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Sample records for asymmetric guide strand

  1. Solubilization of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes with Single- stranded DNA Generated from Asymmetric PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs can be effectively dispersed and functionalized bywrapping with long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA synthesized by asymmetric PCR. ThessDNA-CNTs attached on surface of glass carbon electrode made it possible forelectrochemical analysis and sensing, which was demonstrated by reduction of H2O2 onhemoglobin/ssDNA-CNTs modified electrodes. This research showed the potentialapplication of DNA-functionalised CNTs in construction of future electrochemicalbiosensors.

  2. Asymmetric bias in user guided segmentations of brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltbie, Eric; Bhatt, Kshamta; Paniagua, Beatriz; Smith, Rachel G; Graves, Michael M; Mosconi, Matthew W; Peterson, Sarah; White, Scott; Blocher, Joseph; El-Sayed, Mohammed; Hazlett, Heather C; Styner, Martin A

    2012-01-16

    Brain morphometric studies often incorporate comparative hemispheric asymmetry analyses of segmented brain structures. In this work, we present evidence that common user guided structural segmentation techniques exhibit strong left-right asymmetric biases and thus fundamentally influence any left-right asymmetry analyses. In this study, MRI scans from ten pediatric subjects were employed for studying segmentations of amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, and lateral ventricle. Additionally, two pediatric and three adult scans were used for studying hippocampus segmentation. Segmentations of the sub-cortical structures were performed by skilled raters using standard manual and semi-automated methods. The left-right mirrored versions of each image were included in the data and segmented in a random order to assess potential left-right asymmetric bias. Using shape analysis we further assessed whether the asymmetric bias is consistent across subjects and raters with the focus on the hippocampus. The user guided segmentation techniques on the sub-cortical structures exhibited left-right asymmetric volume bias with the hippocampus displaying the most significant asymmetry values (porigin of this asymmetric bias is considered to be based in laterality of visual perception; therefore segmentations with any degree of user interaction contain an asymmetric bias. The aim of our study is to raise awareness in the neuroimaging community regarding the presence of the asymmetric bias and its influence on any left-right hemispheric analyses. We also recommend reexamining previous research results in the light of this new finding. PMID:21889995

  3. Chemoepitaxial guiding underlayers for density asymmetric and energetically asymmetric diblock copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Benjamin D.; Ludovice, Peter J.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2016-04-01

    Block copolymers, polymers composed of two or more homopolymers covalently bonded together, are currently being investigated as a method to extend optical lithography due to their ability to microphase separate on small size scales. In order to drive down the size that these BCPs phase separate, the BCPs with larger Flory-Huggin's χparameter needs to be found. Typically these BCPs are composed of more dissimilar homopolymers. However, changing these interactions also changes how BCPs interact with their guiding underlayers. In this paper, several block copolymers are simulated annealing on chemoepitaxial guiding underlayers using a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model in order to explore the effect that either energetic asymmetry or density asymmetry in the BCP have on the pattern registration. It is found that energetic asymmetry in BCPs causes one of the blocks to desire to skin, which shifts the composition of the background region that leads to well aligned vertical lamellae formation. It is hypothesized that moderate footing and undercutting at the underlayer or slight skinning at the free surface can increase the kinetics of defect annihilation by decreasing the distance that bridges must form. The density asymmetric BCPs simulated in this paper have different mechanical properties which lead to straighter sidewalls in the BCP film and potentially lead to better pattern registration. It is hypothesized that altering the compressibility of the blocks can alter equilibrium defectivity.

  4. Guided ultrasonic waves for non-destructive monitoring of the stress levels in prestressed steel strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, S; Bourse, G

    2009-02-01

    The safety of prestressed civil structures such as bridges, dams, nuclear power plants, etc. directly involves the security of both environment and users. Health monitoring of the tensioning components, such as strands, tendons, bars, anchorage bolts, etc. is an important research topic and a challenging task bringing together the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and civil engineering communities. This paper deals with a guided ultrasonic wave procedure for monitoring the stress levels in seven-wire steel strands (15.7 mm in diameter). The mechanical and geometrical characteristics of the prestressed strands were taken into account for optimizing the measurement configuration and then the choice of the guided ultrasonic mode at a suitable frequency. Simplified acoustoelastic formulations were derived from the acoustoelasticity theory according to either calibration test or in situ measurement. The results from acoustoelastic measurements on the seven-wire steel strands are presented and discussed in the case of calibration tests and industrially prestressed strands. They show the potential and the suitability of the proposed guided wave method for evaluating the stress levels in the tested seven-wire steel strands. PMID:18804832

  5. Corrosion damage estimation in multi-wire steel strands using guided ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhidzadeh, Alireza; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a nondestructive evaluation method based on guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) to estimate corrosion in steel strands. Steel strands are one of the main components in constructing prestressed structures. Hidden corrosion in these structures has become a concern for designers, owners and regulators as it can eventuate in disastrous failure. In this study, a reference-free algorithm is proposed to quantify the extent of corrosion through estimating the cross section loss using dispersion curves and the velocity of certain frequency components in the waveform. Experimental test setups were designed to accelerate corrosion on two similarly loaded steel strands. One strand was embedded in concrete (to simulate a prestressed concrete beam) and the other was free (to resemble a prestressed cable). Visual inspection, halfcell potential, and mass loss measurements were employed as supporting evidences for the state of corrosion. An uncertainty analysis was also carried out to investigate how close this method can estimate the diameter of wires in a strand. The method could reasonably estimate the diameter of the wires without a reference baseline.

  6. Guided modes in asymmetric metal-cladding left-handed material waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying He; Xia Zhang; Yanfang Yang; Chunfang Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ We investigate guided modes in the asymmetric waveguide structure with a left-handed material (LHM) layer surrounded by air and metal.A graphical method is proposed to determine the guided modes.New properties of the oscillating and surface guided modes, such as absence of the fundamental mode,coexistence of the oscillating and surface guided modes, fast attenuation of the surface guided modes, and mode degeneracy, are analyzed in detail.%We investigate guided modes in the asymmetric waveguide structure with a left-handed material (LHM) layer surrounded by air and metal. A graphical method is proposed to determine the guided modes. New properties of the oscillating and surface guided modes, such as absence of the fundamental mode, coexistence of the oscillating and surface guided modes, fast attenuation of the surface guided modes, and mode degeneracy, are analyzed in detail. We also investigate dispersive characteristics of the metal-LHMair optical waveguide. The propagation constant increases with decreasing slab thickness for the first-order oscillating mode, which is different from that in traditional metal-cladding waveguides.

  7. Optimisation of an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction assay for the amplification of single-stranded DNA from Wuchereria bancrofti for electrochemical detection

    OpenAIRE

    Vasuki Venkatesan; Sugeerappa Laxmanappa Hoti; Nagalakshmi Kamaraj; Somnath Ghosh; Kaushik Rajaram

    2013-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is a prerequisite for electrochemical sensor-based detection of parasite DNA and other diagnostic applications. To achieve this detection, an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction method was optimised. This method facilitates amplification of ssDNA from the human lymphatic filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. This procedure produced ssDNA fragments of 188 bp in a single step when primer pairs (forward and reverse) were used at a 100:1 molar ratio in the presence ...

  8. Feature importance analysis in guide strand identification of microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Daichuan; Xiao, Jiamin; Li, Yizhou; Diao, Yuanbo; Guo, Yanzhi; Li, Menglong

    2011-06-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is the negative regulator of gene expression, also known as guide strand of transient miRNA:miRNA* duplex. It is critical in maintaining the normal physiological processes such as development, differentiation, and apoptosis in many organisms. With increasing miRNA data, it is desirable to design methods to identify guide strand based on machine learning algorithms. In this study, the random forest models based on local sequence-structure features were proposed to identify miRNA in four species. The accuracies achieved were 86.51% for Homo sapiens, 81.66% for Ornithorhynchus anatinus, 82.33% for Mus musculus and 85.71% for Schmidtea mediterranea, respectively. Furthermore, the important analysis of feature elements was carried out by using the conditional feature importance strategy. The analysis results revealed that most of the significant elements were related to guanine-cytosine (GC) base pair. We believed that our method could be beneficial to annotate the function of miRNA and help the further understanding of the RNA interference mechanism. PMID:21704258

  9. On the Electron Agyrotropy during Rapid Asymmetric Magnetic Island Coalescence in Presence of a Guide Field

    CERN Document Server

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Goldman, Martin V; Newman, David L; Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of the electron velocity distribution during island coalescence in asymmetric reconnection with and without guide field. In a previous study, three main domains were identified, in the case without guide field, as X-, D- and M-regions featuring different reconnection evolutions {Cazzola et al. 2015). These regions are also identified here in the case with guide field. We study the departure from isotropic and gyrotropic behavior by means of different robust detection algorithms proposed in the literature. While in the case without guide field these metrics show an overall agreement, when the guide field is present a discrepancy in the agyrotropy within some relevant regions is observed, such as at the separatrices and inside magnetic islands. Moreover, in light of the new observations from the Multiscale MagnetoSpheric mission, an analysis of the electron velocity phase-space in these domains is presented.

  10. Asymmetric first order shear horizontal guided waves propagation in a tapered plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, through numerical simulation of the first order shear horizontal guided waves propagation in a homogeneous tapered plate, we have realized sound unidirectional transmission based on the mode conversion mechanism. We also find that the contrast transmission ratio of unidirectional transmission is highly influenced by the slope angle of tapered edge. And the working frequency range of the asymmetric transmission can be easily controlled by the height of tapered surface or the thickness of slab. This asymmetric system shows potentially significant applications in various sound devices. - Highlights: • We study the sound unidirectional transmission for SH1 guided wave in a homogeneous tapered plate. • The contrast transmission ratio of unidirectional transmission is highly influenced by the slope angle. • The working frequency range of unidirectional transmission can be easily controlled by structure parameters

  11. Detecting broken-wire flaws at multiple locations in the same wire of prestressing strands using guided waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Wu, Xinjun; Sun, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Broken wires often occur at multiple locations in the same wire of a strand due to the recovery length, which is defined as the length of the wire taking up its full share of the axial load from the break point. The detection of broken-wire flaws at multiple locations along the same wire is investigated using guided waves below 400kHz. Herein, a sample with three broken-wire flaws in the same wire is analyzed using magnetostrictive guided waves. Our data show that three flaws are found using the low-frequency guided waves (50kHz) but only one flaw is found using the high-frequency guided waves (320kHz). By analyzing the reflection and transmission coefficients at the three different flaws, we observe that the energy exchange decreases as the frequency increases along the same propagating distance. Hence, the recovery length for elastic waves, the length of the wire taking up its full share of elastic-wave energy from the break point, is observed. The recovery length for elastic waves in prestressing strands increases with the frequency. To detect prestressing strands using magnetostrictive guided waves, several one-broken-wire flaws at different locations can be distinguished from in different wires or the same wire by employing both low-frequency waves and high-frequency waves. Nevertheless, we cannot identify in which wire the flaws are located because the magnetostrictive sensor analyzes the whole strand. PMID:22658860

  12. On the Electron Diffusion Region in Asymmetric Reconnection with a Guide Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Li-Jen; Bessho, Naoki; Kuznetsova, Masha; Birn, Joachim; Burch, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations in a 2.5-D geometry and analytical theory are employed to study the electron diffusion region in asymmetric reconnection with a guide magnetic field. The analysis presented here demonstrates that similar to the case without guide field, in-plane flow stagnation and null of the in-plane magnetic field are well separated. In addition, it is shown that the electric field at the local magnetic X point is again dominated by inertial effects, whereas it remains dominated by nongyrotropic pressure effects at the in-plane flow stagnation point. A comparison between local electron Larmor radii and the magnetic gradient scale lengths predicts that distribution should become nongyrotropic in a region enveloping both field reversal and flow stagnation points. This prediction is verified by an analysis of modeled electron distributions, which show clear evidence of mixing in the critical region.

  13. An innovative design for using flexible printed coils for magnetostrictive-based longitudinal guided wave sensors in steel strand inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetostrictive sensors (MsSs) that can excite and receive guided waves are commonly used in detecting defects that may occur in cables and strands for supporting heavy structures. A conventional MsS has a hard sensing coil that is wound onto a bobbin with electric wires to generate the necessary dynamic magnetic field to excite the desired guided waves. This tailor-made hard coil is usually bulky and is not flexible enough to fit steel strands of various sizes. The conventional MsS also cannot be mounted to any steel strand that does not have a free end to allow the bobbin to pass through the structure of the tested strand. Such inflexibilities limit the use of conventional MsSs in practical situations. To solve these limitations, an innovative type of coil, called a flexible printed coil (FPC), which is made out of flexible printed film, has been designed to replace the inflexible hard coil. The flexible structure of the FPC ensures that the new MsS can be easily installed on and removed from steel strands with different diameters and without free ends. Moreover, the FPC-based MsS can be wrapped into multiple layers due to its thin and flexible design. Although multi-layer FPC creates a minor asymmetry in the dynamic magnetic field, the results of finite element analysis and experiments confirm that the longitudinal guided waves excited by a FPC-based MsS are comparable to those excited by a conventional hard coil MsS. No significant reduction in defect inspection performance was found; in fact, further advantages were identified when using the FPC-based MsS. When acting as the transmitter, the innovative FPC-based MsS can cover a longer inspection length of strand. When acting as the receiver, the FPC-based MsS is more sensitive to smaller defects that are impossible to detect using a hard coil MsS. Hence, the multi-layer FPC-based MsS has great potential for replacing the conventional hard coil MsS because of its convenient installation, and ease of fitting to

  14. Detection of DNA double-strand breaks in synchronous cultures of CHO cells by means of asymmetric field inversion gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed field gel electrophoresis technique, asymmetric field inversion gel electrophoresis (AFIGE), was used to evaluate induction by X-rays of DNA damage in CHO cells. The fraction of DNA activity released from the plug (FAR) was used as a measure for the amount of radiation-induced DNA damage, predominantly DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) (Stamato and Denko 1990), and was determined at various stages of growth and phases of the cell cycle in a range of doses between zero and 70 Gy. It is concluded that caution needs to be exercised before differences observed in the FAR between different cell lines or between various phases of the cell cycle after exposure to a given dose of radiation are interpreted as suggesting differences in the induction of DNA dsb. (author)

  15. Optimisation of an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction assay for the amplification of single-stranded DNA from Wuchereria bancrofti for electrochemical detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasuki Venkatesan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA is a prerequisite for electrochemical sensor-based detection of parasite DNA and other diagnostic applications. To achieve this detection, an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction method was optimised. This method facilitates amplification of ssDNA from the human lymphatic filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. This procedure produced ssDNA fragments of 188 bp in a single step when primer pairs (forward and reverse were used at a 100:1 molar ratio in the presence of double-stranded template DNA. The ssDNA thus produced was suitable for immobilisation as probe onto the surface of an Indium tin oxide electrode and hybridisation in a system for sequence-specific electrochemical detection of W. bancrofti. The hybridisation of the ssDNA probe and target ssDNA led to considerable decreases in both the anodic and the cathodic currents of the system's redox couple compared with the unhybridised DNA and could be detected via cyclic voltammetry. This method is reproducible and avoids many of the difficulties encountered by conventional methods of filarial parasite DNA detection; thus, it has potential in xenomonitoring.

  16. Optimisation of an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction assay for the amplification of single-stranded DNA from Wuchereria bancrofti for electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Vasuki; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Kamaraj, Nagalakshmi; Ghosh, Somnath; Rajaram, Kaushik

    2013-09-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is a prerequisite for electrochemical sensor-based detection of parasite DNA and other diagnostic applications. To achieve this detection, an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction method was optimised. This method facilitates amplification of ssDNA from the human lymphatic filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. This procedure produced ssDNA fragments of 188 bp in a single step when primer pairs (forward and reverse) were used at a 100:1 molar ratio in the presence of double-stranded template DNA. The ssDNA thus produced was suitable for immobilisation as probe onto the surface of an Indium tin oxide electrode and hybridisation in a system for sequence-specific electrochemical detection of W. bancrofti. The hybridisation of the ssDNA probe and target ssDNA led to considerable decreases in both the anodic and the cathodic currents of the system's redox couple compared with the unhybridised DNA and could be detected via cyclic voltammetry. This method is reproducible and avoids many of the difficulties encountered by conventional methods of filarial parasite DNA detection; thus, it has potential in xenomonitoring. PMID:24037206

  17. Guided Waves in Asymmetric Hyperbolic Slab Waveguides. The TM Mode Case

    CERN Document Server

    Lyashko, Ekaterina I

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear guided wave modes in an asymmetric slab waveguide formed by an isotropic dielectric layer placed on a linear or nonlinear substrate and covered by a hyperbolic material are investigated. Optical axis is normal to the slab plane. The dispersion relations for TM waves are found. It is shown that there are additional cut-off frequencies for each TM mode. The effects of the nonlinearity on the dispersion relations are investigated and discussed. There are the modes, which are corresponded with situation where the peak of electric field is localized in the nonlinear substrate. These modes are absent in the linear waveguide. To excite these modes the power must exceed certain threshold value.

  18. Acceleration of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration through Asymmetrically Porous Nerve Guide Conduit Applied with Biological/Physical Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Rae; Oh, Se Heang; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient functional restoration of damaged peripheral nerves is a big clinical challenge. In this study, a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with selective permeability was prepared by rolling an asymmetrically porous polycaprolactone/Pluronic F127 membrane fabricated using a novel immersion precipitation method. Dual stimulation (nerve growth factor [NGF] as a biological stimulus and low-intensity pulse ultrasound [US] as a physical stimulus) was adapted to enhance nerve regeneration through an NG...

  19. Guiding strand passage: DNA-induced movement of the gyrase C-terminal domains defines an early step in the supercoiling cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, Martin A.; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    DNA gyrase catalyzes ATP-dependent negative supercoiling of DNA in a strand passage mechanism. A double-stranded segment of DNA, the T-segment, is passed through the gap in a transiently cleaved G-segment by coordinated closing and opening of three protein interfaces in gyrase. T-segment capture is thought to be guided by the C-terminal domains of the GyrA subunit of gyrase that wrap DNA around their perimeter and cause a DNA-crossing with a positive handedness. We show here that the C-termin...

  20. Exceptional points and asymmetric mode conversion in quasi-guided dual-mode optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S N; Chong, Y D

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hermitian systems host unconventional physical effects that be used to design new optical devices. We study a non-Hermitian system consisting of 1D planar optical waveguides with suitable amount of simultaneous gain and loss. The parameter space contains an exceptional point, which can be accessed by varying the transverse gain and loss profile. When light propagates through the waveguide structure, the output mode is independent of the choice of input mode. This "asymmetric mode conversion" phenomenon can be explained by the swapping of mode identities in the vicinity of the exceptional point, together with the failure of adiabatic evolution in non-Hermitian systems. PMID:27101933

  1. Exceptional points and asymmetric mode conversion in quasi-guided dual-mode optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S. N.; Chong, Y. D.

    2016-04-01

    Non-Hermitian systems host unconventional physical effects that be used to design new optical devices. We study a non-Hermitian system consisting of 1D planar optical waveguides with suitable amount of simultaneous gain and loss. The parameter space contains an exceptional point, which can be accessed by varying the transverse gain and loss profile. When light propagates through the waveguide structure, the output mode is independent of the choice of input mode. This “asymmetric mode conversion” phenomenon can be explained by the swapping of mode identities in the vicinity of the exceptional point, together with the failure of adiabatic evolution in non-Hermitian systems.

  2. Functional Regeneration of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury During Thyroid Surgery Using an Asymmetrically Porous Nerve Guide Conduit in an Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jeong-Seok; Oh, Se Heang; An, Hye-Young; Kim, Young-Mo; Lee, Jin Ho; Lim, Jae-Yol

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) caused by recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) damage during thyroidectomy commonly results in serious medico-legal problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an asymmetrically porous polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduit (NGC) for functional regeneration in a RLN injury animal model.

  3. Mutation patterns of mitochondrial H- and L-strand DNA in closely related Cyprinid fishes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bielawski, Joseph P.; John R. Gold

    2002-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome replication is asymmetric. Replication starts from the origin of heavy (H)-strand replication, displacing the parental H-strand as it proceeds along the molecule. The H-strand remains single stranded until light (L)-strand replication is initiated from a second origin of replication. It has been suggested that single-stranded H-strand DNA is more sensitive to mutational damage, giving rise to substitutional rate differences between the two strands and among genes in mamma...

  4. On the Electron Dynamics during Rapid Asymmetric Magnetic Island Coalescence: Insights on the Electrons Agyrotropy with the Presence of a Guide Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Lapenta, Giovanni; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David; Markidis, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The work presents a fully kinetic analysis of the electrons dynamics during rapid island coalescence in asymmetric magnetic reconnection, especially focused on the comparison between the case with and with no initial guide field. Formation and growth of the islands are caused by an intentionally unstable initial configuration across the current sheet with the same asymmetric profiles as those traditionally proposed in the literature (e.g. Pritchett, 2008). Particular attentions is given to the different evolution of the presumed reconnection sites. Three main regions are eventually identified, named by X-, D- and M-regions, which describe, respectively, the regions featuring a traditional reconnection event, those showing an opposite behavior with respect to the former and the reconnection regions occurring between two magnetic islands (Cazzola et al., 2015). Further analysis is mainly addressed to evaluate both the electrons departure from the isotropic and gyrotropic behavior. Whether the first quantity has been clearly established and confirmed by observations, the latter has always appeared of difficult interpretation, and an ultimate accepted method on how to render it from PIC simulations still seems far to be achieved. In light of the upcoming data from the freshly launched MMS NASA mission, outcomes from some of the main techniques to spot agyrotropic regions are here compared to highligh the presence of possible relevant differences (Scudder and Daughton, 2008; Swisdak, 2015). References [1] P. Pritchett, "Collisionless magnetic reconnection in an asymmetric current sheet," Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics (1978-2012), vol. 113, no. A6, 2008. [2] E. Cazzola, M. E. Innocenti, S. Markidis, M. V. Goldman, D. L. Newman, and G. Lapenta, "On the electron dynamics during island coalescence in asymmetric magnetic reconnection," Physics of Plasmas (1994-present), vol. 22, no. 9, p. 092901, 2015. [3] J. Scudder and W. Daughton, "Illuminating electron

  5. Asymmetric collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of CP violation in beauty decay is one of the key challenges facing high energy physics. Much work has not yielded a definitive answer how this study might best be performed. However, one clear conclusion is that new accelerator facilities are needed. Proposals include experiments at asymmetric electron-positron colliders and in fixed-target and collider modes at LHC and SSC. Fixed-target and collider experiments at existing accelerators, while they might succeed in a first observation of the effect, will not be adequate to study it thoroughly. Giomataris has emphasized the potential of a new approach to the study of beauty CP violation: the asymmetric proton collider. Such a collider might be realized by the construction of a small storage ring intersecting an existing or soon-to-exist large synchrotron, or by arranging collisions between a large synchrotron and its injector. An experiment at such a collider can combine the advantages of fixed-target-like spectrometer geometry, facilitating triggering, particle identification and the instrumentation of a large acceptance, while the increased √s can provide a factor > 100 increase in beauty-production cross section compared to Tevatron or HERA fixed-target. Beams crossing at a non-zero angle can provide a small interaction region, permitting a first-level decay-vertex trigger to be implemented. To achieve large √s with a large Lorentz boost and high luminosity, the most favorable venue is the high-energy booster (HEB) at the SSC Laboratory, though the CERN SPS and Fermilab Tevatron are also worth considering

  6. Stranded Specimen Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal and Turtle Division collects data about individual cetaceans and sea turtles that come ashore, or strand on the beach. The date and location of...

  7. Alaska Beluga Strandings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NMFS is mandated by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to collect reports of marine mammal stranding events. This particular catalogue item is specific to the...

  8. Enhancement effect of asymmetry on the thermal conductivity of double-stranded chain systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the thermal conductivity of asymmetric double chains. We couple two different single chains through interchain coupling to build three kinds of asymmetric double-stranded chain system: intrachain interaction, external potential, and mass asymmetric double chains. It is reported that asymmetry is helpful in improving the thermal conductivity of the system. We first propose double-heat flux channels to explain the influence of asymmetric structures on the thermal conductivity. The phonon spectral behaviour and finite size effect are also included. (general)

  9. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy

  10. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  11. LHC superconducting strand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    This cross-section through a strand of superconducting matieral as used in the LHC shows the 8000 Niobium-Titanium filaments embedded like a honeycomb in copper. When cooled to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero in the LHC accelerator, these filaments will have zero resistance and so will carry a high electric current with no energy loss.

  12. Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus on Pärnu suurim äri- ja konverentsiklientidele suunatud hotell, mis klientide seas on hinnatud just selle kompleksuse tõttu, kuna kõik, mida külaline vajab ja soovib, on olemas ühe katuse all

  13. Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement sonographic and MR imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokli, Ami; Neuman, Jeremy; Lukse, Ruby; Koshy, June [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Kong, Fanyi [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement (CALME) has been described sparsely in recent surgery, pathology, pediatric and gynecology literature; however, no comprehensive description from a radiology perspective has been developed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the imaging findings of CALME and to review the current understanding of this recently described clinical entity with regard to clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options. This is a retrospective analysis of 3 girls, ages 5-7 years, who presented for imaging evaluation with subsequent pathologically proven CALME. Each child's clinical history, length of symptoms, imaging appearance and pathological findings were reviewed. All three girls presented with unilateral enlargement of the labium majus (two right-side, one left-side) with no history of trauma or other inciting cause. Two girls had painless labial enlargement that was recognized for weeks, and one had similar symptoms for 1 year prior to presentation. One girl was evaluated initially with sonography, and all three children underwent MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation showed asymmetrical labial enlargement without a definable mass. In each girl, the MR imaging findings were characterized by relatively ill-defined T1-weighted hypointense signal, T2-weighted hypo- to isointense signal with interspersed hyperintense septae, and heterogeneous patchy and feathery strands of enhancement on post-contrast imaging. Biopsy from each child showed benign fibrous tissue with intervening mature fibroadipose tissue, vessels and nerves without findings of inflammation or neoplasia. The MR imaging appearance of CALME is consistent. Recognition and appreciation of this unique pediatric entity by the radiologist may be essential for appropriate diagnosis and can help to guide therapy. Current preferred treatment approach is conservative. (orig.)

  14. Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement sonographic and MR imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement (CALME) has been described sparsely in recent surgery, pathology, pediatric and gynecology literature; however, no comprehensive description from a radiology perspective has been developed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the imaging findings of CALME and to review the current understanding of this recently described clinical entity with regard to clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options. This is a retrospective analysis of 3 girls, ages 5-7 years, who presented for imaging evaluation with subsequent pathologically proven CALME. Each child's clinical history, length of symptoms, imaging appearance and pathological findings were reviewed. All three girls presented with unilateral enlargement of the labium majus (two right-side, one left-side) with no history of trauma or other inciting cause. Two girls had painless labial enlargement that was recognized for weeks, and one had similar symptoms for 1 year prior to presentation. One girl was evaluated initially with sonography, and all three children underwent MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation showed asymmetrical labial enlargement without a definable mass. In each girl, the MR imaging findings were characterized by relatively ill-defined T1-weighted hypointense signal, T2-weighted hypo- to isointense signal with interspersed hyperintense septae, and heterogeneous patchy and feathery strands of enhancement on post-contrast imaging. Biopsy from each child showed benign fibrous tissue with intervening mature fibroadipose tissue, vessels and nerves without findings of inflammation or neoplasia. The MR imaging appearance of CALME is consistent. Recognition and appreciation of this unique pediatric entity by the radiologist may be essential for appropriate diagnosis and can help to guide therapy. Current preferred treatment approach is conservative. (orig.)

  15. Sense antisense DNA strand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldogkói, Z; Kaliman, A V; Murvai, J; Fodor, I

    1994-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that alphaherpesviruses express latency associated transcripts (LATs) from the antisense strand of immediate-early (IE) genes of the viral genome. It has been suggested that LATs containing extended open reading frames (ORFs), might be translated into (a) protein product(s). We found that a salient feature of some herpesvirus DNAs is a high GC preference at the third codon positions. The consequence of this feature is that the probability of a stop-codon appearing at two of the six reading frames of the DNA strand is very low. Therefore, the presence of an extended ORF does not necessarily mean that it is relevant to real translation. PMID:7810418

  16. Oil spill stranding processes

    OpenAIRE

    Korenika, Romina

    2015-01-01

    In the thesis, we discuss the processes of stranding and release of oil on the coast and off the coast in the case of an oil spill. We presented different ways of determining the maximum oil–holding capacity of the beach, and established that the retention mainly depends on the types of coastline and type of oil. Based on the classification of the coastline types in Slovenia, we chose a section of sandy and gravelly coastline as an example. For these types of coastlines, we calcul...

  17. Stranded costs and exit fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has been directed to examine the issue of stranded costs since it is a major component of restructuring within the electricity sector. When regulated monopolies are faced with competition, they could find that some of their embedded costs cannot be recovered. These costs are referred to as stranded costs. Common sources include large capital investments in uneconomic plants or expensive power purchase contracts or fuel supply contracts. In general, stranded costs do not include gains or losses associated with normal business risks experienced by regulated utilities. This report presents recommendations for mitigation of stranded costs, valuation methodologies and cost-recovery mechanisms. It also presents a summary of experience with stranded costs in other jurisdictions such as California, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and Ontario. Stranded costs are often recovered through an obligatory charge on all customers, particularly in jurisdictions where retail competition exists. In the New Brunswick market, however, the only customers who can create stranded costs are those eligible to choose their own suppliers. It is argued that since most customers will not have a choice of electricity suppliers, they cannot generate stranded costs and therefore, should not have to pay costs stranded by others. A method to quantify stranded costs is presented, along with a review of transmission-related stranded costs in New Brunswick. Expansion of self-generation in New Brunswick could strand transmission assets. Currently, self-generators only contribute a small amount to fixed charges of the transmission system. However, under new recommended tariffs, the amount could increase. It is likely that the net amount of stranded transmission costs will not be large. 2 refs., 1 fig

  18. OligArch: A software tool to allow artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS to guide the autonomous self-assembly of long DNA constructs from multiple DNA single strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Bradley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biologists wishing to self-assemble large DNA (L-DNA constructs from small DNA fragments made by automated synthesis need fragments that hybridize predictably. Such predictability is difficult to obtain with nucleotides built from just the four standard nucleotides. Natural DNA's peculiar combination of strong and weak G:C and A:T pairs, the context-dependence of the strengths of those pairs, unimolecular strand folding that competes with desired interstrand hybridization, and non-Watson–Crick interactions available to standard DNA, all contribute to this unpredictability. In principle, adding extra nucleotides to the genetic alphabet can improve the predictability and reliability of autonomous DNA self-assembly, simply by increasing the information density of oligonucleotide sequences. These extra nucleotides are now available as parts of artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS, and tools are now available to generate entirely standard DNA from AEGIS DNA during PCR amplification. Here, we describe the OligArch (for "oligonucleotide architecting" software, an application that permits synthetic biologists to engineer optimally self-assembling DNA constructs from both six- and eight-letter AEGIS alphabets. This software has been used to design oligonucleotides that self-assemble to form complete genes from 20 or more single-stranded synthetic oligonucleotides. OligArch is therefore a key element of a scalable and integrated infrastructure for the rapid and designed engineering of biology.

  19. The Asymmetric Leximin Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Driesen, Bram W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define and characterize a class of asymmetric leximin solutions, that contains both the symmetric leximin solution of Imai[5] and the two-person asymmetric Kalai-Smorodinsky solution of Dubra [3] as special cases. Solutions in this class combine three attractive features: they are defined on the entire domain of convex n-person bargaining problems, they generally yield Pareto efficient solution outcomes, and asymmetries among bargainers are captured by a single parameter ve...

  20. Asymmetric WIMP dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Graesser, Michael L.; Shoemaker, Ian M.; Vecchi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    In existing dark matter models with global symmetries the relic abundance of dark matter is either equal to that of anti-dark matter (thermal WIMP), or vastly larger, with essentially no remaining anti-dark matter (asymmetric dark matter). By exploring the consequences of a primordial asymmetry on the coupled dark matter and anti-dark matter Boltzmann equations we find large regions of parameter space that interpolate between these two extremes. Interestingly, this new asymmetric WIMP framewo...

  1. Accounting for asymmetric price responses and underlying energy demand trends in OECD industrial energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the way technical progress and improvements in energy efficiency are captured when modelling OECD industrial energy demand. The industrial sectors of the developed world involve a number of different practices and processes utilising a range of different technologies. Consequently, given the derived demand nature of energy, it is vital when modelling industrial energy demand that the impact of technical progress is appropriately captured. However, the energy economics literature does not give a clear guide on how this can be achieved; one strand suggests that technical progress is ‘endogenous’ via asymmetric price responses whereas another strand suggests that it is ‘exogenous’. More recently, it has been suggested that potentially there is a role for both ‘endogenous’ technical progress and ‘exogenous’ technical progress and consequently the general model should be specified accordingly. This paper therefore attempts to model OECD industrial energy demand using annual time series data over the period 1962–2010 for 15 OECD countries. Using the Structural Time Series Model framework, the general specifications allow for both asymmetric price responses (for technical progress to impact endogenously) and an underlying energy demand trend (for technical progress and other factors to impact exogenously, but in a non-linear way). The results show that almost all of the preferred models for OECD industrial energy demand incorporate both a stochastic underlying energy demand trend and asymmetric price responses. This gives estimated long-run income elasticities in the range of 0.34 to 0.96; estimated long-run price-maximum elasticities in the range of − 0.06 to − 1.22; estimated long-run price-recovery elasticities in the range of 0.00 to − 0.27; and estimated long-run price-cut elasticities in the range of 0.00 to − 0.18. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that when modelling industrial energy demand there is a place for

  2. Asymmetric central bank preferences and inflation rate in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen KOBBI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article fits into the new strand of literature related to the asymmetric central bank preferences and its effect on the inflation dynamic. In reality, the central banker preferences are more likely to be asymmetric. Central banker can be, for various reasons, more averse toward deviations from target with one sign more than deviations from target with the other sign. The interaction of asymmetric central bank preferences with uncertainty arising from the volatility of inflation and output may affect the inflation movements. This paper aims to check the hypothesis that asymmetric central bank preferences are able to explain inflation rate for the case of Tunisia and to understand Central Bank of Tunisia preferences toward inflation rate and output during the period ranging from 1993 to 2010. We refer to a standard monetary model that includes asymmetric loss function and a linear supply curve which acts as a constraint on the central bank behavior. The results show that the inflation rate depends on the output gap and on the conditional variance of inflation and provide evidence for asymmetric central bank preferences. The Central Bank of Tunisia seems to be more averse to high inflation which is consistent with its ultimate goal explicitly announced to preserve price stability.

  3. GMR of stranded multizone conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Fortin, S.; Ma, J.; Dawalibi, F.P. [Safe Engineering Services and Technologies Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed method for the computation of the geometric mean radius (GMR) of stranded conductors of circular cross-section consisting of several zones with distinct electrical properties. The method also accounts for frequency dependence or skin effects. Examples of the use of this method were presented, and were found to be in good agreement with published data. This method can be used to provide more accurate estimates of the GMR for composite conductors made of strands of different size and properties, and also to better calculate the impedance of those conductors at higher frequencies. The conductor can consist of several concentric tubular zones, each containing one or more concentric layers of identical strands. The radius, resistivity and permeability of the strands can be different for each zone. The study considered the effect of the non-uniform current distribution inside the conductor. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Adult hair follicle stem cells do not retain the older DNA strands in vivo during normal tissue homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Waghmare, Sanjeev K; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2013-01-01

    Tissue stem cells have been proposed to segregate the chromosomes asymmetrically (in a non-random manner) thereby retaining preferentially the older ‘immortal’ DNA strand bearing the stemness characteristics into one daughter cell, whereas the newly synthesized strands are segregated to the other daughter cells that will commit to differentiation. Moreover, this non-random segregation would protect the stem cell genome from accumulating multiple mutations during repeated DNA replication. This...

  5. Asymmetric ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs

  6. Stranded costs in European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on the liability for stranded costs in the European electricity markets, which were incurred as a result of the EV Directive opening up competition in the electricity markets. The deadline for notification of stranded costs by Member States, the European Commission's guidelines concerning stranded costs, possible asset sales, calculation of stranded costs, and the question of who pays are discussed. (UK)

  7. Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Cardelli

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions) in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are ...

  8. Field Profile of Asymmetric Slab Waveguide Structure with LHM Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Taya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents asymmetric three-layer slab waveguide structure in which all layers are considered left-handed materials (LHMs with negative electric permittivity and magnetic permeability. The electric field profile is investigated in details with all parameters of the waveguide structure. Many interesting features are observed such as the existence of the fundamental mode and the transition from the fundamental mode to the first guided mode with increasing the imaginary part of the guiding layer permittivity or permeability.

  9. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  10. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yin Mak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed.

  11. Asymmetric lipid-polymer particles (LIPOMER) by modified nanoprecipitation: role of non-solvent composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Anil B; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-07-15

    Asymmetric lipid polymer nanostructures (LIPOMER) comprising glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as lipid and Gantrez AN 119 (Gantrez) as polymer, revealed enhanced splenic accumulation. In the present paper, we attempt to explain the formation of asymmetric GMS LIPOMER using real time imaging. Particles were prepared by precipitation under static conditions using different non-solvent phase compositions. The process was video recorded and the videos converted to time elapsed images using the FFmpeg 0.10.2 software at 25 frames/sec. Non-solvent compositions comprising >30% of IPA/Acetone revealed significant stranding of the solvent phase and slower onset of precipitation(2-6s). At lower concentrations of IPA and acetone, and in non-solvent compositions comprising ethanol/water the stranding phenomenon was not evident. Further, rapid precipitation(stranding, interfacial turbulence, and mass transfer of solvent and non-solvent resulting in solute precipitation. Enhanced diffusion stranding favored by high interaction of GMS and Gantrez(low ΔPol), and the low solubility parameter(Δδtotal) and high mixing enthalpy(ΔHM) of GMS in IPA resulted in droplets with random shapes analogous to an amoeba with pseudopodia, which on precipitation formed asymmetric particles. Asymmetric particles could be readily designed through appropriate selection of solutes and non-solvent phase by modified nanoprecipitation. PMID:25934429

  12. Report on marine mammal stranding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released a report on 27 April indicating that U.S. Navy sonar transmissions may have played a role in the stranding of more than 150 melon-headed whales on 3 July 2004 off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. At the time of the stranding, which resulted in one whale death, the Navy was preparing to conduct sonar activities as part of a military exercise. The report notes that six naval surface vessels transiting to the area on the previous night intermittenly transmitted mid-frequency active sonar. That activity is ``a plausible, if not likely, contributing factor'' to the stranding event. There was no significant weather, natural oceanographic event, or known biological factors that would explain the animals' movement into the bay nor the group's continued presence in the bay, according to report lead author Teri Rowles, NOAA marine mammal veterinarian.

