higher than the ginseng calli, and the contents of 2 calli were 1.4 times of the ginseng calli. These indicated that the secondary metabolites contents of ginseng were increased by somatic cell hybridization of ginseng and carrot, the heterosis were reflected preliminarily.%贵重中药人参与胡萝卜亲缘关系较远,药用植物的优良性状如产量、品质等均由多基因控制,通过部分基因转移不能反映中药的全部物质基础.由于双亲的核基因和胞质基因都参与了融合事件,因而会发生核基因和胞质基因的重组,产生大量多样化的遗传变异个体,筛选获得的体细胞杂种群,可进一步获得我们所期望的新的种质资源,培育创新品种,达到改良物种的目的。用电容合法对人参与胡萝卜进行体细胞融合,对融合再生的25块杂种愈伤从形态学,细胞学,同工酶电泳,SDS-PAGE电泳进行鉴定分析。结果表明有8块为

  17. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (× Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.Doty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eGupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz. Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR%= 36.7±1.55% over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2±2.6% and M. oxyspermum (17.8±1.77%, while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2±2.2% (p<0.05. The fatty acid (FA analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs compared to saturated FAs (SFAs and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae.

  18. An asymmetric supercapacitor with ultrahigh energy density based on nickle cobalt sulfide nanocluster anchoring multi-wall carbon nanotubes hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ping; Fan, Mingjin; Yang, Desuo; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Hualei; Wang, Jinqing

    2016-07-01

    The development of novel electrode materials with high energy density and long cycling life is critical to realize electrochemical capacitive energy storage for practical applications. In this paper, the hybrids of nickle cobalt sulfide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (NiCo2S4/MWCNTs) with different contents of MWCNTs are prepared using a facile one-pot solvothermal reaction. As novel active materials for supercapacitors, the electrochemistry tests show that the hybrid of NiCo2S4/MWCNTs-5 is able to deliver a high specific capacitance of 2080 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1, even superior rate capability of 61% capacitance retention after a 20-fold increase in current densities, when the content of MWCNTs is up to 5%. More importantly, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled by NiCo2S4/MWCNTs-5 as positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as negative electrode delivers a high energy density of 51.8 Wh Kg-1 at a power density of 865 W kg-1, and 85.7% of its initial capacitance is retained at the current density of 4 A g-1 after 5000 charge-discharge cycles, exhibiting potential prospect for practical applications.

  19. Developmental and hormonal regulation of direct shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. interspecific hybrids) leaf culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Prakash; Geijskes, R Jason; Wang, Lifang; Elliott, Adrian; Grof, Christopher P L; Berding, Nils; Smith, Grant R

    2006-10-01

    Rapid and efficient in vitro regeneration methods that minimise somaclonal variation are critical for the genetic transformation and mass propagation of commercial varieties. Using a transverse thin cell layer culture system, we have identified some of the developmental and physiological constraints that limit high-frequency regeneration in sugarcane leaf tissue. Tissue polarity and consequently the orientation of the explant in culture, size and developmental phase of explant, and auxin concentration play a significant role in determining the organogenic potential of leaf tissue in culture. Both adventitious shoot production and somatic embryogenesis occurred on the proximal cut surface of the explant, and a regeneration gradient, decreasing gradually from the basal to the distal end, exists in the leaf roll. Importantly, auxin, when added to the culture medium, reduced this spatial developmental constraint, as well as the effect of genotype on plant regeneration. Transverse sections (1-2 mm thick) obtained from young leaf spindle rolls and orienting explants with its distal end facing the medium (directly in contact with medium) are critical for maximum regeneration. Shoot regeneration was observed as early as 3 weeks on MS medium supplemented with alpha-naphthalenencetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyladenine, while somatic embryogenesis or both adventitious shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis occurred on medium with NAA and chlorophenoxyacetic acid. Twenty shoots or more could be generated from a single transverse section explant. These shoots regenerated roots and successfully established after transplanted to pots. Large numbers of plantlets can be regenerated directly and rapidly using this system. SmartSett, the registered name for this process and the plants produced, will have significant practical applications for the mass propagation of new cultivars and in genetic modification programs. The SmartSett system has already been used commercially to

  20. To enhance imaging performance of hybrid imaging systems by using two asymmetrical phase masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Nhu; Chen, Shouqian; Fan, Zhigang; Pham, Nghia Minh

    2016-02-10

    We propose the use of two asymmetrical phase masks combined with the subtracted imaging method to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio in wavefront coding systems. This subtracted imaging technique is similar to the variable pinhole diameter in confocal microscopy. Two different phase modulations of same phase masks are employed to promote the magnitude of the optical transfer function (OTF). The ratio factor is used to control the phase variation between two phase masks. The noise of decoded images is suppressed owing to the higher magnitude of the OTF than the wavefront coding systems with a phase mask. A tangent phase mask as an example is used to demonstrate our concept. Simulated results show that the performance promotion controls noise amplification of decoded images while maintaining a depth-of-field extension. PMID:26906377

  1. Electrochemical performance of carbon-coated lithium manganese silicate for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, K.; Aravindan, V.; Lee, S. B.; Jang, I. C.; Lim, H. H.; Park, G. J.; Yoshio, M.; Lee, Y. S.

    Nanoscale carbon-coated Li 2MnSiO 4 powder is prepared using a conventional solid-state method and can be used as the negative electrode in a Li 2MnSiO 4/activated carbon (AC) hybrid supercapacitor. Carbon-coated Li 2MnSiO 4 material presents a well-developed orthorhombic crystal structure with a P mn2 1 space group, although there is a small impurity of MnO. The maximum specific capacitance of the Li 2MnSiO 4/AC hybrid supercapacitor is 43.2 F g -1 at 1 mA cm -2 current density. The cell delivers a specific energy as high as 54 Wh kg -1 at a specific power of 150 W kg -1 and also exhibits an excellent cycle performance with more than 99% columbic efficiency and the maintenance of 85% of its initial capacitance after 1000 cycles.

  2. Electrospun carbon nanofibers/electrocatalyst hybrids as asymmetric electrodes for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guanjie; Fan, Xinzhuang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Chuanwei

    2015-05-01

    To improve the electrochemical activity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) toward vanadium redox couples, the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Bi-based compound as electrocatalyst have been embedded in the ECNFs to make composite electrode, respectively. The morphology and electrochemical properties of pristine ECNFs, CNTs/ECNFs and Bi/ECNFs have been characterized. Among the three kinds of electrodes, the CNTs/ECNFs show best electrochemical activity toward VO2+/VO2+ redox couple, while the Bi/ECNFs present the best electrochemical activity toward V2+/V3+ redox couple. Furthermore, the high overpotential of hydrogen evolution on Bi/ECNFs makes the side-reaction suppressed. Because of the large property difference between the two composite electrodes, the CNTs/ECNFs and Bi/ECNFs are designed to act as positive and negative electrode for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), respectively. It not only does improve the kinetics of two electrode reactions at the same time, but also reduce the kinetics difference between them. Due to the application of asymmetric electrodes, performance of the cell is improved greatly.

  3. Electrochemical performance of carbon-coated lithium manganese silicate for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, K.; Lee, S.B.; Jang, I.C.; Lim, H.H.; Lee, Y.S. [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Aravindan, V. [The Research Institute for Catalysis, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Park, G.J.; Yoshio, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    Nanoscale carbon-coated Li{sub 2}MnSiO{sub 4} powder is prepared using a conventional solid-state method and can be used as the negative electrode in a Li{sub 2}MnSiO{sub 4}/activated carbon (AC) hybrid supercapacitor. Carbon-coated Li{sub 2}MnSiO{sub 4} material presents a well-developed orthorhombic crystal structure with a Pmn2{sub 1} space group, although there is a small impurity of MnO. The maximum specific capacitance of the Li{sub 2}MnSiO{sub 4}/AC hybrid supercapacitor is 43.2 F g{sup -1} at 1 mA cm{sup -2} current density. The cell delivers a specific energy as high as 54 Wh kg{sup -1} at a specific power of 150 W kg{sup -1} and also exhibits an excellent cycle performance with more than 99% columbic efficiency and the maintenance of 85% of its initial capacitance after 1000 cycles. (author)

  4. Two quality-associated HMW glutenin subunits in a somatic hybrid line between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron elongatum

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Deshun; Xia, Guangmin; Zhao, Shuangyi; Chen, Fanguo

    2004-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) from hybrid line II-12 between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nivski were characterized with SDS-PAGE. Out of these HMW-GSs, two subunits, h1Bx and h1By, had mobilities similar to the subunits 1Bx13 and 1By16 from common wheat 4072, which was used as control. Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) of h1Bx and h1By were prepared, and Western blotting showed that the pAbs had strong affinities for h1Bx and h1By, separately. Th...

  5. A duplicated coxI gene is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in an alloplasmic Brassica juncea line derived from somatic hybridization with Diplotaxis catholica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aruna Pathania; Rajesh Kumar; V. Dinesh Kumar; Ashutosh; K. K. Dwivedi; P. B. Kirti; P. Prakash; V. L. Chopra; S. R. Bhat

    2007-08-01

    A cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of Brassica juncea was derived by repeated backcrossing of the somatic hybrid (Diplotaxis catholica + B. juncea) to B. juncea. The new CMS line is comparable to euplasmic lines for almost all characters, except for flowers which bear slender, needle-like anthers with aborted pollen. Detailed Southern analysis revealed two copies of coxI gene in the CMS line. One copy, coxI-1 is similar to the coxI gene of B. juncea, whereas the second copy, coxI-2 is present in a novel rearranged region. Northern analysis with eight mitochondrial gene probes showed altered transcript pattern only for the coxI gene. Two transcripts of 2.0 and 2.4 kb, respectively, were detected in the CMS line. The novel 2.4 kb transcript was present in floral bud tissue but absent in the leaf tissue. In plants where male sterility broke down under high temperature during the later part of the growing season, the 2.4 kb coxI transcript was absent, which suggested its association with the CMS. The two coxI genes from the CMS line showed two amino acid changes in the coding region. The novel coxI gene showed unique repeats in the 5′ region suggesting recombination of mitochondrial genomes of the two species. The possible role of the duplicated coxI gene in causing male sterility is discussed.

  6. Molecular characterization of LMW-GS genes from a somatic hybrid introgression line Ⅱ-12 between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron elongatum in relation to quick evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to exploit the evolution and find novel low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit(LMW-GS)for improvement of common wheat quality,thirteen variants from a somatic hybrid introgression line Ⅱ-12 between Triticum aestivum cv.Jinan 177(JN177)and Agropyron elongatum were characterized via genomic PCR.Four clones were pseudogenes because they contained an internal stop codon.The remaining nine variants contained intact open reading frames(ORFs).Sequence alignment indicates that the proteins deduced from the nine ORFs have similar primary structure with LMW-GS cloned from its parents previously.However,they have some unique modifications in the structures.For example,EU292737 contains not only an extra Cys residue in the C-terminal domain but also a long repetitive domain.Both EU159511 and EU292738 start their first Cys residue in the N-terminal repetitive domain,but not in the N-conserved domain traditionally.These structural alterations may have positive contributions to wheat flour quality.The results of phylogeny showed that most LMW-GS variances from Ⅱ-12 were homologous to those from parent JN 177 and other wheat lines.The reason for quick evolution of LMW-GS in Ⅱ-12 was discussed.

  7. 甜橙与酸橙体细胞杂种核质组成鉴定%Characterization of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Compositions of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sweet Orange and Sour Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继红; 徐小勇; 邓秀新

    2004-01-01

    In the present research, flow cytometry (FCM), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) were employed to analyze somatic hybrid plants derived from electrofusion between embryogenic protoplasts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti)and leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange (C. aurantium L.). FCM showed that all of the somatic hybrid plants had two-fold fluorescence intensity values of the diploid control, indicating that they were tetraploids.SSR and CAPS were used to characterize the compositions of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the somatic hybrid plants. As for SSR four primer pairs were tried and two showed polymorphisms between the fusion parents. With both primer pairs the somatic hybrid plants encompassed DNA bands from both parents,indicating that they were heterokaryonic hybrids. Amplification with some universal primers, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases, could distinguish the fusion parents from each other. As far as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA compositions were concerned the somatic hybrid plants shared the same banding patterns as the embryogenic parents for all of the polymorphic primer/enzyme combinations.The results herein demonstrated that the somatic hybrid plants inherited their nuclear genome from both fusion parents, whereas the cytoplasmic genomes were possibly only contributed by the embryogenic parent. Merits of the analytical methods and nuclear and cytoplasmic inheritance of citrus tetraploid somatic hybrids, together with their application, are discussed herein.%采用流式细胞术(flow cytometry,FCM)、简单重复序列(simple sequence repeat,SSR)和酶切扩增多型性序列(cleaved amplifiedpolymorphic sequence,CAPS)等技术分析酸橙(Citrus aurantium L.)叶肉原生质体和甜橙(C.sinenis Osbeck cv.Shamouti)胚性愈伤组织原生质体电融合再生的体细胞杂种.FCM研究结果表明,所有的体细胞杂种植株荧

  8. Somatic hybridization between Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and C. grandis (L. Osbeck Hibridação somática entre Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Calixto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to produce citrus somatic hybrids between sweet oranges and pummelos. After chemical fusion of sweet orange embryogenic protoplasts with pummelo mesophyll-derived protoplasts, plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis and acclimatized in a greenhouse. The hybrids of 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo and 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Singapura' pummelo were confirmed by leaf morphology, chromosome counting and molecular analysis. These hybrids have potential to be used directly as rootstocks aiming blight, citrus tristeza virus, and Phytophthora-induced disease tolerance, as well as for rootstocks improvement programs.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos entre laranjas doces e toranjas. Após fusão de protoplastos embriogênicos de laranja doce com protoplastos derivados de mesófilo foliar de toranjas, plantas foram regeneradas por embriogênese somática e aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. Os híbridos laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' e laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Singapura' foram confirmados pela morfologia foliar, contagem do número de cromossomos e análise molecular. Esses híbridos apresentam potencial para serem testados como porta-enxertos tolerantes a declínio, tristeza e doenças causadas por Phytophthora, bem como em programas de melhoramento de porta-enxertos.

  9. Coordinating arms and legs on a hybrid rehabilitation tricycle: the metabolic benefit of asymmetrical compared to symmetrical arm movements

    OpenAIRE

    Meyns, Pieter; Van De Walle, Patricia; Hoogkamer, Wouter; Kiekens, Carlotte; Desloovere, Kaat; Duysens, Jaak

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used propulsion method for handcycling is moving the arms symmetrically. Previous studies indicated that during outdoor handcycling symmetrical arm movements are more efficient. During locomotor movements, however, arm movements are performed asymmetrically in combination with leg movements. We questioned which combination of arm and leg movements is more efficient during combined arm and leg cycling for stationary use.

  10. Cytoplasmic Genome Analysis of Asymmetric Somatic Hybrids in Citrus%柑橘非对称体细胞杂种的胞质基因组分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小勇; 刘继红

    2008-01-01

    采用CAPS(cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence)分子标记对通过非对称原生质体融合获得的2个组合体细胞杂种植株进行了胞质遗传分析.结果表明,在伏令夏甜橙(Citrus sinensis)十默科特橘橙(C.reticulata ×C.sinensis )组合中,分析的2棵植株胞质DNA都来自伏令夏甜橙(供体);在丹西红橘(C.retic-ulata)十佩琦橘柚(C.reticulata×C.paradisi)组合中,分析的3棵植株胞质DNA都来自来源于佩琦橘柚(受体).

  11. Olefins-selective asymmetric carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for hybrid membrane-distillation processes for olefin/paraffin separations

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the development of asymmetric carbon molecular sieve (CMS) hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for olefin/paraffin separations based on the CMS membranes are reported. Membrane-based olefin/paraffin separations have been pursued extensively over the past decades. CMS membranes are promising to exceed the performance upper bound of polymer materials and have demonstrated excellent stability for gas separations. Previously, a substructure collapse phenomenon was found in Matrimid ® precursor derived CMS fiber. To overcome the permeance loss due to the increased separation layer thickness, 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM precursors were selected as potential new precursors for carbon membrane formation. Defect-free asymmetric 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM hollow fibers were successfully fabricated from a dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. Polymer rigidity, glass-rubber transition and asymmetric morphology were correlated. CMS hollow fiber membranes produced from 6FDA-polymer precursors showed significant improvement in permeance for ethylene/ethane and propylene/propane separations. Further studies revealed that the CMS membranes are olefins-selective, which means the membranes are able to effectively separate olefins (ethylene and propylene) from paraffins (ethane and propane). This unique feature of CMS materials enables advanced hybrid membrane-distillation process designs. By using the olefins-selective membranes, these new processes may provide advantages over previously proposed retrofitting concepts. Further applications of the membranes are explored for hydrocarbons processes. Significant energy savings and even reduced footprint may be achieved in olefins production units. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Cytoplasmic inheritance of somatic hybrids and development of primers for cpSSR in Citrus%柑橘体细胞胞质遗传及叶绿体SSR引物开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程运江

    2011-01-01

    以38个组合的柑橘体细胞杂种(或胞质杂种)为试验材料,综合应用RFLP、CAPS和cpSSR分子标记技术,对这些杂种的线粒体和叶绿体遗传组成进行了分析;同时对试验技术体系进行了完善与拓展,开发了柑橘叶绿体SSR标记;并对柑橘愈伤组织长期继代保存过程中胞质基因组遗传变异进行了分析,主要结果如下.%In the present study,cytoplasmic inheritance of Citrus somatic hybrids and cybrids from 38 interge-neric and interspecific fusion combinations was analyzed with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers. The experimental procedures were modified and optimized. A novel marker, cpSSR, was developed in Citrus and other tropical fruit crops. Meanwhile,genetic variations of organelle from 23 Citrus calli were analyzed. The main results were as follows:1. A simple and efficient method for genomic DNA extraction from woody fruit crops containing high level of polysaccharides was developed. This method involves a modified CTAB or SDS procedure employing a purification step to remove polysaccharides by using water saturated ether at the presence of 1. 25-1. 30 mol/L NaCl. The quality of DNA samples extracted with this method was suitable for PCR and RFLPs analysis and for long-term storage. In addition, this procedure was successfully applied in DNA isolation from the freezed or withered or senile leaves of Citrus and more than 20 kinds of tropical and subtropical fruit crops.2. Five universal pairs of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primer and 3 universal pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) primers amplified monomorphic fragments among 4 intergeneric hybrids and 3 inter-spefic fusion combinations. After digested by restriction endonuclease, polymorphic mitochondrial CAPS markers were displayed in the 4 intergeneric combinations, while polymorphic chloroplast CAPS markers were found in 3

  13. Reação de híbridos somáticos de citros à infecção por Phytophthora nicotianae Reaction of citrus somatic hybrids to the infection by Phytophthora nicotianae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Menezes Bassan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a resistência à infecção de tronco e de raízes por Phytophthora nicotianae em híbridos somáticos de citros com potencial para serem utilizados como porta-enxertos. Os híbridos somáticos avaliados foram laranja 'Hamlin' (Citrus sinensis + toranja 'Indian Red' (Citrus grandis (plantas 1 e 2 e laranja 'Hamlin' (C. sinensis + toranja 'Singapura' (C. grandis. Plantas de limão 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, laranja 'Caipira' (C. sinensis, laranja-azeda (C. aurantium e Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A' (Poncirus trifoliata foram utilizadas como plantas-controle devido à reação conhecida à infecção pelo patógeno. Avaliações realizadas entre 30 e 60 dias após as inoculações com o patógeno incluíram o comprimento das lesões no tronco e a massa seca do sistema radicular nas plantas avaliadas. O híbrido somático laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' (planta 1 mostrou-se tolerante a P. nicotianae, indicando potencial para continuidade nas suas avaliações como porta-enxerto para citros.This study aimed to evaluate the resistance to trunk and root infection by Phytophthora nicotianae in citrus somatic hybrids with potential to be utilized as rootstocks. The somatic hybrids evaluated were 'Hamlin' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis + 'Indian Red' pummelo (Citrus grandis (plants 1 and 2, and 'Hamlin' sweet orange (C. sinensis + 'Singapura' pummelo (C. grandis. Plants of 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis, sour orange (C. aurantium, and Poncirus trifoliata 'Davis A' (Poncirus trifoliata were used as control due to their known reaction to the pathogen. Evaluations performed between 30 and 60 days after pathogen inoculation included the length of trunk lesions, and root dry mass of the root system of evaluated plants. The somatic hybrid 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo (plant 1 was tolerant to P. nicotianae, indicating potential to be further evaluated as a rootstock.

  14. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapsis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus sativus L. (oil-radish) and Sinapis alba L. (white mustard) into oil-seed rape.Sexual hybridization between B.napus and R. sativus did not result in hybrid plants, whereas from about 800 crosses between B.napus and the amphidiploid xBrassicoraphanus Sageret 284 F 1 hybrid...

  15. Entry of diphtheria toxin into cells: possible existence of cellular factor(s) for entry of diphtheria toxin into cells was studied in somatic cell hybrids and hybrid toxins

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were found to be very insensitive to diphtheria toxin. We formed 37 hybrids from Ehrlich tumor cells and diphtheria toxin-sensitive human fibroblasts. The effects of diphtheria toxin on protein synthesis in those hybrids were examined. The hybrids were divided into three groups on the basis of toxin sensitivity. Group A hybrids were as sensitive to diphtheria toxin as human fibroblasts, Group C were as resistant as Ehrlich tumor cells, and Group B had intermediate ...

  16. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...... information to assist with making a diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Management includes ways to improve the physician–patient interaction that will benefit the patient, a step-care model based on illness severity and complexity, and psychological and pharmacologic treatment. The chapter is enhanced by...... figures and tables that summarize health anxiety, symptoms, differential diagnoses, and management strategies, as well as by case studies and examples....

  17. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. Ferri F. Somatization disorder. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor ...

  18. Somatic Embryogenesis in Chestnut

    OpenAIRE

    CORREDOIRA, E.; Ballester, A.; Viéitez Madriñán, Francisco Javier; Viéitez Martín, Ana María

    2005-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological tool that demonstrates significant benefits when applied to forest tree species; clonal propagation, cryostorage of valuable germoplasm and genetic transformation are among the most promising of its applications. In this chapter, the state of the art of somatic embryogenesis in chestnut (an important economical tree species of the genus Castanea) is assessed and discussed. The factors affecting the induction (type of explant, growth condi...

  19. Fusion of protoplasts with irradiated microprotoplasts as a tool for radiation hybrid panel in citrus Fusão de protoplastos com microprotoplastos irradiados como ferramenta para painel híbrido de radiação em citros

    OpenAIRE

    Claudine Maria de Bona; David Stelly; J. Creighton Miller Jr.; Eliezer Silva Louzada

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to combine asymmetric somatic hybridization (donor-recipient fusion or gamma fusion) to microprotoplast-mediated chromosome transfer, as a tool to be used for chromosome mapping in Citrus. Swinglea glutinosa microprotoplasts were irradiated either with 50, 70, 100 or 200 gamma rays and fused to cv. Ruby Red grapefruit or Murcott tangor protoplasts. Cell colonies were successfully formed and AFLP analyses confirmed presence of S. glutinosa in both 'Murcott' tango...

  20. Somatic cell genetic approaches to Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D; Jones, C; Scoggin, C; Miller, Y E; Graw, S

    1982-01-01

    Somatic cell genetic analysis of mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells with deficient purine synthesis and of hybrids between these mutants and human cells is described. Data are presented substantiating that two genes for enzymes of purine synthesis, AdeC and AdeG, can be coordinately regulated in mammalian cells. Analysis of a human-hamster hybrid cell, Ade C/21, which contains a normal complement of hamster chromosomes and human chromosome 21 as its only human genetic component recognizable by electrophoretic and immunogenetic techniques demonstrates that genes associated with the presence of human chromosome 21 and required for the synthesis of specific polypeptides and specific human lethal cell surface antigens can be detected in these hybrids. PMID:6217778

  1. cpSSR: a New Tool to Analyze Chloroplast Genome of Citrus Somatic Hybrids%叶绿体S S R标记:柑橘体细胞杂种胞质遗传分析的一种新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程运江; 郭文武; 邓秀新

    2003-01-01

    Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers in Citrus were developed and success-fully used to analyze chloroplast genome inheritance of Citrus somatic hybrids. Twenty-two previouslyreported cpSSR primer pairs from pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.) were tested in Citrus, nine of which could amplify intensive PCR products by agarose gelelectrophoresis. Chloroplast genome inheritance of Citrus somatic hybrids from nine fusions was thenanalyzed, and five of the nine pre-screened primer pairs showed polymorphisms by polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis. The results revealed the random inheritance nature of chloroplast genome in all analyzedCitrus somatic hybrids, which was in agreement with previous reports based on RFLP or CAPS analyses. Itwas also shown that cpSSR is a more efficient tool in chloroplast genome analyses of somatic hybrids inhigher plants, compared with the conventional RFLP or CAPS analyses.%从水稻(Oryza sativa L.)、烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)和黑松(Pinus thunbergiiParl.)等植物的22对叶绿体SSR引物中筛选出 5对能用于柑橘叶绿体SSR分析的引物,应用这5对引物对9个组合的柑橘体细胞杂种的叶绿体遗传进行了分析.结果表明:这些组合再生的杂种中叶绿体都呈现随机分离,该现象与以前报道的RFLP分析结果一致,而且其可靠性已被CAPS分析所证实.表明柑橘叶绿体SSR同RFLP及CAPS一样可靠,并且更简单高效、易于操作,特别适合对柑橘等植物体细胞杂种进行早期胞质遗传组成分析.

  2. Fusion of protoplasts with irradiated micro protoplasts as a tool for radiation hybrid panel in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to combine asymmetric somatic hybridization (donor-recipient fusion or gamma fusion) to microprotoplast-mediated chromosome transfer, as a tool to be used for chromosome mapping in Citrus. Swinglea glutinosa micro protoplasts were irradiated either with 50, 70, 100 or 200 gamma rays and fused to cv. Ruby Red grapefruit or Murcott tangor protoplasts. Cell colonies were successfully formed and AFLP analyses confirmed presence of S. glutinosa in both 'Murcott' tangor and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit genomes. (author)

  3. Somatic symptoms in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    Both painful and nonpainful somatic symptoms essentially characterize clinical states of depressive mood. So far, this well-established psychopathological knowledge has been appreciated only insufficiently by the official diagnostic sys-terms of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IVTR) and the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (ICD-10). From a perspective of primary ...

  4. 马铃薯体细胞杂种后代青枯病抗性鉴定及分子标记检测%Evaluation of Resistance and Associated Molecular Markers of Bacterial Wilt of Potato Somatic Hybrid Offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朋; 蔡兴奎; 陈琳; 柳俊

    2014-01-01

    马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum L.)青枯病是由茄科雷尔氏菌(Ralstonia solanacearum)引起的一种毁灭性的细菌性土传病害。马铃薯青枯病抗性资源主要存在于一些野生种中,体细胞杂交是创制马铃薯青枯病抗性资源的一种有效途径。本研究以具有对青枯病抗性的体细胞杂种与栽培种杂交产生的100个后代为材料,对其进行青枯病抗性评价,旨在筛选可供育种利用的青枯病抗性资源。青枯病抗性鉴定结果表明,在试管苗组培鉴定中100个杂交后代共有6个基因型表型抗青枯病,温室钵栽接种鉴定有8个基因型表现为抗病,在两种接种鉴定中均表现为抗病的有3个基因型(07SF.3-79、07SF.6-8和07SF.6-5)。选用本实验室前期筛选的与青枯病抗性相关的4对SSR标记引物(STI0051、STI0054、STI0056、STI0057),对100个基因型进行分子标记检测,结果显示,有3个标记(STI0051.180、STI0054.180、STI0056.205)可以明确鉴定抗感基因型,它们表现为抗病稳定的3个基因型的标记位点与抗病对照的带型一致,而在感病对照中缺失,与表型鉴定结果吻合,表明筛选的SSR标记可以用于具有S. chacoense遗传背景材料的青枯病抗性辅助选择。%Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal pathogen of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) bacterial wilt, is soil-borne and destructive for potato production. Somatic hybridization between S. tuberosum and wild relatives is an effective way to obtain germplasm possessing resistance to R. solanacearum. Evaluation of resistance to R. solanacearum on 100 progenies derived from somatic hybridization between S. tuberosum and wild relatives were conducted in this study to screen for germplasms that possess resistance to R. solanacearum and are relevant to breeding. The results showed that six clones exhibited resistance to the pathogen in vitro inoculation and eight clones performed resistance to the pathogen by

  5. Asymmetric collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of CP violation in beauty decay is one of the key challenges facing high energy physics. Much work has not yielded a definitive answer how this study might best be performed. However, one clear conclusion is that new accelerator facilities are needed. Proposals include experiments at asymmetric electron-positron colliders and in fixed-target and collider modes at LHC and SSC. Fixed-target and collider experiments at existing accelerators, while they might succeed in a first observation of the effect, will not be adequate to study it thoroughly. Giomataris has emphasized the potential of a new approach to the study of beauty CP violation: the asymmetric proton collider. Such a collider might be realized by the construction of a small storage ring intersecting an existing or soon-to-exist large synchrotron, or by arranging collisions between a large synchrotron and its injector. An experiment at such a collider can combine the advantages of fixed-target-like spectrometer geometry, facilitating triggering, particle identification and the instrumentation of a large acceptance, while the increased √s can provide a factor > 100 increase in beauty-production cross section compared to Tevatron or HERA fixed-target. Beams crossing at a non-zero angle can provide a small interaction region, permitting a first-level decay-vertex trigger to be implemented. To achieve large √s with a large Lorentz boost and high luminosity, the most favorable venue is the high-energy booster (HEB) at the SSC Laboratory, though the CERN SPS and Fermilab Tevatron are also worth considering

  6. Breaching the kinetic barrier to in vitro somatic stem cell propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Merok, Joshua R.; Sherley, James L.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Here we have reviewed the conventional definitions and fundamental characteristics of the two basic types of stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and somatic stem cells (SSCs). By taking into account the often-overlooked asymmetric cell kinetics of SSCs, we consider the evidence that should SSCs retain these growth kinetics in vitro, a natural kinetic barrier to SSC propagation exists. Recent discoveries showing that the tumor suppressor gene p53 can act as a regulator of asymmetr...

  7. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hülber, K.; Sonnleitner, M.; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, J.; Schönswetter, P.; Schneeweiss, G. M.; Winkler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2015), s. 1224-1234. ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gene flow * hybridization * polyploidy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2014

  8. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülber, Karl; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schönswetter, Peter; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Winkler, Manuela

    2015-03-01

    Areas of immediate contact of different cytotypes offer a unique opportunity to study evolutionary dynamics within heteroploid species and to assess isolation mechanisms governing coexistence of cytotypes of different ploidy. The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes, that is, the frequency of heteroploid crosses and subsequent formation of viable and (partly) fertile hybrids, plays a crucial role for the long-term integrity of lineages in contact zones. Here, we assessed fine-scale distribution, spatial clustering, and ecological niches as well as patterns of gene flow in parental and hybrid cytotypes in zones of immediate contact of di-, tetra-, and hexaploid Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps. Cytotypes were spatially separated also at the investigated microscale; the strongest spatial separation was observed for the fully interfertile tetra- and hexaploids. The three main cytotypes showed highly significant niche differences, which were, however, weaker than across their entire distribution ranges in the Eastern Alps. Individuals with intermediate ploidy levels were found neither in the diploid/tetraploid nor in the diploid/hexaploid contact zones indicating strong reproductive barriers. In contrast, pentaploid individuals were frequent in the tetraploid/hexaploid contact zone, albeit limited to a narrow strip in the immediate contact zone of their parental cytotypes. AFLP fingerprinting data revealed introgressive gene flow mediated by pentaploid hybrids from tetra- to hexaploid individuals, but not vice versa. The ecological niche of pentaploids differed significantly from that of tetraploids but not from hexaploids. PMID:25859328

  9. Embryonic hybrid cells: a powerful tool for studying pluripotency and reprogramming of the differentiated cell chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEROV OLEG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of embryonic hybrid cells obtained by fusion of embryonic stem (ES or teratocarcinoma (TC cells with differentiated cells are reviewed. Usually, ES-somatic or TC-somatic hybrids retain pluripotent capacity at high levels quite comparable or nearly identical with those of the pluripotent partner. When cultured in vitro, ES-somatic- and TC-somatic hybrid cell clones, as a rule, lose the chromosomes derived from the somatic partner; however, in some clones the autosomes from the ES cell partner were also eliminated, i.e. the parental chromosomes segregated bilaterally in the ES-somatic cell hybrids. This opens up ways for searching correlation between the pluripotent status of the hybrid cells and chromosome segregation patterns and therefore for identifying the particular chromosomes involved in the maintenance of pluripotency. Use of selective medium allows to isolate in vitro the clones of ES-somatic hybrid cells in which "the pluripotent" chromosome can be replaced by "the somatic" counterpart carrying the selectable gene. Unlike the TC-somatic cell hybrids, the ES-somatic hybrids with a near-diploid complement of chromosomes are able to contribute to various tissues of chimeric animals after injection into the blastocoel cavity. Analysis of the chimeric animals showed that the "somatic" chromosome undergoes reprogramming during development. The prospects for the identification of the chromosomes that are involved in the maintenance of pluripotency and its cis- and trans-regulation in the hybrid cell genome are discussed.

