Sample records for asymmetric exclusion processes

  1. Non-stationary probabilities for the asymmetric exclusion process on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stationary probabilities for the asymmetric exclusion process on a ring. V B Priezzhev. Invited Talks:- Topic 4: Pattern formation in systems out of equilibrium (growth processes, fracture, hydrodynamic instabilities, chemical reactions, granular flows, etc ...

  2. The Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process: An Exactly Solvable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Ayyer, Indian Institute of Science


    Jun 30, 2017 ... Introduction. Multispecies ASEP. Affine Weyl Groups. Table of Contents. 1 Introduction. Motivation. Toy Model. 2 Multispecies ASEP. 3 Affine Weyl Groups. Arvind Ayyer, IISc. 28th Mid Year Meeting Faculty Hall, Indian Institute of Science. Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process ...

  3. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    CERN Document Server

    Lakatos, G


    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or ...

  4. Queuing transitions in the asymmetric simple exclusion process (United States)

    Ha, Meesoon; Timonen, Jussi; den Nijs, Marcel


    Stochastic driven flow along a channel can be modeled by the asymmetric simple exclusion process. We confirm numerically the presence of a dynamic queuing phase transition at a nonzero obstruction strength, and establish its scaling properties. Below the transition, the traffic jam is macroscopic in the sense that the length of the queue scales linearly with system size. Above the transition, only a power-law shaped queue remains. Its density profile scales as δρ˜x-ν with ν=1/3, and x is the distance from the obstacle. We construct a heuristic argument, indicating that the exponent ν=1/3 is universal and independent of the dynamic exponent of the underlying dynamic process. Fast bonds create only power-law shaped depletion queues, and with an exponent that could be equal to ν=2/3, but the numerical results yield consistently somewhat smaller values ν≃0.63(3). The implications of these results to faceting of growing interfaces and localization of directed polymers in random media, both in the presence of a columnar defect are pointed out as well.

  5. Rényi entropy of the totally asymmetric exclusion process (United States)

    Wood, Anthony J.; Blythe, Richard A.; Evans, Martin R.


    The Rényi entropy is a generalisation of the Shannon entropy that is sensitive to the fine details of a probability distribution. We present results for the Rényi entropy of the totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP). We calculate explicitly an entropy whereby the squares of configuration probabilities are summed, using the matrix product formalism to map the problem to one involving a six direction lattice walk in the upper quarter plane. We derive the generating function across the whole phase diagram, using an obstinate kernel method. This gives the leading behaviour of the Rényi entropy and corrections in all phases of the TASEP. The leading behaviour is given by the result for a Bernoulli measure and we conjecture that this holds for all Rényi entropies. Within the maximal current phase the correction to the leading behaviour is logarithmic in the system size. Finally, we remark upon a special property of equilibrium systems whereby discontinuities in the Rényi entropy arise away from phase transitions, which we refer to as secondary transitions. We find no such secondary transition for this nonequilibrium system, supporting the notion that these are specific to equilibrium cases.

  6. Self-duality for the two-component asymmetric simple exclusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, V. [Instituto de Matemática e Estátistica, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1010, CEP 05508-090 São Paulo-SP (Brazil); Schütz, G. M. [Institute of Complex Systems II, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)


    We study a two-component asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) that is equivalent to the ASEP with second-class particles. We prove self-duality with respect to a family of duality functions which are shown to arise from the reversible measures of the process and the symmetry of the generator under the quantum algebra U{sub q}[gl{sub 3}]. We construct all invariant measures in explicit form and discuss some of their properties. We also prove a sum rule for the duality functions.

  7. Asymmetric Exclusion Process with Constrained Hopping and Parallel Dynamics at a Junction (United States)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Tuo, Xianguo; Li, Zhe; Yang, Jianbo

    In this article totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with constrained hopping and parallel dynamics at a junction is investigated using a mean-field approximation and Monte Carlo simulations. The constrained particle hopping probability r (r ≤ 1) at a junction may correspond to a delay caused by a driver choosing the right direction or a delay waiting for green traffic light in the real world. There are six stationary phases in the system, which can reflect free flow and congested traffic situations. Correlations at the junction point are investigated via simulations. It is observed that small r leads to stronger correlations. The theoretical results are agreement with computer simulations well.

  8. Time-headway distribution for periodic totally asymmetric exclusion process with various updates (United States)

    Hrabák, P.; Krbálek, M.


    The totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with periodic boundaries is considered as traffic flow model. The large-L approximation of the stationary state is used for the derivation of the time-headway distribution (an important microscopic characteristic of traffic flow) for the model with generalized update (genTASEP) in both, forward- and backward-sequential representations. The usually used updates, fully-parallel and regular forward- and backward-sequential, are analyzed as special cases of the genTASEP. It is shown that only for those cases, the time-headway distribution is determined by the flow regardless to the density. The qualitative comparison of the results with traffic data demonstrates that the genTASEP with backward order and attractive interaction evinces similar properties of time-headway distribution as the real traffic sample.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Septiana


    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Penelitian ini mengkaji model dinamik yaitu Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Process (TASEP khususnya dalam dua dimensi (2D. Selain itu akan dibahas pula mengenai syarat batas dan aturan dinamika yang digunakan dalam pemodelan ini. TASEP telah diaplikasikan dalam berbagai bidang, salah satunya ialah pemodelan lalu lintas kendaraan (traffic flow. Sistem dua dimensi yang akan dikaji adalah sistem yang diskrit, yakni sistem ke kisi dua dimensi. Sistem ini dimodifikasi menjadi bentuk pertigaan (junction yang searah. Lebih jauh lagi, kendaraan yang melalui pertigaan dimodelkan sebagai partikel yang melompat dari satu kisi ke ke kisi yang lain. Nilai kepadatan dan rapat arus partikel dalam sistem tersebut ditentukan secara numerik. Persamaan kontinuitas untuk menggambarkan dinamika partikel dalam TASEP diselesaikan menggunakan metode Euler. Profil kepadatan dan rapat arus partikel dipengaruhi oleh laju masukan (input rate dan laju keluaran (output rate lompatan partikel.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ The research analyzed a dynamic model of Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Process (TASEP, especially in two dimensions (2D and  also the boundary and rules dynamic conditions  used in this modeling. TASEP has been applied in various fields, one of them is the modeling of vehicle traffic. Two-dimensional system that will be studied is the discrete system of two-dimensional lattice system. The system is modified into the form of unidirectional T-junction . Furthermore, the vehicles that pass the junction are modeled as particles that jump from one lattice to another lattice. The value of the density and current density of particles in the system is determined numerically. The continuity equation to describe the dynamics of particles in TASEP is solved by using Euler's method. The profiles of

  10. The asymmetric simple exclusion process on chains with a shortcut revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bunzarova, Nadezhda; Brankov, Jordan


    We consider the asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) on open network consisting of three consecutively coupled macroscopic chain segments with a shortcut between the tail of the first segment and the head of the third one. The model was introduced by Y.-M. Yuan et al [J. Phys. A 40, 12351 (2007)] to describe directed motion of molecular motors along filaments. We report here unexpected results in the case of maximum current through the network which revise the previous findings. Our theoretical analysis, based on the effective rates approximation, shows that the second (shunted) segment can exist in both low-density and high-density phases, as well as in the coexistence (shock) phase. Numerical simulations demonstrate that it is the last option that takes place - the local density distribution and the nearest-neighbor correlations in the middle chain correspond to a shock phase with completely delocalized domain wall. Surprisingly, the main quantitative parameters of that shock phase are governed by a ...

  11. Analytical and simulation studies of 2D asymmetric simple exclusion process (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Jun; Yu, Shao-Long; Zhu, Kongjin; Ding, Jian-Xun; Chen, Bokui; Shi, Qin; Lu, Xiao-Shan; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Bing-Hong


    Two species of particles driven perpendicularly and interacting through hardcore exclusion on the 2D lattice is studied. Each particle has three moving directions without the back step. Under periodic boundary conditions, an intermediate phase has been found at which some particles could move along the border of jamming stripes. We have performed mean field analysis for the moving and intermediate phase respectively. The analytical results agree with the simulation results well. The empty site moves along the interface of jamming stripes when the system only has one empty site. The average movement of empty site in one Monte Carlo step (MCS) has been analyzed through the master equation. Under open boundary conditions, the system exhibits moving and jamming phases. The critical injection probability αc shows non-monotonically against the forward moving probability q. The analytical results of average velocity, the density and the flow rate against the injection probability in the moving phase also agree with simulation results well.

  12. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.


    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions.

  13. Shortcut with pool under parallel update rule on one-dimensional lattice totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (United States)

    Xiao, Song; Chen, Xiaoyu; Liang, Ruquan; Liu, Yanna


    This paper studies one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with a pool-shortcut under parallel update rule. Here, the pool is a special area which is introduced into a TASEP on a single lane with shortcut with the probabilities of entering (p) and leaving (q). Different from the existed researches, the parameters of p and q are unequal. To simplify the calculations, the simplest case with parallel update is considered, namely the hopping probability in the bulk equals unity. The theoretical calculation results are compared to the densities acquired by Monte Carlo simulations, and they agree very well. The diagram includes five phases, namely LD/LD/LD, HD/HD/HD, LD/LD/HD, MC/LD/LD and MC/LD/HD phases. It is divided into the LD/LD/LD and HD/HD/HD two regions by the LD/LD/HD phase. Interestingly, the MC/LD/LD and MC/LD/HD phases become a straight line and a point, respectively. The influences of parameters p and q (p > q) on the phases are examined. It is found that the HD/HD/HD phase region shrinks, when the variable q reduces from 0.6 to 0.2 (p is fixed, p = 0.8).

  14. Asymmetric inclusion process. (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri


    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites' occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  15. Determinantal Representation of the Time-Dependent Stationary Correlation Function for the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Bogoliubov


    Full Text Available The basic model of the non-equilibrium low dimensional physics the so-called totally asymmetric exclusion process is related to the 'crystalline limit' (q → ∞ of the SU_q(2 quantum algebra. Using the quantum inverse scattering method we obtain the exact expression for the time-dependent stationary correlation function of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process on a one dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions.

  16. Critical behavior of the exclusive queueing process (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Schadschneider, Andreas


    The exclusive queueing process (EQP) is a generalization of the classical M/M/1 queue. It is equivalent to a totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) of varying length. Here we consider two discrete-time versions of the EQP with parallel and backward-sequential update rules. The phase diagram (with respect to the arrival probability α and the service probability β) is divided into two phases corresponding to divergence and convergence of the system length. We investigate the behavior on the critical line separating these phases. For both update rules, we find diffusive behavior for small service probability (\\beta \\beta_c it becomes sub-diffusive and nonuniversal: the critical exponents characterizing the divergence of the system length and the number of customers are found to depend on the update rule. For the backward-update case, they also depend on the hopping parameter p, and remain finite when p is large, indicating a first-order transition.

  17. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Exclusive processes such as proton–proton elastic scattering, meson photoproduction, and deuteron photodisintegration have been pursued extensively at many laboratories over the years in the search for such a transition, particularly at Jefferson Lab in recent years, taking the advantage of the high luminosity capability of ...

  18. Dynamical analysis of the exclusive queueing process. (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Schadschneider, Andreas


    Recently, the stationary state of a parallel-update totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with varying system length, which can be regarded as a queueing process with excluded-volume effect (exclusive queueing process), was obtained [C Arita and D Yanagisawa, J. Stat. Phys. 141, 829 (2010)]. In this paper, we analyze the dynamical properties of the number of particles [N(t)] and the position of the last particle (the system length) [L(t)], using an analytical method (generating function technique) as well as a phenomenological description based on domain-wall dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The system exhibits two phases corresponding to linear convergence or divergence of [N(t)] and [L(t)]. These phases can both further be subdivided into high-density and maximal-current subphases. The predictions of the domain-wall theory are found to be in very good agreement quantitively with results from Monte Carlo simulations in the convergent phase. On the other hand, in the divergent phase, only the prediction for [N(t)] agrees with simulations.

  19. Exclusion Process with Slow Boundary (United States)

    Baldasso, Rangel; Menezes, Otávio; Neumann, Adriana; Souza, Rafael R.


    We study the hydrodynamic and the hydrostatic behavior of the simple symmetric exclusion process with slow boundary. The term slow boundary means that particles can be born or die at the boundary sites, at a rate proportional to N^{-θ }, where θ > 0 and N is the scaling parameter. In the bulk, the particles exchange rate is equal to 1. In the hydrostatic scenario, we obtain three different linear profiles, depending on the value of the parameter θ ; in the hydrodynamic scenario, we obtain that the time evolution of the spatial density of particles, in the diffusive scaling, is given by the weak solution of the heat equation, with boundary conditions that depend on θ . If θ \\in (0,1), we get Dirichlet boundary conditions, (which is the same behavior if θ =0, see Farfán in Hydrostatics, statical and dynamical large deviations of boundary driven gradient symmetric exclusion processes, 2008); if θ =1, we get Robin boundary conditions; and, if θ \\in (1,∞), we get Neumann boundary conditions.

  20. Exclusive diffractive processes in QCD (United States)

    Pichowsky, M. A.; Lee, T.-S. H.


    We consider the role of nonperturbative, confined quarks in the Pomeron-exchange model of exclusive, diffractive processes. In our approach, mesons are treated as q-barq bound states and Pomeron-exchange mediates the quark-nucleon interaction. This interaction is modeled in terms of 4 parameters which are completely determined by examining π p and K p elastic scattering. The predicted ρ- and φ-meson electroproduction cross sections are in excellent agreement with the data. It is shown that the differences in the behavior of electroproduction cross sections for the different vector mesons (ρ, φ, J/ψ) arise from their quark substructures. Furthermore, several interesting features of vector meson electroproduction, recently observed at DESY, naturally arise in this approach. The model is also used to predict ρ p, φ p, ρ ρ, φ φ, and φ ρ elastic scattering cross sections necessary for investigations of QCD aspects of vector meson production from relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  1. Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Nittono, Hiroshi


    People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012). In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1) constructional elements of social exclusion, (2) detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3) development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion, and (4) sources of social exclusion.

  2. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    namics, where nucleon–meson degrees of freedom are effective to perturbative QCD of quark and gluon degrees of freedom, is one of the most fundamental, challenging tasks in nuclear and particle physics. Exclusive ... There is no clear guidance from theory as to the limits of the transition region; it must instead be ...

  3. Density profiles of the exclusive queueing process


    Arita, Chikashi; Schadschneider, Andreas


    The exclusive queueing process (EQP) incorporates the exclusion principle into classic queueing models. It can be interpreted as an exclusion process of variable system length. Here we extend previous studies of its phase diagram by identifying subphases which can be distinguished by the number of plateaus in the density profiles. Furthermore the influence of different update procedures (parallel, backward-ordered, continuous time) is determined.

  4. Exclusive hadronic processes and color transparency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hadronic processes; color transparency. PACS Nos 24.85.+p; 25.30.-c. 1. Introduction. It is known that at asymptotically large momentum transfer certain exclusive hadronic reac- tions are calculable within the framework of perturbative QCD (pQCD) due to asymptotic freedom. However the applicability of pQCD to exclusive ...

  5. Exclusive processes in pp collisions in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil


    We report the results on the searches of exclusive production of low- and high-mass pairs with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The analyses comprise the central exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma$ production, the exclusive two-photon production of dileptons, $e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, and the exclusive two-photon production of $W$ pairs in the asymmetric $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ decay channel. No diphotons candidates are observed in data and an upper limit on the cross section is set to 1.18 pb with 95% confidence level for $E_{T}(\\gamma)>$ 5.5 GeV and $|\\eta(\\gamma)|$ 5.5 GeV and $|\\eta(e)|$ 11.5 GeV, $p_{\\textrm{T}}(\\mu)>$ 4 GeV and $|\\eta(\\mu)|$ 4 GeV, $|\\eta(\\mu)|$ 20 GeV. Moreover, the study of the tail of the dilepton transverse momentum distribution resulted in model-independent upper limits for the anomalous quartic gauge couplings, which are of the order of 10$^{-4}$.

  6. Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi eKawamoto


    Full Text Available People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012, Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience, 4, 11. In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1 constructional elements of social exclusion, (2 detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3 development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion and (4 sources of social exclusion.

  7. Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul


    This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.

  8. Imaging partons in exclusive scattering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus


    The spatial distribution of partons in the proton can be probed in suitable exclusive scattering processes. I report on recent performance estimates for parton imaging at a proposed Electron-Ion Collider.

  9. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)


    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  10. Power corrections to exclusive processes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankiewicz, Lech


    In practice applicability of twist expansion crucially depends on the magnitude to power corrections to the leading-twist amplitude. I illustrate this point by considering explicit examples of two hard exclusive processes in QCD. In the case of {gamma}{sup *}{gamma} {yields} {pi}{pi} amplitude power corrections are small enough such that it should be possible to describe current experimental data by the leading-twist QCD prediction. The photon helicity-flip amplitude in DVCS on a nucleon receives large kinematical power corrections which screen the leading-twist prediction up to large values of the hard photon virtuality.

  11. Dynamic Conditional Correlations for Asymmetric Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThe paper develops two Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models, namely the Wishart DCC (WDCC) model and the Matrix-Exponential Conditional Correlation (MECC) model. The paper applies the WDCC approach to the exponential GARCH (EGARCH) and GJR models to propose asymmetric DCC models.

  12. Generalized parton distributions and exclusive processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzey, Vadim [Hampton U.


    In last fifteen years, GPDs have emerged as a powerful tool to reveal such aspects of the QCD structure of the nucleon as: - 3D parton correlations and distributions; - spin content of the nucleon. Further advances in the field of GPDs and hard exclusive processes rely on: - developments in theory and new methods in phenomenology such as new flexible parameterizations, neural networks, global QCD fits - new high-precision data covering unexplored kinematics: JLab at 6 and 12 GeV, Hermes with recoil detector, Compass, EIC. This slide-show presents: Nucleon structure in QCD, particularly hard processes, factorization and parton distributions; and a brief overview of GPD phenomenology, including basic properties of GPDs, GPDs and QCD structure of the nucleon, and constraining GPDs from experiments.

  13. Asymmetric continuum extreme processes in solids and fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Teisseyre, Roman


    This book deals with a class of basic deformations in asymmetric continuum theory. It describes molecular deformations and transport velocities in fluids, strain deformations in solids as well as the molecular transport, important in fracture processes.

  14. Exact dynamical state of the exclusive queueing process with deterministic hopping. (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Schadschneider, Andreas


    The exclusive queueing process (EQP) has recently been introduced as a model for the dynamics of queues that takes into account the spatial structure of the queue. It can be interpreted as a totally asymmetric exclusion process of varying length. Here we investigate the case of deterministic bulk hopping p=1 that turns out to be one of the rare cases where exact nontrivial results for the dynamical properties can be obtained. Using a time-dependent matrix product form we calculate several dynamical properties, e.g., the density profile of the system.

  15. Non-stationary probabilities for the asymmetric exclusion process on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    choice of signs of permutations. .... On the ring, each of the two trajectories can be active or passive independently on initial conditions. Moreover, one trajectory can intersect another m times if the number of rotations differ by m for two particles. Assume, that the trajectory of a given particle has m active intersections. It.

  16. Asymmetrical Inheritance of Plasmids Depends on Dynamic Cellular Geometry and Volume Exclusion Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai A Denton

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical inheritance of plasmid DNA, as well as other cellular components, has been shown to be involved in replicative aging. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is an ongoing debate regarding the mechanisms underlying this important asymmetry. Currently proposed models suggest it is established via diffusion, but differ on whether a diffusion barrier is necessary or not. However, no study so far incorporated key aspects to segregation, such as dynamic morphology changes throughout anaphase or plasmids size. Here, we determine the distinct effects and contributions of individual cellular variability, plasmid volume and moving boundaries in the asymmetric segregation of plasmids. We do this by measuring cellular nuclear geometries and plasmid diffusion rates with confocal microscopy, subsequently incorporating this data into a growing domain stochastic spatial simulator. Our modelling and simulations confirms that plasmid asymmetrical inheritance does not require an active barrier to diffusion, and provides a full analysis on plasmid size effects.

  17. Measurement of exclusive processes with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bylinkin, Alexandr


    Exclusive vector meson photoproduction is studied in ultra-peripheral pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV. The cross sections are measured as a function of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, extending the energy range explored by H1 and ZEUS Experiments at HERA. In addition, the differential cross sections ($d\\sigma/dt$), where $t\\approx p^{2}_{T}$ is the squared transverse momentum of produced vector mesons, are measured and the slope parameters are obtained. The results are compared to previous measurements and to theoretical predictions. We also report a measurement of the exclusive or quasi-exclusive $W^{+}W^{-}$ production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV ($7$ TeV) using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $19.7$ fb$^{-1}$ ($5.5$fb$^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. Finally, the latest performance plots of combined...

  18. Stochastic thermodynamics for Ising chain and symmetric exclusion process. (United States)

    Toral, R; Van den Broeck, C; Escaff, D; Lindenberg, Katja


    We verify the finite-time fluctuation theorem for a linear Ising chain in contact with heat reservoirs at its ends. Analytic results are derived for a chain consisting of two spins. The system can be mapped onto a model for particle transport, namely, the symmetric exclusion process in contact with thermal and particle reservoirs. We modify the symmetric exclusion process to represent a thermal engine and reproduce universal features of the efficiency at maximum power.

  19. Dissociable brain mechanisms for processing social exclusion and rule violation. (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; McPartland, James C; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A


    Social exclusion inherently involves an element of expectancy violation, in that we expect other people to follow the unwritten rule to include us in social interactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a unique modification of an interactive virtual ball-tossing game called "Cyberball" (Williams et al., 2000) and a novel paradigm called "Cybershape," in which rules are broken in the absence of social exclusion, to dissociate brain regions that process social exclusion from rule violations more generally. Our Cyberball game employed an alternating block design and removed evoked responses to events when the participant was throwing the ball in inclusion to make this condition comparable to exclusion, where participants did not throw. With these modifications, we replicated prior findings of ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), insula, and posterior cingulate cortex activity evoked by social exclusion relative to inclusion. We also identified exclusion-evoked activity in the hippocampi, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and left middle temporal gyrus. Comparing social exclusion and rule violation revealed a functional dissociation in the active neural systems as well as differential functional connectivity with vACC. Some overlap was observed in regions differentially modulated by social exclusion and rule violation, including the vACC and lateral parietal cortex. These overlapping brain regions showed different activation during social exclusion compared to rule violation, each relative to fair play. Comparing activation patterns to social exclusion and rule violation allowed for the dissociation of brain regions involved in the experience of exclusion versus expectancy violation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion in Physical Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Munk; Agergaard, Sine


    Existing research on inclusion and exclusion processes in physical education (PE) has particularly focused on exclusion from PE as something being done to students and attributed to specific social categories such as (female) gender, (low) physical skills or (minority) ethnic background....... This article aims to develop a social-relational perspective on inclusion and exclusion processes defined as students’ participation or non-participation in PE interpreted as a community of practice. In so doing, the article examines how students’ experiences of participation and non-participation in PE...... or non-participation is important not only in terms of how we talk about students as passive victims or active agents, but also in terms of future intervention aimed at promoting inclusion processes in PE....

  1. Mixing of the Exclusion Process with Small Bias (United States)

    Levin, David A.; Peres, Yuval


    We analyze the mixing behavior of the biased exclusion process on a path of length n as the bias β _n tends to 0 as n → ∞. We show that the sequence of chains has a pre-cutoff, and interpolates between the unbiased exclusion and the process with constant bias. As the bias increases, the mixing time undergoes two phase transitions: one when β _n is of order 1 / n, and the other when β _n is order log n/n.