  13. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'. PMID:10963862

  14. Exact solution of lossy asymmetrical coupled dielectric slab waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Young, P R; Collier, R J

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an exact characteristic equation for asymmetrical coupled dielectric slab waveguides with losses in both the guiding and surrounding regions. For the lossless case the solution of a single transcendental equation is all that is required for the evaluation of the propagation constant.

  15. Optimization of asymmetric polymerase chain reaction for rapid fluorescent DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R K; Chen, C; Hood, L

    1990-02-01

    A high-throughput method for the preparation of single-stranded template DNA, which is suitable for sequence analysis using fluorescent labeling chemistry, is described here. In this procedure, the asymmetric polymerase chain reaction is employed to amplify recombinant plasmid or bacteriophage DNA directly from colonies or plaques. The use of amplification primers located at least 200 base pairs 5' to the site of sequencing primer annealing removes the need for extensive purification of the asymmetric polymerase chain reaction product. Instead, the single-stranded product DNA is purified by a simple isopropanol precipitation step and then directly sequenced using fluorescent dye-labeled oligonucleotides. This method significantly reduces the time and labor required for template preparation and improves fluorescent DNA sequencing strategies by providing a much more uniform yield of single-stranded DNA. PMID:2317375

  16. Stranded cost securitization: Analytical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, S.

    1997-10-01

    Securitization is a promising financing approach by which utilities may recover their stranded costs while lowering their cost of capital, permitting them to offer rate reductions to customers. However, there are important issues to analyze before determining that securitization will be an attractive option for bondholders. To facilitate the transition to a competitive electric market, numerous state legislatures have passed or are considering legislation that, while mandating competition, allows utilities to recover their stranded costs through the imposition of a competitive transition fee. To accommodate securitization of revenues from the fees, statutes typically designate as a property right the future revenues from these fees and the utility may sell, assign, or transfer the rights to a financing vehicle. Securities may be issued by a trust or other special purpose vehicle supported by future revenues from these fees. Because of the unique characteristics of the highly regulated utility industry and the {open_quotes}asset{close_quotes} that is securitized, the credit analysis of stranded cost securities differs from that of most other assets. For example, underwriting and servicing issues, which are key items of interest in other segments of the ABS market, are less of a concern in a stranded cost context.

  17. Asymmetric information and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an expression of the economic concept of asymmetric information with which it is possible to derive the dynamical laws of an economy. To illustrate the utility of this approach we show how the assumption of optimal information flow leads to a general class of investment strategies including the well-known Q theory of Tobin. Novel consequences of this formalism include a natural definition of market efficiency and an uncertainty principle relating capital stock and investment flow.

  18. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    were pioneered by Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder who discovered what later became known as the Diels Alder reaction. The Diels Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition in which a π4 component reacts with a π2 component via a cyclic transition state to generate a 6 membered ring. This reaction...... reactions constitute the first organocatalytic asymmetric higher order cycloadditions and a rational for the periselectivity and stereoselectivity is provided based on experimental and computational investigations....

  19. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  20. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326

  1. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  2. Stranded costs in European electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Simon [Price Waterhouse Coopers, Global Energy and Mining Group (United Kingdom)

    1998-10-01

    This article focuses on the liability for stranded costs in the European electricity markets, which were incurred as a result of the EV Directive opening up competition in the electricity markets. The deadline for notification of stranded costs by Member States, the European Commission`s guidelines concerning stranded costs, possible asset sales, calculation of stranded costs, and the question of who pays are discussed. (UK)

  3. ELASTIC DEFORMATION ANALYSIS OF MULTILA YERED STRANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世文; 冯继玲; 杨兆建; 连香姣

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a general model for the mechanical behavior studying of general wire rope strand. An exact solution of the deformation characteristics was given when the strands is under tensile and torsional loads. The theoretical results are useful in evaluating the extensional and torsional moduli of rigidity for the strands. Finally, a simple design criterion is established for the nonrotating ropes.

  4. Transient stability of LHC strands

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Coombs, R C; Bauer, P; Wolf, R

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine will operate at 1.9 K in order to achieve the high bending fields required in the dipole magnets. The cable and coil matrix is designed to be 'porous' in order to allow the He II coolant to $9 penetrate within the cable for stability enhancement. This paper describes transient stability measurements and theoretical modelling carried out on single strands from the LHC cable. The experimental work has been carried out at the $9 Rutherford Appleton Laboratory under an agreement with CERN. The aim of the experimental work has been to measure the influence of the strand surface treatment on the quench energy. The surface treatment, oxidized copper, tin-silver, $9 nickel etc., determines the transient heat transfer coefficients to the He II under high heat flux, short timescale (approximately 20 microseconds) conditions. The test equipment, based on an inductive heating technique, is described $9 and quench energy measurements presented. The experimental results are compared ...

  5. Data analysis of asymmetric structures advanced approaches in computational statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takayuki

    2004-01-01

    Data Analysis of Asymmetric Structures provides a comprehensive presentation of a variety of models and theories for the analysis of asymmetry and its applications and provides a wealth of new approaches in every section. It meets both the practical and theoretical needs of research professionals across a wide range of disciplines and  considers data analysis in fields such as psychology, sociology, social science, ecology, and marketing. In seven comprehensive chapters this guide details theories, methods, and models for the analysis of asymmetric structures in a variety of disciplines and presents future opportunities and challenges affecting research developments and business applications.

  6. Facilitated Asymmetric Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Alan; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a class of facilitated asymmetric exclusion processes in which particles are pushed by neighbors from behind. For the simplest version in which a particle can hop to its vacant right neighbor only if its left neighbor is occupied, we determine the steady state current and the distribution of cluster sizes on a ring. We show that an initial density downstep develops into a rarefaction wave that can have a jump discontinuity at the leading edge, while an upstep results in a shock w...

  7. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  8. Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cardelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are amenable to formalization and to mechanical verification.

  9. Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Cardelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions) in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are amenable to formalization and to mechanical verification.

  10. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p')-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities px, py and pz. The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√px, √py, √pz) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  11. Asymmetric inclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  12. PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH ORDER LONGITUDINAL MODES IN STEEL STRANDS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zenghua Liu; Su Liu; Bin Wu; Yinong Zhang; Cunfu He

    2008-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of high order longitudinal modes of ultrasonic guided waves in seven-wire steel strands are investigated theoretically and experimentally. According to these analysis results, proper longitudinal modes are selected for defect detection in steel strands.Dispersion curves for helical and central wires in a 17.80 mm nominal diameter seven-wire steel strand are numerically obtained firstly, and propagation characteristics of high-order longitudinal modes, such as wave structures, attenuation and dispersion, are analyzed. In experiments, the signals of ultrasonic guided wave at different high frequencies are excited and received at one end of a steel strand by using the same single piezoelectric transducer. The identification of longitudinal modes in the received signals is achieved based on short time Fourier transform. Furthermore,appropriate L(0, 5) mode at 2.54 MHz is chosen for detecting an artificial defect in a helical wire of the steel strand. Results show that high order longitudinal modes in a high frequency range with low dispersion and attenuation whose energy propagates mainly in the center of the wires can be used for defect detection in long range steel strands.

  13. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  14. Engineered Asymmetric Synthetic Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Chiarot, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic vesicles are small, fluid-filled spheres that are enclosed by a bilayer of lipid molecules. They can be used as models for investigating membrane biology and as delivery vehicles for pharmaceuticals. In practice, it is difficult to simultaneously control membrane asymmetry, unilamellarity, vesicle size, vesicle-to-vesicle uniformity, and luminal content. Membrane asymmetry, where each leaflet of the bilayer is composed of different lipids, is of particular importance as it is a feature of most natural membranes. In this study, we leverage microfluidic technology to build asymmetric vesicles at high-throughput. We use the precise flow control offered by microfluidic devices to make highly uniform emulsions, with controlled internal content, that serve as templates to build the synthetic vesicles. Flow focusing, dielectrophoretic steering, and interfacial lipid self-assembly are critical procedures performed on-chip to produce the vesicles. Fluorescent and confocal microscopy are used to evaluate the vesicle characteristics.

  15. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  16. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC

  17. Organizing for Asymmetric Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr; Sørensen, Henrik B.

    meet each other. On the contrary, we assume that asymmetry is both important and normal; moreover, asymmetry should be considered to be more complex than economists indicate with their concept of asymmetric information. Thus, the aim of the paper is to explore how asymmetries related to partners......  The vision of new organizational forms consists of less-organized networks and alliances between organizations, in which collaborative capabilities are assumed to be crucial (Miles et al., 2005). The path to such new forms may go through fragile cooperative efforts. Despite the good will of many......' different motives and different situational factors appear in an interorganizational setting. We classify interfaces according to the symmetry/asymmetry in the respective parent organizations' resources, commitment, and control of representatives and indicate how  classification schemes can be used to...

  18. Annihilating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Nicole F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    The relic abundance of particle and antiparticle dark matter (DM) need not be vastly different in thermal asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models. By considering the effect of a primordial asymmetry on the thermal Boltzmann evolution of coupled DM and anti-DM, we derive the requisite annihilation cross section. This is used in conjunction with CMB and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data to impose a limit on the number density of anti-DM particles surviving thermal freeze-out. When the extended gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center is reanalyzed in a thermal ADM framework, we find that annihilation into $\\tau$ leptons prefer anti-DM number densities 1-4$\\%$ that of DM while the $b$-quark channel prefers 50-100$\\%$.

  19. SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Social Science Strand, Unit 8, Grade 3, Supplement & Ditto Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Designed for use with the teacher's guide to unit eight of the social science strand developed for grade three, these support materials for Spanish-speaking children include instructional aids for classroom use and worksheets for students which may be reproduced for individual seatwork. Worksheets are to be used under supervision rather than as…

  20. Dynamics of single-stranded DNA tethered to a solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiom, Milad; Paul, Mark R.; Ducker, William A.

    2016-06-01

    Tethering is used to deliver specific biological and industrial functions. For example, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is tethered to polymerases and long sequences of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) during replication, and to solids in DNA microarrays. However, tethering ssDNA to a large object limits not only the available ssDNA conformations, but also the range of time-scales over which the mechanical responses of ssDNA are important. In this work we examine the effect of tethering by measurement of the mechanical response of ssDNA that is tethered at each end to two separate atomic force microscope cantilevers in aqueous solution. Thermal motion of the cantilevers drives the ends of the ssDNA chain at frequencies near 2 kHz. The presence of a tethered molecule makes a large difference to the asymmetric cross-correlation of two cantilevers, which enables resolution of the mechanical properties in our experiments. By analysis of the correlated motion of the cantilevers we extract the friction and stiffness of the ssDNA. We find that the measured friction is much larger than the friction that is usually associated with the unencumbered motion of ssDNA. We also find that the measured relaxation time, ∼30 μs, is much greater than prior measurements of the free-molecule relaxation time. We attribute the difference to the loss of conformational possibilities as a result of constraining the ends of the ssDNA.

  1. Single-stranded heteroduplex intermediates in λ Red homologous recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Youming

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Red proteins of lambda phage mediate probably the simplest and most efficient homologous recombination reactions yet described. However the mechanism of dsDNA recombination remains undefined. Results Here we show that the Red proteins can act via full length single stranded intermediates to establish single stranded heteroduplexes at the replication fork. We created asymmetrically digestible dsDNA substrates by exploiting the fact that Redα exonuclease activity requires a 5' phosphorylated end, or is blocked by phosphothioates. Using these substrates, we found that the most efficient configuration for dsDNA recombination occurred when the strand that can prime Okazaki-like synthesis contained both homology regions on the same ssDNA molecule. Furthermore, we show that Red recombination requires replication of the target molecule. Conclusions Hence we propose a new model for dsDNA recombination, termed 'beta' recombination, based on the formation of ssDNA heteroduplexes at the replication fork. Implications of the model were tested using (i an in situ assay for recombination, which showed that recombination generated mixed wild type and recombinant colonies; and (ii the predicted asymmetries of the homology arms, which showed that recombination is more sensitive to non-homologies attached to 5' than 3' ends. Whereas beta recombination can generate deletions in target BACs of at least 50 kb at about the same efficiency as small deletions, the converse event of insertion is very sensitive to increasing size. Insertions up to 3 kb are most efficiently achieved using beta recombination, however at greater sizes, an alternative Red-mediated mechanism(s appears to be equally efficient. These findings define a new intermediate in homologous recombination, which also has practical implications for recombineering with the Red proteins.

  2. Efficient initiation and strand transfer of polypurine tract-primed plus-strand DNA prevent strand transfer of internally initiated plus-strand DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, E. H.; Pathak, V K; Hu, W S

    1996-01-01

    A critical step in retroviral reverse transcription is the initiation of plus-strand DNA synthesis at the polypurine tract (PPT) and strand transfer of the PPT-primed strong-stop DNA to the 5' end of the viral DNA. An attachment site (att) immediately 3' to the PPT is essential for proper integration of proviral DNA into the host chromosome. Plus-strand DNA synthesis is discontinuous in many retroviruses, indicating that sequences upstream of the PPT are also used to initiate plus-strand DNA ...

  3. Heat transfer characteristics of an emergent strand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. E.; Witte, L. C.; Hedgcoxe, P. G.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the heat transfer characteristics of a hot strand emerging into a surrounding coolant. A stable strand of constant efflux velocity is analyzed, with a constant (average) heat transfer coefficient on the sides and leading surface of the strand. After developing a suitable governing equation to provide an adequate description of the physical system, the dimensionless governing equation is solved with Laplace transform methods. The solution yields the temperature within the strand as a function of axial distance and time. Generalized results for a wide range of parameters are presented, and the relationship of the results and experimental observations is discussed.

  4. Metal rolling - Asymmetrical rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S.; Kiss, I.

    2016-02-01

    The development of theory and practice related to the asymmetric longitudinal rolling process is based on the general theory of metalworking by pressure and symmetric rolling theory, to which a large number of scientists brought their contribution. The rolling of metal materials was a serious problem throughout history, either economically or technically, because the plating technologies enabled the consumption of raw materials (scarce and expensive) to be reduced, while improving the mechanical properties. Knowing the force parameters related to asymmetric rolling leads to the optimization of energy and raw material consumption. This paper presents data on symmetric rolling process, in order to comparatively highlight the particularities of the asymmetric process.

  5. Asymmetric Gepner Models (Revisited)

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2010-01-01

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as th...

  6. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle...

  7. Stranding of two sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the "North Sea trap" at Henne Strand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Alstrup, Aage K. O.; Hansen, Jørgen H.;

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014 two male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) stranded at Henne Strand, Denmark. One whale (MCE 1644) was found dead, while the other (MCE 1645) was still alive, but drowned during the high tide. To increase our knowledge of sperm whales, conduct forage investigations, post...... where they follow each other, which could explain why MCE 1645 stranded alive without signs of disease....

  8. Active Matter on Asymmetric Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Drocco, J.; Mai, T.; Wan, M. B.; Reichhardt, C.

    2011-01-01

    For collections of particles in a thermal bath interacting with an asymmetric substrate, it is possible for a ratchet effect to occur where the particles undergo a net dc motion in response to an ac forcing. Ratchet effects have been demonstrated in a variety of systems including colloids as well as magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors. Here we examine the case of active matter or self-driven particles interacting with asymmetric substrates. Active matter systems include self-motile c...

  9. Mobile Termination with Asymmetric Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dewenter, Ralf; Haucap, Justus

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines mobile termination fees and their regulation when networks are asymmetric in size. It is demonstrated that with consumer ignorance about the exact termination rates (a) a mobile network?s termination rate is the higher the smaller the network?s size (as measured through its subscriber base) and (b) asymmetric regulation of only the larger operators in a market will, ce-teris paribus, induce the smaller operators to increase their termination rates. The results are supporte...

  10. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  11. Asymmetric Dark Matter from Leptogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Falkowski, Adam; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Volansky, Tomer

    2011-01-01

    We present a new realization of asymmetric dark matter in which the dark matter and lepton asymmetries are generated simultaneously through two-sector leptogenesis. The right-handed neutrinos couple both to the Standard Model and to a hidden sector where the dark matter resides. This framework explains the lepton asymmetry, dark matter abundance and neutrino masses all at once. In contrast to previous realizations of asymmetric dark matter, the model allows for a wide range of dark matter mas...

  12. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; TAKEDA, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth i...

  13. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-11

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  14. Legal considerations in utility stranded cost securitizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.B.; Jameson, J.M.; Yoong, D.K.L.

    1997-10-01

    The effects that state and federal law provisions, and accounting, tax and bankruptcy considerations have on securitization of utility stranded costs are complex and demand careful attention from government, utilities and their advisors. Although the legal structuring of a utility securitization is more involved than that of most other securitizations, its documentation is not particularly more complicated. To facilitate the movement towards a competitive electricity generation marketplace, many investor-owned utilities, regulators and state lawmakers are considering securitizations as a means of recovering stranded costs. Securitizations generally, and securitizations of stranded costs in particular, are subject to many legal requirements, all of which need to be satisfied in order to structure and consummate a successful transaction. Utility executives, regulators and lawmakers need to be cognizant of the legal requirements that will strongly influence the structure and success of any stranded cost legislation or securitization they propose. As of this writing, no U.S. stranded cost securitizations have been completed.

  15. Shoreline processes, stranded oil and cleanup activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial character of stranded oil is a function of a large number of interactive variables that include the volume and character of the oil as it reaches the shore zone, nearshore oceanographic conditions at the time of stranding, and the character of the zone substrate. The fate of stranded oil on the shoreline is a function of weathering processes, natural removal, and of treatment activities. The presentation will review each of the major components described above and will present summary models to describe relative rates of natural change for selected scenarios. The role of coastal processes will be considered and used to illustrate how shoreline dynamics can remove or bury stranded oil. Examples will be provided to show some of the characteristic processes that cause changes in the distribution of stranded oil. Some shoreline treatment activities involve disturbance and relocation or removal of beach substrate; the effects of such activities will be illustrated and evaluated

  16. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Šulc, Petr; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds.

  17. Marine mammal strandings in the New Caledonia region, Southwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Philippe

    2006-04-01

    Four hundred twenty three marine mammals, in 72 stranding events, were recorded between 1877 and 2005 in New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, and Vanuatu in the southwest Pacific. Sixteen species were represented in this count, including: minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (1 single stranding), sei whale, B. borealis (1 single stranding), blue whale, B. musculus (1 single stranding), humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (2 single strandings), giant sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus (18 single strandings, 2 pair strandings), pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps (5 single strandings), dwarf sperm whale, K. sima (2 single strandings, 1 triple stranding), Blainville's beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris (2 single strandings), short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus (4 strandings, 56 individuals), melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra (1 single stranding and 2 mass strandings totalling 231 individuals), common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (1 single stranding), spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris (1 pair stranding and 2 mass strandings of groups of approximately 30 individuals each), Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus (2 single strandings), dugong, Dugong dugon (14 single strandings), and New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri (3 single strandings). A stranded rorqual identified as an Antarctic minke whale (B. bonaerensis), with coloration patterns that did not match known descriptions, was also reported. Sei whale was recorded for the first time in the tropical Southwest Pacific region and Antarctic minke whale, melon-headed whale, and Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin were recorded for the first time in New Caledonia. Strandings of sperm whales were most frequent in the spring, but also occurred in autumn months, suggesting a seasonal pattern of occurrence possibly related to seasonal migration. One stranded humpback whale bore the scars of a killer whale's attack and one dugong was injured by a shark. Scars left by

  18. A homogeneous nucleic acid hybridization assay based on strand displacement.

    OpenAIRE

    Vary, C P

    1987-01-01

    A homogeneous nucleic acid hybridization assay which is conducted in solution and requires no separation steps is described. The assay is based on the concept of strand displacement. In the strand displacement assay, an RNA "signal strand" is hybridized within a larger DNA strand termed the "probe strand", which is, in turn, complementary to the target nucleic acid of interest. Hybridization of the target nucleic acid with the probe strand ultimately results in displacement of the RNA signal ...

  19. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Dennison, S; Moore, M J; Fahlman, A.; Moore, K.; Sharp, S.; Harry, C. T.; Hoppe, J.; NIEMEYER, M.; Lentell, B.; Wells, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber–muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized ...

  20. Hydroxamic acids in asymmetric synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2013-02-19

    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst's center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Because of their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which uses the titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities. PMID:23157425

  1. Asymmetric counterpropagating fronts without flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Silva, I; Clerc, M G; Odent, V

    2015-06-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems exhibit domain walls between different states. These walls, depending on the type of connected states, can display rich spatiotemporal dynamics. In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the asymmetrical counterpropagation of fronts in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the different front shapes and propagation speeds. These fronts present dissimilar elastic deformations that are responsible for their asymmetric speeds. Theoretically, using a phenomenological model, we describe the observed dynamics with fair agreement. PMID:26172647

  2. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Cai, Bao-Jun; Shen, Chun; Ko, Che Ming; Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX, 75429-3011, USA)

    2009-01-01

    The incompressibility $K_sat(\\delta)$ of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of $K_sat(\\delta)$ in powers of isospin asymmetry $\\delta$, i.e., $K_sat(\\delta )$=K_{0}+K_{sat,2}\\delta^{2}+K_{sat,4}\\delta^{4}+O(\\delta^{6})$, the magnitude of the 4th-order K_{sat,4} parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order K_{sat,2} parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matte...

  3. Asymmetric interference in molecular photoprocesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, the Coulomb continuum effects in asymmetric molecular interference have been studied analytically in photoionization, photorecombination, bremsstrahlung and Compton ionization. Simple, closed-form factors describe the interference not only in monochromatic photoprocesses, but also in the continuous photoelectron spectra generated by attosecond x-ray pulses with a frequency-dependent phase and broad bandwidth. Using HeH2+ molecular ion as an example, we show how the plane wave interference pattern is strongly modified by the two-centre Coulomb continuum. Asymmetric Coulomb continuum introduces qualitative changes in a photoionization process

  4. Asymmetric Baxter-King filter

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Ginters

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes an extension of the symmetric Baxter-King band pass filter to an asymmetric Baxter-King filter. The optimal correction scheme of the ideal filter weights is the same as in the symmetric version, i.e, cut the ideal filter at the appropriate length and add a constant to all filter weights to ensure zero weight on zero frequency. Since the symmetric Baxter-King filter is unable to extract the desired signal at the very ends of the series, the extension to an asymmetric filter...

  5. Forces between asymmetric polymer brushes

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, D.F.K.; Cates, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    We study the equilibrium compression of asymmetric polymer brushes grafted on flat plates, under athermal and theta solvent conditions, using a lattice self-consistent field (SCF) approach. We find that the separation d between two plates coated asymmetrically with brushes of type 1 and 2, as a function of the force F, obeys the "bisection rule", d(F) = (d1(F) + d 2(F)) /2 where d1(F)and d 2(F) are the corresponding separations for the symmetric brushes of type 1 and 2 respectively.The bisect...

  6. Research on asymmetric "Jerusalem" unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Lu; Jianbo Wang

    2009-01-01

    An asymmetric Jerusalem unit and the frequency selective surface(FSS)structure composed of such units are designed.The transmittance of the designed FSS structure is calculated by mode-matching method and compared with the test results.The comparison results show that the FSS center frequency of the asymmetric structure unit drifts little with the variation of the incident angles of the electromagnetic waves and keeps relatively stable.The research offers a new choice for the application of FSS under the large scanning angle of electromagnetic waves.

  7. The Stranding Anomaly as Population Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltier, Helene; Baagøe, Hans J.; Camphuysen, Kees C.J.;

    2013-01-01

    credibility are disputed. Our present goal is to improve the value of stranding data as population indicator as part of monitoring strategies by constructing the spatial and temporal null hypothesis for strandings. The null hypothesis is defined as: small cetacean distribution and mortality are uniform in...... space and constant in time. We used a drift model to map stranding probabilities and predict stranding patterns of cetacean carcasses under H0 across the North Sea, the Channel and the Bay of Biscay, for the period 1990–2009. As the most common cetacean occurring in this area, we chose the harbour...... surveys, mostly SCANS surveys (1994 and 2005). This new indicator could be applied to cetacean populations across the world and more widely to marine megafauna....

  8. Alaska Marine Mammal Strandings/Entanglements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database represents a summary of information on stranded marine mammals reported to NMFS throughout the State of Alaska in fulfillment of Title IV of the...

  9. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, S; Moore, M J; Fahlman, A; Moore, K; Sharp, S; Harry, C T; Hoppe, J; Niemeyer, M; Lentell, B; Wells, R S

    2012-04-01

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber-muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness. PMID:21993505

  10. Platelets and fibrin strands during clot retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, E; Korell, U; Richter, J

    1984-03-15

    The ultrastructure of platelet fibrin contacts (PFC) and the course of the strands was investigated in serial sections of retracted clots with the help of specimen tilting. We found after retraction in a test tube as well as under isometric conditions in the resonance thrombograph, after HARTERT, an uniform type of PFC. The side to side contact between platelet surface and fibrin strands displayed a 15 nm wide space which was bridged of 10 - 30 nm by filamentary structure. In each case the direction of the fibrin strands changed on contact with the platelet surface (bend). These bends recurred if the adhering strands ran over a longer distance on the platelet surface. The bends can be explained by non-directional movement of the platelets or of their pseudopodia. Microfilaments (actomyosin) which run straight in pseudopodia and often also twisted in the platelet body support this assumption. The described mechanism - contact of the thrombin activated platelets with fibrin strands and simultaneous nondirectional movement of the platelets which bind further sections of the adhering strands to their surface - would provide a more satisfactory explanation for the retraction of the clot to 1/10 of its original volume. PMID:6539004

  11. Correlation between Strand Stability and Magnet Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnet programs at BNL, LBNL and FNAL have observed instabilities in high Jc Nb3Sn strands and magnets made from these strands. This paper correlates the strand stability determined from a short sample-strand test to the observed magnet performance. It has been observed that strands that carry high currents at high fields (greater than 10T) cannot sustain these same currents at low fields (1-3T) when the sample current is fixed and the magnetic field is ramped. This suggests that the present generation of strand is susceptible to flux jumps (FJ). To prevent flux jumps from limiting stand performance, one must accommodate the energy released during a flux jump. To better understand FJ this work has focused on wire with a given sub-element diameter and shows that one can significantly improve stability by increasing the copper conductivity (higher residual resistivity ratio, RRR, of the Cu). This increased stability significantly improves the conductor performance and permits it to carry more current

  12. Study on Strand Space Model Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI QingGuang(季庆光); QING SiHan(卿斯汉); ZHOU YongBin(周永彬); FENG DengGuo(冯登国)

    2003-01-01

    The growing interest in the application of formal methods of cryptographic pro-tocol analysis has led to the development of a number of different ways for analyzing protocol. Inthis paper, it is strictly proved that if for any strand, there exists at least one bundle containingit, then an entity authentication protocol is secure in strand space model (SSM) with some smallextensions. Unfortunately, the results of attack scenario demonstrate that this protocol and the Yahalom protocol and its modification are de facto insecure. By analyzing the reasons of failure offormal inference in strand space model, some deficiencies in original SSM are pointed out. In orderto break through these limitations of analytic capability of SSM, the generalized strand space model(GSSM) induced by some protocol is proposed. In this model, some new classes of strands, oraclestrands, high order oracle strands etc., are developed, and some notions are formalized strictly in GSSM, such as protocol attacks, valid protocol run and successful protocol run. GSSM can thenbe used to further analyze the entity authentication protocol. This analysis sheds light on why thisprotocol would be vulnerable while it illustrates that GSSM not only can prove security protocolcorrect, but also can be efficiently used to construct protocol attacks. It is also pointed out thatusing other protocol to attack some given protocol is essentially the same as the case of using themost of protocol itself.

  13. Asymmetric Random Matrices: What do We Need them For?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex systems are typically represented by large ensembles of observations. Correlation matrices provide an efficient formal framework to extract information from such multivariate ensembles and identify in a quantifiable way patterns of activity that are reproducible with statistically significant frequency compared to a reference chance probability, usually provided by random matrices as fundamental reference. The character of the problem and especially the symmetries involved must guide the choice of random matrices to be used for the definition of a baseline reference. For standard correlation matrices this is the Wishart ensemble of symmetric random matrices. The real world complexity however often shows asymmetric information flows and therefore more general correlation matrices are required to adequately capture the asymmetry. Here we first summarize the relevant theoretical concepts. We then present some examples of human brain activity where asymmetric time-lagged correlations are evident and hence highlight the need for further theoretical developments. (author)

  14. Asymmetric random matrices: What do we need them for?

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdz, Stanislaw; Ioannides, Andreas A; 10.5506/APhysPolB.42.987

    2011-01-01

    Complex systems are typically represented by large ensembles of observations. Correlation matrices provide an efficient formal framework to extract information from such multivariate ensembles and identify in a quantifiable way patterns of activity that are reproducible with statistically significant frequency compared to a reference chance probability, usually provided by random matrices as fundamental reference. The character of the problem and especially the symmetries involved must guide the choice of random matrices to be used for the definition of a baseline reference. For standard correlation matrices this is the Wishart ensemble of symmetric random matrices. The real world complexity however often shows asymmetric information flows and therefore more general correlation matrices are required to adequately capture the asymmetry. Here we first summarize the relevant theoretical concepts. We then present some examples of human brain activity where asymmetric time-lagged correlations are evident and hence...

  15. JET and COMPASS asymmetrical disruptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerasimov, S.N.; Abreu, P.; Baruzzo, M.; Drozdov, V.; Dvornova, A.; Havlíček, Josef; Hender, T.C.; Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Kruezi, U.; Li, X.; Markovič, Tomáš; Pánek, Radomír; Rubinacci, G.; Tsalas, M.; Ventre, S.; Villone, F.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2015), s. 113006-113006. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * asymmetrical disruption * JET * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2014

  16. Synthesis of Asymmetric Propanetriol Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From natural tartaric acid, (R)-2-benzyloxy-3-(2-tetrahydropyranyloxy) propanol 3 was designed and synthesized, and (R)-2-benzyloxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyloxy) propanol 7 was prepared in a new method. They can be used as chiral synthons of lysophosphatidic acid and other compounds with asymmetric propanetriol backbone.

  17. Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about…

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul; Andersson, Pher G.; Johansson, Fredrik

    1996-01-01

    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the...

  19. Characterization of CRISPR RNA transcription by exploiting stranded metatranscriptomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuzhen; Zhang, Quan

    2016-07-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems are bacterial adaptive immune systems, each typically composed of a locus of cas genes and a CRISPR array of spacers flanked by repeats. Processed transcripts of CRISPR arrays (crRNAs) play important roles in the interference process mediated by these systems, guiding targeted immunity. Here we developed computational approaches that allow us to characterize the expression of many CRISPRs in their natural environments, using community RNA-seq (metatranscriptomic) data. By exploiting public human gut metatranscriptomic data sets, we studied the expression of 56 repeat-sequence types of CRISPRs, revealing that most CRISPRs are transcribed in one direction (producing crRNAs). In rarer cases, including a type II system associated with Bacteroides fragilis, CRISPRs are transcribed in both directions. Type III CRISPR-Cas systems were found in the microbiomes, but metatranscriptomic reads were barely found for their CRISPRs. We observed individual-level variation of the crRNA transcription, and an even greater transcription of a CRISPR from the antisense strand than the crRNA strand in one sample. The orientations of CRISPR expression implicated by metatranscriptomic data are largely in agreement with prior predictions for CRISPRs, with exceptions. Our study shows the promise of exploiting community RNA-seq data for investigating the transcription of CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:27190232

  20. Selfhealing of asymmetric Bessel-like modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability.......We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability....

  1. Implicit knowledge of visual uncertainty guides decisions with asymmetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Sahani, Maneesh

    2008-01-01

    rather than simply requiring that they use a modal estimate of the uncertain stimulus. Crucially, they approach optimal behavior even when denied the opportunity to learn adaptive decision strategies based on immediate feedback. Our data thus support the idea that flexible representations of uncertainty......Perception is an "inverse problem," in which the state of the world must be inferred from the sensory neural activity that results. However, this inference is both ill-posed (Helmholtz, 1856; Marr, 1982) and corrupted by noise (Green & Swets, 1989), requiring the brain to compute perceptual beliefs...... under conditions of uncertainty. Here we show that human observers performing a simple visual choice task under an externally imposed loss function approach the optimal strategy, as defined by Bayesian probability and decision theory (Berger, 1985; Cox, 1961). In concert with earlier work, this suggests...

  2. Mechanical properties of rubberwood oriented strand lumber (OSL: The effect of strand length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of strand length on mechanical properties (tension, compression and bending of oriented strand lumber (OSL made of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. was reported. Three strand lengths of 50 mm, 100 mm, and 150 mm with 1 mm thickness and 15 mm width were used. The strands were mixed with 5% pMDI glue (weight basis in a tumble mixer. The OSL specimens were formed by hot pressing process of unidirectionally aligned strands. Average specific gravity and moisture content were 0.76 and 8.34%, respectively. Tension and compression tests were carried out for directions both parallel and perpendicular to grain while bending test was performed only in parallel direction. Ultimate stresses and moduli of elasticity were examined from the stress-strain curves. It was found that for the parallel-to-grain direction, the longer strand OSL gave higher strength. The role of the strand length did not appear for the direction normal to the grain. The relationship between the mechanical properties of OSL and strand length was well described by the modified Hankinson formula.

  3. Marine mammal strandings in the New Caledonia region, Southwest Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Borsa, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    International audience Four hundred twenty three marine mammals, in 72 stranding events, were recorded between 1877 and 2005 in New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, and Vanuatu in the southwest Pacific. Sixteen species were represented in this count, including: minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (1 single stranding), sei whale, B. borealis (1 single stranding), blue whale, B. musculus (1 single stranding), humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (2 single strandings), giant sperm whale,...

  4. Win-win measurement of stranded costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graniere, R.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). National Regulatory Research Inst.

    1998-08-01

    While the underrecovery of stranded costs puts a portion of the utility`s investors` wealth at risk, the overrecovery of these costs causes the utility`s customers to shoulder an unnecessary financial burden. These opposing potential costs associated inevitably with stranded-cost recovery help insure that everyone involved in the production, sale, and use of electric power, for selfish reasons, wants to coordinate on the best measure of these costs. That is, in equilibrium, everyone in the electricity production chain does not want to deviate from a measurement approach that prevents either the overrecovery or underrecovery of stranded costs. An important task, then, is to determine the ad hoc rules that must be appended to ex ante and ex post measures of stranded costs in order to reasonably prevent overrecoveries and underrecoveries. While either ex ante or ex post measures of stranded facilities and costs can be implemented reasonably, appropriately constructed ex post measures are superior, so long as regulators follow a reasonable protocol for the securitization of these costs.

  5. Securitization of stranded costs: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, K.J. [Sidley and Austin, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The benefits and costs of stranded cost recovery continue to be widely debated. Consumer and environmental groups have argued that such recovery over-compensates utilities for past investments which, although statutorily mandated at the time, have proved to be uneconomic. According to others, however, including credit analysts and academics, stranded cost recovery promotes competition by ensuring that all suppliers of electricity, both regulated and non-regulated, share in the historic costs of regulation until such time as the market has fully developed. Securitization, because it has been linked to stranded cost recovery in states such as Pennsylvania, has been unfairly caught in the debate. This is unfortunate. By enabling incumbent utilities to lower their capital costs during deregulation, securitization minimizes the need for direct forms of stranded cost recovery and facilitates the rate reductions which will fuel the transition to a competitive power generation market. Of key importance is that securitization achieves these lower costs by taking advantage of market preferences and not through subsidies from customers or the state. As one ratings analyst has noted, the politically difficult issue in this area is to determine what level of stranded cost recovery is desirable. once that decision has been reached, securitization should no longer be seen as a political issue but simply a cost-efficient means by which to accomplish recovery.

  6. Coating Thickness of the LHC Superconducting Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Charras, N

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine the time of heat treatment to give to the superconducting Rutherford-type cable, it is essential to know the stabrite (SnAg5%) coating thickness on the superconducting strands. Depending on the heat treatment time applied, the cable will have a contact resistance between strands conform to the LHC specifications. A study on the tin layers thickness was carried out. It concerns the internal and the external strands for all the firms producing these strands for the LHC. The level of control of the tinning process was established for each firm, and correlations between different measuring techniques of the tin layers were achieved, based on the keys process parameters. Finally, a correlation's relationship was found to get an equivalent value of Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry (AAS) from a coulometric result. The AAS measurement gives the total amount of tin in the strand and is the reference nowadays. Thanks to this equivalence, the number of real AAS measurements carried out can be lowered...

  7. Capturing stranded value in nuclear plant assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New York Power Authority owns and operates two nuclear plants - generating assets that demand innovative approaches in an increasingly competitive market for electricity. NYPA plans to turn to the specialized skills of one of the industry's best nuclear operators, with the goal of maximizing the plants' value and yielding lower cost electricity for its customers. In the transition to a competitive electric power business, much of the power industry's focus has been directed at the issue of stranded assets, particularly those associated with investments in nuclear plants. Many nuclear plants are struggling with the twin disabilities of relatively low and/or variable operating performance and high costs. The result is a cost for power that may not be fully recovered in the marketplace, thus stranding part or all of the asset's value. At the NYPA attention has been on the flip side of stranded costs: what they term the stranded value associated with nuclear plants. They view stranded value as the potential additional value - increased power generation and reduced costs, while maintaining high levels of safe operations - that could be obtained from an average nuclear plant if it could be operated at the performance levels attained by the best neclear plant operators in the country. They do not accept current performance or industry averages as a given. They expect to deliver the full potential value of their nuclear assets to their customers by implementing a new operating strategy

  8. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  9. Asymmetrically coupled directed percolation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Jae Dong; Park, Hyunggyu

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a dynamical model of coupled directed percolation systems with two particle species. The two species $A$ and $B$ are coupled asymmetrically in that $A$ particles branch $B$ particles whereas $B$ particles prey on $A$ particles. This model may describe epidemic spreading controlled by reactive immunization agents. We study nonequilibrium phase transitions with focused attention to the multicritical point where both species undergo the absorbing phase transition simultaneously. In ...