  10. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy

  11. Production of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sour Orange and Sweet Orange via Electrofusion for Creation of CTV-resistant%电融合获得用于选择抗CTV砧木的酸橙与甜橙体细胞杂种植株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继红; 邓秀新

    2001-01-01

    Leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange( Citrns aurantium L. ) were electrically fused with embry ogenic protoplasts of sweet orange ( C. sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti ) based on fusion parameters as previ ously reported. Forty plants have been obtained from fusion products. Chromosome counting showed that the plants were tetraploids with 36 chromosomes. The plants have thick petiole-winged leaves, indicative of the characteristics of polyploid. Two 10-bp random primers were utilized to identify the hybridity of the plants. Bands specific to fusion parents were detected in the amplification band patterns of the regenerated hybrid plants for the primers. Chromosome counting and RAPD analysis demonstrated that interspecific al lotetraploid somatic hybrid plants have been success fully recovered between sour orange and sweet orange.The regeneration of the somatic hybrid plants between sour orange and sweet orange provides good experimental materials for selecting novel rootstock possessing superior traits of sour orange coupled with CTV resistance.%在已知参数条件下,通过电场诱导酸橙(Citrus aurantium L.)叶肉原生质体和沙漠蒂甜橙(C.sinensis Osbeck cv.Shamouti)的胚性愈伤组织原生质体融合,融合产物经培养再生出40棵植株.染色体检查表明所得到的植株具有36条染色体,为四倍体植株.再生植株具有翼叶,叶片厚,表现出多倍体的特征.采用2个10-碱基随机引物鉴别再生植株的杂种特性.在2个引物的扩增带型中,再生植株的随机扩增带图里出现了融合亲本的特征带.对再生植株染色体计数和RAPD分析的结果表明它们是酸橙和甜橙种间异源四倍体体细胞杂种植株.这些体细胞杂种植株的获得为选择具有酸橙优良性状、同时抗CTV的新型砧木提供了好的试材.

  12. Population coding of somatic sensations

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Qiufu

    2012-01-01

    The somatic sensory system includes a variety of sensory modalities, such as touch, pain, itch, and temperature sensitivity. The coding of these modalities appears to be best explained by the population-coding theory, which is composed of the following features. First, an individual somatic sensory afferent is connected with a specific neural circuit or network (for simplicity, a sensory-labeled line), whose isolated activation is sufficient to generate one specific sensation under normal con...

  13. Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 μM. (Author)

  14. Desiccation tolerance of somatic embryoids.

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteroo, F.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the research performed on the subject "Desiccation tolerance in somatic embryoids". Somatic embryoids are bipolar structures formed in tissue culture, with both a shoot and a root apex, which resemble very much zygotic embryos found in seeds. Through simultaneous development of root and shoot, these embryoids can grow out into complete plantlets.In Chapter 2 we describe an optimized method to produce completely desiccation tolerant carrot ( Daucus carota ) embryoids. Usi...

  15. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  16. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germination and that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol of regeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculated on WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D (22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture medium containing NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction (8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein and the development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promoted in WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containing hydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. During the maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages. The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histological studies.

  17. Concise Review: Asymmetric Cell Divisions in Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Murke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic stem cells are rare cells with unique properties residing in many organs and tissues. They are undifferentiated cells responsible for tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and contain both the capacity to self-renew in order to maintain their stem cell potential and to differentiate towards tissue-specific, specialized cells. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms controlling somatic stem cell fate decisions remains sparse. One mechanism which has been described to control daughter cell fates in selected somatic stem cell systems is the process of asymmetric cell division (ACD. ACD is a tightly regulated and evolutionary conserved process allowing a single stem or progenitor cell to produce two differently specified daughter cells. In this concise review, we will summarize and discuss current concepts about the process of ACD as well as different ACD modes. Finally, we will recapitulate the current knowledge and our recent findings about ACD in human hematopoiesis.

  18. Fusion of protoplasts with irradiated micro protoplasts as a tool for radiation hybrid panel in citrus;Fusao de protoplastos com microprotoplastos irradiados como ferramenta para painel hibrido de radiacao em citros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de, E-mail: debona@iapar.b [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Administrativo do Governo do Estado; Stelly, David, E-mail: stelly@tamu.ed [Texas A and M University (Tamu), College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Miller Junior, J. Creighton, E-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.ed [Texas A and M University (Tamu), College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences; Louzada, Eliezer Silva, E-mail: elouzada@ag.tamu.ed [Texas A and M University, (Tamuk), Weslaco, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this work was to combine asymmetric somatic hybridization (donor-recipient fusion or gamma fusion) to microprotoplast-mediated chromosome transfer, as a tool to be used for chromosome mapping in Citrus. Swinglea glutinosa micro protoplasts were irradiated either with 50, 70, 100 or 200 gamma rays and fused to cv. Ruby Red grapefruit or Murcott tangor protoplasts. Cell colonies were successfully formed and AFLP analyses confirmed presence of S. glutinosa in both 'Murcott' tangor and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit genomes. (author)

  19. Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle repositioning

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jun; Tiyaboonchai, Amita; Yamashita, Yukiko M.; Hunt, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Many stem cells divide asymmetrically to balance self-renewal and differentiation. In Drosophila testes, two stem cell populations, germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs), cohere and regulate one another. Here, we report that CySCs divide asymmetrically through repositioning the mitotic spindle around anaphase. CySC spindle repositioning requires functional centrosomes, Dynein and the actin-membrane linker Moesin. Anaphase spindle repositioning is required to achieve h...

  20. Somatic disease and psychological disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The association between physical and psychological disorders has been demonstrated repeatedly. There are a number of explanations for this association, each of them pointing to specific diseases and operationalizions of mental distress. In this article, the relationship between various somatic disea

  1. [Somatic trends in Moscow children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, T K

    2008-01-01

    Somatic trends was considered in Moscow children in a wide age range of 3 to 17 years, by attracting several series of data since the 1990s. To have the greater informative value in data analyses, investigators use the normalized rather than absolute values of various anthropometric signs in the considered data series versus the 2005 data in the age range of 3 to 7 years and versus the 1980s data in the range of 8 to 17 years. The overall somatic tendency in Moscow children aged 3 to 17 years in past decades is towards a transverse body development and some dolichomorphism with a continuous increase in longitudinal skeletal sizes. These processes are most pronounced in girls than in boys and preschool children than in school ones. The stronger somatic trend in preschool children can be associated with that they are, as compared with schoolchildren, neophytes in the compact anthropogenic space and have been, in the past decades, involved in the neurogenic growth stimulators world (a computer and computer games, unlimited TV seeing, inevitable intensive preparation for new-generation schools--increased intellectual-load lyceums and colleges). The decreased transverse body development and overall constitution asthenization seem to result from somatic muscular component abatement with no clear trends in adipopexis in schoolchildren and with an increase in subcutaneous fat deposition in preschool children. PMID:18507175

  2. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness – a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 we...

  3. Other somatic and fetal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the evidence for fetal and other radiation-induced somatic effects. The following studies are included: human epidemiological studies of cancer in childhood following exposure in utero; animal and human studies of the effects on growth and development; life-shortening studies in laboratory animals; cataracts of the human eye lens; radiosensitivity of germinal cells of the mammalian testis and ovary. 85 ref

  4. The Asymmetric Leximin Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Driesen, Bram W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define and characterize a class of asymmetric leximin solutions, that contains both the symmetric leximin solution of Imai[5] and the two-person asymmetric Kalai-Smorodinsky solution of Dubra [3] as special cases. Solutions in this class combine three attractive features: they are defined on the entire domain of convex n-person bargaining problems, they generally yield Pareto efficient solution outcomes, and asymmetries among bargainers are captured by a single parameter ve...

  5. Asymmetric WIMP dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Graesser, Michael L.; Shoemaker, Ian M.; Vecchi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    In existing dark matter models with global symmetries the relic abundance of dark matter is either equal to that of anti-dark matter (thermal WIMP), or vastly larger, with essentially no remaining anti-dark matter (asymmetric dark matter). By exploring the consequences of a primordial asymmetry on the coupled dark matter and anti-dark matter Boltzmann equations we find large regions of parameter space that interpolate between these two extremes. Interestingly, this new asymmetric WIMP framewo...

  6. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Susanna L.; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M. C.; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R; Tarpey, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotransp...

  7. Panic attacks simulate presence of somatic illnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Latas Milan; Soldatović Ivan; Stamenović Marko; Starčević Vladan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Panic attacks are characterized with sudden attacks of anxiety with numerous somatic symptoms, such as palpitations, tachycardia, tachypnea, nausea, vertigo. The objective of this study was to analyze symptoms of panic attacks in patients with panic disorder, especially, to determine the specific relationship of somatic and neurological symptoms of panic attacks in boundaries of somatic systems. Material and methods. The study sample consisted of 97 patients with primary diagnos...

  8. DNA-based hybrid catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphe

  9. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  10. Population coding of somatic sensations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiufu Ma

    2012-01-01

    The somatic sensory system includes a variety of sensory modalities,such as touch,pain,itch,and temperature sensitivity.The coding of these modalities appears to be best explained by the population-coding theory,which is composed of the following features.First,an individual somatic sensory afferent is connected with a specific neural circuit or network (for simplicity,a sensory-labeled line),whose isolated activation is sufficient to generate one specific sensation under normal conditions.Second,labeled lines are interconnected through local excitatory and inhibitory interneurons.As a result,activation of one labeled line could modulate,or provide gate control of,another labeled line.Third,most sensory fibers are polymodal,such that a given stimulus placed onto the skin often activates two or multiple sensory-labeled lines;crosstalk among them is needed to generate one dominant sensation.Fourth and under pathological conditions,a disruption of the antagonistic interaction among labeled lines could open normally masked neuronal pathways,and allow a given sensory stimulus to evoke a new sensation,such as pain evoked by innocuous mechanical or thermal stimuli and itch evoked by painful stimuli.As a result of this,some sensory fibers operate along distinct labeled lines under normal versus pathological conditions.Thus,a better understanding of the neural network underlying labeled line crosstalk may provide new strategies to treat chronic pain and itch.

  11. Asymmetric Reprogramming Capacity of Parental Pronuclei in Mouse Zygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that reprogramming factors are sequestered in the pronuclei of zygotes after fertilization, because zygotes enucleated at the M phase instead of interphase of the first mitosis can support the development of cloned embryos. However, the contribution of the parental pronucleus derived from either the sperm or the oocyte in reprogramming remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the parental pronuclei have asymmetric reprogramming capacities and that the reprogramming factors reside predominantly in the male pronucleus. As a result, only female pronucleus-depleted (FPD mouse zygotes can reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state and support the full-term development of cloned embryos; male pronucleus-depleted (MPD zygotes fail to support somatic cell reprogramming. We further demonstrate that fusion of an additional male pronucleus into a zygote greatly enhances reprogramming efficiency. Our data provide a clue to further identify critical reprogramming factors in the male pronucleus.

  12. RHO—Radiation Hybrid Ordering

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Dor, Amir; Chor, Benny; Pelleg, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping is a somatic cell technique that is used for ordering markers along a chromosome and estimating the physical distances between them. With the advent of this mapping technique, analyzing the experimental data is becoming a challenging and demanding computational task. In this paper we present the software package RHO (radiation hybrid ordering). The package implements a number of heuristics that attempt to order genomic markers along a chromosome, given as input t...

  13. Depression, Life Events and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzini, Renzo; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between somatic symptoms, depression, and life events (health status, function, social satisfaction, income) in a population of 1,201 elderly persons living at home. Found depression was the most important factor in the appearance of somatic complaints; however, life events were important cofactors in defining…

  14. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  15. Asymmetric ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs

  16. Somatic embryogenesis and peroxidase activity of desiccation toler-ant mature somatic embryos of loblolly pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    White, translucent, glossy mucilaginous callus was initiated from the mature zygotic embryos explants on callus induction medium with 2,4-D, BA, and kinetin in the 3-9th week of culture. This type of callus induction occurred at a lower frequency with either a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or IBA (both 8 mg/L). White, translucent, glossy mucilaginous callus was embryogenic and mainly developed from the cotyledons of the mature zygotic embryo. Somatic embryos were formed on differentiation medium. Desiccation tolerance can be induced by culturing somatic embryos of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on medium supplemented with 50 mm abscisic acid (ABA) and/or 8.5% polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Scanning electron microscopy of desiccated somatic embryos showed that the size and external morphology of the desiccation tolerant somatic embryos recov-ered to the pre-desiccation state within 24-36 h, whereas the sensitive somatic embryos did not recover and remained shriveled, after the desiccated somatic embryos had been rehydrated. Peroxidase activity of desiccated somatic embryos increased shar-ply after 3 days of desiccation treatment, and desiccation tolerant somatic embryos had higher peroxidase activity compared to sensitive somatic embryos. Higher peroxidase activity of desiccation tolerant somatic embryos was possibly advantage of cata-lyzing the reduction of H2O2 which was produced by drought stress, and protecting somatic embryos from oxidative damage.

  17. Plasmon coupling of magnetic resonances in an asymmetric gold semishell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Kong, Yan; Liu, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The generation of magnetic dipole resonances in metallic nanostructures is of great importance for constructing near-zero or even negative refractive index metamaterials. Commonly, planar two-dimensional (2D) split-ring resonators or relevant structures are basic elements of metamaterials. In this work, we introduce a three-dimensional (3D) asymmetric Au semishell composed of two nanocups with a face-to-face geometry and demonstrate two distinct magnetic resonances spontaneously in the visible–near infrared optical wavelength regime. These two magnetic resonances are from constructive and destructive hybridization of magnetic dipoles of individual nanocups in the asymmetric semishell. In contrast, complete cancellation of magnetic dipoles in the symmetric semishell leads to only a pronounced electric mode with near-zero magnetic dipole moment. These 3D asymmetric resonators provide new ways for engineering hybrid resonant modes and ultra-high near-field enhancement for the design of 3D metamaterials.

  18. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yin Mak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed.

  19. [Somatization disorder - an overdiagnosed but underestimated illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Juha T; Läksy, Kristian; Räsänen, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Physical symptoms often occur in the absence of physical illness. This is termed somatization when the symptoms are caused by psychic factors. When abundant symptoms affect the functional capacity and cause subjective harm and seeking healthcare services, a psychic disorder may be in question. Somatization may be associated with numerous psychic disorders. It may, however, also be a question of a somatoform disorder having a physical symptom picture. Somatization disorder is one of the somatoform disorders. Recognition of the disorder is often the problem in its treatment. Establishing a long-term treatment relationship actually forms the basis for therapy. PMID:26951025

  20. Asymmetric information and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an expression of the economic concept of asymmetric information with which it is possible to derive the dynamical laws of an economy. To illustrate the utility of this approach we show how the assumption of optimal information flow leads to a general class of investment strategies including the well-known Q theory of Tobin. Novel consequences of this formalism include a natural definition of market efficiency and an uncertainty principle relating capital stock and investment flow.

  1. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    were pioneered by Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder who discovered what later became known as the Diels Alder reaction. The Diels Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition in which a π4 component reacts with a π2 component via a cyclic transition state to generate a 6 membered ring. This reaction...... reactions constitute the first organocatalytic asymmetric higher order cycloadditions and a rational for the periselectivity and stereoselectivity is provided based on experimental and computational investigations....

  2. Daz- and pumilio-like genes are asymmetrically localized in Pelophylax (Rana) oocytes and are expressed during early spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marracci, Silvia; Michelotti, Valentina; Casola, Claudio; Giacoma, Cristina; Ragghianti, Matilde

    2011-07-15

    In many organisms, the specification of cell fate and the formation of embryonic axes depend on a proper distribution of maternal mRNAs during oogenesis. Asymmetrically localized determinants are required both for embryonic axes and germline determination in anuran amphibians. As a model system of these processes, we have used a species complex of the genus Pelophylax (Rana), characterized by a hybridogenetic reproduction that involves events of genome exclusion and endoreduplication during meiosis in both sexes. With the aim of characterizing the still largely unknown molecular events regulating Pelophylax gametogenesis, we have isolated in this animal model homologues of the deleted in AZoospermia-like (DAZl) and pumilio gene families (named RlDazl and RlPum1, respectively), which encode posttranscriptional regulators. Expression pattern analysis of these genes showed that RlDazl is exclusively expressed in gonadal tissues, whereas RlPum1 is expressed in both somatic tissues and gonads. In situ hybridization carried out on gonads revealed that the two transcripts were asymmetrically localized along the animal-vegetal (A-V) axis of oocytes. In particular, the RlDazl transcript progressively collected to the vegetal pole during oogenesis, whereas the RlPum1 mRNA was preferentially enriched at the animal hemisphere. In adult testes, RlDazl and RlPum1 were expressed in specific phases of spermatogenetic divisions as shown by immunostaining with anti-H3 phosphohistone antibody. Our results indicate that RlDazl and RlPum1 represent two early indicators of oocyte polarity in this hybridogenetic vertebrate model. Additionally, RlDazl share with vertebrate DAZ- like genes a germ cell-specific expression pattern. PMID:21344644

  3. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers' overall well-being. PMID:25328542

  4. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  5. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326

  6. Somatic Embryogenesis in Lisianthus (Eustoma russellianum Griseb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoni, Barbara; Bassolino, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is, for the main floricultural crops, a promising system for commercial scale-up, providing cloned material to be traded as seedlings. Somatic embryos, having the contemporary presence of root apical meristem and shoot apical meristem, can be readily acclimatized. For Lisianthus it is possible to induce embryogenic callus from leaf fragments of selected genotypes and to obtain embryos either in agarized substrate or in liquid suspension culture. The production of somatic embryos in liquid medium is high and can be modulated in order to synchronize the cycle and the size of the neoformed structures. The possibility to use the liquid substrate with high propagation rates reduces labor costs and could support the costs of eventual automation. In this paper we report a stepwise protocol for somatic embryogenesis in the species Eustoma russellianum. PMID:26619872

  7. Somatic amplifications and deletions in genome of papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passon, Nadia; Bregant, Elisa; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Dima, Maria; Rosignolo, Francesca; Durante, Cosimo; Celano, Marilena; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Somatic gene copy number variation contributes to tumor progression. Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array, the presence of genomic imbalances was evaluated in a series of 27 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). To detect only somatic imbalances, for each sample, the reference DNA was from normal thyroid tissue of the same patient. The presence of the BRAF V600E mutation was also evaluated. Both amplifications and deletions showed an uneven distribution along the entire PTC cohort; amplifications were more frequent than deletions (mean values of 17.5 and 7.2, respectively). Number of aberration events was not even among samples, the majority of them occurring only in a small fraction of PTCs. Most frequent amplifications were detected at regions 2q35, 4q26, and 4q34.1, containing FN1, PDE5A, and GALNTL6 genes, respectively. Most frequent deletions occurred at regions 6q25.2, containing OPMR1 and IPCEF1 genes and 7q14.2, containing AOAH and ELMO1 genes. Amplification of FN1 and PDE5A genomic regions was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Frequency of amplifications and deletions was in relationship with clinical features and BRAF mutation status of tumor. In fact, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk classification, amplifications are more frequent in higher risk samples, while deletions tend to prevail in the lower risk tumors. Analysis of single aberrations according to the ATA risk grouping shows that amplifications containing PDE5A, GALNTL6, DHRS3, and DOCK9 genes are significantly more frequent in the intermediate/high risk group than in the low risk group. Thus, our data would indicate that analysis of somatic genome aberrations by CGH array can be useful to identify additional prognostic variables. PMID:25863487

  8. Stress and Somatic Complaints in Low-Income Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Linda K.; O'Koon, Jeffrey H.; Papademetriou, Eros; Szczygiel, Sylvia; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2001-01-01

    Studied rates of somatic complaints and the association between stress and somatic complaints for 1,030 low-income urban adolescents in grades 6 through 8. For both boys and girls, somatization was the most commonly reported internalizing symptom, and heightened rates of urban stress predicted heightened rates of somatic complaints. (SLD)

  9. Somatic surveillance: corporeal control through information networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monahan, Torin; Wall, Tyler

    2007-01-01

    Somatic surveillance is the increasingly invasive technological monitoring of and intervention into body functions. Within this type of surveillance regime, bodies are recast as nodes on vast information networks, enabling corporeal control through remote network commands, automated responses, or self-management practices. In this paper, we investigate three developments in somatic surveillance: nanotechnology systems for soldiers on the battlefield, commercial body-monitoring systems for hea...

  10. Human somatic cell mutagenesis creates genetically tractable sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Sam D; Waterhouse, Paul D; Shelton, Dawne; Shao, Yang W; Watling, Christopher M; Tang, Qing-Lian; Harris, Isaac S; Dickson, Brendan C; Tharmapalan, Pirashaanthy; Sandve, Geir K; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Bailey, Swneke D; Berman, Hal; Wunder, Jay S; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Iszvak, Zsuzsanna; Lupien, Mathieu; Mak, Tak W; Khokha, Rama

    2014-09-01

    Creating spontaneous yet genetically tractable human tumors from normal cells presents a fundamental challenge. Here we combined retroviral and transposon insertional mutagenesis to enable cancer gene discovery starting with human primary cells. We used lentiviruses to seed gain- and loss-of-function gene disruption elements, which were further deployed by Sleeping Beauty transposons throughout the genome of human bone explant mesenchymal cells. De novo tumors generated rapidly in this context were high-grade myxofibrosarcomas. Tumor insertion sites were enriched in recurrent somatic copy-number aberration regions from multiple cancer types and could be used to pinpoint new driver genes that sustain somatic alterations in patients. We identified HDLBP, which encodes the RNA-binding protein vigilin, as a candidate tumor suppressor deleted at 2q37.3 in greater than one out of ten tumors across multiple tissues of origin. Hybrid viral-transposon systems may accelerate the functional annotation of cancer genomes by enabling insertional mutagenesis screens in higher eukaryotes that are not amenable to germline transgenesis. PMID:25129143

  11. Somatic cell genetics approach to dissecting mammalian DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article examines the application of the methods and concepts of somatic cell genetics to the study of DNA repair. The first steps of this approach involve classical procedures of mutant isolation, complementation analysis, and mapping of genes using hybrid cells. Subsequent steps utilize the techniques of DNA-mediated gene transfer and methodologies of the recombinant DNA field. Several human repair genes have been cloned, but they have not been used to overproduce proteins thus far. This article highlights the more important developments and attempts to review in detail all of the isolated mutant cell lines that may be altered in the repair processes. Faster methods of gene cloning are greatly needed because the procedures for making secondary transformants from total genomic DNA are tedious

  12. The effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction somatic embryogenesis of hybird tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient tissue culture system is important for transformation of important genes in hybrid tomato cultivars. The present study was undertaken to develop an efficient tissue culture system for hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86. The young primary leaves and stems were inoculated into five different MS media having different concentrations of plant growth regulators in different combinations for callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and for both direct and indirect regeneration. Maximum callus induction frequency 90 percentage was achieved with MS media containing 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. The direct somatic embryogenesis was found highest on MS media supplemented with 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. Maximum indirect regeneration frequency 87 percentage was achieved from primary leaves explants with MS media containing IAA 0.5 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1 and highest direct regeneration frequency 77% was obtained from primary leaves explants with MS media containing NAA 1 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1. The high concentration of 2,4-D increased callus induction and somatic embryogenesis frequencies while the high concentration of BAP increased regeneration frequency. An improved tissue culture system of hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86 was established and it may be recommended for further transformation experiments. (author)

  13. Root and shoot growth of Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana somatic plants is influenced by the nitrogen composition of the germination medium

    OpenAIRE

    Llebres, M.T.; Pascual, M.B.; Cánovas, Francisco M.; Ávila, Concepción; Klimaszewska K

    2013-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) in conifers has proven to be an useful biotechnological tool for species conservation and mass propagation, but to make it commercially viable, adaptive research is required to convert laboratory protocols into plantation reality. Hybrid white pines are of interest to forest industry in North America due to the potential resistance to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Somatic embryos of many pine species are typically germinated on the sa...

  14. Facilitated Asymmetric Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Alan; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a class of facilitated asymmetric exclusion processes in which particles are pushed by neighbors from behind. For the simplest version in which a particle can hop to its vacant right neighbor only if its left neighbor is occupied, we determine the steady state current and the distribution of cluster sizes on a ring. We show that an initial density downstep develops into a rarefaction wave that can have a jump discontinuity at the leading edge, while an upstep results in a shock w...

  15. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  16. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p')-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities px, py and pz. The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√px, √py, √pz) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  17. Asymmetric inclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  18. Panic attacks simulate presence of somatic illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latas Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Panic attacks are characterized with sudden attacks of anxiety with numerous somatic symptoms, such as palpitations, tachycardia, tachypnea, nausea, vertigo. The objective of this study was to analyze symptoms of panic attacks in patients with panic disorder, especially, to determine the specific relationship of somatic and neurological symptoms of panic attacks in boundaries of somatic systems. Material and methods. The study sample consisted of 97 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder, without any acute, severe and unstable somatic illness. The presence and frequency of symptoms of panic attacks were estimated by the Panic Disorder Questionnaire. Results. The study results indicate that the most frequent symptoms of panic attacks were cardiological signs (heart pounding or racing and trembling, followed by unsteady and fainting feeling symptoms, sweating, respiratory symptoms and gastroenterological symptoms. The results of correlation analyses indicate that symptoms of panic attacks classified into cardio-vascular, gastro-enterological, respiratory and neuro-otological systems show statistically significant correlations. Conclusion. The results of analyses of symptoms of panic attacks point to their intercorrelation. This specific association of the symptoms, if they are examined on their own in the patients, could lead to false clinical manifestation of some somatic illness. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze adequately and make the proper differential diagnosis of patients with panic disorder.

  19. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles. PMID:24441368

  20. Regulation of somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). A molecular approach to the characterization of specific developmental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabala, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1998-12-31

    Embryo development is a complex process involving a set of strictly regulated events. The regulation of these events is poorly understood especially during the early stages of embryo development. Somatic embryos go through the same developmental stages as zygotic embryos making them an ideal model system for studying the regulation of embryo development. We have used embryogenic cultures of Picea abies to study some aspects of the regulation of embryo development in gymnosperms. The bottle neck during somatic embryogenesis is the switch from the proliferation stage to the maturation stage. This switch is initiated by giving somatic embryos a maturation treatment i.e. the embryos are treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Somatic embryos which respond to ABA by forming mature somatic embryos were stimulated to secret a 70 kDa protein, AF70. The af70 gene was isolated and characterised. The expression of the af70 gene was constitutive in embryos but was highly ABA-induced in seedlings. Moreover, expression of this gene was stimulated during cold acclimation of Picea abies seedlings. A full length Picea abies cDNA clone Pa18, encoding a protein with the characteristics of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), was isolated and characterised. The Pa18 gene is constitutively expressed in embryogenic cultures of Picea abies representing different stages of development as well as in nonembryogenic callus and seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that Pa18 gene is expressed in all embryonic cells of proliferating somatic embryos but the expression of the gene in mature somatic and zygotic embryos is restricted to the outer cell layer. Southern blot analysis at different stringencies was consistent with a single gene. An alteration in expression of Pa18 causes disturbance in the formation of the proper outer cell layer in the maturing somatic embryos. In addition to its influence on embryo development the Pa18 gene product also inhibits growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 195

  1. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  2. Somatic Embryogenesis in Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevindik, Basar; Mendi, Yesim Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important species in Crocus genus because of its effective usage. It is not only a very expensive spice, but it has also a big ornamental plant potential. Crocus species are propagated by corm and seed, and male sterility is the most important problem of this species. Hence, somatic embryogenesis can be regarded as a strategic tool for the multiplication of saffron plants. In this chapter, the production of saffron corms via somatic embryogenesis is described. PMID:26619871

  3. Engineered Asymmetric Synthetic Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Chiarot, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic vesicles are small, fluid-filled spheres that are enclosed by a bilayer of lipid molecules. They can be used as models for investigating membrane biology and as delivery vehicles for pharmaceuticals. In practice, it is difficult to simultaneously control membrane asymmetry, unilamellarity, vesicle size, vesicle-to-vesicle uniformity, and luminal content. Membrane asymmetry, where each leaflet of the bilayer is composed of different lipids, is of particular importance as it is a feature of most natural membranes. In this study, we leverage microfluidic technology to build asymmetric vesicles at high-throughput. We use the precise flow control offered by microfluidic devices to make highly uniform emulsions, with controlled internal content, that serve as templates to build the synthetic vesicles. Flow focusing, dielectrophoretic steering, and interfacial lipid self-assembly are critical procedures performed on-chip to produce the vesicles. Fluorescent and confocal microscopy are used to evaluate the vesicle characteristics.

  4. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  5. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC

  6. Organizing for Asymmetric Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr; Sørensen, Henrik B.

    meet each other. On the contrary, we assume that asymmetry is both important and normal; moreover, asymmetry should be considered to be more complex than economists indicate with their concept of asymmetric information. Thus, the aim of the paper is to explore how asymmetries related to partners......  The vision of new organizational forms consists of less-organized networks and alliances between organizations, in which collaborative capabilities are assumed to be crucial (Miles et al., 2005). The path to such new forms may go through fragile cooperative efforts. Despite the good will of many......' different motives and different situational factors appear in an interorganizational setting. We classify interfaces according to the symmetry/asymmetry in the respective parent organizations' resources, commitment, and control of representatives and indicate how  classification schemes can be used to...

  7. Annihilating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Nicole F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    The relic abundance of particle and antiparticle dark matter (DM) need not be vastly different in thermal asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models. By considering the effect of a primordial asymmetry on the thermal Boltzmann evolution of coupled DM and anti-DM, we derive the requisite annihilation cross section. This is used in conjunction with CMB and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data to impose a limit on the number density of anti-DM particles surviving thermal freeze-out. When the extended gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center is reanalyzed in a thermal ADM framework, we find that annihilation into $\\tau$ leptons prefer anti-DM number densities 1-4$\\%$ that of DM while the $b$-quark channel prefers 50-100$\\%$.

  8. Origins and functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Young Seok; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Gerstung, Moritz; Martincorena, Inigo; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Davies, Helen R; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Gundem, Gunes; Shlien, Adam; Bolli, Niccolo; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Nangalia, Jyoti; Massie, Charles E; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Vassiliou, George S; Green, Anthony R; Du, Ming-Qing; Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Pimanda, John E; Teh, Bin Tean; Munshi, Nikhil; Greaves, Mel; Vyas, Paresh; El-Naggar, Adel K; Santarius, Tom; Collins, V Peter; Grundy, Richard; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, D Neil; Malkin, David; Foster, Christopher S; Warren, Anne Y; Whitaker, Hayley C; Brewer, Daniel; Eeles, Rosalind; Cooper, Colin; Neal, David; Visakorpi, Tapio; Isaacs, William B; Bova, G Steven; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Futreal, P Andrew; Lynch, Andy G; Chinnery, Patrick F; McDermott, Ultan; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Recent sequencing studies have extensively explored the somatic alterations present in the nuclear genomes of cancers. Although mitochondria control energy metabolism and apoptosis, the origins and impact of cancer-associated mutations in mtDNA are unclear. In this study, we analyzed somatic alterations in mtDNA from 1675 tumors. We identified 1907 somatic substitutions, which exhibited dramatic replicative strand bias, predominantly C > T and A > G on the mitochondrial heavy strand. This strand-asymmetric signature differs from those found in nuclear cancer genomes but matches the inferred germline process shaping primate mtDNA sequence content. A number of mtDNA mutations showed considerable heterogeneity across tumor types. Missense mutations were selectively neutral and often gradually drifted towards homoplasmy over time. In contrast, mutations resulting in protein truncation undergo negative selection and were almost exclusively heteroplasmic. Our findings indicate that the endogenous mutational mechanism has far greater impact than any other external mutagens in mitochondria and is fundamentally linked to mtDNA replication. PMID:25271376

  9. Asymmetric Parton Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Applications of perturbative QCD to hard exclusive electroproduction processes in the Bjorken limit at small invariant momentum transfer t bring in a new type of parton distributions which have hybrid properties, resembling both the parton distribution functions and the distribution amplitudes. Their t-dependence is analogous to that of hadronic form factors. We discuss general properties of these new parton distributions, their relation to usual parton densities and the evolution equations which they satisfy.

  10. China Succeeded in Somatic Cell Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jianlan

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chinese scientists have succeeded in cloning a colony of cattle from fully differentiated somatic cells. The news was announced jointly by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the government of Shandong Province at a press conference held on March 7, 2002.

  11. Sexual Abuse: Somatic and Emotional Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimza, Mary Ellen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Chart reviews and telephone interviews with 72 sexual abuse victims found that 48 of the children had symptoms similar to the "rape trauma" syndrome. Two-thirds of victims commonly had somatic complaints (such as abdominal pain) and emotional/behavioral problems (runaway behavior, suicide attempts). (DB)

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis in Lily Bulb Scale Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shasha; WANG Jingang; FAN Jinping; CHE Daidi

    2008-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from lily bulb scales has not been studied in details, although tissue culture methods have been applied to the propagation for decades. The effects of different kinds and concentration of auxins for oriental lily somatic embryogenesis were investigated (Lilium hybrida car. Sorbonne).2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), thidiazuron (TDZ) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) media with benzyladenine(6-BA) and lactalbumin hydrolysate (LH) were used for embryogenic callus in the darkness. The best response onembryogenic callus formation was obtained on MS media supplemented 2, 4-D 2.0 mg·L-1,6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1 and LH 300 mg·L-1. Transfer embryogenic callus to the media with TDZ, 6-BA, kinetin (KT) supplemented 2, 4-D. The highest number of somatic embryos has been produced on medium with 0.5 mg.L-1 2, 4-D and 0.3 mg·L-1 KT. Germinated embryos with shoot axes were changed to MS media with 6-BA 0.5 mg· L-1. The results suggest that in vitro culture of somatic embryogenesis from lily bulb scales can be used for plant regeneration.

  13. Depression, disability and somatic diseases among elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dekker, Janny; De Waal, M.W.M.; Van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Comijs, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Depression among older adults is associated with both disability and somatic disease. We aimed to further understand this complicated relationship and to study the possible modifying effect of increasing age. Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Outpatient and inpatient clinics of reg

  14. Checkpoint kinase 1 negatively regulates somatic hypermutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, Samantha; Davari, Kathrin; Fischer-Burkart, Sabine; Böttcher, Katrin; Tomi, Nils-Sebastian; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Jungnickel, Berit

    2014-04-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification by somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells is instrumental for maturation of the humoral immune response, but also bears the risk of excessive or aberrant genetic changes. Thus, introduction of DNA damage by activation-induced cytidine deaminase as well as DNA repair by multiple pathways need to be tightly regulated during the germinal center response to prevent lymphomagenesis. In the present study, we show that DNA damage checkpoint signaling via checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) negatively regulates somatic hypermutation. Chk1 inhibition in human B cell lymphoma lines as well as inactivation of Chk1 alleles by gene targeting in DT40 B cells leads to increased somatic hypermutation. This is apparently due to changes in DNA repair pathways regulated by Chk1, such as a decreased homologous recombination efficiency that also leads to decreased Ig gene conversion in DT40. Our data show that Chk1 signaling plays a crucial role in regulation of Ig diversification and sheds unexpected light on potential origins of aberrant somatic hypermutation in B cell lymphomagenesis. PMID:24423870

  15. Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas L.(Lam)l. Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryo-genesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants. They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  16. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  17. Links among emotional awareness, somatic awareness and autonomic homeostatic processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Emotional awareness and somatic interoceptive awareness are essential processes for human psychosomatic health. A typical trait of lacking emotional awareness related to psychosomatic symptoms is alexithymia. In contrast, alexisomia refers to the trait of lacking somatic awareness. Links between emotional and somatic awareness and homeostatic processing are also significant for the psychosomatic health. The purpose of the present paper is to review the links among emotional awareness, somatic...