  2. Dispersion representations for hard exclusive processes. Beyond the born approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    Several hard exclusive scattering processes admit a description in terms of generalized parton distributions and perturbative hard-scattering kernels. Both the physical amplitude and the hard-scattering kernels fulfill dispersion relations. We give a detailed investigation of their consistency at all orders in perturbation theory. The results shed light on the information about generalized parton distributions that can be extracted from the real and imaginary parts of exclusive amplitudes. They also provide a practical consistency check for models of these distributions in which Lorentz invariance is not exactly satisfied. (orig.)

  3. Inclusive and Exclusive Compton Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaker, Ales [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)


    In our work, we describe two types of Compton processes. As an example of an inclusive process, we consider the high-energy photoproduction of massive muon pairs off the nucleon. We analyze the process in the framework of the QCD parton model, in which the usual parton distributions emerge as a tool to describe the nucleon in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. To study its exclusive version, a new class of phenomenological functions is required, namely, generalized parton distributions. They can be considered as a generalization of the usual parton distributions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) may be observed in hard exclusive reactions such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. We develop an extension of this particular process into the weak interaction sector. We also investigate a possible application of the GPD formalism to wide-angle real Compton scattering.

  4. The AdS/QCD Correspondence and Exclusive Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Deur, Alexandre; /Jefferson Lab


    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS}(q) and its {beta}-function which agrees with the effective coupling {alpha}{sub ga} extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable {zeta}, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties as well as decay constants, form factors, deeply virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. One thus obtains a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level with dimensional counting for hard exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer. As specific examples we discuss the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors in the space-like and time-like regions. We also review the phenomenology of exclusive processes including some anomalous empirical results.

  5. Two-photon exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.


    QCD predictions for ..gamma gamma.. annihilation into single mesons, meson pairs, and baryon pairs are reviewed. Two-photon exclusive processes provide the most sensitive and practical measure of the distribution amplitudes, and thus a critical confrontation between QCD and experiment. Both the angular distribution and virtual photon mass dependence of these amplitudes are sensitive to the shapes of the phi (chi, Q). Novel effects involving the production of qq anti q anti q states at threshold are also discussed, and a new method is presented for systematically incorporating higher-order QCD corrections in ..gamma gamma.. reactions.

  6. Progress in the theory of hard exclusive processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gousset, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique


    Recent progresses in the theory of hard exclusive processes are reviewed. The hard scattering mechanism and the factorization of perturbative QCD amplitudes from wave-function-like quantities is now well understood. The effects of soft gluon radiation are controlled through Sudakov form factors which protect observables from dangerous end-point contributions. The phenomenology of this mature framework is eagerly waiting for precise experimental data in a domain where transfers are O(10 GeV{sup 2}). (author). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Characterization of branched ultrahigh molar mass polymers by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation and size exclusion chromatography. (United States)

    Otte, T; Pasch, H; Macko, T; Brüll, R; Stadler, F J; Kaschta, J; Becker, F; Buback, M


    The molar mass distribution (MMD) of synthetic polymers is frequently analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to multi angle light scattering (MALS) detection. For ultrahigh molar mass (UHM) or branched polymers this method is not sufficient, because shear degradation and abnormal elution effects falsify the calculated molar mass distribution and information on branching. High temperatures above 130 °C have to be applied for dissolution and separation of semi-crystalline materials like polyolefins which requires special hardware setups. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) offers the possibility to overcome some of the main problems of SEC due to the absence of an obstructing porous stationary phase. The SEC-separation mainly depends on the pore size distribution of the used column set. The analyte molecules can enter the pores of the stationary phase in dependence on their hydrodynamic volume. The archived separation is a result of the retention time of the analyte species inside SEC-column which depends on the accessibility of the pores, the residence time inside the pores and the diffusion ability of the analyte molecules. The elution order in SEC is typically from low to high hydrodynamic volume. On the contrary AF4 separates according to the diffusion coefficient of the analyte molecules as long as the chosen conditions support the normal FFF-separation mechanism. The separation takes place in an empty channel and is caused by a cross-flow field perpendicular to the solvent flow. The analyte molecules will arrange in different channel heights depending on the diffusion coefficients. The parabolic-shaped flow profile inside the channel leads to different elution velocities. The species with low hydrodynamic volume will elute first while the species with high hydrodynamic volume elute later. The AF4 can be performed at ambient or high temperature (AT-/HT-AF4). We have analyzed one low molar mass polyethylene sample and a number of

  8. Modeling of asymmetric membrane formation by a combination of dry/wet phase inversion processes


    Altınkaya, Sacide


    The invention of asymmetric polymer membranes by Loeb and Sourirajan has caused an enormous growth in the field of membrane science and technology. Application areas range from chemical, biomedical to biotechnology industries. Asymmetric membranes are mostly fabricated by a process called phase inversion which can be achieved through four principal methods: immersion precipitation (wet phase inversion), vapor-induced phase separation, thermally induced phase separation and dry-...

  9. Myopic random walkers and exclusion processes: Single and multispecies (United States)

    Landman, Kerry A.; Fernando, Anthony E.


    A motility mechanism based on a simple exclusion process, where the probability of movement of an agent depends on the number of unoccupied nearest-neighbor sites is considered. Such interacting agents are termed myopic. This problem is an extension of the famous blind or myopic ant in a labyrinth problem. For the interacting agent models considered here, each agent plays the role of an ant in a labyrinth, where the paths of allowed sites though the labyrinth consist of sites not occupied by other agents. We derive a nonlinear diffusion equation for the average occupancy of the discrete agent-based model for myopic agents. In contrast, interacting blind agents have a constant probability of movement to each of their nearest-neighbor sites, giving rise to a linear diffusion equation. Insight into the various terms in the nonlinear diffusion coefficient is obtained from a study of multiple subpopulations of interacting myopic agents, where an advection-diffusion equation for each subpopulation is derived, and from tracking an individual agent within the crowd, where a motility coefficient is extracted. Averaged discrete simulation data compares very well with the solution to the continuum models. We also compare the behavior of myopic and blind agents. The myopic motility mechanism is biologically motivated to emulate information an individual cell gathers from environment cues. The multispecies model developed and investigated here assists with the interpretation of experimental data involving the tracking subpopulations of cells within a total cell population.

  10. Measurement of diffractive and exclusive processes with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gach Grzegorz


    Full Text Available The ATLAS Collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV at the LHC. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. Prospects for exclusive jet production studies with the forward proton tagging capability of the AFP sub-detector of ATLAS are also discussed. First results based on data taken jointly with the ATLAS and the LHCf detectors in a p+Pb run will also be shown. In addition, the measurement of the cross-section for the exclusive production of di-lepton pairs in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV is discussed.

  11. Measurement of diffractive and exclusive processes with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00184415; The ATLAS collaboration


    The ATLAS collaboration has carried out a study diffractive dijet production at 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC, i.e. events with a hadronic system containing at least two jets in addition to a large region of pseudorapidity devoid of hadronic activity. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. Prospects for exclusive jet production studies with the forward proton tagging capability of the AFP sub-detector of ATLAS will be discussed. A first look at data taken jointly with the ATLAS and LHCf detectors in a p+Pb run will also be shown. In addition the measurement of the exclusive $\\gamma+\\gamma \\rightarrow ll$ production cross-section in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV has been carried out.

  12. Exclusive processes at JLab at 6 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Andrey


    Full Text Available Deeply virtual exclusive reactions provide a unique opportunity to probe the complex internal structure of the nucleon. They allow to access information about the correlations between parton transverse spatial and longitudinal momentum distributions from experimental observables. Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP have been carried out at Jefferson Lab using continuous electron beam with energies up to 6 GeV. Unpolarized cross sections, beam, target and double spin asymmetries have been measured for DVCS as well as for π0 exclusive electroproduction. The data from Hall B provide a wide kinematic coverage with Q2=1-4.5 GeV2, xB=0.1-0.5, and −t up to 2 GeV2. Hall A data have limited kinematic range partially overlapping with Hall B kinematics but provide a high accuracy measurements. Scaling tests of the DVCS cross sections provide solid evidence of twist-2 dominance, which makes chiral-even GPDs accessible even at modest Q2. We will discuss the interpretation of these data in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs model. Successful description of the recent CLAS π0 exclusive production data within the framework of the GPD-based model provides a unique opportunity to access the chiral-odd GPDs.

  13. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e, 3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 63; Issue 5. Scaling of ... An approximate simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 3) process on helium-like ions for double ionization by fast electrons. ... The scaling law becomes increasingly accurate as the target nuclear charge and the energy increase.

  14. Asymmetric skew Bessel processes and their applications to finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decamps, M.; Goovaerts, M.J.; Schoutens, W.


    In this paper, we extend the Harrison and Shepp's construction of the skew Brownian motion (1981) and we obtain a diffusion similar to the two-dimensional Bessel process with speed and scale densities discontinuous at one point. Natural generalizations to multi-dimensional and fractional order

  15. Deeply Virtual Exclusive Processes and Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The goal of the comprehensive program in Deeply Virtual Exclusive Scattering at Jefferson Laboratory is to create transverse spatial images of quarks and gluons as a function of their longitudinal momentum fraction in the proton, the neutron, and in nuclei. These functions are the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the target nucleus. Cross section measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reaction ep {yields} ep{gamma} in Hall A support the QCD factorization of the scattering amplitude for Q^2 {>=} 2 GeV^2. Quasi-free neutron-DVCS measurements on the Deuteron indicate sensitivity to the quark angular momentum sum rule. Fully exclusive H(e, e'p{gamma} ) measurements have been made in a wide kinematic range in CLAS with polarized beam, and with both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized targets. Existing models are qualitatively consistent with the JLab data, but there is a clear need for less constrained models. Deeply virtual vector meson production is studied in CLAS. The 12 GeV upgrade will be essential for for these channels. The {rho} and {omega} channels reactions offer the prospect of flavor sensitivity to the quark GPDs, while the {phi}-production channel is dominated by the gluon distribution.

  16. AdS/CFT and Exclusive Processes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.


    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. One can use holography to map the amplitude describing the hadronic state in the fifth dimension of Anti-de Sitter space AdS5 to the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {var_sigma} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. New relativistic light-front equations in ordinary space-time can then be derived which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess elegant algebraic structures and integrability properties. This connection between the AdS and the light-front representations allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, deeply virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. As specific examples we compute the pion coupling constant f{sub {pi}} and study the behavior of the pion form factor F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}) in the space and time-like regions. We also determine the Dirac nucleon form factors F{sup p}{sub 1}(q{sup 2}) and F{sup n}{sub 1} (q{sup 2}) in the space-like region.

  17. Metastability for the Exclusion Process with Mean-Field Interaction (United States)

    Asselah, Amine; Giacomin, Giambattista


    We consider an exclusion particle system with long-range, mean-field-type interactions at temperature 1/β. The hydrodynamic limit of such a system is given by an integrodifferential equation with one conservation law on the circle C: it is the gradient flux of the Kac free energy functional F β. For β≤1, any constant function with value m ∈ [-1, +1] is the global minimizer of F β in the space \\{ u:int_C {u(x)} dx = m\\} . For β>1, F β restricted to \\{ u:int_C {u(x)} dx = m\\} may have several local minima: in particular, the constant solution may not be the absolute minimizer of F β. We therefore study the long-time behavior of the particle system when the initial condition is close to a homogeneous stable state, giving results on the time of exit from (suitable) subsets of its domain of attraction. We follow the Freidlin-Wentzell approach: first, we study in detail F β together with the time asymptotics of the solution of the hydrodynamic equation; then we study the probability of rare events for the particle system, i.e., large deviations from the hydrodynamic limit.

  18. Process Design for Hot Forging of Asymmetric to Symmetric Rib-web Shaped Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cho


    Full Text Available The process design of hot forging, asymmetric to symmetric rib-web shaped steel, which is used for the turnout of express rails has been studied. Owing to the great difference in shape between the initial billet and the final forged product, it is impossible to hot forge the rail in a single stage operation. Therefore, multi stage forging and also die design for each stage are necessary for the production process. The numerical simulation for hot forging of asymmetric shape to symmetric shape was carried out using commercial FEM code, DEFORMTM-2D. Modification of the design and repeated simulation was carried out on the basis of the simulation results. For comparison with the simulation results, a flow analysis experiment using plasticine was also carried out. The results of the flow analysis experiment showed good agreement with those of the simulation.

  19. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e,3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An approximate simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (e, 3e) process on helium-like ions for double ionization by fast electrons. It is based on the equation. (Z 3/π) exp[−Z (r1 + r2)], Z = Z − (5/16) for ground state wave function of helium- like ions and Z 2 scaling of energies. The scaling law is found to work ...

  20. Towards an amplitude analysis of exclusive. gamma gamma. processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, M.R.


    The potential of two photon processes to shed light on the parton content of resonances, we maintain, can only be realized in practice by moving towards an Amplitude Analysis of experimental data. By using the process ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi pi.. as an example, the way to do this is discussed. Presently claimed uncertainties in the ..gamma gamma.. width of even the well-known f/sub 2/ (1270) are shown to be over-optimistic and the fitted couplings of the overlapping scalar states in the 1 GeV region meaningless. Only the use of Amplitude Analysis techniques on the new higher statistics data from SLAC and DESY can resolve these uncertainties and lead to definite and significant results. 37 refs., 18 figs.

  1. Inclusion and exclusion processes in teacher trainees' professional practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Birgitte

    differs from other ways that are well-known in western countries, of organising teacher education as school-based, with a strong workplace focus, as well as from the use of the teacher assistant as support staff in schools, or later in-service teacher education. This paper will discuss key findings...... and some empirical and theoretical implications from the simultaneous follow-up research, which took place in the autumn of 2009 and concluded in the spring of 2010, and for which I was responsible (Elle, B. and J. Gulløv, 2010). This research analyses the possibilities and dilemmas in the interplay...... between the teacher training college, the trainee jobs and the learning processes of the students. The results of the study are important for rethinking teacher education, but also for future discussions on the possible directions for the renewal of university colleges. It contributes to an understanding...

  2. Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion in the Sphere of Prosumerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paltrinieri


    Full Text Available The term prosumer, first introduced by Toffler in the 1980s, has been developed by sociologists in response to Web 2.0 (the set of technologies that has transformed a predominantly static web into the collaborative medium initially envisaged by Tim Berners-Lee. The phenomena is now understood as a process involving the creation of meanings on the part of the consumer, who re-appropriates spaces that were dominated by institutionalized production, and this extends to the exploitation of consumer creativity on the production side. Recent consumption literature can be re-interpreted through the prosumer lens in order to understand whether prosumers are more creative or alienated in their activities. The peculiar typology of prosumption introduced by Web 2.0 leads us to analyze social capital as a key element in value creation, and to investigate its different online and offline forms. Our analysis then discusses the digital divide and critical consumerism as forms of empowerment impairment.

  3. FE Simulation of the Stress-Strain State during Shear-Compression Testing and Asymmetric Three-Roll Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesin Alexander


    Full Text Available A three-roll rolling process is a significant technique in the production of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles for structural applications. Better mechanical properties of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles can be achieved due to large plastic deformation by the three-roll rolling process. Asymmetric rolling is a novel technique characterized by a kinematic asymmetry linked to the difference in peripheral speed of the rolls, able to introduce additional shear strains through the bar thickness. Physical simulation of shear strain, which is similar to that occurring in asymmetric three-roll rolling process, is very important for design of technology of producing ultrafine grain materials. Shear testing is complicated by the fact that a state of large shear is not easily achievable in most specimen geometries. Application of the shear-compression testing and specimen geometry to physical simulation of asymmetric three-roll rolling process is discussed in the paper. FEM simulation and comparison of the stress-strain state during shear-compression testing and asymmetric three-roll rolling process is presented. The results of investigation can be used to optimize the physical simulation of asymmetric three-roll rolling processes and for design of technology of producing ultrafine grain materials by severe plastic deformation.

  4. Cognitive and affective processing of social exclusion in borderline personality disorder and social anxiety disorder. (United States)

    Gutz, Lea; Roepke, Stefan; Renneberg, Babette


    Causal attributions of social events are crucial for understanding emotional responses. Aim of the study was to identify appraisal processes in response to social exclusion in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Twenty-five patients with BPD, 25 patients with SAD and 25 healthy controls played Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing paradigm that experimentally induces social exclusion. Causal attributions, subjective feelings and action tendencies in response to social exclusion were assessed. Both clinical groups showed more internal attributions and less control attributions than the control group, reported a higher increase in self-focused negative emotions, along with more escape tendencies and less intent to engage in pleasant activities. But only the BPD group reported higher hostile-intent attributions and more aggressive action tendencies compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective ergodicity breaking in an exclusion process with varying system length (United States)

    Schultens, Christoph; Schadschneider, Andreas; Arita, Chikashi


    Stochastic processes of interacting particles in systems with varying length are relevant e.g. for several biological applications. We try to explore what kind of new physical effects one can expect in such systems. As an example, we extend the exclusive queueing process that can be viewed as a one-dimensional exclusion process with varying length, by introducing Langmuir kinetics. This process can be interpreted as an effective model for a queue that interacts with other queues by allowing incoming and leaving of customers in the bulk. We find surprising indications for breaking of ergodicity in a certain parameter regime, where the asymptotic growth behavior depends on the initial length. We show that a random walk with site-dependent hopping probabilities exhibits qualitatively the same behavior.

  6. Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing. (United States)

    Preller, Katrin H; Pokorny, Thomas; Hock, Andreas; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Scheidegger, Milan; Vollenweider, Franz X


    Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study assessed the neural response to social exclusion after the acute administration of Psi (0.215 mg/kg) or placebo (Pla) in 21 healthy volunteers by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Participants reported a reduced feeling of social exclusion after Psi vs. Pla administration, and the neural response to social exclusion was decreased in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the middle frontal gyrus, key regions for social pain processing. The reduced neural response in the dACC was significantly correlated with Psi-induced changes in self-processing and decreased aspartate (Asp) content. In conclusion, 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation with psilocybin seems to reduce social pain processing in association with changes in self-experience. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of negative social interaction processing in psychiatric disorders characterized by increased rejection sensitivity. The current results also emphasize the importance of 5-HT2A/1A receptor subtypes and the Asp system in the control of social functioning, and as prospective targets in the treatment of sociocognitive impairments in psychiatric illnesses.

  7. Asymmetric Engagement of Amygdala and Its Gamma Connectivity in Early Emotional Face Processing (United States)

    Liu, Tai-Ying; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen; Chen, Li-Fen


    The amygdala has been regarded as a key substrate for emotion processing. However, the engagement of the left and right amygdala during the early perceptual processing of different emotional faces remains unclear. We investigated the temporal profiles of oscillatory gamma activity in the amygdala and effective connectivity of the amygdala with the thalamus and cortical areas during implicit emotion-perceptual tasks using event-related magnetoencephalography (MEG). We found that within 100 ms after stimulus onset the right amygdala habituated to emotional faces rapidly (with duration around 20–30 ms), whereas activity in the left amygdala (with duration around 50–60 ms) sustained longer than that in the right. Our data suggest that the right amygdala could be linked to autonomic arousal generated by facial emotions and the left amygdala might be involved in decoding or evaluating expressive faces in the early perceptual emotion processing. The results of effective connectivity provide evidence that only negative emotional processing engages both cortical and subcortical pathways connected to the right amygdala, representing its evolutional significance (survival). These findings demonstrate the asymmetric engagement of bilateral amygdala in emotional face processing as well as the capability of MEG for assessing thalamo-cortico-limbic circuitry. PMID:25629899

  8. Asymmetric engagement of amygdala and its gamma connectivity in early emotional face processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ying Liu

    Full Text Available The amygdala has been regarded as a key substrate for emotion processing. However, the engagement of the left and right amygdala during the early perceptual processing of different emotional faces remains unclear. We investigated the temporal profiles of oscillatory gamma activity in the amygdala and effective connectivity of the amygdala with the thalamus and cortical areas during implicit emotion-perceptual tasks using event-related magnetoencephalography (MEG. We found that within 100 ms after stimulus onset the right amygdala habituated to emotional faces rapidly (with duration around 20-30 ms, whereas activity in the left amygdala (with duration around 50-60 ms sustained longer than that in the right. Our data suggest that the right amygdala could be linked to autonomic arousal generated by facial emotions and the left amygdala might be involved in decoding or evaluating expressive faces in the early perceptual emotion processing. The results of effective connectivity provide evidence that only negative emotional processing engages both cortical and subcortical pathways connected to the right amygdala, representing its evolutional significance (survival. These findings demonstrate the asymmetric engagement of bilateral amygdala in emotional face processing as well as the capability of MEG for assessing thalamo-cortico-limbic circuitry.

  9. The Borderlands of Educational Inclusion. Analyses of inclusion and exclusion processes for minority language students


    Hilt, Line


    This dissertation is based on three studies that provide qualitative analyses of systemic inclusion and exclusion processes for the group labelled minority language students in Norwegian educational policy. The theoretical framework is systems-theory, as understood by Niklas Luhmann. Overall, the dissertation focuses on the systemic conditions for inclusion, especially the excluding side effects of expectations, requirements and categorisations that at the outset are regarded a...

  10. Test practice and processes of in- and exclusion in school classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal

    and drawing on the theory of Etienne Wenger (1998) about communities of practice this paper will discuss the impact from testing on processes of in- and exclusion. The empirical study is ethnographically inspired and includes observations, interviews, documents etc. The analysis shows that even it is framed...... "as" Disability. In: Anthropology & Education Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 3. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge University Press....

  11. On the constituent counting rule for hard exclusive processes involving multi-quark states (United States)

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Wei


    At high energy, the cross section at finite scattering angle of a hard exclusive process falls off as a power of the Manderstam variable s. If all involved quark-gluon compositions undergo hard momentum transfers, the fall-off scaling is determined by the underlying valence structures of the initial and final hadrons, known as the constituent counting rule. In spite of the complication due to helicity conservation, it has been argued that when applied to exclusive process with exotic multiquark states, the counting rule is a powerful way to determine the valence degrees of freedom inside hadron exotics. In this work, we demonstrate that for hadrons with hidden flavors, the naive application of the constituent counting rule to exclusive process with hadron exotic multiquark states is problematic, since it is not mandatory for all components to participate in hard scattering at the scale . We illustrate the problems in the viewpoint based on effective field theory. We clarify the misleading results that may be obtained from the constituent counting rule in exclusive processes with exotic candidates such as , , X(3872), etc. Supported in part by DFG and NSFC through funds provided to the Sino-German CRC 110 “Symmetries and the Emergence of Structure in QCD” (NSFC Grant No. 11261130311), Thousand Talents Plan for Young Professionals, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) President’s International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) (2015VMA076), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575110, 11655002), Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (15DZ2272100, 15ZR1423100), Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Y5KF111CJ1), and by Key Laboratory for Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, Ministry of Education.

  12. Flow Asymmetric Propargylation: Development of Continuous Processes for the Preparation of a Chiral β-Amino Alcohol. (United States)

    Li, Hui; Sheeran, Jillian W; Clausen, Andrew M; Fang, Yuan-Qing; Bio, Matthew M; Bader, Scott


    The development of a flow chemistry process for asymmetric propargylation using allene gas as a reagent is reported. The connected continuous process of allene dissolution, lithiation, Li-Zn transmetallation, and asymmetric propargylation provides homopropargyl β-amino alcohol 1 with high regio- and diastereoselectivity in high yield. This flow process enables practical use of an unstable allenyllithium intermediate. The process uses the commercially available and recyclable (1S,2R)-N-pyrrolidinyl norephedrine as a ligand to promote the highly diastereoselective (32:1) propargylation. Judicious selection of mixers based on the chemistry requirement and real-time monitoring of the process using process analytical technology (PAT) enabled stable and scalable flow chemistry runs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Altered Neural Processing to Social Exclusion in Young Adult Marijuana Users. (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Curran, Max T; Calderon, Vanessa; Schuster, Randi M; Evins, A Eden


    Previous studies have reported that peer groups are one of the most important predictors of adolescent and young adult marijuana use, and yet the neural correlates of social processing in marijuana users have not yet been studied. In the current study, marijuana-using young adults (n = 20) and non-using controls (n = 22) participated in a neuroimaging social exclusion task called Cyberball, a computerized ball-tossing game in which the participant is excluded from the game after a pre-determined number of ball tosses. Controls, but not marijuana users, demonstrated significant activation in the insula, a region associated with negative emotion, when being excluded from the game. Both groups demonstrated activation of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), a region associated with affective monitoring, during peer exclusion. Only the marijuana group showed a correlation between vACC activation and scores on a self-report measure of peer conformity. This study indicates that marijuana users show atypical neural processing of social exclusion, which may be either caused by, or the result of, regular marijuana use.