  10. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.

    2010-09-01

    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  11. Entrepreneurship, Asymmetric Information and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Boadway; Nicolas Marceau; Maurice Marchand; Marianne Vigneault

    1998-01-01

    We examine how three sources of asymmetric information affect the supply of entrepreneurs and unemployment. In the first case, banks cannot observe entrepreneurs' risk of failure so ration credit. This increases the number of entrepreneurs and the level of unemployment. In the second case, firms cannot observe workers' effort so offer a wage above the market clearing one. This results in unemployment and too few entrepreneurs. The final case arises when firms cannot observe workers' abilities...

  12. Asymmetric Microscopic Driving Behavior Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Hwasoo

    2008-01-01

    Numerous theories on traffic have been developed as traffic congestion gains more and more interest in our daily life. To model traffic phenomena, many traffic theorists have adopted theories from other fields such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. However, their efforts to model the traffic at a microscopic level have not been successful yet. Therefore, to overcome the limitations of the existing theories we propose a microscopic asymmetric traffic theory based on analysis of individual...

  13. Effciency Concern under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Winschel, Evguenia; Zahn, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence from simple distribution games supports the view that some individuals have a concern for the effciency of allocations. This motive could be important for the implementation of economic policy proposals. In a typical lab experiment, however, individuals have much more information available than outside the lab. We conduct a lab experiment to test whether asymmetric information influences prosocial behavior in a simple non-strategic interaction. In our setting, a dictator...

  14. Convergent strand array liquid pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A surface-tension liquid pumping system is provided by one or more arrays of converging solid monofilament fibers or metal wires (strands) spaced apart at an input end to gather liquid, and gathered close together at the opposite end where menisci forms between wetted strands to force liquid in the direction of convergence of the strands. The liquid pumping system is independent of gravity. It is illustrated as being used in a heat pump having a heating box to vaporize the liquid and a condensing chamber. Condensed liquid is returned by the pumping system to the heating box where it is again vaporized. A vapor tube carries the vapor to the condensing chamber. In that way, a closed system pumps heat from the heating box to the evaporating chamber and from there radiated to the atmosphere.

  15. Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, Rebecca L [ORNL; Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Briggs, Dayrl P [ORNL; Srijanto, Bernadeta R [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Leidenfrost phenomena on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems utilizing boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant means to direct droplet motion in a variety of recently emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions, namely on impact with Weber numbers 40 at T 325 C. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask, with mean pillar diameters of 100 nm and heights of 200-500 nm. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling, suggesting that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Using high-speed imaging, phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon impact for droplets falling onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. The asymmetric impact and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing that asymmetric wettability upon impact is the mechanism for the droplet directionality.

  16. Double-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker.......A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  17. Oriented Strand Board Bermutu Tinggi dari Bambu

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Ardiansyah

    2010-01-01

    High quality Oriented Strand Board (OSB) made from bamboo could subtitute wood as material building. The raw material OSB production made from three species bamboo, namely hitam bamboo, betung bamboo and tali bamboo, bonded by isocyanat adhesive. This research based on Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 : 2003, with dimension target 25 cm x 25 cm x 1,5 cm, and density 0,8 gr/cm3. Adhesive 7 % based on oven dry strands weight. OSB were condition for 2 weeks, and than be sawed to be sam...

  18. Minimum Quench Energies of LHC Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, P; Wolf, R

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of the LHC Project a program has been initiated at CERN to establish the influence of various strand parameters (coating, Cu/Sc ratio, RRR, billet design, cooling) on the Minimum Quench Energy (MQE) of LHC prototype strands operating in superfluid helium at 1.9K in peak-fields of 9T. The experimental technique is based on a graphite-paste tip heater described in [1]. The analysis of the measurements was facilitated by a theoretical model based on the numerical solution of the one-dimensional heat balance equation.

  19. Cell Adhesion Geometry Regulates Non-Random DNA Segregation and Asymmetric Cell Fates in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Siham Yennek; Mithila Burute; Manuel Théry; Shahragim Tajbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-rand...

  20. Cell Adhesion Geometry Regulates Non-Random DNA Segregation and Asymmetric Cell Fates in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Théry, Manuel; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole posi...

  1. Cell adhesion geometry regulates non-random DNA segregation and asymmetric cell fates in mouse skeletal muscle stem cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Théry, Manuel; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole posi...

  2. Cell adhesion geometry regulates non-random DNA segregation and asymmetric cell fates in mouse skeletal muscle stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Thery, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-rand...

  3. Radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and the relationship between strand breaks and fecundity in mosquitofish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquitofish (Gambusia affines) were collected from a small pond on the US DOE reservation that is contaminated with 137Cs, 90Sr and other radionuclides. Fish from non-contaminated populations were also collected. DNA was isolated from both the liver and the blood and examined for DNA single- and double-strand breaks by gel electrophoresis. In general, both single- and double-strand DNA breaks were more prevalent in fish from radionuclide-contaminated sites than from uncontaminated sites. In addition, there were more double-strand than single-strand breaks in DNA from contaminated fish, and more strand breaks in blood cell than in liver DNA. Also, fecundity and number of malformed embryos were determined in fish from all sites. It was found that, for fish from the contaminated site, the number of DNA strand breaks was negatively correlated with fecundity, and that females with malformed embryos in their broods had more DNA strand breaks than did females with no malformed embryos. These findings have implications for both ecological risk assessment and evolutionary ecology

  4. GUIDE-Seq enables genome-wide profiling of off-target cleavage by CRISPR-Cas nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Zheng, Zongli; Nguyen, Nhu T.; Liebers, Matthew; Topkar, Ved V.; Thapar, Vishal; Wyvekens, Nicolas; Khayter, Cyd; Iafrate, A. John; Le, Long P.; Aryee, Martin J.; Joung, J. Keith

    2014-01-01

    CRISPR RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) are widely used genome-editing reagents, but methods to delineate their genome-wide off-target cleavage activities have been lacking. Here we describe an approach for global detection of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) introduced by RGNs and potentially other nucleases. This method, called Genome-wide Unbiased Identification of DSBs Enabled by Sequencing (GUIDE-Seq), relies on capture of double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides into breaks Application of GUID...

  5. Pengaruh Panjang Strand terhadap Kualitas Oriented Strand Board dari Bambu Tali (Gigantochloa apus Kurz.)

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of strand length on OSB quality made from Tali bamboo. Variation of strand length that used in this research was 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm. The size of boards, thickness and density target were 25x25 cm2, 1 cm, and 0,7 g/cm3 respectively. OSB was manufactured in three layer with perpendicular strand orientation for each layers. Layers ratio in face:core:back was 1:2:1. The amount of 5% Isocyanate resin (H3M type) with 98% solid content f...

  6. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E0 + E1l + E2l2, the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl2). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl2), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  7. Low-residue euthanasia of stranded mysticetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Craig A; McLellan, William A; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Clarke, Elsburgh O; Thayer, Victoria G; Rowles, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Euthanasia of stranded large whales poses logistic, safety, pharmaceutical, delivery, public relations, and disposal challenges. Reasonable arguments may be made for allowing a stranded whale to expire naturally. However, slow cardiovascular collapse from gravitational effects outside of neutral buoyancy, often combined with severely debilitating conditions, motivate humane efforts to end the animal's suffering. The size of the animal and prevailing environmental conditions often pose safety concerns for stranding personnel, which take priority over other considerations. When considering chemical euthanasia, the size of the animal also necessitates large quantities of euthanasia agents. Drug residues are a concern for relay toxicity to scavengers, particularly for pentobarbital-containing euthanasia solutions. Pentobarbital is also an environmental concern because of its stability and long persistence in aquatic environments. We describe a euthanasia technique for stranded mysticetes using readily available, relatively inexpensive, preanesthetic and anesthetic drugs (midazolam, acepromazine, xylazine) followed by saturated KCl delivered via custom-made needles and a low-cost, basic, pressurized canister. This method provides effective euthanasia while moderating personnel exposure to hazardous situations and minimizing drug residues of concern for relay toxicity. PMID:24171559

  8. SAKAMATA : A tool to avoid whale strandings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.

    2004-01-01

    World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to m

  9. SAKAMATA : A tool to avoid whale strandings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to m

  10. The (not so immortal strand hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tomasetti

    2015-03-01

    Significance: Utilizing an approach that is fundamentally different from previous efforts to confirm or refute the immortal strand hypothesis, we provide evidence against non-random segregation of DNA during stem cell replication. Our results strongly suggest that parental DNA is passed randomly to stem cell daughters and provides new insight into the mechanism of DNA replication in stem cells.

  11. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent modified Gogny (MDI) interaction, the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach, and a phenomenological modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we have studied the incompressibility Ksat(δ) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of Ksat(δ) in powers of isospin asymmetry δ, i.e., Ksat(δ) = K0 + Ksat,2δ2 + Ksat,4δ4 + O(δ6), the magnitude of the 4th-order Ksat,4 parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order Ksat,2 parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at saturation density. Furthermore, the Ksat,2 can be expressed as Ksat,2 = Ksym – 6L – J0/K0 L in terms of the slope parameter L and the curvature parameter Ksym of the symmetry energy and the third-order derivative parameter J0 of the energy of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density, and we find the higher order J0 contribution to Ksat,2 generally cannot be neglected. Also, we have found a linear correlation between Ksym and L as well as between J0/K0 and K0. Using these correlations together with the empirical constraints on K0 and L, the nuclear symmetry energy Esym(ρ0) at normal nuclear density, and the nucleon effective mass, we have obtained an estimated value of Ksat,2 = -370 ± 120 MeV for the 2nd-order parameter in the isospin asymmetry expansion of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. (author)

  12. Asymmetric Information and Consumer Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Ismagilova G. N.; Danilina E. I.; Gafurov I. R.; Ismagilov R. I.; Safiullin L. N.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper study the peculiarities of the formation the consumer demand for durable goods, the so-called «experience goods» in markets with asymmetric information. In the known literature sources studying of the demand is based on the assumption that at the moment of the purchase of goods and services people know exactly what price they are willing to pay for them and what utility they are going to obtain using those goods and services. Consider the signal model in which the initial price a...

  13. Transient Stability During Asymmetrical Faults

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    This research project has been conducted at RTE in order to study the transient stability after asymmetrical faults. When three-phase short-circuits occur in a network, almost all the electrical power is lost on the relevant line(s). Among all short-circuit types, it is the most drastic event and the issue has to be solved very quickly. But oddly, it is also the easiest problem to solve mathematically speaking. This comes from the fact that the system stays balanced, and equations can be simp...

  14. Phase equilibria in asymmetric mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplified version of the Perturbed Hard-Chain Theory (SPHCT) is used to compute the phase equilibria and Henry's constants for mixtures in which the molecules are highly asymmetric both in shape and in the intermolecular potential. These mixtures include binary systems such as CO2/hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons/hydrocarbons, which are of particular interest for the oil industry. For this type of mixtures a single parameter (which is calculated from available experimental data of liquid-vapor equilibrium) is introduced. The approach yields results which compare well with the experimental behavior reported in the literature (Author)

  15. Tripartite fully asymmetric universal quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We investigate the universal asymmetric cloning of states in a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension d. We derive the class of optimal and fully asymmetric universal 1 → 3 cloners, which produce three copies, each having a different fidelity. A simple parametric expression for the maximum achievable cloning fidelity triplets will be provided. As a side-product, we also prove the optimality of the 1 → 2 asymmetric cloning machines that have been proposed in the literature. (author)

  16. Enhanced Asymmetric Bilinear Model for Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjuan Gong; Weishan Zhang; Jordi Gonzàlez; Yan Ren; Zhen Li

    2015-01-01

    Bilinear models have been successfully applied to separate two factors, for example, pose variances and different identities in face recognition problems. Asymmetric model is a type of bilinear model which models a system in the most concise way. But seldom there are works exploring the applications of asymmetric bilinear model on face recognition problem with illumination changes. In this work, we propose enhanced asymmetric model for illumination-robust face recognition. Instead of initiali...

  17. Asymmetric PCR method in generation of HBV ssDNA for pyrosequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the optimal primer ratio and concentration of asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) in producing hepatitis B virus (HBV) single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for pyrosequencing. Methods A-PCR was carried out to generate HBV ssDNA with forward to reverse primers of different ratios (50∶1, 100∶1) and concentrations (13.0 pmol/25μL and 0.14 pmol/25μL, 19.5 pmol/25μL and 0.21 pmol/25μL), and the product yield and quality were compared respectively. Results The forward to reverse primer ratio ...

  18. Southeast Region Level A Marine Mammal Stranding Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  19. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. -- Highlights: ► Develops the analogy between light and electron optics in aberration calculations. ► Optimized spherical and chromatic aberrations for an electrostatic einzel lens. ► Comparison between analytic and numerical aberration calculations.

  20. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2012-08-01

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. PMID:22206603

  1. Excitons in asymmetric quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Kurdyubov, A. S.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Shapochkin, P. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance dielectric response of excitons is studied for the high-quality InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with wide asymmetric quantum wells (QWs). To highlight effects of the QW asymmetry, we have grown and studied several heterostructures with nominally square QWs as well as with triangle-like QWs. Several quantum confined exciton states are experimentally observed as narrow exciton resonances. A standard approach for the phenomenological analysis of the profiles is generalized by introducing different phase shifts for the light waves reflected from the QWs at different exciton resonances. Good agreement of the phenomenological fit to the experimentally observed exciton spectra for high-quality structures allowed us to reliably obtain parameters of the exciton resonances: the exciton transition energies, the radiative broadenings, and the phase shifts. A direct numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the heavy-hole excitons in asymmetric QWs is used for microscopic modeling of the exciton resonances. Remarkable agreement with the experiment is achieved when the effect of indium segregation is taken into account. The segregation results in a modification of the potential profile, in particular, in an asymmetry of the nominally square QWs.

  2. ASYMMETRIC SOLAR POLAR FIELD REVERSALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar polar fields reverse because magnetic flux from decaying sunspots moves toward the poles, with a preponderance of flux from the trailing spots. If there is a strong asymmetry, in the sense that most activity is in the northern hemisphere, then that excess flux will move toward the north pole and reverse that pole first. If there is more activity in the south later on, then that flux will help to reverse the south pole. In this way, two humps in the solar activity and a corresponding difference in the time of reversals develop (in the ideal case). Such a difference was originally noted in the very first observation of polar field reversal just after the maximum of the strongly asymmetric solar cycle 19, when the southern hemisphere was most active before sunspot maximum and the south pole duly reversed first, followed by the northern hemisphere more than a year later, when that hemisphere became most active. Solar cycles since then have had the opposite asymmetry, with the northern hemisphere being most active before solar maximum. We show that polar field reversals for these cycles have all happened in the north first, as expected. This is especially noteworthy for the present solar cycle 24. We suggest that the association of two or more peaks of solar activity when separated by hemispheres with correspondingly different times of polar field reversals is a general feature of the cycle, and that asymmetric polar field reversals are simply a consequence of the asymmetry of solar activity.

  3. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  4. Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapov, Rebecca; Boreyko, Jonathan; Briggs, Dayrl; Srijanto, Bernadeta; Retterer, Scott; Collier, C. Patrick; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2014-03-01

    Exploration of Leidenfrost droplets on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems using boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant way to direct droplet motion in a variety of emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling. This suggests that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon droplet impact onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. Asymmetric wettability and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing this to be the mechanism for the droplet directionality. This work was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is sponsored at Oak Ridge National Lab by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, US Dept. of Energy.

  5. Active matter on asymmetric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Drocco, J.; Mai, T.; Wan, M. B.; Reichhardt, C.

    2011-10-01

    For collections of particles in a thermal bath interacting with an asymmetric substrate, it is possible for a ratchet effect to occur where the particles undergo a net dc motion in response to an ac forcing. Ratchet effects have been demonstrated in a variety of systems including colloids as well as magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors. Here we examine the case of active matter or self-driven particles interacting with asymmetric substrates. Active matter systems include self-motile colloidal particles undergoing catalysis, swimming bacteria, artificial swimmers, crawling cells, and motor proteins. We show that a ratchet effect can arise in this type of system even in the absence of ac forcing. The directed motion occurs for certain particle-substrate interaction rules and its magnitude depends on the amount of time the particles spend swimming in one direction before turning and swimming in a new direction. For strictly Brownian particles there is no ratchet effect. If the particles reflect off the barriers or scatter from the barriers according to Snell's law there is no ratchet effect; however, if the particles can align with the barriers or move along the barriers, directed motion arises. We also find that under certain motion rules, particles accumulate along the walls of the container in agreement with experiment. We also examine pattern formation for synchronized particle motion. We discuss possible applications of this system for self-assembly, extracting work, and sorting as well as future directions such as considering collective interactions and flocking models.

  6. Control of DNA Strand Displacement Kinetics Using Toehold Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik

    2009-01-01

    DNA is increasingly being used as the engineering material of choice for the construction of nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors. Many of these enzyme-free constructions function by DNA strand displacement reactions. The kinetics of strand displacement can be modulated by toeholds, short single-stranded segments of DNA that colocalize reactant DNA molecules. Recently, the toehold exchange process was introduced as a method for designing fast and reversible strand displacement reactions...

  7. Some Remarks on Asymmetric Syntheses from Recent Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Naomichi

    1990-01-01

    Some asymmetric syntheses were presented here and discussed briefly including NADH model reactions, phase transfer-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation, enantiotopic group-selective hydrolysis of a malonic anhydride with alkoxide anion, intramolecular acid-catalyzed lactonizations, catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder synthesis, asymmetric aldol condensation, chiral homoallyl alcohol synthesis, asymmetric addition of diethylzinc to aldehyde, kinetic resolution of racemic hydroperoxides and binaphthol...

  8. Fish stranding in freshwater systems: sources, consequences, and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrodski, Alexander; Raby, Graham D; Hasler, Caleb T; Taylor, Mark K; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-07-30

    Fish can become stranded when water levels decrease, often rapidly, as a result of anthropogenic (e.g., canal drawdown, hydropeaking, vessel wakes) and natural (e.g., floods, drought, winter ice dynamics) events. We summarize existing research on stranding of fish in freshwater, discuss the sources, consequences, and mitigation options for stranding, and report current knowledge gaps. Our literature review revealed that ∼65.5% of relevant peer-reviewed articles were found to focus on stranding associated with hydropower operations and irrigation projects. In fact, anthropogenic sources of fish stranding represented 81.8% of available literature compared to only 19.9% attributed to natural fish stranding events. While fish mortality as a result of stranding is well documented, our analysis revealed that little is known about the sublethal and long-term consequences of stranding on growth and population dynamics. Furthermore, the contribution of stranding to annual mortality rates is poorly understood as are the potential ecosystem-scale impacts. Mitigation strategies available to deal with stranding include fish salvage, ramping rate limitations, and physical habitat works (e.g., to contour substrate to minimize stranding). However, a greater knowledge of the factors that cause fish stranding would promote the development and refinement of mitigation strategies that are economically and ecologically sustainable. PMID:22481278

  9. Transformation of Bacillus subtilis by single-stranded plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, C F; Schmidt, B J; Saunders, C W

    1986-01-01

    The single-stranded form of a pE194-based plasmid transformed Bacillus subtilis protoplasts at least as efficiently as did the double-stranded plasmid, but the single-stranded form did not detectably transform B. subtilis competent cells.

  10. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture. PMID:27363950

  11. Hole hopping rates in single strand oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Raffaele; Capobianco, Amedeo; Peluso, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The rates of hole transfer between guanine and adenine in single strand DNA have been evaluated by using Fermi’s golden rule and Kubo’s generating function approach for the Franck-Condon weighted density of states. The whole sets of the normal modes and vibrational frequencies of the two nucleobases, obtained at DFT/B3LYP level of calculation, have been considered in computations. The results show that in single strand the pyramidalization/planarization mode of the amino groups of both nucleobases plays the major role. At room temperature, the Franck-Condon density of states extends over a wide range of hole site energy difference, 0-1 eV, giving some hints about the design of oligonucleotides of potential technological interest.

  12. Characteristics and causes of Texas marine strandings

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Three major mass mortality events occurred on the upper Texas coast during 1994, from January through the second week of May. These events were distinguished by unusually large numbers of dead dolphins, sea turtles, and fishes washing ashore on Texas beaches. The beach stranding of dead animals began in January with bottlenose dolphins. By the end of March, 142 dolphins had washed ashore as compared to about 40 expected. By the latter part of April, dolphin mortalities decli...

  13. Capture myopathy in live-stranded cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráez, P; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Fernández, A; Edwards, J F; Sacchini, S; Sierra, E

    2013-05-01

    A group of 51 cetaceans that had been stranded alive on the coasts of the Canary Islands, experienced human capture/rescue interactions and then died, were necropsied over a 12-year period. Of these cetaceans, 25 had haemodynamic lesions indicative of multiorganic vascular shock, degenerative muscle lesions affecting both skeletal and cardiac muscles and myoglobinuric nephrosis typical of capture myopathy (CM). Because macroscopic lesions in muscles and kidneys were not always obvious, a standard protocol was developed where the longissimus dorsi muscle was examined histologically for segmental hypercontraction, contraction band necrosis and segmental muscular degeneration and cardiomyocytes studied for hypereosinophilic wavy fibres, sarcolemmal and perinuclear vacuolation and contraction band necrosis. Light microscopic skeletal and cardiac muscle lesions in all CM animals were confirmed as ante mortem by immunohistochemical assay for myoglobin loss from and fibrinogen entry into affected myofibres. All animals had tubular nephrosis with casts and tubular myoglobin. The oxidative stress-related marker HSP70 was demonstrated immunohistochemically in tubular epithelium. Although the syndrome related to death of live-stranded cetaceans is multifactorial, this study documents that a clinicopathological syndrome comparable to CM of terrestrial wildlife has a role in stranding outcomes. PMID:23146174

  14. HIV-1 Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors with Reduced Susceptibility to Drug Resistant Mutant Integrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Zhi; Smith, Steven J; Maskell, Daniel P; Metifiot, Mathieu; Pye, Valerie E; Fesen, Katherine; Marchand, Christophe; Pommier, Yves; Cherepanov, Peter; Hughes, Stephen H; Burke, Terrence R

    2016-04-15

    HIV integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are among the newest anti-AIDS drugs; however, mutant forms of IN can confer resistance. We developed noncytotoxic naphthyridine-containing INSTIs that retain low nanomolar IC50 values against HIV-1 variants harboring all of the major INSTI-resistant mutations. We found by analyzing crystal structures of inhibitors bound to the IN from the prototype foamy virus (PFV) that the most successful inhibitors show striking mimicry of the bound viral DNA prior to 3'-processing and the bound host DNA prior to strand transfer. Using this concept of "bi-substrate mimicry," we developed a new broadly effective inhibitor that not only mimics aspects of both the bound target and viral DNA but also more completely fills the space they would normally occupy. Maximizing shape complementarity and recapitulating structural components encompassing both of the IN DNA substrates could serve as a guiding principle for the development of new INSTIs. PMID:26808478

  15. Stranding of Two Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the “North Sea Trap” at Henne Strand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Siv; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Hansen, Jørgen H.;

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014 two male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) stranded at Henne Strand, Denmark. One whale (MCE 1644) was found dead, while the other (MCE 1645) was still alive, but drowned during the high tide. To increase our knowledge of sperm whales, conduct forage investigations, post...... where they follow each other, which could explain why MCE 1645 stranded alive without signs of disease....

  16. Method and apparatus for testing a forward-moving strand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducommun, Joel; Vulliens, Philippe

    1980-01-01

    In a method for testing a continuously forward-moving strand a light beam which passes along a plane that extends approximately perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the strand is introduced into the strand. The brightness value is measured on a place of the strand exterior which is distal from the light incidence place by means of at least one photoelectronic element disposed directly on the strand exterior and the measured result is evaluated in a gating circuit which is electrically connected to the photoelectronic element.

  17. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; He, Neil; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared...

  18. Asymmetric diffusion of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Medvedev, Mikhail V

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic ray propagation is diffusive because of pitch angle scattering by waves. We demonstrate that if the high-amplitude magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with $\\tilde B/\\langle B\\rangle \\sim 1$ is present on top of the mean field gradient, the diffusion becomes asymmetric. As an example, we consider the vertical transport of cosmic rays in our Galaxy propagating away from a point-like source. We solve this diffusion problem analytically using a one-dimensional Markov chain analysis. We obtained that the cosmic ray density markedly differs from the standard diffusion prediction and has a sizable effect on their distribution throughout the galaxy. The equation for the continuous limit is also derived, which shows limitations of the convection-diffusion equation.

  19. New asymmetric quantum codes over Fq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuena; Feng, Xiaoyi; Xu, Gen

    2016-07-01

    Two families of new asymmetric quantum codes are constructed in this paper. The first family is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=qm-1 over Fq, where qge 5 is a prime power. The second one is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=3m-1. These asymmetric quantum codes are derived from the CSS construction and pairs of nested BCH codes. Moreover, let the defining set T1=T2^{-q}, then the real Z-distance of our asymmetric quantum codes are much larger than δ _max+1, where δ _max is the maximal designed distance of dual-containing narrow-sense BCH code, and the parameters presented here have better than the ones available in the literature.

  20. The multiple personalities of Watson and Crick strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graur Dan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In genetics it is customary to refer to double-stranded DNA as containing a "Watson strand" and a "Crick strand." However, there seems to be no consensus in the literature on the exact meaning of these two terms, and the many usages contradict one another as well as the original definition. Here, we review the history of the terminology and suggest retaining a single sense that is currently the most useful and consistent. Proposal The Saccharomyces Genome Database defines the Watson strand as the strand which has its 5'-end at the short-arm telomere and the Crick strand as its complement. The Watson strand is always used as the reference strand in their database. Using this as the basis of our standard, we recommend that Watson and Crick strand terminology only be used in the context of genomics. When possible, the centromere or other genomic feature should be used as a reference point, dividing the chromosome into two arms of unequal lengths. Under our proposal, the Watson strand is standardized as the strand whose 5'-end is on the short arm of the chromosome, and the Crick strand as the one whose 5'-end is on the long arm. Furthermore, the Watson strand should be retained as the reference (plus strand in a genomic database. This usage not only makes the determination of Watson and Crick unambiguous, but also allows unambiguous selection of reference stands for genomics. Reviewers This article was reviewed by John M. Logsdon, Igor B. Rogozin (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky, and William Martin.

  1. New insights on single-stranded versus double-stranded DNA library preparation for ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Carøe, Christian; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela;

    2015-01-01

    An innovative single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) library preparation method has sparked great interest among ancient DNA (aDNA) researchers, especially after reports of endogenous DNA content increases >20-fold in some samples. To investigate the behavior of this method, we generated ssDNA and...... conventional double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) libraries from 23 ancient and historic plant and animal specimens. We found ssDNA library preparation substantially increased endogenous content when dsDNA libraries contained...

  2. A role for small RNAs in DNA double-strand break repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, W.; Ba, Z.; Wu, Y.;

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotes have evolved complex mechanisms to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through coordinated actions of protein sensors, transducers, and effectors. Here we show that ∼21-nucleotide small RNAs are produced from the sequences in the vicinity of DSB sites in Arabidopsis and in human cells......RNAs are recruited by Argonaute 2 (AGO2) to mediate DSB repair. Knock down of Dicer or Ago2 in human cells reduces DSB repair. Our findings reveal a conserved function for small RNAs in the DSB repair pathway. We propose that diRNAs may function as guide molecules directing chromatin modifications or the...

  3. Double-Stranded RNA Resists Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Pabit, Suzette A.; Meisburger, Steve P.; Pollack, Lois

    2011-03-01

    Much attention has been focused on DNA condensation because of its fundamental biological importance. The recent discovery of new roles for RNA duplexes demands efficient packaging of double-stranded RNA for therapeutics. Here we report measurements of short DNA and RNA duplexes in the presence of trivalent ions. Under conditions where UV spectroscopy indicates condensation of DNA duplexes into (insoluble) precipitates, RNA duplexes remain soluble. Small angle x-ray scattering results suggest that the differing surface topologies of RNA and DNA may be crucial in generating the attractive forces that result in precipitation.

  4. Regenerating a symmetry in asymmetric dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric dark matter theories generically allow for mass terms that lead to particle-antiparticle mixing. Over the age of the Universe, dark matter can thus oscillate from a purely asymmetric configuration into a symmetric mix of particles and antiparticles, allowing for pair-annihilation processes. Additionally, requiring efficient depletion of the primordial thermal (symmetric) component generically entails large annihilation rates. We show that unless some symmetry completely forbids dark matter particle-antiparticle mixing, asymmetric dark matter is effectively ruled out for a large range of masses, for almost any oscillation time scale shorter than the age of the Universe. PMID:22304253

  5. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  6. Asymmetric warfare and the will to win

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Matthew D.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores the will to win in asymmetric war. Asymmetric war, in which one side has an overwhelming advantage over its opponent, will likely be the war of the future for the United States in the post-Cold War uni-polar world. To win an asymmetric war, the individual and then the masses must be motivated to fight and, ultimately, the will to win must be cultivated and sustained for victory. Religion is a highly effective motivat or for both the individual and the masses. This motiva...

  7. Asymmetric Information and Consumer Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismagilova G. N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper study the peculiarities of the formation the consumer demand for durable goods, the so-called «experience goods» in markets with asymmetric information. In the known literature sources studying of the demand is based on the assumption that at the moment of the purchase of goods and services people know exactly what price they are willing to pay for them and what utility they are going to obtain using those goods and services. Consider the signal model in which the initial price and advertising expenditures are the signals of the quality influencing the formation of the demand for new goods offered by the company of unknown quality through consumer behavior. The basis of this model is the study of producers by consumers, acquisition of knowledge, information about price and quality, as well as their use in order to determine the market share of high-quality goods and low-quality goods in the asymmetry of information.

  8. Chaos suppression through asymmetric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Vidal, G.; Mancini, H.; Mendoza, C.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-12-01

    We study pairs of identical coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, we have used Roessler (in the funnel and no funnel regimes), Lorenz, and four-dimensional chaotic Lotka-Volterra models. In all four of these cases, a pair of identical oscillators is asymmetrically coupled. The main result of the numerical simulations is that in all cases, specific values of coupling strength and asymmetry exist that render the two oscillators periodic and synchronized. The values of the coupling strength for which this phenomenon occurs is well below the previously known value for complete synchronization. We have found that this behavior exists for all the chaotic oscillators that we have used in the analysis. We postulate that this behavior is presumably generic to all chaotic oscillators. In order to complete the study, we have tested the robustness of this phenomenon of chaos suppression versus the addition of some Gaussian noise. We found that chaos suppression is robust for the addition of finite noise level. Finally, we propose some extension to this research.

  9. Why Do Nucleosomes Unwrap Asymmetrically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Lennart; Tompitak, Marco; Eslami-Mossallam, Behrouz; Schiessel, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Nucleosomes, DNA spools with a protein core, engage about three-quarters of eukaryotic DNA and play a critical role in chromosomal processes, ranging from gene regulation, recombination, and replication to chromosome condensation. For more than a decade, micromanipulation experiments where nucleosomes are put under tension, as well as the theoretical interpretations of these experiments, have deepened our understanding of the stability and dynamics of nucleosomes. Here we give a theoretical explanation for a surprising new experimental finding: nucleosomes wrapped onto the 601 positioning sequence (the sequence used in most laboratories) respond highly asymmetrically to external forces by always unwrapping from the same end. Using a computational nucleosome model, we show that this asymmetry can be explained by differences in the DNA mechanics of two very short stretches on the wrapped DNA portion. Our finding suggests that the physical properties of nucleosomes, here the response to forces, can be tuned locally by the choice of the underlying base-pair sequence. This leads to a new view of nucleosomes: a physically highly varied set of DNA-protein complexes whose properties can be tuned on evolutionary time scales to their specific function in the genomic context. PMID:26991771

  10. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors. PMID:26430985

  11. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García, Isabel García; March-Russell, John

    2015-01-01

    We study Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (Fraternal) Twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged $SU(3)' \\times SU(2)'$, a twin Higgs, and only third generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD$^\\prime$ scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD} \\simeq 0.5 - 20 \\ {\\rm GeV}$, and $t'$ to be heavy. We focus on the light $b'$ quark regime, $m_{b'} \\lesssim \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$, where QCD$^\\prime$ is characterised by a single scale $\\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$ with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful DM candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, $\\Delta' \\sim b'b'b'$, with a dynamically determined mass ($\\sim 5 \\Lambda'_{\\rm QCD}$) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio $\\Omega_{\\rm DM}/\\Omega_{\\rm baryon} \\simeq 5$. Gauging the $U(1)'$ group leads to twin atoms ($\\Delta'$ - $\\bar {\\tau'}$ bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo ...

  12. Magnetization Measurements on LHC Superconducting Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Fikis, H; Kirchmayr, H; Le Naour, S; Oberli, L R; Puzniak, R; Szewczyk, A; Wisniewski, A; Wolf, R

    1998-01-01

    When using superconducting magnets in particle accelerators like the LHC, persistent currents in the superconductor often determine the field quality at injection, where the magnetic field is low. This paper describes magnetization measurements made on LHC cable strands at the Technical University of Vienna and the Institute of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in collaboration with CERN. Measurements were performed at T=2K and T=4.2K on more than 50 strands of 7 different manufacturers with NbTi filament diameter between 5 and 7 micrometer. Two different measurement set-ups were used: vibrating sample magnetometer, with a sample length of about 8mm, and an integrating coil magnetometer, with sample length of about 1m. The two methods were compared by measuring the same sample. Low field evidence of proximity effect is discussed. Statistics like ratio of the width of the magnetization loop at 4.2K and 2K, and the initial slope dM/dB after cooldown are presented. Decrease of the magnetization with time...

  13. Magnetization measurements on LHC superconducting strands

    CERN Document Server

    Le Naour, S; Wolf, R; Puzniak, R; Szewczyk, A; Wisniewski, A; Fikis, H; Foitl, M; Kirchmayr, H

    1999-01-01

    When using superconducting magnets in particle accelerators like the LHC, persistent currents in the superconductor often determine the field quality at injection, where the magnetic field is low. This paper describes magnetization measurements made on LHC cable strands at the Technical University of Vienna and the Institute of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in collaboration with CERN. Measurements were performed at T=2 K and T=4.2 K on more than 50 strands of 7 different manufacturers with NbTi filament diameter between 5 and 7 micrometer. Two different measurement set-ups were used: vibrating sample magnetometer, with a sample length of about 8 mm, and an integrating coil magnetometer, with sample length of about 1 m. The two methods were compared by measuring the same sample. Low field evidence of proximity effect is discussed. Statistics like ratio of the width of the magnetization loop at 4.2 K 2 K, and the initial slope dM/dB after cooldown are presented. Decrease of the magnetization with ti...

  14. Hole hopping rates in single strand oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, Raffaele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università di Torino, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, I-10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Capobianco, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Peluso, Andrea, E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2014-08-31

    Highlights: • DNA hole transfer rates have been computed. • Delocalized adenine domains significantly affect hole transfer rates in DNA. • Franck–Condon weighted density of state from DFT normal modes. • DNA application in molecular electronics. - Abstract: The rates of hole transfer between guanine and adenine in single strand DNA have been evaluated by using Fermi’s golden rule and Kubo’s generating function approach for the Franck–Condon weighted density of states. The whole sets of the normal modes and vibrational frequencies of the two nucleobases, obtained at DFT/B3LYP level of calculation, have been considered in computations. The results show that in single strand the pyramidalization/planarization mode of the amino groups of both nucleobases plays the major role. At room temperature, the Franck–Condon density of states extends over a wide range of hole site energy difference, 0–1 eV, giving some hints about the design of oligonucleotides of potential technological interest.

  15. Asymmetric packaging of polymerases within vesicular stomatitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The VSV polymerases (L proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •The VSV phosphoproteins (P proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •Each VSV virion packages a variable number of P and L proteins. -- Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic negative sense single-stranded RNA virus. The bullet-shape appearance of the virion results from tightly wound helical turns of the nucleoprotein encapsidated RNA template (N-RNA) around a central cavity. Transcription and replication require polymerase complexes, which include a catalytic subunit L and a template-binding subunit P. L and P are inferred to be in the cavity, however lacking direct observation, their exact position has remained unclear. Using super-resolution fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on single VSV virions, we show that L and P are packaged asymmetrically towards the blunt end of the virus. The number of L and P proteins varies between individual virions and they occupy 57 ± 12 nm of the 150 nm central cavity of the virus. Our finding positions the polymerases at the opposite end of the genome with respect to the only transcriptional promoter

  16. Asymmetric packaging of polymerases within vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Jeffery; Tang, Xiaolin; Landesman, Michael B. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah (United States); Ruedas, John B. [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States); Ghimire, Anil [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Gudheti, Manasa V. [Vutara, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States); Perrault, Jacques [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States); Jorgensen, Erik M. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States); Gerton, Jordan M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Dept. of Bioengineering, University of Utah (United States); Saffarian, Saveez, E-mail: saffarian@physics.utah.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •The VSV polymerases (L proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •The VSV phosphoproteins (P proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •Each VSV virion packages a variable number of P and L proteins. -- Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic negative sense single-stranded RNA virus. The bullet-shape appearance of the virion results from tightly wound helical turns of the nucleoprotein encapsidated RNA template (N-RNA) around a central cavity. Transcription and replication require polymerase complexes, which include a catalytic subunit L and a template-binding subunit P. L and P are inferred to be in the cavity, however lacking direct observation, their exact position has remained unclear. Using super-resolution fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on single VSV virions, we show that L and P are packaged asymmetrically towards the blunt end of the virus. The number of L and P proteins varies between individual virions and they occupy 57 ± 12 nm of the 150 nm central cavity of the virus. Our finding positions the polymerases at the opposite end of the genome with respect to the only transcriptional promoter.

  17. Guided labworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lærke Bang

    For the last 40 years physics education research has shown poor learning outcomes of guided labs. Still this is found to be a very used teaching method in the upper secodary schools. This study explains the teacher's choice of guided labs throught the concept of redesign as obstacle dislodgement...