  18. The Importance of Somatic Symptoms in Depression in Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Tylee, André; Gandhi, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Patients with depression present with psychological and somatic symptoms, including general aches and pains. In primary care, somatic symptoms often dominate. A review of the literature was conducted to ascertain the importance of somatic symptoms in depression in primary care.

  19. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  20. Reprogramming of Xist against the pluripotent state in fusion hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jeong Tae; Han, Dong Wook; Gentile, Luca; Sobek-Klocke, Ingeborg; Wutz, Anton; Schöler, Hans R

    2009-11-15

    The fusion of somatic cells with pluripotent cells results in the generation of pluripotent hybrid cells. Because the ;memory' of somatic cells seems to be erased during fusion-induced reprogramming, genetic reprogramming is thought to be a largely unidirectional process. Here we show that fusion-induced reprogramming, which brings about the formation of pluripotent hybrids, does not always follow a unidirectional route. Xist is a unique gene in that it is reprogrammed to the state of somatic cells in fusion-induced pluripotent hybrids. In hybrids formed from the cell fusion of embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs) with male neural stem cells (mNSCs), the Xist gene was found to be reprogrammed to the somatic cell state, whereas the pluripotency-related and tissue-specific marker genes were reprogrammed to the pluripotent cell state. Specifically, Xist is not expressed in hybrids, because the ;memory' of the somatic cell has been retained (i.e. mNSCs do not exhibit Xist expression) and that of the pluripotent cell erased (i.e. inactivation of the partially active Xist gene of ECCs, complete methylation of the Xist region). The latter phenomenon is induced by male, but not by female, NSCs. PMID:19843582

  1. Metal rolling - Asymmetrical rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S.; Kiss, I.

    2016-02-01

    The development of theory and practice related to the asymmetric longitudinal rolling process is based on the general theory of metalworking by pressure and symmetric rolling theory, to which a large number of scientists brought their contribution. The rolling of metal materials was a serious problem throughout history, either economically or technically, because the plating technologies enabled the consumption of raw materials (scarce and expensive) to be reduced, while improving the mechanical properties. Knowing the force parameters related to asymmetric rolling leads to the optimization of energy and raw material consumption. This paper presents data on symmetric rolling process, in order to comparatively highlight the particularities of the asymmetric process.

  2. Gnotobiotic Miniature Pig Interbreed Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer for Xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sang Eun; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Lee, HoonTaek

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic animal producing technology has improved consistently over the last couple of decades. Among the available methods, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology was officially the most popular. However, SCNT has low efficiency and requires a highly skilled individual. Additionally, the allo-SCNT nuclear reprogramming mechanism is poorly understood in the gnotobiotic miniature pig, which is a candidate for xenotransplantation, making sampling in oocytes very difficult compared to commercial hybrid pigs. Therefore, interbreed SCNT (ibSCNT), which is a combination of miniature pig and commercial pig (Landrace based), was analyzed and was found to be similar to SCNT in terms of the rate of blastocyst formation (12.6% ± 2.9% vs. 15.5% ± 2.2%; p > 0.05). However, a significantly lower fusion rate was observed in the ibSCNT compared to normal SCNT with Landrace pig somatic cells (29.6% ± 0.8% vs. 65.0% ± 4.9%). Thus, the optimization of fusion parameters was necessary for efficient SCNT. Our results further revealed that ibSCNT by the whole-cell intracytoplasmic injection (WCICI) method had a significantly higher blastocyst forming efficiency than the electrofusion method (31.1 ± 8.5 vs. 15.5% ± 2.2%). The nuclear remodeling and the pattern of changes in acetylation at H3K9 residue were similar in both SCNT and ibSCNT embryos. PMID:27459580

  3. Asymmetric Gepner Models (Revisited)

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2010-01-01

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as th...

  4. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle...

  5. Active Matter on Asymmetric Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Drocco, J.; Mai, T.; Wan, M. B.; Reichhardt, C.

    2011-01-01

    For collections of particles in a thermal bath interacting with an asymmetric substrate, it is possible for a ratchet effect to occur where the particles undergo a net dc motion in response to an ac forcing. Ratchet effects have been demonstrated in a variety of systems including colloids as well as magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors. Here we examine the case of active matter or self-driven particles interacting with asymmetric substrates. Active matter systems include self-motile c...

  6. Mobile Termination with Asymmetric Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dewenter, Ralf; Haucap, Justus

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines mobile termination fees and their regulation when networks are asymmetric in size. It is demonstrated that with consumer ignorance about the exact termination rates (a) a mobile network?s termination rate is the higher the smaller the network?s size (as measured through its subscriber base) and (b) asymmetric regulation of only the larger operators in a market will, ce-teris paribus, induce the smaller operators to increase their termination rates. The results are supporte...

  7. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  8. Asymmetric Dark Matter from Leptogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Falkowski, Adam; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Volansky, Tomer

    2011-01-01

    We present a new realization of asymmetric dark matter in which the dark matter and lepton asymmetries are generated simultaneously through two-sector leptogenesis. The right-handed neutrinos couple both to the Standard Model and to a hidden sector where the dark matter resides. This framework explains the lepton asymmetry, dark matter abundance and neutrino masses all at once. In contrast to previous realizations of asymmetric dark matter, the model allows for a wide range of dark matter mas...

  9. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-11

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  10. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Mehmet Seyfettin; Şafak OĞUZ

    2015-01-01

    Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main ...

  11. Reprogrammed Pluripotent Stem Cells from Somatic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sol; Do, Jeong Tae

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, can differentiate into all cell types. So, these cells can be a biological resource for regenerative medicine. However, ES cells known as standard pluripotent cells have problem to be used for cell therapy because of ethical issue of the origin and immune response on the graft. Hence, recently reprogrammed pluripotent cells have been suggested as an alternative source for regenerative medicine. Somatic cells can acquire the ES cell-li...

  12. Is Pilates a Somatic Education Method?

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Pereira

    2014-01-01

    This paper renews the discussion about the relevance of the Pilates method to the field of Somatic Education. The impact of marketing – which sells the method as a fitness activity – and the academic research on the application of the method in the treatment of various medical disorders, as well as its role in the construction of contemporary dance aesthetics, are put into perspective.

  13. Abused Women : Health, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Samelius, Charlotta

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to estimate the lifetime prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse in a random population-based sample of women aged 18-60 years; to estimate current suffering thereof; and to investigate associations between abuse and health problems, more specifically to study abuse related variables associated with somatization and PTSD, respectively. The studies had a cross-sectional design. Studies I and II comprised 4150 women 18-60 years. Study III included 54...

  14. Panic Disorder Subtypes: Deceptive Somatic Impersonators

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional panic attacks are characterized by multiple somatic symptoms involving the cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and vestibular systems. However, on occasion, panic disorder symptoms may congeal into one predominant system. These atypical presentations, in which symptoms manifest in a single system, are described as panic disorder subtypes. Four subtypes are commonly reported: 1) cardiac, 2) respiratory, 3) gastrointestinal, and 4) vestibular. In this edition of The Interface, w...

  15. Is Pilates a Somatic Education Method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper renews the discussion about the relevance of the Pilates method to the field of Somatic Education. The impact of marketing – which sells the method as a fitness activity – and the academic research on the application of the method in the treatment of various medical disorders, as well as its role in the construction of contemporary dance aesthetics, are put into perspective.

  16. Somatic mitochondrial mutation in gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Burgart, L.J.; J. Zheng; Shu, Q; Strickler, J. G.; Shibata, D.

    1995-01-01

    Likely hot spots for mutations are mitochondrial sequences as there is less repair and more damage by carcinogens compared with nuclear sequences. A somatic 50-bp mitochondrial D-loop deletion was detected in four gastric adenocarcinomas. The deletion included the CSB2 region and was flanked by 9-bp direct repeats. The deletion was more frequent in adenocarcinomas arising from the gastroesophageal junction (4/32, 12.5%) compared with more distal tumors (0/45). Topographical analysis revealed ...

  17. Somatic Mutaome Profile in Human Cancer Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Nayoung; Hong, Yourae; Kwon, Doyoung; Yoon, Sukjoon

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutation is a major cause of cancer progression and varied responses of tumors against anticancer agents. Thus, we must obtain and characterize genome-wide mutational profiles in individual cancer subtypes. The Cancer Genome Atlas database includes large amounts of sequencing and omics data generated from diverse human cancer tissues. In the present study, we integrated and analyzed the exome sequencing data from ~3,000 tissue samples and summarized the major mutant genes in each of t...

  18. Bully Victims: Psychological and Somatic Aftermaths

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Bullying is a well-known adversity among school-age children. According to data, approximately 10 percent of US children and adolescents are the victims of frequent bullying by peers. In the aftermath of being bullied, victims may develop a variety of psychological as well as somatic symptoms, some of which may persist into adulthood. Psychological symptoms may include social difficulties, internalizing symptoms, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and eating disorders (i.e., anorexia or ...

  19. Asymmetric Supercapacitor for Long-Duration Power Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Krishnaswamy K.; Sudarshan, Tirumalai S.

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a project in which a series of novel hybrid positive electrode materials was developed and tested in asymmetric capacitors with carbon negative electrodes. The electrochemical performance of the hybrid capacitors was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and a DC charge/discharge test. The hybrid capacitor exhibited ideal capacitor behavior with an extended operating voltage of 1.6 V in aqueous electrolyte, and energy density higher than activated carbon-based supercapacitors. Nanostructured MnO2 is a promising material for electrochemical capacitors (ECS) because of its low cost, environmentally friendly nature, and reasonably high specific capacitance. The charge capacity of the capacitors can be further improved by increasing the specific surface area of the MnO2 electrode material. The power density and space radiation stability of the capacitors can be enhanced by coating the MnO2 nanoparticles with conducting polymers. The conducting polymer coating also helps in radiation-hardening the ECS.

  20. Reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sol; Do, Jeong Tae

    2011-06-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, can differentiate into all cell types. So, these cells can be a biological resource for regenerative medicine. However, ES cells known as standard pluripotent cells have problem to be used for cell therapy because of ethical issue of the origin and immune response on the graft. Hence, recently reprogrammed pluripotent cells have been suggested as an alternative source for regenerative medicine. Somatic cells can acquire the ES cell-like pluripotency by transferring somatic cell nuclei into oocytes, by cell fusion with pluripotent cells. Retroviral-mediated introduction of four factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can successfully reprogram somatic cells into ES cell-like pluripotent stem cells, known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These cells closely resemble ES cells in gene expression pattern, cell biologic and phenotypic characteristics. However, to reach the eventual goal of clinical application, it is necessary to overcome the major drawbacks such as low reprogramming efficiency and genomic alterations due to viral integration. In this review, we discuss the current reprogramming techniques and mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming induced by transcription factor transduction. PMID:24298328

  1. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since “Dolly,” the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, this technique has been proven to work in more than 10 mammalian species. Among them, the mouse provides the best model for both basic and applied research of somatic cloning because of its abounding genetic resources, rapid sexual maturity and propagation, minimal requirements for housing, etc. This chapter describes a basic protocol for mouse cloning using cumulus cells, the most popular cell type for NT, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. In particular, we focus on a new, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which increases both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates from twofold to fivefold. This new method including TSA will be helpful to establish mouse cloning in many laboratories.

  2. Correlated expression of T cell growth factor dependence, sensitivity to Vicia villosa lectin, and cytolytic activity in hybrids between cytolytic T cells and T lymphomas

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Somatic cell fusion between cytolytically active, T cell growth factor- (TCGF) dependent murine T cell lines (CTL lines) and noncytolytic, TCGF- independent murine T lymphoma lines has yielded two types of somatic cell hybrids (5): cytolytic hybrids, growth of which is dependent on TCGF, and hybrids with very weak or undetectable cytolytic activity which grow at the same rate with or without TCGF. Here we report that the former can produce stable variants that resemble the latter type. Some o...

  3. Métodos heurísticos construtivos para redução do estoque em processo em ambientes de produção flow shop híbridos com tempos de setup dependentes da sequência Constructive heuristics methods to minimizing work in process in environment production hybrid flow shop with asymmetric sequence dependent setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Fátima Morais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma investigação sobre o problema de programação da produção em ambientes flow shop com múltiplas máquinas (híbridos e tempos de preparação (setup das máquinas assimétricos e dependentes da sequência, e propõe métodos heurísticos construtivos para a minimização do tempo médio de fluxo (Mean Flow Time, que objetiva uma resposta rápida à demanda e à redução do estoque em processamento. Os algoritmos propostos foram comparados entre si, uma vez que nenhum método de solução para o problema investigado foi encontrado na literatura. Um estudo da influência da relação entre as ordens de grandeza dos tempos de processamento das tarefas e de preparação das máquinas em cada método de solução, bem como a influência do procedimento de programação adotado, foi efetuado com o intuito de avaliar o desempenho dos métodosThis paper presents an investigation about the hybrid flow shop problem with asymmetric sequence dependent setup times and proposes constructive heuristic methods to minimize the mean flow time aiming at fast demand response and work in process reduction. The proposed heuristic methods were compared among themselves since no constructive heuristic method was found in the literature on the scheduling problem considered in this work. A study on the influence of the relation between the orders of magnitude of processing and setup time for each method was carried out. The influence of the scheduling procedure adopted was investigated to assess the performance of the methods use

  4. Somatic genomic variations in extra-embryonic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Jingly F.; Ferlatte, Christy; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2010-05-21

    In the mature chorion, one of the membranes that exist during pregnancy between the developing fetus and mother, human placental cells form highly specialized tissues composed of mesenchyme and floating or anchoring villi. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we found that human invasive cytotrophoblasts isolated from anchoring villi or the uterine wall had gained individual chromosomes; however, chromosome losses were detected infrequently. With chromosomes gained in what appeared to be a chromosome-specific manner, more than half of the invasive cytotrophoblasts in normal pregnancies were found to be hyperdiploid. Interestingly, the rates of hyperdiploid cells depended not only on gestational age, but were strongly associated with the extraembryonic compartment at the fetal-maternal interface from which they were isolated. Since hyperdiploid cells showed drastically reduced DNA replication as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, we conclude that aneuploidy is a part of the normal process of placentation potentially limiting the proliferative capabilities of invasive cytotrophoblasts. Thus, under the special circumstances of human reproduction, somatic genomic variations may exert a beneficial, anti-neoplastic effect on the organism.

  5. Pretreatments, conditioned medium and co-culture increase the incidence of somatic embryogenesis of different Cichorium species

    OpenAIRE

    Couillerot, Jean-Paul; Windels, David; Vazquez, Franck; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Blervacq, Anne-Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Cichorium involves dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of single cells and can be induced by specific in vitro culture conditions. We have tested the effect of various treatments on the incidence of SE (ISE) of an interspecific embryogenic hybrid (C. endivia x C. intybus) and of different commercial chicories (C. endivia and C. intybus) that are typically recalcitrant to SE in standard culture conditions. We found that the ISE of the hybrid is significantly i...

  6. Hydroxamic acids in asymmetric synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2013-02-19

    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst's center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Because of their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which uses the titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities. PMID:23157425

  7. Embryonic stem cells generated by nuclear transfer of human somatic nuclei into rabbit oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING CHEN; QING ZHANG YANG; DA YUAN CHEN; MIN KANG WANG; JIN SONG LI; SHAO LIANG HUANG; XIANG YIN KONG; YAO ZHOU SHI; ZHI QIANG WANG; JIA HUI XIA; ZHI GAO LONG; ZHI XU HE; ZHI GANG XUE; WEN XIANG DING; HUI ZHEN SHENG; AILIAN LIU; KAI WANG; WEN WEI MAO; JIAN XIN CHU; YONG LU; ZHENG FU FANG; YING TANG SHI

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problem of immune incompatibility, nuclear transplantation has been envisaged as a means to produce cells or tissues for human autologous transplantation. Here we have derived embryonic stem cells by the transfer of human somatic nuclei into rabbit oocytes. The number of blastocysts that developed from the fused nuclear transfer was comparable among nuclear donors at ages of 5, 42, 52 and 60 years, and nuclear transfer (NT) embryonic stem cells (ntES cells) were subsequently derived from each of the four age groups. These results suggest that human somatic nuclei can form ntES cells independent of the age of the donor. The derived ntES cells are human based on karyotype, isogenicity, in situ hybridization, PGR and immunocytochemistry with probes that distinguish between the various species. The ntES cells maintain the capability of sustained growth in an undifferentiated state, and form embryoid bodies, which, on further induction, give rise to cell types such as neuron and muscle, as well as mixed cell populations that express markers representative of all three germ layers. Thus, ntES cells derived from human somatic cells by NT to rabbit eggs retain phenotypes similar to those of conventional human ES cells, including the ability to undergo multilineage cellular differentiation.

  8. Transgenic peanut plants obtained by particle bombardment via somatic embryogenesis regeneration system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After pre-culture and treatment of osmosis,cotyledons of immature peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.)zygotic embryos were transformed via particle bombardment with a plasmid containing a chimeric hph gene conferring resistance to hygromycin and a chimeric intron-gus gene.Selection for hygromycin resistant calluses and somatic embryos was initiated at 10th d post-bombardment on medium containing 10-25 mg/L hygromycin.Under continuous selection,hygromycin resistant plantlets were regenerated from somatic embryos and were recovered from nearly 1.6% of the bombarded cotyledons.The presence and integration of foreign DNA in regenerated hygromycin resistant plants was confirmed by PCR(polymerase chain reaction)for the intron-gus gene and by Southern hybridization of the hph gene.GUS enzyme activity was detected in leaflets from transgenic plants but not from control,non-transformed plants.The production of transgenic plants are mainly based on a newly improved somatic embryogenesis regeneration system developed by us.

  9. Asymmetric counterpropagating fronts without flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Silva, I; Clerc, M G; Odent, V

    2015-06-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems exhibit domain walls between different states. These walls, depending on the type of connected states, can display rich spatiotemporal dynamics. In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the asymmetrical counterpropagation of fronts in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the different front shapes and propagation speeds. These fronts present dissimilar elastic deformations that are responsible for their asymmetric speeds. Theoretically, using a phenomenological model, we describe the observed dynamics with fair agreement. PMID:26172647

  10. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Cai, Bao-Jun; Shen, Chun; Ko, Che Ming; Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX, 75429-3011, USA)

    2009-01-01

    The incompressibility $K_sat(\\delta)$ of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of $K_sat(\\delta)$ in powers of isospin asymmetry $\\delta$, i.e., $K_sat(\\delta )$=K_{0}+K_{sat,2}\\delta^{2}+K_{sat,4}\\delta^{4}+O(\\delta^{6})$, the magnitude of the 4th-order K_{sat,4} parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order K_{sat,2} parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matte...

  11. Asymmetric interference in molecular photoprocesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, the Coulomb continuum effects in asymmetric molecular interference have been studied analytically in photoionization, photorecombination, bremsstrahlung and Compton ionization. Simple, closed-form factors describe the interference not only in monochromatic photoprocesses, but also in the continuous photoelectron spectra generated by attosecond x-ray pulses with a frequency-dependent phase and broad bandwidth. Using HeH2+ molecular ion as an example, we show how the plane wave interference pattern is strongly modified by the two-centre Coulomb continuum. Asymmetric Coulomb continuum introduces qualitative changes in a photoionization process

  12. Asymmetric Baxter-King filter

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Ginters

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes an extension of the symmetric Baxter-King band pass filter to an asymmetric Baxter-King filter. The optimal correction scheme of the ideal filter weights is the same as in the symmetric version, i.e, cut the ideal filter at the appropriate length and add a constant to all filter weights to ensure zero weight on zero frequency. Since the symmetric Baxter-King filter is unable to extract the desired signal at the very ends of the series, the extension to an asymmetric filter...

  13. Forces between asymmetric polymer brushes

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, D.F.K.; Cates, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    We study the equilibrium compression of asymmetric polymer brushes grafted on flat plates, under athermal and theta solvent conditions, using a lattice self-consistent field (SCF) approach. We find that the separation d between two plates coated asymmetrically with brushes of type 1 and 2, as a function of the force F, obeys the "bisection rule", d(F) = (d1(F) + d 2(F)) /2 where d1(F)and d 2(F) are the corresponding separations for the symmetric brushes of type 1 and 2 respectively.The bisect...

  14. Research on asymmetric "Jerusalem" unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Lu; Jianbo Wang

    2009-01-01

    An asymmetric Jerusalem unit and the frequency selective surface(FSS)structure composed of such units are designed.The transmittance of the designed FSS structure is calculated by mode-matching method and compared with the test results.The comparison results show that the FSS center frequency of the asymmetric structure unit drifts little with the variation of the incident angles of the electromagnetic waves and keeps relatively stable.The research offers a new choice for the application of FSS under the large scanning angle of electromagnetic waves.

  15. Somatic Cell Count, Importance and Effect Factors in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim Aytekin; Saim Boztepe

    2014-01-01

    The somatic cell count (SCC) is commonly used as a measure of udder health and milk quality. Thus, to determine the milk quality standards in many countries, it legally determined as an indicator of somatic cell count raw milk and determines the level of payments to milk producers. The present study investigated that the somatic cell count is an indicator of udder health status, diagnosis of subclinical mastitis, health and quality of milk and milk products, its importance and effect factors ...

  16. Somatic Embryogenesis in Yam (Dioscorea rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Elías Suárez Padrón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic yam (Dioscorea rotundata cultures were induced from petioles of leaves of in vitro grown plants on medium supplemented with different 2.4-D concentrations. Cultures were maintained either on semisolid or in liquid MS medium supplemented with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. The effect of sucrose concentration on somatic embryo development was also evaluated and the effects of different BAP concentrations on somatic embryo conversion were determined. Treatments were distributed using a complete randomized design. The highest rate of induction occurred with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. Sucrose at 131.46 mM significantly enhanced somatic embryo development. The conversion rate was not affected by BAP.Cultivos embriogénicos de ñame (Dioscorea rotundata fueron inducidos a partir de explantes consistentes de hojas con peciolos, aisladas de plantas establecidas en condiciones in vitro, en presencia de diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D. Los cultivos inducidos fueron mantenidos en medio MS líquido o semisólido suplido con 4,52 µM 2,4-D. El efecto de las concentraciones de sacarosa sobre el desarrollo de embriones somáticos y el efecto de varias concentraciones de BAP sobre la tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas también fueron evaluados. Todos los tratamientos fueron distribuidos usando un diseño completamente al azar. El mayor porcentaje de inducción de tejidos embriogénicos ocurrió con 4,52 µM de 2,4-D. La adición de 131,46 mM de sacarosa incrementó significativamente el desarrollo de embriones somáticos. La tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas no fue afectada por las concentraciones de BAP.

  17. [Stress theories and the somatization process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, R

    1995-12-01

    Stress theories aim at understanding pathophysiology of psychosomatic disorders. The first stress theories have been inspired by the principles of homeostasis. They view the response to stressors as a quasi reflex reaction which aims at normalizing disturbed homeostasis. More modern stress theories emphasize the intermediate role of cognitive and behavioural processes in the determinism of neuroendocrine and neurovegetative responses to stressors. Active attempts to control the situation are associated with activation of the sympathetic and adrenal medullary system whereas loss of control is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Since the functional consequences of the activation of each of these physiological systems are not the same, the risk factors corresponding to each coping strategy are not the same. Whatever their details, physiological and psychobiological stress theories all emphasize the influence of psychic factors on bodily functions. However, mental states do not function independently of bodily functions. In the case of the influences of stress on immunity for instance, it has been shown that these influences represent the counterpart of feedback regulatory mechanisms in which the ability of the brain to regulate immune responses depends on the capacity of the immune system to influence brain functions. Activation of the immune system during infection or inflammation is accompanied by profound metabolic, neuroendocrine and behavioural changes which are mediated by the effects of immune products known as cytokines on brain cell targets. In view of the reciprocal relationships between peripheral organic systems and the brain, a purely psychosomatic view, from the psyche to the soma, is therefore no longer tenable. In addition, biological accounts of somatization processes run into the risk of minimizing the importance of perception and representation of somatic symptoms. Amplification of somatic symptoms is a common

  18. Confidence-based somatic mutation evaluation and prioritization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Löwer

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS has enabled high throughput discovery of somatic mutations. Detection depends on experimental design, lab platforms, parameters and analysis algorithms. However, NGS-based somatic mutation detection is prone to erroneous calls, with reported validation rates near 54% and congruence between algorithms less than 50%. Here, we developed an algorithm to assign a single statistic, a false discovery rate (FDR, to each somatic mutation identified by NGS. This FDR confidence value accurately discriminates true mutations from erroneous calls. Using sequencing data generated from triplicate exome profiling of C57BL/6 mice and B16-F10 melanoma cells, we used the existing algorithms GATK, SAMtools and SomaticSNiPer to identify somatic mutations. For each identified mutation, our algorithm assigned an FDR. We selected 139 mutations for validation, including 50 somatic mutations assigned a low FDR (high confidence and 44 mutations assigned a high FDR (low confidence. All of the high confidence somatic mutations validated (50 of 50, none of the 44 low confidence somatic mutations validated, and 15 of 45 mutations with an intermediate FDR validated. Furthermore, the assignment of a single FDR to individual mutations enables statistical comparisons of lab and computation methodologies, including ROC curves and AUC metrics. Using the HiSeq 2000, single end 50 nt reads from replicates generate the highest confidence somatic mutation call set.

  19. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in explants of shoot cultures established from adult Eucalyptus globulus and E. saligna × E. maidenii trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, E; Ballester, A; Ibarra, M; Vieitez, A M

    2015-06-01

    A reproducible procedure for induction of somatic embryogenesis (SE) from adult trees of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and the hybrid E. saligna Smith × E. maidenii has been developed for the first time. Somatic embryos were obtained from both shoot apex and leaf explants of all three genotypes evaluated, although embryogenic frequencies were significantly influenced by the species/genotype, auxin and explant type. Picloram was more efficient for somatic embryo induction than naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), with the highest frequency of induction being obtained in Murashige and Skoog medium containing 40 µM picloram and 40 mg l(-1) gum Arabic, in which 64% of the shoot apex explants and 68.8% of the leaf explants yielded somatic embryos. The embryogenic response of the hybrid was higher than that of the E. globulus, especially when NAA was used. The cultures initiated on picloram-containing medium consisted of nodular embryogenic structures surrounded by a mucilaginous coating layer that emerged from a watery callus developed from the initial explants. Cotyledonary somatic embryos were differentiated after subculture of these nodular embryogenic structures on a medium lacking plant growth regulators. Histological analysis confirmed the bipolar organization of the somatic embryos, with shoot and root meristems and closed procambial tissue that bifurcated into small cotyledons. The root pole was more differentiated than the shoot pole, which appeared to be formed by a few meristematic layers. Maintenance of the embryogenic lines by secondary SE was attained by subculturing individual cotyledonary embryos or small clusters of globular and torpedo embryos on medium with 16.11 µM NAA at 4- to 5-week intervals. Somatic embryos converted into plantlets after being transferred to liquid germination medium although plant regeneration remained poor. PMID:25877768

  20. Somatic mosaicism underlies X-linked acrogigantism syndrome in sporadic male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Adrian F; Yuan, Bo; Fina, Frederic; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Rostomyan, Liliya; de Herder, Wouter W; Naves, Luciana A; Metzger, Daniel; Cuny, Thomas; Rabl, Wolfgang; Shah, Nalini; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Faucz, Fabio R; Castermans, Emilie; Nanni-Metellus, Isabelle; Lodish, Maya; Muhammad, Ammar; Palmeira, Leonor; Potorac, Iulia; Mantovani, Giovanna; Neggers, Sebastian J; Klein, Marc; Barlier, Anne; Liu, Pengfei; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Bours, Vincent; Lupski, James R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Beckers, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric gigantism due to aggressive pituitary tumors that is caused by submicroscopic chromosome Xq26.3 duplications that includeGPR101 We studied XLAG syndrome patients (n= 18) to determine if somatic mosaicism contributed to the genomic pathophysiology. Eighteen subjects with XLAG syndrome caused by Xq26.3 duplications were identified using high-definition array comparative genomic hybridization (HD-aCGH). We noted that males with XLAG had a decreased log2ratio (LR) compared with expected values, suggesting potential mosaicism, whereas females showed no such decrease. Compared with familial male XLAG cases, sporadic males had more marked evidence for mosaicism, with levels of Xq26.3 duplication between 16.1 and 53.8%. These characteristics were replicated using a novel, personalized breakpoint junction-specific quantification droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) technique. Using a separate ddPCR technique, we studied the feasibility of identifying XLAG syndrome cases in a distinct patient population of 64 unrelated subjects with acromegaly/gigantism, and identified one female gigantism patient who had had increased copy number variation (CNV) threshold forGPR101that was subsequently diagnosed as having XLAG syndrome on HD-aCGH. Employing a combination of HD-aCGH and novel ddPCR approaches, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that XLAG syndrome can be caused by variable degrees of somatic mosaicism for duplications at chromosome Xq26.3. Somatic mosaicism was shown to occur in sporadic males but not in females with XLAG syndrome, although the clinical characteristics of the disease were similarly severe in both sexes. PMID:26935837

  1. JET and COMPASS asymmetrical disruptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerasimov, S.N.; Abreu, P.; Baruzzo, M.; Drozdov, V.; Dvornova, A.; Havlíček, Josef; Hender, T.C.; Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Kruezi, U.; Li, X.; Markovič, Tomáš; Pánek, Radomír; Rubinacci, G.; Tsalas, M.; Ventre, S.; Villone, F.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2015), s. 113006-113006. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * asymmetrical disruption * JET * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2014

  2. Synthesis of Asymmetric Propanetriol Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From natural tartaric acid, (R)-2-benzyloxy-3-(2-tetrahydropyranyloxy) propanol 3 was designed and synthesized, and (R)-2-benzyloxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyloxy) propanol 7 was prepared in a new method. They can be used as chiral synthons of lysophosphatidic acid and other compounds with asymmetric propanetriol backbone.

  3. Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about…

  4. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul; Andersson, Pher G.; Johansson, Fredrik

    1996-01-01

    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the...

  5. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in soybean: physicochemical factors influencing the development of somatic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonacin Gisele Aparecida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryogenic capability of five soybean cultivars (Renascença, IAS-5, IAC-17, BR-16 and FT-Cometa was studied at different auxin concentrations (8, 10 and 12 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid, NAA, at different pHs (5.8 and 7.0 and at low (8-12 muEm-2 s-1 and high (27-33 mEm-2 s-1 light intensities. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. Immature cotyledons 4-6 mm in length were placed in the six induction mediums evaluated and submitted to two light intensities. Twenty immature cotyledons per cultivar were placed on each Petri dish, which was considered to be one replication. The number of somatic embryos per treatment per replication was counted. The results showed genotype influence on somatic embryogenic capability of each cultivar, with the most embryogenic cultivars being BR-16, FT-Cometa and IAS-5. Auxin concentration and pH value also influenced somatic embryo production, with 10 mg/l NAA being the best auxin concentration and 7.0 the best pH value. The interactions cultivar x auxin, auxin x pH and pH x light were significant, while other double interactions were not. All triple and quadruple interactions were significant, except cultivar x pH x light. No significant differences in somatic embryo production were observed in medium with different pHs or when the Petri dishes containing immature cotyledons were exposed to the two light intensities evaluated. However, a higher number of somatic embryos was produced when the medium pH was adjusted to 7.0.

  6. Selfhealing of asymmetric Bessel-like modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability.......We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability....