  14. Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bungert

    Full Text Available There is a general agreement that physical pain serves as an alarm signal for the prevention of and reaction to physical harm. It has recently been hypothesized that "social pain," as induced by social rejection or abandonment, may rely on comparable, phylogenetically old brain structures. As plausible as this theory may sound, scientific evidence for this idea is sparse. This study therefore attempts to link both types of pain directly. We studied patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD because BPD is characterized by opposing alterations in physical and social pain; hyposensitivity to physical pain is associated with hypersensitivity to social pain, as indicated by an enhanced rejection sensitivity.Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education played a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball, with the conditions for exclusion, inclusion, and a control condition with predefined game rules. Each cyberball block was followed by a temperature stimulus (with a subjective pain intensity of 60% in half the cases. The cerebral responses were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to assess rejection sensitivity.Higher temperature heat stimuli had to be applied to BPD patients relative to HCs to reach a comparable subjective experience of painfulness in both groups, which suggested a general hyposensitivity to pain in BPD patients. Social exclusion led to a subjectively reported hypersensitivity to physical pain in both groups that was accompanied by an enhanced activation in the anterior insula and the thalamus. In BPD, physical pain processing after exclusion was additionally linked to enhanced posterior insula activation. After inclusion, BPD patients showed reduced amygdala activation during pain in comparison with HC. In BPD patients, higher rejection sensitivity was associated with lower activation differences during

  15. Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder. (United States)

    Bungert, Melanie; Koppe, Georgia; Niedtfeld, Inga; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Schmahl, Christian; Lis, Stefanie; Bohus, Martin


    There is a general agreement that physical pain serves as an alarm signal for the prevention of and reaction to physical harm. It has recently been hypothesized that "social pain," as induced by social rejection or abandonment, may rely on comparable, phylogenetically old brain structures. As plausible as this theory may sound, scientific evidence for this idea is sparse. This study therefore attempts to link both types of pain directly. We studied patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) because BPD is characterized by opposing alterations in physical and social pain; hyposensitivity to physical pain is associated with hypersensitivity to social pain, as indicated by an enhanced rejection sensitivity. Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education) played a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball), with the conditions for exclusion, inclusion, and a control condition with predefined game rules. Each cyberball block was followed by a temperature stimulus (with a subjective pain intensity of 60% in half the cases). The cerebral responses were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to assess rejection sensitivity. Higher temperature heat stimuli had to be applied to BPD patients relative to HCs to reach a comparable subjective experience of painfulness in both groups, which suggested a general hyposensitivity to pain in BPD patients. Social exclusion led to a subjectively reported hypersensitivity to physical pain in both groups that was accompanied by an enhanced activation in the anterior insula and the thalamus. In BPD, physical pain processing after exclusion was additionally linked to enhanced posterior insula activation. After inclusion, BPD patients showed reduced amygdala activation during pain in comparison with HC. In BPD patients, higher rejection sensitivity was associated with lower activation differences during pain

  16. Pathophysiological Role of Adiponectin, Leptin and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in the Process of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleva Daniela Iv.


    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is recognized as a rich source of proinflammatory mediators that may directly contribute to vascular injury, insulin resistance, and atherogenesis. Many studies have shown that adiponectin has antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin acts not only as a factor increasing insulin sensitivity, and the protective effect may result from its ability to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines. It negatively regulates the expression of TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein (CRP in adipose tissue; reduces expression of vascular and intracellular adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, interleukin-8 (IL-8. Hyperleptinemia has been linked with the development of hypertension and endothelial dysfunction/atherosclerosis, two main pathophysiological conditions associated with cardiovascular disease development. Leptin-mediated increases in sympathetic nervous system activity may be among the principal mechanisms evoking obesity related hypertension. Leptin stimulates the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and increases the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1, which may promote hypertension. Increased serum levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, a physiological regulator of the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO, promote the process of atherosclerosis, leading to the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.

  17. Evaluation of a cochlear-implant processing strategy incorporating phantom stimulation and asymmetric pulses. (United States)

    Carlyon, Robert P; Monstrey, Jolijn; Deeks, John M; Macherey, Olivier


    To evaluate a speech-processing strategy in which the lowest frequency channel is conveyed using an asymmetric pulse shape and "phantom stimulation", where current is injected into one intra-cochlear electrode and where the return current is shared between an intra-cochlear and an extra-cochlear electrode. This strategy is expected to provide more selective excitation of the cochlear apex, compared to a standard strategy where the lowest-frequency channel is conveyed by symmetric pulses in monopolar mode. In both strategies all other channels were conveyed by monopolar stimulation. Within-subjects comparison between the two strategies. Four experiments: (1) discrimination between the strategies, controlling for loudness differences, (2) consonant identification, (3) recognition of lowpass-filtered sentences in quiet, (4) sentence recognition in the presence of a competing speaker. Eight users of the Advanced Bionics CII/Hi-Res 90k cochlear implant. Listeners could easily discriminate between the two strategies but no consistent differences in performance were observed. The proposed method does not improve speech perception, at least in the short term.

  18. Grain boundary traction signatures: Quantifying the asymmetrical dislocation emission processes under tension and compression (United States)

    Li, Ruizhi; Chew, Huck Beng


    The disruption in crystallographic arrangement of atoms across a grain boundary interface generates local stress fields in the vicinity. Here, we reconstruct the continuum-equivalent grain boundary tractions from local atomic stresses near symmetrical-tilt Ni grain boundaries. We show that the resolved shear stress contribution from the grain boundary tractions, τGB, along active slip-systems either assists or prevents the emission of dislocations, depending on its direction with respect to the resolved shear stress contribution from external loading, τext. When τGB acts in the same direction as τext, Shockley partial dislocations are readily emitted from the boundary once | τGB +τext | exceeds the critical barrier stress for shear-slip. When τGB opposes τext, the higher sustainable stresses in the grain boundary structure instead triggers: (a) emission of dislocations from the bulk, or (b) reconfiguration of the grain boundary atomic structure and subsequent emission of non-Schmid dislocations or formation of extrinsic stacking faults. Our results quantitatively explain the asymmetrical grain boundary dislocation emission processes observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations under applied tensile and compressive loads. The relationship between the traction signatures and periodic structural units along the grain boundary is discussed.

  19. Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics and the Light-Cone Fock Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.


    Exclusive processes provide a window into the bound state structure of hadrons in QCD as well as the fundamental processes which control hadron dynamics at the amplitude level. The natural calculus for describing bound state structure of relativistic composite systems needed for describing exclusive amplitudes is the light-cone Fock expansion which encodes the multi-quark, gluonic, and color correlations of a hadron in terms of frame-independent wavefunctions. In hard exclusive processes in which hadrons receive a large momentum transfer, perturbative QCD leads to factorization theorems which separate the physics of bound state structure from that of the relevant quark and gluonic hard-scattering reactions which underlie these reactions. At leading twist, the bound state physics is encoded in terms of universal ''distribution amplitudes,'' the fundamental theoretical quantities which describe the valence quark substructure of hadrons as well as nuclei. The combination of discretized light-cone quantization and transverse lattice methods are now providing nonperturbative predictions for the pion distribution amplitude. A basic feature of the gauge theory formalism is ''color transparency,'' the absence of initial and final state interactions of rapidly-moving compact color-singlet states. Other applications of the factorization formalism are briefly discussed, including semileptonic B decays, deeply virtual Compton scattering, and dynamical higher twist effects in inclusive reactions. A new type of jet production reaction, ''self-resolving diffractive interactions'' provide empirical constraints on the light-cone wavefunctions of hadrons in terms of their quark and gluon degrees of freedom as well as the composition of nuclei in terms of their nucleon and mesonic degrees of freedom.

  20. Studies of semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harutyun Avagyan


    The main goal of experiments proposed for the {\\tt CLAS12} detector in conjunction with the 12-GeV CEBAF accelerator is the study of the nucleon through hard exclusive, semi-inclusive, and inclusive processes. This will provide new insights into nucleon dynamics at the elementary quark and gluon level. In this contribution we provide an overview of ongoing studies of the structure of nucleon in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom and future physics program planned with CLAS and {\\tt CLAS12}.

  1. A Rotational Motion Perception Neural Network Based on Asymmetric Spatiotemporal Visual Information Processing. (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Yue, Shigang; Zhang, Zhuhong

    All complex motion patterns can be decomposed into several elements, including translation, expansion/contraction, and rotational motion. In biological vision systems, scientists have found that specific types of visual neurons have specific preferences to each of the three motion elements. There are computational models on translation and expansion/contraction perceptions; however, little has been done in the past to create computational models for rotational motion perception. To fill this gap, we proposed a neural network that utilizes a specific spatiotemporal arrangement of asymmetric lateral inhibited direction selective neural networks (DSNNs) for rotational motion perception. The proposed neural network consists of two parts-presynaptic and postsynaptic parts. In the presynaptic part, there are a number of lateral inhibited DSNNs to extract directional visual cues. In the postsynaptic part, similar to the arrangement of the directional columns in the cerebral cortex, these direction selective neurons are arranged in a cyclic order to perceive rotational motion cues. In the postsynaptic network, the delayed excitation from each direction selective neuron is multiplied by the gathered excitation from this neuron and its unilateral counterparts depending on which rotation, clockwise (cw) or counter-cw (ccw), to perceive. Systematic experiments under various conditions and settings have been carried out and validated the robustness and reliability of the proposed neural network in detecting cw or ccw rotational motion. This research is a critical step further toward dynamic visual information processing.All complex motion patterns can be decomposed into several elements, including translation, expansion/contraction, and rotational motion. In biological vision systems, scientists have found that specific types of visual neurons have specific preferences to each of the three motion elements. There are computational models on translation and expansion

  2. A process for separating acid-sugar mixtures using ion exclusion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, R.D.; Hartfield, S.W. [University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States); Farina, G.E. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)


    Work using a low-temperature concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis process to convert the cellulosic fraction of corn stover to monomeric sugars demonstrated the high conversion efficiencies possible with that process. The TVA work also confirmed the need for a cost-effective acid-sugar separation process. A preparative-scale ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) system was designed, constructed, and tested with a variety of synthetic solutions and actual hydrolyzates. Although significant dispersion was observed initially, design changes were effective in minimizing this phenomenon. Data collected during the operation of the preparative-scale system were used in the design and construction of an IEC miniplant capable of processing larger volumes of synthetic solutions or hydrolyzates and in the design of an extraction-assisted IEC system. The data were also used to assess the viability of a continuous feed IEC system. This paper includes a discussion of the IEC process, provides overall material balances for various IEC process scenarios, and presents a discussion on process economics.

  3. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rajchert


    Full Text Available The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96 using an online ball throwing game and measured displaced aggressive behavior - intensity and duration of an unpleasant noise administrated to a stranger. In Study 2 participants (n = 140 were rejected by a peer on the basis of an interview that they gave and then could retaliate by reducing peer's chance for getting a job. The results show that exclusion effect on displaced aggression was moderated by cognitive readiness for aggression, while rejection effect on retaliatory aggression was shaped by emotional and personality-immanent readiness for aggression as well as ego-depletion. The results were discussed in light of the strength model of self-control by Baumeister, Vohs, and Tice (2007.

  4. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  5. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information. (United States)

    Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Mueller, Sven C; De Raedt, Rudi


    Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years) completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  6. Quantum Molecular Interaction Field Models of Substrate Enantioselection in Asymmetric Processes. (United States)

    Kozlowski, Marisa C; Ianni, James C


    Computational models correlating substrate structure to enantioselection with asymmetric catalysts using the QMQSAR program are described. In addition to rapidly providing predictions that could be used to facilitate the screening of catalysts for novel substrates, the QMQSAR program identifies the portions of the substrate that most directly influence the enantioselectivity. The lack underlying relationship between all the substrates in one case, requires two quantitative structure selectivity relationships (QSSR) models to describe all of the experimental results.

  7. Inclusive and exclusive invironments in the teaching-learning process of mentally disabled people in physical education classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar de Carvalho Cruz


    Full Text Available It is a matter of interest in the world educational scenario to proceed in the established dilemma concerning the implications of the organization of inclusive (that proposes the simultaneous attendance of students with and without disability and exclusive (formed exclusively by students with some kind of disability environments in the development of teaching-learning processes. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the teaching-learning process in Physical Education classes, with basic movements from Tae-Kwon-Do in exclusive and inclusive environments for attending students who showed mental disability. Six students from a special school, with mental disability, and twenty-six students from a regular school took part in this research. Along the first school semester of 2007, students with mental disability were submitted to alternate classes in exclusive and inclusive environments. Results showed that there was no difference in the motor response of students from the special school, concerning the exclusive and the inclusive environments. More than just discuss if the educational attendance to students with mental disability should occur in inclusive or exclusive environments, it is important to improve the environment organization so that they could be really able to learn.

  8. Asymmetric fluorocyclizations of alkenes. (United States)

    Wolstenhulme, Jamie R; Gouverneur, Véronique


    CONSPECTUS: The vicinal fluorofunctionalization of alkenes is an attractive transformation that converts feedstock olefins into valuable cyclic fluorinated molecules for application in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, medical, and material sectors. The challenges associated with asymmetric fluorocyclizations induced by F(+) reagents are distinct from other types of halocyclizations. Processes initiated by the addition of an F(+) reagent onto an alkene do not involve the reversible formation of bridged fluoronium ions but generate acyclic β-fluorocationic intermediates. This mechanistic feature implies that fluorocyclizations are not stereospecific. A discontinuity exists between the importance of this class of fluorocyclization and the activation modes currently available to implement successful catalysis. Progress toward fluorocyclization has been achieved by investing in neutral and cationic [NF] reagent development. The body of work on asymmetric fluorination using chiral cationic [NF](+) reagents prepared by fluorine transfer from the dicationic [NF](2+) reagent Selectfluor to quinuclidines, inspired the development of asymmetric F(+)-induced fluorocyclizations catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids; for catalysis, the use of N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide, which is less reactive than Selectfluor, ensures that the achiral F(+) source remains unreactive toward the alkene. These organocatalyzed enantioselective fluorocyclizations can be applied to indoles to install the fluorine on a quaternary benzylic stereogenic carbon center and to afford fluorinated analogues of natural products featuring the hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole or the tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-b]indole skeleton. In an alternative approach, the poor solubility of dicationic Selectfluor bis(tetrafluoroborate) in nonpolar solvent was exploited with anionic phase transfer catalysis as the operating activation mode. Exchange of the tetrafluoroborate ions of Selectfluor with bulky lipophilic chiral anions (e

  9. Contextual exclusion processing: an fMRI study of rejection in a performance-related context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagels, L.; Bergs, R.; Clemens, B.; Bauchmuller, M.; Gur, R.C.; Schneider, F.; Habel, U.; Kohn, N.


    Social stress has a major detrimental impact on subjective well-being. Previous research mainly focused on two methods to induce and measure social stress: social exclusion and performance evaluation. For social exclusion researchers frequently focused on the Cyberball task, which in contrast to

  10. Test of QCD at large $Q^2$ with exclusive hadronic processes

    CERN Document Server



    My report consists of two parts: (1). Using samples of 102 million $\\Upsilon(1S)$ and 158 million $\\Upsilon(2S)$ events at Belle, we study 17 exclusive hadronic decays of these two bottomonium resonances to some Vector-Pseudoscalar (VP), Vector-Tensor (VT) and Axial-vector-Pseudoscalar (AP) processes and their final states. Branching fractions are measured for all the processes. The ratios of the branching fractions of $\\Upsilon(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon(1S)$ decays into the same final state are used to test a perturbative QCD (pQCD) prediction for OZI-suppressed bottomonium decays. (2). Using data samples of 89 fb$^{-1}$, 703 fb$^{-1}$, and 121 fb$^{-1}$ collected at center-of-mass (CMS) energies 10.52, 10.58, and 10.876~GeV, respectively, we measure the cross sections of $e^+e^- \\to \\omega\\pi^0$, $K^{\\ast}(892)\\bar{K}$, and $K_2^{\\ast}(1430)\\bar{K}$. The energy dependence of the cross sections is presented.

  11. Exclusive Higgs boson production through electromagnetic process in p–p and Pb–Pb ultra-peripheral collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Qing Zhu


    Full Text Available The Higgs boson production through electromagnetic process in the exclusive p–p and Pb–Pb ultra-peripheral collisions is calculated. According to the condition of conference, the equivalent photon approximation formulation is used, and the limitations of the variables in the calculations are obtained. Three kinds of the equivalent photon spectrums are considered: the plane wave form, the approximate plane wave forms of Dress et al., and the semi-classical form. For comparison, the gluon–gluon fusion and intrinsic heavy flavors contributions are presented. The numerical results show that, the plane wave photon spectrum with correct limitations of the variables provides more reasonable results for the exclusive p+p→p+p+H and Pb+Pb→Pb+Pb+H processes, and the electromagnetic process provides meaningful contributions for the exclusive Higgs production in ultra-peripheral collisions.

  12. Seeking inclusion in an exclusive process: discourses of medical school student selection. (United States)

    Razack, Saleem; Hodges, Brian; Steinert, Yvonne; Maguire, Mary


    Calls to increase medical class representativeness to better reflect the diversity of society represent a growing international trend. There is an inherent tension between these calls and competitive student selection processes driven by academic achievement. How is this tension manifested? Our three-phase interdisciplinary research programme focused on the discourses of excellence, equity and diversity in the medical school selection process, as conveyed by key stakeholders: (i) institutions and regulatory bodies (the websites of 17 medical schools and 15 policy documents from national regulatory bodies); (ii) admissions committee members (ACMs) (according to semi-structured interviews [n = 9]), and (iii) successful applicants (according to semi-structured interviews [n = 14]). The work is theoretically situated within the works of Foucault, Bourdieu and Bakhtin. The conceptual framework is supplemented by critical hermeneutics and the performance theories of Goffman. Academic excellence discourses consistently predominate over discourses calling for greater representativeness in medical classes. Policy addressing demographic representativeness in medicine may unwittingly contribute to the reproduction of historical patterns of exclusion of under-represented groups. In ACM selection practices, another discursive tension is exposed as the inherent privilege in the process is marked, challenging the ideal of medicine as a meritocracy. Applicants' representations of self in the 'performance' of interviewing demonstrate implicit recognition of the power inherent in the act of selection and are manifested in the use of explicit strategies to 'fit in'. How can this critical discourse analysis inform improved inclusiveness in student selection? Policymakers addressing diversity and equity issues in medical school admissions should explicitly recognise the power dynamics at play between the profession and marginalised groups. For greater inclusion and to avoid one

  13. Controlling stereochemical outcomes of asymmetric processes by catalyst remote molecular functionalizations: chiral diamino-oligothiophenes (DATs) as ligands in asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Albano, Vincenzo Giulio; Bandini, Marco; Barbarella, Giovanna; Melucci, Manuela; Monari, Magda; Piccinelli, Fabio; Tommasi, Simona; Umani-Ronchi, Achille


    The synthesis, characterization, and structure-guided application of a new class of highly versatile chiral C(2)-symmetric diamine-oligothiophene ligands in Pd-catalyzed asymmetric transformations are presented. Experimental investigations of the intimate role of pendant pi-conjugate oligothiophenes in determining the catalytic activity of the corresponding chiral Pd complexes are described. Their unusual behavior opens up new routes toward the logical design of finely tuned organometallic catalysts by remote structural functionalizations.

  14. Emission characteristics in solution-processed asymmetric white alternating current field-induced polymer electroluminescent devices (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Xia, Yingdong; Smith, Gregory M.; Gu, Yu; Yang, Chuluo; Carroll, David L.


    In this work, the emission characteristics of a blue fluorophor poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) combined with a red emitting dye: Bis(2-methyl-dibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline)(acetylacetonate)iridium (III) [Ir(MDQ)2(acac)], are examined in two different asymmetric white alternating current field-induced polymer electroluminescent (FIPEL) device structures. The first is a top-contact device in which the triplet transfer is observed resulting in the concentration-dependence of the emission similar to the standard organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure. The second is a bottom-contact device which, however, exhibits concentration-independence of emission. Specifically, both dye emission and polymer emission are found for the concentrations as high as 10% by weight of the dye in the emitter. We attribute this to the significant different carrier injection characteristics of the two FIPEL devices. Our results suggest a simple and easy way to realize high-quality white emission.

  15. Differential neural processing of social exclusion in adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury: An fMRI study. (United States)

    Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Groen, Georg; Bonenberger, Martina; Abler, Birgit


    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent in adolescence and has been suggested as an autonomous diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). Social rejection is as potential risk-factor for NSSI and depression in adolescence. Objectives of this study were to identify differences in neural processing of social rejection in depressed adolescents with and without co-morbid NSSI and healthy controls. Participants were 28 depressed adolescents (14 with co-morbid NSSI, 79% females) and 15 healthy controls, with an average age of 15.2 years (SD=1.8). Social exclusion was implemented using the Cyberball paradigm 'Cyberball' during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All participants reported feelings of social exclusion after fMRI scanning. Investigating the effects of NSSI, we found that depressed adolescents with NSSI showed relatively enhanced activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) compared to depressed adolescents without NSSI and also compared to healthy controls. Results point towards divergent processing of social exclusion in depressed adolescents with NSSI as compared to adolescents with mere depression in brain regions previously related to the processing of social exclusion. This finding of distinct neurophysiological responses may stimulate further research on individual treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Yeast vacuoles fragment in an asymmetrical two-phase process with distinct protein requirements (United States)

    Zieger, Martin; Mayer, Andreas


    Yeast vacuoles fragment and fuse in response to environmental conditions, such as changes in osmotic conditions or nutrient availability. Here we analyze osmotically induced vacuole fragmentation by time-lapse microscopy. Small fragmentation products originate directly from the large central vacuole. This happens by asymmetrical scission rather than by consecutive equal divisions. Fragmentation occurs in two distinct phases. Initially, vacuoles shrink and generate deep invaginations that leave behind tubular structures in their vicinity. Already this invagination requires the dynamin-like GTPase Vps1p and the vacuolar proton gradient. Invaginations are stabilized by phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) produced by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase complex II. Subsequently, vesicles pinch off from the tips of the tubular structures in a polarized manner, directly generating fragmentation products of the final size. This phase depends on the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate and the Fab1 complex. It is accelerated by the PI(3)P- and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate–binding protein Atg18p. Thus vacuoles fragment in two steps with distinct protein and lipid requirements. PMID:22787281

  17. Development of Neural Systems for Processing Social Exclusion from Childhood to Adolescence (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z.; Pitskel, Naomi B.; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.