  18. Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ik Jae

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.

  19. Massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermayer, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present methods to compute massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes in the framework of dimensional regularization and lattice regularization. We also consider 1-loop sums in both regularizations.

  20. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L;

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...... short-circuit current was analyzed in order to compare the results with the allowable DC current component based in the IEC. Finally the normal operating condition for the power plant was modeled....

  1. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max

    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis. In......-productivity agents receive an information rent. The information rent is equivalent to the total incentive cost. The incentive costs arise as we want to reveal the agent's type....

  2. An asymmetric pericyclic cascade approach to oxindoles

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The research in this thesis describes an asymmetric pericyclic cascade approach to the synthesis of a range of enantioenriched oxindoles using enantiopure oxazolidine derived nitrones and disubstituted ketenes. Chapter 1 aims to place this work in the context of the literature, describing other commonly employed or state-of-the-art asymmetric approaches to oxindoles and related compounds. Examples of where these approaches have been used successfully in the total synthesis of related indol...

  3. Asymmetric Federalism in Russia: Cure or Poison?

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

    2003-01-01

    In the early years of its existence, the Russian Federation adopted a system of differential treatment of its regions in order to cope with the great degree of diversity present in them. This paper examines the Russian Federation’s asymmetric federalism by evaluating the system’s role, significance and effects on the Federation’s development. The study incorporates a detailed description of the asymmetric federalism over time along with the benefits and costs incurred by its implementation. I...

  4. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Gobade, N. G.; Marina Koland; K H Harish

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist...

  5. Asymmetric septal hypertrophy and hypothyroidism in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, D I; Murray, J.; Milner, S.; Dansky, R; Levin, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Any echocardiographic study of two children with hypothyroidism demonstrated the presence of asymmetric septal hypertrophy. One child died aged 11 months, and pronounced thickening of the interventricular septum was confirmed at necropsy. There was also hypertrophy of the left ventricular free wall. Histological examination showed only slight muscle fibre disarray, but there was striking vacuolation and hypertrophy of muscle fibres. In the second case, a child aged five years, the asymmetric ...

  6. Linear-After-The-Exponential (LATE)–PCR: An advanced method of asymmetric PCR and its uses in quantitative real-time analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, J. Aquiles; Pierce, Kenneth E; Rice, John E; Wangh, Lawrence J.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional asymmetric PCR is inefficient and difficult to optimize because limiting the concentration of one primer lowers its melting temperature below the reaction annealing temperature. Linear-After-The-Exponential (LATE)–PCR describes a new paradigm for primer design that renders assays as efficient as symmetric PCR assays, regardless of primer ratio. LATE-PCR generates single-stranded products with predictable kinetics for many cycles beyond the exponential phase. LATE-PCR also introdu...

  7. DNA-guided DNA interference by a prokaryotic Argonaute

    OpenAIRE

    Swarts, Daan C.; Jore, Matthijs M.; Westra, Edze R.; Zhu, Yifan; Janssen, Jorijn H.; Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Wang, Yanli; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Berenguer, José; Brouns, Stan J. J.; van der Oost, John

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference is widely distributed in eukaryotes and has a variety of functions, including antiviral defence and gene regulation1,2. All RNA interference pathways use small single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules that guide proteins of the Argonaute (Ago) family to complementary ssRNA targets: RNA-guided RNA interference1,2. The role of prokaryotic Ago variants has remained elusive, although bioinformatics analysis has suggested their involvement in host defence3. Here we demonstrate that A...

  8. Replisome mechanics: lagging strand events that influence speed and processivity

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu, Roxana E.; Yao, Nina; Indiani, Chiara; Yurieva, Olga; O'Donnell, Mike E

    2014-01-01

    The antiparallel structure of DNA requires lagging strand synthesis to proceed in the opposite direction of the replication fork. This imposes unique events that occur only on the lagging strand, such as primase binding to DnaB helicase, RNA synthesis, and SS B antigen (SSB) displacement during Okazaki fragment extension. Single-molecule and ensemble techniques are combined to examine the effect of lagging strand events on the Escherichia coli replisome rate and processivity. We find that pri...

  9. The rational Khovanov homology of 3-strand pretzel links

    OpenAIRE

    Manion, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The 3-strand pretzel knots and links are a well-studied source of examples in knot theory. However, while there have been computations of the Khovanov homology of some sub-families of 3-strand pretzel knots, no general formula has been given for all of them. We give a general formula for the unreduced Khovanov homology of all 3-strand pretzel links, over the rational numbers.

  10. Stranded cost recovery in electricity market reforms in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important element of an electricity market reform is stranded cost recovery. This paper explains the cause of stranded costs, describes four recovery mechanisms, evaluates these mechanisms using the criteria of recovery certainty, economic efficiency and equity, reviews the financial performance of 12 utilities in the US in connection to stranded cost recovery, and shows why the mechanism used in California has contributed to the reform failure in that state. (Author)

  11. Hearing Loss in Stranded Odontocete Dolphins and Whales

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, David; Hill-Cook, Mandy; Manire, Charles; Greenhow, Danielle; Montie, Eric; Powell, Jessica; Wells, Randall; Bauer, Gordon; Cunningham-Smith, Petra; Lingenfelser, Robert; DiGiovanni, Robert; Stone, Abigale; Brodsky, Micah; Stevens, Robert; Kieffer, George

    2010-01-01

    The causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. Because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. We report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. Approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had signif...

  12. HBR guides

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Nancy; Dillon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Master your most pressing professional challenges with this seven-volume set that collects the smartest best practices from leading experts all in one place. "HBR Guide to Better Business Writing" and "HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations" help you perfect your communication skills; "HBR Guide to Managing Up and Across" and "HBR Guide to Office Politics" show you how to build the best professional relationships; "HBR Guide to Finance Basics for Managers" is the one book you'll ever need to teach you about the numbers; "HBR Guide to Project Management" addresses tough questions such as how to manage stakeholder expectations and how to manage uncertainty in a complex project; and "HBR Guide to Getting the Right Work Done" goes beyond basic productivity tips to teach you how to prioritize and focus on your work. This specially priced set of the most popular books in the series makes a perfect gift for aspiring leaders looking for trusted advice. Arm yourself with the advice you need to succeed on the job, from ...

  13. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  14. Fatigue in asymmetric-field-driven ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarization fatigue problems in asymmetric-field-driven ferroelectric thin films is investigated in present Letter. The refreshment of fatigue induced by the application of asymmetric voltage to the top and bottom electrodes is modeled by asymmetric Schottky voltage barrier of a quantum well structure. The fatigue behavior under various asymmetric driving voltages and asymmetric driving pulses have been studied. Theoretical calculations are shown to be in agreement with experimental results

  15. A roller chain drive model including contact with guide-bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard; Hansen, John Michael; Ambrósio, J. A. C.

    2004-01-01

    A model of a roller chain drive is developed and applied to the simulation and analysis of roller chain drives of large marine diesel engines. The model includes the impact with guide-bars that are the motion delimiter components on the chain strands between the sprockets. The main components of...... the roller chain drive model include the sprockets with different sizes and the chain made of rollers and links, which are represented by rigid bodies, mass particles and springs - damper assemblies respectively. The guide-bars are modelled as rigid bodies with a roller-guide contact representation as...... force method, an arc of circle approximates the geometry of the tooth profile. In both models it is assumed that all the rollers of a chain strand are not in contact with any particular sprocket. The contact between the rollers of the chain strands and the guide-bars is modelled with the continuous...

  16. Replication of mitochondrial DNA occurs by strand displacement with alternative light-strand origins, not via a strand-coupled mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Timothy A.; Cecconi, Ciro; Tkachuk, Ariana N.; Bustamante, Carlos; Clayton, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The established strand-displacement model for mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication has recently been questioned in light of new data using two-dimensional (2D) agarose gel electrophoresis. It has been proposed that a synchronous, strand-coupled mode of replication occurs in tissues, thereby casting doubt on the general validity of the “orthodox,” or strand-displacement model. We have examined mtDNA replicative intermediates from mouse liver using atomic force microscopy and 2D agar...

  17. CRISPR interference directs strand specific spacer acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan C Swarts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CRISPR/Cas is a widespread adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. This system integrates short stretches of DNA derived from invading nucleic acids into genomic CRISPR loci, which function as memory of previously encountered invaders. In Escherichia coli, transcripts of these loci are cleaved into small RNAs and utilized by the Cascade complex to bind invader DNA, which is then likely degraded by Cas3 during CRISPR interference. RESULTS: We describe how a CRISPR-activated E. coli K12 is cured from a high copy number plasmid under non-selective conditions in a CRISPR-mediated way. Cured clones integrated at least one up to five anti-plasmid spacers in genomic CRISPR loci. New spacers are integrated directly downstream of the leader sequence. The spacers are non-randomly selected to target protospacers with an AAG protospacer adjacent motif, which is located directly upstream of the protospacer. A co-occurrence of PAM deviations and CRISPR repeat mutations was observed, indicating that one nucleotide from the PAM is incorporated as the last nucleotide of the repeat during integration of a new spacer. When multiple spacers were integrated in a single clone, all spacer targeted the same strand of the plasmid, implying that CRISPR interference caused by the first integrated spacer directs subsequent spacer acquisition events in a strand specific manner. CONCLUSIONS: The E. coli Type I-E CRISPR/Cas system provides resistance against bacteriophage infection, but also enables removal of residing plasmids. We established that there is a positive feedback loop between active spacers in a cluster--in our case the first acquired spacer--and spacers acquired thereafter, possibly through the use of specific DNA degradation products of the CRISPR interference machinery by the CRISPR adaptation machinery. This loop enables a rapid expansion of the spacer repertoire against an actively present DNA element that is already targeted, amplifying the

  18. Adult hair follicle stem cells do not retain the older DNA strands in vivo during normal tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Sanjeev K; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2013-05-01

    Tissue stem cells have been proposed to segregate the chromosomes asymmetrically (in a non-random manner), thereby retaining preferentially the older "immortal" DNA strands bearing the stemness characteristics into one daughter cell, whereas the newly synthesized strands are segregated to the other daughter cell that will commit to differentiation. Moreover, this non-random segregation would protect the stem cell genome from accumulating multiple mutations during repeated DNA replication. This long-standing hypothesis remains an active subject of study due to conflicting results for some systems and lack of consistency among different tissue stem cell populations. In this review, we will focus on work done in the hair follicle, which is one of the best-understood vertebrate tissue stem cell system to date. In cell culture analysis of paired cultured keratinocytes derived from hair follicle, stem cells suggested a non-random segregation of chromosome with respect to the older DNA strand. In vivo, the hair follicle stem cells appear to self-renew and differentiate at different phases of their homeostatic cycle. The fate decisions occur in quiescence when some stem cells migrate out of their niche and commit to differentiation without self-renewal. The stem cells left behind in the niche self-renew symmetrically and randomly segregate the chromosomes at each division, making more stem cells. This model seems to apply to at least a few other vertebrate tissue stem cells in vivo. PMID:23681654

  19. Medication Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Small Text Medium Text Large Text Contrast Dark on Light Light on Dark Donate Search Menu Donate What is Glaucoma? Care ... Low Vision Resources Medication Guide Resources on the Web » See All Articles Help the Cause Glaucoma affects ...

  20. Protected DNA strand displacement for enhanced single nucleotide discrimination in double-stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Khodakova, Anastasia S.; Huang, David M.; Adrian Linacre; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a prime source of genetic diversity. Discriminating between different SNPs provides an enormous leap towards the better understanding of the uniqueness of biological systems. Here we report on a new approach for SNP discrimination using toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement. The distinctiveness of the approach is based on the combination of both 3- and 4-way branch migration mechanisms, which allows for reliable discrimination of SNPs within doubl...

  1. Nucleic Acid Analogue Induced Transcription of Double Stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    RNA is transcribed from a double stranded DNA template by forming a complex by hybridizing to the template at a desired transcription initiation site one or more oligonucleic acid analogues of the PNA type capable of forming a transcription initiation site with the DNA and exposing the complex to...... displacement of one strand of the DNA locally by the PNA hybridization....

  2. A FORMAL SPECIFICATION LANGUAGE FOR DYNAMIC STRAND SPACE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东喜; 李晓勇; 白英彩

    2002-01-01

    Specification language is used to provide enough information for the model of the cryptographic protocol. This paper first extends strand space model to dynamic strand model, and then a formal specification language for this model is defined by using BNF grammar. Compared with those in literatures, it is simpler because of only concerning the algebraic properties of cryptographic protocols.

  3. Cetacean strandings along the coast of Izmir Bay, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.; Veryeri, N.; Cirik, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper provides information on the stranding of cetaceans in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea, between 1992 and 2004. The data were collected opportunistically during sightings and stranding data collection for Monk Seals. A total of 12 cetaceans, namely Bottle-nosed Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus (n=6

  4. Strategies underlying RNA silencing suppression by negative strand RNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on the strategies of negative strand RNA viruses to counteract antiviral RNA silencing. In plants and insects, RNA silencing has been shown to act as a sequence specific antiviral defence mechanism that is characterised by the processing of double strand

  5. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Conradt, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well. PMID:18399720

  6. Computing in mammalian cells with nucleic acid strand exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Benjamin; Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Zurla, Chiara; Pochekailov, Sergii; Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Santangelo, Philip J.; Seelig, Georg

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand displacement has been widely used for the design of molecular circuits, motors, and sensors in cell-free settings. Recently, it has been shown that this technology can also operate in biological environments, but capabilities remain limited. Here, we look to adapt strand displacement and exchange reactions to mammalian cells and report DNA circuitry that can directly interact with a native mRNA. We began by optimizing the cellular performance of fluorescent reporters based on four-way strand exchange reactions and identified robust design principles by systematically varying the molecular structure, chemistry and delivery method. Next, we developed and tested AND and OR logic gates based on four-way strand exchange, demonstrating the feasibility of multi-input logic. Finally, we established that functional siRNA could be activated through strand exchange, and used native mRNA as programmable scaffolds for co-localizing gates and visualizing their operation with subcellular resolution.

  7. The effect of base pair mismatch on DNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Broadwater, Bo

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration, and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term, the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage t...

  8. Asymmetric Magnon Excitation by Spontaneous Toroidal Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of spontaneous toroidal ordering on magnetic excitation are theoretically investigated for a localized spin model that includes a staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and anisotropic exchange interactions, which arise from the antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling and the multiorbital correlation effect. We show that the model exhibits a Néel-type antiferromagnetic order, which simultaneously accompanies a ferroic toroidal order. We find that the occurrence of toroidal order modulates the magnon dispersion in an asymmetric way with respect to the wave number: a toroidal dipole order on the zigzag chain leads to a band-bottom shift, while a toroidal octupole order on the honeycomb lattice gives rise to a valley splitting. These asymmetric magnon excitations could be a source of unusual magnetic responses, such as nonreciprocal magnon transport. A variety of modulations are discussed while changing the lattice and magnetic symmetries. The implications regarding candidate materials for asymmetric magnon excitations are presented.

  9. Dc SQUIDs with asymmetric shunt resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated asymmetrically shunted Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb dc SQUIDs. Simulations based on the coupled Langevin equations predict that the optimum energy resolution ε, and thus also the noise performance of such an asymmetric SQUID, can be 3-4 times better than that of its symmetric counterpart. While keeping the total resistance R identical to a comparable symmetric SQUID with R-1 = R1-1 + R2-1, we shunted only one of the two Josephson junctions with R = R1,2/2. Both types of SQUIDs were characterized with respect to their transport and noise properties at temperature T = 4.2 K, and we compared the experimental results with numerical simulations. Experiments yielded ε ∼ 32 ℎ for an asymmetric SQUID with an inductance L = 22 pH, whereas a comparable symmetric device achieved ε = 110 ℎ.

  10. DNA SECURITY USING SYMMETRIC AND ASYMMETRIC CRYPTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Terec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents alternative security methods based on DNA. From the available alternative security methods, symmetric DNA algorithms were developed and implemented. The first symmetric DNA algorithm was implemented in the Java language, while the second DNA algorithm was implemented in BioJava and MatLab. Comparisons have been made between the performances of different standard symmetrical algorithms and the DNA proposed algorithms. As a new step to enhance the security, an asymmetric key generation inside a DNA security algorithm is presented. The asymmetric key generation algorithm starts from a password phrase. The asymmetric DNA algorithm proposes a mechanism which makes use of more encryption technologies. Therefore, it is more reliable and more powerful than the OTP DNA symmetric algorithms.

  11. Asymmetric Composite Nanoparticles with Anisotropic Surface Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglu Shi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric inorganic/organic composite nanoparticles with anisotropic surface functionalities represent a new approach for creating smart materials, requiring the selective introduction of chemical groups to dual components of composite, respectively. Here, we report the synthesis of snowman-like asymmetric silica/polystyrene heterostructure with anisotropic functionalities via a chemical method, creating nanostructure possibly offering two-sided biologic accessibility through the chemical groups. Carboxyl group was introduced to polystyrene component of the snowman-like composites by miniemulsion polymerization of monomer on local surface of silica particles. Moreover, amino group was then grafted to remained silica surface through facile surface modification of the composite nanoparticles. The asymmetric shape of these composites was confirmed by TEM characterization. Moreover, characteristics of anisotropic surface functionalities were indicated by Zeta potential measurement and confocal laser microscopy after being labeled with fluorescent dyes. This structure could find potential use as carriers for biological applications.

  12. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Gobade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  13. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  14. Algebraic Davis Decomposition and Asymmetric Doob Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let {({M}, τ)} be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a filtration of von Neumann subalgebras {({M}_n)_{n ≥ 1}} , whose union {bigcup_{n≥1}{M}_n} is weak-* dense in {{M}} . Let {{E}_n} denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for {1 algebraic atomic description for the involved Hardy spaces. The latter results are new even for commutative von Neumann algebras.

  15. Improved DFIG Capability during Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    In the wind power application, different asymmetrical types of the grid fault can be categorized after the Y/d transformer, and the positive and negative components of a single-phase fault, phase-to-phase fault, and two-phase fault can be summarized. Due to the newly introduced negative and even......, the capability of a 2 MW DFIG to ride through asymmetrical grid faults can be estimated at the existing design of the power electronics converter. Finally, a control scheme aimed to improve the DFIG capability is proposed and the simulation results validate its feasibility....

  16. Hot and flowing, asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a consistent treatment for hot and flowing asymmetric nuclear matter. Using the mean-field theory, predictions of the σ- ω Walecka model at finite temperature are compared with the corresponding results of the Zimanyi-Moszlowski and the non-linear models. The statistical theory of grand-canonical potentials is incorporated to the formalism. We also describe the behavior, at finite temperature, of the asymmetric and flowing nuclear matter. As an application, we describe bulk properties of neutron and protoneutron stars by considering the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations. (author)

  17. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices

  18. Some advances towards a better understanding of wave propagation in civil engineering multi-wire strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguerre, L.; Treyssede, F.

    Steel members of civil engineering structures undergo degradations mainly due to corrosion and mechanical fatigue. In this context, non-destructive inspection techniques using mechanical guided waves have potential to monitor these structures. Even if wave propagation is not yet fully understood in these structures, useful results can be derived for inspection methodology by using wave modeling in cylindrical waveguide, embedded or not. However, further improvement can be expected from the development of wave propagation simulation tools for real-life structures. Indeed, several difficulties arise in the understanding of guided ultrasonic waves in such structures, partly due to the helical geometry and the inter-wire coupling effects. Moreover, these structures are pre-stressed and can be free or embedded in solid material. This paper shows some recent research results at LCPC. A first part deals with experimental results on the guided wave propagation in a commonly used steel member, the seven wire strand (i.e one straight single cylindrical wire surrounded by six helical wires). The second part aims at numerically investigating the propagation of elastic waves in free helical waveguides. A numerical method is chosen based on a semi-analytical finite element technique that relies on a specific non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. This system is shown to be translationally invariant along the helix centerline so that a spatial Fourier transform can be explicitly performed along the axis to reduce the problem to two dimensions. The method can thus readily be used for the analysis of helical structures by considering the special case of no curvature. Results for single straight and helical wires are first computed. A dispersion analysis for a seven wire strand with simplified contact conditions is then performed.

  19. Asymmetric pallidal neuronal activity in patients with cervical dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Galindo-Leon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The origin of asymmetric clinical manifestation of symptoms in patients suffering from cervical dystonia (CD is hitherto poorly understood. Dysregulated neuronal activity in the basal ganglia has been suggested to have a role in the pathophysiology of CD. Here, we re-assessed the question to what extent relative changes occur in the direct versus indirect basal ganglia pathway in CD, whether these circuit changes are lateralized, and how these alterations relate to CD symptoms. To this end, we recorded ongoing single cell and local field potential (LFP activity from the external (GPe and internal pallidal segment (GPi of thirteen CD patients undergoing microelectrode-guided stereotactic surgery for deep brain stimulation in the GPi. We compared pallidal recordings from CD patients operated under local anaesthesia (LA with those obtained in CD patients operated under general anaesthesia (GA. In awake patients, mean GPe discharge rate (52 Hz was lower than that of GPi (72 Hz. Mean GPi discharge ipsilateral to the side of head turning was higher than contralateral and correlated with torticollis symptom severity. Lateralized differences were absent at the level of the GPe and in recordings from patients operated under GA. Furthermore, in the GPi of CD patients there was a subpopulation of theta-oscillatory cells with unique bursting characteristics. Power and coherence of GPe- and GPi-LFPs were dominated by a theta peak and also exhibited band-specific interhemispheric differences. Strong cross-frequency coupling of low-gamma amplitude to theta phase was a feature of pallidal LFPs recorded under LA, but not GA. These results indicate that CD is associated with an asymmetric pallidal outflow. Based on the finding of symmetric neuronal discharges in the GPe, we propose that an imbalanced interhemispheric direct pathway gain may be involved in CD pathophysiology.

  20. Structure of the EMMPRIN N-terminal domain 1: Dimerization via [beta]-strand swapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jinquan; Teplyakov, Alexey; Obmolova, Galina; Malia, Thomas; Wu, Sheng-Jiun; Beil, Eric; Baker, Audrey; Swencki-Underwood, Bethany; Zhao, Yonghong; Sprenkle, Justin; Dixon, Ken; Sweet, Raymond; Gilliland, Gary L.; (Centocor)

    2010-09-27

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), also known as Hab18G, CD147, Basigin, M6, and neurothelin, is a membrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of various cell types and many cancer cells. EMMPRIN stimulates adjacent fibroblasts and tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases and plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, spermatogensis and fertilization, cell-cell adhesion and communication, and other biological processes (reviewed in Ref. 1 and references therein). It was demonstrated that the EMMPRIN extracellular domain (ECD), which structurally belongs to the IgG superfamily, can form homo-oligomers in a cis dependent manner and the N-terminal domain 1 (residues 22-101) was necessary and sufficient to mediate this interaction. The crystal structure of the ECD of recombinant human EMMPRIN (Hab18G/CD147) expressed in E. coli was reported at 2.8 {angstrom} resolution (Yu et al. 2008). The construct consists of residues 22-205 of the mature protein and has both an N-terminal IgC2 domain (ND1, residues 22-101) and a C-terminal IgC2 domain (ND2, residues 107-205). The two domains are joined by a five amino acid residue linker that constitutes a flexible hinge between the two domains. The crystal form has four copies of the molecule in the asymmetric unit, each of which has a different inter-domain angle that varies from 121{sup o} to 144{sup o}. The two domains each have a conserved disulfide bridge and both are comprised of two {beta}-sheets formed by strands EBA and GFCC, and DEBA and AGFCC for ND1 and ND2, respectively. Based on the crystal packing in this structure, the authors proposed that lateral packing between the two IgG domains of EMMPRIN ECD represents a potential mechanism for cell adhesion. Here we report the 2.0-{angstrom} crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of EMMPRIN ECD (ND1) expressed in mammalian cells. The overall structure of the domain is very similar to that in the full length

  1. Strand critical current degradation in $Nb_{3}$ Sn Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Barzi, E; Higley, H C; Scanlan, R M; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab is developing 11 Tesla superconducting accelerator magnets based on Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor. Multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn strands produced using the modified jelly roll, internal tin, and powder-in-tube technologies were used for the development and test of the prototype cable. To optimize the cable geometry with respect to the critical current, short samples of Rutherford cable with packing factors in the 85 to 95% range were fabricated and studied. In this paper, the results of measurements of critical current, n-value and RRR made on the round virgin strands and on the strands extracted from the cable samples are presented. (5 refs).

  2. Asymmetric cell division: a persistent issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Aakre, Christopher D.; Laub, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity within a clonal population of cells can increase survival in the face of environmental stress. In a recent issue of Science, Aldridge et al. (2012) demonstrate that cell division in mycobacteria is asymmetric, producing daughter cells that differ in size, growth rate, and susceptibility to antibiotics.

  3. Asymmetric demand for energy: A cointegration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Thomas Frank

    1997-12-01

    This paper uses time series data in a study of the demand for energy. One goal is to compare the results from the traditional autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) model to the error correction model (ECM) using cointegration. The second goal is to determine if the demand elasticity is asymmetric with respect to increasing and decreasing prices. This paper discusses three topics that are important to the use of time series data. The first topic is the presence and consequences unit roots which are common in time series data. The second topic is the identification of cointegrated variables and the third topic is a development of the ECM. This results in a model that can be used in either a single equation or multivariate system context and it will estimate both long run and short run elasticities. Asymmetry theory and its implications are studied along with an investigation into competing methods of creating the asymmetric variables. Simulations provided evidence that the use of dummy variables results in biased estimates and that the cumulative difference method of Wolffram/Houck gives valid estimates. The results of the empirical part of the paper show that the short run estimates of the ADL model are like those of the error correction model, but the cointegration method's long run estimates are better since they are known to be consistent and asymptotically unbiased. Tests for asymmetry do not support the theory of asymmetric long run price elasticities; however there is evidence to support the presence of asymmetric demand in the short run.

  4. Leverage bounds with default and asymmetric information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2014. [2014 North American Summer Meeting of the Econometric Society. Minneapolis (US), 19.06.2014-22.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1340 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : financial markets and the macroeconomy * asymmetric and private information * occupational choice Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://editorialexpress.com/conference/NASM2014/program/NASM2014.html

  5. Asymmetric Taxation under Incremental and Sequential Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Panteghini, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of an asymmetric tax scheme on incremental and sequential investment strategies. The tax base is equal to the firm’s return, net of an imputation rate. When the firm’s return is less than this rate, however, no tax refunds are allowed. This scheme is neutral under both income and capital uncertainty.

  6. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  7. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of mycocerosic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, B.; Feringa, B.L.; J. Minnaard, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of mycocerosic acid was achieved via the application of iterative enantioselective 1,4-addition reactions and allows for the efficient construction of 1,3-polymethyl arrays with full stereocontrol; further exemplified by the synthesis of tetramethyl-dec

  8. Evidence of asymmetric top in 130Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduced is a new relation connecting moment of inertia, Lipas parameter and asymmetric rotor model energies and put forward much closer trend in odd even staggering of quasi γ-band. A different view point regarding generation of quasi γ-band in 130Ba have been presented

  9. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  10. Detection loophole in asymmetric Bell experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Simon, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The problem of closing the detection loophole with asymmetric systems, such as entangled atom-photon pairs, is addressed. We show that, for the Bell inequality I_3322, a minimal detection efficiency of 43% can be tolerated for one of the particles, if the other one is always detected. We also study the influence of noise and discuss the prospects of experimental implementation.

  11. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2012-01-01

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical differentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  12. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical dierentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  13. Expert Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    that dynamically respond to changes in climate and user demands, the report describes building concepts, design methods and tools that have been tested in theory and practice in buildings around the world. This guide is aimed at designers and consultants and describes the principles of responsive building concepts...

  14. Asymmetric PCR method in generation of HBV ssDNA for pyrosequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian-cai Peng; Chun-lin Wang; Li-li Zhang; Mao-li Lu; Zhen-xi Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the optimal primer ratio and concentration of asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) in producing hepatitis B virus (HBV) single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for pyrosequencing. Methods A-PCR was carried out to generate HBV ssDNA with forward to reverse primers of different ratios (50 : 1, 100 : 1) and concentrations (13. 0 pmol/25μL and 0.14 pmol/25μL, 19. 5 pmol/25μL and 0. 21 pmol/25μL), and the product yield and quality were compared respectively. Results The forward to reverse primer ratio of 50 : 1 provided better yield and concentration of 19. 5 pmol/25μL and 0. 21 pmol//25μL generated a clearer band. Conclusion A simple and feasible method to produce HBV ssDNA for pyrosequencing in batch is established.

  15. Asymmetric cryo-EM reconstruction of phage MS2 reveals genome structure in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Roman I; Gomez-Blanco, Josue; Akopjana, Inara; Vargas, Javier; Kazaks, Andris; Tars, Kaspars; Carazo, José María; Koster, Abraham J.

    2016-01-01

    In single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses, virus capsid assembly and genome packaging are intertwined processes. Using cryo-electron microscopy and single particle analysis we determined the asymmetric virion structure of bacteriophage MS2, which includes 178 copies of the coat protein, a single copy of the A-protein and the RNA genome. This reveals that in situ, the viral RNA genome can adopt a defined conformation. The RNA forms a branched network of stem-loops that almost all allocate near the capsid inner surface, while predominantly binding to coat protein dimers that are located in one-half of the capsid. This suggests that genomic RNA is highly involved in genome packaging and virion assembly. PMID:27561669

  16. Asymmetric Bulkheads for Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donald B.

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetric bulkheads are proposed for the ends of vertically oriented cylindrical pressure vessels. These bulkheads, which would feature both convex and concave contours, would offer advantages over purely convex, purely concave, and flat bulkheads (see figure). Intended originally to be applied to large tanks that hold propellant liquids for launching spacecraft, the asymmetric-bulkhead concept may also be attractive for terrestrial pressure vessels for which there are requirements to maximize volumetric and mass efficiencies. A description of the relative advantages and disadvantages of prior symmetric bulkhead configurations is prerequisite to understanding the advantages of the proposed asymmetric configuration: In order to obtain adequate strength, flat bulkheads must be made thicker, relative to concave and convex bulkheads; the difference in thickness is such that, other things being equal, pressure vessels with flat bulkheads must be made heavier than ones with concave or convex bulkheads. Convex bulkhead designs increase overall tank lengths, thereby necessitating additional supporting structure for keeping tanks vertical. Concave bulkhead configurations increase tank lengths and detract from volumetric efficiency, even though they do not necessitate additional supporting structure. The shape of a bulkhead affects the proportion of residual fluid in a tank that is, the portion of fluid that unavoidably remains in the tank during outflow and hence cannot be used. In this regard, a flat bulkhead is disadvantageous in two respects: (1) It lacks a single low point for optimum placement of an outlet and (2) a vortex that forms at the outlet during outflow prevents a relatively large amount of fluid from leaving the tank. A concave bulkhead also lacks a single low point for optimum placement of an outlet. Like purely concave and purely convex bulkhead configurations, the proposed asymmetric bulkhead configurations would be more mass-efficient than is the flat

  17. Critical current and strand stiffness of three types of Nb3Sn strand subjected to spatial periodic bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the influence of bending on the critical current (Ic) of Nb3Sn strands is essential for the understanding of the reduction in performance due to transverse electromagnetic load. In particular, for the large cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) meant for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), we expect that bending is the dominant mechanism for this degradation. We have measured the Ic of a bronze, a powder-in-tube and an internal tin processed Nb3Sn strand when subjected to spatial periodic bending using bending wavelengths from 5 to 10 mm. Two of these strands were applied in model coils for the ITER. We found that the tested strands behave according to the so-called low interfilament resistivity limit, confirming full current transfer between the filaments. This is supported by AC coupling loss measurements giving an indication of the interfilament current transfer length. The reduction of Ic due to bending strain can then be simply derived from the bending amplitude and the Ic versus axial applied strain (ε) relation. This Ic(ε) sensitivity can vary for different strand types but since the electromagnetic force is the driving parameter for strand bending in a CICC, the stiffness of the strands definitively plays a key role, which is confirmed by the results presented

  18. Critical current and strand stiffness of three types of Nb3Sn strand subjected to spatial periodic bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhuis, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Wessel, W. A. J.; Abbas, W.

    2006-11-01

    Knowledge of the influence of bending on the critical current (Ic) of Nb3Sn strands is essential for the understanding of the reduction in performance due to transverse electromagnetic load. In particular, for the large cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) meant for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), we expect that bending is the dominant mechanism for this degradation. We have measured the Ic of a bronze, a powder-in-tube and an internal tin processed Nb3Sn strand when subjected to spatial periodic bending using bending wavelengths from 5 to 10 mm. Two of these strands were applied in model coils for the ITER. We found that the tested strands behave according to the so-called low interfilament resistivity limit, confirming full current transfer between the filaments. This is supported by AC coupling loss measurements giving an indication of the interfilament current transfer length. The reduction of Ic due to bending strain can then be simply derived from the bending amplitude and the Ic versus axial applied strain (ɛ) relation. This Ic(ɛ) sensitivity can vary for different strand types but since the electromagnetic force is the driving parameter for strand bending in a CICC, the stiffness of the strands definitively plays a key role, which is confirmed by the results presented.

  19. DNA double strand break induction in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by accelerated heavy ions was systematically measured in diploid yeast cells. Particles were provided by the accelerators at GSI, Darmstadt, and HMI, Berlin. DNA was separated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and the intensity of the largest bands used to determine the loss of molecular weight. Since the DNA content of each chromosome is exactly known absolute values for DSB induction can be measured without calibration procedures. Ions used range from protons to uranium with LET values between 2 and about 15,000 keV.μm-1. Induction cross sections increase in the lower LET region approaching a plateau around 200 keV.μm-1. With higher LET values the dependence can no longer be described by a common curve with each ion showing a specific behaviour. With very heavy particles the influence of the penumbra becomes obvious: cross sections decrease with LET because of the reduced penumbra extensions. Classical target theory would predict cross sections to follow a simple saturation function which is not substantiated by the data. Track structure analysis as introduced by Butts and Katz in Radiat. Res. 30 855-71 1967 is also not able to predict the experimental results. A semi-empirical fit indicates a linear-quadratic dependence of induction cross sections on LET up to about 1000 keV.μm-1. RBE for DSB induction rises above unity reaching a maximum of about 2.5 around 200 keV.μm-1. This is different from many experiments in mammalian cells and is presumably due to differences in chromatin structure since yeast cells seem to lack a functional H1 histone. (author)

  20. Numerical Investigation of Inclusion Behaviour in a Multi-Strand Tundish During Strand Blockages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Md Irfanul Haque; Jha, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Inclusion removal in the continuous casting tundish is an essential technology for production of high-grade steels. In the present study, a three dimensional numerical investigation has been carried out on six strand delta shape tundish. The aim of the work is to investigate the inclusion entrapment and removal phenomenon in a tundish. A parametric study has been carried out to study the behavior of the inclusions in a steelmaking tundish and the results have been compared on the basis of densities and diameters of inclusions. Bare tundish as well as a tundish occupied with Advance Pouring Box (APB) have been studied to predict the transport behavior of inclusion particles. Further, effect of strand blockages has been considered. The turbulent Navier-Stokes equations have been solved to predict the flow velocity distributions and inclusion trajectories were calculated using a Lagrangian particle tracking method. The numerical results were validated using available experimental results and found to be in good agreement. The results indicate that the use of APB has changed the fluid flow pattern and consequently the inclusion particles movement. The density of inclusion particles plays an important role. It has been seen that low dense particles have higher chances to get trapped or removed from tundish. It was also found that larger diameter of inclusion particles have more chances of floatation.

  1. Narrow strand YBCO Roebel cable for lowered AC loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed test lengths of Roebel cable from wide strips of second generation YBCO wire. The strand width is 2mm to allow for lowered AC losses in comparison with standard HTS wires. Up to 10 strands can be cut from the 40mm wide strip and assembled into a 10 strand cable with a transposition length of 90mm. Electrical measurements show good retention of critical current through the cutting and cabling processes. Initial AC loss measurements confirm the reduction expected from full width wire. Results from mechanical modeling are presented which have been used to optimise strand geometry to reduce stress concentrations. Manufacturing capability to produce up to 100m lengths has been demonstrated

  2. Recovery of stranded costs under electric deregulation: The Winstar doctrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, J.C. [Person and Craver, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper explores the applicability of the Winstar doctrine to the recovery of stranded costs arising from the deregulation of the electric utility industry. Such stranded costs, which have been widely estimated to be in the $100--200 billion range, represent those utility assets whose book value exceed their market value. Not addressed in this paper are the ongoing state and federal legislative initiatives to allow for the recovery of some or all of a utility`s stranded costs, such as through the assessment of competitive transmission charges (CTCs) or through stranded cost securitization. Rather, this paper presents one of several of legal arguments that could be utilized in those situations where a legislative solution either does not exist or does not allow for full book value recovery.

  3. Mass stranding of Odontoceti caused by parasitogenic eighth cranial neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimitsu, T; Nagai, T; Ide, M; Kawano, H; Naichuu, A; Koono, M; Ishii, A

    1987-10-01

    Hearing organs of the Odontoceti from two mass strandings in 1983 and 1986 were examined histopathologically. In the 1983 stranding, two of three pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) were necropsied and numerous Nasitrema sp. were found close to the eighth cranial nerve (nervus vistibulo cochlearis) in both animals. Patchy degeneration of the eighth cranial nerve in and out of the modiolus of the cochlea was observed. In the 1986 stranding, five of 125 false killer whales (Pseudorca crassiclens) were examined and numerous trematodes (Nasitrema gondo) were found in the tympanic cavities. Severe degeneration of the eighth cranial nerve was discovered and there were many trematode eggs in the nervous and surrounding tissues. Parasitogenic eighth neuropathy is proposed again as the cause of mass stranding of the Odontoceti. PMID:3682083

  4. Molecular basis for DNA strand displacement by NHEJ repair polymerases

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Edward J.; Brissett, Nigel C.; Plocinski, Przemyslaw; Carlberg, Tom; Doherty, Aidan J.