  7. [Behavioral somatic disorders in hospitalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasco, G; Gugliada, D; Gamalero, G

    1989-01-01

    The research has investigated the occurrence of somatic and behavioural disorders in 100 hospitalised children. A hundred subjects, 55 males & 45 females, aged between 6 and 14 years were asked to fill in questionnaires. These, which were of a completely new type, related to 12 situations in a typical day. The results showed statistically significant differences between the two sexes. Girls manifested a much higher percentage of disorders than did boys. Further, young children and especially pre-adolescents (subjects aged 10-11) manifested more disturbances than did those in the adolescent category. Of the subjects 32% showed a number of disorders below the norm; 36% of the cases were within normal values, 17% were above the norm and the remaining 15% of the subjects were considered to be of particular interest. The most frequent somatic disorders were in heart-rate variations, abnormal sweating (especially of the hands when being orally tested at school), abdominal-aches and headaches. Of the behavioural disorders the most frequent were in the inability to stand still and nail-biting. Also worthy of note, though less frequent, were disorders in eating and in sleeping. It was especially at the end of the day ("before going to sleep") that all these problems occurred. They were also frequent, however, during the periods "at school", "during oral tests" and "watching television". The results obtained in parallel research on 125 primary school children confirm all of the above findings. PMID:2636381

  8. Germline and somatic mutations in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Miriam J

    2015-04-01

    Meningiomas arise from the arachnoid layer of the meninges that surround the brain and spine. They account for over one third of all primary central nervous system tumors in adults and confer a significant risk of location-dependent morbidity due to compression or displacement. A significant increase in risk of meningiomas is associated with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) disease through mutation of the NF2 gene. In addition, approximately 5% of individuals with schwannomatosis disease develop meningiomas, through mutation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex subunit, SMARCB1. Recently, a second SWI/SNF complex subunit, SMARCE1, was identified as a cause of clear cell meningiomas, indicating a wider role for this complex in meningioma disease. The sonic hedgehog (SHH)-GLI1 signaling pathway gene, SUFU, has also been identified as the cause of hereditary multiple meningiomas in a large Finnish family. The recent identification of somatic mutations in components of the SHH-GLI1 and AKT1-MTOR signaling pathways indicates the potential for cross talk of these pathways in the development of meningiomas. This review describes the known meningioma predisposition genes and their links to the recently identified somatic mutations. PMID:25857641

  9. Aneuploidy in mammalian somatic cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, M C; Tice, R R; Liang, J C

    1986-01-01

    Aneuploidy is an important potential source of human disease and of reproductive failure. Nevertheless, the ability of chemical agents to induce aneuploidy has been investigated only sporadically in intact (whole-animal) mammalian systems. A search of the available literature from the EMCT Aneuploidy File (for years 1970-1983) provided 112 papers that dealt with aneuploidy in mammalian somatic cells in vivo. 59 of these papers did not meet minimal criteria for analysis and were rejected from subsequent review. Of the remaining 53 papers that dealt with aneuploidy induction by chemical agents in mammalian somatic cells in vivo, only 3 (6%) contained data that were considered to be supported conclusively by adequate study designs, execution, and reporting. These 3 papers dealt with 2 chemicals, one of which, mercury, was negative for aneuploidy induction in humans, and the other, pyrimethamine, was positive in an experimental rodent study. The majority of papers (94%) were considered inconclusive for a variety of reasons. The most common reasons for calling a study inconclusive were (a) combining data on hyperploidy with those on hypoploidy and/or polyploidy, (b) an inadequate or unspecified number of animals and/or cells per animal scored per treatment group, and (c) poor data presentation such that animal-to-animal variability could not be assessed. Suggestions for protocol development are made, and the future directions of research into aneuploidy induction are discussed. PMID:3941670

  10. Somatic embryogenesis in Picea suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasolla, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    Generation of somatic embryos in spruce is achieved through the execution of five steps designated as: (1) induction of embryogenic tissue, (2) maintenance of embryogenic tissue, (3) embryo development, (4) embryo maturation, and (5) conversion into plants. Depending on species and genotypes within the same species, each step must be optimized for obtaining maximum results. In general, embryogenic tissue is generated from immature and mature zygotic embryos and maintained in either liquid or solid conditions in the presence of plant growth regulators auxin and cytokinin. Initiation of embryo development in suspension cultured is induced by removal of plant growth regulators, whereas continuation of development and completion of maturation require applications of abscisic acid and imposition of a desiccation period. Both treatments are needed for conferring morphological and physiological maturation to the embryos. Mature somatic embryos are germinated in the absence of plant regulators and embryo conversion (i.e., formation of a functional shoot and root, occurs after a few weeks in culture). PMID:16673908

  11. Defective somatic markers in sub-clinical psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Hermans, E.J.; Putman, P.L.J.; Montagne, B.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis is argued to be specifically applicable to psychopathy, though evidence has been meager until now. The principal evidence for the somatic marker hypothesis is based on findings in patients with orbitofrontal lesions, showing absent punishment learning on the Iowa

  12. Confidence-based Somatic Mutation Evaluation and Prioritization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lower, M.; Renard, B.Y.; Graaf, J. de; Wagner, M.; Paret, C.; Kneip, C.; Tureci, O.; Diken, M.; Britten, C.; Kreiter, S.; Koslowski, M.; Castle, J.C.; Sahin, U.

    2012-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled high throughput discovery of somatic mutations. Detection depends on experimental design, lab platforms, parameters and analysis algorithms. However, NGS-based somatic mutation detection is prone to erroneous calls, with reported validation rates near 54%

  13. The histone chaperone CAF-1 safeguards somatic cell identity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheloufi, Sihem; Elling, Ulrich; Hopfgartner, Barbara; Youngsook L. Jung; Murn, Jernej; Ninova, Maria; Hubmann, Maria; Badeaux, Aimee I; Ang, Cheen Euong; Tenen, Danielle; Wesche, Daniel J; Abazova, Nadezhda; Hogue, Max; Tasdemir, Nilgun; Brumbaugh, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Cellular differentiation involves profound remodeling of chromatic landscapes, yet the mechanisms by which somatic cell identity is subsequently maintained remain incompletely understood. To further elucidate regulatory pathways that safeguard the somatic state, we performed two comprehensive RNAi screens targeting chromatin factors during transcription factor-mediated reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Remarkably, subunits of the chromatin assembly ...

  14. The histone chaperone CAF-1 safeguards somatic cell identity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheloufi, Sihem; Elling, Ulrich; Hopfgartner, Barbara; Youngsook L. Jung; Murn, Jernej; Ninova, Maria; Hubmann, Maria; Badeaux, Aimee I; Ang, Cheen Euong; Tenen, Danielle; Wesche, Daniel J; Abazova, Nadezhda; Hogue, Max; Tasdemir, Nilgun; Brumbaugh, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Cellular differentiation involves profound remodeling of chromatic landscapes, yet the mechanisms by which somatic cell identity is subsequently maintained remain incompletely understood. To further elucidate regulatory pathways that safeguard the somatic state, we performed two comprehensive RNAi screens targeting chromatin factors during transcription factor-mediated reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Remarkably, subunits of the chromatin assembly ...

  15. Somatics in the Dance Studio: Embodying Feminist/Democratic Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnidge, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1970s, somatics have increasingly become a part of the dance training landscape. Although the psychophysical benefits seem sufficient in themselves to warrant inclusion in dance, this article explores another possible outcome of embracing somatic pedagogical principles, a change that affects not "what" is taught in a dance class, but…

  16. Environment-driven somatic mosaicism in brain disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bedrosian, Tracy A.; Linker, Sara; GAGE, FRED H.

    2016-01-01

    Editorial summary The identification of somatic mosaicism in the brain lends a new perspective to our understanding of the role of gene and environment interactions in psychiatric disease risk. Somatic mutations, such as retrotransposon insertions, that are precipitated by modern environmental factors may alter neuronal function and neurological traits, increasing the societal prevalence of mental disorders.

  17. Hybrid methodologies for symmetric and asymmetric vehicle routing problems

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Antón, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    En las últimas décadas, la globalización ha impulsado la adaptación del sector del Transporte y la Logística a las nuevas demandas sociales. Al mismo tiempo, el transporte ha sido la columna vertebral de la globalización. Esta necesidad social crea consumidores ambiciosos que necesitan sus productos de forma rápida y a un precio asequible muchas veces sin ser conscientes de su origen, el transporte o los aspectos medioambientales, entre otros factores. Sin embargo, para satisfacer las demanda...

  18. Mirror mode structures in the asymmetric Hermean magnetosheath: Hybrid simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herčík, David; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Johnson, J. R.; Kim, E. -H.; Hellinger, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 1 (2013), s. 405-417. ISSN 2169-9380 Grant ostatní: FP7(XE) SWIFF263340 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Mercury * magnetosheath * mirror waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2012JA018083/abstract

  19. Mirror mode structures in the asymmetric Hermean magnetosheath: Hybrid simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herčík, David; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Johnson, J. R.; Kim, E. -H.; Hellinger, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 1 (2013), s. 405-417. ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09009 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) SWIFF Project No. 263340; EU(XE) SHOCK Project No. 284515 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Mercury * magnetosheath * mirror waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFA-U) Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013

  20. Collective plasmon modes in a compositionally asymmetric nanoparticle dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The plasmon coupling phenomenon of heterodimers composed of silver, gold and copper nanoparticles of 60 nm in size and spherical in shape were studied theoretically within the scattered field formulation framework. In-phase dipole coupled σ-modes were observed for the Ag-Au and Ag-Cu heterodimers, and an antiphase dipole coupled π-mode was observed for the Ag-Au heterodimer. These observations agree well with the plasmon hybridization theory. However, quadrupole coupled modes dominate the high energy wavelength range from 357-443 nm in the scattering cross section of the D=60 nm Ag-Au and Ag-Cu heterodimer. We demonstrate for the first time that collective plasmon modes in a compositionally asymmetric nanoparticle dimer have to be predicted from the dipole-dipole approximation of plasmon hybridization theory together with the interband transition effect of the constitutive metals and the retardation effect of the nanoparticle size.

  1. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  2. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  3. Asymmetrically coupled directed percolation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Jae Dong; Park, Hyunggyu

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a dynamical model of coupled directed percolation systems with two particle species. The two species $A$ and $B$ are coupled asymmetrically in that $A$ particles branch $B$ particles whereas $B$ particles prey on $A$ particles. This model may describe epidemic spreading controlled by reactive immunization agents. We study nonequilibrium phase transitions with focused attention to the multicritical point where both species undergo the absorbing phase transition simultaneously. In ...

  4. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.

    2010-09-01

    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  5. Entrepreneurship, Asymmetric Information and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Boadway; Nicolas Marceau; Maurice Marchand; Marianne Vigneault

    1998-01-01

    We examine how three sources of asymmetric information affect the supply of entrepreneurs and unemployment. In the first case, banks cannot observe entrepreneurs' risk of failure so ration credit. This increases the number of entrepreneurs and the level of unemployment. In the second case, firms cannot observe workers' effort so offer a wage above the market clearing one. This results in unemployment and too few entrepreneurs. The final case arises when firms cannot observe workers' abilities...

  6. Asymmetric Microscopic Driving Behavior Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Hwasoo

    2008-01-01

    Numerous theories on traffic have been developed as traffic congestion gains more and more interest in our daily life. To model traffic phenomena, many traffic theorists have adopted theories from other fields such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. However, their efforts to model the traffic at a microscopic level have not been successful yet. Therefore, to overcome the limitations of the existing theories we propose a microscopic asymmetric traffic theory based on analysis of individual...

  7. Effciency Concern under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Winschel, Evguenia; Zahn, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence from simple distribution games supports the view that some individuals have a concern for the effciency of allocations. This motive could be important for the implementation of economic policy proposals. In a typical lab experiment, however, individuals have much more information available than outside the lab. We conduct a lab experiment to test whether asymmetric information influences prosocial behavior in a simple non-strategic interaction. In our setting, a dictator...

  8. Direct reprogramming of somatic cells: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct epigenetic reprogramming is a technique that converts a differentiated adult cell into another differentiated cell and mdash;such fibroblasts to cardiomyocytes and mdash;without passage through an undifferentiated pluripotent stage. This novel technology is opening doors in biological research and regenerative medicine. Some preliminary studies about direct reprogramming started in the 1980s when differentiated adult cells could be converted into other differentiated cells by overexpressing transcription-factor genes. These studies also showed that differentiated cells have plasticity. Direct reprogramming can be a powerful tool in biological research and regenerative medicine, especially the new frontier of personalized medicine. This review aims to summarize all direct reprogramming studies of somatic cells by master control genes as well as potential applications of these techniques in research and treatment of selected human diseases. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(3.000: 231-240

  9. Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, Rebecca L [ORNL; Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Briggs, Dayrl P [ORNL; Srijanto, Bernadeta R [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Leidenfrost phenomena on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems utilizing boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant means to direct droplet motion in a variety of recently emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions, namely on impact with Weber numbers 40 at T 325 C. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask, with mean pillar diameters of 100 nm and heights of 200-500 nm. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling, suggesting that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Using high-speed imaging, phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon impact for droplets falling onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. The asymmetric impact and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing that asymmetric wettability upon impact is the mechanism for the droplet directionality.

  10. Peer emotion socialization and somatic complaints in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Naomi J; Zeman, Janice; Braunstein, Kara; Price, Natalee

    2016-07-01

    Somatic symptoms tend to increase during early adolescence and although youth's social environments and emotional functioning play a role in somatic symptoms, few studies have examined mechanisms through which social interaction could influence youth's somatic wellbeing. Participants were 132 youth (61.6% girls, Mage = 12.61 years, 84.7% Caucasian) and their mothers. Reciprocated best-friend dyads participated in a video-taped problem discussion task to assess peer emotion socialization responses. Two supportive friend responses (i.e., emotion-focused, problem-focused) and two unsupportive responses (i.e., punitive, neglect) were examined. Mothers reported on their child's somatic complaints. Friends who provided emotion-focused, problem-focused, punitive, and neglect responses to their close friend's emotional disclosures had significantly fewer somatic symptoms. However, youth who received punitive responses to their emotional disclosures from their close friends had more somatic complaints. These findings provide initial evidence of a link between emotion socialization responses within close friendships and somatic complaints in early adolescence. PMID:27176784

  11. Both asymmetric mitotic segregation and cell-to-cell invasion are required for stable germline transmission of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric Landmann; Odile Bain; Coralie Martin; Shigehiko Uni; Taylor, Mark J.; William Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Parasitic filarial nematodes that belong to the Onchocercidae family live in mutualism with Wolbachia endosymbionts. We developed whole-mount techniques to follow the segregation patterns of Wolbachia through the somatic and germline lineages of four filarial species. These studies reveal multiple evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that are required for Wolbachia localization to the germline. During the initial embryonic divisions, Wolbachia segregate asymmetrically such that they...

  12. Somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in Chinese patients with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Wan, Yanfang; Zou, Qinghua

    2013-04-01

    Somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been long proposed to drive the pathogenesis and progression of human malignancies. Previous investigations have revealed a high frequency of somatic mutations in the D-loop control region of mtDNA in osteosarcoma. However, little is known with regard to whether or not somatic mutations also occur in the coding regions of mtDNA in osteosarcoma. To test this possibility, in the present study we screened somatic mutations over the full-length mitochondrial genome of 31 osteosarcoma tumour tissue samples, and corresponding peripheral blood samples from the same cohort of patients. We detected a sum of 11 somatic mutations in the mtDNA coding regions in our series. Nine of them were missense or frameshift mutations that have the potential to hamper mitochondrial respiratory function. In combination with our earlier observations on the D-loop fragment, 71.0% (22/31) of patients with osteosarcoma carried at least one somatic mtDNA mutation, and a total of 40 somatic mutations were identified. Amongst them, 29 (72.5%) were located in the D-loop region, two (5%) were in the sequences of the tRNA genes, two (5%) were in the mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 6 gene and seven (17.5%) occurred in genes encoding components of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes. In addition, somatic mtDNA mutation was not closely associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of osteosarcoma. Together, these findings suggest that somatic mutations are highly prevalent events in both coding and non-coding regions of mtDNA in osteosarcoma. Some missense and frameshift mutations are putatively harmful to proper mitochondrial activity and might play vital roles in osteosarcoma carcinogenesis. PMID:23441585

  13. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus heldreichii culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential for somatic embryogenesis in zygotic embryo and megagametophyte cultures of Pinus heldreichii was examined. Somatic embryogenesis was initiated from megagametophytes containing immature zygotic embryos at early stages of development. An induction frequency of up to 6.7% was obtained on Gresshoff and Doy medium in the presence of 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA. Formation and further proliferation of embryogenic tissue were achieved upon transfer of explants to a medium with reduced levels of growth regulators. Somatic embryos are being cultured for further development. .

  14. Comparative expression pattern analysis of WUSCHEL-related homeobox 2 (WOX2) and WOX8/9 in developing seeds and somatic embryos of the gymnosperm Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palovaara, Joakim; Hallberg, Henrik; Stasolla, Claudio; Hakman, Inger

    2010-10-01

    • In seed plants, current knowledge concerning embryonic pattern formation by polar auxin transport (PAT) and WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) gene activity is primarily derived from studies on angiosperms, while less is known about these processes in gymnosperms. In view of the differences in their embryogeny, and the fact that somatic embryogenesis is used for mass propagation of conifers, a better understanding of embryo development is vital. • The expression patterns of PaWOX2 and PaWOX8/9 were followed with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) during seed and somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies), and in somatic embryos treated with the PAT inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). • Both PaWOX2 and PaWOX8/9 were highly expressed at the early growth stages of zygotic and somatic embryos, and shared a similar expression pattern over the entire embryo. At later embryo stages, high expression of PaWOX8/9 became restricted to cotyledon primordia, epidermis, procambium and root apical meristem (RAM), which became most evident in NPA-treated somatic embryos, while expression of PaWOX2 was much lower. • Our results suggest an ancestral role of WOX in seed plant embryo development, and strengthen the proposed connection between PAT, PIN-FORMED (PIN) and WOX in the regulation of embryo patterning in seed plants. PMID:20561212

  15. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent modified Gogny (MDI) interaction, the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach, and a phenomenological modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we have studied the incompressibility Ksat(δ) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of Ksat(δ) in powers of isospin asymmetry δ, i.e., Ksat(δ) = K0 + Ksat,2δ2 + Ksat,4δ4 + O(δ6), the magnitude of the 4th-order Ksat,4 parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order Ksat,2 parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at saturation density. Furthermore, the Ksat,2 can be expressed as Ksat,2 = Ksym – 6L – J0/K0 L in terms of the slope parameter L and the curvature parameter Ksym of the symmetry energy and the third-order derivative parameter J0 of the energy of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density, and we find the higher order J0 contribution to Ksat,2 generally cannot be neglected. Also, we have found a linear correlation between Ksym and L as well as between J0/K0 and K0. Using these correlations together with the empirical constraints on K0 and L, the nuclear symmetry energy Esym(ρ0) at normal nuclear density, and the nucleon effective mass, we have obtained an estimated value of Ksat,2 = -370 ± 120 MeV for the 2nd-order parameter in the isospin asymmetry expansion of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. (author)

  16. Asymmetric Information and Consumer Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Ismagilova G. N.; Danilina E. I.; Gafurov I. R.; Ismagilov R. I.; Safiullin L. N.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper study the peculiarities of the formation the consumer demand for durable goods, the so-called «experience goods» in markets with asymmetric information. In the known literature sources studying of the demand is based on the assumption that at the moment of the purchase of goods and services people know exactly what price they are willing to pay for them and what utility they are going to obtain using those goods and services. Consider the signal model in which the initial price a...

  17. Transient Stability During Asymmetrical Faults

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    This research project has been conducted at RTE in order to study the transient stability after asymmetrical faults. When three-phase short-circuits occur in a network, almost all the electrical power is lost on the relevant line(s). Among all short-circuit types, it is the most drastic event and the issue has to be solved very quickly. But oddly, it is also the easiest problem to solve mathematically speaking. This comes from the fact that the system stays balanced, and equations can be simp...

  18. Phase equilibria in asymmetric mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplified version of the Perturbed Hard-Chain Theory (SPHCT) is used to compute the phase equilibria and Henry's constants for mixtures in which the molecules are highly asymmetric both in shape and in the intermolecular potential. These mixtures include binary systems such as CO2/hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons/hydrocarbons, which are of particular interest for the oil industry. For this type of mixtures a single parameter (which is calculated from available experimental data of liquid-vapor equilibrium) is introduced. The approach yields results which compare well with the experimental behavior reported in the literature (Author)

  19. Tripartite fully asymmetric universal quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We investigate the universal asymmetric cloning of states in a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension d. We derive the class of optimal and fully asymmetric universal 1 → 3 cloners, which produce three copies, each having a different fidelity. A simple parametric expression for the maximum achievable cloning fidelity triplets will be provided. As a side-product, we also prove the optimality of the 1 → 2 asymmetric cloning machines that have been proposed in the literature. (author)

  20. Enhanced Asymmetric Bilinear Model for Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjuan Gong; Weishan Zhang; Jordi Gonzàlez; Yan Ren; Zhen Li

    2015-01-01

    Bilinear models have been successfully applied to separate two factors, for example, pose variances and different identities in face recognition problems. Asymmetric model is a type of bilinear model which models a system in the most concise way. But seldom there are works exploring the applications of asymmetric bilinear model on face recognition problem with illumination changes. In this work, we propose enhanced asymmetric model for illumination-robust face recognition. Instead of initiali...

  1. Cytogenetic analysis of human somatic cell haploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galat, V; Ozen, S; Rechitsky, S; Kuliev, A; Verlinsky, Y

    2005-02-01

    Despite recent interest in the derivation of female and male gametes through somatic cell nuclear transfer, there is still insufficient data on chromosomal analysis of these gametes resulting from haploidization, especially involving a human nuclear donor and recipient oocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate the fidelity of chromosomal separation during haploidization of human cumulus cells by in-vitro matured human enucleated MII oocytes. A total of 129 oocytes were tested 4-7, 8-14, or 15-21 h after nuclear transfer (NT) followed by electro-stimulation, resulting in 71.3% activation efficiency on average. Haploidization was documented by the formation of two separate groups of chromosomes, originating from either polar body/pronucleus (PB/PN), or only 2PN, which were tested by 5-colour FISH, or DNA analysis for copy number of chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21, 22 and X. Two PN were formed more frequently than PB/PN, irrespective of incubation time. In agreement with recent reports on mouse oocytes, as many as 90.2% of the resulting haploid sets tested showed abnormal chromosome segregation, suggesting unsuitability of the resulting artificial gametes for practical application at the present time. PMID:15823223

  2. Somatic Embryogenesis of Abies cephalonica Loud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajňáková, Jana; Häggman, Hely

    2016-01-01

    Greek fir (Abies cephalonica Loudon) belongs to the Mediterranean fir species and is widely distributed in the mountains of Central and Southern Greece. Considering a climatic scenario, infestation by pathogens or insects and fire episodes, it has been proposed that Mediterranean firs could be in danger in some parts of their present range but, on the other hand, could also replace other species in more northern zones with temperate humid climates (e.g., silver fir, Abies alba Mill.). As fir species are generally highly productive and therefore important for commercial forestry, they have traditionally been involved in conventional tree improvement programs. A lot of effort has been put into the development of vegetative propagation methods for firs, in order to rapidly gain the benefits of traditional breeding to be utilized in reforestation. The present paper provides up to date information on protocols for somatic embryogenesis (i.e., the most promising in vitro method for vegetative propagation) of Greek fir. Moreover, the protocols for cryopreservation and long-term storage of embryogenic material are described as well. PMID:26619877

  3. Somatic Diseases and Conditions Before the First Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael E;

    2015-01-01

    first diagnosis of schizophrenia. METHOD: Nationwide sample of the Danish population consisting of singletons (n = 954351) born 1977-1993 and followed from birth to 2009, during which period 4371 developed schizophrenia. Somatic diagnoses at all general hospital contacts (admitted or outpatient care at......OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with excess physical comorbidity. Yet, to our knowledge, large studies are lacking on the associations with somatic diseases before the onset of schizophrenia. The authors conducted a nationwide study of the full spectrum of treated somatic diseases before the...... a somatic hospital) from 1977 to 2009 were used as exposures. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of schizophrenia was calculated using Poisson regression adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Among the 4371 persons who developed schizophrenia from 1992 to 2009, a total of 4180 (95.6%) persons had a...

  4. Specific Proteins in the Indirect Somatic Embryogenesis of Freesia Refracta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the young inflorescence segments of Freesia refracta as explants, indirect somatic embryogenesis of somatic cells was induced in a N6 medium supplemented with some exogenous hormones. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) was used for the analysis of soluble proteins produced during the somatic embryogenesis of this plant. There are six polypeptides, which might play some roles in the process of somatic embryo development. Three polypeptides(45, 53 and 55 kD) were detected in the stages of embryogenic callus, globular embryoid, and embryoid with coleoptiles, except the embryoid with leaf. One polypeptide(83 kD) was specific for the stages of embryoid with coleoptiles and embryoid with leaf. One polypeptide(37 kD) was detected in the first two stages, namely, embryogenic callus and globular embryoid. One polypeptide(35 kD) was regularly synthesized in each stage, from embryogenic callus to embryoid with leaf.

  5. Somatic treatments excluding psychopharmacology in obsessive- compulsive disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad

    2013-06-01

    Somatic treatments other than psychotropic drugs are increasingly used in the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), however there has been little systematic review of them. Therefore, the present review deals with a variety of somatic treatment methods excluding psychotropic drugs. A literature search was performed on the PubMed database from the beginning of 1980, to September 2012, for published English, Turkish and French-language articles of somatic treatment approaches (excluding psychopharmacological agents) in the treatment of OCD. The search was carried out by using some terms in detail. Afterwards, the obtained investigations on electroconvusive therapy (ECT), deep brain stimulation (DBS), neurosurgical methods and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were presented. Although psychopharmacological treatment and psychotherapeutic approaches are primary treatment modalities in the management of OCD, other somatic treatment options seem to be used as alternatives, especially for patients with treatmentresistant OCD. PMID:24032546

  6. File list: Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  9. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. -- Highlights: ► Develops the analogy between light and electron optics in aberration calculations. ► Optimized spherical and chromatic aberrations for an electrostatic einzel lens. ► Comparison between analytic and numerical aberration calculations.

  10. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2012-08-01

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. PMID:22206603

  11. Excitons in asymmetric quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Kurdyubov, A. S.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Shapochkin, P. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance dielectric response of excitons is studied for the high-quality InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with wide asymmetric quantum wells (QWs). To highlight effects of the QW asymmetry, we have grown and studied several heterostructures with nominally square QWs as well as with triangle-like QWs. Several quantum confined exciton states are experimentally observed as narrow exciton resonances. A standard approach for the phenomenological analysis of the profiles is generalized by introducing different phase shifts for the light waves reflected from the QWs at different exciton resonances. Good agreement of the phenomenological fit to the experimentally observed exciton spectra for high-quality structures allowed us to reliably obtain parameters of the exciton resonances: the exciton transition energies, the radiative broadenings, and the phase shifts. A direct numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the heavy-hole excitons in asymmetric QWs is used for microscopic modeling of the exciton resonances. Remarkable agreement with the experiment is achieved when the effect of indium segregation is taken into account. The segregation results in a modification of the potential profile, in particular, in an asymmetry of the nominally square QWs.

  12. ASYMMETRIC SOLAR POLAR FIELD REVERSALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar polar fields reverse because magnetic flux from decaying sunspots moves toward the poles, with a preponderance of flux from the trailing spots. If there is a strong asymmetry, in the sense that most activity is in the northern hemisphere, then that excess flux will move toward the north pole and reverse that pole first. If there is more activity in the south later on, then that flux will help to reverse the south pole. In this way, two humps in the solar activity and a corresponding difference in the time of reversals develop (in the ideal case). Such a difference was originally noted in the very first observation of polar field reversal just after the maximum of the strongly asymmetric solar cycle 19, when the southern hemisphere was most active before sunspot maximum and the south pole duly reversed first, followed by the northern hemisphere more than a year later, when that hemisphere became most active. Solar cycles since then have had the opposite asymmetry, with the northern hemisphere being most active before solar maximum. We show that polar field reversals for these cycles have all happened in the north first, as expected. This is especially noteworthy for the present solar cycle 24. We suggest that the association of two or more peaks of solar activity when separated by hemispheres with correspondingly different times of polar field reversals is a general feature of the cycle, and that asymmetric polar field reversals are simply a consequence of the asymmetry of solar activity.

  13. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  14. Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapov, Rebecca; Boreyko, Jonathan; Briggs, Dayrl; Srijanto, Bernadeta; Retterer, Scott; Collier, C. Patrick; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2014-03-01

    Exploration of Leidenfrost droplets on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems using boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant way to direct droplet motion in a variety of emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling. This suggests that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon droplet impact onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. Asymmetric wettability and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing this to be the mechanism for the droplet directionality. This work was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is sponsored at Oak Ridge National Lab by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, US Dept. of Energy.

  15. Active matter on asymmetric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Drocco, J.; Mai, T.; Wan, M. B.; Reichhardt, C.

    2011-10-01

    For collections of particles in a thermal bath interacting with an asymmetric substrate, it is possible for a ratchet effect to occur where the particles undergo a net dc motion in response to an ac forcing. Ratchet effects have been demonstrated in a variety of systems including colloids as well as magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors. Here we examine the case of active matter or self-driven particles interacting with asymmetric substrates. Active matter systems include self-motile colloidal particles undergoing catalysis, swimming bacteria, artificial swimmers, crawling cells, and motor proteins. We show that a ratchet effect can arise in this type of system even in the absence of ac forcing. The directed motion occurs for certain particle-substrate interaction rules and its magnitude depends on the amount of time the particles spend swimming in one direction before turning and swimming in a new direction. For strictly Brownian particles there is no ratchet effect. If the particles reflect off the barriers or scatter from the barriers according to Snell's law there is no ratchet effect; however, if the particles can align with the barriers or move along the barriers, directed motion arises. We also find that under certain motion rules, particles accumulate along the walls of the container in agreement with experiment. We also examine pattern formation for synchronized particle motion. We discuss possible applications of this system for self-assembly, extracting work, and sorting as well as future directions such as considering collective interactions and flocking models.

  16. Alternative lengthening of telomeres in normal mammalian somatic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Axel A.; Watson, Catherine M.; Noble, Jane R.; Hilda A Pickett; Tam, Patrick P.L.; Reddel, Roger R

    2013-01-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a mechanism involving the replication of new telomeric DNA from a DNA template, is used by some cancer cells to lengthen their telomeres. Reddel and colleagues now show that ALT activity exists in normal somatic tissues as well. A telomere with a DNA tag is found to be intertelomerically copied in normal somatic cells but not germline cells, providing important implications for understanding telomere maintenance and its evolution.

  17. Relationship between lactoferrin, minerals, and somatic cells in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Soyeurt, Hélène; Arnould, Valérie; Bruwier, Damien; Dardenne, Pierre; Romnee, Jean-Michel; Gengler, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Selection for increased mastitis resistance is hampered by lack of available data. Currently, somatic cell count or score are proven indicators. However, it should be a priority to increase the number of available indicator traits for mastitis resistance. The aim of this research was to study the relationships among potential indicator traits as lactoferrin content, concentrations of major minerals in milk (calcium, Ca; sodium, Na; phosphore, P), and somatic cell count. Firs...

  18. The Relationship between Mental and Somatic Practices and Wisdom

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Patrick B.; Heather H Mangelsdorf; Carly Kontra; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Berthold Hoeckner

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to explore how experience with specific mental and somatic practices is associated with wisdom, using self-report measures of experience and wisdom. We administered standard surveys to measure wisdom and experience among four groups of practitioners of mental and somatic practices, namely, meditators, practitioners of the Alexander Technique, practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method, and classical ballet dancers. We additionally administered surveys of trait anxiety and...

  19. Induction and isolation of somatic mutations in vegetatively propagated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research carried out since 1963 concentrated on techniques of mutagenic treatment: problems of exposure, type of radiation (acute irradiation by x- and γ-rays, and chronic exposure in the gamma field), conditions during and after irradiation, mechanisms of mutation induction, and methodology of isolation of somatic mutations. Analyses of somatic mutations included studies on apple, pear, olive, peach, grape and cherry plants. Young trees, dormant and rooted scions, summer and floral buds or seeds were used

  20. Somatic symptom disorder: An important change in DSM

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, JE; Creed, F; Escobar, J; M Sharpe; Wulsin, L; Barsky, A; Lee, S; Irwin, DE; Levenson, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale for the new diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder (SSD) within DSM5. SSD represents a consolidation of a number of previously listed diagnoses. It deemphasizes the centrality of medically unexplained symptoms and defines the disorder on the basis of persistent somatic symptoms associated with disproportionate thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to these symptoms. Data are presented concerning reliability, validity, and prevalence of SSD, as well as tas...

  1. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis of somatic mutation data in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Jie; Trippa, Lorenzo; Zhong, Xiaogang; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Identifying genes underlying cancer development is critical to cancer biology and has important implications across prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Cancer sequencing studies aim at discovering genes with high frequencies of somatic mutations in specific types of cancer, as these genes are potential driving factors (drivers) for cancer development. We introduce a hierarchical Bayesian methodology to estimate gene-specific mutation rates and driver probabilities from somatic mutation data ...

  2. The histone chaperone CAF-1 safeguards somatic cell identity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheloufi, Sihem; Ninova, Maria; Aravin, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Cellular differentiation involves profound remodelling of chromatic landscapes, yet the mechanisms by which somatic cell identity is subsequently maintained remain incompletely understood. To further elucidate regulatory pathways that safeguard the somatic state, we performed two comprehensive RNA interference (RNAi) screens targeting chromatin factors during transcription-factor-mediated reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Subunits of the chromat...

  3. Pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)

  4. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus heldreichii culture

    OpenAIRE

    Stojičić Dragana; Uzelac Branka; Janošević Dušica; Ćulafić Ljubinka; Budimir Snežana

    2007-01-01

    The potential for somatic embryogenesis in zygotic embryo and megagametophyte cultures of Pinus heldreichii was examined. Somatic embryogenesis was initiated from megagametophytes containing immature zygotic embryos at early stages of development. An induction frequency of up to 6.7% was obtained on Gresshoff and Doy medium in the presence of 2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA). Formation and further proliferation of embryogenic tissue were achieved u...

  5. Some Remarks on Asymmetric Syntheses from Recent Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Naomichi

    1990-01-01

    Some asymmetric syntheses were presented here and discussed briefly including NADH model reactions, phase transfer-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation, enantiotopic group-selective hydrolysis of a malonic anhydride with alkoxide anion, intramolecular acid-catalyzed lactonizations, catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder synthesis, asymmetric aldol condensation, chiral homoallyl alcohol synthesis, asymmetric addition of diethylzinc to aldehyde, kinetic resolution of racemic hydroperoxides and binaphthol...

  6. High-efficiency somatic embryogenesis and morphohistology and histochemistry of somatic embryo development in Larix leptolepis Gordon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-xing; Lu Long-dou; Hao Huai-qing; Teng Nian-jun; Chen Tong; Guo Yi-ming; Yang Ying-gen; Guo Zhong-chen; Lin Jin-xing

    2007-01-01

    A high-efficiency somatic embryogenesis protocol of Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis Gordon) has been established in our investigation. Calli were induced from immature zygotic embryos of female cones ofL. leptolepis and then subcultured regularly on to a modified Gupta and Durzan (DCR) basal medium for 5 years. Embryogenic tissues showed distinct morphological changes during somatic embryo development when they were transferred to a maturation medium supplemented with abscisic acid (ABA) compared with the morphology in a medium lacking ABA. Histological observations indicated that polyembryony was a characteristic feature during early embryogeny and somatic embryos at later stages showed normal histodifferentiation. In addition, histochemical analysis revealed that abundant starch granules and proteins accumulated in mature embryos, indicating that they played important roles in the development and regeneration of normal plantlets from somatic embryos on hormone-free germination media

  7. The chromosome content and genotype of two wheat cell lines and of their somatic fusion product with oat

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Fengning; Wang, Junfeng; Xu, Chunhui; Xia, Guangmin

    2010-01-01

    Somatic hybridization seeks to genetically combine phylogenetically distant parents. An effective system has been established in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) involving protoplasts from a non-totipotent cell line adapted to in vitro culture (T1) in combination with totipotent protoplasts harvested from embryogenic calli (T2). Here, we report the karyotype and genotype of T1 and T2. Line T1 carries nine A (A-genome of wheat), seven B (B-genome of wheat) and eight D (D-genome of wheat) gen...