    Adolescence is a period of development in which peer relationships become especially important. A computer-based game (Cyberball) has been used to explore the effects of social exclusion in adolescents and adults. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used Cyberball to extend prior work to the cross-sectional study of…

  18. Education and Language Policy in Colombia: Exploring Processes of Inclusion, Exclusion, and Stratification in Times of Global Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Usma Wilches


    Full Text Available This paper examines the National Bilingual Program in connection with other education and language reforms in Colombia and some of the processes of inclusion, exclusion, and stratification that accompany current school reforms. The author outlines some patterns that have accompanied language innovations in the country and highlights some interconnected processes that seem to be favored in international reform and are reflected in current national policy agendas; namely, the externalization of policy discourses; the instrumentalization of languages; the stratification of groups, languages and cultures; and the standardization and marketization of foreign language teaching and learning. This paper attempts to demonstrate that processes of inclusion, exclusion and stratification through schooling are favored not only through the overt exercise of power and control, but also through the introduction of new discourses, policies, and practices.

  19. Formation of asymmetric vesicles via phospholipase D-mediated transphosphatidylation. (United States)

    Takaoka, Rina; Kurosaki, Haruko; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Keisuke; Nakano, Minoru


    Most biomembranes have an asymmetric structure with regard to phospholipid distribution between the inner and outer leaflets of the lipid bilayers. Control of the asymmetric distribution plays a pivotal role in several cellular functions such as intracellular membrane fusion and cell division. The mechanism by which membrane asymmetry and its alteration function in these transformation processes is not yet clear. To understand the significance of membrane asymmetry on trafficking and metabolism of intracellular vesicular components, a system that experimentally reproduces the asymmetric nature of biomembranes is essential. Here, we succeeded in obtaining asymmetric vesicles by means of transphosphatidylation reactions with phospholipase D (PLD), which acts exclusively on phosphatidylcholine (PC) present in the outer leaflet of vesicles. By treating PC vesicles with PLD in the presence of 1.7M serine and 0.3M ethanolamine, we obtained asymmetric vesicles that are topologically similar to intracellular vesicles containing phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the cytosolic leaflet. PLD and other unwanted compounds could be removed by trypsin digestion followed by dialysis. Our established technique has a great advantage over conventional methods in that asymmetric vesicles can be provided at high yield and high efficiency, which is requisite for most physicochemical assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of exclusive two-photon processes with dilepton final states in pp collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Forthomme, Laurent

    The unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces is a cornerstone of the standard theory of elementary particles and fundamental interactions. At the Large Hadron Collider the processes of pair production via fusion of two exchanged photons provide a unique laboratory both for testing the standard theory and for search of new phenomena in high-energy physics. In this thesis such a two-photon exclusive pair production in pp collisions has been studied experimentally, at two centre of mass energies using the data collected with the CMS experiment during LHC's Run-1. Thanks to large, effective photon fluxes and the outstanding performance of the CMS apparatus clean two-photon signal samples could be extracted. The novel track-based exclusivity selection was instrumental for making successful measurements in an extremely demanding LHC environment. In particular, the "reference" two-photon production of lepton pairs has been measured and investigated in detail, including extended phenomenological studies. A ...

  1. The Knowledge Structure of the Commander in Asymmetric Battlefield: The Six Sights and Sensemaking Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ntuen, Celestine A


    .... While there are availability of information technology to help the commander in data processing and analysis, it is not surprising that in real time operations, the commander falls back on what has...

  2. Competitive exclusion over broad spatial extents is a slow process: Evidence and implications for species distribution modeling (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles B.


    There is considerable debate about the role of competition in shaping species distributions over broad spatial extents. This debate has practical implications because predicting changes in species' geographic ranges in response to ongoing environmental change would be simpler if competition could be ignored. While this debate has been the subject of many reviews, recent literature has not addressed the rates of relevant processes. This omission is surprising in that ecologists hypothesized decades ago that regional competitive exclusion is a slow process. The goal of this review is to reassess the debate under the hypothesis that competitive exclusion over broad spatial extents is a slow process.Available evidence, including simulations presented for the first time here, suggests that competitive exclusion over broad spatial extents occurs slowly over temporal extents of many decades to millennia. Ecologists arguing against an important role for competition frequently study modern patterns and/or range dynamics over periods of decades, while much of the evidence for competition shaping geographic ranges at broad spatial extents comes from paleoecological studies over time scales of centuries or longer. If competition is slow, as evidence suggests, the geographic distributions of some, perhaps many species, would continue to change over time scales of decades to millennia, even if environmental conditions did not continue to change. If the distributions of competing species are at equilibrium it is possible to predict species distributions based on observed species–environment relationships. However, disequilibrium is widespread as a result of competition and many other processes. Studies whose goal is accurate predictions over intermediate time scales (decades to centuries) should focus on factors associated with range expansion (colonization) and loss (local extinction), as opposed to current patterns. In general, understanding of modern range dynamics would be

  3. Effect of asymmetric rolling process on the microstructure, mechanical properties and texture of AZ31 magnesium alloys sheets produced by twin roll casting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Ucuncuoglu


    Full Text Available Symmetric rolling (SR and asymmetric rolling (ASR processes were carried out on 6 mm thick AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets that were produced by twin roll casting (TRC technique. Before rolling processes, sheets were heat treated in order to obtain a homogenized microstructure. In this study, for the ASR process the rolling speed ratio between upper roller and lower was selected as 1.25. Both SR and ASR processes were utilized with 40% reduction per passes using 2 pass schedule for a total reduction ratio of 0.67. Symmetric and asymmetric rolled sheets were characterized using optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. Texture measurements were performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD technique and mechanical properties were investigated by tensile tests and also hardness measurements.

  4. Asymmetric function of theta and gamma activity in syllable processing: an intra-cortical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eMorillon


    Full Text Available Low-gamma (25-45 Hz and theta (4-8 Hz oscillations are proposed to underpin the integration of phonemic and syllabic information, respectively. How these two scales of analysis split functions across hemispheres is unclear. We analyzed cortical responses from an epileptic patient with a rare bilateral electrode implantation (stereotactic EEG in primary (A1/BA41 and A2/BA42 and association auditory cortices (BA22. Using time-frequency analyses, we confirmed the dominance of a 5-6 Hz theta activity in right and of a low-gamma (25-45 Hz activity in left primary auditory cortices (A1/A2, during both resting state and syllable processing. We further detected high-theta (7-8 Hz resting activity in left primary, but also associative auditory regions. In left BA22, its phase correlated with high-gamma induced power. Such a hierarchical relationship across theta and gamma frequency bands (theta/gamma phase-amplitude coupling could index the process by which the neural code shifts from stimulus feature- to phonological- encoding, and is associated with the transition from evoked to induced power responses. These data suggest that theta and gamma activity in right and left auditory cortices bear different functions. They support a scheme where slow parsing of the acoustic information dominates in right-hemisphere at a syllabic (5-6 Hz rate, and left auditory cortex exhibits a more complex cascade of oscillations, reflecting the possible extraction of transient acoustic cues at a fast (~25-45 Hz rate, subsequently integrated at a slower, e.g. syllabic one. Slow oscillations could functionally participate to speech processing by structuring gamma activity in left BA22, where abstract percepts emerge.

  5. Why would I help my coworker? Exploring asymmetric task dependence and the self-determination theory internalization process. (United States)

    Poile, Christopher


    Research on power suggests asymmetric task dependence (sending work resources to a coworker and receiving little in return) should create a power imbalance and promote selfishness. In contrast, work design theory suggests asymmetry can lead to felt responsibility, but this link has not been tested and its theory remains underdeveloped. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), this article argues that work design characteristics can encourage the SDT internalization process-the transformation of external reasons for behavior into internal reasons. Two experiments demonstrate asymmetry encourages felt responsibility for the dependent's task, which helps explain the amount of help provided to the dependent. The author proposes felt responsibility indicates the extent to which an external task has been internalized as a self-directed motivation. This article clarifies how task dependence is different from power and develops an important and understudied aspect of SDT: how work design characteristics are transformed into internalized motivations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Enforcement Alert: Hazardous Waste Management Practices at Mineral Processing Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA; EPA Clarifies 'Bevill Exclusion' Wastes and Establishes Disposal Standards (United States)

    This is the enforcement alert for Hazardous Waste Management Practices at Mineral Processing Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA; EPA Clarifies 'Bevill Exclusion' Wastes and Establishes Disposal Standards

  7. Macroscopic transport equations in many-body systems from microscopic exclusion processes in disordered media: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Galanti


    Full Text Available Describing particle transport at the macroscopic or mesoscopic level in non-ideal environments poses fundamental theoretical challenges in domains ranging from inter and intra-cellular transport in biology to diffusion in porous media. Yet, often the nature of the constraints coming from many-body interactions or reflecting a complex and confining environment are better understood and modeled at the microscopic level.In this paper we review the subtle link between microscopic exclusion processes and the mean-field equations that ensue from them in the continuum limit. We show that in an inhomogeneous medium, i.e. when jumps are controlled by site-dependent hopping rates, one can obtain three different nonlinear advection-diffusion equations in the continuum limit, suitable for describing transport in the presence of quenched disorder and external fields, depending on the particular rule embodying site inequivalence at the microscopic level. In a situation that might be termed point-like scenario, when particles are treated as point-like objects, the effect of crowding as imposed at the microscopic level manifests in the mean-field equations only if some degree of inhomogeneity is enforced into the model. Conversely, when interacting agents are assigned a finite size, under the more realistic extended crowding framework, exclusion constraints persist in the unbiased macroscopic representation.

  8. Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Ketones with Modified Grubbs Metathesis Catalysts : On the Way to a Tandem Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G.; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent


    Herein, we report the successful transformation of a 1(st) generation Grubbs metathesis catalyst into an asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) catalyst. Upon addition of a chiral amine ligand, an alcohol and a base, the 1(st) generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst (HG-I) was found to promote the

  9. Attachment and Children’s Biased Attentional Processing: Evidence for the Exclusion of Attachment-Related Information (United States)

    Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Mueller, Sven C.; De Raedt, Rudi


    Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8–12 years) completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother’s face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother’s neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother’s neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother’s face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information. PMID:25061662

  10. Exclusive processes beyond leading twist: {gamma}*T {yields} {rho}T impact factor with twist three accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland); Anikin, Igor V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - JINR, Joliot-Curie st., 6, Moskovskaya obl., 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Dmitry Yu [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Acad. Koptyug pr., 4, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method is based on the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light-cone. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised {rho}-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy. (Phys.Lett.B682:413-418,2010 and Nucl.Phys.B828:1-68,2010.). (authors)

  11. Central Exclusive Processes (CEP) in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt[]{s} = 13$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Al Hyder, Ragheed


    The successful operation of the {\\em Large Hadron Collider} (LHC) during the past years allowed to explore particle interaction in a new energy regime. Measurements of important Standard Model processes like the production of high$P_t$ jets, $W$ and $Z$ bosons and top and $b$-quarks were performed by the LHC experiments. In addition, the high collision energy allowed to search for new particles in so far unexplored mass regions. Important constraints on the existence of new particles predicted in many models of physics beyond the Standard Model could be established. With integrated luminosities reaching values around $5 ifb$ in 2011, the experiments reached as well sensitivity to probe the existence of the Standard Model Higgs boson over a large mass range. In the present report the major outlines followed to studying Central Exclusive Production in the ALICE experiment are presented.

  12. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging are both central aspects of the affects and processes that enact and challenge social groups. Social exclusion anxiety should not be confused with ‘social phobia’, which is a concept within clinical psychology that focuses on the individual and refers to a phobic...

  13. Asymmetric Ashes (United States)


    Astronomers are reporting remarkable new findings that shed light on a decade-long debate about one kind of supernovae, the explosions that mark a star's final demise: does the star die in a slow burn or with a fast bang? From their observations, the scientists find that the matter ejected by the explosion shows significant peripheral asymmetry but a nearly spherical interior, most likely implying that the explosion finally propagates at supersonic speed. These results are reported today in Science Express, the online version of the research journal Science, by Lifan Wang, Texas A&M University (USA), and colleagues Dietrich Baade and Ferdinando Patat from ESO. "Our results strongly suggest a two-stage explosion process in this type of supernova," comments Wang. "This is an important finding with potential implications in cosmology." ESO PR Photo 44/06 ESO PR Photo 44/06 Clumpy Explosion (Artist's Impression) Using observations of 17 supernovae made over more than 10 years with ESO's Very Large Telescope and the McDonald Observatory's Otto Struve Telescope, astronomers inferred the shape and structure of the debris cloud thrown out from Type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are thought to be the result of the explosion of a small and dense star - a white dwarf - inside a binary system. As its companion continuously spills matter onto the white dwarf, the white dwarf reaches a critical mass, leading to a fatal instability and the supernova. But what sparks the initial explosion, and how the blast travels through the star have long been thorny issues. The supernovae Wang and his colleagues observed occurred in distant galaxies, and because of the vast cosmic distances could not be studied in detail using conventional imaging techniques, including interferometry. Instead, the team determined the shape of the exploding cocoons by recording the polarisation of the light from the dying stars. Polarimetry relies on the fact that light is composed of electromagnetic waves

  14. Olefins-selective asymmetric carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for hybrid membrane-distillation processes for olefin/paraffin separations

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren


    In this paper, the development of asymmetric carbon molecular sieve (CMS) hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for olefin/paraffin separations based on the CMS membranes are reported. Membrane-based olefin/paraffin separations have been pursued extensively over the past decades. CMS membranes are promising to exceed the performance upper bound of polymer materials and have demonstrated excellent stability for gas separations. Previously, a substructure collapse phenomenon was found in Matrimid ® precursor derived CMS fiber. To overcome the permeance loss due to the increased separation layer thickness, 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM precursors were selected as potential new precursors for carbon membrane formation. Defect-free asymmetric 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM hollow fibers were successfully fabricated from a dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. Polymer rigidity, glass-rubber transition and asymmetric morphology were correlated. CMS hollow fiber membranes produced from 6FDA-polymer precursors showed significant improvement in permeance for ethylene/ethane and propylene/propane separations. Further studies revealed that the CMS membranes are olefins-selective, which means the membranes are able to effectively separate olefins (ethylene and propylene) from paraffins (ethane and propane). This unique feature of CMS materials enables advanced hybrid membrane-distillation process designs. By using the olefins-selective membranes, these new processes may provide advantages over previously proposed retrofitting concepts. Further applications of the membranes are explored for hydrocarbons processes. Significant energy savings and even reduced footprint may be achieved in olefins production units. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. A Matter of Time: Enacting the Exclusion of Onshore Refugee Applicants through the Reform and Acceleration of Refugee Determination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea Vogl


    Full Text Available State-based processes for determining refugee claims are crucial sites of inclusion or exclusion for onshore refugee applicants. This paper argues that cultures of disbelief and exclusion towards onshore refugee applicants are increasingly being enacted indirectly, via procedural reforms to Refugee Status Determination (RSD, which limit the ability of applicants to establish and articulate their claims. Focusing on Australia and Canada, this paper tracks the acceleration and truncation of RSD procedures, which first reflect and then frequently achieve the exclusion of onshore applicants. Two sets of reforms in particular have profoundly limited the terms on which applicants may present their claims. In Canada, this occurred as the result of a major overhaul of RSD that took place in December 2012. In Australia, the policy of ‘enhanced screening’ of applicants achieves the immediate screening-out of certain claims from the Australian determination system. Alongside analysing these reforms as a means of exclusion, this paper argues that the new procedures most disadvantage applicants making claims on the basis of gender-related persecution. Los procesos estatales para resolver las concesiones de asilo son situaciones cruciales para la inclusión o exclusión de los solicitantes de asilo una vez están en el territorio de acogida. Este artículo defiende que cada vez más, se está promulgando indirectamente la cultura de la desconfianza y exclusión hacia los solicitantes de asilo, a través de reformas procesuales de la Determinación del Estatus de Refugiado (DER, lo que limita la capacidad de los solicitantes para establecer y articular sus demandas de asilo. Centrándose en Australia y Canadá, este artículo realiza un seguimiento de la aceleración y el truncamiento de los procedimientos de DER que primero reflejan y después a menudo consiguen la exclusión de los solicitantes en el propio territorio de acogida. Dos grupos de reformas

  16. Peer Exclusion and Victimization: Processes That Mediate the Relation Between Peer Group Rejection and Children's Classroom Engagement and Achievement? (United States)

    Buhs, Eric S.; Ladd, Gary W.; Herald, Sarah L.


    Longitudinal data from a study of kindergarten through 5th graders were used to estimate a structural model in which chronic peer exclusion and chronic peer abuse were hypothesized to mediate the link between children's early peer rejection, later classroom engagement, and achievement. Peer exclusion and abuse were expected to predict changes in 2…

  17. Differential Neural Processing of Social Exclusion and Inclusion in Adolescents with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Young Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder. (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Groen, Georg; Neff, Dominik; Bonenberger, Martina; Abler, Birgit


    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, NSSI often occurs independently of BPD. Altered neural processing of social exclusion has been shown in adolescents with NSSI and adults with BPD with additional alterations during social inclusion in BPD patients. Aims of this study were to investigate differences in neural processing of social inclusion and exclusion situations between adolescents with NSSI and young adults with BPD and NSSI. Using fMRI, neural processing of positive and negative social situations (paradigm: "Cyberball") was explored. Participants were 14 adolescents with NSSI, but without BPD (Mage = 15.4; SD = 1.9), 15 adults with BPD and NSSI (Mage = 23.3; SD = 4.1), as well as 15 healthy adolescents (Mage = 14.5; SD = 1.7), and 16 healthy adults (Mage = 23.2; SD = 4.4). Behavioral results showed enhanced feelings of social exclusion in both patient groups as compared to healthy controls but only the NSSI group showed enhanced activation during social exclusion versus inclusion compared to the other groups. While both NSSI and BPD groups showed enhanced activation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex during social exclusion as compared to their age-matched controls, enhanced activation during social inclusion as compared to a passive watching condition was mainly observed in the BPD group in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and the anterior insula. While neural processing of social exclusion was pronounced in adolescents with NSSI, BPD patients also showed increased activity in a per se positive social situation. These results might point toward a higher responsiveness to social exclusion in adolescents with NSSI, which might then develop into a generalized increased sensitivity to all kinds of social situations in adults with BPD.

  18. Differential Neural Processing of Social Exclusion and Inclusion in Adolescents with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Young Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Brown


    Full Text Available IntroductionNon-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, NSSI often occurs independently of BPD. Altered neural processing of social exclusion has been shown in adolescents with NSSI and adults with BPD with additional alterations during social inclusion in BPD patients. Aims of this study were to investigate differences in neural processing of social inclusion and exclusion situations between adolescents with NSSI and young adults with BPD and NSSI.MethodsUsing fMRI, neural processing of positive and negative social situations (paradigm: “Cyberball” was explored. Participants were 14 adolescents with NSSI, but without BPD (Mage = 15.4; SD = 1.9, 15 adults with BPD and NSSI (Mage = 23.3; SD = 4.1, as well as 15 healthy adolescents (Mage = 14.5; SD = 1.7, and 16 healthy adults (Mage = 23.2; SD = 4.4.ResultsBehavioral results showed enhanced feelings of social exclusion in both patient groups as compared to healthy controls but only the NSSI group showed enhanced activation during social exclusion versus inclusion compared to the other groups. While both NSSI and BPD groups showed enhanced activation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex during social exclusion as compared to their age-matched controls, enhanced activation during social inclusion as compared to a passive watching condition was mainly observed in the BPD group in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and the anterior insula.DiscussionWhile neural processing of social exclusion was pronounced in adolescents with NSSI, BPD patients also showed increased activity in a per se positive social situation. These results might point toward a higher responsiveness to social exclusion in adolescents with NSSI, which might then develop into a generalized increased sensitivity to all kinds of social situations in adults with BPD.

  19. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus: quantification of whole virus particles during the vaccine manufacturing process by size exclusion chromatography. (United States)

    Spitteler, Marcelo A; Fernández, Ignacio; Schabes, Erika; Krimer, Alejandro; Régulier, Emmanuel G; Guinzburg, Mariela; Smitsaart, Eliana; Levy, M Susana


    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cattle, sheep, goats and swine causing severe economic losses worldwide. The efficacy of inactivated vaccines is critically dependent on the integrity of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. The recommended method to quantify the active ingredient of vaccines is the 140S quantitative sucrose density gradient analysis. This method has been an immensely valuable tool over the past three decades but it is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. We developed a method to quantify FMDV particles during the vaccine manufacturing process that is based on separation of components by size-exclusion chromatography and measurement of virus by absorption at 254nm. The method is linear in the 5-70μg/mL range, it is applicable to different FMDV strains, and has a good correlation with the 140S test. The proposed method uses standard chromatographic media and it is amenable to automation. The method has potential as a process analytical technology and for control of final product by manufacturers, international vaccine banks and regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exclusive Dealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Chiara; Motta, Massimo; Rønde, Thomas


    This paper studies a model whereby exclusive dealing (ED) can both promote investment and foreclose a more efficient supplier. Since ED promotes the incumbent seller's investment, the seller and the buyer realize a greater surplus from bilateral trade under exclusivity. Hence, the parties involved...... may sign an ED contract that excludes a more efficient entrant in circumstances where ED would not arise absent investment. The paper therefore invites a more cautious attitude towards accepting possible investment promotion arguments as a defense for ED....

  1. Interference of two codirectional exclusion processes in the presence of a static bottleneck: A biologically motivated model (United States)

    Mishra, Bhavya; Chowdhury, Debashish


    We develop a two-species exclusion process with a distinct pair of entry and exit sites for each species of rigid rods. The relatively slower forward stepping of the rods in an extended bottleneck region, located in between the two entry sites, controls the extent of interference of the codirectional flow of the two species of rods. The relative positions of the sites of entry of the two species of rods with respect to the location of the bottleneck are motivated by a biological phenomenon. However, the primary focus of the study here is to explore the effects of the interference of the flow of the two species of rods on their spatiotemporal organization and the regulations of this interference by the extended bottleneck. By a combination of mean-field theory and computer simulation, we calculate the flux of both species of rods and their density profiles as well as the composite phase diagrams of the system. If the bottleneck is sufficiently stringent, then some of the phases become practically unrealizable, although not ruled out on the basis of any fundamental physical principle. Moreover, the extent of suppression of flow of the downstream entrants by the flow of the upstream entrants can also be regulated by the strength of the bottleneck. We speculate on the possible implications of the results in the context of the biological phenomenon that motivated the formulation of the theoretical model.

  2. Generation of one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering using interference-controlled asymmetric dissipation process (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun; Cheng, Guang-Ling; Oh, C. H.


    We show that one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering effects can be generated via the asymmetric dissipation scheme induced by the spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) in a resonantly driven V-type atomic system. According to the dressed atomic states and Bogoliubov transformation, we find that there exist two identical dissipation channels being responsible for the appearance of entanglement and symmetric two-way steering effects in the absence of SGC effect. More interestingly, the one-way EPR steering effect occurs when the population differences between the dressed states are prominently modified by the SGC effect. As a consequence, the symmetry of the two dissipation channels is broken by the quantum interference, leading to the generation of one-way EPR steering effect.

  3. Catalytic asymmetric fluorinations. (United States)

    Bobbio, Carla; Gouverneur, Véronique


    The appearance of structurally diverse fluorinating reagents displaying a large spectrum of reactivity has been critical to the development of the catalytic asymmetric fluorination processes known to date. In this article, we discuss how this area of research emerged and which strategies have allowed for the successful development of both nucleophilic and electrophilic catalytic enantioselective fluorinations. We also present the fundamental understanding of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the most efficient processes and highlight the first synthetic application with the preparation of a complex fluorinated target.