    2015-01-01

    The non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in all domains of life. Archaea and bacteria utilize a conserved set of multifunctional proteins in a pathway termed Archaeo-Prokaryotic (AP) NHEJ that facilitates DSB repair. Archaeal NHEJ polymerases (Pol) are capable of strand displacement synthesis, whilst filling DNA gaps or partially annealed DNA ends, which can give rise to unligatable intermediates. However, an associated NHEJ phosphoesterase (PE) re...

  5. Electrodeless dielectrophoresis of single- and double-stranded DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Chia-Fu; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Bakajin, Olgica; Chan, Shirley S; Cox, Edward C; Darnton, Nicholas; Duke, Thomas; Austin, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    Dielectrophoretic trapping of molecules is typically carried out using metal electrodes to provide high field gradients. In this paper we demonstrate dielectrophoretic trapping using insulating constrictions at far lower frequencies than are feasible with metallic trapping structures because of water electrolysis. We demonstrate that electrodeless dielectrophoresis (EDEP) can be used for concentration and patterning of both single-strand and double-strand DNA. A possible mechanism for DNA pol...

  6. The risk of stranded assets for utilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of dealing with stranded assets in Canada and the United States were discussed. Compared to the United States, the risk associated with stranded assets for utilities in Canada was considered to be relatively low because of the following factors: (1) low variable cost, (2) isolation, (3) lack of transmission interconnection capacity, (4) lack of tight synchronization in North America, (5) the likelihood of an increase in natural gas prices, (6) the absence of jurisdictional disputes such as FERC versus the states, (7) social considerations, (8) the learning curve, (9) politics, (10) weak balance sheets, (11) relatively low electricity prices, (12) the weak Canadian dollar, and (13) the possibility of refinancing at lower interest rates. Ontario Hydro, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Power are the three Canadian utilities that may have stranded costs. For Ontario Hydro and New Brunswick Power the stranded costs would be related to nuclear generator problems, whereas for Nova Scotia Power, the stranded costs would be related to the thermal generating base, the threat from Sable Island Gas and the changing tax structure of the utility. Some other reasons why stranded assets could be created in Canada would include low variable costs and high fixed costs, over capacity of at least 30 per cent in generation, limited domestic energy growth, competitive threat from gas, reliability and safety of nuclear plants, and technology change. Five factors in terms of which stranded assets can be expressed are: (1) variable cost definition, (2) total cost definition, (3) operating profit definition, (4) wide geographic definition, and (5) free market definition. In calculating stranded assets, the number of years over which the assets are recovered and the discount rate are considered to be key factors. 26 tabs

  7. Estimates of DNA strand breakage in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, M.; Cruz, D.; Carro, S.; López, R.; Díaz, A.; Santiago, L; Guevara, C.; Sánchez, L.; Cuetara, E.B.; López, N.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of DNA damage by mean of Comet or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay has been commonly used to assess genotoxic impact in aquatic animals being able to detect exposure to low concentrations of contaminants in a wide range of species. The aims of this work were 1) to evaluate the usefulness of the Comet to detect DNA strand breakage in dolphin leukocytes, 2) to use the DNA diffusion assay to determine the amount of DNA strand breakage associated with apoptosi...

  8. Negative-strand RNA viruses: genetic engineering and applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Palese, P; Zheng, H.; Engelhardt, O G; Pleschka, S; García-Sastre, A.

    1996-01-01

    The negative-strand RNA viruses are a broad group of animal viruses that comprise several important human pathogens, including influenza, measles, mumps, rabies, respiratory syncytial, Ebola, and hantaviruses. The development of new strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of negative-strand RNA viruses has provided us with new tools to study the structure-function relationships of the viral components and their contributions to the pathogenicity of these viruses. It is also now possi...

  9. The N-terminal strand modulates immunoglobulin light chain fibrillogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo-Yauner, Luis del, E-mail: ldelpozo@inmegen.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Periférico Sur No. 4809, Col. Arenal Tepepan, Delegación Tlalpan, México, D.F. C.P. 14610 (Mexico); Wall, Jonathan S. [Departments of Radiology and Medicine, The University of Tennessee Medical Center, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN (United States); González Andrade, Martín [Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Periférico Sur No. 4809, Col. Arenal Tepepan, Delegación Tlalpan, México, D.F. C.P. 14610 (Mexico); Sánchez-López, Rosana [Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 2001, Col. Chamilpa Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62210 (Mexico); Rodríguez-Ambriz, Sandra L. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Calle CEPROBI No. 8, Col. San Isidro, Yautepec, Morelos C.P. 62731 (Mexico); Pérez Carreón, Julio I. [Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Periférico Sur No. 4809, Col. Arenal Tepepan, Delegación Tlalpan, México, D.F. C.P. 14610 (Mexico); and others

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand of 6aJL2 protein. •Mutations destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner. •Destabilizing mutations accelerated the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time. •The effect on the kinetic of fibril elongation by seeding was of different nature. •The N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. -- Abstract: It has been suggested that the N-terminal strand of the light chain variable domain (V{sub L}) protects the molecule from aggregation by hindering spurious intermolecular contacts. We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic of fibrillogenesis of the V{sub L} protein 6aJL2. Mutations in this strand destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner, accelerating the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time; an effect that correlated with the extent of destabilization. In contrast, the effect on the kinetics of fibril elongation, as assessed in seeding experiments was of different nature, as it was not directly dependant on the degree of destabilization. This finding suggests different factors drive the nucleation-dependent and elongation phases of light chain fibrillogenesis. Finally, taking advantage of the dependence of the Trp fluorescence upon environment, four single Trp substitutions were made in the N-terminal strand, and changes in solvent exposure during aggregation were evaluated by acrylamide-quenching. The results suggest that the N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. This finding suggest a possible explanation for the modulating effect exerted by the mutations in this strand on the aggregation behavior of 6aJL2 protein.

  10. Hearing loss in stranded odontocete dolphins and whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mann

    Full Text Available The causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. Because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. We report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. Approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had significant hearing deficits with a reduction in sensitivity equivalent to severe (70-90 dB or profound (>90 dB hearing loss in humans. The only stranded short-finned pilot whale examined had profound hearing loss. No impairments were detected in seven Risso's dolphins from three different stranding events, two pygmy killer whales, one Atlantic spotted dolphin, one spinner dolphin, or a juvenile Gervais' beaked whale. Hearing impairment could play a significant role in some cetacean stranding events, and the hearing of all cetaceans in rehabilitation should be tested.

  11. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  12. Extended minus-strand DNA as template for R-U5-mediated second-strand transfer in recombinational rescue of primer binding site-modified retroviral vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J G; Lund, Anders Henrik; Dybkaer, K;

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated recombinational rescue of primer binding site (PBS)-impaired Akv murine leukemia virus-based vectors involving initial priming on endogenous viral sequences and template switching during cDNA synthesis to obtain PBS complementarity in second-strand transfer of...... mutated PBS during minus-strand synthesis, and subsequent second-strand transfer mediated by the R-U5 complementarity of the plus strand and the extended minus-strand DNA acceptor template. Mechanisms for R-U5-mediated second-strand transfer and its possible role in retrovirus replication and evolution...

  13. Analysis of thermal tests in a pressurized water reactor having asymmetric loop flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis was made of three-dimensional steady-state computations from the thermal mixing tests performed in the Oconee 1 pressurized water reactor at the beginning of fuel cycle 6 early in 1980 under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute. It was found that detailed modeling of the 52 asymmetrically located instrument guide tubes, together with the various structures in the lower plenum, yielded generally good agreement with the data (within 10F). Most of the thermal mixing trends at the entrance to the core and midplane deduced from the 29-thermocouple reading were correctly computed

  14. Effects of information feedback on an asymmetrical two-route scenario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN XiaoYan; WANG BingHong; YANG HanXin; WANG QiaoMing; JIANG Rui

    2009-01-01

    In traffic system,a reasonable information feedback can improve road capacity. In this paper,we investigate an asymmetrical two-route scenario in which dynamic information can be generated and displayed on the board to guide drivers. Two improved feedbacks (i.e. improved mean velocity feedback and improved congestion coefficient feedback) are introduced. Simulations show that the average cost is dependent on the vehicle arrival rate and there exists a critical the dynamic vehicles ratio corresponding to the maximum flux. We find that improved con-gestion coefficient can better enhance the system capacity than that of improved mean velocity feedback.

  15. Relationships among the positive strand and double-strand RNA viruses as viewed through their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruenn, J A

    1991-01-01

    The sequences of 50 RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRPs) from 43 positive strand and 7 double strand RNA (dsRNA) viruses have been compared. The alignment permitted calculation of distances among the 50 viruses and a resultant dendrogram based on every amino acid, rather than just those amino acids in the conserved motifs. Remarkably, a large subgroup of these viruses, including vertebrate, plant, and insect viruses, forms a single cluster whose only common characteristic is exploitation of ...

  16. Visualizing repetitive diffusion activity of double-strand RNA binding proteins by single molecule fluorescence assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hye Ran; Wang, Xinlei; Myong, Sua

    2016-08-01

    TRBP, one of double strand RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs), is an essential cofactor of Dicer in the RNA interference pathway. Previously we reported that TRBP exhibits repetitive diffusion activity on double strand (ds)RNA in an ATP independent manner. In the TRBP-Dicer complex, the diffusion mobility of TRBP facilitates Dicer-mediated RNA cleavage. Such repetitive diffusion of dsRBPs on a nucleic acid at the nanometer scale can be appropriately captured by several single molecule detection techniques. Here, we provide a step-by-step guide to four different single molecule fluorescence assays by which the diffusion activity of dsRBPs on dsRNA can be detected. One color assay, termed protein induced fluorescence enhancement enables detection of unlabeled protein binding and diffusion on a singly labeled RNA. Two-color Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) in which labeled dsRBPs is applied to labeled RNA, allows for probing the motion of protein along the RNA axis. Three color FRET reports on the diffusion movement of dsRBPs from one to the other end of RNA. The single molecule pull down assay provides an opportunity to collect dsRBPs from mammalian cells and examine the protein-RNA interaction at single molecule platform. PMID:27012177

  17. Formation of radiation-induced DNA breaks: the ratio of double-strand breaks to single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation causes the formation of strand breaks in cellular DNA, as well as other types of lesions in the chromatin of cells. Some of the earliest investigations of the molecular basis of radiation-induced damage and the implications of enzymatic repair were done by Dr. H. S. Kaplan. Because it is difficult to assay for DNA lesions in the large mammalian genome, the authors have developed a method of assaying for DNA double-strand breaks in the supercoiled nucleosome-complexed Simian virus 40 (SV40) genome, irradiated intracellularly. In this communication they present their measurements of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to single-strand breaks (SSBs) ratio obtained from the intracellularly irradiated SV40 genome. After cobalt gamma ray and X ray irradiations, this ratio is about 1/10. Their methods and results are compared with pertinent data in the literature. If the DSBs/SSBs ratio of 1/10 for cellular chromatin is correct, a substantial number of DNA double-strand breaks are formed in a mammalian cell after moderate doses (1 Gy) of radiation. The implications of different types of DNA double-strand breaks are discussed

  18. The importance of becoming double-stranded: Innate immunity and the kinetic model of HIV-1 central plus strand synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central initiation of plus strand synthesis is a conserved feature of lentiviruses and certain other retroelements. This complication of the standard reverse transcription mechanism produces a transient “central DNA flap” in the viral cDNA, which has been proposed to mediate its subsequent nuclear import. This model has assumed that the important feature is the flapped DNA structure itself rather than the process that produces it. Recently, an alternative kinetic model was proposed. It posits that central plus strand synthesis functions to accelerate conversion to the double-stranded state, thereby helping HIV-1 to evade single-strand DNA-targeting antiviral restrictions such as APOBEC3 proteins, and perhaps to avoid innate immune sensor mechanisms. The model is consistent with evidence that lentiviruses must often synthesize their cDNAs when dNTP concentrations are limiting and with data linking reverse transcription and uncoating. There may be additional kinetic advantages for the artificial genomes of lentiviral gene therapy vectors. - Highlights: • Two main functional models for HIV central plus strand synthesis have been proposed. • In one, a transient central DNA flap in the viral cDNA mediates HIV-1 nuclear import. • In the other, multiple kinetic consequences are emphasized. • One is defense against APOBEC3G, which deaminates single-stranded DNA. • Future questions pertain to antiviral restriction, uncoating and nuclear import

  19. The importance of becoming double-stranded: Innate immunity and the kinetic model of HIV-1 central plus strand synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschla, Eric, E-mail: poeschla.eric@mayo.edu

    2013-06-20

    Central initiation of plus strand synthesis is a conserved feature of lentiviruses and certain other retroelements. This complication of the standard reverse transcription mechanism produces a transient “central DNA flap” in the viral cDNA, which has been proposed to mediate its subsequent nuclear import. This model has assumed that the important feature is the flapped DNA structure itself rather than the process that produces it. Recently, an alternative kinetic model was proposed. It posits that central plus strand synthesis functions to accelerate conversion to the double-stranded state, thereby helping HIV-1 to evade single-strand DNA-targeting antiviral restrictions such as APOBEC3 proteins, and perhaps to avoid innate immune sensor mechanisms. The model is consistent with evidence that lentiviruses must often synthesize their cDNAs when dNTP concentrations are limiting and with data linking reverse transcription and uncoating. There may be additional kinetic advantages for the artificial genomes of lentiviral gene therapy vectors. - Highlights: • Two main functional models for HIV central plus strand synthesis have been proposed. • In one, a transient central DNA flap in the viral cDNA mediates HIV-1 nuclear import. • In the other, multiple kinetic consequences are emphasized. • One is defense against APOBEC3G, which deaminates single-stranded DNA. • Future questions pertain to antiviral restriction, uncoating and nuclear import.

  20. Asymmetric fuel assembly for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coolant turning introduction member is properly extended at coolant flow channels on the side of control rod of an inner frame for supporting the insertion of a water channel. With such a constitution, the thermal margin of the fuel rods can be made uniform over the entire region of the channel box by supplying coolants uniformly for an asymmetrical fuel assembly which can effectively suppress local peaking coefficient thereby enabling to improve performances at limit power. In addition, in the asymmetrical fuel assembly, a flow vane disposed to the outer frame plate of a spacer is increased in the size at coolant flow channels on the side of the control rod. Then, sufficient amount of coolants can surely be supplied to fuel rods at coolant flow channels on the side of the control rod. (N.H.)

  1. ON ASYMMETRIC DISTRIBUTIONS OF SATELLITE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that the asymmetric distribution of M31 satellites cannot be produced by tides from the Milky Way as such effects are too weak. However, loosely bound associations and groups of satellites can fall into larger halos and give rise to asymmetries. We compute the survival times for such associations. We prove that the survival time is always shortest in Keplerian potentials, and can be ∼3 times longer in logarithmic potentials. We provide an analytical formula for the dispersal time in terms of the size and velocity dispersion of the infalling structure. We show that, if an association of ∼10 dwarfs fell into the M31 halo, its present aspect would be that of an asymmetric disk of satellites. We also discuss the case of cold substructure in the Andromeda II and Ursa Minor dwarfs

  2. Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We develop the model proposed by Cort\\^es, Gomes & Smolin, to predict cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric extensions of general relativity they proposed recently. Within this class of models the equation of motion of chiral fermions is modified by a torsion term. This term leads to a dispersion law for neutrinos that associates a new time-varying energy with each particle. We find a new neutrino contribution to the Friedmann equation resulting from the torsion term in the Ashtekar connection. In this note we explore the phenomenology of this term and observational consequences for cosmological evolution. We show that constraints on the critical energy density will ordinarily render this term unobservably small, a maximum of order $10^{-25}$ of the neutrino energy density today. However, if the time-asymmetric dark energy is tuned to cancel the cosmological constant, the torsion effect may be a dark matter candidate.

  3. Effects of asymmetric sitting on spinal balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hee Soon; Oh, Jong Chi; Won, Sung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of two common asymmetric sitting positions on spinal balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven healthy subjects in their twenties were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Asymmetric positions of resting the chin on a hand and crossing the legs were performed by each group for 1 hour. After 1 hour, the subjects lay in the supine position again and spinal imbalance was measured using a device. [Results] After 1 hour of resting with the chin on a hand, sagittal imbalance, coronal imbalance, pelvic obliquity and lordosis angle presented spinal imbalance worsening of 1 hour of crossing legs, sagittal imbalance, pelvic torsion showed in mainly learned spinal imbalance living. [Conclusion] Good posture could be an innate ability, however it through habits. So this study is meaningful from the perspective of the importance of good posture. PMID:27065291

  4. Mixtures of Shifted Asymmetric Laplace Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Franczak, Brian C.; Browne, Ryan P.; McNicholas, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    A mixture of shifted asymmetric Laplace distributions is introduced and used for clustering and classification. A variant of the EM algorithm is developed for parameter estimation by exploiting the relationship with the general inverse Gaussian distribution. This approach is mathematically elegant and relatively computationally straightforward. Our novel mixture modelling approach is demonstrated on both simulated and real data to illustrate clustering and classification applications. In thes...

  5. New ruthenium catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Valenzuela, Maria Belen

    2007-01-01

    A review on catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of C=O double bonds is presented in the first chapter. Noyori’s pioneering research on ruthenium complexes containing both phosphine and diamine ligands using [i superscript]PrOH and [t superscript]BuOK is described, this system gave impressive highly chemeo-selectivity for C=O bonds and extremely high enantioselectivity for a range of acetophenone derivatives. Numerous groups have been inspired by Noyori’s catalyst of the ty...

  6. Competitive Price and Quality Under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard J. Tellis; Birger Wernerfelt

    1987-01-01

    We present an analysis of equilibrium in markets with asymmetrically informed consumers. Some consumers know both price and quality of all sellers, whereas others know neither but may search among sellers. The equilibrium correlation between price and quality generally increases with the level of information in the market and can be negative when this level is sufficiently small. A meta-analysis of the available empirical studies strongly supports the model's predictions.

  7. Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Cortês, Marina; Liddle, Andrew R; Smolin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We develop the model proposed by Cort\\^es, Gomes & Smolin, to predict cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric extensions of general relativity they proposed recently. Within this class of models the equation of motion of chiral fermions is modified by a torsion term. This term leads to a dispersion law for neutrinos that associates a new time-varying energy with each particle. We find a new neutrino contribution to the Friedmann equation resulting from the torsion term in the Ashtekar conn...

  8. Relative profit maximization in asymmetric oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Atsuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    We analyze Bertrand and Cournot equilibria in an asymmetric oligopoly in which the firms produce differentiated substitutable goods and seek to maximize their relative profits instead of their absolute profits. Assuming linear demand functions and constant marginal costs we show the following results. If the marginal cost of a firm is lower (higher) than the average marginal cost over the industry, its output at the Bertrand equilibrium is larger (smaller) than that at the Cournot equilibrium...

  9. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Lydia Hulme; Ji-Long Liu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our t...

  10. Interfacial properties of charge asymmetric ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandre, Jose; Bresme, Fernando; Gonzalez-Melchor, Minerva

    2009-01-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of the coexistence and interfacial properties of ionic liquids as a function of cation/anion, (z$_+$ : z$_-$) = (2:-1), (4:-1), charge asymmetry. Our results correct previous computations of the coexistence curve of (2:-1) charge asymmetric systems, obtained via the fine-lattice discretization method. In agreement with previous computations we report a reduction in the critical temperature and an increase in the critical density with charge asymmetry. ...

  11. Asymmetric directed polymers in random environments

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Gregorio R. Moreno

    2010-01-01

    The model of Brownian Percolation has been introduced as an approximation of discrete last-passage percolation models close to the axis. It allowed to compute some explicit limits and prove fluctuation theorems for these, based on the relations between the Brownian percolation and random matrices. Here, we present two approaches that allow to treat discrete asymmetric models of directed polymers. In both cases, the behaviour is universal, meaning that the results do not depend on the precise ...

  12. Neuronal alignment on asymmetric textured surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Beighley, Ross; Spedden, Elise; Sekeroglu, Koray; Atherton, Timothy; Demirel, Melik C.; Staii, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the development of the nervous system. Here, we present experimental and theoretical results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on asymmetric surfaces and quantify...

  13. On asymmetric collisions with large disruption parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collisions between a weak electron bunch and a strong positron bunch are studied within a flat model. Electrons are tracked through the transverse space charge field of the positron bunch, and it is shown that positrons in a storage ring may remain stable after asymmetric collisions with a weak electron bunch in spite of large values of the electron disruption parameter. The plasma oscillations that affect collisions with large disruption parameters may be suppressed by properly matching the electrons. 8 refs., 5 figs

  14. Asymmetric dark matter from hidden sector baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kumar, Jason, E-mail: jkumar@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-05-23

    We consider the production of asymmetric dark matter during hidden sector baryogenesis. We consider a particular supersymmetric model where the dark matter candidate has a number density approximately equal to the baryon number density, with a mass of the same scale as the b, c and {tau}. Both baryon asymmetry and dark matter are created at the same time in this model. We describe collider and direct detection signatures of this model.

  15. Trapdoor Privacy in Asymmetric Searchable Encryption Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Delerue Arriaga, Afonso; TANG, QIANG; Ryan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric searchable encryption allows searches to be carried over ciphertexts, through delegation, and by means of trapdoors issued by the owner of the data. Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) is a primitive with such functionality that provides delegation of exact-match searches. As it is important that ciphertexts preserve data privacy, it is also important that trapdoors do not expose the user’s search criteria. The difficulty of formalizing a security model for trapdoor pr...

  16. Asymmetric deformation of contracting human gastrocnemius muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Hodgson, John A.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2011-01-01

    Muscle fiber deformation is related to its cellular structure, as well as its architectural arrangement within the musculoskeletal system. While playing an important role in aponeurosis displacement, and efficiency of force transmission to the tendon, such deformation also provides important clues about the underlying mechanical structure of the muscle. We hypothesized that muscle fiber cross section would deform asymmetrically to satisfy the observed constant volume of muscle during a contra...

  17. Interfacial properties of charge asymmetric ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We report molecular dynamics simulations of the coexistence and interfacial properties of ionic liquids as a function of cation/anion, (z$_+$ : z$_-$) = (2:-1), (4:-1), charge asymmetry. Our results correct previous computations of the coexistence curve of (2:-1) charge asymmetric systems, obtained via the fine-lattice discretization method. In agreement with previous computations we report a reduction in the critical temperature and an increase in the critical density wit...

  18. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    OpenAIRE

    Bettendorf, Leon; Geest, Stéphanie; Kuper, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the volatility process is asymmetrical: an unexpected increase in the producer price has a larger effect on the variance of the producer price than an unexpected decrease. We do not find evidence for amount asymmetry,...

  19. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations ...

  20. Dust temperatures in asymmetric prestellar cores

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatellos, D.; Whitworth, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    We present 2D Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations of flattened prestellar cores. We argue the importance of observing prestellar cores near the peak of their emission spectra, and we point out observable characteristic features on isophotal maps of asymmetric cores at FIR wavelengths that are indicative of the cores' density and temperature structure. These features are on scales 1/5 to 1/3 of the overall core size, and so high resolution observations are needed to observe them. Finall...

  1. Prospects for Asymmetric PNe with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Huggins, P J

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter and sub-millimeter observations have made fundamental contributions to our current understanding of the transition from AGB stars to white dwarfs. The approaching era of ALMA brings significantly enhanced observing capabilities at these wavelengths and promises to push back the frontiers in a number of ways. We examine the scientific prospects of this new era for PNe, with an emphasis on how developments may contribute to the goals of the asymmetric PNe community.

  2. Surface segregation of conformationally asymmetric polymer blends

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanow, Semjon; Fedorenko, Andrei A.

    2005-01-01

    We have generalized the Edwards' method of collective description of dense polymer systems in terms of effective potentials to polymer blends in the presence of a surface. With this method we have studied conformationally asymmetric athermic polymer blends in the presence of a hard wall to the first order in effective potentials. For polymers with the same gyration radius $R_g$ but different statistical segment lengths $l_{A}$ and $l_{B}$ the excess concentration of stiffer polymers at the su...

  3. Legal Dilemmas in Fighting Asymmetrical Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pnina Sharvit Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available What legal rules apply to armed confrontations against non-state elements in areas populated by civilians? What rules apply when the enemy does not honor the basic laws of warfare - does not distinguish itself from the local population, and even uses it for shelter and as a base of operations? This essay, which presents my position on the issue, refers to such confrontations as "asymmetrical conflicts."

  4. Venture Capital Contracting Under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Trester

    1993-01-01

    The author develops a model of venture capital contracting in which the entrepreneur and venture capitalist contract under symmetric information. A condition of asymmetric information may arise subsequent to the first contract. The author shows that this condition makes debt contracts infeasible and leads to the use of preferred equity contracts. The author notes that discussions of the relation between venture capital and capital structure are rare. This paper expands the literature by addre...

  5. Applications of Chiral Anions in Asymmetric Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Gregory Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of molecules with control over their three-dimensional configuration, known as absolute stereochemistry, is one of the highest goals of synthetic organic chemists. As is so often the case, we strive to reach the facility and efficiency with which Nature achieves this goal. Fortunately, the chemist's imagination allows us to envision nearly unlimited possibilities for new modes of catalysis. In this dissertation, I discuss one branch of asymmetric catalysis that has in a short ti...

  6. Asymmetric Reversal in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhi-Pan; Petracic, Oleg; Morales, Rafael; Olamit, Justin; Batlle, Xavier; Liu, Kai; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2006-01-01

    Asymmetric magnetization reversal is an unusual phenomenon in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet (AF/FM) exchange biased bilayers. We investigated this phenomenon in a simple model system experimentally and by simulation assuming inhomogeneously distributed interfacial AF moments. The results suggest that the observed asymmetry originates from the intrinsic broken symmetry of the system, which results in local incomplete domain walls parallel to the interface in reversal to negative saturation of th...

  7. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  8. Multiple Traveling Salesmen in Asymmetric Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Friggstad, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    We consider some generalizations of the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Path problem. Suppose we have an asymmetric metric G = (V,A) with two distinguished nodes s,t. We are also given a positive integer k. The goal is to find k paths of minimum total cost from s to t whose union spans all nodes. We call this the k-Person Asymmetric Traveling Salesmen Path problem (k-ATSPP). Our main result for k-ATSPP is a bicriteria approximation that, for some parameter b >= 1 we may choose, finds between k and k + k/b paths of total length O(b log |V|) times the optimum value of an LP relaxation based on the Held-Karp relaxation for the Traveling Salesman problem. On one extreme this is an O(log |V|)-approximation that uses up to 2k paths and on the other it is an O(k log |V|)-approximation that uses exactly k paths. Next, we consider the case where we have k pairs of nodes (s_1,t_1), ..., (s_k,t_k). The goal is to find an s_i-t_i path for every pair such that each node of G lies on at least one of these paths. Simple appro...

  9. Asymmetric Conditional Volatility in International Stock Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, N B; Menezes, R; Ferreira, Nuno B.; Mendes, Diana A.; Menezes, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the S&P 500, FTSE100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of chan...

  10. Role of stranded gas in increasing global gas supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This report synthesizes the findings of three regional studies in order to evaluate, at the global scale, the contribution that stranded gas resources can make to global natural gas supplies. Stranded gas, as defined for this study, is natural gas in discovered conventional gas and oil fields that is currently not commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. The regional studies evaluated the cost of bringing the large volumes of undeveloped gas in stranded gas fields to selected markets. In particular, stranded gas fields of selected Atlantic Basin countries, north Africa, Russia, and central Asia are screened to determine whether the volumes are sufficient to meet Europe’s increasing demand for gas imports. Stranded gas fields in Russia, central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia are also screened to estimate development, production, and transport costs and corresponding gas volumes that could be supplied to Asian markets in China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The data and cost analysis presented here suggest that for the European market and the markets examined in Asia, the development of stranded gas provides a way to meet projected gas import demands for the 2020-to-2040 period. Although this is a reconnaissance-type appraisal, it is based on volumes of gas that are associated with individual identified fields. Individual field data were carefully examined. Some fields were not evaluated because current technology was insufficient or it appeared the gas was likely to be held off the export market. Most of the evaluated stranded gas can be produced and delivered to markets at costs comparable to historical prices. Moreover, the associated volumes of gas are sufficient to provide an interim supply while additional technologies are developed to unlock gas diffused in shale and hydrates or while countries transition to making a greater use of renewable energy sources.

  11. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Jailson F; Acevedo-Trejos, Esteban; Tavares, Davi C; Meirelles, Ana C O; Silva, Cristine P N; Oliveira, Larissa R; Santos, Roberta A; Wickert, Janaína C; Machado, Rodrigo; Siciliano, Salvatore; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution) have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST), water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast. PMID:26730951

  12. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F Moura

    Full Text Available The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST, water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast.

  13. New views on strand asymmetry in insect mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jun Wei

    Full Text Available Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera, Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera; the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms.

  14. Signal transfer within a cultured asymmetric cortical neuron circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Takuya; Shimba, Kenta; Takayama, Yuzo; Takeuchi, Akimasa; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Simplified neuronal circuits are required for investigating information representation in nervous systems and for validating theoretical neural network models. Here, we developed patterned neuronal circuits using micro fabricated devices, comprising a micro-well array bonded to a microelectrode-array substrate. Approach. The micro-well array consisted of micrometre-scale wells connected by tunnels, all contained within a silicone slab called a micro-chamber. The design of the micro-chamber confined somata to the wells and allowed axons to grow through the tunnels bidirectionally but with a designed, unidirectional bias. We guided axons into the point of the arrow structure where one of the two tunnel entrances is located, making that the preferred direction. Main results. When rat cortical neurons were cultured in the wells, their axons grew through the tunnels and connected to neurons in adjoining wells. Unidirectional burst transfers and other asymmetric signal-propagation phenomena were observed via the substrate-embedded electrodes. Seventy-nine percent of burst transfers were in the forward direction. We also observed rapid propagation of activity from sites of local electrical stimulation, and significant effects of inhibitory synapse blockade on bursting activity. Significance. These results suggest that this simple, substrate-controlled neuronal circuit can be applied to develop in vitro models of the function of cortical microcircuits or deep neural networks, better to elucidate the laws governing the dynamics of neuronal networks.

  15. Accurate strand-specific quantification of viral RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Plaskon

    Full Text Available The presence of full-length complements of viral genomic RNA is a hallmark of RNA virus replication within an infected cell. As such, methods for detecting and measuring specific strands of viral RNA in infected cells and tissues are important in the study of RNA viruses. Strand-specific quantitative real-time PCR (ssqPCR assays are increasingly being used for this purpose, but the accuracy of these assays depends on the assumption that the amount of cDNA measured during the quantitative PCR (qPCR step accurately reflects amounts of a specific viral RNA strand present in the RT reaction. To specifically test this assumption, we developed multiple ssqPCR assays for the positive-strand RNA virus o'nyong-nyong (ONNV that were based upon the most prevalent ssqPCR assay design types in the literature. We then compared various parameters of the ONNV-specific assays. We found that an assay employing standard unmodified virus-specific primers failed to discern the difference between cDNAs generated from virus specific primers and those generated through false priming. Further, we were unable to accurately measure levels of ONNV (- strand RNA with this assay when higher levels of cDNA generated from the (+ strand were present. Taken together, these results suggest that assays of this type do not accurately quantify levels of the anti-genomic strand present during RNA virus infectious cycles. However, an assay permitting the use of a tag-specific primer was able to distinguish cDNAs transcribed from ONNV (- strand RNA from other cDNAs present, thus allowing accurate quantification of the anti-genomic strand. We also report the sensitivities of two different detection strategies and chemistries, SYBR(R Green and DNA hydrolysis probes, used with our tagged ONNV-specific ssqPCR assays. Finally, we describe development, design and validation of ssqPCR assays for chikungunya virus (CHIKV, the recent cause of large outbreaks of disease in the Indian Ocean

  16. Cell adhesion geometry regulates non-random DNA segregation and asymmetric cell fates in mouse skeletal muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Théry, Manuel; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-05-22

    Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-random DNA segregation. To mimic the asymmetric divisions seen in the mouse skeletal stem cell niche, we used micropatterns coated with extracellular matrix in asymmetric and symmetric motifs. We show that the frequency of non-random DNA segregation and transcription factor asymmetry correlates with the shape of the motif and that these events can be uncoupled. Furthermore, regulation of DNA segregation by cell adhesion occurs within a defined time interval. Thus, cell adhesion cues have a major impact on determining both DNA segregation patterns and cell fates. PMID:24836002

  17. Cell Adhesion Geometry Regulates Non-Random DNA Segregation and Asymmetric Cell Fates in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham Yennek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-random DNA segregation. To mimic the asymmetric divisions seen in the mouse skeletal stem cell niche, we used micropatterns coated with extracellular matrix in asymmetric and symmetric motifs. We show that the frequency of non-random DNA segregation and transcription factor asymmetry correlates with the shape of the motif and that these events can be uncoupled. Furthermore, regulation of DNA segregation by cell adhesion occurs within a defined time interval. Thus, cell adhesion cues have a major impact on determining both DNA segregation patterns and cell fates.

  18. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  19. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies. PMID:10479083

  20. DNA-directed mutations. Leading and lagging strand specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinden, R. R.; Hashem, V. I.; Rosche, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    The fidelity of replication has evolved to reproduce B-form DNA accurately, while allowing a low frequency of mutation. The fidelity of replication can be compromised, however, by defined order sequence DNA (dosDNA) that can adopt unusual or non B-DNA conformations. These alternative DNA conformations, including hairpins, cruciforms, triplex DNAs, and slipped-strand structures, may affect enzyme-template interactions that potentially lead to mutations. To analyze the effect of dosDNA elements on spontaneous mutagenesis, various mutational inserts containing inverted repeats or direct repeats were cloned in a plasmid containing a unidirectional origin of replication and a selectable marker for the mutation. This system allows for analysis of mutational events that are specific for the leading or lagging strands during DNA replication in Escherichia coli. Deletions between direct repeats, involving misalignment stabilized by DNA secondary structure, occurred preferentially on the lagging strand. Intermolecular strand switch events, correcting quasipalindromes to perfect inverted repeats, occurred preferentially during replication of the leading strand.

  1. Strand-invading linear probe combined with unmodified PNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Hiroyuki; Niwa, Rie; Akahane, Mariko; Murayama, Keiji; Kashida, Hiromu; Kamiya, Yukiko

    2016-09-15

    Efficient strand invasion by a linear probe to fluorescently label double-stranded DNA has been implemented by employing a probe and unmodified PNA. As a fluorophore, we utilized ethynylperylene. Multiple ethynylperylene residues were incorporated into the DNA probe via a d-threoninol scaffold. The ethynylperylene did not significantly disrupt hybridization with complementary DNA. The linear probe self-quenched in the absence of target DNA and did not hybridize with PNA. A gel-shift assay revealed that linear probe and PNA combination invaded the central region of double-stranded DNA upon heat-shock treatment to form a double duplex. To further suppress the background emission and increase the stability of the probe/DNA duplex, a probe containing anthraquinones as well as ethynylperylene was synthesized. This probe and PNA invader pair detected an internal sequence in a double-stranded DNA with high sensitivity when heat shock treatment was used. The probe and PNA pair was able to invade at the terminus of a long double-stranded DNA at 40°C at 100mM NaCl concentration. PMID:27394693

  2. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. PMID:27074674

  3. The superconducting strand for the CMS solenoid conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Curé, B; Campi, D; Goodrich, L F; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Liikamaa, R; Seppälä, J; Smith, R P; Teuho, J; Vieillard, L

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. Approximately 2000 km of superconducting strand is under procurement for the conductor of the CMS superconducting solenoid. Each strand length is required to be an integral multiple of 2.75 km. The strand is composed of copper- stabilized multifilamentary Nb-Ti with Nb barrier. Individual strands are identified by distinctive patterns of Nb-Ti filaments selected during stacking of the monofilaments. The statistics of piece length, measurements of I/sub c/, n-value, copper RRR, (Cu+Nb)/Nb-Ti ratio, as well as the results of independent cross checks of these quantities, are presented. A study was performed on the CMS strands to investigate the critical current degradation due to various heat treatments. The degradation versus annealing temperature and duration are reported. (4 refs).

  4. Asymmetric liquid wetting and spreading on surfaces with slanted micro-pillar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Uni-directional liquid spreading on asymmetric silicone-fabricated nanostructured surfaces has recently been reported. In this work, uniformly deflected polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pillars covered with silver films were fabricated. Asymmetric liquid wetting and spreading behaviors in a preferential direction were observed on the slanted micro-pillar surfaces and a micro-scale thin liquid film advancing ahead of the bulk liquid droplet was clearly observed by high-speed video imaging. It is found that the slanted micro-pillar array is able to promote or inhibit the propagation of this thin liquid film in different directions by the asymmetric capillary force. The spreading behavior of the bulk liquid was guided and finally controlled by this micro-scale liquid film. Different spreading regimes are defined by the relationship between the liquid intrinsic contact angle and the critical angles, which were determined by the pillar height, pillar deflection angle and inter-pillar spacing. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  5. Linking Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment: The Problem Solving Strand, Grades 3-8 Mathematics. Teacher Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

    Problem solving is one of the main components of mathematics education. This document treats problem solving as a process to be used for learning skills across the mathematics curriculum. Definition of problem solving, the environments promoting problem solving, teaching behaviors and attitudes that enhance problem solving, the criteria for good…

  6. Supervised Learning in Adaptive DNA Strand Displacement Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko

    2016-08-19

    The development of engineered biochemical circuits that exhibit adaptive behavior is a key goal of synthetic biology and molecular computing. Such circuits could be used for long-term monitoring and control of biochemical systems, for instance, to prevent disease or to enable the development of artificial life. In this article, we present a framework for developing adaptive molecular circuits using buffered DNA strand displacement networks, which extend existing DNA strand displacement circuit architectures to enable straightforward storage and modification of behavioral parameters. As a proof of concept, we use this framework to design and simulate a DNA circuit for supervised learning of a class of linear functions by stochastic gradient descent. This work highlights the potential of buffered DNA strand displacement as a powerful circuit architecture for implementing adaptive molecular systems. PMID:27111037

  7. Molecular basis for DNA strand displacement by NHEJ repair polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Edward J; Brissett, Nigel C; Plocinski, Przemyslaw; Carlberg, Tom; Doherty, Aidan J

    2016-03-18

    The non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in all domains of life. Archaea and bacteria utilize a conserved set of multifunctional proteins in a pathway termed Archaeo-Prokaryotic (AP) NHEJ that facilitates DSB repair. Archaeal NHEJ polymerases (Pol) are capable of strand displacement synthesis, whilst filling DNA gaps or partially annealed DNA ends, which can give rise to unligatable intermediates. However, an associated NHEJ phosphoesterase (PE) resects these products to ensure that efficient ligation occurs. Here, we describe the crystal structures of these archaeal (Methanocella paludicola) NHEJ nuclease and polymerase enzymes, demonstrating their strict structural conservation with their bacterial NHEJ counterparts. Structural analysis, in conjunction with biochemical studies, has uncovered the molecular basis for DNA strand displacement synthesis in AP-NHEJ, revealing the mechanisms that enable Pol and PE to displace annealed bases to facilitate their respective roles in DSB repair. PMID:26405198

  8. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall;

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... appearance as compared with renderings that only use explicitly defined hair strands. Finally, our rasterization approach is based on order-independent transparency and renders high-quality fur images in seconds....