  8. Origin and Development In Vitro of Shoot Buds and Somatic Embryos from Intact Roots of Helianthus annuus × H. tuberosus

    OpenAIRE

    FAMBRINI, M.; CIONINI, G.; A. Conti; MICHELOTTI, V.; PUGLIESI, C.

    2003-01-01

    A variant clone of the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 68) interspecific hybrid Helianthus annuus × H. tuberosus derived by in vitro tissue culture showed a deviation from the usual pattern of organization of the plant body. This variant developed shoot‐like structures and somatic embryos from intact adventitious roots of in vitro‐grown plantlets. The morphogenetic structures were not normally able to differentiate complete plants. They did show cellular proliferation with the inception of additional s...

  9. Somatic and Depressive Symptoms in Female Japanese and American Students: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Sakamoto, Shinji; Moriwaki, Aiko

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between common somatic symptoms and depression in samples of Japanese and American college students. Fifty Japanese and 44 American women completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and rated 56 somatic-distress items for 7 days. Japanese had higher levels of somatic distress than Americans. ANOVA of somatic distress by BDI-level revealed that the High BDI Japanese group reported 26 somatic symptoms (including stomach ache, dizziness, and shoulder...

  10. Gamma ray induced somatic mutations in rose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budwood of 32 rose cultivars (Rosa spp.) was exposed to 3-4 krad of gamma rays and eyes were grafted on Rosa indica var. odorata root stock. Radiosensitivity with respect to sprouting, survival and plant height, and mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and dose of gamma rays. Somatic mutations in flower colour/shape were detected as chimera in 21 cultivars. The size of the mutant sector varied from a narrow streak on a petal to a whole flower and from a portion of a branch to an entire branch. 14 mutants were detected in M1V1, four in M1V2 and three in M1V3. Maximum number of mutations was detected following 3 krad treatment. Eyes from mutant branches were grafted again on root stock and non-chimeric mutants were aimed at by vegetative propagation. Mutants from 11 cultivars only could be isolated in pure form. Isolation of non-chimeric mutants sometimes is difficult due to weak growth of a mutant branch. In such a case, all normal looking branches are removed to force a better growth of the mutant branch. It is advisable to maintain irradiated plants at least for four years with drastic pruning in each year. Nine mutants viz. 'Sharada', 'Sukumari', 'Tangerine Contempo', 'Yellow Contempo', 'Pink Contempo', 'Striped Contempo', 'Twinkle', 'Curio' and 'Light Pink Prize' have already been released as new cultivars for commercialization [ref. MBNL No. 23 and 31] and others are being multiplied and assessed. The mutation spectrum appears to be wider for the cultivars 'Contempo' and 'Imperator'. Pigment composition of the original variety is relevant for the kind of flower colour mutations that can be induced

  11. Comorbidity of migraine and somatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Žarko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A 5-year prospective follow-up study was performed at the Institute of Mental Health in Belgrade, and it included adult patients diagnosed with migraine. Material and methods A protocol for prospective fallow-up of comorbiditiy of migraine and somatic diseases was designed, whereas data were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Results The study comprised 381 patients, mean age 35.8 (range 19-60 years, 60 (15.8% males and 321 (84,2% females. The mean duration of migraine history before the first visit to the doctor was 7.7 (0-36 years. There was no concomitant disease in 50.5% of examinees. The most common concomitant diseases in the study population were: spondylosis (15.9%, head injury (12.9%, gynecological disorders (11.6% of female subgroup, hypotension (8.8%, hypertension (8.5%, allergy and asthma (5.8%, various cardiovascular diseases (4% and epilepsy (3%. The incidence of the majority of diseases is in accordance with known epidemiological data for general population (except for head injury and epilepsy. In the subgroup of patients with comorbidity, almost 70% of patients reported more than one migraine attack per month, compared to 35% of patients without concomitant diseases, and about 60% of them had a higher intensity of headache in comparison with 35% of those without comorbidity. Conclusion Present results indicate an increased severity of migraine attacks in patients with comorbidity. Therefore, it is necessary to assess how good management of comorbid diseases can alleviate the course and intensity of migraine headaches.

  12. Asymmetric segregation of damaged cellular components in spatially structured multicellular organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Strandkvist

    Full Text Available The asymmetric distribution of damaged cellular components has been observed in species ranging from fission yeast to humans. To study the potential advantages of damage segregation, we have developed a mathematical model describing ageing mammalian tissue, that is, a multicellular system of somatic cells that do not rejuvenate at cell division. To illustrate the applicability of the model, we specifically consider damage incurred by mutations to mitochondrial DNA, which are thought to be implicated in the mammalian ageing process. We show analytically that the asymmetric distribution of damaged cellular components reduces the overall damage level and increases the longevity of the cell population. Motivated by the experimental reports of damage segregation in human embryonic stem cells, dividing symmetrically with respect to cell-fate, we extend the model to consider spatially structured systems of cells. Imposing spatial structure reduces, but does not eliminate, the advantage of asymmetric division over symmetric division. The results suggest that damage partitioning could be a common strategy for reducing the accumulation of damage in a wider range of cell types than previously thought.

  13. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; He, Neil; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared...

  14. Asymmetric diffusion of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Medvedev, Mikhail V

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic ray propagation is diffusive because of pitch angle scattering by waves. We demonstrate that if the high-amplitude magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with $\\tilde B/\\langle B\\rangle \\sim 1$ is present on top of the mean field gradient, the diffusion becomes asymmetric. As an example, we consider the vertical transport of cosmic rays in our Galaxy propagating away from a point-like source. We solve this diffusion problem analytically using a one-dimensional Markov chain analysis. We obtained that the cosmic ray density markedly differs from the standard diffusion prediction and has a sizable effect on their distribution throughout the galaxy. The equation for the continuous limit is also derived, which shows limitations of the convection-diffusion equation.

  15. New asymmetric quantum codes over Fq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuena; Feng, Xiaoyi; Xu, Gen

    2016-07-01

    Two families of new asymmetric quantum codes are constructed in this paper. The first family is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=qm-1 over Fq, where qge 5 is a prime power. The second one is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=3m-1. These asymmetric quantum codes are derived from the CSS construction and pairs of nested BCH codes. Moreover, let the defining set T1=T2^{-q}, then the real Z-distance of our asymmetric quantum codes are much larger than δ _max+1, where δ _max is the maximal designed distance of dual-containing narrow-sense BCH code, and the parameters presented here have better than the ones available in the literature.

  16. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Mehmet Seyfettin; Şafak OĞUZ

    2015-01-01

    Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main ...

  17. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amjad Riaz; Xiaoyang Zhao; Xiangpeng Dai; Wei Li; Lei Liu; Haifeng Wan; Yang Yu; Liu Wang; Qi Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of "genetically tailored" human embryonic stem(ES)cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved.Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.

  18. Orientation of the X-line in asymmetric magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunai, N.; Hesse, M.; Lavraud, B.; Dargent, J.; Smets, R.

    2016-08-01

    > Magnetic reconnection can occur in current sheets separating magnetic fields sheared by any angle and of arbitrarily different amplitudes. In such asymmetric and non-coplanar systems, it is not yet understood what the orientation of the X-line will be. Studying how this orientation is determined locally by the reconnection process is important to understand systems such as the Earth magnetopause, where reconnection occurs in regions with large differences in upstream plasma and field properties. This study aims at determining what the local X-line orientation is for different upstream magnetic shear angles in an asymmetric set-up relevant to the Earth's magnetopause. We use two-dimensional hybrid simulations and vary the simulation plane orientation with regard to the fixed magnetic field profile and search for the plane maximizing the reconnection rate. We find that the plane defined by the bisector of upstream fields maximizes the reconnection rate and this appears not to depend on the magnetic shear angle, domain size or upstream plasma and asymmetries.

  19. Regenerating a symmetry in asymmetric dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric dark matter theories generically allow for mass terms that lead to particle-antiparticle mixing. Over the age of the Universe, dark matter can thus oscillate from a purely asymmetric configuration into a symmetric mix of particles and antiparticles, allowing for pair-annihilation processes. Additionally, requiring efficient depletion of the primordial thermal (symmetric) component generically entails large annihilation rates. We show that unless some symmetry completely forbids dark matter particle-antiparticle mixing, asymmetric dark matter is effectively ruled out for a large range of masses, for almost any oscillation time scale shorter than the age of the Universe. PMID:22304253

  20. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  1. Asymmetric warfare and the will to win

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Matthew D.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores the will to win in asymmetric war. Asymmetric war, in which one side has an overwhelming advantage over its opponent, will likely be the war of the future for the United States in the post-Cold War uni-polar world. To win an asymmetric war, the individual and then the masses must be motivated to fight and, ultimately, the will to win must be cultivated and sustained for victory. Religion is a highly effective motivat or for both the individual and the masses. This motiva...

  2. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mattii

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....

  3. SOMATIC ASPECTS OF SPORTS CHAMPIONSHIP IN TAEKWON-DO ITF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiello Wladyslaw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to answer a basic question: which somatic characteristics of taekwon-do ITF athletes correlate the most with their sports level and experience training. Material: Representatives of the Polish taekwon-do ITF national team (n=21 took part in the study. The subjects’ age was in the range of 18.51-32.22 years (24.5±4.1, and their training experience 8.4-22.4 years (13.6±3,4. Results: Measurements of 20 basic somatic characteristics were taken. It was determined that correlations with the sports level and training experience were non-homogeneous and diverse due to the represented weight category. Conclusions: correlations of somatic indices with sports level and training experience among Polish representatives in taekwon-do are heterogeneous and largely dependent on weight category.

  4. Mind-Body Interactions in Anxiety and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Bulbena, Antonio; Pailhez, Guillem; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and somatic symptoms have a high prevalence in the general population. A mechanistic understanding of how different factors contribute to the development and maintenance of these symptoms, which are highly associated with anxiety disorders, is crucial to optimize treatments. In this article, we review recent literature on this topic and present a redefined model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms, with an emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Consideration is given to the role played in this interaction by predisposing physiological and psychological traits (e.g., interoception, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety) and to the levels at which mindfulness approaches may exert a therapeutic benefit. The proposed model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms is appraised in the context of joint hypermobility syndrome, a constitutional variant associated with autonomic abnormalities and vulnerability to anxiety disorders. PMID:26713718

  5. [Somatic complaints, mood states, and emotional awareness in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffe, Carolien; Villanueva, Lidón; Adrián, Juan E; Górriz, Ana B

    2009-08-01

    Health complaints are a common problem in adolescents, but a medical cause can only be found in few cases. Therefore, increasing attention is paid to psychological factors that might be related. Two areas of emotional functioning are frequently referred to in this respect: negative mood and emotional awareness. In this study, we examined whether emotional awareness contributes uniquely to the prediction of somatic complaints over and above negative mood. Self-report questionnaires of somatic complaints, mood states, and emotional awareness were completed in class by 441 adolescents, between 13 and 15 years old. Results showed that emotional awareness only presents a limited unique contribution to the prediction of somatic complaints. This contribution is moderated by mood states, except for two aspects of emotional awareness: bodily awareness of emotions and attending to others' emotions. This strengthens the hypothesis that emotional awareness precedes affective states, which, in turn, have an effect on youngsters' health perceptions. PMID:19622329

  6. Asymmetric Information and Consumer Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismagilova G. N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper study the peculiarities of the formation the consumer demand for durable goods, the so-called «experience goods» in markets with asymmetric information. In the known literature sources studying of the demand is based on the assumption that at the moment of the purchase of goods and services people know exactly what price they are willing to pay for them and what utility they are going to obtain using those goods and services. Consider the signal model in which the initial price and advertising expenditures are the signals of the quality influencing the formation of the demand for new goods offered by the company of unknown quality through consumer behavior. The basis of this model is the study of producers by consumers, acquisition of knowledge, information about price and quality, as well as their use in order to determine the market share of high-quality goods and low-quality goods in the asymmetry of information.

  7. Chaos suppression through asymmetric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Vidal, G.; Mancini, H.; Mendoza, C.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-12-01

    We study pairs of identical coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, we have used Roessler (in the funnel and no funnel regimes), Lorenz, and four-dimensional chaotic Lotka-Volterra models. In all four of these cases, a pair of identical oscillators is asymmetrically coupled. The main result of the numerical simulations is that in all cases, specific values of coupling strength and asymmetry exist that render the two oscillators periodic and synchronized. The values of the coupling strength for which this phenomenon occurs is well below the previously known value for complete synchronization. We have found that this behavior exists for all the chaotic oscillators that we have used in the analysis. We postulate that this behavior is presumably generic to all chaotic oscillators. In order to complete the study, we have tested the robustness of this phenomenon of chaos suppression versus the addition of some Gaussian noise. We found that chaos suppression is robust for the addition of finite noise level. Finally, we propose some extension to this research.

  8. Why Do Nucleosomes Unwrap Asymmetrically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Lennart; Tompitak, Marco; Eslami-Mossallam, Behrouz; Schiessel, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Nucleosomes, DNA spools with a protein core, engage about three-quarters of eukaryotic DNA and play a critical role in chromosomal processes, ranging from gene regulation, recombination, and replication to chromosome condensation. For more than a decade, micromanipulation experiments where nucleosomes are put under tension, as well as the theoretical interpretations of these experiments, have deepened our understanding of the stability and dynamics of nucleosomes. Here we give a theoretical explanation for a surprising new experimental finding: nucleosomes wrapped onto the 601 positioning sequence (the sequence used in most laboratories) respond highly asymmetrically to external forces by always unwrapping from the same end. Using a computational nucleosome model, we show that this asymmetry can be explained by differences in the DNA mechanics of two very short stretches on the wrapped DNA portion. Our finding suggests that the physical properties of nucleosomes, here the response to forces, can be tuned locally by the choice of the underlying base-pair sequence. This leads to a new view of nucleosomes: a physically highly varied set of DNA-protein complexes whose properties can be tuned on evolutionary time scales to their specific function in the genomic context. PMID:26991771

  9. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors. PMID:26430985

  10. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García, Isabel García; March-Russell, John

    2015-01-01

    We study Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (Fraternal) Twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged $SU(3)' \\times SU(2)'$, a twin Higgs, and only third generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD$^\\prime$ scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD} \\simeq 0.5 - 20 \\ {\\rm GeV}$, and $t'$ to be heavy. We focus on the light $b'$ quark regime, $m_{b'} \\lesssim \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$, where QCD$^\\prime$ is characterised by a single scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$ with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful DM candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, $\\Delta' \\sim b'b'b'$, with a dynamically determined mass ($\\sim 5 \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio $\\Omega_{\\rm DM}/\\Omega_{\\rm baryon} \\simeq 5$. Gauging the $U(1)'$ group leads to twin atoms ($\\Delta'$ - $\\bar {\\tau'}$ bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo ...

  11. Oocyte-somatic cells interactions, lessons from evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlier Cathy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the known importance of somatic cells for oocyte developmental competence acquisition, the overall mechanisms underlying the acquisition of full developmental competence are far from being understood, especially in non-mammalian species. The present work aimed at identifying key molecular signals from somatic origin that would be shared by vertebrates. Results Using a parallel transcriptomic analysis in 4 vertebrate species - a teleost fish, an amphibian, and two mammals - at similar key steps of developmental competence acquisition, we identified a large number of species-specific differentially expressed genes and a surprisingly high number of orthologous genes exhibiting similar expression profiles in the 3 tetrapods and in the 4 vertebrates. Among the evolutionary conserved players participating in developmental competence acquisition are genes involved in key processes such as cellular energy metabolism, cell-to-cell communications, and meiosis control. In addition, we report many novel molecular actors from somatic origin that have never been studied in the vertebrate ovary. Interestingly, a significant number of these new players actively participate in Drosophila oogenesis. Conclusions Our study provides a comprehensive overview of evolutionary-conserved mechanisms from somatic origin participating in oocyte developmental competence acquisition in 4 vertebrates. Together our results indicate that despite major differences in ovarian follicular structure, some of the key players from somatic origin involved in oocyte developmental competence acquisition would be shared, not only by vertebrates, but also by metazoans. The conservation of these mechanisms during vertebrate evolution further emphasizes the important contribution of the somatic compartment to oocyte quality and paves the way for future investigations aiming at better understanding what makes a good egg.

  12. The dynamics of somatic exocytosis in monoaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut eSarkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Some monoaminergic neurons can release neurotransmitters by exocytosis from their cell bodies. The amount of monoamine released by somatic exocytosis can be comparable to that released by synaptic exocytosis, though neither the underlying mechanisms nor the functional significance of somatic exocytosis are well understood. A detailed examination of these characteristics may provide new routes for therapeutic intervention in mood disorders, substance addiction, and neurodegenerative diseases. The relatively large size of the cell body provides a unique opportunity to understand the mechanism of this mode of neuronal exocytosis in microscopic detail. Here we used three photon and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to focus on the dynamics of the pre-exocytotic events and explore the nature of somatic vesicle storage, transport and docking at the membrane of serotonergic neurons from raphe nuclei of the rat brain. We find that the vesicles (or unresolved vesicular clusters are quiescent (mean square displacement, MSD ~0.04 μm²/s before depolarization, and they move minimally (< 1 μm from their locations over a time scale of minutes. However, within minutes of depolarization, the vesicles become more dynamic (MSD ~0.3 μm²/s, and display larger range (several μm motions, though without any clear directionality. Docking and subsequent exocytosis at the membrane happen at a timescale (~25 ms that is slower than most synaptic exocytosis processes, but faster than almost all somatic exocytosis processes observed in endocrine cells. We conclude that, A depolarization causes de-tethering of the neurotransmitter vesicles from their storage locations, and this constitutes a critical event in somatic exocytosis; B their subsequent transport kinetics can be described by a process of constrained diffusion, and C the pre-exocytosis kinetics at the membrane is faster than most other somatic exocytosis processes reported so far.

  13. Somatic Embryogenesis in Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuana, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) can be obtained from different organs and tissues. We describe here the induction from stamen filaments and the procedures applied for the successive phases of somatic embryo development and maturation. Embryogenic tissues are obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 9.0 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Somatic embryos develop after transfer to hormone-free medium enriched with glutamine. Maturation and germination of isolated embryos are achieved by transfer to medium containing polyethylene glycol 4000 and activated charcoal, successive desiccation treatment, and cold storage at 4 °C for 8 weeks. PMID:26619878

  14. Generation of bovine transgenics using somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stice Steven L

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to produce transgenic animals through the introduction of exogenous DNA has existed for many years. However, past methods available to generate transgenic animals, such as pronuclear microinjection or the use of embryonic stem cells, have either been inefficient or not available in all animals, bovine included. More recently somatic cell nuclear transfer has provided a method to create transgenic animals that overcomes many deficiencies present in other methods. This review summarizes the benefits of using somatic cell nuclear transfer to create bovine transgenics as well as the possible opportunities this method creates for the future.

  15. Integrated Analysis of Germline and Somatic Variants in Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchi, Krishna L.; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Lu, Charles; McLellan, Michael D; Mark D M Leiserson; Wendl, Michael C; Zhang, Qunyuan; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Xie, Mingchao; Kandoth, Cyriac; McMichael, Joshua F.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Larson, David E.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Christopher A Miller

    2014-01-01

    We report the first large-scale exome-wide analysis of the combined germline-somatic landscape in ovarian cancer. Here we analyze germline and somatic alterations in 429 ovarian carcinoma cases and 557 controls. We identify 3,635 high confidence, rare truncation and 22,953 missense variants with predicted functional impact. We find germline truncation variants and large deletions across Fanconi pathway genes in 20% of cases. Enrichment of rare truncations is shown in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2. ...

  16. Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ik Jae

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.

  17. Massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermayer, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present methods to compute massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes in the framework of dimensional regularization and lattice regularization. We also consider 1-loop sums in both regularizations.

  18. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L;

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...... short-circuit current was analyzed in order to compare the results with the allowable DC current component based in the IEC. Finally the normal operating condition for the power plant was modeled....

  19. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max

    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis. In......-productivity agents receive an information rent. The information rent is equivalent to the total incentive cost. The incentive costs arise as we want to reveal the agent's type....

  20. An asymmetric pericyclic cascade approach to oxindoles

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The research in this thesis describes an asymmetric pericyclic cascade approach to the synthesis of a range of enantioenriched oxindoles using enantiopure oxazolidine derived nitrones and disubstituted ketenes. Chapter 1 aims to place this work in the context of the literature, describing other commonly employed or state-of-the-art asymmetric approaches to oxindoles and related compounds. Examples of where these approaches have been used successfully in the total synthesis of related indol...

  1. Asymmetric Federalism in Russia: Cure or Poison?

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

    2003-01-01

    In the early years of its existence, the Russian Federation adopted a system of differential treatment of its regions in order to cope with the great degree of diversity present in them. This paper examines the Russian Federation’s asymmetric federalism by evaluating the system’s role, significance and effects on the Federation’s development. The study incorporates a detailed description of the asymmetric federalism over time along with the benefits and costs incurred by its implementation. I...

  2. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Gobade, N. G.; Marina Koland; K H Harish

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist...

  3. Asymmetric septal hypertrophy and hypothyroidism in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, D I; Murray, J.; Milner, S.; Dansky, R; Levin, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Any echocardiographic study of two children with hypothyroidism demonstrated the presence of asymmetric septal hypertrophy. One child died aged 11 months, and pronounced thickening of the interventricular septum was confirmed at necropsy. There was also hypertrophy of the left ventricular free wall. Histological examination showed only slight muscle fibre disarray, but there was striking vacuolation and hypertrophy of muscle fibres. In the second case, a child aged five years, the asymmetric ...

  4. Nek11 regulates asymmetric cell division during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Teng; Qi, Shu-Tao; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Hou, Yi; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-06-10

    Nek11, a member of the never in mitosis gene A (NIMA) family, is activated in somatic cells associated with G1/S or G2/M arrest. However, its function in meiosis is unknown. In this research, the expression, localization and functions of NEK11 in the mouse oocyte meiotic maturation were examined. Western blotting indicated that NEK11S was the major NEK11 protein in mouse oocyte. MYC-tagged Nek11 mRNA microinjection and immunofluorescent staining showed that NEK11 was localized to the meiotic spindles at MI and MII stage. Knockdown of Nek11 by microinjection of siRNA did not affect germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body extrusion, but caused formation of 2-cell-like eggs. These results demonstrate that Nek11 regulates asymmetric cell division during oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:27150633

  5. Gene expression analysis of the ovary of hybrid females of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone John H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybrids of frogs of the genus Xenopus result in sterile hybrid males and fertile hybrid females. Previous work has demonstrated a dramatic asymmetrical pattern of misexpression in hybrid males compared to the two parental species with relatively few genes misexpressed in comparisons of hybrids and the maternal species (X. laevis and dramatically more genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to the paternal species (X. muelleri. In this work, we examine the gene expression pattern in hybrid females of X. laevis × X. muelleri to determine if this asymmetrical pattern of expression also occurs in hybrid females. Results We find a similar pattern of asymmetry in expression compared to males in that there were more genes differentially expressed between hybrids and X. muelleri compared to hybrids and X. laevis. We also found a dramatic increase in the number of misexpressed genes with hybrid females having about 20 times more genes misexpressed in ovaries compared to testes of hybrid males and therefore the match between phenotype and expression pattern is not supported. Conclusion We discuss these intriguing findings in the context of reproductive isolation and suggest that divergence in female expression may be involved in sterility of hybrid males due to the inherent sensitivity of spermatogenesis as defined by the faster male evolution hypothesis for Haldane's rule.

  6. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized

  7. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangalia, J.; Massie, C.E.; Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Loo, P. Van; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O'Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing

  8. Somatic Embryos in Catharanthus roseus: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid ASLAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is an important medicinal plant as it contains several anti-cancerous compounds, like vinblastine and vincristine. Plant tissue culture technology (organogenesis and embryogenesis has currently been used in fast mass propagating raw materials for secondary metabolite synthesis. In this present communication, scanning electron microscopic (SEM study of somatic embryos was conducted and discussed. The embryogenic callus was first induced from hypocotyls of in vitro germinated seeds on which somatic embryos, differentiated in numbers, particularly on 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L Murashige and Skoog (MS was medium. To understand more about the regeneration method and in vitro formed embryos SEM was performed. The SEM study revealed normal somatic embryo origin and development from globular to heart-, torpedo- and then into cotyledonary-stage of embryos. At early stage, the embryos were clustered together in a callus mass and could not easily be detached from the parental tissue. The embryos were often long cylindrical structure with or without typical notch at the tip. Secondary embryos were also formed on primary embryo structure. The advanced cotyledonary embryos showed prominent roots and shoot axis, which germinated into plantlets. The morphology, structure and other details of somatic embryos at various stages were presented.

  9. Somatic cell count distributions during lactation predict clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M.J.; Green, L.E.; Schukken, Y.H.; Bradley, A.J.; Peeler, E.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Haas, de Y.; Collis, V.J.; Medley, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated somatic cell count (SCC) records during lactation, with the purpose of identifying distribution characteristics (mean and measures of variation) that were most closely associated with clinical mastitis. Three separate data sets were used, one containing quarter SCC (n = 14

  10. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

  11. Tryptophan as a link between psychopathology and somatic states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, Sascha; Kema, Ido P; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Boon, Jim C; Willemse, Pax H B; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; den Boer, Johannes A; Korf, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several somatic illnesses are associated with psychiatric comorbidity. Evidence is provided that availability of the essential amino acid tryptophan, which is the precursor of serotonin, may cause this phenomenon. METHODS: We performed a database search to find relevant articles published

  12. The histone chaperone CAF-1 safeguards somatic cell identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheloufi, Sihem; Elling, Ulrich; Hopfgartner, Barbara; Jung, Youngsook L; Murn, Jernej; Ninova, Maria; Hubmann, Maria; Badeaux, Aimee I; Euong Ang, Cheen; Tenen, Danielle; Wesche, Daniel J; Abazova, Nadezhda; Hogue, Max; Tasdemir, Nilgun; Brumbaugh, Justin; Rathert, Philipp; Jude, Julian; Ferrari, Francesco; Blanco, Andres; Fellner, Michaela; Wenzel, Daniel; Zinner, Marietta; Vidal, Simon E; Bell, Oliver; Stadtfeld, Matthias; Chang, Howard Y; Almouzni, Genevieve; Lowe, Scott W; Rinn, John; Wernig, Marius; Aravin, Alexei; Shi, Yang; Park, Peter J; Penninger, Josef M; Zuber, Johannes; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2015-12-10

    Cellular differentiation involves profound remodelling of chromatic landscapes, yet the mechanisms by which somatic cell identity is subsequently maintained remain incompletely understood. To further elucidate regulatory pathways that safeguard the somatic state, we performed two comprehensive RNA interference (RNAi) screens targeting chromatin factors during transcription-factor-mediated reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Subunits of the chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1) complex, including Chaf1a and Chaf1b, emerged as the most prominent hits from both screens, followed by modulators of lysine sumoylation and heterochromatin maintenance. Optimal modulation of both CAF-1 and transcription factor levels increased reprogramming efficiency by several orders of magnitude and facilitated iPS cell formation in as little as 4 days. Mechanistically, CAF-1 suppression led to a more accessible chromatin structure at enhancer elements early during reprogramming. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in somatic heterochromatin domains, increased binding of Sox2 to pluripotency-specific targets and activation of associated genes. Notably, suppression of CAF-1 also enhanced the direct conversion of B cells into macrophages and fibroblasts into neurons. Together, our findings reveal the histone chaperone CAF-1 to be a novel regulator of somatic cell identity during transcription-factor-induced cell-fate transitions and provide a potential strategy to modulate cellular plasticity in a regenerative setting. PMID:26659182

  13. Somatic Attractiveness: As in Other Things, Moderation is Best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Harvey R.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated whether a physical attractiveness stereotype exists when "attractive" is defined in terms of physique and "positive" is defined in terms of sex role characteristics and future life happiness. Sex role and life happiness were rated highest for those of intermediate attractiveness. Results for somatic beauty are discussed. (Author/BL)

  14. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.

  15. Reproduction of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides via Somatic Embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchow, Stefanie; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Classen, Birgit

    2015-08-01

    The medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides DC. (Geraniaceae) was traditionally used for the treatment of the common cold and cough in South Africa. Today an aequous-ethanolic root extract from this plant is approved for the treatment of acute bronchitis and is globally marketed also as an immunostimulant. The increasing demand of the plant material for the industrial production indicates the need of new effective methods for the propagation of P. sidoides. Here we report somatic embryogenesis and in vitro plantlet regeneration from somatic cells of inflorescence shoots and petioles of P. sidoides. A one-week cultivation of explants in media containing different concentrations of thidiazuron (1, 2.2, 3, and 4 mg/L) followed by a cultivation period without phytohormones resulted in the induction of somatic embryos within 2-4 weeks. After 2-4 months, the embryos generated roots and could be transferred into a greenhouse, where flower formation took place and the development of seeds occurred with high germination rates. The root umckalin concentration, determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography, was comparable to that of seed-cultivated plants (100 ± 6 vs. 113 ± 10 µg umckalin/g dried roots). For the first time, direct somatic embryogenesis has been established as an appropriate cultivation method for P. sidoides plants used as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, genetically identical plants (chemical races) can be easily generated by this procedure. PMID:26287694

  16. Role of personal psychological profiles in somatic pathology development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorenko I.O.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to examine the correlation between psychological profile of patients of senior age groups, levels of stress hormones — adrenaline and noradrenaline — in blood serum and their pathology character. A psychological profile of 247 patients aged from 55 to 82 years has been established with the help of Kettle test, Tsung self-assessment scale and Spilberger-Khanin scale. The rate of adrenaline and noradrenaline in blood serum in the period of exacerbation of somatic pathology and in the period of relative well-being has been estimated by means of immune-enzyme analysis method. The survey has identified three psychological profiles. The first and third groups are less resistant to stress factors psychological types. They are more likely to develop somatic pathology and depression (37,8 and 53,2% respectively, in comparison with patients of the second group (12,5%. The significant increase of catecholamines has been established among patients of the third type of psychological profile both in the period of exacerbation of somatic pathology and in the period of relative well-being. The article concludes that correlations between psychological personality characteristics, rate of catecholamines and structure of somatic pathology have been worked out

  17. Paroxetine for Somatic Pain Associated With Physical Illness: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Masand, Prakash S.; Narasimhan, Meera; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the prevalence of somatic pain with and without depression or anxiety and the pharmacologic effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine on pain in physical conditions with and without comorbid depression or anxiety.

  18. Induction of plant somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuger, M.

    1996-01-01

    The large scale propagation of plants via somatic embryogenesis, has so far been difficult to achieve. In this thesis research is described leading to embryogenic cell lines that can be maintained for a long period, without loss of genetic stability. It is also described how embryogenic potential of

  19. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. I

  20. Central crosstalk for somatic tinnitus: abnormal vergence eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent oulomotricity problems with orthoptic testing were reported in patients with tinnitus. This study examines with objective recordings vergence eye movements in patients with somatic tinnitus patients with ability to modify their subjective tinnitus percept by various movements, such as jaw, neck, eye movements or skin pressure. METHODS: Vergence eye movements were recorded with the Eyelink II video system in 15 (23-63 years control adults and 19 (36-62 years subjects with somatic tinnitus. FINDINGS: 1 Accuracy of divergence but not of convergence was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 2 Vergence duration was longer and peak velocity was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 3 The number of embedded saccades and the amplitude of saccades coinciding with the peak velocity of vergence were higher for tinnitus subjects. Yet, saccades did not increase peak velocity of vergence for tinnitus subjects, but they did so for controls. 4 In contrast, there was no significant difference of vergence latency between these two groups. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest dysfunction of vergence areas involving cortical-brainstem-cerebellar circuits. We hypothesize that central auditory dysfunction related to tinnitus percept could trigger mild cerebellar-brainstem dysfunction or that tinnitus and vergence dysfunction could both be manifestations of mild cortical-brainstem-cerebellar syndrome reflecting abnormal cross-modality interactions between vergence eye movements and auditory signals.

  1. Integrated analysis of germline and somatic variants in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchi, Krishna L; Johnson, Kimberly J; Lu, Charles; McLellan, Michael D; Leiserson, Mark D M; Wendl, Michael C; Zhang, Qunyuan; Koboldt, Daniel C; Xie, Mingchao; Kandoth, Cyriac; McMichael, Joshua F; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Larson, David E; Schmidt, Heather K; Miller, Christopher A; Fulton, Robert S; Spellman, Paul T; Mardis, Elaine R; Druley, Todd E; Graubert, Timothy A; Goodfellow, Paul J; Raphael, Benjamin J; Wilson, Richard K; Ding, Li

    2014-01-01

    We report the first large-scale exome-wide analysis of the combined germline-somatic landscape in ovarian cancer. Here we analyse germline and somatic alterations in 429 ovarian carcinoma cases and 557 controls. We identify 3,635 high confidence, rare truncation and 22,953 missense variants with predicted functional impact. We find germline truncation variants and large deletions across Fanconi pathway genes in 20% of cases. Enrichment of rare truncations is shown in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2. In addition, we observe germline truncation variants in genes not previously associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility (NF1, MAP3K4, CDKN2B and MLL3). Evidence for loss of heterozygosity was found in 100 and 76% of cases with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 truncations, respectively. Germline-somatic interaction analysis combined with extensive bioinformatics annotation identifies 222 candidate functional germline truncation and missense variants, including two pathogenic BRCA1 and 1 TP53 deleterious variants. Finally, integrated analyses of germline and somatic variants identify significantly altered pathways, including the Fanconi, MAPK and MLL pathways. PMID:24448499

  2. Body dysmorphic disorder, dysmorphophobia or delusional disorder—somatic subtype?

    OpenAIRE

    Aravind, V. K.; Krishnaram, V. D.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive concern about the appearance of one's body is the hallmark of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). A case with recurrent intrusive preoccupation and concern about the appearance of the face, ritualistic behaviours associated with this preoccupation, resulting in social and interpersonal difficulties is presented. The difficulty to draw a discrete boundary between BDD and a delusional disorder of somatic type is highlighted.