  4. O processo sucessório em organizações familiares e a exclusão da mulher The successors process into family firms and exclusion of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Barbosa Macêdo


    Full Text Available O presente estudo aborda o processo sucessório em organizações familiares enfocando a exclusão da mulher deste processo. Trata-se de um estudo de caráter descritivo e exploratório, utilizando multicasos em organizações familiares localizadas no Estado de Goiás, por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada com diretores(as, gerentes e trabalhadores(as para coleta de dados, analisados com a técnica de análise gráfica do discurso de Lane (1985. Como resultados tem-se que, em decorrência de traços da cultura brasileira e da cultura das organizações pesquisadas, ocorre a exclusão da mulher do processo sucessório de organizações familiares, explicitada de duas formas: desconsiderando desde o início a possibilidade de promover mulheres para cargos de cúpula, ou considerando-as no início, mas descartando-as em etapas posteriores. Foi encontrado um número mínimo de diretores e gerentes do gênero feminino nas organizações pesquisadas, devendo-se salientar que os cargos diretivos e gerenciais ocupados por elas estão relacionados a funções consideradas "femininas".The present study approaches succession process in family firms focusing women exclusion from this process. This is an exploratory and descriptive multicase study in family firms located in the State of Goiás, Brazil, carried out through the means of semi-structured interviews with workers from managerial and operational levels and analyzed with the application of the graphical discourse technique by Lane (1985. The results show that, due to Brazilian culture and family firms' features, women are excluded from the succession process in family firms in two ways: the promotion of women to managerial jobs is not taken into consideration since the beginning of the process, or the possibility is taken into consideration at first but it is rejected later on. In the organizations investigated it was found a low number of directors and managers of feminine gender, and it should

  5. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals differential gene expression between asymmetric and symmetric zygotic divisions in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Xiang Hu

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell divisions occur widely during many developmental processes in plants. In most angiosperms, the first zygotic cell division is asymmetric resulting in two daughter cells of unequal size and with distinct fates. However, the critical molecular mechanisms regulating this division remain unknown. Previously we showed that treatment of tobacco zygotes with beta-glucosyl Yariv (βGlcY could dramatically alter the first zygotic asymmetric division to produce symmetric two-celled proembryos. In the present study, we isolated zygotes and two-celled asymmetric proembryos in vivo by micromanipulation, and obtained symmetric, two-celled proembryos by in vitro cell cultures. Using suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH and macroarray analysis differential gene expression between the zygote and the asymmetric and symmetric two-celled proembryos was investigated. After sequencing of the differentially expressed clones, a total of 1610 EST clones representing 685 non-redundant transcripts were obtained. Gene ontology (GO term analysis revealed that these transcripts include those involved in physiological processes such as response to stimulus, regulation of gene expression, and localization and formation of anatomical structures. A homology search against known genes from Arabidopsis indicated that some of the above transcripts are involved in asymmetric cell division and embryogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the up- or down-regulation of the selected candidate transcripts during zygotic division. A few of these transcripts were expressed exclusively in the zygote, or in either type of the two-celled proembryos. Expression analyses of select genes in different tissues and organs also revealed potential roles of these transcripts in fertilization, seed maturation and organ development. The putative roles of few of the identified transcripts in the regulation of zygotic division are discussed. Further functional work on these

  6. LBM-LES Simulation of the Transient Asymmetric Flow and Free Surface Fluctuations under Steady Operating Conditions of Slab Continuous Casting Process (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Li, Qiang; Kuang, S. B.; Zou, Zongshu


    Transient flow structures in a continuous casting mold can strongly influence the slag entrainment in liquid steel and the bubbles capture in the initial solidified shell, both of which are associated with the quality of the final product. This paper presents a numerical study of the turbulent flow with a top free surface in the continuous casting mold at a meso-scale level by a three-dimensional combined approach of Free Surface Lattice Boltzmann Method and Large Eddy Simulation (FSLBM-LES). The validity of the model is verified by the good agreement between the calculated results and the measurements from various water experiments in terms of the flow velocity and free surface profile. The mathematical model is then used to reveal the transient and spatiotemporal asymmetric characteristics associated with the transient flow field and the free surface fluctuation, although the steady state operation is considered during the continuous casting process. The results show that the locations of the jets of liquid steel from the two out ports of the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN) always fluctuate alternatively within a certain range, and periodically deviate from the design angle of the SEN within the same time period. The oscillating behavior of the jets promotes the asymmetric flow patterns and multi-scale vortices at both sides of the SEN. By introducing the Q-criterion in the results analysis, the formation, development, and shedding of the coherent structure (CS) of the turbulent flow are quantitatively characterized. The interaction between the transient flow patterns and the fluctuations of the top free surface as well as the evolution of the transient profile and velocities of the free surface are also demonstrated. The results obtained from the current study suggest that the FSLBM-LES model offers a promising way to study the complex flows and related transfer phenomena in the continuous casting process.

  7. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: Integration of inclusion body solubilization and refolding using simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling. (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois


    An integrated process which combines continuous inclusion body dissolution with NaOH and continuous matrix-assisted refolding based on closed-loop simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography was designed and experimentally evaluated at laboratory scale. Inclusion bodies from N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP1 from high cell density fermentation were continuously dissolved with NaOH, filtered and mixed with concentrated refolding buffer prior to refolding by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This process enabled an isocratic operation of the simulated moving bed (SMB) system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling by concentrating the raffinate using tangential flow filtration. With this continuous refolding process, we increased the refolding and cleavage yield of both model proteins by 10% compared to batch dilution refolding. Furthermore, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate could be recycled which reduced the buffer consumption significantly. Based on the actual refolding data, we compared throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption between two batch dilution refolding processes - one using urea for IB dissolution, the other one using NaOH for IB dissolution - and our continuous refolding process. The higher complexity of the continuous refolding process was rewarded with higher throughput and productivity as well as significantly lower buffer consumption compared to the batch dilution refolding processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Sznajder, Paweł


    In this paper we summarize recent measurements of exclusive meson production performed by the COMPASS Collaboration. In particular, recent results on the transverse target spin asymmetries for exclusive r 0 production are presented. Some of these asymmetries are sensitive to the GPDs E , which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks. Other asymmetries are sensitive to the chiral-odd, transverse GPDs H T . Measurements of exclusive processes, which are a part of the COMPASS-II proposal, are also discussed

  9. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation for human serum albumin based nanoparticle characterisation and a deeper insight into particle formation processes. (United States)

    John, C; Langer, K


    Nanoparticles used as drug delivery systems are of growing interest in the pharmaceutical field. Understanding the behaviour and effects of nanosystems in the human body is dependent on comprehensive characterisation of the systems especially with regard to size and size distribution. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) is a promising method for this challenge as this technique enables chromatographic separation of particles and solute molecules according to their respective size. Within this study AF4 was used for the characterisation of human serum albumin (HSA) based nanoparticles. In a first part, the most important aspects of method development like the choice of cross flow rate, focusing and the increase of sample concentration via outlet stream splitting on the sample separation were evaluated. Sample fractionation was controlled by inline-coupling of a dynamic light scattering detector (DLS, Zetasizer) and was confirmed by DLS batch mode measurements. In a second part the applicability of field-flow fractionation for characterisation of the HSA particle formation process by a desolvation method was evaluated. A time dependent particle formation was observed which was controlled by the amount of desolvating agent. Furthermore, field-flow fractionation in combination with in-line dynamic light scattering was used to monitor the increase of particle diameter during PEGylation of the resulting HSA nanoparticles. The separation of nanoparticles from dissolved polyethylene glycol (PEG) could successfully be used for determination of the particles' PEGylation degree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and optimization of a new processing approach for manufacturing topical liposomes-in-hydrogel drug formulations by dual asymmetric centrifugation. (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Sveinung G; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Holsæter, Ann Mari


    The objective of the present study was to utilize dual asymmetric centrifugation (DAC) as a novel processing approach for the production of liposomes-in-hydrogel formulations. Lipid films of phosphatidylcholine, with and without chloramphenicol (CAM), were hydrated and homogenized by DAC to produce liposomes in the form of vesicular phospholipid gels with a diameter in the size range of 200-300 nm suitable for drug delivery to the skin. Different homogenization processing parameters were investigated along with the effect of adding propylene glycol (PG) to the formulations prior to homogenization. The produced liposomes were incorporated into a hydrogel made of 2.5% (v/v) soluble β-1,3/1,6-glucan (SBG) and mixed by DAC to achieve a homogenous liposomes-in-hydrogel-formulation suitable for topical application. CAM-containing liposomes with a vesicle diameter of 282 ± 30 nm and polydispersity index (PI) of 0.13 ± 0.02 were successfully produced by DAC after 50 min centrifugation at 3500 rpm, and homogenously (< 4% content variation) incorporated into the SBG hydrogel. Addition of PG decreased the necessary centrifugation time to 2 min and 55 s, producing liposomes of 230 ± 51 nm and PI of 0.25 ± 0.04. All formulations had an entrapment efficiency of approximately 50%. We managed to develop a relatively fast and reproducible new method for the production of liposomes-in-hydrogel formulations by DAC.

  11. 40 CFR 261.39 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Broken Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass... (United States)


    ... Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass Undergoing Recycling. 261.39 Section 261.39 Protection of... (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass Undergoing Recycling. Used, broken CRTs are not solid wastes if they meet... CRT glass (including fine solid materials). (2) Labeling. Each container in which the used, broken CRT...

  12. Final Regulatory Determination for Special Wastes From Mineral Processing (Mining Waste Exclusion) - Federal Register Notice, June 13, 1991 (United States)

    This action presents the Agency's final regulatory determination required by section 3001(b)(3)(C) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for 20 special wastes from the processing of ores and minerals.

  13. Measurement of exclusive $\\rho^{+}\\rho^{-}$ production in mid-virtuality two-photon interactions and study of the $\\gamma \\gamma^{*} \\to \\rho\\rho$ process at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.


    Exclusive rho+rho- production in two-photon collisions between a quasi-real photon, gamma, and a mid-virtuality photon, gamma*, is studied with data collected at LEP at centre-of-mass energies root(s)=183-209GeV with a total integrated luminosity of 684.8pb^-1. The cross section of the gamma gamma* -> rho+ rho- process is determined as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, and the two-photon centre-of-mass energy, W_gg, in the kinematic region: 0.2GeV^2 rho rho process over the Q^2-region 0.2GeV^2 < Q^2 < 30 GeV^2.

  14. Social and Health Care Access for the Physically Disabled in 19th Century French-Speaking Switzerland : A Double Process of Exclusion and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba, Mariama


    Full Text Available During the 19th century, an unprecedented process of medicalisation and institutionalisation took place in Europe. The parallel development of urbanised and industrialised areas furthered the densification of a network of care institutions such as infirmaries and dispensaries, whilst medical tourism was developed among the upper classes stimulating the founding of new private clinics. A more institutional kind of care structure for people suffering from a disability also emerged. This medical and/or social care structure was part of a process of integration or exclusion, according to whether the disabled person’s state of health was likely to improve or not. This paper will focus on physically disabled persons, who were vaguely referred to as invalids or as “incurable” in 19th century institutional documents. Being mainly interested in French-speaking Switzerland, I will present the access to social and health care in the cantons of Geneva, Vaud and Neuchâtel.

  15. Asymmetric Divisions in Oogenesis. (United States)

    Bilinski, Szczepan M; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Kloc, Malgorzata

    In the majority of animals, the oocyte/egg is structurally, molecularly, and functionally asymmetric. Such asymmetry is a prerequisite for a flawless fertilization and faithful segregation of maternal determinants during subsequent embryonic development. The oocyte asymmetry develops during oogenesis and must be maintained during consecutive and obligatorily asymmetric oogonial divisions, which depending on the species lead to the formation of either oocyte alone or oocyte and nurse cell complex. In the following chapter, we summarize current knowledge on the asymmetric oogonial divisions in invertebrate (insects) and vertebrate (Xenopus) species.

  16. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing. (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng


    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  17. QED radiative effects in the processes of exclusive photon electroproduction from polarized protons with the next-to-leading accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akushevich, Igor V. [Duke University, JLAB; Ilyichev, Alexander [Byelorussian State University; Shumeiko, Nikolai M [Byelorussian State University


    Radiative effects in the electroproduction of photons in polarized ep-scattering are calculated with the next-to-leading (NLO) accuracy. The contributions of loops and two photon emission were presented in analytical form. The covariant approach of Bardin and Shumeiko was used to extract the infrared divergence. All contributions to the radiative correction were presented in the form of the correction to the leptonic tensor thus allowing for further applications in other experiments, e.g., deep inelastic scattering. The radiative corrections (RC) to the cross sections and polarization asymmetries were analyzed numerically for kinematical conditions of the current measurement at Jefferson Lab. Specific attention was paid on analyzing kinematical conditions for the process with large radiative effect when momenta of two photons in the final state are collinear to momenta of initial and final electrons, respectively.

  18. The psychology of exclusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Jollimore


    Full Text Available Friendship and romantic love are, by their very nature, exclusive relationships. This paper suggests that we can better understand the nature of the exclusivity in question by understanding what is wrong with the view of practical reasoning I call the Comprehensive Surveyor View. The CSV claims that practical reasoning, in order to be rational, must be a process of choosing the best available alternative from a perspective that is as detached and objective as possible. But this view, while it means to be neutral between various value-bearers, in fact incorporates a bias against those value-bearers that can only be appreciated from a perspective that is not detached—that can only be appreciated, for instance, by agents who bear long-term commitments to the values in question. In the realm of personal relationships, such commitments tend to give rise to the sort of exclusivity that characterizes friendship and romantic love; they prevent the agent from being impartial between her beloved’s needs, interests, etc., and those of other persons. In such contexts, I suggest, needs and claims of other persons may be silenced in much the way that, as John McDowell has suggested, the temptations of immorality are silenced for the virtuous agent.

  19. Exclusive Dijet production from CDF2LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.


    Exclusive dijet production at the Tevatron can be used as a benchmark to establish predictions on exclusive diffractive Higgs production, a process with a much smaller cross section. Exclusive dijet production in Double Pomeron Exchange processes, including diffractive Higgs production with measurements at the Tevatron and predictions for the Large Hadron Collider are presented. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented and compared to current theoretical predictions.

  20. Process to remove turbidity-causing components from a fluid by micro-filtration - passes the fluid across an asymmetric membrane with inlet pores larger than those of nominal size, and cleans the membrane by backwashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Process is based on microfiltration using an asymmetric membrane. The membrane has inlet pores which are larger than the nominal pore size; pores of nominal size are located towards the membrane outlet side. The fluid is fed across the membrane. and backwashing is used for cleaning. USE-To remove...... turbidity-causing components from beer, wine, fruit juice, milk and blood, and from bacterial and enzyme suspensions. ADVANTAGE-The process greatly reduces the lost production time associated with earlier filtration methods, and beneficial components can pass through the membrane, thereby improving...

  1. Characteristics of Braced Excavation under Asymmetrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjie Xu


    Full Text Available Numerous excavation practices have shown that large discrepancies exist between field monitoring data and calculated results when the conventional symmetry-plane method (with half-width is used to design the retaining structure under asymmetrical loads. To examine the characteristics of a retaining structure under asymmetrical loads, we use the finite element method (FEM to simulate the excavation process under four different groups of asymmetrical loads and create an integrated model to tackle this problem. The effects of strut stiffness and wall length are also investigated. The results of numerical analysis clearly imply that the deformation and bending moment of diaphragm walls are distinct on different sides, indicating the need for different rebar arrangements when the excavation is subjected to asymmetrical loads. This study provides a practical approach to designing excavations under asymmetrical loads. We analyze and compare the monitoring and calculation data at different excavation stages and find some general trends. Several guidelines on excavation design under asymmetrical loads are drawn.

  2. Exclusive dimuon production with LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Shears, Tara


    We report on studies of exclusive dimuon production using LHCb experimental data. Exclusively produced muon pairs can be produced by two photon fusion (a QED process ideally suited to obtaining a precise integrated luminosity measure), or through resonances produced by pomeron-photon fusion or double pomeron exchange.We present cross-section measurements for exclusive dimuon production, and the first observations at a proton-proton collider of exclusive J/psi, psi’ and chi_c states, obtained with 37 pb-1 of data at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. The resolution of the LHCb detectors allow the chic0, chic1 and chic2 states to be separated. We compare our results to theoretical predictions.

  3. Asymmetrical field emitter (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.


    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  4. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: integration of refolding and purification using simulated moving bed size-exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling. (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois


    Continuous processing of recombinant proteins was accomplished by combining continuous matrix-assisted refolding and purification by tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Recombinant proteins, N(pro) fusion proteins from inclusion bodies were dissolved with NaOH and refolded in the SMB system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling of the refolding buffer of the raffinate by tangential flow filtration. For further purification of the refolded proteins, a second SMB operation also based on SEC was added. The whole system could be operated isocratically with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer, and buffer recycling could also be applied in the purification step. Thus, a significant reduction in buffer consumption was achieved. The system was evaluated with two proteins, the N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP-1. Refolding solution, which contained residual N(pro) fusion peptide, the cleaved autoprotease N(pro), and the cleaved target peptide was used as feed solution. Full separation of the cleaved target peptide from residual proteins was achieved at a purity and recovery in the raffinate and extract, respectively, of approximately 100%. In addition, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate was recycled. A comparison of throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption of the integrated continuous process with two batch processes demonstrated that up to 60-fold higher throughput, up to 180-fold higher productivity, and at least 28-fold lower buffer consumption can be obtained by the integrated continuous process, which compensates for the higher complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Central exclusive production at the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, Michael G


    In CDF we have observed several exclusive processes: 2-photon --> e+e- and --> mu+mu-, photon+pomeron --> J/psi and psi(2S), and pomeron+pomeron --> chi_c. The cross sections agree with QED, HERA photoproduction data, and theoretical estimates of gg --> chi_c with another gluon exchanged to screen the color. This observation of exclusive chi_c, together with earlier observations of exclusive dijets and exclusive 2-photon candidates, support some theoretical predictions for p+p --> p+H+p at the LHC. Exclusive dileptons offer the best means of precisely calibrating forward proton spectrometers.

  6. Driven flow with exclusion and spin-dependent transport in graphenelike structures (United States)

    de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Stinchcombe, R. B.


    We present a simplified description for spin-dependent electronic transport in honeycomb-lattice structures with spin-orbit interactions, using generalizations of the stochastic nonequilibrium model known as the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process. Mean field theory and numerical simulations are used to study currents, density profiles, and current polarization in quasi-one-dimensional systems with open boundaries, and externally imposed particle injection (α ) and ejection (β ) rates. We investigate the influence of allowing for double site occupancy, according to Pauli's exclusion principle, on the behavior of the quantities of interest. We find that double occupancy shows strong signatures for specific combinations of rates, namely high α and low β , but otherwise its effects are quantitatively suppressed. Comments are made on the possible relevance of the present results to experiments on suitably doped graphenelike structures.

  7. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division. (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Conradt, Barbara


    Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  8. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hatzold


    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  9. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B


    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain

  10. How Is Nature Asymmetric?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. How Is Nature Asymmetric? - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation ... Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  11. Social exclusion and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Vesna


    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/accessibility/availability is one of the factors that significantly influence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation. At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, development and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries. The subject of this paper is the educational structure of population of Serbia and the accessibility of education. The analysis covers the educational structure with regard to age, gender and type of settlement (city and other/villages settlements.

  12. Highly asymmetric rice genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian-Qun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals in the same species are assumed to share the same genomic set. However, it is not unusual to find an orthologous gene only in small subset of the species, and recent genomic studies suggest that structural rearrangements are very frequent between genomes in the same species. Two recently sequenced rice genomes Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare and O. sativa L. var. 93-11 provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the extent of the gene repertoire polymorphism, even though the genomic data of 93-11 derived from whole-short-gun sequencing is not yet as complete as that of Nipponbare. Results We compared gene contents and the genomic locations between two rice genomes. Our conservative estimates suggest that at least 10% of the genes in the genomes were either under presence/absence polymorphism (5.2% or asymmetrically located between genomes (4.7%. The proportion of these "asymmetric genes" varied largely among gene groups, in which disease resistance (R genes and the RLK kinase gene group had 11.6 and 7.8 times higher proportion of asymmetric genes than housekeeping genes (Myb and MADS. The significant difference in the proportion of asymmetric genes among gene groups suggests that natural selection is responsible for maintaining genomic asymmetry. On the other hand, the nucleotide diversity in 17 R genes under presence/absence polymorphism was generally low (average nucleotide diversity = 0.0051. Conclusion The genomic symmetry was disrupted by 10% of asymmetric genes, which could cause genetic variation through more unequal crossing over, because these genes had no allelic counterparts to pair and then they were free to pair with homologues at non-allelic loci, during meiosis in heterozygotes. It might be a consequence of diversifying selection that increased the structural divergence among genomes, and of purifying selection that decreased nucleotide divergence in each R gene locus.

  13. Expansão da educação infantil e processos de exclusão The expansion of early childhood education and exclusionary processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvia Rosemberg


    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o processo de expansão da educação infantil (creches, pré-escolas e classes de alfabetização que ocorreu durante o governo Geisel e seus desdobramentos atuais. Utiliza como fontes, dados coletados, sistematizados e divulgados pelo IBGE e SEEC/MEC, além de documentos nacionais e de organismos intergovernamentais (UNICEF - Fundo das Nações Unidas para a Infância - e UNESCO. Apoiando-se em correntes contemporâneas da Sociologia da Educação, de estudos de gênero e sobre relações raciais, o texto deslinda novos processos de exclusão criados pela política de "democratização"da educação infantil. Conclui refletindo sobre os sentidos de ações afirmativas e políticas para todos como estratégias de democratização da educação infantil.This article analyzes the process of expanded early childhood education (day care centers, preschools and literacy classes that took place during the Geisel government, and their present day developments. It utilizes date collected, systematized and disseminated by the IBGE and SEEC/MEC, as well as national documents and those of intergovernmental organizations (UNICEF and UNESCO. Supported in the latest currents of educational Sociology and studies of gender and race relations, the text details new exclusionary processes created by policies to "democratize" early childhood education. It concludes by reflecting on the meaning of affirmative action and policies for everyone as strategies for making early childhood education more democratic.

  14. LG tools for asymmetric wargaming (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Alex; Yakhnis, Vladimir


    Asymmetric operations represent conflict where one of the sides would apply military power to influence the political and civil environment, to facilitate diplomacy, and to interrupt specified illegal activities. This is a special type of conflict where the participants do not initiate full-scale war. Instead, the sides may be engaged in a limited open conflict or one or several sides may covertly engage another side using unconventional or less conventional methods of engagement. They may include peace operations, combating terrorism, counterdrug operations, arms control, support of insurgencies or counterinsurgencies, show of force. An asymmetric conflict can be represented as several concurrent interlinked games of various kinds: military, transportation, economic, political, etc. Thus, various actions of peace violators, terrorists, drug traffickers, etc., can be expressed via moves in different interlinked games. LG tools allow us to fully capture the specificity of asymmetric conflicts employing the major LG concept of hypergame. Hypergame allows modeling concurrent interlinked processes taking place in geographically remote locations at different levels of resolution and time scale. For example, it allows us to model an antiterrorist operation taking place simultaneously in a number of countries around the globe and involving wide range of entities from individuals to combat units to governments. Additionally, LG allows us to model all sides of the conflict at their level of sophistication. Intelligent stakeholders are represented by means of LG generated intelligent strategies. TO generate those strategies, in addition to its own mathematical intelligence, the LG algorithm may incorporate the intelligence of the top-level experts in the respective problem domains. LG models the individual differences between intelligent stakeholders. The LG tools make it possible to incorporate most of the known traits of a stakeholder, i.e., real personalities involved in

  15. The Influence of the Asymmetric Arb Process on the Properties of Al-Mg-Al Multi-Layer Sheets / Wpływ Asymetrii W Procesie Arb Na Właściwości Wielowarstwowych Blach Al-Mg-Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzba A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the experimental study of the three-layer Al-Mg-Al sheets rolling process by the ARB method. The tests carried out were limited to single-pass symmetric and asymmetric rolling processes. An Al-Mg-Al package with an initial thickness of 4 mm (1-2-1 mm was subjected to the process of rolling with a relative reduction of 50%. To activate the shear band in the strip being deformed, an asymmetry factor of av=2 was applied. From the test results, an increase in the tensile strength of the multi-layer Al-Mg-Al sheets obtained from the asymmetric process was observed. Microhardness tests did not show any significant differences in aluminium layer between respective layers of sheets obtained from the symmetric and the asymmetric process. By contrast, for the magnesium layer, an increase in microhardness from 72 HV to 79 HV could be observed for the asymmetric rolling. The analysis of the produced Al-Mg-Al sheets shows that the good bond between individual layers and grain refinement in the magnesium layer contributed to the obtaining of higher mechanical properties in the multi-layer sheets produced in the asymmetric process compared to the sheets obtained from the symmetric process.