  9. RNA-guided genome editing à la carte

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Philippe; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Two recent papers in Science illustrate how the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas immune system machinery, which typically targets invasive genetic elements such as viruses and plasmids, can be converted into a sophisticated molecular tool for next-generation human genome editing. The versatile Cas9 RNA-guided endonuclease can be readily reprogrammed using customizable small RNAs for sequence-specific single- or double-stranded DNA cleavage.

  10. Interaction of dimeric intercalating dyes with single-stranded DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Rye, H S; Glazer, A. N.

    1995-01-01

    The unsymmetrical cyanine dye thiazole orange homodimer (TOTO) binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, M13mp18 ssDNA) to form a fluorescent complex that is stable under the standard conditions of electrophoresis. The stability of this complex is indistinguishable from that of the corresponding complex of TOTO with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). To examine if TOTO exhibits any binding preference for dsDNA or ssDNA, transfer of TOTO from pre-labeled complexes to excess unlabeled DNA was assayed by g...

  11. Dissektionen af kaskelothvalerne på Henne Strand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hansen, Jørgen Hilmer;

    2014-01-01

    I februar strandede to voksne han-kaskelothvaler på Henne Strand nord for Esbjerg. Herefter begyndte tre dages intens arbejde med at dissekere hvalerne. En mulig dødsårsag blev fundet hos den ene af dem, men det er fortsat en gåde, hvorfor kaskelotter undertiden strander i flokke.......I februar strandede to voksne han-kaskelothvaler på Henne Strand nord for Esbjerg. Herefter begyndte tre dages intens arbejde med at dissekere hvalerne. En mulig dødsårsag blev fundet hos den ene af dem, men det er fortsat en gåde, hvorfor kaskelotter undertiden strander i flokke....

  12. Dissektionen af kaskelothvalerne på Henne Strand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Hammer Jensen, Trine; Hansen, Jørgen Hilmer;

    2014-01-01

    I februar strandede to voksne han-kaskelothvaler på Henne Strand nord for Esbjerg. Herefter begyndte tre dages intenst arbejde med at dissekere hvalerne. En mulig dødsårsag blev fundet hos den ene af dem, men det er fortsat en gåde, hvorfor kaskelotter undertiden strander i flokke......I februar strandede to voksne han-kaskelothvaler på Henne Strand nord for Esbjerg. Herefter begyndte tre dages intenst arbejde med at dissekere hvalerne. En mulig dødsårsag blev fundet hos den ene af dem, men det er fortsat en gåde, hvorfor kaskelotter undertiden strander i flokke...

  13. Strategies underlying RNA silencing suppression by negative strand RNA viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmes, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on the strategies of negative strand RNA viruses to counteract antiviral RNA silencing. In plants and insects, RNA silencing has been shown to act as a sequence specific antiviral defence mechanism that is characterised by the processing of double stranded (ds)RNA ‘trigger’ molecules into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by enzymes of the Dicer family. The siRNA molecules are essential components of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC), which u...

  14. Template Role of Double-Stranded RNA in Tombusvirus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev, Nikolay; Pogany, Judit; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Replication of plus-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses of plants is a relatively simple process that involves complementary minus-strand RNA [(−)RNA] synthesis and subsequent (+)RNA synthesis. However, the actual replicative form of the (−)RNA template in the case of plant (+)RNA viruses is not yet established unambiguously. In this paper, using a cell-free replication assay supporting a full cycle of viral replication, we show that replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) leads to the formati...

  15. Anisotropy in scattering of light from an atom into the guided modes of a nanofiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kien, Fam Le; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2014-01-01

    We study the scattering of guided light from a multilevel cesium atom with the transitions between the hyperfine levels $6S_{1/2}F=4$ and $6P_{3/2}F'=5$ of the $D_2$ line into the guided modes of a nanofiber. We show that the rate of scattering of guided light from the atom in the steady-state regime into the guided modes is asymmetric with respect to the forward and backward directions and depends on the polarization of the probe field. The asymmetry between the forward and backward scatteri...

  16. Asymmetric-Structure Analysis of Carbon and Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Cao, Guangxi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the asymmetric structure between the carbon and energy markets from two aspects of different trends (up or down) and volatility-transmission direction using asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficient test, multifractal asymmetric DCCA (MF-ADCCA) method, asymmetric volatility-constrained correlation metric and time rate of information-flow approach. We sampled 1283 observations from January 2008 to December 2012 among pairs of carbon and energy markets for analysis. Empirical results show that the (1) asymmetric characteristic from the cross-correlation between carbon and returns in the energy markets is significant, (2) asymmetric cross-correlation between carbon and energy market price returns is persistent and multifractral and (3) volatility of the base assets of energy market returns is more influential to the base asset of the carbon market than that of the energy market.

  17. Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.

  18. Analysis of Asymmetric Piezoelectric Composite Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, J -S; Wu, K -C

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the vibration analysis of an asymmetric composite beam composed of glass a piezoelectric material. The Bernoulli's beam theory is adopted for mechanical deformations, and the electric potential field of the piezoelectric material is assumed such that the divergence-free requirement of the electrical displacements is satisfied. The accuracy of the analytic model is assessed by comparing the resonance frequencies obtained by the analytic model with those obtained by the finite element method. The model developed can be used as a tool for designing piezoelectric actuators such as micro-pumps.

  19. On asymmetric causal relationships in Petropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Feyza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine whether the First Law of Petropolitics denominated by Friedman in 2006 is valid for OPEC countries. To do this, this paper analyses the relationship between political risk and oil supply by applying the asymmetric panel causality test suggested by Hatemi-J (2011 to these countries for the period 1984-2014. The results show that the First Law of Petropolitics is valid for Angola, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE, given that positive oil supply shocks significantly lead to negative political stability shocks, and negative oil supply shocks significantly lead to positive shocks in political stability.

  20. RHIC operation with asymmetric collisions in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Aschenauer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Atoian, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ottavio, T. D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Drees, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hayes, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laster, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Makdisi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marr, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morris, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Narayan, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nemesure, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poblaguev, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schmidke, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severino, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shrey, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yip, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-08-07

    To study low-x shadowing/saturation physics as well as other nuclear effects [1], [2], proton-gold (p-Au, for 5 weeks) and proton-Aluminum (p-Al, for 2 weeks) collisions were provided for experiments in 2015 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with polarized proton beam in the Blue ring and Au/Al beam in the Yellow ring. The special features of the asymmetric run in 2015 will be introduced. The operation experience will be reviewed as well in the report.

  1. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  2. Asymmetric catalytic aziridination of cyclic enones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vincentiis, Francesco; Bencivenni, Giorgio; Pesciaioli, Fabio; Mazzanti, Andrea; Bartoli, Giuseppe; Galzerano, Patrizia; Melchiorre, Paolo

    2010-07-01

    The first catalytic method for the asymmetric aziridination of cyclic enones is described. The presented organocatalytic strategy is based on the use of an easily available organocatalyst that is able to convert a wide range of cyclic enones into the desired aziridines with very high enantiomeric purity and good chemical yield. Such a method may very well open up new opportunities to stereoselectively prepare complex chiral molecules that possess an indane moiety, a framework that is found in a large number of bioactive and pharmaceutically important molecules. PMID:20512797

  3. Plasmonic photodetectors based on asymmetric nanogap electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Junyu; Luo, Manlin; Zou, Wanghui; Peng, Wei; Duan, Huigao

    2016-08-01

    Hot electrons excited by plasmon resonance in nanostructure can be employed to enhance the properties of photodetectors, even when the photon energy is lower than the bandgap of the semiconductor. However, current research has seldom considered how to realize the efficient collection of hot electrons, which restricts the responsivity of the device. In this paper, a type of plasmonic photodetector based on asymmetric nanogap electrodes is proposed. Owing to this structure, the device achieves responsivities as high as 0.45 and 0.25 mA/W for wavelengths of 1310 and 1550 nm, respectively. These insights can aid the realization of efficient plasmon-enhanced photodetectors for infrared detection.

  4. Governor model for asymmetric deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The governor model is extended to include the asymmetric shape of nuclei which allows a simultaneous analysis of the data for both the ground state and the γ-vibrational bands in deformed even-even nuclei. The rotationally invariant core is assumed to be a spheroid with an axis of symmetry parallel to the axis of rotation. The calculations are carried out under the assumption of no stretching. The static γ-deformation results are compared with the VMI(ARM) and Krutov values, and the calculated energies are in good agreement with the experimental data

  5. Plasma current resonance in asymmetric toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeltine, R. D. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Catto, Peter J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 167 Albany Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The well-known singularity in the magnetic differential equation for plasma current in an asymmetric toroidal confinement system is resolved by including in the pressure tensor corrections stemming from finite Larmor radius. The result provides an estimate of the amplitude of spikes in the parallel current that occur on rational magnetic surfaces. Resolution of the singularity is shown to depend on both the ambipolarity condition—the requirement of zero surface-averaged radial current—and the form of the magnetic differential equation near the rational surface.

  6. Security-Preserving Asymmetric Protocol Encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaudenay, Serge; Phan, Raphael C-W

    2007-01-01

    Query-response based protocols between a client and a server such as SSL, TLS, SSH are asymmetric in the sense that the querying client and the responding server play different roles, and for which there is a need for two-way linkability between queries and responses within the protocol. We are motivated by the observation that though results exist in other related contexts, no provably secure scheme has been applied to the setting of client-server protocols, which differ from conventional co...

  7. Infinite dimensional mixed economies with asymmetric information

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Anuj

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study asymmetric information economies consisting of both non-negligible and negligible agents and having ordered Banach spaces as their commodity spaces. In answering a question of Herv\\'{e}s-Beloso and Moreno-Garc\\'{i}a, we establish a characterization of Walrasian expectations allocations by the veto power of the grand coalition. It is also shown that when an economy contains only negligible agents a Vind's type theorem on the private core with the exact feasibility can be restored. This solves a problem of Pesce.

  8. Chiral Diamine-catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Da-zhen; WU Lu-lu; WANG Yong-mei

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient catalytic system composed of a simple and commercially available chiral primary diamine (1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine(6) and trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) was employed for asymmetric Aldol reaction in i-PrOH at room temperature.A loading of 10%(molar fraction) catalyst 6 with TFA as a cocatalyst could catalyze the Aldol reactions of various ketones or aldehydes with a series of aromatic aldehydes,furnishing Aldol products in moderate to high yields(up to >99%) with enantioselectivities of up to >99% and diastereoselectivities of up to 99:1.

  9. Quantum optics of lossy asymmetric beam splitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppu, Ravitej; Wolterink, Tom A W; Tentrup, Tristan B H; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2016-07-25

    We theoretically investigate quantum interference of two single photons at a lossy asymmetric beam splitter, the most general passive 2×2 optical circuit. The losses in the circuit result in a non-unitary scattering matrix with a non-trivial set of constraints on the elements of the scattering matrix. Our analysis using the noise operator formalism shows that the loss allows tunability of quantum interference to an extent not possible with a lossless beam splitter. Our theoretical studies support the experimental demonstrations of programmable quantum interference in highly multimodal systems such as opaque scattering media and multimode fibers. PMID:27464096

  10. Long-lived oscillons from asymmetric bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Adib, A B; Almeida, C A S; Adib, Artur B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Almeida, Carlos A. S.

    2002-01-01

    The possibility that extremely long-lived, time-dependent, and localized field configurations (``oscillons'') arise during the collapse of asymmetrical bubbles in 2+1 dimensional \\phi^4 models is investigated. It is found that oscillons can develop from a large spectrum of elliptically deformed bubbles. Moreover, it is found that such oscillons are: a) circularly symmetric; and b) stable against small arbitrary radial and angular perturbations. They may thus play an important role in the study of time-dependent nonperturbative configurations in field theory, with applications ranging from nonequilibrium statistical physics to early universe cosmology.

  11. Catalytic asymmetric formal synthesis of beraprost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kuramoto, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the key intermediate for beraprost has been achieved through an enantioselective intramolecular oxa-Michael reaction of an α,β-unsaturated amide mediated by a newly developed benzothiadiazine catalyst. The Weinreb amide moiety and bromo substituent of the Michael adduct were utilized for the C–C bond formations to construct the scaffold. All four contiguous stereocenters of the tricyclic core were controlled via Rh-catalyzed stereoselective C–H insertion and the subsequent reduction from the convex face. PMID:26734111

  12. Sorting with Asymmetric Read and Write Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Blelloch, Guy E.; Fineman, Jeremy T.; Gibbons, Phillip B.; Gu, Yan; Shun, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Emerging memory technologies have a significant gap between the cost, both in time and in energy, of writing to memory versus reading from memory. In this paper we present models and algorithms that account for this difference, with a focus on write-efficient sorting algorithms. First, we consider the PRAM model with asymmetric write cost, and show that sorting can be performed in $O\\left(n\\right)$ writes, $O\\left(n \\log n\\right)$ reads, and logarithmic depth (parallel time). Next, we conside...

  13. Neuronal Alignment On Asymmetric Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Beighley, Ross; Sekeroglu, Koray; Atherton, Timothy; Demirel, Melik C; Staii, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the development of the nervous system. Here we present experimental and theoretical results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on asymmetric surfaces and quantify the role that biomechanical surface cues play in neuronal growth. These results represent an important step towards engineering directed axonal growth for neuro-regeneration studies.

  14. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3 N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee values up to 90 %. The role of the base was elucidated with a mechanistic study involving the isolation of the various reaction intermediates and isotopic labeling experiments. Additionally, this study provided some evidence for an enantiodetermining step involving a dihydropyridine intermediate. PMID:27140832

  15. Quantum optics of lossy asymmetric beam splitters

    CERN Document Server

    Uppu, Ravitej; Tentrup, Tristan B H; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate quantum interference of two single photons at a lossy asymmetric beam splitter, the most general passive 2$\\times$2 optical circuit. The losses in the circuit result in a non-unitary scattering matrix with a non-trivial set of constraints on the elements of the scattering matrix. Our analysis using the noise operator formalism shows that the loss allows tunability of quantum interference to an extent not possible with a lossless beam splitter. Our theoretical studies support the experimental demonstrations of programmable quantum interference in highly multimodal systems such as opaque scattering media and multimode fibers.

  16. Hydrodynamic attraction and repulsion between asymmetric rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At low Reynolds numbers, the hydrodynamic interaction between dumbbells driven by an external rotating field can be attractive or repulsive. Dumbbells of dissimilar asymmetric shape or different coupling to the external field undergo conformational rearrangements that break the time-reversal symmetry. The parameter ranges leading to attraction or repulsion are explored numerically. The results of our simulations suggest that rotating fields may be a useful avenue for the assembly, disassembly and sorting of particles of different shapes, as well as for the study of collective micro-swimmers.

  17. Massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermayer, F.; Weisz, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the methods and the results used in an accompanying paper describing the matching of effective chiral Lagrangians in dimensional and lattice regularizations. We present methods to compute 2-loop massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes in the framework of these regularizations. We also consider 1-loop sums in both regularizations, extending the results of Hasenfratz and Leutwyler for the case of dimensional regularization and we introduce a new method to calculate precisely the expansion coefficients of the 1-loop lattice sums.

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis of Both Enantiomers of Disparlure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 郑剑峰; 黄培强

    2012-01-01

    Starting from propargyl alcohol (12), and on the basis of Zhou's modified Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, the sex pheromone of the Gypsy moth, disparlure (+)-8 and its enantiomer (-)-8 have been synthesized, each in six steps, with overall yields of 29% for (+)-8 and 27% for (-)-8 (ee〉98%). The use of the sequential coupling tactic renders the method flexible, which is applicable to the synthesis of other cis-epoxy pheromones.

  19. Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Shear--dominated Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Iminniyaz, Hoernisa

    2016-01-01

    We explore the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter in shear--dominated universe in which it is assumed the universe is expanded anisotropically. The modified expansion rate leaves its imprint on the relic density of asymmetric Dark Matter particles if the asymmetric Dark Matter particles are decoupled in shear dominated era. We found the relic abundances for particle and anti--particle are increased. The particle and anti--particle abundances are almost in the same amount for appropriat...

  20. RELATIONSHIP OF TRANSVERSAL ASYMMETRIC FACE AND UNILATERAL POSTERIOR CROSSBITE

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Dwinursanty; Krisnawati Krisnawati; Maria Purbiati

    2006-01-01

    Unilateral posterior crossbite is commonly seen in mixed dentition, but it couldn’t be self corrected. If this condition is not treated properly, it could lead to asymmetric face. Asymmetric face with unilateral posterior crossbite could make the treatment process more difficult. The objective of this study is to find out the relationship between transversal skeletal asymmetry and unilateral posterior crossbite. Patients older than 13 years with skeletal asymmetric face, who had never undergo...

  1. A bacterial Argonaute with noncanonical guide RNA specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Emine; Doxzen, Kevin W; Knoll, Kilian R; Wilson, Ross C; Strutt, Steven C; Kranzusch, Philip J; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-04-12

    Eukaryotic Argonaute proteins induce gene silencing by small RNA-guided recognition and cleavage of mRNA targets. Although structural similarities between human and prokaryotic Argonautes are consistent with shared mechanistic properties, sequence and structure-based alignments suggested that Argonautes encoded within CRISPR-cas [clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated] bacterial immunity operons have divergent activities. We show here that the CRISPR-associated Marinitoga piezophila Argonaute (MpAgo) protein cleaves single-stranded target sequences using 5'-hydroxylated guide RNAs rather than the 5'-phosphorylated guides used by all known Argonautes. The 2.0-Å resolution crystal structure of an MpAgo-RNA complex reveals a guide strand binding site comprising residues that block 5' phosphate interactions. Using structure-based sequence alignment, we were able to identify other putative MpAgo-like proteins, all of which are encoded within CRISPR-cas loci. Taken together, our data suggest the evolution of an Argonaute subclass with noncanonical specificity for a 5'-hydroxylated guide. PMID:27035975

  2. Asymmetrical Sample Training Produces Asymmetrical Retention Functions in Feature-Present/Feature-Absent Matching in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Douglas S.; Blatz, Craig W.

    2004-01-01

    Pigeons were trained in a matching task in which samples involved presentation of a white line on a green background (feature-present) or on an otherwise dark key (feature-absent). After asymmetrical training in which one group was initially trained with the feature-present sample and another was initially trained with the feature-absent sample,…

  3. Quantity Discount Scheme in Supply Chain under Asymmetric Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-bin; PENG Zuo-he

    2007-01-01

    Quantity discount scheme plays an important role in supply chain management. The different quantity discount schemes under symmetric (full) information and asymmetric information, are analyzed by using principal-agent and optimal control theory. As a result, the research reveals that the optimal quantity discount solution under symmetric information is a special case of that under asymmetric information. At the same price, the critical value of quantity discount under asymmetric information is much lower than that under asymmetric information. Therefore, this leads to less cost for retailers and smaller profit for their supplier.

  4. Activation of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase by single-stranded and double-stranded RNA aptamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, R; Norby, P L; Martensen, P M;

    1998-01-01

    . Competition experiments indicate that the binding site for the small RNAs on the 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase molecule at least partially overlaps that for the synthetic double-stranded RNA, poly(I).poly(C). Several of the RNAs function as potent activators of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase in vitro......, although there is no correlation between binding affinity and ability to activate. The RNA aptamers having the strongest activation potential appear to have few base-paired regions. This suggests that 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase, which has previously been believed to be activated only by double-stranded...

  5. Continuous microfluidic fabrication of synthetic asymmetric vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Schertzer, Jeffrey W; Chiarot, Paul R

    2015-09-01

    We report on a novel microfluidic strategy for the continuous fabrication of monodisperse asymmetric vesicles with customized membrane composition, size, and luminal content. The microfluidic device encompasses a triangular post region and two flow-focusing regions. The major steps involved in the vesicle fabrication process include: (1) forming highly uniform water emulsions in an oil/inner-leaflet-lipid solution, (2) replacing the inner-leaflet-lipid solution with an outer-leaflet-lipid solution inside the microchannel network, (3) forming water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions, and (4) extracting excess oil/outer-leaflet-lipid solution from the double emulsions. Bilayer membrane asymmetry and unilamellarity are evaluated using a fluorescence quenching assay and a transmembrane protein insertion assay, respectively. Our approach addresses many of the deficiencies found in existing technologies for building vesicles, and yields strong membrane asymmetry. The ability to create and sustain membrane asymmetry is an important feature, as it is a characteristic of nearly all natural membranes. Over 80% of the vesicles remain stable for at least 6 weeks and the membrane asymmetry is maintained for over 30 hours. The asymmetric vesicles built using this strategy are collected off-chip and hold the potential to be used as model systems in membrane biology or as vehicles for drug delivery. PMID:26220822

  6. The deconfinement phase transition in asymmetric matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the phase transition of asymmetric hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma within the framework of a simple two-phase model. The analysis is performed in a system with two conserved charges (baryon number and isospin) using the stability conditions on the free energy, the conservation laws and Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. The EOS is obtained in a separate description for the hadronic phase and for the quark-gluon plasma. For the hadrons, a relativistic mean-field model calibrated to the properties of nuclear matter is used, and a bag-model type EOS is used for the quarks and gluons. The model is applied to the deconfinement phase transition that may occur in matter created in ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions. Based on the two-dimensional coexistence surface (binodal), various phase separation scenarios and the Maxwell construction through the mixed phase are discussed. In the framework of the two-phase model the phase transition in asymmetric matter is continuous (second-order by Ehrenfest's definition) in contrast to the discontinuous (first-order) transition of symmetric systems. (orig.)

  7. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B0 decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R ampersand D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs

  8. Asymmetric directed polymers in random environments

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, Gregorio R Moreno

    2010-01-01

    The model of Brownian Percolation has been introduced as an approximation of discrete last-passage percolation models close to the axis. It allowed to compute some explicit limits and prove fluctuation theorems for these, based on the relations between the Brownian percolation and random matrices. Here, we present two approaches that allow to treat discrete asymmetric models of directed polymers. In both cases, the behaviour is universal, meaning that the results do not depend on the precise law of the environment as long as it satisfies some natural moment assumptions. First, we establish an approximation of asymmetric discrete directed polymers in random environments at very high temperature by a continuous-time directed polymers model in a Brownian environment, much in the same way than the last passage percolation case. The key ingredient is a strong embedding argument developed by K\\'omlos, Major and T\\'usnady. Then, we study the partition function of a $1+1$-dimensional directed polymer in a random envi...

  9. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  10. Asymmetric transition disks: Vorticity or eccentricity?

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, A; Ghanbari, J

    2013-01-01

    Context. Transition disks typically appear in resolved millimeter observations as giant dust rings surrounding their young host stars. More accurate observations with ALMA have shown several of these rings to be in fact asymmetric: they have lopsided shapes. It has been speculated that these rings act as dust traps, which would make them important laboratories for studying planet formation. It has been shown that an elongated giant vortex produced in a disk with a strong viscosity jump strikingly resembles the observed asymmetric rings. Aims. We aim to study a similar behavior for a disk in which a giant planet is embedded. However, a giant planet can induce two kinds of asymmetries: (1) a giant vortex, and (2) an eccentric disk. We studied under which conditions each of these can appear, and how one can observationally distinguish between them. This is important because only a vortex can trap particles both radially and azimuthally, while the eccentric ring can only trap particles in radial direction. Method...

  11. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e+e- collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 1033 cm-2 s-1. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings

  12. Asymmetric EPR entanglement in continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous variable entanglement can be produced in nonlinear systems or via the interference of squeezed states. In many optical systems such as parametric down conversion, the production of two perfectly symmetric subsystems is usually assumed when demonstrating the existence of entanglement. This symmetry simplifies the description of entanglement. However, asymmetry in entanglement may arise naturally in a real experiment, or be intentionally introduced in a given quantum information protocol. These asymmetries can emerge from having the output beams experience different losses and environmental contamination, or from the availability of non-identical input quantum states in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we present a visualization of entanglement using quadrature amplitude plots of the twin beams. We quantitatively discuss the strength of asymmetric entanglement using EPR and inseparability criteria and theoretically show that the optimal beamsplitter ratio for entanglement is dependent on the asymmetries and may not be 50 : 50. To support this theory, we present experimental results showing one particular asymmetric entanglement where a 78 : 22 beamsplitter is optimal for observing entanglement. (paper)

  13. Survey of Reflection-Asymmetric Nuclear Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Erik; Birge, Noah; Erler, Jochen; Nazarewicz, Witek; Perhac, Alex; Schunck, Nicolas; Stoitsov, Mario; Nuclei Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Due to spontaneous symmetry breaking it is possible for a nucleus to have a deformed shape in its ground state. It is theorized that atoms whose nuclei have reflection-asymmetric or pear-like deformations could have non-zero electric dipole moments (EDMs). Such a trait would be evidence of CP-violation, a feature that goes beyond the Standard Model of Physics. It is the purpose of this project to predict which nuclei exhibit a reflection-asymmetric deformation and which of those would be the best candidates for an EDM measuring experiment. Using nuclear Density Functional Theory along with the new computer code AxialHFB and massively parallel computing we calculated ground state nuclear properties for thousands of even-even nuclei across the nuclear chart: from light to superheavy and from stable to short-lived systems. Six different Energy Density Functionals (EDFs) were used to assess systematic errors in our calculations. Overall, 140 even-even nuclei (near and among the lantanides and actinides and in the superheavy region near N = 184) were predicted by all 6 EDFs to have a pear-like deformation. The case of 112Xe also proved curious as it was predicted by 5 EDFs to have a pear-like deformation despite its proximity to the two-proton drip line. Deceased.

  14. At Low SNR Asymmetric Quantizers Are Better

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a one-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by 2/pi, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately two decibels. Here it is shown that this power loss can be entirely avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. We prove that in order to avoid this power loss flash-signaling input-distributions are essential. Consequently, one-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: as we prove, at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all one-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case we show that a one-bit output quantizer ...

  15. Development and characterization of aluminum stranded water cooled conductor for rapid cycling synchrotron magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnet coils of rapid cycling synchrotron are subjected to time varying magnetic fields and a special water cooled stranded conductor is preferred for making magnet coils to reduce eddy current losses, magnetic field inhomogeneity and operating costs of magnets. A continuous length (∼ 50 m) aluminum stranded water cooled conductor is indigenously developed. Five stranded magnet coils are wound and epoxy resin impregnated as per the technical requirements. The stranded conductor magnet coils are assembled with a laminated dipole magnet core for their electrical characterization. The development of water cooled aluminum stranded conductor, characterization of stranded magnet coils will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  16. Double-Strand Breaks from a Radical Commonly Produced by DNA-Damaging Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Taverna Porro, Marisa L.; Greenberg, Marc M.

    2015-01-01

    Double-strand breaks are widely accepted to be the most toxic form of DNA damage. Molecules that produce double-strand breaks via a single chemical event are typically very cytotoxic and far less common than those that form single-strand breaks. It was recently reported that a commonly formed C4′-radical produces double-strand breaks under aerobic conditions. Experiments described herein indicate that a peroxyl radical initiates strand damage on the complementary strand via C4′-hydrogen atom ...

  17. Synthesis of plus- and minus-strand RNA in rotavirus-infected cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Stacy-Phipps, S; Patton, J T

    1987-01-01

    The genomes of the rotaviruses consist of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA. During RNA replication, the viral plus-strand RNA serves as the template for minus-strand RNA synthesis. To characterize the kinetics of RNA replication, the synthesis and steady-state levels of viral plus- and minus-strand RNA and double-stranded RNA in simian rotavirus SA11-infected MA104 cells were analyzed by electrophoresis on 1.75% agarose gels containing 6 M urea (pH 3.0). Synthesis of viral plus-strand and m...

  18. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by molecular crowding in PEG solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Bobo

    2010-01-01

    DNA strand exchange is catalyzed by molecular crowding and hydrophobic interactions in concentrated aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol, a discovery of relevance for understanding the function of recombination enzymes and with potential applications to DNA nanotechnology. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Simulation of strand break induction by DNA incorporated 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo calculation of 125I Auger cascades has provided electron spectra for individual decays with kinetic energies determined by Dirac-Fock methods. For these Auger electrons, track structures in liquid water have been generated and superimposed on a straight DNA plasmid model with atomic coordinates taken from X ray diffraction studies. Due to its high geometrical resolution, this DNA model makes it possible to localize the energy deposition or/and radical production events relative to the submolecular units of the DNA strands (base, sugar, phosphate). Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish between events inside (direct) and outside (indirect, radical production) of the atomic volumes of the DNA. On the basis of different assumptions for the effectiveness of strand break induction by direct hits and by OH· and H· radicals, the yields for single- and double strand breaks, as well as the strand break distribution as a function of the distance from the decay site, has been evaluated and compared with experimental and theoretical results from the literature

  20. Cetaceans stranded in the Netherlands from 1998 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; Smeenk, C.; Addink, M.; Jansen, O.E.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, 2063 cetaceans were found stranded in the Netherlands, representing at least 14 species. Two species, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris), are additions to the Dutch list. Apart from the first humpback whales, relativ

  1. Cetaceans stranded in the Netherlands from 1998 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; Smeenk, C.; Addink, M.; Grouw, van H.; Jansen, O.E.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, 2063 cetaceans were found stranded in the Netherlands, representing at least 14 species. Two species, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris), are additions to the Dutch list. Apart from the first humpback whales, relativ

  2. Chromatin remodelers in the DNA double strand break response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, Godelieve

    2012-01-01

    During my PhD project, I studied the role of several chromatin remodelers in the DNA double strand break (DSB) response. We discovered that both CHD4 and SMARCA5 are required for ubiquitin signaling through the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, which is a central signaling event in the response

  3. The Extra Strand of the Maori Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Georgina

    2011-01-01

    This paper comments on the process of re-development of the Maori-medium Science (Putaiao) curriculum, as part of overall curriculum development in Aotearoa New Zealand. A significant difference from the English Science curriculum was the addition of an "extra strand" covering the history and philosophy of science. It is recommended that this…

  4. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (``HTSUS'').'' 74 FR 30536, December 23, 2009. For further... FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International...

  5. 75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... subject investigations (75 FR 4104, January 26, 2010). On January 28, 2010, the Commission was notified by... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International...

  6. Bellahøj. Ballerup. Brøndby Strand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, S.

    det der skete? Hvem tog initiativet? Hvorfor lykkedes det med så stor succes, som det faktisk gjorde? Hvilke tanker, idealer og indgreb var udgangspunkt for den store indsats? På grundlag af disse spørgsmål har Sven Bertelsen i "Bellahøj - Ballerup - Brøndby Strand" skildret en væsentlig epoke i dansk...

  7. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casadellà, M; van Ham, P M; Noguera-Julian, M;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to define the natural genotypic variation of the HIV-1 integrase gene across Europe for epidemiological surveillance of integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (InSTI) resistance. METHODS: This was a multicentre, cross-sectional study within the European...

  8. Magnetization Measurements of High-Jc Nb3Sn strands

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B; Alknes, P; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Oberli, L

    2013-01-01

    High critical current density Nb3Sn wires (Jc > 2500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 12 T) are the conductors considered for next generation accelerator magnets. At present, the large magnetization of these strands is a concern within the scientific community because of the impact it might have on the magnet field quality. In order to characterize the magnetic behavior of these wires, an extensive campaign of magnetization measurements was launched at CERN. Powder In Tube (PIT) strands by Bruker-EAS and Restacked Rod Process (RRP®) strands by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) were measured between 0 T and 10.5 T at different temperatures (ranging from 1.9 K to 14.5 K). The samples, based on strands with different sub-elements dimensions (35 to 80 μm), were measured with a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The experimental data were analyzed to: 1) calculate the effective filament size and the optimal parameters for the pinning force scaling law; 2) define the field-temperature region where there are flux...

  9. Polarity, Continuity, and Alignment in Plant Vascular Strands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan G. Sawchuk; Enrico Scarpella

    2013-01-01

    Plant vascular cells are joined end to end along uninterrupted lines to connect shoot organs with roots;vascular strands are thus polar, continuous, and internally aligned. What controls the formation of vascular strands with these properties? The “auxin canalization hypothesis”-based on positive feedback between auxin flow through a cell and the cell’s capacity for auxin transport-predicts the selection of continuous files of cells that transport auxin polarly, thus accounting for the polarity and continuity of vascular strands. By contrast, polar, continuous auxin transport-though required-is insufficient to promote internal alignment of vascular strands, implicating additional factors. The auxin canalization hypothesis was derived from the response of mature tissue to auxin application but is consistent with molecular and cellular events in embryo axis formation and shoot organ development. Objections to the hypothesis have been raised based on vascular organizations in callus tissue and shoot organs but seem unsupported by available evidence. Other objections call instead for further research; yet the inductive and orienting influence of auxin on continuous vascular differentiation remains unique.

  10. DNA double-strand break signaling and human disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohgaki Toshiyuki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DNA double-strand breaks are among the most serious types of DNA damage and their signaling and repair is critical for all cells and organisms. The repair of both induced and programmed DNA breaks is fundamental as demonstrated by the many human syndromes, neurodegenerative diseases, immunodeficiency and cancer associated with defective repair of these DNA lesions. Homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining pathways are the two major DNA repair pathways responsible for mediating the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. The signaling of DNA double-strand breaks is critical for cells to orchestrate the repair pathways and maintain genomic integrity. This signaling network is highly regulated and involves a growing number of proteins and elaborated posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. Here, we highlight the recent progress in the signaling of DNA double-strand breaks, the major proteins and posttranslational modifications involved and the diseases and syndromes associated with impaired signaling of these breaks.

  11. On the Distinction between Preposition Stranding and Orphan Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Poplack, Zentz and Dion (PZD; Poplack, Zentz & Dion, 2011, this issue) examine the often unquestioned assumption that the existence of preposition stranding (PS) in Canadian French is linked to the presence of a contact situation with English in the North American context. Although this issue has been the topic of previous research from a…

  12. Repair of double-strand breaks in Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micrococcus radiodurans has been shown to sustain double-strand breaks in its DNA after exposure to x-radiation. Following sublethal doses of x-rays (200 krad in oxygen or less), the cells were able to repair these breaks, and an intermediate fast-sedimenting DNA component seemed to be involved in the repair process

  13. Excited states in DNA strands investigated by ultrafast laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinquan; Zhang, Yuyuan; Kohler, Bern

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser experiments on carefully selected DNA model compounds probe the effects of base stacking, base pairing, and structural disorder on excited electronic states formed by UV absorption in single and double DNA strands. Direct π-orbital overlap between two stacked bases in a dinucleotide or in a longer single strand creates new excited states that decay orders of magnitude more slowly than the generally subpicosecond excited states of monomeric bases. Half or more of all excited states in single strands decay in this manner. Ultrafast mid-IR transient absorption experiments reveal that the long-lived excited states in a number of model compounds are charge transfer states formed by interbase electron transfer, which subsequently decay by charge recombination. The lifetimes of the charge transfer states are surprisingly independent of how the stacked bases are oriented, but disruption of π-stacking, either by elevating temperature or by adding a denaturing co-solvent, completely eliminates this decay channel. Time-resolved emission measurements support the conclusion that these states are populated very rapidly from initial excitons. These experiments also reveal the existence of populations of emissive excited states that decay on the nanosecond time scale. The quantum yield of these states is very small for UVB/UVC excitation, but increases at UVA wavelengths. In double strands, hydrogen bonding between bases perturbs, but does not quench, the long-lived excited states. Kinetic isotope effects on the excited-state dynamics suggest that intrastrand electron transfer may couple to interstrand proton transfer. By revealing how structure and non-covalent interactions affect excited-state dynamics, on-going experimental and theoretical studies of excited states in DNA strands can advance understanding of fundamental photophysics in other nanoscale systems. PMID:25326834

  14. Numerical investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a multi-strand steelmaking tundish with closed strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABIN KUMAR MISHRA,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat Transfer and fluid flow study has been carried out in a multi-strand billet caster curved shape tundish for a situation when the strand is sometimes closed because of unavoidable circumstances likestrand breakout, mechanical/electrical problem in the strand or less availability of molten steel from the next ladle. Closing any of the outlet is supposed to affect the flow distribution inside the tundish ad so it is important to study which of the outlets should be closed to have proper results in terms of mixing parameters and proper temperature distribution inside the tundish. Navier-Stokes equation has been solved using standard K – ε turbulence model with the help of educational version of CFD software FLUENT to find the steady state velocity field inside the tundish. Further, tracer dispersion study was carried out using pulse input technique of the tracer to find the Residence Time Distribution (RTD curve of the tundish. It was found that closing the near outlet increases the mixing capability of the tundish the most as compared to that by closing far or middle outlet. Maximum temperature variation between inletand outlet was observed to be 6-7 K for all the cases. Numerical code was validated against the experimental observation by performing the tracer dispersion study inside a multi-strand tundish and reasonably good match between the experimental and numerical results in terms of RTD curves is observed.