  3. Effects of gabapentin on experimental somatic pain and temporal summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Staahl, Camilla;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gabapentin is used for treatment of neuropathic pain, but its effect on different somatic pain modalities and integrative mechanisms are not completely understood. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental pain study, conducted on 20 healthy volunteers...

  4. Fatigue in asymmetric-field-driven ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarization fatigue problems in asymmetric-field-driven ferroelectric thin films is investigated in present Letter. The refreshment of fatigue induced by the application of asymmetric voltage to the top and bottom electrodes is modeled by asymmetric Schottky voltage barrier of a quantum well structure. The fatigue behavior under various asymmetric driving voltages and asymmetric driving pulses have been studied. Theoretical calculations are shown to be in agreement with experimental results

  5. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM IMMATURE EMBRYO INDUCED CALLUS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Preťová; Miroslava Jakubeková; Bohuš Obert

    2012-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is the process by which somatic cells, under induction conditions, generate embryogenic cells, which go through a series of morphological and biochemical changes that result in the formation of a somatic embryo. These characteristics have designated somatic embryogenesis into a model system for the study of morphological, physiological, molecular and biochemical events occurring during the onset and development of embryogenesis in higher plants. In our experiments somati...

  6. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in persons with somatization disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Ali; Deuri, S. P.; Deuri, S. K.; Masroor Jahan; Singh, Amool R.; A N Verma

    2010-01-01

    Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder ...

  7. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  8. File list: Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Gonad Testicular somatic cell...s SRX591729,SRX591717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  10. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Seyfettin EROL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main security issues for the West and especially for NATO after the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Russian military strategies, called “hybrid warfare” by the western countries, resulted in the successful annexation of Crimea and, caused a serious security problem for the West resulting important structural and functional changes for the military system of NATO. Russian activities, which have been based on surprise, ambiguity and deniability, presented a unique example for hybrid warfare studies.

  11. Modification of equine sperm chromatin decondensation method to use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    OpenAIRE

    Zofia Jabłońska; Monika Bugno-Poniewierska; Ewa Słota

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely used in the study of chromosome structure and organization. Cytogenetic evaluation of chromosomes using FISH technique plays an increasingly important role in diagnosing karyotype changes in both somatic and reproductive cells. The aim of the study was to optimize the conditions of stallion sperm decondensation, which have a significant effect on the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Appropriate type and time of decondensation w...

  12. Microstructural and cytogenetic disorders in endosperm of an Avena fatua × A. sterilis hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Tomaszewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A significant difference for cytogenetic and developmental stability of endosperm was discovered between two wild oat species and their hybrid progeny. The development of hybrid endosperm was regulated by apoptosis and proceeded according to a domainal pattern. Many cytogenetic anomalies were also noted, and their appearance was attributed to the activity of transposons or somatic crossing-over. The normal development of endosperm should be considered as an important factor determining viability of seedlings and their intrapopulational competitiveness.

  13. Microstructural and cytogenetic disorders in endosperm of an Avena fatua × A. sterilis hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Tomaszewska; Romuald Kosina

    2014-01-01

    A significant difference for cytogenetic and developmental stability of endosperm was discovered between two wild oat species and their hybrid progeny. The development of hybrid endosperm was regulated by apoptosis and proceeded according to a domainal pattern. Many cytogenetic anomalies were also noted, and their appearance was attributed to the activity of transposons or somatic crossing-over. The normal development of endosperm should be considered as an important factor determining viabil...

  14. Fabrication of Hybrid Nanostructures via Nanoscale Laser-Induced Reshaping for Advanced Light Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, Dmitry A; Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Milichko, Valentin A; Starikov, Sergey V; Morozov, Ivan A; Shishkin, Ivan I; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-04-01

    Ordered hybrid nanostructures for nanophotonics applications are fabricated by a novel approach via femtosecond laser melting of asymmetric metal-dielectric (Au/Si) nanoparticles created by lithographical methods. The approach allows selective reshaping of the metal components of the hybrid nanoparticles without affecting the dielectric ones and is applied for tuning of the scattering properties of the hybrid nanostructures in the visible range. PMID:26901635

  15. Porous asymmetric SiO2-g-PMMA nanoparticles produced by phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Munirasu, Selvaraj

    2014-07-22

    A new kind of asymmetric organic-inorganic porous structure has been proposed. Asymmetric lattices of polymer grafted silica nanoparticles were manufactured by casting and phase inversion in water. Silica nanoparticles were first functionalized with 3-(dimethylethoxysilyl)propyl-2-bromoisobutyrate, followed by grafting of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) segments, performed by atom-transfer radical polymerization. Mechanically stable self-standing films were prepared by casting a dispersion of functionalized nanoparticles in different solvents and immersion in water. The resulting asymmetrically porous morphology and nanoparticle assembly was characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The PMMA functionalized SiO2 hybrid material in acetone or acetone/dioxane led to the best-assembled structures. Porous asymmetric membranes were prepared by adding free PMMA and PMMA terminated with hydrophilic hydroxyl group. Nitrogen flow of 2800 L m-2 h -1 was measured at 1.3 bar demonstrating the porosity and potential application for membrane technology. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  16. Characterization of the relations between morphology and physiological status of the pineal gland in connection with the somatic development level in turkeys reared in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lazăr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research started from the premises of the existence of some possible relationships between indole and pineal peptide hormones and the somatic development, with participation of hypothalamic-pituitary complex. Experimental factors, which were the subject of the present paper, influenced the dynamics of corporal mass and fodder consumption, leading to the occurrence of some important structural modifications at the level of pineal gland. The exposure of the individuals to continuous light (photic pinealectomy produces increases in corporal mass, showing the involvement of the pineal gland in neuro-endocrine-metabolic reactions, which contributes to the maintenance of homeostatic balance, including somatic ones. Biological material was represented by a number of 50 individuals belonging to B.U.T. Big 6 hybrid, reared on soil, on a permanent litter, which could assure the expanding of knowledge area regarding the relation between rearing technology, modulation of some microclimate parameters and growing performances. Were also realised cytometric and hystometric muscular determinations.

  17. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  18. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Conradt, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well. PMID:18399720

  19. The role of GlsA in the evolution of asymmetric cell division in the green alga Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Fowler, Rachel; Tam, Lai-wa; Edwards, Lisseth; Miller, Stephen M

    2003-07-01

    Volvox carteri, a green alga in the order Volvocales, contains two completely differentiated cell types, small motile somatic cells and large reproductive cells called gonidia, that are set apart from each other during embryogenesis by a series of visibly asymmetric cell divisions. Mutational analysis has revealed a class of genes (gonidialess, gls) that are required specifically for asymmetric divisions in V. carteri, but that are dispensable for symmetric divisions. Previously we cloned one of these genes, glsA, and showed that it encodes a chaperone-like protein (GlsA) that has close orthologs in a diverse set of eukaryotes, ranging from fungi to vertebrates and higher plants. In the present study we set out to explore the role of glsA in the evolution of asymmetric division in the volvocine algae by cloning and characterizing a glsA ortholog from one of the simplest members of the group, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which does not undergo asymmetric divisions. This ortholog (which we have named gar1, for glsA related) is predicted to encode a protein that is 70% identical to GlsA overall, and that is most closely related to GlsA in the same domains that are most highly conserved between GlsA and its other known orthologs. We report that a gar1 transgene fully complements the glsA mutation in V. carteri, a result that suggests that asymmetric division probably arose through the modification of a gene whose product interacts with GlsA, but not through a modification of glsA itself. PMID:12743823

  20. Somatic Embryogenesis Induction and Plant Regeneration in Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João F; Correia, Sandra I; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful tool both for cloning and studies of genetic transformation and embryo development. Most protocols for somatic embryogenesis induction start from zygotic embryos or embryonic-derived tissues which do not allow the propagation of elite trees. In the present study, a reliable protocol for somatic embryogenesis induction from adult trees of strawberry tree is described. Leaves from in vitro proliferating shoots were used to induce somatic embryo formation on a medium containing an auxin and a cytokinin. Somatic embryos germinated in a plant growth regulator-free medium. PMID:26619869

  1. Asymmetric Magnon Excitation by Spontaneous Toroidal Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of spontaneous toroidal ordering on magnetic excitation are theoretically investigated for a localized spin model that includes a staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and anisotropic exchange interactions, which arise from the antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling and the multiorbital correlation effect. We show that the model exhibits a Néel-type antiferromagnetic order, which simultaneously accompanies a ferroic toroidal order. We find that the occurrence of toroidal order modulates the magnon dispersion in an asymmetric way with respect to the wave number: a toroidal dipole order on the zigzag chain leads to a band-bottom shift, while a toroidal octupole order on the honeycomb lattice gives rise to a valley splitting. These asymmetric magnon excitations could be a source of unusual magnetic responses, such as nonreciprocal magnon transport. A variety of modulations are discussed while changing the lattice and magnetic symmetries. The implications regarding candidate materials for asymmetric magnon excitations are presented.

  2. Dc SQUIDs with asymmetric shunt resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated asymmetrically shunted Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb dc SQUIDs. Simulations based on the coupled Langevin equations predict that the optimum energy resolution ε, and thus also the noise performance of such an asymmetric SQUID, can be 3-4 times better than that of its symmetric counterpart. While keeping the total resistance R identical to a comparable symmetric SQUID with R-1 = R1-1 + R2-1, we shunted only one of the two Josephson junctions with R = R1,2/2. Both types of SQUIDs were characterized with respect to their transport and noise properties at temperature T = 4.2 K, and we compared the experimental results with numerical simulations. Experiments yielded ε ∼ 32 ℎ for an asymmetric SQUID with an inductance L = 22 pH, whereas a comparable symmetric device achieved ε = 110 ℎ.

  3. DNA SECURITY USING SYMMETRIC AND ASYMMETRIC CRYPTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Terec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents alternative security methods based on DNA. From the available alternative security methods, symmetric DNA algorithms were developed and implemented. The first symmetric DNA algorithm was implemented in the Java language, while the second DNA algorithm was implemented in BioJava and MatLab. Comparisons have been made between the performances of different standard symmetrical algorithms and the DNA proposed algorithms. As a new step to enhance the security, an asymmetric key generation inside a DNA security algorithm is presented. The asymmetric key generation algorithm starts from a password phrase. The asymmetric DNA algorithm proposes a mechanism which makes use of more encryption technologies. Therefore, it is more reliable and more powerful than the OTP DNA symmetric algorithms.

  4. Asymmetric Composite Nanoparticles with Anisotropic Surface Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglu Shi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric inorganic/organic composite nanoparticles with anisotropic surface functionalities represent a new approach for creating smart materials, requiring the selective introduction of chemical groups to dual components of composite, respectively. Here, we report the synthesis of snowman-like asymmetric silica/polystyrene heterostructure with anisotropic functionalities via a chemical method, creating nanostructure possibly offering two-sided biologic accessibility through the chemical groups. Carboxyl group was introduced to polystyrene component of the snowman-like composites by miniemulsion polymerization of monomer on local surface of silica particles. Moreover, amino group was then grafted to remained silica surface through facile surface modification of the composite nanoparticles. The asymmetric shape of these composites was confirmed by TEM characterization. Moreover, characteristics of anisotropic surface functionalities were indicated by Zeta potential measurement and confocal laser microscopy after being labeled with fluorescent dyes. This structure could find potential use as carriers for biological applications.

  5. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Gobade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  6. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  7. Algebraic Davis Decomposition and Asymmetric Doob Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let {({M}, τ)} be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a filtration of von Neumann subalgebras {({M}_n)_{n ≥ 1}} , whose union {bigcup_{n≥1}{M}_n} is weak-* dense in {{M}} . Let {{E}_n} denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for {1 algebraic atomic description for the involved Hardy spaces. The latter results are new even for commutative von Neumann algebras.

  8. Improved DFIG Capability during Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    In the wind power application, different asymmetrical types of the grid fault can be categorized after the Y/d transformer, and the positive and negative components of a single-phase fault, phase-to-phase fault, and two-phase fault can be summarized. Due to the newly introduced negative and even......, the capability of a 2 MW DFIG to ride through asymmetrical grid faults can be estimated at the existing design of the power electronics converter. Finally, a control scheme aimed to improve the DFIG capability is proposed and the simulation results validate its feasibility....

  9. Hot and flowing, asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a consistent treatment for hot and flowing asymmetric nuclear matter. Using the mean-field theory, predictions of the σ- ω Walecka model at finite temperature are compared with the corresponding results of the Zimanyi-Moszlowski and the non-linear models. The statistical theory of grand-canonical potentials is incorporated to the formalism. We also describe the behavior, at finite temperature, of the asymmetric and flowing nuclear matter. As an application, we describe bulk properties of neutron and protoneutron stars by considering the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations. (author)

  10. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices

  11. Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Amanda D; MacQuarrie, Chris J K; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Simpson, J Dale; Lamarche, Josyanne; Beardmore, Tannis; Thompson, Stacey L; Tanguay, Philippe; Isabel, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Hybridization and introgression are pervasive evolutionary phenomena that provide insight into the selective forces that maintain species boundaries, permit gene flow, and control the direction of evolutionary change. Poplar trees (Populus L.) are well known for their ability to form viable hybrids and maintain their distinct species boundaries despite this interspecific gene flow. We sought to quantify the hybridization dynamics and postzygotic fitness within a hybrid stand of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides Marsh.), and their natural hybrids to gain insight into the barriers maintaining this stable hybrid zone. We observed asymmetrical hybrid formation with P. deltoides acting as the seed parent, but with subsequent introgression biased toward P. balsamifera. Native hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to the parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. It is imperative that we understand the selective forces maintaining this native hybrid zone in order to quantify the impact of exotic poplar hybrids on this native system. PMID:24967081

  12. Mitochondria, cellular stress resistance, somatic cell depletion and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Ellen L; Page, Melissa M; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2009-03-01

    The causes of aging and determinants of maximum lifespan in animal species are multifaceted and complex. However, a wealth of experimental data suggests that mitochondria are involved both in the aging process and in regulating lifespan. Here we outline a somatic cell depletion (SCD) model to account for correlations between: (1) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and lifespan; (2) mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes and lifespan; (3) mitochondrial DNA mutation and lifespan and (4) cellular stress resistance and lifespan. We examine the available data from within the framework of the SCD model, in which mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death and gradual loss of essential somatic cells eventually contributes to the decline in physiological performance that limits lifespan. This model is useful in explaining many of the mitochondrial manipulations that alter maximum lifespan in a variety of animal species; however, there are a number of caveats and critical experiments outstanding, and these are outlined in this review. PMID:20021396

  13. Role of trace elements in somatic embryogenesis - A PIXE study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, P.; Raychaudhuri, S. [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Genetics, Calcutta University, 92 APC Road, Kolkata, 700009 West Bengal (India); Mishra, D.; Chakraborty, A. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata, 700098 West Bengal (India); Sudarshan, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata, 700098 West Bengal (India)], E-mail: sude@alpha.iuc.res.in

    2008-03-15

    Proton induced X-ray emission was used to study the trace elemental profiles of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of an important cash crop of India -Plantago ovata. Somatic embryogenesis, a well-known process for plant regeneration and crop improvement is modulated by various factors such as ionizing radiation and micro nutrients in the growth media. The present work reports the trace element variation in normal and irradiated callus tissue of P. ovata. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues were exposed to gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co gamma source. The absorbed dose ranged from 10 to 100 Gy. Subsequent experiments showed significant dose dependent alterations in K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. The precise involvement of these elements has been discussed in light of somatic embryogenesis of the selected medicinal plant.

  14. Functional Somatic Syndromes: Emerging Biomedical Models and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Tan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called functional somatic syndromes comprise a group of disorders that are primarily symptom-based, multisystemic in presentation and probably involve alterations in mind-brain-body interactions. The emerging neurobiological models of allostasis/allostatic load and of the emotional motor system show striking similarities with concepts used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to understand the functional somatic disorders and their underlying pathogenesis. These models incorporate a macroscopic perspective, accounting for the toll of acute and chronic traumas, physical and emotional stressors and the complex interactions between the mind, brain and body. The convergence of these biomedical models with the ancient paradigm of TCM may provide a new insight into scientifically verifiable diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for these common disorders.

  15. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-06-21

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Inference of Tumor Phylogenies with Improved Somatic Mutation Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Salari, Raheleh

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies provide a powerful tool for studying genome evolution during progression of advanced diseases such as cancer. Although many recent studies have employed new sequencing technologies to detect mutations across multiple, genetically related tumors, current methods do not exploit available phylogenetic information to improve the accuracy of their variant calls. Here, we present a novel algorithm that uses somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in multiple, related tissue samples as lineage markers for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Our method then leverages the inferred phylogeny to improve the accuracy of SNV discovery. Experimental analyses demonstrate that our method achieves up to 32% improvement for somatic SNV calling of multiple related samples over the accuracy of GATK\\'s Unified Genotyper, the state of the art multisample SNV caller. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Role of trace elements in somatic embryogenesis - A PIXE study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X-ray emission was used to study the trace elemental profiles of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of an important cash crop of India -Plantago ovata. Somatic embryogenesis, a well-known process for plant regeneration and crop improvement is modulated by various factors such as ionizing radiation and micro nutrients in the growth media. The present work reports the trace element variation in normal and irradiated callus tissue of P. ovata. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues were exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co gamma source. The absorbed dose ranged from 10 to 100 Gy. Subsequent experiments showed significant dose dependent alterations in K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. The precise involvement of these elements has been discussed in light of somatic embryogenesis of the selected medicinal plant

  19. Role of trace elements in somatic embryogenesis A PIXE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Mishra, D.; Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.

    2008-03-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission was used to study the trace elemental profiles of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of an important cash crop of India - Plantago ovata. Somatic embryogenesis, a well-known process for plant regeneration and crop improvement is modulated by various factors such as ionizing radiation and micro nutrients in the growth media. The present work reports the trace element variation in normal and irradiated callus tissue of P. ovata. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues were exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co gamma source. The absorbed dose ranged from 10 to 100 Gy. Subsequent experiments showed significant dose dependent alterations in K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. The precise involvement of these elements has been discussed in light of somatic embryogenesis of the selected medicinal plant.

  20. Chiral N-1-adamantyl-N-trans-cinnamylaniline type ligands: synthesis and application to palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of indoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Takashi; Nishikawa, Kenji; Asano, Moeko; Shima, Yamato; Ebisawa, Toshibumi; Yoshida, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Masami

    2016-08-21

    Such chiral phosphine-internal olefin hybrid type ligands as N-1-adamantyl-N-cinnamylaniline derivatives 1 with C(aryl)-N(amine) bond axial chirality were synthesized and utilized for the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of indoles to afford the desired products in high enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). PMID:27425209

  1. Functional gastrointestinal disorders: psychological, social, and somatic features

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, E.; Piesse, C; Palmer, K; Badcock, C; C. Tennant; Kellow, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Psychological, social, and extraintestinal (somatic) disturbances are prominent features of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID); little attention, however, has been given to differences in the nature of these disturbances in the various FGID subgroups. 
Aims—(1) To determine whether psychological, social, and extraintestinal factors are associated with specific FGID, and/or with the overall severity and extent of FGID disturbance (the number of coexistent...

  2. Human brain somatic representation: a functional magnetic resonance mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romo, Juan; Rojas, Rafael; Salgado, Perla; Sánchez-Cortázar, Julián; Vazquez-Vela, Arturo; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2001-10-01

    Central nervous system studies of injury and plasticity for the reorganization in the phantom limb sensation area presented. In particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping of the somatic and motor cortex of amputee patients, in the case of referred sensations. Using fMRI we can show the correlation between structure and functional field and study the reorganization due to plasticity in the brain.

  3. Association between drinking water disinfection and somatic parameters at birth.

    OpenAIRE

    S Kanitz; Franco, Y; Patrone, V; Caltabellotta, M; Raffo, E; Riggi, C; Timitilli, D; Ravera, G

    1996-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study in Liguria, Italy, on the association between somatic parameters at birth and drinking water disinfection with chlorine dioxide and/or sodium hypochlorite. Over 2 years (1988-1989), 676 births at two public hospitals, one in Genoa (548 cases) and another in Chiavari (128 cases) were examined and data regarding both mother and child were obtained from hospital records. Results indicate a higher frequency of small body length (< or = 49.5 cm) and small cran...

  4. Reprogramming to pluripotency can conceal somatic cell chromosomal instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Hamada

    Full Text Available The discovery that somatic cells are reprogrammable to pluripotency by ectopic expression of a small subset of transcription factors has created great potential for the development of broadly applicable stem-cell-based therapies. One of the concerns regarding the safe use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in therapeutic applications is loss of genomic integrity, a hallmark of various human conditions and diseases, including cancer. Structural chromosome defects such as short telomeres and double-strand breaks are known to limit reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs, but whether defects that cause whole-chromosome instability (W-CIN preclude reprogramming is unknown. Here we demonstrate, using aneuploidy-prone mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs in which chromosome missegregation is driven by BubR1 or RanBP2 insufficiency, that W-CIN is not a barrier to reprogramming. Unexpectedly, the two W-CIN defects had contrasting effects on iPSC genomic integrity, with BubR1 hypomorphic MEFs almost exclusively yielding aneuploid iPSC clones and RanBP2 hypomorphic MEFs karyotypically normal iPSC clones. Moreover, BubR1-insufficient iPSC clones were karyotypically unstable, whereas RanBP2-insufficient iPSC clones were rather stable. These findings suggest that aneuploid cells can be selected for or against during reprogramming depending on the W-CIN gene defect and present the novel concept that somatic cell W-CIN can be concealed in the pluripotent state. Thus, karyotypic analysis of somatic cells of origin in addition to iPSC lines is necessary for safe application of reprogramming technology.

  5. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mattii; B. Tommei; Pasquini, M.

    2011-01-01

    Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999) and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000). In particular the inverse correlation between cheese ...

  6. Somatic Mutation Theory - Why it's Wrong for Most Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücher, Björn L D M; Jamall, Ijaz S

    2016-01-01

    Hysteron proteron reverses both temporal and logical order and this syllogism occurs in carcinogenesis and the somatic mutation theory (SMT): the first (somatic mutation) occurs only after the second (onset of cancer) and, therefore, observed somatic mutations in most cancers appear well after the early cues of carcinogenesis are in place. It is no accident that mutations are increasingly being questioned as the causal event in the origin of the vast majority of cancers as clinical data show little support for this theory when compared against the metrics of patient outcomes. Ever since the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA, virtually all chronic diseases came to be viewed as causally linked to one degree or another to mutations, even though we now know that genes are not simply blueprints, but rather an assemblage of alphabets that can, under non-genetic influences, be used to assemble a business letter or a work of Shakespearean literature. A minority of all cancers is indeed caused by mutations but the SMT has been applied to all cancers, and even to chemical carcinogenesis, in the absence of hard evidence of causality. Herein, we review the 100 year story of SMT and aspects that show why genes are not just blueprints, how radiation and mutation are associated in a more nuanced view, the proposed risk of cancer and bad luck, and the in vitro and in vivo evidence for a new cancer paradigm. This paradigm is scientifically applicable for the majority of non-heritable cancers and consists of a six-step sequence for the origin of cancer. This new cancer paradigm proclaims that somatic mutations are epiphenomena or later events occurring after carcinogenesis is already underway. This serves not just as a plausible alternative to SMT and explains the origin of the majority of cancers, but also provides opportunities for early interventions and prevention of the onset of cancer as a disease. PMID:27160408

  7. Somatic Mutation Theory - Why it's Wrong for Most Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn L.D.M. Brücher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hysteron proteron reverses both temporal and logical order and this syllogism occurs in carcinogenesis and the somatic mutation theory (SMT: the first (somatic mutation occurs only after the second (onset of cancer and, therefore, observed somatic mutations in most cancers appear well after the early cues of carcinogenesis are in place. It is no accident that mutations are increasingly being questioned as the causal event in the origin of the vast majority of cancers as clinical data show little support for this theory when compared against the metrics of patient outcomes. Ever since the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA, virtually all chronic diseases came to be viewed as causally linked to one degree or another to mutations, even though we now know that genes are not simply blueprints, but rather an assemblage of alphabets that can, under non-genetic influences, be used to assemble a business letter or a work of Shakespearean literature. A minority of all cancers is indeed caused by mutations but the SMT has been applied to all cancers, and even to chemical carcinogenesis, in the absence of hard evidence of causality. Herein, we review the 100 year story of SMT and aspects that show why genes are not just blueprints, how radiation and mutation are associated in a more nuanced view, the proposed risk of cancer and bad luck, and the in vitro and in vivo evidence for a new cancer paradigm. This paradigm is scientifically applicable for the majority of non-heritable cancers and consists of a six-step sequence for the origin of cancer. This new cancer paradigm proclaims that somatic mutations are epiphenomena or later events occurring after carcinogenesis is already underway. This serves not just as a plausible alternative to SMT and explains the origin of the majority of cancers, but also provides opportunities for early interventions and prevention of the onset of cancer as a disease.

  8. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz, Amjad; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Li, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wan, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of “genetically tailored” human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to s...

  9. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, M.; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-01-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement ...

  10. Induction of somatic mutations in strawberries by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities were studied of inducing mutations by ionizing radiation (acute doses from 2 to 15 kR). After doses of 6 kR and more the variability of major vegetative traits increased. The frequency of mutations increased with increasing doses of radiation. The obtained results suggest that it is possible to induce somatic mutations in strawberries, especially with regard to breeding of new cultivars with parameters allowing mechanized harvest, with better technological properties and with increased resistance to pests. (author)

  11. Generation of bovine transgenics using somatic cell nuclear transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Stice Steven L; Hodges Craig A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The ability to produce transgenic animals through the introduction of exogenous DNA has existed for many years. However, past methods available to generate transgenic animals, such as pronuclear microinjection or the use of embryonic stem cells, have either been inefficient or not available in all animals, bovine included. More recently somatic cell nuclear transfer has provided a method to create transgenic animals that overcomes many deficiencies present in other methods. This revi...

  12. Family Function and Depression, Anxiety, and Somatization among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ghamari

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between depression, anxiety and somatization among college students. The method of research was correlation. Using cluster sampling 140 college students was selected. Then family assessment device (F.A.D) and SCL-25 questionnaires administrated. Collected data analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient. The results show that there is significant relationship between family dysfunction and depression. There is no significant relations...

  13. Somatic Cell Dedifferentiation/Reprogramming for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Thiyagarajan; Lee, Sun-Hee; Lee, Choon-Soo; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Cho, Hyun-Jai

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dedifferentiation or reprogramming of a somatic cell into a pluripotent embryonic stem cell-like cell (ES-like cell), which give rise to three germ layers and differentiate various cell types, opens a new era in stem cell biology and provides potential therapeutic modality in regenerative medicine. Here, we outline current dedifferentiation/reprogramming methods and their technical hurdles, and the safety and therapeutic applications of reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells in re...

  14. RADIA: RNA and DNA Integrated Analysis for Somatic Mutation Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Radenbaugh, Amie J.; Ma, Singer; Ewing, Adam; Stuart, Joshua M.; Collisson, Eric A.; Zhu, Jingchun; Haussler, David

    2014-01-01

    The detection of somatic single nucleotide variants is a crucial component to the characterization of the cancer genome. Mutation calling algorithms thus far have focused on comparing the normal and tumor genomes from the same individual. In recent years, it has become routine for projects like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to also sequence the tumor RNA. Here we present RADIA (RNA and DNA Integrated Analysis), a method that combines the patient-matched normal and tumor DNA with the tumor RN...

  15. Cytogenetic effects of irradiation on somatic and germ cells

    OpenAIRE

    Egozcue, Josep; Álvarez Arpal, Ricardo; Barquinero, J. F.; BARRIOS, L; Caballín, M. R.; Genescà i Garrigosa, Anna; Miró, Rosa; Ponsa Arjona, Immaculada; Tusell Padrós, Laura

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results obtained in two of the research projects carried out in our laboratory within the radiation protection programs of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the European Union. These two research lines are fundamentally interconnected, since the analysis of the cytogenetic effects of radiation on somatic cells studies the consequences of occupational or accidental exposure to radiation for the individual, especially from the point of view of developing some type o...

  16. Psychiatric and Somatic Markers of Anxiety: Identification and Pharmacologic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    GELENBERG, ALAN J

    2000-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are widely prevalent but insufficiently recognized and inadequately treated in primary care practice. The annual costs of morbidity and mortality of these disorders approach $50 billion, substantially more than costs for schizophrenia or all affective disorders combined. Somatization of anxiety contributes to the challenges of making an accurate diagnosis and to the indirect costs associated with delaying appropriate treatment. Pharmacologic interventions give clinicians the...

  17. Diagnostic criteria for psychosomatic research and somatic symptom disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, Laura; Fava, Giovanni A

    2013-02-01

    The Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) were introduced in 1995 by an international group of investigators to expand the traditional domains of the disease model. The DCPR are a set of 12 'psychosomatic syndromes' which provide operational tools for psychosocial variables with prognostic and therapeutic implications in clinical settings. Eight syndromes concern the main manifestations of abnormal illness behaviour: somatization, hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, and illness denial. The other four syndromes (alexithymia, type A behaviour, demoralization and irritable mood) refer to the domain of psychological factors affecting medical conditions. This review describes the conceptual bases of the DCPR and the main findings concerning their application, with particular reference to the incremental information they added to the customary psychiatric classification. The DCPR were also compared with the provisional DSM-5 somatic symptom disorders. The DCPR were found to be more sensitive than DSM-IV in identifying subthreshold psychological distress and characterizing patients' psychological response to medical illness. DSM-5 somatic symptom disorders seem to neglect important clinical phenomena, such as illness denial, resulting in a narrow view of patients' functioning. The additional information provided by the DCPR may enhance the decision-making process. PMID:23383664

  18. A somatic reference standard for cancer genome sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David W.; Nasser, Sara; Corbett, Richard; Chan, Simon K.; Murray, Lisa; Legendre, Christophe; Tembe, Waibhav; Adkins, Jonathan; Kim, Nancy; Wong, Shukmei; Baker, Angela; Enriquez, Daniel; Pond, Stephanie; Pleasance, Erin; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; McDaniel, Timothy; Ma, Yussanne; Jones, Steven J. M.; Marra, Marco A.; Carpten, John D.; Liang, Winnie S.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale multiplexed identification of somatic alterations in cancer has become feasible with next generation sequencing (NGS). However, calibration of NGS somatic analysis tools has been hampered by a lack of tumor/normal reference standards. We thus performed paired PCR-free whole genome sequencing of a matched metastatic melanoma cell line (COLO829) and normal across three lineages and across separate institutions, with independent library preparations, sequencing, and analysis. We generated mean mapped coverages of 99X for COLO829 and 103X for the paired normal across three institutions. Results were combined with previously generated data allowing for comparison to a fourth lineage on earlier NGS technology. Aggregate variant detection led to the identification of consensus variants, including key events that represent hallmark mutation types including amplified BRAF V600E, a CDK2NA small deletion, a 12 kb PTEN deletion, and a dinucleotide TERT promoter substitution. Overall, common events include >35,000 point mutations, 446 small insertion/deletions, and >6,000 genes affected by copy number changes. We present this reference to the community as an initial standard for enabling quantitative evaluation of somatic mutation pipelines across institutions. PMID:27094764

  19. A somatic reference standard for cancer genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David W; Nasser, Sara; Corbett, Richard; Chan, Simon K; Murray, Lisa; Legendre, Christophe; Tembe, Waibhav; Adkins, Jonathan; Kim, Nancy; Wong, Shukmei; Baker, Angela; Enriquez, Daniel; Pond, Stephanie; Pleasance, Erin; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard A; McDaniel, Timothy; Ma, Yussanne; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Carpten, John D; Liang, Winnie S

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale multiplexed identification of somatic alterations in cancer has become feasible with next generation sequencing (NGS). However, calibration of NGS somatic analysis tools has been hampered by a lack of tumor/normal reference standards. We thus performed paired PCR-free whole genome sequencing of a matched metastatic melanoma cell line (COLO829) and normal across three lineages and across separate institutions, with independent library preparations, sequencing, and analysis. We generated mean mapped coverages of 99X for COLO829 and 103X for the paired normal across three institutions. Results were combined with previously generated data allowing for comparison to a fourth lineage on earlier NGS technology. Aggregate variant detection led to the identification of consensus variants, including key events that represent hallmark mutation types including amplified BRAF V600E, a CDK2NA small deletion, a 12 kb PTEN deletion, and a dinucleotide TERT promoter substitution. Overall, common events include >35,000 point mutations, 446 small insertion/deletions, and >6,000 genes affected by copy number changes. We present this reference to the community as an initial standard for enabling quantitative evaluation of somatic mutation pipelines across institutions. PMID:27094764

  20. Normal somatic cell count and subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, I P

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the normal somatic cell count (SCC) and to define subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes. Data were collected from 60 clinically normal buffaloes stationed at five farms of Chitwan Nepal and Buffalo Research Center, Hissar, India. Somatic cell count was measured using the Newman-Lampert staining technique. The upper limit of SCC was determined >or=200 000/ml of milk based on the mean +/- 2SD of a total SCC. Abnormal data of the SCC was repeatedly removed, which lie beyond the values of more than mean + 2SD until all the data come to lie within (mean + 2SD). Averages of SCC of right front and right hind quarters were significantly higher than left front and left hind quarters. Nearly 94% of California mastitis test (CMT) negative quarters were having somatic cells >or=200 000/ml. The mean SCC of CMT positive quarter was significantly higher (P CMT negative quarters. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed on the basis of samples with SCCs >or=200 000/ml with positive bacterial cultures. Subclinical mastitis was found in 21.7% buffaloes and 8% of the quarter foremilk samples. Neutrophil counts were significantly higher in subclinical mastitis milk. PMID:16626405

  1. [The vaccination of children with severe somatic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchaĭkin, V F; Skachkova, L O; Shamsheva, O V; Smirnov, A V; Polesko, I V; Lezhneva, L N; Timakov, A M; Poliakov, V G; Gavrilova, I E; Gubanova, S G

    1999-01-01

    1,696 children were vaccinated; of these, 1,487 children had different kinds of somatic pathology, including 1,181 children with CNS lesions, 29 children with malignant tumors, 45 children with congenital defects, 82 children with allergic diseases, etc. The group of relatively healthy vaccinees consisted of 209 children. The following vaccines were used for immunization: Tetracoq 05, D.T.Vax, Rudivax, Imovax Polio, Vaxigrip (Pasteur Mèrieux Connaught, France); HBVax, MMRII (Merck Sharp & Dohme, USA); as well as vaccines against hepatitis B produced by Smith Kline Beecham (UK) and Combiotech (Russia). In no case severe vaccine-associated complications were observed. The frequency and manifestation of reactions in children with somatic pathology did nor essentially differ from those in relatively healthy children. The increase of the number of vaccine components did not lead to the increase of the number of side effects of the severity of their manifestation. These investigations demonstrated the safety of vaccination for children with somatic pathology. PMID:10852046

  2. RADIA: RNA and DNA integrated analysis for somatic mutation detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie J Radenbaugh

    Full Text Available The detection of somatic single nucleotide variants is a crucial component to the characterization of the cancer genome. Mutation calling algorithms thus far have focused on comparing the normal and tumor genomes from the same individual. In recent years, it has become routine for projects like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA to also sequence the tumor RNA. Here we present RADIA (RNA and DNA Integrated Analysis, a novel computational method combining the patient-matched normal and tumor DNA with the tumor RNA to detect somatic mutations. The inclusion of the RNA increases the power to detect somatic mutations, especially at low DNA allelic frequencies. By integrating an individual's DNA and RNA, we are able to detect mutations that would otherwise be missed by traditional algorithms that examine only the DNA. We demonstrate high sensitivity (84% and very high precision (98% and 99% for RADIA in patient data from endometrial carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma from TCGA. Mutations with both high DNA and RNA read support have the highest validation rate of over 99%. We also introduce a simulation package that spikes in artificial mutations to patient data, rather than simulating sequencing data from a reference genome. We evaluate sensitivity on the simulation data and demonstrate our ability to rescue back mutations at low DNA allelic frequencies by including the RNA. Finally, we highlight mutations in important cancer genes that were rescued due to the incorporation of the RNA.