  16. Asymmetric evolution of El Niño and La Niña: the recharge/discharge processes and role of the off-equatorial sea surface height anomaly (United States)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Huang, Bohua; Zhu, Jieshun; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Jin, Fei-Fei


    Observed oceanic and atmospheric anomalies in the tropical Pacific are analyzed to understand the symmetric and asymmetric characteristics between El Niño and La Niña evolutions. It is noted that the evolutions are largely symmetric for El Niño and La Niña prior to and in their mature phase, but become asymmetric afterwards. It is further demonstrated that this asymmetry is due to the fact that, on average, the discharge process associated with El Niño is stronger than the recharge counterpart associated with La Niña. The symmetric and asymmetric evolution for different phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is consistent with the associated recharge and discharge processes that are linked with the evolution of anomalous ocean surface current and gradient of sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs). It is suggested that the evolution of the meridional gradient of SSHAs in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific is different between El Niño and La Niña years due to relatively different rates of the SSHA changes on and off the equator. During the decay of a warm event, the equatorial SSHA quickly switches from positive to negative, meanwhile the off-equator areas are occupied by positive SSHAs. Such changes on the equator and in the off-equatorial regions make the concavity of the meridional SSHA favorable for growth and persistence of westward surface zonal current anomaly in the equatorial Pacific, then for the ENSO phase transition. During the decay of a cold event, the slow decrease of the negative SSHA on the equator combined with the disappearance of the negative SSHA in the off-equatorial regions makes the meridional concavity reverse easily and is unfavorable for the steady growth of the eastward surface zonal current anomaly and for the phase transition. Thus, the asymmetric evolution of ENSO is associated with both the atmosphere and ocean anomalies on the equator and off the equator.

  17. A sampling theory for asymmetric communities. (United States)

    Noble, Andrew E; Temme, Nico M; Fagan, William F; Keitt, Timothy H


    We introduce the first analytical model of asymmetric community dynamics to yield Hubbell's neutral theory in the limit of functional equivalence among all species. Our focus centers on an asymmetric extension of Hubbell's local community dynamics, while an analogous extension of Hubbell's metacommunity dynamics is deferred to an appendix. We find that mass-effects may facilitate coexistence in asymmetric local communities and generate unimodal species abundance distributions indistinguishable from those of symmetric communities. Multiple modes, however, only arise from asymmetric processes and provide a strong indication of non-neutral dynamics. Although the exact stationary distributions of fully asymmetric communities must be calculated numerically, we derive approximate sampling distributions for the general case and for nearly neutral communities where symmetry is broken by a single species distinct from all others in ecological fitness and dispersal ability. In the latter case, our approximate distributions are fully normalized, and novel asymptotic expansions of the required hypergeometric functions are provided to make evaluations tractable for large communities. Employing these results in a bayesian analysis may provide a novel statistical test to assess the consistency of species abundance data with the neutral hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  19. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy


    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  20. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games. (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph


    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  1. Empowerment and its implementation in the process of counteracting the phenomenon of youth and adult social exclusion – report on participation in an international project under the 2014-2016 Erasmus + Strategic Partnership project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jarczyńska


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the empowerment process and its implementation in social work in the context of counteracting social exclusion in youth and adults based on the example of the project carried out in the years 2014-2016, titled: “Development of the empowerment of educators and beneficiaries in the field of youth at risk and social exclusion”, co-financed from European Union funds within the Erasmus + programme, Action 2: Strategic partnership of professional teaching and training, Grant No. 2014-1-FR01-KA2026-008728. The English language concept category of empowerment, which does not have a satisfactory equivalent term in the Polish language, was operationalised in this article. The essence of empowerment in the context of social work was described in the article, pointing to its significance mainly in the scope of counteracting the process of youth and adult social exclusion. Furthermore, the main assumptions of the implemented international project were set out in the ambit of the development of the empowerment of educators as well as of beneficiaries working with persons at risk of social exclusion, and the relationship and reflections of one of the project participants were also shown. An attempt was made in the article on the basis of the experiences gathered within the performance of the international research project to assess the course of the empowerment process and its usefulness in searching for solutions for educational practices in the domain of the social exclusion phenomenon.

  2. Generation of central exclusive final states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennblad, Leif [Department of Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Zlebcik, Radek [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)


    We present a scheme for the generation of central exclusive final states in the program. The implementation allows for the investigation of higher-order corrections to such exclusive processes as approximated by the initial-state parton shower in. To achieve this, the spin and colour decomposition of the initial-state shower has been worked out, in order to determine the probability that a partonic state generated from an inclusive sub-process followed by a series of initial-state parton splittings can be considered as an approximation of an exclusive colour- and spin-singlet process. We use our implementation to investigate the effects of parton showers on some examples of central exclusive processes, and we find sizeable effects on di-jet production, while the effects on e.g. central exclusive Higgs production are minor. (orig.)

  3. Asymmetrical lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs may promote asymmetrical hip joint development. (United States)

    Flückiger, Mark A; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joseph P


    This study examines the relationship between the morphology of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV) and asymmetrical development of the hip joints in dogs. A total of 4000 dogs which had been consecutively scored for canine hip dysplasia were checked for the presence of a LTV. A LTV was noted in 138 dogs and classified depending on the morphology of the transverse processes and the degree of contact with the ilium. In dogs with an asymmetrical LTV, the hip joint was significantly more predisposed to subluxation and malformation on the side of the intermediate or sacral-like transverse process (p hip joint conformation was less affected on the side featuring a free transverse process (p hip joint, and secondary osteoarthritis. Asymmetrical hip conformation may therefore be the sequela of a LTV and mask or aggravate genetically induced canine hip dysplasia.

  4. Oxidative protein refolding on size exclusion chromatography: From batch single-column to multi-column counter-current continuous processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saremirad, Pegah; Wood, Jeffery A.; Zhang, Yan; Ray, Ajay K.


    Recently protein refolding on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) operated in multi-column continuous simulated moving bed (SMB) configurations (hereinafter SMB-SEC) has been investigated for future industrial applications. This is due to several advantages offered by SMB configurations particularly

  5. Explaining Social Exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Cok Vrooman


    Although social exclusion has become a key issue on the European policy agenda in recent years, both the social phenomena the term refers to and the best way to monitor these remain unclear. In response to this, we developed a conceptual model for social exclusion and a methodology for its

  6. Justice Experiences and Feelings of Exclusion (United States)

    Umlauft, Sören; Dalbert, Claudia


    To explain feelings of social exclusion, sociological factors, such as occupation, income and education, come to mind. Feelings of social exclusion, however, may be the result of psychological processes and in particular of (in)justice experiences. Based on just-world research, we hypothesized that (1) the more young people feel treated justly by…

  7. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James


    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  8. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus


    were pioneered by Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder who discovered what later became known as the Diels Alder reaction. The Diels Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition in which a π4 component reacts with a π2 component via a cyclic transition state to generate a 6 membered ring. This reaction...... undergo cascade reactions with different electron deficient dienophiles in Diels Alder – nucleophilic ring closing reactions. This methodology opens up for the direct asymmetric formation of hydroisochromenes and hydroisoquinolines which may possess interesting biological activities. It is also...

  9. [Exclusive breastfeeding in Mexico]. (United States)

    González-de Cossío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Dinorah; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A


    To evaluate the effect of exclusive breastfeeding in Breastfeeding indicators from WHO-2008 were calculated. We estimated the effect modifier EBFBreastfeeding promotion, protection and support must be targeted mainly at the most vulnerable, food insecure families.

  10. Symmetric Decomposition of Asymmetric Games. (United States)

    Tuyls, Karl; Pérolat, Julien; Lanctot, Marc; Ostrovski, Georg; Savani, Rahul; Leibo, Joel Z; Ord, Toby; Graepel, Thore; Legg, Shane


    We introduce new theoretical insights into two-population asymmetric games allowing for an elegant symmetric decomposition into two single population symmetric games. Specifically, we show how an asymmetric bimatrix game (A,B) can be decomposed into its symmetric counterparts by envisioning and investigating the payoff tables (A and B) that constitute the asymmetric game, as two independent, single population, symmetric games. We reveal several surprising formal relationships between an asymmetric two-population game and its symmetric single population counterparts, which facilitate a convenient analysis of the original asymmetric game due to the dimensionality reduction of the decomposition. The main finding reveals that if (x,y) is a Nash equilibrium of an asymmetric game (A,B), this implies that y is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table A, and x is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table B. Also the reverse holds and combinations of Nash equilibria of the counterpart games form Nash equilibria of the asymmetric game. We illustrate how these formal relationships aid in identifying and analysing the Nash structure of asymmetric games, by examining the evolutionary dynamics of the simpler counterpart games in several canonical examples.

  11. Exclusive reactions in QCD


    Pire, Bernard


    We review the theory of hard exclusive scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics. After recalling the classical counting rules which describe the leading scale dependence of form factors and exclusive cross-sections at fixed angle, the pedagogical example of the pion form factor is developped in some detail in order to show explicitely what factorization means in the QCD framework. The picture generalizes to many hard reactions which are at the heart of the ELFE project. We briefly present the con...

  12. Deprivation and Social Exclusion


    BOSSERT, Walter; D'AMBROSIO, Conchita; PERAGINE, Vito


    Social exclusion manifests itself in the lack of an individual’s access to functionings as compared to other members of society. Thus, the concept is closely related to deprivation. We view deprivation as having two basic determinants: the lack of identification with other members of society and the aggregate alienation experienced by an agent with respect to those with fewer functioning failures. We use an axiomatic approach to characterize classes of deprivation and exclusion measures and a...

  13. Central exclusive production and the Durham model (United States)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.


    We review some selected results within the Durham model of central exclusive production. We discuss the theoretical aspects of this approach and consider the phenomenological implications for a selection of processes.

  14. Minimal asymmetric dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M. Boucenna


    Full Text Available In the early Universe, any particle carrying a conserved quantum number and in chemical equilibrium with the thermal bath will unavoidably inherit a particle–antiparticle asymmetry. A new particle of this type, if stable, would represent a candidate for asymmetric dark matter (DM with an asymmetry directly related to the baryon asymmetry. We study this possibility for a minimal DM sector constituted by just one (generic SU(2L multiplet χ carrying hypercharge, assuming that at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition an effective operator enforces chemical equilibrium between χ and the Higgs boson. We argue that limits from DM direct detection searches severely constrain this scenario, leaving as the only possibilities scalar or fermion multiplets with hypercharge y=1, preferentially quintuplets or larger SU(2 representations, and with a mass in the few TeV range.

  15. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia


    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  16. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen


    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  17. Defect induced asymmetric pit formation on hydroxyapatite. (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Young; Wang, Eddie; Chung, Alice; Chang, Neil; Saiz, Eduardo; Choe, Uh-Joo; Koobatian, Maxwell; Lee, Seung-Wuk


    Defect sites on bone minerals play a critical role in bone remodeling processes. We investigated single crystal hydroxyapatite (100) surfaces bearing crystal defects under acidic dissolution conditions using real-time in situ atomic force microscopy. At defect sites, surface structure-dependent asymmetric hexagonal etch pits were formed, which dominated the overall dissolution rate. Meanwhile, dissolution from the flat terraces proceeded by stochastic formation of flat bottom etch pits. The resulting pit shapes were intrinsically dictated by the HAP crystal structure. Computational modeling also predicted different step energies associated with different facets of the asymmetric etch pits. Our microscopic observations of HAP dissolution are significant for understanding the effects of local surface structure on the bone mineral remodeling process and provide useful insights for the design of novel therapies for treating osteoporosis and dental caries.

  18. Measurement of the exclusive γγ→μ+μ− process in proton–proton collisions at s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aaboud


    Full Text Available The production of exclusive γγ→μ+μ− events in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb−1. The measurement is performed for a dimuon invariant mass of 12GeV

  19. Quantification of immunoglobulin G and characterization of process related impurities using coupled protein A and size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Horak, Jeannie; Ronacher, Alexander; Lindner, Wolfgang


    The present work describes two HPLC-UV methods for multi-protein quantification using (i) only a Protein A sensor cartridge (Protein A HPLC) and (ii) the same Protein A cartridge in combination with a size exclusion HPLC column (PSEC-HPLC). The possibility to simultaneously quantify immunoglobulin G (IgG) besides a non-binding protein such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) increases the applicability of Protein A HPLC. Its most pronounced feature is its independence of the buffer system, pH-value and salt content of the investigated sample solvent, which includes cell media. A comparison with the state-of-the-art, the photometrical Bradford method, shows that Protein A HPLC is as sensitive as Bradford, but that it comes with an extended linear range of 4 orders of magnitude, ranging from 0.15 [microg abs] to 1 [mg abs] absolute injected protein amount. The applicability of the PSEC-HPLC method is demonstrated for the analysis of real cell culture feed samples. While Protein A binds IgG, the SEC-column distributes the feed impurities by their molecular weight. The peak area ratios of IgG and the feed impurities of interest are then plotted against the collected sample fraction. These Protein A-Size-Exclusion-Chromatographic diagrams (PSEC-plot) combine the performance information of feed impurities and IgG in a single plot. Further it is shown that both methods are suitable for the performance evaluation of antibody purification media using static as well as dynamic binding experiments performed on DEAE-Fractogel and Capto Adhere. The investigated test samples were "mock" protein solutions with increasing complexity ranging from simple PBS buffer to serum free cell media and "real" cell culture feed solutions.

  20. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.


    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  1. Asymmetric bifurcated halogen bonds. (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Marek, Radek


    Halogen bonding (XB) is being extensively explored for its potential use in advanced materials and drug design. Despite significant progress in describing this interaction by theoretical and experimental methods, the chemical nature remains somewhat elusive, and it seems to vary with the selected system. In this work we present a detailed DFT analysis of three-center asymmetric halogen bond (XB) formed between dihalogen molecules and variously 4-substituted 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. The energy decomposition, orbital, and electron density analyses suggest that the contribution of electrostatic stabilization is comparable with that of non-electrostatic factors. Both terms increase parallel with increasing negative charge of the electron donor molecule in our model systems. Depending on the orientation of the dihalogen molecules, this bifurcated interaction may be classified as 'σ-hole - lone pair' or 'σ-hole - π' halogen bonds. Arrangement of the XB investigated here deviates significantly from a recent IUPAC definition of XB and, in analogy to the hydrogen bonding, the term bifurcated halogen bond (BXB) seems to be appropriate for this type of interaction.

  2. Enhancing molecule fluorescence with asymmetrical plasmonic antennas. (United States)

    Lu, Guowei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianyue; Shen, Hongming; Perriat, Pascal; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Gu, Ying; He, Yingbo; Wang, Yuwei; Gong, Qihuang


    We propose and justify by the finite-difference time-domain method an efficient strategy to enhance the spontaneous emission of a fluorophore with a multi-resonance plasmonic antenna. The custom-designed asymmetrical antenna consists of two plasmonic nanoparticles with different sizes and is able to couple efficiently to free space light through multiple localized surface plasmon resonances. This design simultaneously permits a large near-field excitation near the antenna as well as a high quantum efficiency, which results in an unusual and significant enhancement of the fluorescence of a single emitter. Such an asymmetrical antenna presents intrinsic advantages over single particle or dimer based antennas made using two identical nanostructures. This promising concept can be exploited in the large domain of light-matter interaction processes involving multiple frequencies.

  3. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle life....

  4. Collective Dynamics on a Two-Lane Asymmetrically Coupled TASEP with Mutually Interactive Langmuir Kinetics (United States)

    Gupta, Arvind Kumar


    Motivated by the recent experimental observations on clustering of motor proteins on microtubule filament, we study an open system of two parallel totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes under asymmetric coupling conditions, which incorporates the mutual interaction with the surrounding environment through Langmuir Kinetics (LK) in both the lanes. In the modified LK, the attachment and detachment rates depends on the configuration of nearest neighboring sites. We analyse the model within the framework of continuum mean-field theory and the phase diagrams along with density profiles are obtained using boundary layer analysis. The effect of mutual interactions on the phase diagram for two different situations of attachment and detachment (LK) rates is discussed. Under the symmetric LK dynamics, the topological structure of the phase diagram remains similar to the one in without mutual interaction; while for the antisymmetric case, after a certain critical value of attractive/repulsive mutual attraction, significant changes are found in the qualitative nature of phase diagram. Moreover, it is shown that the type of mutual interaction affects the dynamic properties of motor proteins. The theoretical findings are examined by extensive Monte-Carlo simulations.

  5. Inclusive and Exclusive |Vub|

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrella, Antonio; /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara


    The current status of the determinations of CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| via exclusive and inclusive charmless semileptonic B decays is reviewed. The large datasets collected at the B-Factories, and the increased precision of theoretical calculations have allowed an improvement in the determination of |V{sub ub}|. However, there are still significant uncertainties. In the exclusive approach, the most precise measurement of the pion channel branching ratio is obtained by an untagged analysis. This very good precision can be reached by tagged analyses with more data. The problem with exclusive decays is that the strong hadron dynamics can not be calculated from first principles and the determination of the form factor has to rely on light-cone sum rules or lattice QCD calculations. The current data samples allow a comparison of different FF models with data distributions. With further developments on lattice calculations, the theoretical error should shrink to reach the experimental one. The inclusive approach still provides the most precise |V{sub ub}| determinations. With new theoretical calculations, the mild (2.5{sigma}) discrepancy with respect to the |V{sub ub}| value determined from the global UT fit has been reduced. As in the exclusive approach, theoretical uncertainties represent the limiting factor to the precision of the measurement. Reducing the theoretical uncertainties to a level comparable with the statistical error is challenging. New measurements in semileptonic decays of charm mesons could increase the confidence in theoretical calculations and related uncertainties.

  6. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN bulletin


    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Ombudsman Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.

  7. Exclusive Production at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Marek


    I briefly introduce so-called central exclusive production. I mainly focus on the example analyses that have been performed in the CMS experiment at CERN. I conclude with ideas and perspectives for future work that will be done during Run 2 of the LHC. I pay special attention to the ultraperipheral collisions.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Infant feeding practices was studied prospectively among 461 mothers who delivered in JU TH and who initially intended to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. K. Y Result: Four hundred and twenty two (91.5%) of the recruited mothers continued EBFing practice for 6 months, while 25 (5.4%) dropped out from the ...

  9. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin


    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.   Contact the Ombuds Early!

  10. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian


    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  11. Asymmetric Ion-Pairing Catalysis (United States)

    Brak, Katrien


    Charged intermediates and reagents are ubiquitous in organic transformations. The interaction of these ionic species with chiral neutral, anionic, or cationic small molecules has emerged as a powerful strategy for catalytic, enantioselective synthesis. This review describes developments in the burgeoning field of asymmetric ion-pairing catalysis with an emphasis on the insights that have been gleaned into the structural and mechanistic features that contribute to high asymmetric induction. PMID:23192886

  12. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan


    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  13. Challenging gender stereotypes: resistance and exclusion. (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie


    The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Water transport and purification in nanochannels controlled by asymmetric wettability. (United States)

    Chen, Qinwen; Meng, Lingyi; Li, Qikai; Wang, Dong; Guo, Wei; Shuai, Zhigang; Jiang, Lei


    Biomimetic asymmetric nanochannels have recently attracted increasing attention from researchers, especially in the aspect of the asymmetric wettability (a hydrophilic-hydrophobic system), which can be utilized to control the wetting behavior of aqueous media and to offer a means for guiding water motion. By using molecular dynamics simulations, a design for a potentially efficient water filter is presented based on (n, n) single-walled carbon nanotubes, where n = 6, 8, 10 and 12, asymmetrically modified with hydrophilic groups (carboxyl, -COOH) at one tip and hydrophobic groups (trifluoromethyl, -CF(3) ) at the other. The reduced water density on the hydrophobic sides of the functionalized nanotubes are observed in both pure water and aqueous electrolyte solution, except for the functionalized (6, 6) tube, due to the change of dipole orientation of the single-file water wire within it. The functionalized (8, 8) tube can significantly maintain the low water density on the hydrophobic side. Both (6, 6) and (8, 8) tubes have relatively high energy barriers at their tips for ion permeation, which can be obtained by calculating the potential of mean force. Such tip functionalization of a nanotube therefore suggests the great possibilities of water transport and filtration, dominated by asymmetric wettability. The functionalized (8, 8) tube could act as a nanofluidic channel for water purification, not only for ion exclusion but also as a stable water column structure. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  16. Factors associated with latent fingerprint exclusion determinations. (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn


    Exclusion is the determination by a latent print examiner that two friction ridge impressions did not originate from the same source. The concept and terminology of exclusion vary among agencies. Much of the literature on latent print examination focuses on individualization, and much less attention has been paid to exclusion. This experimental study assesses the associations between a variety of factors and exclusion determinations. Although erroneous exclusions are more likely to occur on some images and for some examiners, they were widely distributed among images and examiners. Measurable factors found to be associated with exclusion rates include the quality of the latent, value determinations, analysis minutia count, comparison difficulty, and the presence of cores or deltas. An understanding of these associations will help explain the circumstances under which errors are more likely to occur and when determinations are less likely to be reproduced by other examiners; the results should also lead to improved effectiveness and efficiency of training and casework quality assurance. This research is intended to assist examiners in improving the examination process and provide information to the broader community regarding the accuracy, reliability, and implications of exclusion decisions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Characterization of enzymatically synthesized amylopectin analogs via asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Rolland-Sabate, Agnes; Guilois, Sophie; Loos, Katja


    Asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4), when coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), is a very powerful technique for determination of the macromolecular structure of high molar mass (branched) polysaccharides. AF4 is a size fractionation technique just as size exclusion

  18. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings. (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana


    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  19. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong


    The employment of metal salts is quite limited in asymmetric catalysis, although it would provide an additional arsenal of safe and inexpensive reagents to create molecular functions with high optical purity. Cation chelation by polyethers increases the salts' solubility in conventional organic...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...

  20. Does asymmetric correlation affect portfolio optimization? (United States)

    Fryd, Lukas


    The classical portfolio optimization problem does not assume asymmetric behavior of relationship among asset returns. The existence of asymmetric response in correlation on the bad news could be important information in portfolio optimization. The paper applies Dynamic conditional correlation model (DCC) and his asymmetric version (ADCC) to propose asymmetric behavior of conditional correlation. We analyse asymmetric correlation among S&P index, bonds index and spot gold price before mortgage crisis in 2008. We evaluate forecast ability of the models during and after mortgage crisis and demonstrate the impact of asymmetric correlation on the reduction of portfolio variance.

  1. Hydroxamic acids in asymmetric synthesis. (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi


    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst's center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Because of their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which uses the titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities.

  2. Exclusive Diplepton Production

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    We present a first study of exclusive production of dileptons in CMS, by selecting events with a single back-to-back $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ or $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair and no significant additional activity in the detector. These events result from two-photon exchange and photoproduction of $\\Upsilon$ mesons. The two-photon events potentially provide a high-statistics calibration sample for luminosity normalization and alignment of forward proton detectors. The $\\Upsilon$ sample will allow studies of heavy flavor photoproduction at higher energies than previous experiments.