  15. The importance of becoming double-stranded: Innate immunity and the kinetic model of HIV-1 central plus strand synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschla, Eric

    2013-06-20

    Central initiation of plus strand synthesis is a conserved feature of lentiviruses and certain other retroelements. This complication of the standard reverse transcription mechanism produces a transient "central DNA flap" in the viral cDNA, which has been proposed to mediate its subsequent nuclear import. This model has assumed that the important feature is the flapped DNA structure itself rather than the process that produces it. Recently, an alternative kinetic model was proposed. It posits that central plus strand synthesis functions to accelerate conversion to the double-stranded state, thereby helping HIV-1 to evade single-strand DNA-targeting antiviral restrictions such as APOBEC3 proteins, and perhaps to avoid innate immune sensor mechanisms. The model is consistent with evidence that lentiviruses must often synthesize their cDNAs when dNTP concentrations are limiting and with data linking reverse transcription and uncoating. There may be additional kinetic advantages for the artificial genomes of lentiviral gene therapy vectors. PMID:23561461

  16. Iron-, Cobalt-, and Nickel-Catalyzed Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation and Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Yun; Yu, Shen-Luan; Shen, Wei-Yi; Gao, Jing-Xing

    2015-09-15

    Chiral alcohols are important building blocks in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. The enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones catalyzed by transition metal complexes, especially asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) and asymmetric hydrogenation (AH), is one of the most efficient and practical methods for producing chiral alcohols. In both academic laboratories and industrial operations, catalysts based on noble metals such as ruthenium, rhodium, and iridium dominated the asymmetric reduction of ketones. However, the limited availability, high price, and toxicity of these critical metals demand their replacement with abundant, nonprecious, and biocommon metals. In this respect, the reactions catalyzed by first-row transition metals, which are more abundant and benign, have attracted more and more attention. As one of the most abundant metals on earth, iron is inexpensive, environmentally benign, and of low toxicity, and as such it is a fascinating alternative to the precious metals for catalysis and sustainable chemical manufacturing. However, iron catalysts have been undeveloped compared to other transition metals. Compared with the examples of iron-catalyzed asymmetric reduction, cobalt- and nickel-catalyzed ATH and AH of ketones are even seldom reported. In early 2004, we reported the first ATH of ketones with catalysts generated in situ from iron cluster complex and chiral PNNP ligand. Since then, we have devoted ourselves to the development of ATH and AH of ketones with iron, cobalt, and nickel catalysts containing novel chiral aminophosphine ligands. In our study, the iron catalyst containing chiral aminophosphine ligands, which are expected to control the stereochemistry at the metal atom, restrict the number of possible diastereoisomers, and effectively transfer chiral information, are successful catalysts for enantioselective reduction of ketones. Among these novel chiral aminophosphine ligands, 22-membered macrocycle P2N4

  17. Detection of bacteriophage phi 6 minus-strand RNA and novel mRNA isoconformers synthesized in vivo and in vitro, by strand-separating agarose gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two urea-free agarose gel protocols that resolve the six individual strands of bacteriophage phi 6 dsRNA were developed and used to analyze phage RNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro. Citrate gels separate strands of the large and medium chromosomes while Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) gels resolve the medium and small dsRNA segments. Minus strands migrate faster than plus strands on citrate gels but are retarded on TBE gels. A study of electrophoretic conditions showed that pH affects strand resolution on citrate gels, and that voltage gradient, agarose concentration, and ethidium bromide significantly alter strand migration on TBE gels. Analysis of native phi 6 RNA synthesized in vivo and in vitro showed that the large and medium message RNAs comigrate with the corresponding plus strands of denatured virion dsRNA. The small messenger RNA is exceptional. Native small mRNA was detected as three isoconformers in vivo and in vitro. The isoconformers were converted by heat denaturation to a single RNA species that comigrates with the virion s+ strand. Minus strands labeled in vivo were detected only after heat denaturation. Minus strand synthesis was detected also in heat-denatured samples from in vitro phi 6 nucleocapsid RNA polymerase reactions at pH values suboptimal for transcription

  18. Asymmetric group loans, non-assortative matching and adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangopadhyay, Shubhashis; Lensink, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that an asymmetric group debt contract, where one borrower co-signs for another, but not vice versa, leads to heterogeneous matching. The analysis suggests that micro finance organizations can achieve the first best by offering asymmetric group contracts. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Asymmetric Type F Botulism with Cranial Nerve Demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Filozov, Alina; Kattan, Jessica A.; Jitendranath, Lavanya; Smith, C. Gregory; Lúquez, Carolina; Phan, Quyen N.; Fagan, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism. Demyelination of cranial nerves might be underrecognized during autopsy of botulism patients.

  20. Extensive Taguchi's Quality Loss Function Based On Asymmetric tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; LI Yuan-sheng; LIU Feng

    2004-01-01

    If specification interval is asymmetric, basic specification is the target value of quality characteristics. In this paper Taguchi's quality loss function is applied to describe quality loss based on asymmetric tolerances. The measurement of quality loss which is caused by the deviation of quality characteristics from basic specification is further presented.

  1. Asymmetric catalytic synthesis of the proposed structure of trocheliophorolide B

    OpenAIRE

    Trost, Barry M.; Quintard, Adrien

    2012-01-01

    A concise catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the proposed structure of Trocheliophorolide B is reported. The synthetic sequence notably features an asymmetric acetaldehyde alkynylation, Ru-catalyzed alder-ene reaction and Zn-ProPhenol ynone aldol condensation. Comparison with the reported data suggests a miss-assignment of the natural product structure.

  2. Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral Titanium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; XiaoMing

    2001-01-01

    Chiral titanium complexes is very importance catalyst to asymmetric catalytic reactions. A series of catalytic systems based on titanium-chiral ligands complexes has been reported. This presentation will discuss some of our recent progress on asymmetric catalytic reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes.  ……

  3. Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions Catalyzed by Chiral Titanium Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Chiral titanium complexes is very importance catalyst to asymmetric catalytic reactions. A series of catalytic systems based on titanium-chiral ligands complexes has been reported. This presentation will discuss some of our recent progress on asymmetric catalytic reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes.

  4. A new convenient asymmetric approach to herbarumin Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Song Chen; Shi Jun Da; Li Hong Yang; Bo Yan Xu; Zhi Xiang Xie; Ying Li

    2007-01-01

    The asymmetric total synthesis of herbarumin Ⅲ 3, a naturally occurred phytotoxin, along with 8-epi-herbarumin Ⅲ 22, was succeeded in 12 steps from n-butyraldehyde based on Brown's asymmetric allylation, taking modified Julia olefination and Yamaguchi's macro-lactonization as key steps.

  5. Effects of Noise on Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yi-you; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-07-01

    We present a scheme for asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation via a six-qubit cluster state in noisy environments, which includes the phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels. We analytically derive the fidelities of the asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation process in these two noise channels. We show that the fidelities only depend on the initial state and the noisy rate.

  6. DNA strand break and rejoining in cultured human fibroblasts exposed to fast neutrons or gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and rejoining of DNA single-strand and double-strand breaks have been monitored in monolayer cultures of proliferating human skin fibroblasts. The yield of single-strand breaks induced by neutrons was 30 per cent of that produced by the same dose of #betta#-rays; whilst in the induction of double-strand breaks neutrons were 1.6 times as effective as #betta#-rays. Upon post-irradiation incubation of cells at 370C, neutron-induced single-strand and double-strand breaks were rejoined with a similar time-course to #betta#-induced breaks. Rejoining followed biphasic kinetics; of the single-strand breaks, 50 per cent disappeared within 2 min after #betta#-rays and 6-10 min after neutrons. Fifty per cent of the double-strand breaks disappeared within 10 min, after #betta#-rays and neutrons. (author)

  7. Strain measurements by neutron diffraction on Nb3Sn cable with stainless steel reinforcement strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal lattice strains under a tensile load for a seven-strand cable consisting of three pre-bent CuNb/Nb3Sn and four stainless steel strands were measured by neutron diffraction at room temperature in order to investigate the improvement of mechanical properties of Nb3Sn strands. Stress–lattice strain curves of Nb3Sn and stainless steel strands were obtained, and the effective stress for a Nb3Sn strand was estimated by considering the load sharing of a stainless strand. It was found that the reinforcement with stainless steel strands is an effective way to reduce an applied electromagnetic tensile load for Nb3Sn strands for superconducting magnet application. (paper)

  8. Isospin violating dark matter being asymmetric

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2013-01-01

    The isospin violating dark matter (IVDM) scenario offers an interesting possibility to reconcile conflicting results among direct dark matter search experiments for a mass range around 10 GeV. We consider two simple renormalizable IVDM models with a complex scalar dark matter and a Dirac fermion dark matter, respectively, whose stability is ensured by the conservation of "dark matter number". Although both models successfully work as the IVDM scenario with destructive interference between effective couplings to proton and neutron, the dark matter annihilation cross section is found to exceed the cosmological/astrophysical upper bounds. Then, we propose a simple scenario to reconcile the IVDM scenario with the cosmological/astrophysical bounds, namely, the IVDM being asymmetric. Assuming a suitable amount of dark matter asymmetry has been generated in the early Universe, the annihilation cross section beyond the cosmological/astrophysical upper bound nicely works to dramatically reduce the anti-dark matter rel...

  9. Micropolarity Ramification of Asymmetric Merging Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Siddiqui, Abuzar Abid

    2016-01-01

    The steady, asymmetric and two-dimensional flow of viscous, incompressible micropolar fluid through a rectangular channel with a splitter (parallel to walls) was formulated and simulated numerically. The plane Poiseuille flow was considered far from upstream and downstream of the splitter. The geometric parameter that controls the position of splitter was defined as splitter position parameter. A numerical scheme that comprises a fourth order method followed by special finite-difference method was used to solve the boundary value problem. This numerical scheme transforms the governing equations to system of finite difference equations which we have solved by SOR iterative method. Moreover, the results obtained were further refined and upgraded by the Richardson extrapolation method. The results were compared on different grid sizes as well as with the existing results for symmetric flow of Newtonian fluids. The comparisons were satisfactory. The microrotation effects on the splitter plate were significantly h...

  10. Asymmetric Ferromagnet-Superconductor-Ferromagnet Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadden-Zimansky, P.; Bazaliy, Ya.B.; Litvak, L.M.; Jiang, J.S.; Pearson, J.; Gu, J.Y.; You, Chun-Yeol; Beasley, M.R.; Bader, S.D.

    2011-11-04

    In layered ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet F{sub 1} /S/F{sub 2} structures, the critical temperature T{sub c} of the superconductors depends on the magnetic orientation of the ferromagnetic layers F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} relative to each other. So far, the experimentally observed magnitude of change in T{sub c} for structures utilizing weak ferromagnets has been 2 orders of magnitude smaller than is expected from calculations. We theoretically show that such a discrepancy can result from the asymmetry of F/S boundaries, and we test this possibility by performing experiments on structures where F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} are independently varied. Our experimental results indicate that asymmetric boundaries are not the source of the discrepancy. If boundary asymmetry is causing the suppressed magnitude of T{sub c} changes, it may only be possible to detect in structures with thinner ferromagnetic layers.

  11. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Blennow, Mattias; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, pre...

  12. Optical Nonreciprocity in Asymmetric Optomechanical Couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheqi; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xinbiao; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-03-01

    We propose an all-optical integrated nonreciprocal device on the optomechanical platform with a large nonreciprocal bandwidth and low operating power. The device is based on an asymmetric silicon coupler consisting of two branches. One of them is a conventional strip waveguide fixed on the substrate, and the other is a freestanding nanostring suspended above a groove in the substrate. When light is launched into the coupler, the optical gradient force between the freestanding nanostring and the underlying substrate leads to the deflection of the nanostring, and finally results in destruction of the initial phase-matching condition between the two branches. The suspended branch would achieve distinct deflections when light is incident from different ports. The simulation results show a nonreciprocal bandwidth of 13.1 nm with operating power of 390 μW. With the advantages of simple structure, low power consumption and large operating bandwidth, our work provides a promising solution for on-chip passive nonreciprocal device.

  13. Separability in asymmetric phase-covariant cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, asymmetric phase-covariant quantum cloning machines are defined and trade-off between qualities of their outputs and its impact on entanglement properties of the outputs are studies. In addition, optimal families among these cloners are introduced and also their entanglement properties are investigated. An explicit proof of optimality is presented for the case of qubits, which is based on the no-signaling condition. Our optimality proof can also be used to derive an upper bound on trade-off relations for a more general class of optimal cloners which clone states on a specific orbit of the Bloch sphere. It is shown that the optimal cloners of the equatorial states, as in the case of symmetric phase-covariant cloning, give rise to two separable clones, and in this sense these states are unique. For these cloners it is shown that total output is of GHZ-type

  14. Asymmetric pneumatization of the petrous apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, P S; Meyerhoff, W L; Judge, L O; Mickey, B E

    1990-07-01

    Three patients with high-intensity MR signals from one petrous apex, but nonpathologic fine-cut computed tomography are reported. In two of the three patients, normal bone marrow within the petrous apex on one side is believed to have generated the high-intensity signal. In one of the three patients, the etiology of the MR image remains obscure, but may represent the earliest stages of petrous cholesterol granuloma or mucocele. We have reviewed 500 head CT scans performed for non-otologic reasons, in an attempt to establish the frequency of this finding. The literature on MR and CT imaging of the petrous apex and asymmetric pneumatization of the petrous apex is reviewed. PMID:2117735

  15. Asymmetric EPR entanglement in continuous variable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Katherine; Armstrong, Seiji; Morizur, Jean-Francois; Lam, Ping Koy; Bachor, Hans-Albert

    2012-01-01

    Continuous variable entanglement can be produced in nonlinear systems or via interference of squeezed states. In many of optical systems, such as parametric down conversion or interference of optical squeezed states, production of two perfectly symmetric subsystems is usually used for demonstrating the existence of entanglement. This symmetry simplifies the description of the concept of entanglement. However, asymmetry in entanglement may arise naturally in a real experiment, or be intentionally introduced in a given quantum information protocol. These asymmetries can emerge from having the output beams experience different losses and environmental contamination, or from the availability of non-identical input quantum states in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we present a visualisation of entanglement using quadrature amplitude plots of the twin beams. We quantitatively discuss the strength of asymmetric entanglement using EPR and inseparability criteria and theoretically show that the optimal...

  16. Asymmetric morphology of the propagating jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Philip E.; Norman, Michael L.

    1990-12-01

    Simulations of slab jets propagating in constant atmospheres are reported for a range of jet velocities and Mach numbers. At early times, the jet maintains approximate axisymmetry within a backflowing cocoon. When the jet has penetrated farther into the external medium, the symmetry is broken by sideways oscillation and the leading edge of the jet moves about within a growing lobe. The oscillation results from nonlinear resonant amplification of the initial perturbation by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Finally, the jet flaps chaotically within the growing lobe. The flapping is driven by turbulent vortices in the lobe. The basic picture of Scheuer's (1982) 'dentist's drill' model of the physical processes underlying asymmetric morphologies in radio galaxies is confirmed. The fluid motions in the lobe are found to govern the location of the drill bit. The morphology is time-dependent on relatively short time scales.

  17. Chilly Dark Sectors and Asymmetric Reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, $N_{\\mathrm{eff}}$, we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and ...

  18. Asymmetric exclusion processes with shuffled dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with periodic boundary conditions is investigated for shuffled dynamics. In this type of update, in each discrete timestep the particles are updated in a random sequence. Such an update is important for several applications, e.g., for certain models of pedestrian flow in two dimensions. For the ASEP with shuffled dynamics and a related truncated process exact results are obtained for deterministic motion (p = 1). Since the shuffled dynamics is intrinsically stochastic, also this case is nontrivial. For the case of stochastic motion (0 < p < 1) it is shown that, in contrast to all other updates studied previously, the ASEP with shuffled update does not have a product measure steady state. Approximative formulae for the steady-state distribution and fundamental diagram are derived that are in very good agreement with simulation data

  19. Asymmetric Beam Combination for Optical Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Monnier, J D

    2001-01-01

    Optical interferometers increasingly use single-mode fibers as spatial filters to convert varying wavefront distortion into intensity fluctuations which can be monitored for accurate calibration of fringe amplitudes. Here I propose using an asymmetric coupler to allow the photometric intensities of each telescope beam to be measured at the same time as the fringe visibility, but without the need for dedicated photometric outputs, which reduce the light throughput in the interferometric channels. In the read-noise limited case often encountered in the infrared, I show that a 53% improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for the visibility amplitude measurement is achievable, when compared to a balanced coupler setup with 50% photometric taps (e.g., the FLUOR experiment). In the Poisson-noise limit appropriate for visible light, the improvement is reduced to only ~8%. This scheme also reduces the cost and complexity of the beam combination since fewer components and detectors are required, and can be extended to mor...

  20. Asymmetric correlations on the Croatian equity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Kunovac

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the equity market in Croatia in bad (bear or turbulent and good (bull, calm market conditions. The two market regimes are formally identifi ed under the Markov Regime Switching (MRS framework. The analysis conducted suggests that correlations between equity prices are more than twice as high during bear than in bull markets. This result holds both for the shares included in the CROBEX and for the relationship among various European equity indices.In the context of international diversifi cation the result suggests only a limited benefi t that foreign investors can count on when diversifying their portfolios by expanding to developing European markets. In addition, by evaluating a portfolio optimization model that takes asymmetric correlations into account in an out-of-sample exercise, this paper also illustrates the losses that may occur if the asymmetry is ignored in practice.

  1. Microstructure evolution and grain refinement in asymmetrically rolled aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium alloy sheets were asymmetrically rolled and annealed. Asymmetric rolling was applied by imposing different velocity ratios between the top and bottom rolls, from 1 to 1.5. After cold rolling, the microstructures of various samples were analysed by electron back scatter diffraction, whereas the mechanical properties were characterized by stress–strain curves and microhardness measurements. The asymmetrical rolling process was examined as an alternative method to obtain fine- or even ultrafine-grained aluminium. The main purpose of this paper is to describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, the influence of asymmetrical rolling on microstructure evolution. Grain size, misorientation, image quality factor and other parameters were characterized and analysed in some detail. In the present study, a unique approach has been used for the first time to examine the possibility of applying the asymmetric rolling process in the preparation of materials with controlled heterogeneity

  2. Asymmetric selection and the evolution of extraordinary defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mark C; Bürger, Reinhard; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists typically predict future evolutionary responses to natural selection by analysing evolution on an adaptive landscape. Much theory assumes symmetric fitness surfaces even though many stabilizing selection gradients deviate from symmetry. Here we revisit Lande's adaptive landscape and introduce novel analytical theory that includes asymmetric selection. Asymmetric selection and the resulting skewed trait distributions bias equilibrium mean phenotypes away from fitness peaks, usually toward the flatter shoulder of the individual fitness surface. We apply this theory to explain a longstanding paradox in biology and medicine: the evolution of excessive defences against enemies. These so-called extraordinary defences can evolve in response to asymmetrical selection when marginal risks of insufficient defence exceed marginal costs of excessive defence. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks between population abundances and asymmetric selection further exaggerate these defences. Recognizing the effect of asymmetrical selection on evolutionary trajectories will improve the accuracy of predictions and suggest novel explanations for apparent sub-optimality. PMID:23820378

  3. The evolution of cooperation in asymmetric systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the "Tragedy of the Commons" of the evolution of cooperation remains one of the greatest problems for both biology and social science.Asymmetrical interaction,which is one of the most important characteristics of cooperative systems,has not been sufficiently considered in the existing models of the evolution of cooperation.Considering the inequality in the number and payoff between the cooperative actors and recipients in cooperation systems,discriminative density-dependent interference competition will occur in limited dispersal systems.Our model and simulation show that the local but not the global stability of a cooperative interaction can be maintained if the utilization of common resource remains unsaturated,which can be achieved by density-dependent restraint or competition among the cooperative actors.More intense density dependent interference competition among the cooperative actors and the ready availability of the common resource,with a higher intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,will increase the probability of cooperation.The cooperation between the recipient and the cooperative actors can be transformed into conflict and,it oscillates chaotically with variations of the affecting factors under different environmental or ecological conditions.The higher initial relatedness(i.e.similar to kin or reciprocity relatedness),which is equivalent to intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,can be selected for by penalizing less cooperative or cheating actors but rewarding cooperative individuals in asymmetric systems.The initial relatedness is a pivot but not the aim of evolution of cooperation.This explains well the direct conflict observed in almost all cooperative systems.

  4. Asymmetric collimation in breast cancer irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many methods have been devised to achieve an ideal match of the anterior supraclavicular field (SCV) caudal edge and the cephalad edges of the tangential fields. A non divergent SCV field edge is easily achieved using a half beam block. A number of methods are used to achieve a non divergent edge from the tangential beams including blocking, table angulation, collimator angulation in combination, and half beam blocking, collimator angulation. Using asymmetric collimation technique it is possible to achieve a perfect match-line at the junction of SCV and tangential fields. Via the longitudinal X-jaws, caudal edge of the SCV field and the cephalad margin of the tangential fields is defined. All three fields use one isocenter and thus a single set-up point by abutting beam-split fields at the match plane. The transverse Y jaws are used to beam-split the medial and lateral tangential fields at the chest wall level and define the lateral and medial edges of the SCV field. This technique eliminates lifting heavy half beam block, and the use of single isocenter is time-saving during set-up procedure. Computerized water phantom was utilized in dosimetric evaluations in this nonstandard technique. The match-line is clinically confirmed with verification film for each patient at first treatment. Our treatment planning system, Theraplan - Version 5B, is capable of asymmetric field planning. The 3-D treatment planning is performed at the central axis plane. Angle of tangential fields and source-skin distance at the set-up point is confirmed by 3D treatment planning

  5. Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,1 Ulysse Gaspard,2 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont11Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Liège, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, BelgiumBackground: Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the cheeks in this stage of the aging process.Methods: Skin viscoelasticity was compared on both cheeks in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with indoor occupational activities somewhat limiting the influence of chronic sun exposure. Eighty-four healthy women comprising 36 premenopausal women and 48 early post-menopausal women off hormone replacement therapy were enrolled in two groups. The tensile characteristics of both cheeks were tested and compared in each group. A computerized suction device equipped with a 2 mm diameter hollow probe was used to derive viscoelasticity parameters during a five-cycle procedure of 2 seconds each. Skin unfolding, intrinsic distensibility, biological elasticity, and creep extension were measured.Results: Both biological elasticity and creep extension were asymmetric on the cheeks of the post-menopausal women. In contrast, these differences were more discrete in the premenopausal women.Conclusion: Facial skin viscoelasticity appeared to be asymmetric following menopause. The possibility of asymmetry should be taken into account in future studies of the effects of hormone replacement therapy and any antiaging procedure on the face in menopausal women.Keywords: climacteric aging, biomechanics, photoaging, skin unfolding, biological elasticity, skin tensile properties

  6. Catalytic asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongwei; Hu, Lin; Li, Zhe; Deng, Li

    2015-07-23

    The carbon-nitrogen double bonds in imines are fundamentally important functional groups in organic chemistry. This is largely due to the fact that imines act as electrophiles towards carbon nucleophiles in reactions that form carbon-carbon bonds, thereby serving as one of the most widely used precursors for the formation of amines in both synthetic and biosynthetic settings. If the carbon atom of the imine could be rendered electron-rich, the imine could react as a nucleophile instead of as an electrophile. Such a reversal in the electronic characteristics of the imine functionality would facilitate the development of new chemical transformations that convert imines into amines via carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions with carbon electrophiles, thereby creating new opportunities for the efficient synthesis of amines. The development of asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines (in which the imines act as nucleophiles) remains uncharted territory, in spite of the far-reaching impact such reactions would have in organic synthesis. Here we report the discovery and development of new chiral phase-transfer catalysts that promote the highly efficient asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines with the carbon electrophile enals. These catalysts mediate the deprotonation of imines and direct the 2-azaallyl anions thus formed to react with enals in a highly chemoselective, regioselective, diastereoselective and enantioselective fashion. The reaction tolerates a broad range of imines and enals, and can be carried out in high yield with as little as 0.01 mole per cent catalyst with a moisture- and air-tolerant operational protocol. These umpolung reactions provide a conceptually new and practical approach to chiral amino compounds. PMID:26201597

  7. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e+e- collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 1033 cm-2 s-1. All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings

  8. Scaffold of Asymmetric Organic Compounds - Magnetite Plaquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Martinez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth shows preference towards the set of organics with particular spatial configurations, this 'selectivity' is a crucial criterion for life. With only rare exceptions, life prefers the left- (L-) form over the right- (D-) form of amino acids, resulting in an L-enantiomeric excess (L-ee). Recent studies have shown Lee for alpha-methyl amino acids in some chondrites. Since these amino acids have limited terrestrial occurrence, the origin of their stereoselectivity is nonbiological, and it seems appropriate to conclude that chiral asymmetry, the molecular characteristic that is common to all terrestrial life form, has an abiotic origin. A possible abiotic mechanism that can produce chiral asymmetry in meteoritic amino acids is their formation with the presence of asymmetric catalysts, as mineral crystallization can produce spatially asymmetric structures. Magnetite is shown to be an effective catalyst for the formation of amino acids that are commonly found in chondrites. Magnetite 'plaquettes' (or 'platelets'), first described by Jedwab, show an interesting morphology of barrel-shaped stacks of magnetite disks with an apparent dislocation-induced spiral growth that seem to be connected at the center. A recent study by Singh et al. has shown that magnetites can self-assemble into helical superstructures. Such molecular asymmetry could be inherited by adsorbed organic molecules. In order to understand the distribution of 'spiral' magnetites in different meteorite classes, as well as to investigate their apparent spiral configurations and possible correlation to molecular asymmetry, we observed polished sections of carbonaceous chondrites (CC) using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. The sections were also studied by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in order to reconstruct the crystal orientation along the stack of magnetite disks.

  9. Stranding and mortality of pelagic crustaceans in the western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Romanov, E.V.; Potier, Michel; Anderson, R.C.; Quod, J. P.; Ménard, Frédéric; Sattar, S.A.; Hogarth, P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations of unusual mass stranding and mortality of two Indian Ocean crustacean species, the swimming crab Charybdis smithii and the mantis shrimp Natosquilla investigatoris, are documented and analysed. Strandings of C. smithii were observed for the first time in the equatorial Indian Ocean, the main area of its pelagic distribution. Strandings of mantis shrimps are reported from throughout the western Indian Ocean; occurrences of mass stranding in the Maldives Archipelago mark an...

  10. Multi-Quality Properties Capability Analysis for Prestressing Strand of Prestressed Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; Pei; Sung; Kuen; Suan; Chen; Cheer; Germ; Go

    2002-01-01

    Prestressed concrete structures are main conformati on for the construction of high way bridges. The quality of prestressed concrete s tructures is mainly affected by the tensile strength of prestressing strand. In order to attain the purpose of economic design and long life span of prestressin g strand, the less relaxation property of strand type is suitable for constructi on and usage. Thus, the research and development of prestressing strand is requi red to reach the goals of high tensile strength and ...

  11. Direct imaging of single UvrD helicase dynamics on long single-stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Balci, Hamza; Jia, Haifeng; Lohman, Timothy M.; Ha, Taekjip

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging of single-protein dynamics on DNA has been largely limited to double-stranded DNA or short single-stranded DNA. We have developed a hybrid approach for observing single proteins moving on laterally stretched kilobase-sized ssDNA. Here we probed the single-stranded DNA translocase activity of Escherichia coli UvrD by single fluorophore tracking, while monitoring DNA unwinding activity with optical tweezers to capture the entire sequence of protein binding, single-stranded ...

  12. Hydrodynamic Simulation of a nano-flare heated multi-strand solar atmospheric loop

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Aveek; Walsh, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that the plasma loops seen with current instrumentation (SOHO, TRACE and Hinode) may consist of many sub-resolution elements or strands. Thus, the overall plasma evolution we observe in these features could be the cumulative result of numerous individual strands undergoing sporadic heating. This paper presents a short (10^9 cm ~ 10 Mm) ``global loop'' as 125 individual strands where each strand is modelled independently by a one-dimensional hydrodynamic sim...

  13. 蛋白质中strand-loop-strand模体的分类%THE CLASSIFICATION OF STRAND-LOOP-STRAND MOTIFS IN PROTEINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高苏娟; 胡秀珍

    2009-01-01

    从蛋白质一级序列出发,以氨基酸紧邻关联为参数,用离散量的方法,采用5交叉检验,对蛋白质中的strand-loop-strand模体进行了分类.文中使用了两个数据库,采用了不同的截取方式和序列模式长,均得到了较好的预测效果.

  14. Double-Stranded RNA Is Produced by Positive-Strand RNA Viruses and DNA Viruses but Not in Detectable Amounts by Negative-Strand RNA Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Friedemann; Wagner, Valentina; Rasmussen, Simon B; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R.

    2006-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) longer than 30 bp is a key activator of the innate immune response against viral infections. It is widely assumed that the generation of dsRNA during genome replication is a trait shared by all viruses. However, to our knowledge, no study exists in which the production of dsRNA by different viruses is systematically investigated. Here, we investigated the presence and localization of dsRNA in cells infected with a range of viruses, employing a dsRNA-specific antibo...

  15. Special Issue of "Asymmetric Synthesis"%Special Issue of "Asymmetric Synthesis"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Organic chemistry exploring the world at a molecu- lar level remains essential for our society in the 21st century. Asymmetric synthesis, particularly those em- ploying catalytic approach, is one of the most important research fields in organic synthesis providing chiral compounds in an enantiopure form. The latter is critical since the two enantiomers of one chiral compound, in many cases, have a different response in biological sys- tems. The huge markets of non-racemic chiral com- pounds as synthetic intermediates, pharmaceuticals,

  16. 75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of February 23, 2010 (75 FR 8113). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... of prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of...

  17. DNA single strand break in fibroblast from Down syndrome patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity of tree trisomic (trisomia +21) strains of human fibroblasts to gamma radiation has been investigated in vitro and the causes of induction and repair of single strand DNA breaks in these cells have been estimated. The single strand breaks in DNA of normal and trisomic cells have been found to be ameliorated with an approximately equal efficiency. Repair has been found to be three times slower in trisomic cells compared to their normal relevant, most likely due to their elevated sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the following mortality of trisomic cells, and/or the potential occurrence of a great number of chromosome aberrations in cells irradiated in vitro. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. Introduction to Strand 9: environmental, health and outdoor science education

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Graça Simões; Achiam, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The field of environmental, health and outdoor science education has been increasing worldwide and this has also been found in the number and quality of the proposals to ESERA Conferences. In ESERA 2015 the strand “Environmental, health and outdoor science education” was focused on the following proposed areas of research: Ecological and Environmental Education, Education for Sustainable Development, environmental health, health education and health promotion; Lifestyles and attitudes towards...

  19. Oriented strand board: new material for building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper will attempt to show the suitability and competitiveness of oriented strand board (OSB) in building construction. One important factor underlining the success of this product is the availability of the wood raw material. Plantation timbers such as rubberwood, paraserianthes falcataria, acacia crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis and A. mangium have been identified as the major source of this industry. We will focus on the domestic market as well as export market especially on the Asia Pacific region

  20. Five strands of math tasks big book : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Included are challenging problem-solving tasks which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  1. Five strands of math drills big book : grades PK-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Included are warm-up and timed drill activities which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  2. Elongation of discotic liquid crystal strands and lubricant effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Surjya Sarathi; Galerne, Yves

    2013-01-01

    International audience After a short review on the physics of pulled threads and their mechanical properties, the paper reports and discusses on the strand elongation of disordered columnar phases, hexagonal or lamello-columnar, of small molecules or polymers. The mechanical properties appear to be relevant to the length of the columns of molecules compared to the thread length, instead of the usual correlation length. When short, the column entanglement being taken into account, the stran...

  3. Neural network computation with DNA strand displacement cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lulu; Winfree, Erik; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2011-07-21

    The impressive capabilities of the mammalian brain--ranging from perception, pattern recognition and memory formation to decision making and motor activity control--have inspired their re-creation in a wide range of artificial intelligence systems for applications such as face recognition, anomaly detection, medical diagnosis and robotic vehicle control. Yet before neuron-based brains evolved, complex biomolecular circuits provided individual cells with the 'intelligent' behaviour required for survival. However, the study of how molecules can 'think' has not produced an equal variety of computational models and applications of artificial chemical systems. Although biomolecular systems have been hypothesized to carry out neural-network-like computations in vivo and the synthesis of artificial chemical analogues has been proposed theoretically, experimental work has so far fallen short of fully implementing even a single neuron. Here, building on the richness of DNA computing and strand displacement circuitry, we show how molecular systems can exhibit autonomous brain-like behaviours. Using a simple DNA gate architecture that allows experimental scale-up of multilayer digital circuits, we systematically transform arbitrary linear threshold circuits (an artificial neural network model) into DNA strand displacement cascades that function as small neural networks. Our approach even allows us to implement a Hopfield associative memory with four fully connected artificial neurons that, after training in silico, remembers four single-stranded DNA patterns and recalls the most similar one when presented with an incomplete pattern. Our results suggest that DNA strand displacement cascades could be used to endow autonomous chemical systems with the capability of recognizing patterns of molecular events, making decisions and responding to the environment. PMID:21776082

  4. Altered radiation recovery by DNA double-strand break inducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identical biphasic time-dependent profiles of cell survival were obtained in V79 fibroblasts exposed to a split-dose protocol consisting of a fixed dose of γ-rays followed, at a variable time interval, either by a second exposure to radiation, or by contact with an equi-toxic amount of antitumor drugs acting to produce DNA double-strand breaks. The drugs used in this context were the neocarcinostatin antibiotic (NCS), which preferentially cleaves DNA in the linker region of nucleosomes, and etoposide (VP), whose major target is topoisomerase IIα, a nuclear matrix fraction-linked enzyme acting to relieve topological constraints in replicating DNA and mitotic chromosomes. Radiation-induced DNA strand break rejoining was not inhibited by either drug. The initial number of DNA strand breaks was consistently found o depend only on the radiation dose and/or on the drug concentration. However, the cytotoxicity they induced in combined treatment was determined in essence by the time elapsed after the first radiation exposure. While resistance to NCS and VP in non-irradiated, synchronized cells peaks in G2 phase of the cell cycle, enhanced drug susceptibility was observed within the radiation-induced G2 block. Concomitant exposure to drug and radiation also resulted in supra-additive cytotoxic interaction. Our data suggest that impaired split-dose radiation recovery dose not proceed from inhibition of DNA damage repair, but rather from additional double-strand breaks produced by drug or radiation during the time cells are in the dynamic process of DNA repair; a time range characterized by a dynamic DNA fragility. (authors)

  5. What Governs the Unzipping Process of Double-Stranded DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Feng; LEI Xiao-Ling; FANG Hai-Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ The unzipping process of double-stranded DNA is analysed using a discrete model at the base level [Chin. Phys.Lett. 22 (2005)1540]. The numerical results are consistent with the experimental observations on the force-displacement behaviour including the sequence-dependence. We find that the hydrogen bond interaction in a base pair is crucially important to the force-displacement profile.

  6. Double-Stranded Water on Stepped Platinum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Manuel J.; Farber, Rachael G.; Derouin, Jonathan; Badan, Cansin; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Juurlink, Ludo B. F.; Killelea, Daniel R.; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction of platinum with water plays a key role in (electro)catalysis. Herein, we describe a combined theoretical and experimental study that resolves the preferred adsorption structure of water wetting the Pt(111)-step type with adjacent (111) terraces. Double stranded lines wet the step edge forming water tetragons with dissimilar hydrogen bonds within and between the lines. Our results qualitatively explain experimental observations of water desorption and impact our thinking of solvation at the Pt electrochemical interface.

  7. Architecture and regulation of negative-strand viral enzymatic machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Kranzusch, Philip J.; Whelan, Sean P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Negative-strand (NS) RNA viruses initiate infection with a unique polymerase complex that mediates both mRNA transcription and subsequent genomic RNA replication. For nearly all NS RNA viruses, distinct enzymatic domains catalyzing RNA polymerization and multiple steps of 5′ mRNA cap formation are contained within a single large polymerase protein (L). While NS RNA viruses include a variety of emerging human and agricultural pathogens, the enzymatic machinery driving viral replication and gen...

  8. Euler buckling and nonlinear kinking of double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Alexander P; Meyer, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Adam E

    2013-11-01

    The bending stiffness of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at high curvatures is fundamental to its biological activity, yet this regime has been difficult to probe experimentally, and literature results have not been consistent. We created a 'molecular vise' in which base-pairing interactions generated a compressive force on sub-persistence length segments of dsDNA. Short dsDNA strands (quantitative agreement with the worm-like chain (WLC) model of DNA elasticity, without the need to invoke any 'kinked' states. Greater concentrations of monovalent salts or 1 mM Mg(2+) induced an apparent softening of the dsDNA, which was best accounted for by a kink in the region of highest curvature. We tested the effects of all single-nucleotide mismatches on the DNA bending. Remarkably, the propensity to kink correlated with the thermodynamic destabilization of the mismatched DNA relative the perfectly complementary strand, suggesting that the kinked state is locally melted. The molecular vise is exquisitely sensitive to the sequence-dependent linear and nonlinear elastic properties of dsDNA. PMID:23956222

  9. Commercial possibilities for stranded conventional gas from Alaska's North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stranded gas resources are defined for this study as gas resources in discrete accumulations that are not currently commercially producible, or producible at full potential, for either physical or economic reasons. Approximately 35 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of stranded gas was identified on Alaska’s North Slope. The commercialization of this resource requires facilities to transport gas to markets where sales revenue will be sufficient to offset the cost of constructing and operating a gas delivery system. With the advent of the shale gas revolution, plans for a gas pipeline to the conterminous US have been shelved (at least temporarily) and the State and resource owners are considering a liquefied natural gas (LNG) export project that targets Asian markets. This paper focuses on competitive conditions for Asian gas import markets by estimating delivered costs of competing supplies from central Asia, Russia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia in the context of a range of import gas demand projections for the period from 2020 to 2040. These suppliers’ costs are based on the cost of developing, producing, and delivering to markets tranches of the nearly 600 TCF of recoverable gas from their own conventional stranded gas fields. The results of these analyses imply that Alaska’s gas exports to Asia will likely encounter substantial competitive challenges. The sustainability of Asia’s oil-indexed LNG pricing is also discussed in light of a potentially intense level of competition.

  10. A novel bio-sensor based on DNA strand displacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Shi

    Full Text Available DNA strand displacement technology performs well in sensing and programming DNA segments. In this work, we construct DNA molecular systems based on DNA strand displacement performing computation of logic gates. Specifically, a class of so-called "DNA neurons" are achieved, in which a "smart" way inspired by biological neurons encoding information is developed to encode and deliver information using DNA molecules. The "DNA neuron" is bistable, that is, it can sense DNA molecules as input signals, and release "negative" or "positive" signals DNA molecules. We design intelligent DNA molecular systems that are constructed by cascading some particularly organized "DNA neurons", which could perform logic computation, including AND, OR, XOR logic gates, automatically. Both simulation results using visual DSD (DNA strand displacement software and experimental results are obtained, which shows that the proposed systems can detect DNA signals with high sensitivity and accretion; moreover, the systems can process input signals automatically with complex nonlinear logic. The method proposed in this work may provide a new way to construct a sensitive molecular signal detection system with neurons spiking behavior in vitro, and can be used to develop intelligent molecular processing systems in vivo.