  3. RADIA: RNA and DNA integrated analysis for somatic mutation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenbaugh, Amie J; Ma, Singer; Ewing, Adam; Stuart, Joshua M; Collisson, Eric A; Zhu, Jingchun; Haussler, David

    2014-01-01

    The detection of somatic single nucleotide variants is a crucial component to the characterization of the cancer genome. Mutation calling algorithms thus far have focused on comparing the normal and tumor genomes from the same individual. In recent years, it has become routine for projects like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to also sequence the tumor RNA. Here we present RADIA (RNA and DNA Integrated Analysis), a novel computational method combining the patient-matched normal and tumor DNA with the tumor RNA to detect somatic mutations. The inclusion of the RNA increases the power to detect somatic mutations, especially at low DNA allelic frequencies. By integrating an individual's DNA and RNA, we are able to detect mutations that would otherwise be missed by traditional algorithms that examine only the DNA. We demonstrate high sensitivity (84%) and very high precision (98% and 99%) for RADIA in patient data from endometrial carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma from TCGA. Mutations with both high DNA and RNA read support have the highest validation rate of over 99%. We also introduce a simulation package that spikes in artificial mutations to patient data, rather than simulating sequencing data from a reference genome. We evaluate sensitivity on the simulation data and demonstrate our ability to rescue back mutations at low DNA allelic frequencies by including the RNA. Finally, we highlight mutations in important cancer genes that were rescued due to the incorporation of the RNA. PMID:25405470

  4. Hybride betongkonstruksjoner

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerve, Tor Øystein

    2010-01-01

    Denne oppgaven tar for seg beregning og testing av hybride betongkonstruksjoner. Den inneholder også beskrivelse av materialtester. Bjelkene som testes er tenkt å være utsnitt av dekkekonstruksjoner. Konstruksjonene skal bestå av et lag fiberarmert lettbetong, som er tenkt å opptre som en prefabrikert betongforskaling, samt en påstøp som kan fungere som ferdig gulv.I teoridelen av oppgaven er det sett på utfordringer og fordeler ved å benytte hybride konstruksjoner. I tillegg er beregningsvei...

  5. Flare Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tomczak; Dubieniecki, P.

    2015-01-01

    Svestka (Solar Phys. 1989, 121, 399) on the basis of the Solar Maximum Mission observations introduced a new class of flares, the so-called flare hybrids. When they start, they look as typical compact flares (phase 1), but later on they look like flares with arcades of magnetic loops (phase 2). We summarize the features of flare hybrids in soft and hard X-rays as well as in extreme-ultraviolet; these allow us to distinguish them from other flares. Additional energy release or long plasma cool...

  6. Examining asymmetric effects in the South African Philips curve: Evidence from logistic smooth transition regression (LSTR) models

    OpenAIRE

    Phiri, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study contributes to the foregoing literature by investigating asymmetric behaviour within the South African short-run Phillips curve for three versions of the Phillips curve specification namely; the New Classical Phillips curve, the New Keynesian Phillips curve and the Hybrid New Keynesian Phillips curve. To this end, we employ a logistic smooth transition regression (LSTR) econometric model to each of the aforementioned versions of the Phillips curve specifications for quarterly data ...

  7. Asymmetric cell division: a persistent issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Aakre, Christopher D.; Laub, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity within a clonal population of cells can increase survival in the face of environmental stress. In a recent issue of Science, Aldridge et al. (2012) demonstrate that cell division in mycobacteria is asymmetric, producing daughter cells that differ in size, growth rate, and susceptibility to antibiotics.

  8. Asymmetric demand for energy: A cointegration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Thomas Frank

    1997-12-01

    This paper uses time series data in a study of the demand for energy. One goal is to compare the results from the traditional autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) model to the error correction model (ECM) using cointegration. The second goal is to determine if the demand elasticity is asymmetric with respect to increasing and decreasing prices. This paper discusses three topics that are important to the use of time series data. The first topic is the presence and consequences unit roots which are common in time series data. The second topic is the identification of cointegrated variables and the third topic is a development of the ECM. This results in a model that can be used in either a single equation or multivariate system context and it will estimate both long run and short run elasticities. Asymmetry theory and its implications are studied along with an investigation into competing methods of creating the asymmetric variables. Simulations provided evidence that the use of dummy variables results in biased estimates and that the cumulative difference method of Wolffram/Houck gives valid estimates. The results of the empirical part of the paper show that the short run estimates of the ADL model are like those of the error correction model, but the cointegration method's long run estimates are better since they are known to be consistent and asymptotically unbiased. Tests for asymmetry do not support the theory of asymmetric long run price elasticities; however there is evidence to support the presence of asymmetric demand in the short run.

  9. Leverage bounds with default and asymmetric information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2014. [2014 North American Summer Meeting of the Econometric Society. Minneapolis (US), 19.06.2014-22.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1340 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : financial markets and the macroeconomy * asymmetric and private information * occupational choice Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://editorialexpress.com/conference/NASM2014/program/NASM2014.html

  10. Asymmetric Taxation under Incremental and Sequential Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Panteghini, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of an asymmetric tax scheme on incremental and sequential investment strategies. The tax base is equal to the firm’s return, net of an imputation rate. When the firm’s return is less than this rate, however, no tax refunds are allowed. This scheme is neutral under both income and capital uncertainty.

  11. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  12. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of mycocerosic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, B.; Feringa, B.L.; J. Minnaard, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of mycocerosic acid was achieved via the application of iterative enantioselective 1,4-addition reactions and allows for the efficient construction of 1,3-polymethyl arrays with full stereocontrol; further exemplified by the synthesis of tetramethyl-dec

  13. Evidence of asymmetric top in 130Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduced is a new relation connecting moment of inertia, Lipas parameter and asymmetric rotor model energies and put forward much closer trend in odd even staggering of quasi γ-band. A different view point regarding generation of quasi γ-band in 130Ba have been presented

  14. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  15. Detection loophole in asymmetric Bell experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Simon, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The problem of closing the detection loophole with asymmetric systems, such as entangled atom-photon pairs, is addressed. We show that, for the Bell inequality I_3322, a minimal detection efficiency of 43% can be tolerated for one of the particles, if the other one is always detected. We also study the influence of noise and discuss the prospects of experimental implementation.

  16. Cytohistological analysis of somatic embryogenesis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. II. Natural fluorescence and direct somatic embryogenesis from protoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Burza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of protoplast derived from somatic embryos and some of their characteristics were compared with embryos from suspension and in vivo in the same B line. Embryos formed in a protoplast culture differed from others that their younger stages contained vacuolated cells, and older ones had altered morphological and histological structure. Somatic embryogenesis is more regular from suspension then from protoplasts. No distinct differences were observed in the rate of embryo development in vivo and in vitro, and in vitro embryos show a larger variation in size at the same stage. Embryos in vitro with fluorescence are generally larger than zygotic ones at each stage. The use of fluorescence is suggested for the selection of heterokariocytes after protoplast fusion.

  17. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2012-01-01

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical differentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  18. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical dierentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  19. Hormonally regulated overexpression of Arabidopsis WUS and conifer LEC1 (CHAP3A) in transgenic white spruce: implications for somatic embryo development and somatic seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Pelletier, Gervais; Overton, Catherine; Stewart, Don; Rutledge, Robert G

    2010-07-01

    Adult conifers are still recalcitrant in clonal propagation despite significant advances in forest tree biotechnology. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from explants older than mature zygotic embryos is either difficult or impossible to achieve. To investigate if ectopic expression of transcription factors involved in the induction of the embryogenic process would induce somatic embryogenesis in Picea glauca (white spruce) somatic plants, we used the LEAFY-COTYLEDON1 homolog cloned from Picea mariana, CHAP3A, and Arabidopsis thaliana WUS to transform embryonal mass of P. glauca. Ectopic gene expression was induced by 17-beta-estradiol during stages of somatic embryogenesis (early embryogenesis and late embryogenesis) and somatic seedling growth in the transgenics. Of the two transcription factors, only WUS produced severe phenotypes by disrupting the development of somatic embryos on the maturation medium and inhibiting germination. However, none of the transgenes induced ectopic somatic embryogenesis even in the presence of plant growth regulators. Absolute quantitative PCR confirmed the expression of both CHAP3A and WUS in transgenic embryonal mass and in all parts of somatic seedlings. A high expression of the transgenes did not influence expression profiles of any of the ten other transcription factors tested, some of which have been known to be involved in the process of embryogenesis. Implications of these results for further work are discussed. PMID:20424847

  20. Asymmetric Bulkheads for Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donald B.

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetric bulkheads are proposed for the ends of vertically oriented cylindrical pressure vessels. These bulkheads, which would feature both convex and concave contours, would offer advantages over purely convex, purely concave, and flat bulkheads (see figure). Intended originally to be applied to large tanks that hold propellant liquids for launching spacecraft, the asymmetric-bulkhead concept may also be attractive for terrestrial pressure vessels for which there are requirements to maximize volumetric and mass efficiencies. A description of the relative advantages and disadvantages of prior symmetric bulkhead configurations is prerequisite to understanding the advantages of the proposed asymmetric configuration: In order to obtain adequate strength, flat bulkheads must be made thicker, relative to concave and convex bulkheads; the difference in thickness is such that, other things being equal, pressure vessels with flat bulkheads must be made heavier than ones with concave or convex bulkheads. Convex bulkhead designs increase overall tank lengths, thereby necessitating additional supporting structure for keeping tanks vertical. Concave bulkhead configurations increase tank lengths and detract from volumetric efficiency, even though they do not necessitate additional supporting structure. The shape of a bulkhead affects the proportion of residual fluid in a tank that is, the portion of fluid that unavoidably remains in the tank during outflow and hence cannot be used. In this regard, a flat bulkhead is disadvantageous in two respects: (1) It lacks a single low point for optimum placement of an outlet and (2) a vortex that forms at the outlet during outflow prevents a relatively large amount of fluid from leaving the tank. A concave bulkhead also lacks a single low point for optimum placement of an outlet. Like purely concave and purely convex bulkhead configurations, the proposed asymmetric bulkhead configurations would be more mass-efficient than is the flat

  1. Replication of somatic micronuclei in bovine enucleated oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canel Natalia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT was developed to introduce a low number of chromosomes into a host cell. We have designed a novel technique combining part of MMCT with somatic cell nuclear transfer, which consists of injecting a somatic micronucleus into an enucleated oocyte, and inducing its cellular machinery to replicate such micronucleus. It would allow the isolation and manipulation of a single or a low number of somatic chromosomes. Methods Micronuclei from adult bovine fibroblasts were produced by incubation in 0.05 μg/ml demecolcine for 46 h followed by 2 mg/ml mitomycin for 2 h. Cells were finally treated with 10 μg/ml cytochalasin B for 1 h. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were mechanically enucleated and intracytoplasmatically injected with one somatic micronucleus, which had been previously exposed [Micronucleus- injected (+] or not [Micronucleus- injected (−] to a transgene (50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP during 5 min. Enucleated oocytes [Enucleated (+] and parthenogenetic [Parthenogenetic (+] controls were injected into the cytoplasm with less than 10 pl of PVP containing 50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP. A non-injected parthenogenetic control [Parthenogenetic (−] was also included. Two hours after injection, oocytes and reconstituted embryos were activated by incubation in 5 μM ionomycin for 4 min + 1.9 mM 6-DMAP for 3 h. Cleavage stage and egfp expression were evaluated. DNA replication was confirmed by DAPI staining. On day 2, Micronucleus- injected (−, Parthenogenetic (− and in vitro fertilized (IVF embryos were karyotyped. Differences among treatments were determined by Fisher′s exact test (p≤0.05. Results All the experimental groups underwent the first cell divisions. Interestingly, a low number of Micronucleus-injected embryos showed egfp expression. DAPI staining confirmed replication of micronuclei in most of the evaluated embryos. Karyotype analysis revealed that all Micronucleus-injected embryos had

  2. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  3. Fusion of protoplasts with irradiated microprotoplasts as a tool for radiation hybrid panel in citrus Fusão de protoplastos com microprotoplastos irradiados como ferramenta para painel híbrido de radiação em citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to combine asymmetric somatic hybridization (donor-recipient fusion or gamma fusion to microprotoplast-mediated chromosome transfer, as a tool to be used for chromosome mapping in Citrus. Swinglea glutinosa microprotoplasts were irradiated either with 50, 70, 100 or 200 gamma rays and fused to cv. Ruby Red grapefruit or Murcott tangor protoplasts. Cell colonies were successfully formed and AFLP analyses confirmed presence of S. glutinosa in both 'Murcott' tangor and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit genomes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi combinar hibridação somática assimétrica (fusão doador-recipiente ou fusão gama e transferência cromossômica mediada por microprotoplastos como uma ferramenta para o mapeamento cromossômico em Citrus. Microprotoplastos de Swinglea glutinosa foram irradiados com doses de 50, 70, 100 ou 200 raios gama e fusionados com protoplastos de pomelo cv. Ruby Red ou de tangor Murcott. Houve sucesso na formação de colônias de células, e a análise AFLP confirmou a presença de S. glutinosa nos genomas do tangor 'Murcott' e do pomelo 'Ruby Red'.

  4. Somatic pairing, endomitosis and chromosome aberrations in snakes (Viperidae and Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beçak Maria Luiza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The positioning of macrochromosomes of Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops insularis (Viperidae was studied in undistorted radial metaphases of uncultured cells (spermatogonia and oogonia not subjected to spindle inhibitors. Colchicinized metaphases from uncultured (spleen and intestine and cultured tissues (blood were also analyzed. We report two antagonic non-random chromosome arrangements in untreated premeiotic cells: the parallel configuration with homologue chromosomes associated side by side in the metaphase plate and the antiparallel configuration having homologue chromosomes with antipolar distribution in the metaphase ring. The antiparallel aspect also appeared in colchicinized cells. The spatial chromosome arrangement in both configurations is groupal size-dependent and maintained through meiosis. We also describe, in untreated gonia cells, endomitosis followed by reductional mitosis which restores the diploid number. In B. jararaca males we observed that some gonad regions present changes in the meiotic mechanism. In this case, endoreduplicated cells segregate the diplochromosomes to opposite poles forming directly endoreduplicated second metaphases of meiosis with the suppression of first meiosis. By a successive division, these cells form nuclei with one set of chromosomes. Chromosome doubling in oogonia is known in hybrid species and in parthenogenetic salamanders and lizards. This species also presented chromosome rearrangements leading to aneuploidies in mitosis and meiosis. It is suggested that somatic pairing, endomitosis, meiotic alterations, and chromosomal aberrations can be correlated processes. Similar aspects of nuclei configurations, endomitosis and reductional mitosis were found in other Viperidae and Colubridae species.

  5. An Approach for Treating the Hepatobiliary Disease of Cystic Fibrosis by Somatic Gene Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiping; Raper, Steven E.; Cohn, Jonathan A.; Engelhardt, John F.; Wilson, James M.

    1993-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease of epithelial cell ion transport that is associated with pathology in multiple organ systems, including lung, pancreas, and liver. As treatment of the pulmonary manifestations of CF has improved, management of CF liver disease has become increasingly important in adult patients. This report describes an approach for treating CF liver disease by somatic gene transfer. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry analysis of rat liver sections indicated that the endogenous CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is primarily expressed in the intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells. To specifically target recombinant genes to the biliary epithelium in vivo, recombinant adenoviruses expressing lacZ or human CFTR were infused retrograde into the biliary tract through the common bile duct. Conditions were established for achieving recombinant gene expression in virtually all cells of the intrahepatic bile ducts in vivo. Expression persisted in the smaller bile ducts for the duration of the experiment, which was 21 days. These studies suggest that it may be feasible to prevent CF liver disease by genetically reconstituting CFTR expression in the biliary tract, using an approach that is clinically feasible.

  6. Asymmetric evolution of magnetic reconnection in collisionless accretion disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evolution of a magnetic reconnection in a collisionless accretion disk is investigated using a 2.5 dimensional hybrid code simulation. In astrophysical disks, magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered to play an important role by generating turbulence in the disk and contributes to an effective angular momentum transport through a turbulent viscosity. Magnetic reconnection, on the other hand, also plays an important role on the evolution of the disk through a dissipation of a magnetic field enhanced by a dynamo effect of MRI. In this study, we developed a hybrid code to calculate an evolution of a differentially rotating system. With this code, we first confirmed a linear growth of MRI. We also investigated a behavior of a particular structure of a current sheet, which would exist in the turbulence in the disk. From the calculation of the magnetic reconnection, we found an asymmetric structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field during the evolution of reconnection, which can be understood by a coupling of the Hall effect and the differential rotation. We also found a migration of X-point whose direction is determined only by an initial sign of J0×Ω0, where J0 is the initial current density in the neutral sheet and Ω0 is the rotational vector of the background Keplerian rotation. Associated with the migration of X-point, we also found a significant enhancement of the perpendicular magnetic field compared to an ordinary MRI. MRI-Magnetic reconnection coupling and the resulting magnetic field enhancement can be an effective process to sustain a strong turbulence in the accretion disk and to a transport of angular momentum

  7. Somatic diversification in the heavy chain variable region genes expressed by human autoantibodies bearing a lupus-associated nephritogenic anti-DNA idiotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaison, C.; Chastagner, P.; Theze, J.; Zouali, M. (Institut Pasteur, Paris (France))

    1994-01-18

    Monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies bearing a lupus nephritis-associated idiotype were derived from five patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Genes encoding their heavy (H)-chain variable (V[sub H]) regions were cloned and sequenced. When compared with their closest V[sub h] germ-line gene relatives, these sequences exhibit a number of silent (S) and replacement (R) substitutions. The ratios of R/S mutations were much higher in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the antibodies than in the framework regions. Molecular amplification of genomic V[sub H] genes and Southern hybridization with somatic CDR2-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that the configuration of the V[sub H] genes corresponding to V[sub H] sequences in the nephritogenic antibodies is not present in the patient's own germ-line DNA, implying that the B-cell clones underwent somatic mutation in vivo. These findings, together with the characteristics of the diversity and junctional gene elements utilized to form the antibody, indicate that these autoantibodies have been driven through somatic selection processes reminiscent of those that govern antibody responses triggered by exogenous stimuli.

  8. Simultaneous DNA and RNA mapping of somatic mitochondrial mutations across diverse human cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, James B.; Alaei-Mahabadi, Babak; Radhakrishnan, Sabarinathan; Samuelsson, Tore; Gorodkin, Jan; Gustafsson, Claes M; Larsson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the nuclear genome are required for tumor formation, but the functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are less understood. Here we identify somatic mtDNA mutations across 527 tumors and 14 cancer types, using an approach that takes advantage of e...... mitochondrial tRNA biogenesis that are difficult to address in controlled experimental systems.......Somatic mutations in the nuclear genome are required for tumor formation, but the functional consequences of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are less understood. Here we identify somatic mtDNA mutations across 527 tumors and 14 cancer types, using an approach that takes advantage of......, demonstrating that correct tRNA folding is a major determinant for processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts. Additionally, the data suggest that tRNA clusters are preferably processed in the 3' to 5' direction. Our study gives insights into mtDNA function in cancer and answers questions regarding...

  9. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  10. Localization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Theobroma cacao L. Somatic Embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    ALEMANNO, L.; Ramos, T.; GARGADENEC, A.; ANDARY, C.; FERRIERE, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cocoa breeders and growers continue to face the problem of high heterogeneity between individuals derived from one progeny. Vegetative propagation by somatic embryogenesis could be a way to increase genetic gains in the field. Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. This study was conducted to investigate the phenolic composition of cocoa flowers (the explants used to achieve somatic embryogenesis) and how it changes during the process, by m...

  11. Separate Location of Parental Chromosomes in Squashed Metaphases of Hybrid between Hordeum vulgare L. and Four Polyploid, Alien Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    In 38 squashed, somatic metaphases of four hybrids between diploid Hordeum vulgare and two tetra-and two hexaploid alien species, each of the H. vulgare chromosomes was identifed, and differentiated from the chromosomes of the other parental species, by its Giemsa C-banding pattern. The H. vulgare...

  12. Germ-line and somatic DICER1 mutations in pineoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kock, Leanne; Sabbaghian, Nelly; Druker, Harriet; Weber, Evan; Hamel, Nancy; Miller, Suzanne; Choong, Catherine S; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Kees, Ursula R; Rednam, Surya P; van Hest, Liselotte P; Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Jhangiani, Shalini; Lupski, James R; Zacharin, Margaret; Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Huang, Annie; Priest, John R; Perry, Arie; Mueller, Sabine; Albrecht, Steffen; Malkin, David; Grundy, Richard G; Foulkes, William D

    2014-10-01

    Germ-line RB-1 mutations predispose to pineoblastoma (PinB), but other predisposing genetic factors are not well established. We recently identified a germ-line DICER1 mutation in a child with a PinB. This was accompanied by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type allele within the tumour. We set out to establish the prevalence of DICER1 mutations in an opportunistically ascertained series of PinBs. Twenty-one PinB cases were studied: Eighteen cases had not undergone previous testing for DICER1 mutations; three patients were known carriers of germ-line DICER1 mutations. The eighteen PinBs were sequenced by Sanger and/or Fluidigm-based next-generation sequencing to identify DICER1 mutations in blood gDNA and/or tumour gDNA. Testing for somatic DICER1 mutations was also conducted on one case with a known germ-line DICER1 mutation. From the eighteen PinBs, we identified four deleterious DICER1 mutations, three of which were germ line in origin, and one for which a germ line versus somatic origin could not be determined; in all four, the second allele was also inactivated leading to complete loss of DICER1 protein. No somatic DICER1 RNase IIIb mutations were identified. One PinB arising in a germ-line DICER1 mutation carrier was found to have LOH. This study suggests that germ-line DICER1 mutations make a clinically significant contribution to PinB, establishing DICER1 as an important susceptibility gene for PinB and demonstrates PinB to be a manifestation of a germ-line DICER1 mutation. The means by which the second allele is inactivated may differ from other DICER1-related tumours. PMID:25022261

  13. Asymmetric fuel assembly for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coolant turning introduction member is properly extended at coolant flow channels on the side of control rod of an inner frame for supporting the insertion of a water channel. With such a constitution, the thermal margin of the fuel rods can be made uniform over the entire region of the channel box by supplying coolants uniformly for an asymmetrical fuel assembly which can effectively suppress local peaking coefficient thereby enabling to improve performances at limit power. In addition, in the asymmetrical fuel assembly, a flow vane disposed to the outer frame plate of a spacer is increased in the size at coolant flow channels on the side of the control rod. Then, sufficient amount of coolants can surely be supplied to fuel rods at coolant flow channels on the side of the control rod. (N.H.)

  14. ON ASYMMETRIC DISTRIBUTIONS OF SATELLITE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that the asymmetric distribution of M31 satellites cannot be produced by tides from the Milky Way as such effects are too weak. However, loosely bound associations and groups of satellites can fall into larger halos and give rise to asymmetries. We compute the survival times for such associations. We prove that the survival time is always shortest in Keplerian potentials, and can be ∼3 times longer in logarithmic potentials. We provide an analytical formula for the dispersal time in terms of the size and velocity dispersion of the infalling structure. We show that, if an association of ∼10 dwarfs fell into the M31 halo, its present aspect would be that of an asymmetric disk of satellites. We also discuss the case of cold substructure in the Andromeda II and Ursa Minor dwarfs

  15. Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We develop the model proposed by Cort\\^es, Gomes & Smolin, to predict cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric extensions of general relativity they proposed recently. Within this class of models the equation of motion of chiral fermions is modified by a torsion term. This term leads to a dispersion law for neutrinos that associates a new time-varying energy with each particle. We find a new neutrino contribution to the Friedmann equation resulting from the torsion term in the Ashtekar connection. In this note we explore the phenomenology of this term and observational consequences for cosmological evolution. We show that constraints on the critical energy density will ordinarily render this term unobservably small, a maximum of order $10^{-25}$ of the neutrino energy density today. However, if the time-asymmetric dark energy is tuned to cancel the cosmological constant, the torsion effect may be a dark matter candidate.

  16. Effects of asymmetric sitting on spinal balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hee Soon; Oh, Jong Chi; Won, Sung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of two common asymmetric sitting positions on spinal balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven healthy subjects in their twenties were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Asymmetric positions of resting the chin on a hand and crossing the legs were performed by each group for 1 hour. After 1 hour, the subjects lay in the supine position again and spinal imbalance was measured using a device. [Results] After 1 hour of resting with the chin on a hand, sagittal imbalance, coronal imbalance, pelvic obliquity and lordosis angle presented spinal imbalance worsening of 1 hour of crossing legs, sagittal imbalance, pelvic torsion showed in mainly learned spinal imbalance living. [Conclusion] Good posture could be an innate ability, however it through habits. So this study is meaningful from the perspective of the importance of good posture. PMID:27065291

  17. Somatic cell count control strategies in dairy ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Spanu, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The consumption of milk products, especially made from raw milk, have been reported to be associated with food borne diseases. Since most sheep’s milk products are made from raw milk, it is clear how udder health is an important prerequisite to produce hygienic milk. Ewes with mastitis, particularly in their subclinical form, serve as reservoir of pathogens that can be shed into the milk and constitute a potential risk for human health. Milk somatic cell count (SCC) is not a public health con...

  18. Reconstruction of human embryos derived from somatic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Changfu; LIN Ge; XIE Changqing; GONG Fei; ZHOU Hong; TAN Yueqiu; LU Guangxiu

    2003-01-01

    Reconstruction of human nuclear transfer embryos is a necessary step of therapeutic cloning. In this study we injected somatic cell nuclei into MⅡ oocytes and activated reconstructed oocytes with calcium ionophore A23187 (CaA) and 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP). After oocyte activation and 2PN formation, we removed the female PN. By using this method, we avoided the application of DNA fluorescent stain and ultraviolet light for oocyte enucleation, and over elimination of ooplasm was also mitigated. Some reconstructed embryos developed into theblastocyst stage in vitro.

  19. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in carob ( Ceratonia siliqua L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Canhoto, Jorge; Rama, Sandra; Cruz, Gil

    2006-01-01

    Summary Somatic embryos of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were induced from cotyledonary segments excised from immature seeds when cultured on Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with several combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The best frequencies of induction (33.8%) were obtained when 4.4 µM BA and 0.5 µM IBA were used. Shoots were also sporadically formed in the same media. When IBA was replaced by other auxins in the induction media, only a-naphtha...

  20. Scale-free dynamics of somatic adaptability in immune system

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Shiro

    2009-01-01

    The long-time dynamics of somatic adaptability in immune system is simulated by a simple physical model. The immune system described by the model exhibits a scale free behavior as is observed in living systems. The balance between the positive and negative feedbacks of the model leads to a robust immune system where the positive one corresponds to the formation of memory cells and the negative one to immunosuppression. Also the immunosenescence of the system is discussed based on the time-dependence of the epigenetic landscape of the adaptive immune cells in the shape space.

  1. Somatic mosaicism in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Colman, S D; Rasmussen, S A; Ho, V. T.; Abernathy, C R; Wallace, M R

    1996-01-01

    Using loss of heterozygosity analysis, a method designed to detect moderate to large gene deletions, we have identified a new-mutation neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient who is somatically mosaic for a large maternally derived deletion in the NF1 gene region. The deletion extends at least from exon 4 near the 5' end of the gene to intron 39 near the 3' end. The gene-coding region is, therefore, mostly or entirely deleted, encompassing a loss of > or = 100 kb. We hypothesize that the delet...

  2. Comparison of somatic mutation in a transgenic versus host locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, K S; Urlando, C; Heddle, J A

    1993-01-01

    Somatic mutations can now be quantified in almost any cell type in mice carrying bacterial genes in a lambda phage shuttle vector. Mutations induced in vivo are detectable ex vivo, after packaging host-cell DNA into phage that are grown on suitable bacteria. However, the transgenic DNA differs from many host loci in several ways: it (i) is prokaryotic DNA, (ii) is present in multiple tandem copies, and (iii) is heavily methylated and probably not expressed. Thus, mutation of a transgene may n...

  3. Novel technologies using radiation and somatic embryogenesis for Kenaf improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a plant in the Malvaceae family, similar to roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), holds a promising potential in the Malaysian bio composite industry. Its long fibres are suitable in the process of making a number of products such as pulp and paper, fibre and particle boards, as well as fibre reinforced plastic components and chemical absorbent. Most varieties of kenaf are photo period sensitive and vegetative growth increases until the daylight period becomes less than 12 h 30 min. flowering is then initiated and the vegetative growth rate declines. At present, most of the varieties planted by the farmers produced very low yield, between 3-5 tons/ha. The aim of this research proposal is to study the potential of using nuclear technique with the use radiation in combination with biotechnology to induce genetic variability in kenaf using somatic embryogenesis. Since mutation is a single cell event, irradiation of cell cultures such as somatic embryos will induce high rate of mutation for selection of desired traits. One of the main objectives of the project was to establish an efficient and productive regeneration system for intact plants from somatic embryos obtained from the original mother plant varieties: G4, V36 dan G393. Once regeneration protocol has been optimized, somatic embryos were irradiated using both acute (high dose rate) and chronic (lower dose rate) gamma irradiation with effective doses (2-3 doses). It takes between 4-5 months to reach maximum height of 4-6 meters from seed propagated plants before they can be harvested. With the use of in vitro mutagenesis, screening and selection of new mutant lines with traits of interest can be achieved within a short period of time (3-5 years). Field evaluations were carried out in collaboration with National Kenaf and Tobacco Board (NKTB) and Kelantan Biotech Corporation Sdn. Bhd. targeted for desired

  4. Family therapy for children with functional somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte

    Introduction: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) can be defined as physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by organic pathology. FSS are prevalent in children worldwide and in all medical settings, and when severe, pose a major burden on those with FSS and on society. In clinical practice...... conducted with reference to the PRISMA guidelines. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The individual study quality was assessed by the standardised Psychotherapy outcome study methodology rating form – revised (POMF – R) followed by an overall descriptive synthesis of the findings. Results...

  5. [Psychiatric comorbidity in somatic disorders. Psychophytopharmaceuticals are worth a try].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, H P

    2001-05-28

    Somatic and psychiatric illnesses are commonly associated. Cardiovascular disorders, Parkinson's disease and stroke are especially often associated with depression as also anxiety and sleep disturbances. Psychophytopharmaceuticals, which are usually well tolerated, are highly suitable for this purpose. To treat mild to moderate episodes of depression, extracts of St. John's Wort are employed, but recently reported interactions with coumarin, theophylline and also estrogen preparations, need to be considered. Unspecific anxiety states can be treated with extracts of kava. At present, no herbal preparation can be recommended for the treatment of sleep disorders, as no unequivocal proof of efficacy in patients with such problems has yet been established. PMID:11434262

  6. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos of Euterpe oleracea Mart.

    OpenAIRE

    Ledo Ana da Silva; Lameira Osmar Alves; Benbadis Abdellatif Kemaleddine; Menezes Ilmarina Campos de; Oliveira Maria do Socorro Padilha de; Medeiros Filho Sebastião

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the morphogenetic responses of zygotic embryos of açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) submitted to several conditions of in vitro culture. Several research experiments were conducted, in laboratory, using vegetable material collected from açai palm plants at Embrapa Amazon Oriental, Belém-PA, Brazil. It was possible to verify the expression of a direct, repetitive and no-synchronized model of somatic embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos cultivated in primar...

  7. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Parrott, W Gerrod

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy) from others. In Study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans) showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts. PMID:27047414

  8. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo eChoi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy from others. In study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts.