  3. The Mechanisms of Interpersonal Privacy in Social Networking Websites: A Study of Subconscious Processes, Social Network Analysis, and Fear of Social Exclusion (United States)

    Hammer, Bryan


    With increasing usage of social networking sites like Facebook there is a need to study privacy. Previous research has placed more emphasis on outcome-oriented contexts, such as e-commerce sites. In process-oriented contexts, like Facebook, privacy has become a source of conflict for users. The majority of architectural privacy (e.g. privacy…

  4. Asymmetric hydrogenation using monodentate phosphoramidite ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Lefort, Laurent; De Vries, Johannes G.


    Monodentate phosphoramidites are excellent ligands for Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations of substituted olefins. Enantioselectivities between 95 and 99% were obtained in the asymmetric hydrogenation of protected alpha- and beta-dehydroamino acids and esters, itaconic acid and esters, aromatic

  5. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul


    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b...

  6. Structure of asymmetrical peptide dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okrugin, B.M.; Neelov, I.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Borisov, Oleg V.


    Structural properties of asymmetric peptide dendrimers up to the 11th generation are studied on the basis of the self-consistent field Scheutjens-Fleer numerical approach. It is demonstrated that large scale properties such as, e.g., the gyration radius, are relatively weakly affected by the

  7. Social exclusion in finite populations. (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long


    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  8. Experimental study of asymmetric heart valve prototype (United States)

    Vukicevic, M.; Fortini, S.; Querzoli, G.; Cenedese, A.; Pedrizzetti, G.


    The mechanical heart valves (MHVs) are extremely important medical devices, commonly used for diseased heart valves replacement. Despite the long term of use and constant design refinement, the MHVs are very far from ideal and their performance is very diverse from that of the native ones. It has been approved that small variations in geometry of valvular leaflets influence the significant change in the intraventricular vortical flow, known as one of the most important factors for the overall functionality of the heart. We have experimentally examined the home-made heart valve prototypes, exclusively modeled for the mitral valve replacement. The performance and energetic properties of the prototypes have been compared with those in the presence of standard MHVs. The analysis was based on the testing of intraventricular fluid dynamics, usually missing criteria for the quality of the valve performance. It has been shown that the asymmetric prototype, with unequal leaflets and D-shaped orifice produces flow patterns and energetic properties close to those found in the healthy subjects. Thus, the break of symmetry in the standard bi-leaflet MHV prosthesis, at least from the fluid dynamics point of view, is worthwhile to be considered for the design of MHVs for the mitral valve replacement.

  9. d-Amino acids in molecular evolution in space - Absolute asymmetric photolysis and synthesis of amino acids by circularly polarized light. (United States)

    Sugahara, Haruna; Meinert, Cornelia; Nahon, Laurent; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V; Hamase, Kenji; Takano, Yoshinori; Meierhenrich, Uwe J


    Living organisms on the Earth almost exclusively use l-amino acids for the molecular architecture of proteins. The biological occurrence of d-amino acids is rare, although their functions in various organisms are being gradually understood. A possible explanation for the origin of biomolecular homochirality is the delivery of enantioenriched molecules via extraterrestrial bodies, such as asteroids and comets on early Earth. For the asymmetric formation of amino acids and their precursor molecules in interstellar environments, the interaction with circularly polarized photons is considered to have played a potential role in causing chiral asymmetry. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the investigation of chirality transfer from chiral photons to amino acids involving the two major processes of asymmetric photolysis and asymmetric synthesis. We will discuss analytical data on cometary and meteoritic amino acids and their potential impact delivery to the early Earth. The ongoing and future ambitious space missions, Hayabusa2, OSIRIS-REx, ExoMars 2020, and MMX, are scheduled to provide new insights into the chirality of extraterrestrial organic molecules and their potential relation to the terrestrial homochirality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: d-Amino acids: biology in the mirror, edited by Dr. Loredano Pollegioni, Dr. Jean-Pierre Mothet and Dr. Molla Gianluca. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Symmetric and Asymmetric Reheating


    Hardy, Edward; Unwin, James


    We study models in which the inflaton is coupled to two otherwise decoupled sectors, and the effect of preheating and related processes on their energy densities during the evolution of the universe. Over most of parameter space, preheating is not disrupted by the presence of extra sectors, and even comparatively weakly coupled sectors can get an order 1 fraction of the total energy at this time. If two sectors are both preheated, the high number densities could also lead to inflaton mediated...

  11. 5 CFR 581.105 - Exclusions. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusions. 581.105 Section 581.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROCESSING GARNISHMENT ORDERS... based on a levy for income tax under section 6331 of title 26 of the United States Code, shall not be...

  12. Bullying and social exclusion anxiety in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    to the social processes that may lead to bullying. The social approach theorises bullying as one of many reactions to particular kinds of social insecurity. The concepts I develop include the necessity of belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults...

  13. Anti-tumour compounds illudin S and Irofulven induce DNA lesions ignored by global repair and exclusively processed by transcription- and replication-coupled repair pathways. (United States)

    Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Raams, Anja; Kelner, Michael J; Ng, Jessica M Y; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Takeda, Shiunichi; McMorris, Trevor C; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J


    Illudin S is a natural sesquiterpene drug with strong anti-tumour activity. Inside cells, unstable active metabolites of illudin cause the formation of as yet poorly characterised DNA lesions. In order to identify factors involved in their repair, we have performed a detailed genetic survey of repair-defective mutants for responses to the drug. We show that 90% of illudin's lethal effects in human fibroblasts can be prevented by an active nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Core NER enzymes XPA, XPF, XPG, and TFIIH are essential for recovery. However, the presence of global NER initiators XPC, HR23A/HR23B and XPE is not required, whereas survival, repair and recovery from transcription inhibition critically depend on CSA, CSB and UVS, the factors specific for transcription-coupled NER. Base excision repair and non-homologous end-joining of DNA breaks do not play a major role in the processing of illudin lesions. However, active RAD18 is required for optimal cell survival, indicating that the lesions also block replication forks, eliciting post-replication-repair-like responses. However, the translesion-polymerase DNA pol eta is not involved. We conclude that illudin-induced lesions are exceptional in that they appear to be ignored by all of the known global repair systems, and can only be repaired when trapped in stalled replication or transcription complexes. We show that the semisynthetic illudin derivative hydroxymethylacylfulvene (HMAF, Irofulven), currently under clinical trial for anti-tumour therapy, acts via the same mechanism. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev


    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  15. A Note on Asymmetric Thick Branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bazeia


    Full Text Available We study asymmetric thick braneworld scenarios, generated after adding a constant to the superpotential associated with the scalar field. We study in particular models with odd and even polynomial superpotentials, and we show that asymmetric brane can be generated irrespective of the potential being symmetric or asymmetric. We study in addition the nonpolynomial sine-Gordon like model, also constructed with the inclusion of a constant in the standard superpotential, and we investigate gravitational stability of the asymmetric brane. The results suggest robustness of the new braneworld scenarios and add further possibilities of the construction of asymmetric branes.

  16. Climate agreements under limited participation, asymmetric information and market imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagem, Cathrine


    This thesis relates to climate agreements and cost efficiency by analysing the formation of a system of quota leading to distributed discharge of emissions between countries. Main fields concerned are the greenhouse effect, the political process, efficient and cost-effective climate agreements, and climate agreements under limited participation, asymmetric information and market imperfections covering fields like limited participation in climate agreements, limited participation and indirect impact on non-participating countries` emissions, limited participation and direct impact on non-participating countries` emissions under asymmetric information, and non-competitive market for tradeable quotas. 166 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Exclusive Breastfeeding Experiences among Mexican American Women. (United States)

    Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli


    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers' formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender's Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was "very Mexican oriented." Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for "insufficient milk production." Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman's decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one's ability to breastfeed. Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Asymmetric bipolar membrane: A tool to improve product purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Sumbharaju, R.; Srikantharajah, S.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Jordan, V.; Wessling, Matthias


    Bipolar membranes (BPMs) are catalytic membranes for electro-membrane processes splitting water into protons and hydroxyl ions. To improve selectivity and current efficiency of BPMs, we prepare new asymmetric BPMs with reduced salt leakages. The flux of salt ions across a BPM is determined by the

  19. Asymmetric gold-catalyzed lactonizations in water at room temperature** (United States)

    Handa, Sachin; Lippincott, Daniel J.; Slack, Eric D.; Aue, Donald H.


    Asymmetric gold-catalyzed hydrocarboxylations are reported that show broad substrate scope. The hydrophobic effect associated with in situ-formed aqueous nanomicelles leads to good-to-excellent ee’s of product lactones. In-flask product isolation, along with recycling of the catalyst and reaction medium, combine to arrive at an especially environmentally friendly process. PMID:25124085

  20. Market Efficiency and Price Formation When Dealers are Asymmetrically Informed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagno, R.; Lovo, S.M.


    We consider the effect of asymmetric information on the price formation process in a quote-driven market where one market maker receives a private signal on the security fundamental.A model is presented where market makers repeatedly compete in prices: at each stage a bid-ask auction occurs and the

  1. Geodesics in Asymmetric Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennucci Andrea C. G.


    Full Text Available In a recent paper [17] we studied asymmetric metric spaces; in this context we studied the length of paths, introduced the class of run-continuous paths; and noted that there are different definitions of “length spaces” (also known as “path-metric spaces” or “intrinsic spaces”. In this paper we continue the analysis of asymmetric metric spaces.We propose possible definitions of completeness and (local compactness.We define the geodesics using as admissible paths the class of run-continuous paths.We define midpoints, convexity, and quasi-midpoints, but without assuming the space be intrinsic.We distinguish all along those results that need a stronger separation hypothesis. Eventually we discuss how the newly developed theory impacts the most important results, such as the existence of geodesics, and the renowned Hopf-Rinow (or Cohn-Vossen theorem.

  2. Electron Jet of Asymmetric Reconnection (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retino, A.; hide


    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E(sub parallel lines) amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV/m and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.

  3. Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of vimentin. (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Mikołaj; Salmonowicz, Hanna; Brown, Rachel; Turkowska, Joanna; Średniawa, Władysław; Pattabiraman, Sundararaghavan; Amen, Triana; Abraham, Ayelet-chen; Eichler, Noam; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Kaganovich, Daniel


    Aging is associated with the accumulation of several types of damage: in particular, damage to the proteome. Recent work points to a conserved replicative rejuvenation mechanism that works by preventing the inheritance of damaged and misfolded proteins by specific cells during division. Asymmetric inheritance of misfolded and aggregated proteins has been shown in bacteria and yeast, but relatively little evidence exists for a similar mechanism in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate, using long-term 4D imaging, that the vimentin intermediate filament establishes mitotic polarity in mammalian cell lines and mediates the asymmetric partitioning of damaged proteins. We show that mammalian JUNQ inclusion bodies containing soluble misfolded proteins are inherited asymmetrically, similarly to JUNQ quality-control inclusions observed in yeast. Mammalian IPOD-like inclusion bodies, meanwhile, are not always inherited by the same cell as the JUNQ. Our study suggests that the mammalian cytoskeleton and intermediate filaments provide the physical scaffold for asymmetric inheritance of dynamic quality-control JUNQ inclusions. Mammalian IPOD inclusions containing amyloidogenic proteins are not partitioned as effectively during mitosis as their counterparts in yeast. These findings provide a valuable mechanistic basis for studying the process of asymmetric inheritance in mammalian cells, including cells potentially undergoing polar divisions, such as differentiating stem cells and cancer cells.

  4. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.


    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  5. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model


    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.


    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical...

  6. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail:, E-mail: [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)


    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  7. Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno R. Bohm


    Full Text Available The meaning of time asymmetry in quantum physics is discussed. On the basis of a mathematical theorem, the Stone-von Neumann theorem, the solutions of the dynamical equations, the Schrödinger equation (1 for states or the Heisenberg equation (6a for observables are given by a unitary group. Dirac kets require the concept of a RHS (rigged Hilbert space of Schwartz functions; for this kind of RHS a mathematical theorem also leads to time symmetric group evolution. Scattering theory suggests to distinguish mathematically between states (defined by a preparation apparatus and observables (defined by a registration apparatus (detector. If one requires that scattering resonances of width Γ and exponentially decaying states of lifetime τ=h/Γ should be the same physical entities (for which there is sufficient evidence one is led to a pair of RHS's of Hardy functions and connected with it, to a semigroup time evolution t_0≤t<∞, with the puzzling result that there is a quantum mechanical beginning of time, just like the big bang time for the universe, when it was a quantum system. The decay of quasi-stable particles is used to illustrate this quantum mechanical time asymmetry. From the analysis of these processes, we show that the properties of rigged Hilbert spaces of Hardy functions are suitable for a formulation of time asymmetry in quantum mechanics.

  8. Up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin


    Bulk toroidal rotation has proven capable of stabilising both dangerous MHD modes and turbulence. In this thesis, we explore a method to drive rotation in large tokamaks: up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. We seek to maximise this rotation by finding optimal up-down asymmetric flux surface shapes. First, we use the ideal MHD model to show that low order external shaping (e.g. elongation) is best for creating up-down asymmetric flux surfaces throughout the device. Then, we calculate realistic up-down asymmetric equilibria for input into nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence analysis. Analytic gyrokinetics shows that, in the limit of fast shaping effects, a poloidal tilt of the flux surface shaping has little effect on turbulent transport. Since up-down symmetric surfaces do not transport momentum, this invariance to tilt implies that devices with mirror symmetry about any line in the poloidal plane will drive minimal rotation. Accordingly, further analytic investigation suggests that non-mirror symmetri...

  9. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang


    Full Text Available A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our time-lapse studies suggest that cytoophidia are dynamic. Once the mother cell divides, the cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia independently partition into one of the two daughter cells. Although the two daughter cells differ from one another morphologically, they possess similar chances of inheriting the cytoplasmic cytoophidium from the mother cell, suggesting that the partition of cytoophidium is a stochastic process. Our findings on asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in S. pombe offer an exciting opportunity to study the inheritance of metabolic enzymes in a well-studied model system.

  10. Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Epidermis (United States)

    Poulson, Nicholas D.; Lechler, Terry


    Generation of three-dimensional tissue with distinct cell types is required for the development of all organs. On its own, mitotic spindle orientation allows tissues to change in length or shape. In combination with intrinsic or extrinsic cues this can also be coupled to the generation of diverse cell fates - a process known as asymmetric cell division (ACD). Understanding ACD’s has been greatly aided by studies in invertebrate model systems, where genetics and live imaging have provided the basis for much of what we know. ACD’s also drive the development and differentiation of the epidermis in mammals. While similar to the invertebrate models, the epidermis is distinct in balancing symmetric and asymmetric divisions to yield a tissue of the correct surface area and thickness. Here we review the roles of spindle orientation in driving both morphogenesis and cell fate decisions. We highlight the epidermis as a unique model system to study not only basic mechanisms of ACD, but also to study their regulation during development. PMID:22449491

  11. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Benzophenone Dianhydrides (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)


    This invention relates to the composition and processes for preparing thermoset polyimides derived from an asymmetric dianhydride, namely 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) with at least one diamine, and a monofunctional terminal endcaps. The monofunctional terminating groups include 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride ester-acid derivatives, phenylethyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA) and its ester derivatives as well as 3-phenylethynylaniline. The process of polyimide composite comprises impregnating monomer reactants of dianhydride or its ester-acid derivatives, diamine and with monofunctional reactive endcaps into glass, carbon, quartz or synthetic fibers and fabrics, and then stack up into laminates and subsequently heated to between C. either at atmosphere or under pressure to promote the curing and crosslinking of the reactive endcaps to form a network of thermoset polyimides.

  12. Exclusive hadronic processes and color transparency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pankaj Jain1 John P Ralston2. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence KS 66045, USA. Pramana – Journal of Physics. Current Issue : Vol. 89, Issue 2. Current Issue Volume 89 | Issue 2. August 2017. Home · Volumes ...

  13. Uncovering the link between malfunctions in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric cell division and tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsom Corey


    Full Text Available Abstract Asymmetric cell division is a developmental process utilized by several organisms. On the most basic level, an asymmetric division produces two daughter cells, each possessing a different identity or fate. Drosophila melanogaster progenitor cells, referred to as neuroblasts, undergo asymmetric division to produce a daughter neuroblast and another cell known as a ganglion mother cell (GMC. There are several features of asymmetric division in Drosophila that make it a very complex process, and these aspects will be discussed at length. The cell fate determinants that play a role in specifying daughter cell fate, as well as the mechanisms behind setting up cortical polarity within neuroblasts, have proved to be essential to ensuring that neurogenesis occurs properly. The role that mitotic spindle orientation plays in coordinating asymmetric division, as well as how cell cycle regulators influence asymmetric division machinery, will also be addressed. Most significantly, malfunctions during asymmetric cell division have shown to be causally linked with neoplastic growth and tumor formation. Therefore, it is imperative that the developmental repercussions as a result of asymmetric cell division gone awry be understood.

  14. Development of asymmetric membrane capsules of metformin hydrochloride for oral osmotic controlled drug delivery


    Venkatesh Teja Banala; Bharath Srinivasan; Deveswaran Rajamanickam; Basavaraj Basappa Veerbadraiah; Madhavan Varadharajan


    Asymmetric membrane capsules are one of the novel osmotic delivery devices which offer the delivery of a wide range of drugs in a controlled manner. In the present work, we developed a semi-automatic process by fabricating a hydraulic assisted mechanical robotic arm for the manufacturing of asymmetric membrane capsules and the process was validated in comparison with the manual procedure of manufacturing. The capsule walls were made by dip coating phase inversion process using cellulose aceta...

  15. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard


    Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...

  16. Does RAIM with correct exclusion produce unbiased positions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.J.G.; Imparato, D.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.


    As the navigation solution of exclusion-based RAIM follows from a combination of least-squares estimation and a statistically based exclusion-process, the computation of the integrity of the navigation solution has to take the propagated uncertainty of the combined estimation-testing procedure into

  17. Catholic social thought on citizenship : No place for exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenvoorde, R.A.J.; Hirsch Ballin, E.M.H.; Derkse, W.; van der Lans, J.; Waanders, S.


    The effects of globalisation have made us aware that our traditional concepts of citizenship are barely adequate ro cover the still growing gap between the included and the excluded, the rich and the poor. We will look at the process of social in- and exclusion because citizenship and exclusion are

  18. Research on the Design and Modification of Asymmetric Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohe Deng


    Full Text Available A design method for the geometric shape and modification of asymmetric spur gear was proposed, in which the geometric shape and modification of the gear can be obtained directly according to the rack-cutter profile. In the geometric design process of the gear, a rack-cutter with different pressure angles and fillet radius in the driving side and coast side was selected, and the generated asymmetric spur gear profiles also had different pressure angles and fillets accordingly. In the modification design of the gear, the pressure angle modification of rack-cutter was conducted firstly and then the corresponding modified involute gear profile was obtained. The geometric model of spur gears was developed using computer-aided design, and the meshing process was analyzed using finite element simulation method. Furthermore, the transmission error and load sharing ratio of unmodified and modified asymmetric spur gears were investigated. Research results showed that the proposed gear design method was feasible and desired spur gear can be obtained through one time rapid machining by the method. Asymmetric spur gear with better transmission characteristic can be obtained via involute modification.

  19. Study on Warm Forging Prosess of 45 Steel Asymmetric Gear (United States)

    Qi, Yushi; Du, Zhiming; Sun, Hongsheng; Chen, Lihua; Wang, Changshun


    Asymmetric gear has complex structure, so using plastic forming technology to process the gear has problems of large forming load, short die life, bad tooth filling, and so on. To solve these problems, this paper presents a radial warm extrusion process of asymmetric gear to reduce the forming load and improve the filling in the toothed corner portion. Using the new mold and No. 45 steel to conducting forming experiments under the optimal forming parameters: billet temperature is 800°C, mold temperature is 250°C, the forming speed is 30mm/s, and the friction coefficient is 0.15, we can obtain the complete asymmetric gear with better surface and tooth filling. Asymmetric gears’ microstructure analysis and mechanical testing showed that the small grain evenly distributed in the region near the addendum circle with high strength; the area near the central portion of the gear had a coarse grain size, uneven distribution and low strength. Significant metal flow lines at the corner part of the gear indicated that a large number of late-forming metal flowed into the tooth cavity filling the corner portion.

  20. Perfil dos internos no sistema prisional do Rio de Janeiro: especificidades de gênero no processo de exclusão social Profile of prisoners in the Rio de Janeiro prison system: specifities of gender in the social exclusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lazaro de Carvalho


    Full Text Available O estudo do perfil sociodemográfico, história penal, uso de drogas e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis da população carcerária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, em 1998, permitiu conhecer diferentes características da população prisional por sexo. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar se o perfil de exclusão social a que essa população é submetida difere quanto ao sexo. Foram entrevistados 2.039 presos por estudo seccional, e utilizada a razão de prevalência como medida de associação entre sexo e as demais variáveis. A análise multivariada, através de regressão logística, compõe um modelo final de explicação dessas diferenças. A população é jovem, de baixa escolaridade, e apresenta ruptura de vínculos da vida social em várias dimensões para ambos os sexos. Fatores mais fortemente associados ao sexo masculino: visita íntima na prisão, estar preso por sete anos ou mais, ser casado, condenação por roubo, ter ainda três anos ou mais a cumprir de pena e uso de maconha antes de ser preso; para o sexo feminino: doença sexualmente transmissível, ser viúva, estrangeira, usar tranqüilizante na prisão, ter visitado alguém na prisão antes de ser presa e ter 35 anos ou mais. A análise dos dados permitiu concluir que embora esses homens e mulheres sejam igualmente excluídos da "vida social" muito antes e também depois da prisão, existem algumas características que os diferenciam nesse processo de injustiça social.The study of the social and demographic profile, criminal records, drug use and sexually transmitted diseases of the prison population of Rio de Janeiro State in 1998 offered a view of different aspects of this population by gender. The objective of this study is to identify if the profile of social exclusion this population is submitted differs by gender. Through a sectional study, 2,039 prisoners were interviewed, using the prevalence ratio as an association measure between gender and the other

  1. Loan sales under asymmetric information


    Vargas Martínez, Mónica


    Loans are illiquid assets that can be sold in a secondary market even that buyers have no certainty about their quality. I study a model in which a lender has access to new investment opportunities when all her assets are illiquid. To raise funds, the lender may either borrow using her assets as collateral, or she can sell them in a secondary market. Given asymmetric information about assets quality, the lender cannot recover the total value of her assets. There is then a role for the governm...

  2. Photon splitting in a strongly magnetized, charge-asymmetric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistyakov M.V.


    Full Text Available The process of the photon splitting, γ → γγ, is investigated in the presence of strongly magnetized charge-asymmetric cold plasma. The dispersion properties of photons and the new polarization selection rules are obtained in such plasma. The absorption rate of the leading photon splitting channel are calculated with taking account of the photon dispersion and wave function renormalization. In addition, a comparison of the photon splitting and the Compton scattering processes is performed.

  3. Bayesian Analysis of General Asymmetric Multivariate GARCH Models and News Impact Curves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asai, Manabu


    The BEKK model is a popular multivariate GARCH processes. The paper develops a new general asymmetric BEKK structure, which is based on recent empirical findings by semi-parametric news impact curves...

  4. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying......’ (Barad 2007). My definition in this chapter contributed to the shorter definition of bullying in the Introduction (see page XX), but it is more fully developed here in relation to the types of mechanisms and processes involved. Barad’s term ‘intra-action’ helps draw attention to the mutually...