  11. Carbon Fiber Strand Tensile Failure Dynamic Event Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; Reeder, James

    2016-01-01

    There are few if any clear, visual, and detailed images of carbon fiber strand failures under tension useful for determining mechanisms, sequences of events, different types of failure modes, etc. available to researchers. This makes discussion of physics of failure difficult. It was also desired to find out whether the test article-to-test rig interface (grip) played a part in some failures. These failures have nothing to do with stress rupture failure, thus representing a source of waste for the larger 13-00912 investigation into that specific failure type. Being able to identify or mitigate any competing failure modes would improve the value of the 13-00912 test data. The beginnings of the solution to these problems lay in obtaining images of strand failures useful for understanding physics of failure and the events leading up to failure. Necessary steps include identifying imaging techniques that result in useful data, using those techniques to home in on where in a strand and when in the sequence of events one should obtain imaging data.

  12. High-pressure liquid-monopropellant strand combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the influence of dissolved gases on the state of the liquid surface during high-pressure liquid-monopropellant combustion through the use of a strand burning experiment. Liquid surface temperatures were measured, using fine-wire thermocouples, during the strand combustion of ethyl nitrate, normal propyl nitrate, and propylene glycol dinitrate at pressures up to 81 atm. These measurements were compared with the predictions of a variable-property gas-phase analysis assuming an infinite activation energy for the decomposition reaction. The state of the liquid surface was estimated using a conventional low-pressure phase equilibrium model, as well as a high-pressure version that considered the presence of dissolved combustion-product gases in the liquid phase. The high-pressure model was found to give a superior prediction of measured liquid surface temperatures. Computed total pressures required for the surface to reach its critical mixing point during strand combustion were found to be in the range from 2.15 to 4.62 times the critical pressure of the pure propellant. Computed dissolved gas concentrations at the liquid surface were in the range from 35 to 50% near the critical combustion condition.

  13. Autonomous parvovirus LuIII encapsidates equal amounts of plus and minus DNA strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R.C.; Snyder, C.E.; Banerjee, P.T.; Mitra, S.

    1984-02-01

    Autonomous parvoviruses are thought to uniquely encapsidate single-stranded DNA of minus polarity. In contrast, the defective adeno-associated viruses separately encapsidate equal amounts of plus and minus DNA strands. The uniqueness of minus strand encapsidation is reexamined for the autonomous parvoviruses. Although it was found that Kilham rat virus and H-1 virus encapsidate varying but small amounts of complementary-strand DNA, it was unexpected to find that LuIII virus encapsidated equal amounts of plus and minus DNA. The extracted LuIII DNA possessed properties of double-stranded replicative-form DNA, including insensitivity to S1 endonuclease, cleavage by restriction enzymes, and conversion to unit-length, single-stranded DNA when electrophoresed under denaturing conditions. However, the inability of this DNA to form single-stranded DNA circles when denatured and then renatured in the presence of formamide and the lack of double-stranded DNA circle formation after treatment with exonuclease III and reannealing shows a lack of sequence homology of the 3' and 5' termini of LuIII DNA, in contrast to adeno-associated virus DNA. Digestion of LuIII double-stranded DNA with EcoRI and HincII and separation of plus and minus DNA strands on composite agarose-acrylamide gels identified a heterogeneity present only in the plus DNA strand. These results suggest that strand specificity of viral DNA encapsidation is not a useful property for differentiation between the autonomous and defective parvoviruses. Furthermore, encapsidation by LuIII of equal amounts of complementary DNA strands in contrast to encapsidation of minus strands by H-1 virus, when propagated in the same host cell type, suggests that selection of strands for encapsidation is a virus-coded rather than host-controlled event.

  14. Separation of 1–23-kb complementary DNA strands by urea–agarose gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Hegedüs, Éva; Kókai, Endre; Kotlyar, Alexander; Dombrádi, Viktor; Szabó, Gábor

    2009-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds), as well as denatured, single-stranded (ss) DNA samples can be analyzed on urea–agarose gels. Here we report that after denaturation by heat in the presence of 8 M urea, the two strands of the same ds DNA fragment of ∼1–20-kb size migrate differently in 1 M urea containing agarose gels. The two strands are readily distinguished on Southern blots by ss-specific probes. The different migration of the two strands could be attributed to their different, base composition-depen...

  15. Short-lived minus-strand polymerase for Semliki Forest virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sawicki, D L; Sawicki, S G

    1980-01-01

    Semliki Forest virus (SFV)-infected BHK-21, Vero, and HeLa cells incorporated [3H]uridine into 42S and 26S plus-strand RNA and into viral minus-strand RNA (complementary to the 42S virion RNA) early in the infectious cycle. Between 3 and 4 h postinfection, the synthesis of minus-strand RNA ceased in these cultures, although the synthesis of plus-strand RNA continued at a maximal rate. At the time of cessation of minus-strand RNA synthesis, two changes in the pattern of viral protein synthesis...

  16. Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) strandings in South Carolina, 1992-1996

    OpenAIRE

    McFee, Wayne E.; Hopkins-Murphy, Sally R.

    2002-01-01

    From 1992 to 1996, 153 bottlenose dolphin stranded in South Carolina, accounting for 73% of all marine mammal strandings during this period. The objectives of our study were to evaluate data from these strandings to deter-mine 1) annual trends in strandings, 2) seasonal and spatial distribution trends, 3) life history parameters such as sex ratio and age classes, 3) seasonal trends in reproduction, and 4) the extent to which humans have played a role in causing these strandings (human inter-a...

  17. Single-stranded plasmid DNA in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    te Riele, H; Michel, B.; Ehrlich, S D

    1986-01-01

    Plasmid pC194 was found to exist in a double-stranded and a single-stranded DNA form in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. This single-stranded DNA was found as a circular molecule of the same size as the parental monomer and corresponded to only one of the two DNA strands. It represented one-third of plasmid copies. Single- and double-stranded DNA copies in similar proportions to the above were detected for five other S. aureus plasmids (pC221, pC223, pE194, pT127, and pT181) and o...

  18. The Importance of becoming double-stranded: innate immunity and the kinetic model of HIV-1 central plus strand synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Poeschla, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Central initiation of plus strand synthesis is a conserved feature of lentiviruses and certain other retroelements. This complication of the standard reverse transcription mechanism produces a transient “central DNA flap” in the viral cDNA, which has been proposed to mediate its subsequent nuclear import. This model has assumed that the important feature is the flapped DNA structure itself rather than the process that produces it. Recently, an alternative kinetic model was proposed. It posits...

  19. Double-stranded RNA under force and torque: Similarities to and striking differences from double-stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lipfert, Jan; Skinner, Gary M.; Keegstra, Johannes M.; Hensgens, Toivo; Jager, Tessa; Dulin, David; Köber, Mariana; Yu, Zhongbo; Donkers, Serge P.; Chou, Fang-Chieh; Das, Rhiju; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2014-01-01

    RNA, like DNA, can form double helices held together by the pairing of complementary bases, and such helices are ubiquitous in functional RNAs. Here we apply external forces and torques to individual double-stranded RNA molecules to determine the mechanical properties and conformational transitions of these fundamental biological building blocks. For small forces and torques, RNA helices behave like elastic rods, and we have determined their bending, stretching, and twisting stiffness. Surpri...

  20. Strand bias in complementary single-nucleotide polymorphisms of transcribed human sequences: evidence for functional effects of synonymous polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majewski Jacek

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may not be distributed equally between two DNA strands if the strands are functionally distinct, such as in transcribed genes. In introns, an excess of A↔G over the complementary C↔T substitutions had previously been found and attributed to transcription-coupled repair (TCR, demonstrating the valuable functional clues that can be obtained by studying such asymmetry. Here we studied asymmetry of human synonymous SNPs (sSNPs in the fourfold degenerate (FFD sites as compared to intronic SNPs (iSNPs. Results The identities of the ancestral bases and the direction of mutations were inferred from human-chimpanzee genomic alignment. After correction for background nucleotide composition, excess of A→G over the complementary T→C polymorphisms, which was observed previously and can be explained by TCR, was confirmed in FFD SNPs and iSNPs. However, when SNPs were separately examined according to whether they mapped to a CpG dinucleotide or not, an excess of C→T over G→A polymorphisms was found in non-CpG site FFD SNPs but was absent from iSNPs and CpG site FFD SNPs. Conclusion The genome-wide discrepancy of human FFD SNPs provides novel evidence for widespread selective pressure due to functional effects of sSNPs. The similar asymmetry pattern of FFD SNPs and iSNPs that map to a CpG can be explained by transcription-coupled mechanisms, including TCR and transcription-coupled mutation. Because of the hypermutability of CpG sites, more CpG site FFD SNPs are relatively younger and have confronted less selection effect than non-CpG FFD SNPs, which can explain the asymmetric discrepancy of CpG site FFD SNPs vs. non-CpG site FFD SNPs.

  1. Generic approach for synthesizing asymmetric nanoparticles and nanoassemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yugang; Hu, Yongxing

    2015-05-26

    A generic route for synthesis of asymmetric nanostructures. This approach utilizes submicron magnetic particles (Fe.sub.3O.sub.4--SiO.sub.2) as recyclable solid substrates for the assembly of asymmetric nanostructures and purification of the final product. Importantly, an additional SiO.sub.2 layer is employed as a mediation layer to allow for selective modification of target nanoparticles. The partially patched nanoparticles are used as building blocks for different kinds of complex asymmetric nanostructures that cannot be fabricated by conventional approaches. The potential applications such as ultra-sensitive substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) have been included.

  2. The Dualism of Asymmetric Information in Agricultural Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric information objectively exists in the insurance market, especially in agricultural insurance, which has a great impact on the insurance contract and market operation. This paper designs two game models to analyse the dualism of asymmetric information in agricultural insurance and its reasons of forming. We find that, the particularity of agricultural production, the agricultural risk diversification and the benefits’ spillover of the agricultural insurance are the main causes of asymmetric information. Therefore, this paper puts forward that establishment of appropriate agricultural insurance mode, optimization of insurance policy design and increasing investment in science and technology, increasing farmers’ insurance consciousness and establishing supervision system

  3. Asymmetric dark matter and effective number of neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Kurosawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of the MeV-scale asymmetric dark matter annihilation on the effective number of neutrinos Neff at the epoch of the big bang nucleosynthesis. If the asymmetric dark matter χ couples more strongly to the neutrinos ν than to the photons γ and electrons e-, Γχ γ ,χ e≪Γχ ν , or Γχ γ ,χ e≫Γχ ν, the lower mass limit on the asymmetric dark matter is about 18 MeV for Neff≃3.0 .

  4. Homologous DNA strand exchange activity of the human mitochondrial DNA helicase TWINKLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Doyel; Patel, Gayatri; Patel, Smita S

    2016-05-19

    A crucial component of the human mitochondrial DNA replisome is the ring-shaped helicase TWINKLE-a phage T7-gene 4-like protein expressed in the nucleus and localized in the human mitochondria. Our previous studies showed that despite being a helicase, TWINKLE has unique DNA annealing activity. At the time, the implications of DNA annealing by TWINKLE were unclear. Herein, we report that TWINKLE uses DNA annealing function to actively catalyze strand-exchange reaction between the unwinding substrate and a homologous single-stranded DNA. Using various biochemical experiments, we demonstrate that the mechanism of strand-exchange involves active coupling of unwinding and annealing reactions by the TWINKLE. Unlike strand-annealing, the strand-exchange reaction requires nucleotide hydrolysis and greatly stimulated by short region of homology between the recombining DNA strands that promote joint molecule formation to initiate strand-exchange. Furthermore, we show that TWINKLE catalyzes branch migration by resolving homologous four-way junction DNA. These four DNA modifying activities of TWINKLE: strand-separation, strand-annealing, strand-exchange and branch migration suggest a dual role of TWINKLE in mitochondrial DNA maintenance. In addition to playing a major role in fork progression during leading strand DNA synthesis, we propose that TWINKLE is involved in recombinational repair of the human mitochondrial DNA. PMID:26887820

  5. Strand-specific contacts and divalent metal ion regulate double-strand break formation by the GIY-YIG homing endonuclease I-BmoI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jonathan M; Friedrich, Nancy C; Kleinstiver, Benjamin; Edgell, David R

    2007-11-23

    GIY-YIG homing endonucleases are modular enzymes consisting of a well-defined N-terminal catalytic domain connected to a variable C-terminal DNA-binding domain. Previous studies have revealed that the role of the DNA-binding domain is to recognize and bind intronless DNA substrate, positioning the N-terminal catalytic domain such that it is poised to generate a staggered double-strand break by an unknown mechanism. Interactions of the N-terminal catalytic domain with intronless substrate are therefore a critical step in the reaction pathway but have been difficult to define. Here, we have taken advantage of the reduced activity of I-BmoI, an isoschizomer of the well-studied bacteriophage T4 homing endonuclease I-TevI, to examine double-strand break formation by I-BmoI. We present evidence demonstrating that I-BmoI generates a double-strand break by two sequential but chemically independent nicking reactions where divalent metal ion is a limiting factor in top-strand nicking. We also show by in-gel footprinting that contacts by the I-BmoI catalytic domain induce significant minor groove DNA distortions that occur independently of bottom-strand nicking. Bottom-strand contacts are critical for accurate top-strand nicking, whereas top-strand contacts have little influence on the accuracy of bottom-strand nicking. We discuss our results in the context of current models of GIY-YIG endonuclease function, with emphasis on the role of divalent metal ion and strand-specific contacts in regulating the activity of a single active site to generate a staggered double-strand break. PMID:17936302

  6. Metallographic investigation of fracture behavior in ITER-style Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting strands

    CERN Document Server

    Jewell, M C; Larbalestier, D C; Nijhuis, A

    2009-01-01

    In this work we specify the extent to which fracture in two ITER-style Nb3Sn composite strands occurs in a collective or individual manner, under mechanical tension and bending from the TARSIS apparatus at the University of Twente. A bronze-route strand from European Advanced Superconductors (EAS), which has very uniform, well-spaced filaments, has a widely distributed (200 μm) fracture field and exhibits a composite of individual and collective cracks. An internal tin strand from Oxford Instruments – Superconducting Technology (OST) demonstrates much more localized, collective fracture behavior. The filaments in this strand are about four times larger (in area) than the filaments in the EAS strand, and also agglomerate significantly during heat treatment upon conversion of the Nb to Nb3Sn. These results demonstrate that the architecture of the strand can play a significant role in determining the mechanical toughness of the composite, and that strand design should incorporate mechanical considerations in ...

  7. Demonstration of guided-wave phenomena at extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglio, N M; Hawryluk, A M; Stearns, D G; Kühne, M; Müller, P

    1988-04-01

    We report an explicit demonstration of classical guided-wave propagation at XUV and soft-x-ray wavelengths. Experiments were performed using narrow-band synchrotron radiation at 5, 20.8, 21, and 30 nm. Free-standing gold transmission gratings served as waveguide structures. These structures had a 300-nm grating period with waveguide channel widths as small as 100 nm and were as thick as 700 nm in the direction of guided-wave transmission. Guided-wave phenomena were manifest in strongly asymmetric diffraction patterns resulting from the angular tilt of the transmission-grating normal from the incident-beam direction. PMID:19745868

  8. Computation in dynamically bounded asymmetric systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueli Rutishauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous explanations of computations performed by recurrent networks have focused on symmetrically connected saturating neurons and their convergence toward attractors. Here we analyze the behavior of asymmetrical connected networks of linear threshold neurons, whose positive response is unbounded. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, this asymmetry brings interesting and computationally useful dynamical properties. When driven by input, the network explores potential solutions through highly unstable 'expansion' dynamics. This expansion is steered and constrained by negative divergence of the dynamics, which ensures that the dimensionality of the solution space continues to reduce until an acceptable solution manifold is reached. Then the system contracts stably on this manifold towards its final solution trajectory. The unstable positive feedback and cross inhibition that underlie expansion and divergence are common motifs in molecular and neuronal networks. Therefore we propose that very simple organizational constraints that combine these motifs can lead to spontaneous computation and so to the spontaneous modification of entropy that is characteristic of living systems.

  9. ADMonium: Asymmetric Dark Matter Bound State

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Ko, P; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has interesting collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local $U(1)_d$ symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson $X$. The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into $X$-pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form bound state due to its large self-interaction via $X$ mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with $b\\bar b$. Of particular interest, our setup nicely explains the recent di-photon anomaly at 750 GeV via the events from ${\\rm ADMonium}\\ra 2X(\\ra e^+e^-)$, where the electrons are identified as ...

  10. Pattern recognition using asymmetric attractor neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Zhao, Hong

    2005-12-01

    The asymmetric attractor neural networks designed by the Monte Carlo- (MC-) adaptation rule are shown to be promising candidates for pattern recognition. In such a neural network with relatively low symmetry, when the members of a set of template patterns are stored as fixed-point attractors, their attraction basins are shown to be isolated islands embedded in a “chaotic sea.” The sizes of these islands can be controlled by a single parameter. We show that these properties can be used for effective pattern recognition and rejection. In our method, the pattern to be identified is attracted to a template pattern or a chaotic attractor. If the difference between the pattern to be identified and the template pattern is smaller than a predescribed threshold, the pattern is attracted to the template pattern automatically and thus is identified as belonging to this template pattern. Otherwise, it wanders in a chaotic attractor for ever and thus is rejected as an unknown pattern. The maximum sizes of these islands allowed by this kind of neural networks are determined by a modified MC-adaptation rule which are shown to be able to dramatically enlarge the sizes of the islands. We illustrate the use of our method for pattern recognition and rejection with an example of recognizing a set of Chinese characters.

  11. Pattern recognition using asymmetric attractor neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetric attractor neural networks designed by the Monte Carlo- (MC-) adaptation rule are shown to be promising candidates for pattern recognition. In such a neural network with relatively low symmetry, when the members of a set of template patterns are stored as fixed-point attractors, their attraction basins are shown to be isolated islands embedded in a ''chaotic sea.'' The sizes of these islands can be controlled by a single parameter. We show that these properties can be used for effective pattern recognition and rejection. In our method, the pattern to be identified is attracted to a template pattern or a chaotic attractor. If the difference between the pattern to be identified and the template pattern is smaller than a predescribed threshold, the pattern is attracted to the template pattern automatically and thus is identified as belonging to this template pattern. Otherwise, it wanders in a chaotic attractor for ever and thus is rejected as an unknown pattern. The maximum sizes of these islands allowed by this kind of neural networks are determined by a modified MC-adaptation rule which are shown to be able to dramatically enlarge the sizes of the islands. We illustrate the use of our method for pattern recognition and rejection with an example of recognizing a set of Chinese characters

  12. Asymmetric translation between multiple representations in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II

    2016-03-01

    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests that presenting concrete representations before abstract representations can increase the effectiveness of MR instruction; however, little work has been conducted on varying the order of different representations during instruction and the role of concreteness in assessment. In this study, we investigated the application of concreteness fading to MR instruction and assessment in teaching chemistry. In two experiments, undergraduate students in either introductory psychology courses or general chemistry courses were given MR instruction on phase changes using different orders of presentation and MR assessment questions based on the representations in the chemistry triplet. Our findings indicate that the order of presentation based on levels of concreteness in MR chemistry instruction is less important than implementation of comprehensive MR assessments. Even after MR instruction, students display an asymmetric understanding of the chemical phenomenon on the MR assessments. Greater emphasis on MR assessments may be an important component in MR instruction that effectively moves novices toward more expert MR understanding.

  13. Asymmetric adaptations to energy price changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of policies to reduce the use of energy depend on the elasticity of substitution between the various inputs and on the rate of technological progress. This paper presents a theoretical model emphasising energy investment characteristics of uncertainty and irreversibility that result in testable hypotheses concerning the relative values of substitution parameters and rates of technological change in periods of high and increasing energy prices and in periods of low prices. Estimation results for a panel of sectors of the Dutch economy show that the elasticity of substitution between energy and other inputs is low in periods of low energy prices, whereas it is significantly higher in the preceding period of high and increasing energy prices. Furthermore, energy-saving technological progress in periods of high and increasing energy prices is also significantly higher than if energy prices are low and falling. The regression results suggest that, due this asymmetric response of firms to changes in energy prices, taxing energy in the current period of low energy prices will not yield substantial reductions in energy use of Dutch industry. 21 refs

  14. Barbed congruence of the asymmetric chi calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao-ju; FU Yu-xi

    2006-01-01

    The chi calculus is a model of mobile processes. It has evolved from the pi-calculus with motivations from simplification and communication-as-cut-elimination. This paper studies the chi calculus in the framework incorporating asymmetric communication. The major feature of the calculus is the identification of two actions:x/x and τ. The investigation on the barbed bisimilarity shows how the property affects the observational theory.Based on the definition of the barbed bisimilarity, the simulation properties of the barbed bisimilarity are studied. It shows that the algebraic properties of the barbed bisimilarity have changed greatly compared with the chi calculus. Although the definition of the barbed bisimilarity is very simple, the property of closeness under contexts makes it difficult to understand the barbed bisimilarity directly. Therefore an open style definition of the barbed bisimilarity is given, which is a context free description of barbed bisimilarity. Its definition is complex,but it is a well-behaved relation for it coincides with the barbed bisimilarity. It also helps to build an axiomatization system for the barbed congruence. Besides the axioms for the strong barbed bisimilarity, the paper proposes a new tau law and four new update laws for the barbed congruence. Both the operational and algebraic properties of the enriched calculus improve the understanding of the bisimulation behaviors of the model.

  15. Micromagnetic simulation of Fe asymmetric nanorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade several methods to control the vortex chirality in nanodots have been proposed. One of them, the introduction of asymmetry in the geometry of the dots, originates interesting effects on the magnetic behavior of the particle. However, asymmetry in core-free structures is also interesting to investigate because of the reproducibility of their magnetic properties. In this work we report systematic changes in the coercivity and remanence in asymmetric nanorings. The angular dependence is also addressed. For specific geometries and magnetic field direction newly reversal modes appear associated with important changes in the coercivity and remanence of the rings. - Highlights: → We report that the existence of asymmetry strongly influences the coercivity and the remanence. → Magnetization reversal is driven by the nucleation of a C state and propagation of a vortex state. → We also conclude that the lack of a core contributes to the stability of the vortex state. → Asymmetry can be useful for tailoring specific magnetic characteristics of these systems.

  16. Asymmetric vector mesons produced in nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that the experimentally observed phenomenon of asymmetric shapes of vector mesons produced in nuclear media during high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions can be explained as Fano-Feshbach resonances. It has been observed that the mass distributions of lepton pairs created at meson decays decline from the traditional Breit-Wigner shape with some excess in the low-mass wing of the resonance. It is clear that the whole phenomenon is related to some interaction with the nuclear medium. Moreover, it can be further detalized in quantum mechanics as the interference of direct and continuum states in Fano-Feshbach effect. To reveal the nature of the interaction it is proposed to use a phenomenological model of the additional contribution due to Cherenkov gluons. They can be created because of the excess of the refractivity index over 1 just in the low-mass wing as required by the classical Cherenkov treatment. In quantum mechanics, this requirement is related to the positive real part of the interaction ...

  17. Phase transitions in warm, asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relativistic mean-field model of nuclear matter with arbitrary proton fraction is studied at finite temperature. An analysis is performed of the liquid-gas phase transition in a system with two conserved charges (baryon number and isospin) using the stability conditions on the free energy, the conservation laws, and Gibbs' criteria for phase equilibrium. For a binary system with two phases, the coexistence surface (binodal) is two dimensional. The Maxwell construction through the phase-separation region is discussed, and it is shown that the stable configuration can be determined uniquely at every density. Moreover, because of the greater dimensionality of the binodal surface, the liquid-gas phase transition is continuous (second order by Ehrenfest's definition), rather than discontinuous (first order), as in familiar one-component systems. Using a mean-field equation of state calibrated to the properties of nuclear matter and finite nuclei, various phase-separation scenarios are considered. The model is then applied to the liquid-gas phase transition that may occur in the warm, dilute matter produced in energetic heavy-ion collisions. In asymmetric matter, instabilities that produce a liquid-gas phase separation arise from fluctuations in the proton concentration (chemical instability), rather than from fluctuations in the baryon density (mechanical instability)

  18. Evacuation dynamics of asymmetrically coupled pedestrian pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...

  19. ASYMMETRICALLY SECURED EGMP OVER MANET’S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammed Raja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Group communications are significant in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. Multicast is an wellorganized technique for applying group communications. Yet, it is interesting to implement effective andaccessible multicast in MANET due to the effort in group member management and multicasting of packets forwarding in an active topology. We suggest a Asymmetrically Secured novel Efficient Geographic Multicast Protocol (EGMP. EGMP uses a practical-zone-based arrangement to implement accessible and effective groupmember management. A network-wide zone-based bi-directional tree is made to attain more well-organized member management and multicast delivery. The location information is used to monitor the zone structure, multicast tree building and multicast packets forwarding, which capably reduce the overhead for route finding and tree structure maintenance. Some approaches have been suggested to further improvement in the efficiency of the protocol, for example, presenting the concept of zone depth for construction an ideal tree structure and adding the position search of group of members with the ordered group member management. To switch empty zone problem met by most routing protocols using a zone structure. Finally, we plan a pattern to switch the security problem faced by the multicasting. The scalability and the productivity of EGMP are assessed through simulations and quantitative analysis. Our results prove that EGMP has great packet delivery ratio, and low control overhead, and is accessible to both group size and network size. EGMP has expressively lower control overhead, data transmission overhead, and multicast group joining delay.

  20. Study of an asymmetric B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility in which e+ - e- beams collide with different beam energies (Eel/Epos > 3) would provide the possibility of measuring CP violation and rare decays in the B-quark system. Luminosities of several 1033 cm-2s-1 are required. In this paper the authors report on a study in which the use of the PETRA storage ring for such a facility is investigated. The basic concept is to exploit the existence of a large storage ring. This allows one to operate the asymmetric collider near the optimum Lorentz boost for the detection of the decay vertices of the B-mesons, namely βγ = 1. Beam energies of 12 GeV for the electrons and 2.33 GeV for the positrons stored in a 144-m-circumference ring appear to be the best compromise between optimum Lorentz boost, high luminosity, and tolerable synchrotron radiation power losses. The main factors in attaining high luminosity are the high multibunch beam currents in both beams, high single bunch currents in the low-energy beam, operation with many bunches requiring quick beam separation, strong low-β focusing, synchrotron radiation generated in the beam separators, and finally large total synchrotron radiation power loss of the beam. Practical solutions using currently available accelerator technology are discussed in this report

  1. Cells as Active Particles in Asymmetric Potentials: Motility under External Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelles, Jordi; Caballero, David; Voituriez, Raphaël; Hortigüela, Verónica; Wollrab, Viktoria; Godeau, Amélie Luise; Samitier, Josep; Martínez, Elena; Riveline, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is a crucial event during development and in disease. Mechanical constraints and chemical gradients can contribute to the establishment of cell direction, but their respective roles remain poorly understood. Using a microfabricated topographical ratchet, we show that the nucleus dictates the direction of cell movement through mechanical guidance by its environment. We demonstrate that this direction can be tuned by combining the topographical ratchet with a biochemical gradient of fibronectin adhesion. We report competition and cooperation between the two external cues. We also quantitatively compare the measurements associated with the trajectory of a model that treats cells as fluctuating particles trapped in a periodic asymmetric potential. We show that the cell nucleus contributes to the strength of the trap, whereas cell protrusions guided by the adhesive gradients add a constant tunable bias to the direction of cell motion. PMID:25296303

  2. Independently tunable double electromagenetically induced transparency-like resonances in asymmetric plasmonic waveguide resonator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Da-Ming; Wang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Qi; Zhai, Xiang; Li, Hong-Ju; Xia, Sheng-Xuan

    2016-05-01

    Double electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like resonances are numerically achieved by detuning and bright-dark coupling in an asymmetric plasmonic waveguide resonator system. The transmission properties of the system are simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Just because double EIT-like resonances originate from different mechanisms, a single EIT-like resonance can be well tuned independently, namely, one induced transparency window can be tuned in the horizontal direction while the other one is nearly invariable. The present design idea will be applicable in highly integrated optical circuits. Moreover, the formation of double EIT-like resonances may play a guiding role when designing plasmonic devices.

  3. Influence of symmetry energy on the multifragmentation of asymmetric heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the role of different density dependencies of symmetry energy on fragmentation pattern, we simulated thousands of events for the asymmetric collisions of 40Ar + 64Cu,108Ag, 197Au using soft equation of state supplemented by energy-dependent nucleon-nucleon cross-section reduced by 20%, i.e, σnn = 0.8 σfreenn free for three different values of γ= 0.5, 1 and 2. The choice of colliding geometry and incident energies is guided from the experimental measurements. As these reactions cover wide range of asymmetry (η = 0.2-0.6) and experimental measurements are also available, so we simulate these reactions to study the effect of different density dependencies of symmetry energy

  4. Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the eastern North Pacific and adjacent Arctic waters: a guide to their identification

    OpenAIRE

    Leatherwood, Stephen; Randall R Reeves; Perrin, William F; William E Evans; Hobbs, Larry

    1982-01-01

    This is an identification guide for cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), that was designed to assist laymen in identifying cetaceans encountered in eastern North Pacific and Arctic waters. It was intended for use by ongoing cetacean observer programs. This is a revision of an earlier guide with the same title published in 1972 by the Naval Undersa Center and the National Marine Fisheries Service. It includes sections on identifying cetaceans at sea as well as stranded animals on sh...

  5. Asymmetric triplex metallohelices with high and selective activity against cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Alan D.; Kaner, Rebecca A.; Abdallah, Qasem M. A.; Clarkson, Guy; Fox, David J.; Gurnani, Pratik; Howson, Suzanne E.; Phillips, Roger M.; Roper, David I.; Simpson, Daniel H.; Scott, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Small cationic amphiphilic α-helical peptides are emerging as agents for the treatment of cancer and infection, but they are costly and display unfavourable pharmacokinetics. Helical coordination complexes may offer a three-dimensional scaffold for the synthesis of mimetic architectures. However, the high symmetry and modest functionality of current systems offer little scope to tailor the structure to interact with specific biomolecular targets, or to create libraries for phenotypic screens. Here, we report the highly stereoselective asymmetric self-assembly of very stable, functionalized metallohelices. Their anti-parallel head-to-head-to-tail ‘triplex’ strand arrangement creates an amphipathic functional topology akin to that of the active sub-units of, for example, host-defence peptides and p53. The metallohelices display high, structure-dependent toxicity to the human colon carcinoma cell-line HCT116 p53++, causing dramatic changes in the cell cycle without DNA damage. They have lower toxicity to human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-468) and, most remarkably, they show no significant toxicity to the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  6. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-05-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis. PMID:26833260

  7. Asymmetric pore occupancy in crystal structure of OmpF porin from Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, D; Arockiasamy, Arulandu; Kumar, P D; Sharma, Amit; Krishnaswamy, S

    2012-06-01

    OmpF is a major general diffusion porin of Salmonella typhi, a Gram-negative bacterium, which is an obligatory human pathogen causing typhoid. The structure of S. typhi Ty21a OmpF (PDB Id: 3NSG) determined at 2.8 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography shows a 16-stranded β-barrel with three β-barrel monomers associated to form a trimer. The packing observed in S. typhi Ty21a rfOmpF crystals has not been observed earlier in other porin structures. The variations seen in the loop regions provide a starting point for using the S. typhi OmpF for structure-based multi-valent vaccine design. Along one side of the S. typhi Ty21a OmpF pore there exists a staircase arrangement of basic residues (20R, 60R, 62K, 65R, 77R, 130R and 16K), which also contribute, to the electrostatic potential in the pore. This structure suggests the presence of asymmetric electrostatics in the porin oligomer. Moreover, antibiotic translocation, permeability and reduced uptake in the case of mutants can be understood based on the structure paving the way for designing new antibiotics. PMID:22525817

  8. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis. PMID:26833260

  9. Single-particle cryoEM analysis at near-atomic resolution from several thousand asymmetric subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Dario Oliveira; Lyumkis, Dmitry

    2015-11-01

    A single-particle cryoEM reconstruction of the large ribosomal subunit from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained from a dataset of ∼75,000 particles. The gold-standard and frequency-limited approaches to single-particle refinement were each independently used to determine orientation parameters for the final reconstruction. Both approaches showed similar resolution curves and nominal resolution values for the 60S dataset, estimated at 2.9 Å. The amount of over-fitting present during frequency-limited refinement was quantitatively analyzed using the high-resolution phase-randomization test, and the results showed no apparent over-fitting. The number of asymmetric subunits required to reach specific resolutions was subsequently analyzed by refining subsets of the data in an ab initio manner. With our data collection and processing strategies, sub-nanometer resolution was obtained with ∼200 asymmetric subunits (or, equivalently for the ribosomal subunit, particles). Resolutions of 5.6 Å, 4.5 Å, and 3.8 Å were reached with ∼1000, ∼1600, and ∼5000 asymmetric subunits, respectively. At these resolutions, one would expect to detect alpha-helical pitch, separation of beta-strands, and separation of Cα atoms, respectively. Using this map, together with strategies for ab initio model building and model refinement, we built a region of the ribosomal protein eL6, which was missing in previous models of the yeast ribosome. The relevance for more routine high-resolution structure determination is discussed. PMID:26470814

  10. Manual on brachytherapy. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to a basic guide to the principles of the production of ionizing radiation and to methods of radiation protection and dosimetry, this booklet includes information about radiation protection procedures for brachytherapy

  11. Review of a model to assess stranding of juvenile salmon by ship wakes along the Lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Plumb, John M.; Adams, Noah S.

    2013-01-01

    Long period wake waves from deep draft vessels have been shown to strand small fish, particularly juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytcha, in the lower Columbia River (LCR). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for maintaining the shipping channel in the LCR and recently conducted dredging operations to deepen the shipping channel from an authorized depth of 40 feet(ft) to an authorized depth of 43 ft (in areas where rapid shoaling was expected, dredging operations were used to increase the channel depth to 48 ft). A model was developed to estimate stranding probabilities for juvenile salmon under the 40- and 43-ft channel scenarios, to determine if channel deepening was going to affect wake stranding (Assessment of potential stranding of juvenile salmon by ship wakes along the Lower Columbia River under scenarios of ship traffic and channel depth: Report prepared for the Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, Oregon). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers funded the U.S. Geological Survey to review this model. A total of 30 review questions were provided to guide the review process, and these questions are addressed in this report. In general, we determined that the analyses by Pearson (2011) were appropriate given the data available. We did identify two areas where additional information could have been provided: (1) a more thorough description of model diagnostics and model selection would have been useful for the reader to better understand the model framework; and (2) model uncertainty should have been explicitly described and reported in the document. Stranding probability estimates between the 40- and 43-ft channel depths were minimally different under most of the scenarios that were examined by Pearson (2011), and a discussion of the effects of uncertainty given these minimal differences would have been useful. Ultimately, however, a stochastic (or simulation) model would provide the best opportunity to illustrate

  12. Guide to energy management

    CERN Document Server

    Capehart, B L

    2002-01-01

    This thoroughly revised and updated, Guide to Energy Management, Fourth Edition is a manager's guide to the most important areas of energy cost cutting. Written by three of the most respected energy professionals in the industry, the book provides valuabl

  13. Vegan Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Vegan Food Guide KidsHealth > For Parents > Vegan Food Guide ... a Vegan Diet Is Vegetarian the Same as Vegan? Lots of people limit their intake of meat — ...

  14. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  15. Asymmetric Aldol Reaction with Formaldehyde: a Challenging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meninno, Sara; Lattanzi, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    The asymmetric aldol reaction with formaldehyde is a fundamental carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction in organic synthesis, as well as in the quest of the origin of life, as it is thought to have been the first "molecular brick" involved in the synthetic path to complex sugars. Products of aldol reactions, i.e., the β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, are versatile building blocks used to access a great variety of functionalised molecules. The employment of formaldehyde, as a C1 symmetric electrophile, in aldol reactions can be likely considered the most challenging, yet simplest, process to introduce a hydroxymethyl group in an asymmetric fashion. In this account, an overview of the progress achieved in the asymmetric metal- and organocatalysed aldol reaction, using readily available formalin or paraformaldehyde sources, is illustrated. Our recent contribution to this area, with the application of asymmetric hydroxymethylation in cascade processes for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactones, is also shown. PMID:27328802

  16. Vertical Control and Parallel Trade under Asymmetric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Avenali

    2015-05-01

    profits from the manufacturer to the wholesaler. Therefore, in R&D-intensive industries, such as pharmaceuticals, policy makers should anticipate the likely consequences of PT under asymmetric information on the long-run incentives to innovate.

  17. Asymmetric Synthesis of ( - ) -(2R, 3R, 6S ) -Irnigaine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA, Nan; MA, Da-Wei

    2003-01-01

    Asymmetric synthesis of irnigaine was achieved starting from an enantiopure β-amino ester 5 using the condensation of amino alcohol 2 with acetylacetone and the subsequent intramolecular cyclization as the key steps.

  18. Loss Aversion and the Asymmetric Transmission of Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Emiliano; Petrella, Ivan; Pfajfar, Damjan;

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread evidence that monetary policy exerts asymmetric effects on output over contractions and expansions in economic activity, while price responses display no sizeable asymmetry. To rationalize these facts we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model where households’ utility...

  19. Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Shear--dominated Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Iminniyaz, Hoernisa

    2016-01-01

    We explore the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter in shear--dominated universe in which it is assumed the universe is expanded anisotropically. The modified expansion rate leaves its imprint on the relic density of asymmetric Dark Matter particles if the asymmetric Dark Matter particles are decoupled in shear dominated era. We found the relic abundances for particle and anti--particle are increased. The particle and anti--particle abundances are almost in the same amount for appropriate annihilation cross section which makes the indirect detection possible for asymmetric Dark Matter. We use the present day Dark Matter density from the observation to find the constraints on the parameter space in this model.

  20. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.