  9. Beyond abuse: the association among parenting style, abdominal pain, and somatization in IBS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Jeffrey M; Gudleski, Gregory D; Blanchard, Edward B

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relative strength of the association between abuse, negative parenting style, and somatization in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Drawing from preclinical stress physiology and abuse research identifying the family social climate as a frequently stronger and independent determinant of long-term health effects than abuse-specific variables, we predicted that negative parenting behaviors would more strongly correlate with somatization than abuse. Subjects were 81 consecutively evaluated patients, who at baseline underwent psychological testing, measuring perceived parental style, abuse history, somatization, and pain. Although abuse correlated with maternal and paternal rejection, abuse was not associated with somatization. Higher levels of rejection and/or hostility among fathers (not mothers) were more strongly correlated with somatization than was abuse. Further, paternal parenting behaviors were more predictive of somatization than abuse, age, and gender. The lack of an association between abuse and somatization is discussed in light of limitations of biopsychosocial IBS models, whose strong focus on "pathological stressors" (e.g., abuse, trauma) as risk factors may overlook the importance of "less extreme" parenting variables in influencing somatic complaints. The relationship between parenting and somatization is discussed in the context of broader behavioral science research linking disruptions in the quality of parenting to dramatic and long-term changes in patterns of stress reactivity and brain abnormalities seen in IBS patients. PMID:14744522

  10. Neural mechanisms underlying pain's ability to reorient attention: evidence for sensitization of somatic threat detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowman, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Pain typically signals damage to the body, and as such can be perceived as threatening and can elicit a strong emotional response. This ecological significance undoubtedly underlies pain's well-known ability to demand attention. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this ability are poorly understood. Previous work from the author's laboratory has reported behavioral evidence suggesting that participants disengage their attention from an incorrectly cued visual target stimulus and reorient it toward a somatic target more rapidly when the somatic target is painful than when it is nonpainful. Furthermore, electrophysiological data suggest that this effect is mediated by a stimulus-driven process, in which somatic threat detectors located in the dorsal posterior insula activate the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex areas involved in reorienting attention toward the painful target. In these previous studies, the painful and nonpainful somatic targets were given in separate experiments involving different participants. Here, the nonpainful and painful somatic targets were presented in random order within the same block of trials. Unlike in the previous studies, both the nonpainful and painful somatic targets activated the somatic threat detectors, and the times taken to disengage and reorient attention were the same for both. These electrophysiological and behavioral data suggest that somatic threat detectors can become sensitized to nonpainful somatic stimuli that are presented in a context that includes painful stimuli. PMID:24366657

  11. Mixtures of Shifted Asymmetric Laplace Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Franczak, Brian C.; Browne, Ryan P.; McNicholas, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    A mixture of shifted asymmetric Laplace distributions is introduced and used for clustering and classification. A variant of the EM algorithm is developed for parameter estimation by exploiting the relationship with the general inverse Gaussian distribution. This approach is mathematically elegant and relatively computationally straightforward. Our novel mixture modelling approach is demonstrated on both simulated and real data to illustrate clustering and classification applications. In thes...

  12. New ruthenium catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Valenzuela, Maria Belen

    2007-01-01

    A review on catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of C=O double bonds is presented in the first chapter. Noyori’s pioneering research on ruthenium complexes containing both phosphine and diamine ligands using [i superscript]PrOH and [t superscript]BuOK is described, this system gave impressive highly chemeo-selectivity for C=O bonds and extremely high enantioselectivity for a range of acetophenone derivatives. Numerous groups have been inspired by Noyori’s catalyst of the ty...

  13. Competitive Price and Quality Under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard J. Tellis; Birger Wernerfelt

    1987-01-01

    We present an analysis of equilibrium in markets with asymmetrically informed consumers. Some consumers know both price and quality of all sellers, whereas others know neither but may search among sellers. The equilibrium correlation between price and quality generally increases with the level of information in the market and can be negative when this level is sufficiently small. A meta-analysis of the available empirical studies strongly supports the model's predictions.

  14. Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Cortês, Marina; Liddle, Andrew R; Smolin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We develop the model proposed by Cort\\^es, Gomes & Smolin, to predict cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric extensions of general relativity they proposed recently. Within this class of models the equation of motion of chiral fermions is modified by a torsion term. This term leads to a dispersion law for neutrinos that associates a new time-varying energy with each particle. We find a new neutrino contribution to the Friedmann equation resulting from the torsion term in the Ashtekar conn...

  15. Relative profit maximization in asymmetric oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Atsuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    We analyze Bertrand and Cournot equilibria in an asymmetric oligopoly in which the firms produce differentiated substitutable goods and seek to maximize their relative profits instead of their absolute profits. Assuming linear demand functions and constant marginal costs we show the following results. If the marginal cost of a firm is lower (higher) than the average marginal cost over the industry, its output at the Bertrand equilibrium is larger (smaller) than that at the Cournot equilibrium...

  16. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Lydia Hulme; Ji-Long Liu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our t...

  17. Interfacial properties of charge asymmetric ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandre, Jose; Bresme, Fernando; Gonzalez-Melchor, Minerva

    2009-01-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of the coexistence and interfacial properties of ionic liquids as a function of cation/anion, (z$_+$ : z$_-$) = (2:-1), (4:-1), charge asymmetry. Our results correct previous computations of the coexistence curve of (2:-1) charge asymmetric systems, obtained via the fine-lattice discretization method. In agreement with previous computations we report a reduction in the critical temperature and an increase in the critical density with charge asymmetry. ...

  18. Asymmetric directed polymers in random environments

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Gregorio R. Moreno

    2010-01-01

    The model of Brownian Percolation has been introduced as an approximation of discrete last-passage percolation models close to the axis. It allowed to compute some explicit limits and prove fluctuation theorems for these, based on the relations between the Brownian percolation and random matrices. Here, we present two approaches that allow to treat discrete asymmetric models of directed polymers. In both cases, the behaviour is universal, meaning that the results do not depend on the precise ...

  19. Neuronal alignment on asymmetric textured surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Beighley, Ross; Spedden, Elise; Sekeroglu, Koray; Atherton, Timothy; Demirel, Melik C.; Staii, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the development of the nervous system. Here, we present experimental and theoretical results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on asymmetric surfaces and quantify...

  20. On asymmetric collisions with large disruption parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collisions between a weak electron bunch and a strong positron bunch are studied within a flat model. Electrons are tracked through the transverse space charge field of the positron bunch, and it is shown that positrons in a storage ring may remain stable after asymmetric collisions with a weak electron bunch in spite of large values of the electron disruption parameter. The plasma oscillations that affect collisions with large disruption parameters may be suppressed by properly matching the electrons. 8 refs., 5 figs

  1. Asymmetric dark matter from hidden sector baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kumar, Jason, E-mail: jkumar@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-05-23

    We consider the production of asymmetric dark matter during hidden sector baryogenesis. We consider a particular supersymmetric model where the dark matter candidate has a number density approximately equal to the baryon number density, with a mass of the same scale as the b, c and {tau}. Both baryon asymmetry and dark matter are created at the same time in this model. We describe collider and direct detection signatures of this model.

  2. Trapdoor Privacy in Asymmetric Searchable Encryption Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Delerue Arriaga, Afonso; TANG, QIANG; Ryan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric searchable encryption allows searches to be carried over ciphertexts, through delegation, and by means of trapdoors issued by the owner of the data. Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) is a primitive with such functionality that provides delegation of exact-match searches. As it is important that ciphertexts preserve data privacy, it is also important that trapdoors do not expose the user’s search criteria. The difficulty of formalizing a security model for trapdoor pr...

  3. Asymmetric deformation of contracting human gastrocnemius muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Hodgson, John A.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2011-01-01

    Muscle fiber deformation is related to its cellular structure, as well as its architectural arrangement within the musculoskeletal system. While playing an important role in aponeurosis displacement, and efficiency of force transmission to the tendon, such deformation also provides important clues about the underlying mechanical structure of the muscle. We hypothesized that muscle fiber cross section would deform asymmetrically to satisfy the observed constant volume of muscle during a contra...

  4. Interfacial properties of charge asymmetric ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We report molecular dynamics simulations of the coexistence and interfacial properties of ionic liquids as a function of cation/anion, (z$_+$ : z$_-$) = (2:-1), (4:-1), charge asymmetry. Our results correct previous computations of the coexistence curve of (2:-1) charge asymmetric systems, obtained via the fine-lattice discretization method. In agreement with previous computations we report a reduction in the critical temperature and an increase in the critical density wit...

  5. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    OpenAIRE

    Bettendorf, Leon; Geest, Stéphanie; Kuper, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the volatility process is asymmetrical: an unexpected increase in the producer price has a larger effect on the variance of the producer price than an unexpected decrease. We do not find evidence for amount asymmetry,...

  6. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations ...

  7. Dust temperatures in asymmetric prestellar cores

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatellos, D.; Whitworth, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    We present 2D Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations of flattened prestellar cores. We argue the importance of observing prestellar cores near the peak of their emission spectra, and we point out observable characteristic features on isophotal maps of asymmetric cores at FIR wavelengths that are indicative of the cores' density and temperature structure. These features are on scales 1/5 to 1/3 of the overall core size, and so high resolution observations are needed to observe them. Finall...

  8. Prospects for Asymmetric PNe with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Huggins, P J

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter and sub-millimeter observations have made fundamental contributions to our current understanding of the transition from AGB stars to white dwarfs. The approaching era of ALMA brings significantly enhanced observing capabilities at these wavelengths and promises to push back the frontiers in a number of ways. We examine the scientific prospects of this new era for PNe, with an emphasis on how developments may contribute to the goals of the asymmetric PNe community.

  9. Surface segregation of conformationally asymmetric polymer blends

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanow, Semjon; Fedorenko, Andrei A.

    2005-01-01

    We have generalized the Edwards' method of collective description of dense polymer systems in terms of effective potentials to polymer blends in the presence of a surface. With this method we have studied conformationally asymmetric athermic polymer blends in the presence of a hard wall to the first order in effective potentials. For polymers with the same gyration radius $R_g$ but different statistical segment lengths $l_{A}$ and $l_{B}$ the excess concentration of stiffer polymers at the su...

  10. Legal Dilemmas in Fighting Asymmetrical Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pnina Sharvit Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available What legal rules apply to armed confrontations against non-state elements in areas populated by civilians? What rules apply when the enemy does not honor the basic laws of warfare - does not distinguish itself from the local population, and even uses it for shelter and as a base of operations? This essay, which presents my position on the issue, refers to such confrontations as "asymmetrical conflicts."

  11. Venture Capital Contracting Under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Trester

    1993-01-01

    The author develops a model of venture capital contracting in which the entrepreneur and venture capitalist contract under symmetric information. A condition of asymmetric information may arise subsequent to the first contract. The author shows that this condition makes debt contracts infeasible and leads to the use of preferred equity contracts. The author notes that discussions of the relation between venture capital and capital structure are rare. This paper expands the literature by addre...

  12. Applications of Chiral Anions in Asymmetric Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Gregory Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of molecules with control over their three-dimensional configuration, known as absolute stereochemistry, is one of the highest goals of synthetic organic chemists. As is so often the case, we strive to reach the facility and efficiency with which Nature achieves this goal. Fortunately, the chemist's imagination allows us to envision nearly unlimited possibilities for new modes of catalysis. In this dissertation, I discuss one branch of asymmetric catalysis that has in a short ti...

  13. Asymmetric Reversal in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhi-Pan; Petracic, Oleg; Morales, Rafael; Olamit, Justin; Batlle, Xavier; Liu, Kai; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2006-01-01

    Asymmetric magnetization reversal is an unusual phenomenon in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet (AF/FM) exchange biased bilayers. We investigated this phenomenon in a simple model system experimentally and by simulation assuming inhomogeneously distributed interfacial AF moments. The results suggest that the observed asymmetry originates from the intrinsic broken symmetry of the system, which results in local incomplete domain walls parallel to the interface in reversal to negative saturation of th...

  14. Etiologic theories of idiopathic scoliosis. Somatic nervous system and the NOTOM escalator concept as one component in the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, R G; Dangerfield, P H; Freeman, B J C

    2008-01-01

    There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). In recent years encouraging advances thought to be related to the pathogenesis of AIS have been made in several fields. After reviewing concepts of AIS pathogenesis we formulated a collective model of pathogenesis. The central concept of this collective model is a normal neuro-osseous timing of maturation (NOTOM) system operating in a child's internal world during growth and maturation; this provides a dynamic physiological balance of postural equilibrium continuously renewed between two synchronous, polarized processes (NOTOM escalator) linked through sensory input and motor output, namely: 1) osseous escalator-increasing skeletal size and relative segmental mass, and 2) neural escalator - including the CNS body schema. The latter is recalibrated continuously as the body adjusts to biomechanical and kinematic changes resulting from skeletal enlargement, enabling it to coordinate motor actions. We suggest that AIS progression results from abnormality of the neural and/or osseous components of these normal escalator in time and/or space - as asynchrony and/or asymmetries - which cause a failure of neural systems to control asymmetric growth of a rapidly enlarging and moving adolescent spine. This putative initiating asymmetric growth in the spine is explained in separate papers as resulting from dysfunction of the hypothalamus expressed through the sympathetic nervous system (leptin-sympathetic nervous system concept for AIS pathogenesis). In girls, the expression of AIS may result from disharmony between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems - relative postural maturational delay in the somatic nervous system and hypothalamic dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system, with the conflict being fought out in the spine and trunk of the girl and compounded by biomechanical spinal growth modulation. PMID:18810026

  15. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  16. Multiple Traveling Salesmen in Asymmetric Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Friggstad, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    We consider some generalizations of the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Path problem. Suppose we have an asymmetric metric G = (V,A) with two distinguished nodes s,t. We are also given a positive integer k. The goal is to find k paths of minimum total cost from s to t whose union spans all nodes. We call this the k-Person Asymmetric Traveling Salesmen Path problem (k-ATSPP). Our main result for k-ATSPP is a bicriteria approximation that, for some parameter b >= 1 we may choose, finds between k and k + k/b paths of total length O(b log |V|) times the optimum value of an LP relaxation based on the Held-Karp relaxation for the Traveling Salesman problem. On one extreme this is an O(log |V|)-approximation that uses up to 2k paths and on the other it is an O(k log |V|)-approximation that uses exactly k paths. Next, we consider the case where we have k pairs of nodes (s_1,t_1), ..., (s_k,t_k). The goal is to find an s_i-t_i path for every pair such that each node of G lies on at least one of these paths. Simple appro...

  17. Asymmetric Conditional Volatility in International Stock Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, N B; Menezes, R; Ferreira, Nuno B.; Mendes, Diana A.; Menezes, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the S&P 500, FTSE100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of chan...

  18. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2016-04-14

    Asymmetric supercapacitors provide a promising approach to fabricate capacitive energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. In this work, asymmetric supercapacitors with excellent performance have been fabricated using ternary (Ni, Co)0.85Se on carbon fabric as bind-free positive electrode and porous free-standing graphene films as negative electrode. Owing to their metal-like conductivity (~1.67×106 S m−1), significant electrochemical activity, and superhydrophilic nature, our nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid supercapacitors can afford impressive areal capacitance and stack capacitance of 529.3 mF cm−2 and 6330 mF cm−3 at 1 mA cm−2, respectively. More impressively, our optimized asymmetric device operating at 1.8 V delivers a very high stack energy density of 2.85 mWh cm−3 at a stack power density of 10.76 mW cm−3, as well as 85% capacitance retention after 10,000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. Even at a high stack power density of 1173 mW cm−3, this device still deliveries a stack energy density of 1.19 mWh cm−3, superior to most of the reported supercapacitors.

  19. Classification of plant somatic embryos by computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, J J; Kurtén, U; Kauppinen, V

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with the automation of the process of somatic embryogenesis for the propagation of plants. An important problem is the monitoring of the embryo production process in order to decide the time to start harvesting embryos for further processing. The classification algorithm development for somatic embryos of birch (Betula pendula Roth) showed that automated recognition of embryos at different developmental stages is possible. No globular stage embryos were classified to be heart or torpedo stage and no heart or torpedo stage embryos were classified to be at globular stage. Heart and torpedo stage embryos were classified into three developmental classes by a new index that describes the relation of embryo breadth to the length of the root. The probability of classifying a nonembryo as an embryo was less than 1%, and 14% of the object classified as embryos by a human expert were discarded by the algorithm. A computer vision system suitable for automated monitoring of samples from the bioreactor was constructed. PMID:18601243

  20. Genomic determinants of somatic copy number alterations across human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Xu, Hongen; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2016-03-01

    Somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) play an important role in carcinogenesis. However, the impact of genomic architecture on the global patterns of SCNAs in cancer genomes remains elusive. In this work, we conducted multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses of the pooled SCNA data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Pan-Cancer project. We performed MLR analyses for 11 individual cancer types and three different kinds of SCNAs-amplifications and deletions, telomere-bound and interstitial SCNAs and local SCNAs. Our MLR model explains >30% of the pooled SCNA breakpoint variation, with the explanatory power ranging from 13 to 32% for different cancer types and SCNA types. In addition to confirming previously identified features [e.g. long interspersed element-1 (L1) and short interspersed nuclear elements], we also identified several novel informative features, including distance to telomere, distance to centromere and low-complexity repeats. The results of the MLR analyses were additionally confirmed on an independent SCNA data set obtained from the catalogue of somatic mutations in cancer database. Using a rare-event logistic regression model and an extremely randomized tree classifier, we revealed that genomic features are informative for defining common SCNA breakpoint hotspots. Our findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms of SCNA generation in cancer. PMID:26732428

  1. Genetic characterization of somatic recombination in Trichoderma pseudokoningii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcellos Fernando Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossing experiments via hyphal anastomosis between two strains contrasting for auxotrophic markers of Trichoderma pseudokoningii were conducted to characterize the somatic recombination process in this specie. Four crossings were made and a total of 1052 colonies obtained from conidial suspensions of the heterokaryotic colonies were analyzed. Sixty-eight recombinant colonies, from four growing generations, were analyzed for the auxotrophic markers. Of the 68 colonies analyzed, 58 were stable after four generations and the remainders were unstable, reverting to one of the parentals. Most of the recombinant colonies were unstable through subculture and after four growing generations they showed the leu ino met markers (auxotrophic for leucin, inositol and metionin respectively. The unstable recombinant colonies showed irregular growing borders, sparse sporulation and frequent sector formation. The results suggest the occurrence of recombination mechanisms in the heterokaryon (somatic recombination, different from those described for the parasexual cycle or parameiosis. Therefore, we proposed the ocurrence of nuclei degradation from one parental (non prevalent parental in the heterokaryon and that the resulting chromosomal fragments may be incorporated into whole nuclei of the another parental (prevalent parental. However the parameiosis as originally described cannot be excluded.

  2. GPCRs Direct Germline Development and Somatic Gonad Function in Planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Amir; Jamal, Ayana; Beets, Isabel; Schoofs, Liliane; Newmark, Phillip A

    2016-05-01

    Planarians display remarkable plasticity in maintenance of their germline, with the ability to develop or dismantle reproductive tissues in response to systemic and environmental cues. Here, we investigated the role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in this dynamic germline regulation. By genome-enabled receptor mining, we identified 566 putative planarian GPCRs and classified them into conserved and phylum-specific subfamilies. We performed a functional screen to identify NPYR-1 as the cognate receptor for NPY-8, a neuropeptide required for sexual maturation and germ cell differentiation. Similar to NPY-8, knockdown of this receptor results in loss of differentiated germ cells and sexual maturity. NPYR-1 is expressed in neuroendocrine cells of the central nervous system and can be activated specifically by NPY-8 in cell-based assays. Additionally, we screened the complement of GPCRs with expression enriched in sexually reproducing planarians, and identified an orphan chemoreceptor family member, ophis, that controls differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs). ophis is expressed in somatic cells of male and female gonads, as well as in accessory reproductive tissues. We have previously shown that somatic gonadal cells are required for male GSC specification and maintenance in planarians. However, ophis is not essential for GSC specification or maintenance and, therefore, defines a secondary role for planarian gonadal niche cells in promoting GSC differentiation. Our studies uncover the complement of planarian GPCRs and reveal previously unappreciated roles for these receptors in systemic and local (i.e., niche) regulation of germ cell development. PMID:27163480

  3. Somatic mosaicism in a patient with neurofibromomatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, S.D.; Rasmussen, S.A.; Ho, V.T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Using loss of heterozygosity analysis, a method designed to detect moderate to large gene deletions, we have identified a new-mutation neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient who is somatically mosaic for a large maternally derived deletion in the NF1 gene region. The deletion extends at least from exon 4 near the 5{prime} end of the gene to intron 39 near the 3{prime} end. The gene-coding region is, therefore, mostly or entirely deleted, encompassing a loss of {>=}100 kb. We hypothesize that the deletion occurred at a relatively early developmental timepoint, since signs of NF in this patient are not confined to a specific body region, as seen in {open_quotes}segmental{close_quotes} NF, and since both mesodermally and ectodermally derived cells are affected. This report provides the first molecular evidence of somatic mosaicism in NF1 and, taken together with a recent report of germ-line mosaicism in NF1, adds credence to the concept that mosaicism plays an important role in phenotypic and genetic aspects of NF1 and may even be a relatively common phenomenon. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Somatic and movement inductions phantom limb in non-amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, D. M.; Gentiletti, G. G.; Braidot, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The illusion of the mirror box is a tool for phantom limb pain treatment; this article proposes the induction of phantom limb syndrome on non-amputees upper limb, with a neurological trick of the mirror box. With two study situations: a) Somatic Induction is a test of the literature reports qualitatively, and novel proposal b) Motor Induction, which is an objective report by recording surface EEG. There are 3 cases proposed for Motor illusion, for which grasped movement is used: 1) Control: movement is made, 2) illusion: the mirror box is used, and 3) Imagination: no movement is executed; the subject only imagines its execution. Three different tasks are registered for each one of them (left hand, right hand, and both of them). In 64% of the subjects for somatic experience, a clear response to the illusion was observed. In the experience of motor illusion, cortical activation is detected in both hemispheres of the primary motor cortex during the illusion, where the hidden hand remains motionless. These preliminary findings in phantom limb on non-amputees can be a tool for neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-prosthesis control training.

  5. A stochastic model of epigenetic dynamics in somatic cell reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eFloettmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell reprogramming has dramatically changed stem cell research inrecent years. The high pace of new findings in the field and an ever increasingamount of data from new high throughput techniques make it challengingto isolate core principles of the process. In order to analyze suchmechanisms, we developed an abstract mechanistic model of a subset of theknown regulatory processes during cell differentiation and production of inducedpluripotent stem cells. This probabilistic Boolean network describesthe interplay between gene expression, chromatin modifications and DNAmethylation. The model incorporates recent findings in epigenetics and reproducesexperimentally observed reprogramming efficiencies and changes inmethylation and chromatin remodeling. It enables us to investigate in detail,how the temporal progression of the process is regulated. It also explicitlyincludes the transduction of factors using viral vectors and their silencing inreprogrammed cells, since this is still a standard procedure in somatic cellreprogramming. Based on the model we calculate an epigenetic landscape.Simulation results show good reproduction of experimental observations duringreprogramming, despite the simple stucture of the model. An extensiveanalysis and introduced variations hint towards possible optimizations of theprocess, that could push the technique closer to clinical applications. Fasterchanges in DNA methylation increase the speed of reprogramming at theexpense of efficiency, while accelerated chromatin modifications moderatelyimprove efficiency.

  6. The Relationship between Mental and Somatic Practices and Wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patrick B; Mangelsdorf, Heather H; Kontra, Carly; Nusbaum, Howard C; Hoeckner, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to explore how experience with specific mental and somatic practices is associated with wisdom, using self-report measures of experience and wisdom. We administered standard surveys to measure wisdom and experience among four groups of practitioners of mental and somatic practices, namely, meditators, practitioners of the Alexander Technique, practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method, and classical ballet dancers. We additionally administered surveys of trait anxiety and empathy to all participants to explore possible mediating relationships of experience and wisdom by characteristics thought to be components of wisdom. Wisdom was higher on average among meditation practitioners, and lowest among ballet dancers, and this difference held when controlling for differences in age between practices, supporting the view that meditation is linked to wisdom and that ballet is not. However, we found that increased experience with meditation and ballet were both positively associated with wisdom, and that lowered trait anxiety mediated this positive association among meditation practitioners, and, non-significantly, among ballet dancers. These results suggest that not all practices that are purported to affect mental processing are related to wisdom to the same degree and different kinds of experience appear to relate to wisdom in different ways, suggesting different mechanisms that might underlie the development of wisdom with experience. PMID:26890493

  7. The Relationship between Mental and Somatic Practices and Wisdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B Williams

    Full Text Available In this study we sought to explore how experience with specific mental and somatic practices is associated with wisdom, using self-report measures of experience and wisdom. We administered standard surveys to measure wisdom and experience among four groups of practitioners of mental and somatic practices, namely, meditators, practitioners of the Alexander Technique, practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method, and classical ballet dancers. We additionally administered surveys of trait anxiety and empathy to all participants to explore possible mediating relationships of experience and wisdom by characteristics thought to be components of wisdom. Wisdom was higher on average among meditation practitioners, and lowest among ballet dancers, and this difference held when controlling for differences in age between practices, supporting the view that meditation is linked to wisdom and that ballet is not. However, we found that increased experience with meditation and ballet were both positively associated with wisdom, and that lowered trait anxiety mediated this positive association among meditation practitioners, and, non-significantly, among ballet dancers. These results suggest that not all practices that are purported to affect mental processing are related to wisdom to the same degree and different kinds of experience appear to relate to wisdom in different ways, suggesting different mechanisms that might underlie the development of wisdom with experience.

  8. Somatic mutations detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have at hand the tools for development of both a single amino acid substitution and a gene loss type assay for somatic cell mutations in human red cells. We are close to being able to assess the assays as possible means for screening the human population for individuals who may be a risk of acquiring abnormally high frequencies of mutant cells. The cause for such a high frequency of mutant cells could be a prior exposure of the individual to large amount of mutagen, or it could indicate a member of a vulnerable subpopulation that may have poor DNA repair systems. Either of these cases could well be an indication that the particular individual is at high risk that exposure to mutagens could lead to potential pathology. In the near future we expect to determine the reliability of the assays and to perform experiments to confirm the validity of flow cytometry in measuring real somatic mutagenic events that occur in vivo. (orig./AJ)

  9. A temporary immersion system improves in vitro regeneration of peach palm through secondary somatic embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmacher, D. A.; Guerra, M. P.; Saare-Surminski, K.; Lieberei, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Secondary somatic embryogenesis has been postulated to occur during induction of peach palm somatic embryogenesis. In the present study this morphogenetic pathway is described and a protocol for the establishment of cycling cultures using a temporary immersion system (TIS) is presented. Methods Zygotic embryos were used as explants, and induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet growth were compared in TIS and solid culture medium. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to describe in vitro morphogenesis and accompany morpho-histological alterations during culture. Key Results The development of secondary somatic embryos occurs early during the induction of primary somatic embryos. Secondary somatic embryos were observed to develop continually in culture, resulting in non-synchronized development of these somatic embryos. Using these somatic embryos as explants allowed development of cycling cultures. Somatic embryos had high embryogenic potential (65·8 ± 3·0 to 86·2 ± 5·0 %) over the period tested. The use of a TIS greatly improved the number of somatic embryos obtained, as well as subsequent plantlet growth. Histological analyses showed that starch accumulation precedes the development of somatic embryos, and that these cells presented high nucleus/cytoplasm ratios and high mitotic indices, as evidenced by DAPI staining. Morphological and SEM observations revealed clusters of somatic embryos on one part of the explants, while other parts grew further, resulting in callus tissue. A multicellular origin of the secondary somatic embryos is hypothesized. Cells in the vicinity of callus accumulated large amounts of phenolic substances in their vacuoles. TEM revealed that these cells are metabolically very active, with the presence of numerous mitochondria and Golgi apparatuses. Light microscopy and TEM of the embryogenic sector revealed cells with numerous amyloplasts

  10. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  11. Differential introgression and reorganization of retrotransposons in hybrid zones between wild wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senerchia, Natacha; Felber, François; North, Béatrice; Sarr, Anouk; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Parisod, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The maintenance of species integrity despite pervasive hybridization is ruled by the interplay between reproductive barriers. Endogenous postzygotic isolation will shape the patterns of introgression in hybrid zones, leading to variable outcomes depending on the genetic mechanism involved. Here, we analysed experimental and natural hybrid populations of Aegilops geniculata and Aegilops triuncialis to examine the genetics of species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Because long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) showing differential evolutionary trajectories are probably to affect hybrid dysgenesis and reproductive isolation between these wild wheat species, we addressed the impact of LTR-RTs in shaping introgression between them. Experimental settings involving artificial sympatry and enforced crossings quantified strong, but incomplete reproductive isolation, and highlighted asymmetrical endogenous postzygotic isolation between the two species. Natural hybrid zones located in the northern Golan Heights were analysed using plastid DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) marking random sequences, and sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms (SSAP) tracking insertions from six LTR-RT families. This analysis demonstrated asymmetrical introgression and genome reorganization. In comparison with random sequences and quiescent LTR-RTs, those LTR-RTs predicted to be activated following conflicting interactions in hybrids revealed differential introgression across the hybrid zones. As also reported for synthetic F1 hybrids, such LTR-RTs were specifically reorganized in the genomes of viable hybrids, confirming that conflicts between selfish LTR-RTs may represent key incompatibilities shaping species boundaries and fostering long-term species integrity in the face of gene flow. PMID:26678573

  12. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  13. Smell, Odor, and Somatic Work: Sense-Making and Sensory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskul, Dennis D.; Vannini, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    Sensation (noun) is emergent in joint acts of sensing (verb). To sense, in other words, is to make sense, and sense making entails what we call "somatic work." We investigate these dynamics in the context of olfaction, highlighting how olfaction intersects with social, cultural, and moral order--thus compelling reflexive forms of somatic work by…

  14. Differential associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, Ella; Boschloo, Lynn; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Schoevers, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that depressive and anxiety disorders are strongly related to somatic symptoms, but much is unclear about the specificity of this association. This study examines the associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms, and whether t

  15. Agronomic traits and RAPD analysis of two mutants derived from rice somatic cell culturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Genetic variation, including agronomic trait variation, often occurs in somatic cell culturing. In this study, we compared the main agronomic traits of two rice mutants, M3 and M14, which were derived from Shenxiangjing 5 somatic cell culturing. Significant differences were found between the two mutants and the wild rice Shenxiangjing 5 (Table 1). Results were as follows:

  16. The Theoretical Construction of a Classification of Clinical Somatic Symptoms in Psychosomatic Medicine Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanmin; Sun, Xueli; Yang, Bangxiang; Shen, Hong; Liu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective This article adopts the perspective of psychosomatic medicine to present and test a theoretical model of the classification of clinical somatic symptoms. The theoretical model consists of four dimensions: emotional somatic symptoms, biological somatic symptoms, imaginative somatic symptoms, and cognitive somatic symptoms. Method A clinical somatic symptom classification scale was developed according to the theoretical model. A total of 542 participants completed the clinical somatic symptoms classification scale. The data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results The results confirmed the theoretical model. The analyses found that the proposed theoretical structure of the scale was good, as indicated by factor loadings and fit indices, and that the scale had good reliability and construct validity. Conclusions Based on the interpretation of the clinical symptoms of psychosomatic medicine, the treatment of chronic non-infectious diseases includes at least three dimensions: the first is the etiological treatment, the second is the pathophysiological and pathopsychological dimension, and the third is symptomatic treatment. The unified psychosomatic point of view and diverse clinical thinking modes are aimed at identifying different classes of somatic symptoms and important prerequisites for the treatment of these symptoms. We registered the study with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry and it was approved by the West China Hospital, Sichuan University ethics committee. Trial registration: The registration number is ChiCTR-OCS-14004632 (time: 2014-05-12). PMID:27525701

  17. Symptom-specific associations between low cortisol responses and functional somatic symptoms : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, K.A.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Hunfeld, J.A.; Ormel, J.; Rosmalen, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS), like chronic pain and overtiredness, are often assumed to be stress-related. Altered levels of the stress hormone cortisol could explain the association between stress and somatic complaints. We hypothesized that low cortisol levels after awakening and

  18. Somatic Markers and Explicit Knowledge Are both Involved in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Sebastien; Jollant, Fabrice; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lawrence, Natalia; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In 1994, it was proposed that decision-making requires emotion-related signals, known as somatic markers. In contrast, some authors argued that conscious knowledge of contingencies is sufficient for advantageous decision-making. We aimed to investigate the respective roles of somatic markers and explicit knowledge in decision-making. Thirty…

  19. Contrastive Study of Somatisms Distinctive Features in Phraseology of Different Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharbat Muhamedzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes semantic transformations of phraseologically active somatisms, based on contrastive study of fixed combinations in Kazakh and French languages. The prospects for the study of fixed combinations, having somatic vocabulary as a semantic kernel in conceptualization of idioethnic anthropological paradigm was studied

  20. Failure to Identify Somatic Mutations in Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia by Whole Exome Sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Lyu; Li-Li Guan; Hong Ma; Xi-Jin Wang; Bao-Ming Wu; Fan-Hong Shang; Dan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe,debilitating,and complex psychiatric disorder with multiple causative factors.An increasing number of studies have determined that rare variations play an important role in its etiology.A somatic mutation is a rare form of genetic variation that occurs at an early stage of embryonic development and is thought to contribute substantially to the development of SCZ.The aim of the study was to explore the novel pathogenic somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and somatic insertions and deletions (indels) of SCZ.Methods:One Chinese family with a monozygotic (MZ) twin pair discordant for SCZ was included.Whole exome sequencing was performed in the co-twin and their parents.Rigorous filtering processes were conducted to prioritize pathogenic somatic variations,and all identified SNVs and indels were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing.Results:One somatic SNV and two somatic indels were identified after rigorous selection processes.However,none was validated by Sanger sequencing.Conclusions:This study is not alone in the failure to identify pathogenic somatic variations in MZ twins,suggesting that exonic somatic variations are extremely rare.Further efforts are warranted to explore the potential genetic mechanism of SCZ.