  5. Abnormal neural responses to social exclusion in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Gradin, Victoria B; Waiter, Gordon; Kumar, Poornima; Stickle, Catriona; Milders, Maarten; Matthews, Keith; Reid, Ian; Hall, Jeremy; Steele, J Douglas


    Social exclusion is an influential concept in politics, mental health and social psychology. Studies on healthy subjects have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region involved in emotional and social information processing, in neural responses to social exclusion. Impairments in social interactions are common in schizophrenia and are associated with reduced quality of life. Core symptoms such as delusions usually have a social content. However little is known about the neural underpinnings of social abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of social exclusion in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls underwent fMRI while participating in a popular social exclusion paradigm. This task involves passing a 'ball' between the participant and two cartoon representations of other subjects. The extent of social exclusion (ball not being passed to the participant) was parametrically varied throughout the task. Replicating previous findings, increasing social exclusion activated the mPFC in controls. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to modulate mPFC responses with increasing exclusion. Furthermore, the blunted response to exclusion correlated with increased severity of positive symptoms. These data support the hypothesis that the neural response to social exclusion differs in schizophrenia, highlighting the mPFC as a potential substrate of impaired social interactions.

  6. Asymmetric liberations in exterior resonances (United States)

    Beauge, C.


    The purpose of this paper is to present a general analysis of the planar circular restricted problem of three bodies in the case of exterior mean-motion resonances. Particularly, our aim is to map the phase space of various commensurabilities and determine the singular solutions of the averaged system, comparing them to the well-known case of interior resonances. In some commensurabilities (e.g. 1/2, 1/3) we show the existence of asymmetric librations; that is, librations in which the stationary value of the critical angle theta = (p+q) lambda1-p lambda-q pi is not equal to either zero or pi. The origin, stability and morphogenesis of these solutions are discussed and compared to symmetric librations. However, in some other resonances (e.g. 2/3, 3/4), these fixed points of the mean system seem to be absent. Librations in such cases are restricted to theta = O mod(pi). Asymmetric singular solutions of the plane circular problem are unknown in the case of interior resonances and cannot be reproduced by the reduced Andoyer Hamiltonian known as the Second Fundamental Model for Resonance. However, we show that the extended version of this Hamiltonian function, in which harmonics up to order two are considered, can reproduce fairly well the principal topological characteristics of the phase space and thereby constitutes a simple and useful analytical approximation for these resonances.

  7. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.


    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  8. Thin lenses of asymmetric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris


    Full Text Available It is generally supposed that thin systems, including refracting surfaces and thin lenses, have powers that are necessarily symmetric.  In other words they have powers which can be represented assymmetric dioptric power matrices and in the familar spherocylindrical form used in optometry and ophthalmology.  This paper shows that this is not correct and that it is indeed possible for a thin system to have a power that is not symmetric and which cannot be expressed in spherocylindrical form.  Thin systems of asymmetric power are illustratedby means of a thin lens that is modelled with small prisms and is chosen to have a dioptric power ma-trix that is antisymmetric.  Similar models can be devised for a thin system whose dioptric power matrix is any  2 2 ×  matrix.  Thus any power, symmetric, asymmetric or antisymmetric, is possible for a thin system.  In this sense our understanding of the power of thin systems is now complete.

  9. An Exclusive Interview. (United States)


    Training and team- multipath conditions. The RAKE process use of more sophisticated therapies that work were offered as a solution, isolates each... oxygen saturation, as tion of battlefield telemedical communi- nician and Satellite Network well as telemetry and an electronic cations, augmented by the...Evaluation Civilian Commands Represented Grades / Rank U.S. Army Research Laboratory U.S. Army Operational Test & Eval Cmd Two -- GS-14 (AAC) PEO Cmd

  10. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Rachwal, Bartlomiej


    The LHCb detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring particles produced exclusively. In addition, a new system of forward shower counters has been installed upstream and downstream of the detector, and has been used to facilitate studies of Central Exclusive Production. Such measurements of integrated and differential cross-section in both Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC, are summarised here.

  11. The impact of asymmetric flows on pathological speech (United States)

    Erath, Byron D.; Peterson, Sean D.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    In voiced speech the vocal folds form a divergent glottal passage during the closing phases of the phonatory cycle. Due to the adverse pressure gradient, asymmetric flow develops within the glottis causing the glottal jet to separate from one vocal fold wall, and fully-attach to the opposing wall. The asymmetric pressures that arise from this flow configuration directly influence the vocal fold energy exchange process, and are expected to have the greatest influence on vocal fold motion when pathologies that affect the vocal fold musculature are present. A theoretical flow solution that produces the pressure distributions arising from asymmetric glottal flows is implemented into a two-mass model of speech. The impact of flow asymmetries on pathological vocal fold motion is investigated by modifying the tissue parameters of the speech model to represent unilateral paralysis. The influence of asymmetric flow behavior on pathological vocal fold motion is quantified and compared to the commonly-reported simplified case involving symmetric flow behavior.

  12. Asymmetric sequential Landau-Zener dynamics of Bose condensed atoms in a cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Lee, Chaohong


    We explore the asymmetric sequential Landau-Zener (LZ) dynamics in an ensemble of interacting Bose condensed two-level atoms coupled with a cavity field. Assuming the couplings between all atoms and the cavity field are identical, the interplay between atom-atom interaction and detuning may lead to a series of LZ transitions. Unlike the conventional sequential LZ transitions, which are symmetric to the zero detuning, the LZ transitions of Bose condensed atoms in a cavity field are asymmetric and sensitively depend on the photon number distribution of the cavity. In LZ processes involving single excitation numbers, both the variance of the relative atom number and the step slope of the sequential population ladder are asymmetric, and the asymmetry become more significant for smaller excitation numbers. Furthermore, in LZ processes involving multiple excitation numbers, there may appear asymmetric population ladders with decreasing step heights. During a dynamical LZ process, due to the atom-cavity coupling, th...

  13. Asymmetric Warfare and the Will to Win

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera, Cary


    This thesis explores the will to win in asymmetric war. Asymmetric war, in which one side has an overwhelming advantage over its opponent, will likely be the war of the future for the United States in the post-Cold War uni-polar world...

  14. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max


    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis. I...

  15. Asymmetric Quantum Codes on Toric Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.


    Asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes are quantum codes defined over biased quantum channels: qubit-flip and phase-shift errors may have equal or different probabilities. The code construction is the Calderbank-Shor-Steane construction based on two linear codes. We present families of toric...... surfaces, toric codes and associated asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes....

  16. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach


    Chauhan, Pankaj; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh


    Summary Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  17. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach (United States)

    Chauhan, Pankaj


    Summary Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques. PMID:23243475

  18. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L


    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  19. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chauhan


    Full Text Available Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  20. Softening the Blow of Social Exclusion: The Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. (United States)

    Freedman, Gili; Williams, Kipling D; Beer, Jennifer S


    Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources) who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources' needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication. We propose that sources have three options: explicit rejection (clearly stating no), ostracism (ignoring), and ambiguous rejection (being unclear). Drawing on psychology, sociology, communications, and business research, we propose that when sources use explicit rejection, targets' feelings will be less hurt, their needs will be better protected, and sources will experience less backlash and emotional toil than if sources use ambiguous rejection or ostracism. Finally, we propose how the language of rejections may impact both parties.

  1. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić


    Full Text Available ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a technologythat allows transmission at 8.488 Mbps over the existingtelephone copper line (speed range depending on the distance.ADSL circuit connects the ADSL modems by twisted-pairtelephone lines creating three infonnation channels: high speedsimplex (maximum 9 Mbps, medium speed duplex channel(maximum 2 Mbps and plain old telephone service channel.ADSL technology supports up to seven synchronous channelsthat can be configured to meet the needs of the end user.One could simultaneously view four movies stored in MPEG 1fonnat on separate television sets (MPEG 1 transmitted at 1.5Mbps, hold a video-conference (transmitted at 348 kbps,download data files from a server at 128 kbps via ISDN andeven receive a telephone call.

  2. Research on asymmetric searchable encryption (United States)

    Yu, Zonghua; Wu, Yudong


    Cloud server side to ease the user's local storage pressure at the same time, there are hidden data on the hidden dangers, the user often choose to upload the data in the form of cipher text to the cloud server. However, the classic data encryption and decryption algorithms are not provided search function, affecting the user's efficiency. To this end, an asymmetric searchable encryption scheme is proposed. The scheme can be used for any person can generate a trapdoor, cipher text can be free modified, the key pair generated by the user themselves, encrypt the identity, S-shaped virtual and other five loopholes to improve. The analysis results show that the scheme solves the above five vulnerabilities in the original scheme, so that the information semantics of both parties of communication can be guaranteed.

  3. Asymmetric inelastic inert doublet dark matter from triplet scalar leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arina, Chiara, E-mail: [Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Sahu, Narendra, E-mail: [Service de Physique Theorique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP225, Bld du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    The nature of dark matter (DM) particles and the mechanism that provides their measured relic abundance are currently unknown. In this paper we investigate inert scalar and vector like fermion doublet DM candidates with a charge asymmetry in the dark sector, which is generated by the same mechanism that provides the baryon asymmetry, namely baryogenesis-via-leptogenesis induced by decays of scalar triplets. At the same time the model gives rise to neutrino masses in the ballpark of oscillation experiments via type II seesaw. We discuss possible sources of depletion of asymmetry in the DM and visible sectors and solve the relevant Boltzmann equations for quasi-equilibrium decay of triplet scalars. A Monte-Carlo-Markov-Chain analysis is performed for the whole parameter space. The survival of the asymmetry in the dark sector leads to inelastic scattering off nuclei. We then apply Bayesian statistic to infer the model parameters favoured by the current experimental data, in particular the DAMA annual modulation and XENON100 exclusion limit. The latter strongly disfavours asymmetric scalar doublet DM of mass O(TeV) as required by DM-DM-bar oscillations, while an asymmetric vector like fermion doublet DM with mass around 100 GeV is a good candidate for DAMA annual modulation yet satisfying the constraints from XENON100 data.

  4. The enemy as animal: Symmetric dehumanization during asymmetric warfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Bruneau

    Full Text Available Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to 'morally disengage' from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top 'looking down', or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group. Specifically, we assessed blatant dehumanization in the context of stark asymmetric conflict between Israelis (Study 1; N = 521 and Palestinians (Study 2; N = 354 during the 2014 Gaza war. We observed that (a community samples of Israelis and Palestinians expressed extreme (and comparable levels of blatant dehumanization, (b blatant dehumanization was uniquely associated with outcomes related to outgroup hostility for both groups, even after accounting for political ideologies known to strongly predict outgroup aggression, and (c the strength of association between blatant dehumanization and outcomes was similar across both groups. This study illuminates the striking potency and symmetry of blatant dehumanization among those on both sides of an active asymmetric conflict.

  5. A study of Central Exclusive Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monk, James [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)


    Central exclusive production of a system X in a collision between two hadrons h is defined as hh → h + X + h with no other activity apart from the decay products of X. This thesis presents predictions for the production cross section of a CP violating supersymmetric Higgs boson and the radion of the Randall-Sundrum model. The ExHuME Monte Carlo generator was written to simulate central exclusive processes and is described and explored. A comparison to di-jet observations made by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, Fermilab between January and June 2004 is made and the distributions found support the predictions of ExHuME.


    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J


    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  7. CMS results on exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Khakzad, Mohsen


    A search for exclusive or quasi-exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow W^{+}W^{-}$ production, ${\\rm pp} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} W^{+}W^{-} {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\mu^{\\pm} {\\rm e}^{\\mp} {\\rm p}^{(*)}$, at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV (7 TeV) are reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\rm {fb}^{-1}$ (5.5$\\rm {fb}^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. We also report a measurement of the exclusive production of pairs of charged pions in proton-proton collisions. The differential cross sections for $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ pairs as a function of the pion pair invariant mass is measured and compared to several phenomenological predictions.

  8. Tarlov Cyst: A diagnostic of exclusion. (United States)

    Andrieux, Cyril; Poglia, Pietro; Laudato, Pietro


    Tarlov cysts were first described in 1938 as an incidental finding at autopsy. The cysts are usually diagnosed on MRI, which reveals the lesion arising from the sacral nerve root near the dorsal root ganglion. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon and it is recommended to consider Tarlov cyst as a diagnostic of exclusion. We report a case of a patient with voluminous bilateral L5 and S1 Tarlov cyst, and right hip osteonecrosis to increase the awareness in the orthopaedic community. A 57-year-old female, in good health, with chronic low back pain since 20 years, presented suddenly right buttock pain, right inguinal fold pain and low back pain for two months, with inability to walk and to sit down. X-ray of the lumbo-sacral spine revealed asymmetric discopathy L5-S1 and L3-L4. X-ray of the right hip did not reveal anything. We asked for an MRI of the spine and it revealed a voluminous fluid-filled cystic lesion, arising from the first sacral nerve root on both side and measuring 3,3cm in diameter. The MRI also show a part of the hip and incidentally we discovered an osteonecrosis Ficat 3 of the right femoral head. The patient was taken for a total hip arthroplasty, by anterior approach. Patient appreciated relief of pain immediately after the surgery. The current case show that even if we find a voluminous cyst we always have to eliminate other diagnosis (especially the frequent like osteonecrosis of the femoral head) and mostly in the case of unclear neurological perturbation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian


    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  10. Nondeterministic self-assembly with asymmetric interactions (United States)

    Tesoro, S.; Göpfrich, K.; Kartanas, T.; Keyser, U. F.; Ahnert, S. E.


    We investigate general properties of nondeterministic self-assembly with asymmetric interactions, using a computational model and DNA tile assembly experiments. By contrasting symmetric and asymmetric interactions we show that the latter can lead to self-limiting cluster growth. Furthermore, by adjusting the relative abundance of self-assembly particles in a two-particle mixture, we are able to tune the final sizes of these clusters. We show that this is a fundamental property of asymmetric interactions, which has potential applications in bioengineering, and provides insights into the study of diseases caused by protein aggregation.

  11. Chiral fullerenes from asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Maroto, Enrique E; Izquierdo, Marta; Reboredo, Silvia; Marco-Martínez, Juan; Filippone, Salvatore; Martín, Nazario


    Fullerenes are among the most studied molecules during the last three decades, and therefore, a huge number of chemical reactions have been tested on these new carbon allotropes. However, the aim of most of the reactions carried out on fullerenes has been to afford chemically modified fullerenes that are soluble in organic solvents or even water in the search for different mechanical, optical, or electronic properties. Therefore, although a lot of effort has been devoted to the chemical functionalization of these molecular allotropes of carbon, important aspects in the chemistry of fullerenes have not been properly addressed. In particular, the synthesis of chiral fullerenes at will in an efficient manner using asymmetric catalysis has not been previously addressed in fullerene science. Thus, despite the fact that the chirality of fullerenes has always been considered a fundamental issue, the lack of a general stereoselective synthetic methodology has restricted the use of enantiopure fullerene derivatives, which have usually been obtained only after highly expensive HPLC isolation on specific chiral columns or prepared from a pool of chiral starting materials. In this Account, we describe the first stereodivergent catalytic enantioselective syntheses in fullerene science, which have allowed the highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure derivatives with total control of the stereochemical result using metallic catalysts and/or organocatalysts under very mild conditions. Density functional theory calculations strongly support the experimental findings for the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new stereocenters, which has also been ascertained by application of the sector rule and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of the curved double bond of fullerene cages as a two-π-electron component in a variety of stereoselective cycloaddition reactions represents a challenging goal considering that, in contrast to most of the substituted

  12. Exclusive use of alternative medicine as a positive choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Lasse; Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Verhoef, Marja


    BACKGROUND: A survey of members of the Danish MS Society revealed that a minority of MS patients choose to forgo all types of conventional treatment and use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) exclusively. A qualitative follow-up study was performed to elucidate the choice of exclusive CAM...... the impact of MS; 3) the patient's active participation is an important component of the healing process; 4) bodily sensations can be used to guide treatment selection. CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive use of CAM by MS patients may reflect embracing CAM rather than a rejection of conventional medicine. Health...

  13. Whatever? The effect of social exclusion on adopting persuasive messages. (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Aydin, Nilüfer; Frey, Dieter


    The aversive state of social exclusion can result in a broad range of cognitive deficits. Being unable or unmotivated to process relevant information, we assumed that social exclusion would also affect the success of persuasive attempts. We hypothesized that socially excluded people would adopt attitudes regardless of persuasion quality. In three studies using different manipulations of social exclusion and persuasion, we showed that participants who were socially excluded adopted persuasive messages regardless of argument quality. In contrast, this undifferentiated response was not shown by socially included participants who were more persuaded by high- compared to low-quality arguments. In Study 3, we moreover revealed that this pattern could only be replicated in reliable situations-that is, when the communicator appeared credible. These findings support the assumption that social exclusion can lead to reduced processing of information.

  14. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, Josef; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc


    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  15. Social exclusion in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers


    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting. This study seeks to provide a greater insight into the situation of citizens for whom 'taking part' is a problem, in other words who are victims of social exclusion. In order to expose this problem adequately, it is first important to make clear how the

  16. University Ranking as Social Exclusion (United States)

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris


    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  17. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga


    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  18. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga


    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  19. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, X.


    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  20. Corporate governance ratings as a means to reduce asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten; Holm, Claus; Poulsen, Thomas

    Can corporate governance ratings reduce problems of asymmetric information between companies and investors? To answer this question, we set out to examine the information basis for providing such ratings by reviewing corporate governance attributes that are required or recommended in laws...... suggest that rating providers by selecting relevant attributes in an intelligent way can improve the screening of companies according to governance quality. In contrast, it seems questionable that weighting, aggregation and classification of corporate governance attributes considerably improve...... governance ratings as a means to reduce asymmetric information in a more general manner. We propose that the rating process may be seen as consisting of two general activities, namely a data reduction phase, and a data weighting, aggregation and classification phase. Findings based on a Danish data set...

  1. New type of asymmetric fission in proton-rich nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, A N; Huyse, M; Van Duppen, P; Antalic, S; Barzakh, A; Bree, N; Cocolios, T E; Comas, V F; Diriken, J; Fedorov, D; Fedosseev, V; Franchoo, S; Heredia, J A; Ivanov, O; Koster, U; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Page, R D; Patronis, N; Seliverstov, M; Tsekhanovich, I; Van den Bergh, P; Van De Walle, J; Venhart, M; Vermote, S; Veselsky, M; Wagemans, C; Ichikawa, T; Iwamoto, A; Moller, P; Sierk, A J


    A very exotic process of ${\\beta}$-delayed fission of $^{180}$Tl is studied in detail by using resonant laser ionization with subsequent mass separation at ISOLDE (CERN). In contrast to common expectations, the fission-fragment mass distribution of the post-${\\beta}$-decay daughter nucleus $^{180}$Hg (N/Z=1.25) is asymmetric. This asymmetry is more surprising since a mass-symmetric split of this extremely neutron-deficient nucleus would lead to two $^{90}$Zr fragments, with magic N=50 and semimagic Z=40. This is a new type of asymmetric fission, not caused by large shell effects related to fragment magic proton and neutron numbers, as observed in the actinide region. The newly measured branching ratio for $\\beta$-delayed fission of $^{180}$Tl is 3.6(7)×10$^{-3}$%, approximately 2 orders of magnitude larger than in an earlier study.

  2. Organocatalytic asymmetric arylation of indoles enabled by azo groups (United States)

    Qi, Liang-Wen; Mao, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Jian; Tan, Bin


    Arylation is a fundamental reaction that can be mostly fulfilled by electrophilic aromatic substitution and transition-metal-catalysed aryl functionalization. Although the azo group has been used as a directing group for many transformations via transition-metal-catalysed aryl carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond activation, there remain significant unmet challenges in organocatalytic arylation. Here, we show that the azo group can effectively act as both a directing and activating group for organocatalytic asymmetric arylation of indoles via formal nucleophilic aromatic substitution of azobenzene derivatives. Thus, a wide range of axially chiral arylindoles have been achieved in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities by utilizing chiral phosphoric acid as catalyst. Furthermore, highly enantioenriched pyrroloindoles bearing two contiguous quaternary chiral centres have also been obtained via a cascade enantioselective formal nucleophilic aromatic substitution-cyclization process. This strategy should be useful in other related research fields and will open new avenues for organocatalytic asymmetric aryl functionalization.

  3. Asymmetric synthesis of amines using tert-butanesulfinamide. (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Chao; Chowdhury, Somenath; Ellman, Jonathan A


    Chiral amines are prevalent in many bioactive molecules, including amino acids and pharmaceutical agents. tert-Butanesulfinamide (tBS) is a chiral amine reagent that has enabled the reliable asymmetric synthesis of a very broad range of different amine structures from simple, readily available starting materials. Three steps are commonly applied to the asymmetric synthesis of amines: (i) condensation of tBS with a carbonyl compound, (ii) nucleophile addition and (iii) tert-butanesulfinyl group cleavage. Here we demonstrate these steps with the preparation of a propargylic tertiary carbinamine, one of a class of amines that have been used for many different biological purposes, including click chemistry applications, diversity-oriented synthesis, the preparation of peptide isosteres and the development of protease inhibitors as drug candidates and imaging agents. The process described here can be performed in 3-4 d.

  4. Felon Jury Exclusion: A Series of Empirical Studies


    Binnall, James Michael


    In forty-nine states and the federal court system, convicted felons are statutorily excluded from serving as jurors. Justifying felon jury exclusion, courts and lawmakers presume that convicted felons would compromise the integrity of the jury process, as they are assumed to lack character and harbor a pro-defense/anti-prosecution pre-trial bias. In a series of three studies, this dissertation explores the empirical validity of the justifications for felon jury exclusion and also examines t...

  5. Asymmetrical Warfare, Transformation, and Foreign Language Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porter, Clifford F


    .... There is no doubt that the current global war on terrorism is an asymmetrical war against an unpredictable enemy rather than the predictable or symmetrical threats against self-important dictators or the Soviet Union...

  6. Congenital asymmetric crying face: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Kara


    Full Text Available Congenital asymmetric crying face is an anomalia caused by unilateral absence or weakness of depressor anguli oris muscle The major finding of the disease is the absence or weakness in the outer and lower movement of the commissure during crying. The other expression muscles are normal and the face is symmetric at rest. The asymmetry in congenital asymmetric crying face is most evident during infancy but decreases by age. Congenital asymmetric crying face can be associated with cervicofacial, musclebone, respiratory, genitourinary and central nervous system anomalia. It is diagnosed by physical examination. This paper presents a six days old infant with Congenital asymmetric crying face and discusses the case in terms of diagnosis and disease features.

  7. Modeling Asymmetric Volatility In Oil Prices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Aun Hassan


    .... The paper uses daily crude oil price data for the past 10 years to test and model the oil price volatility by fitting different variations of GARCH including a univariate asymmetric GARCH model to the series...

  8. Asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ik Jae


    Full Text Available We study asymmetric dense matter in holographic QCD.We construct asymmetric dense matter by considering two quark flavor branes with dierent quark masses in a D4/D6/D6 model. To calculate the symmetry energy in nuclear matter, we consider two quarks with equal masses and observe that the symmetry energy increases with the total charge showing the stiff dependence. This behavior is universal in the sense that the result is independent of parameters in the model. We also study strange (or hyperon matter with one light and one intermediate mass quarks. In addition to the vacuum properties of asymmetric matter, we calculate meson masses in asymmetric dense matter and discuss our results in the light of in-medium kaon masses.

  9. Affective privilege: Asymmetric interference by emotional distracters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eReeck


    Full Text Available Numerous theories posit that affectively salient stimuli are privileged in their capacity to capture attention and disrupt ongoing cognition. Two underlying assumptions in this theoretical position are that the potency of affective stimuli transcends task boundaries (i.e., emotional distracters do not have to belong to a current task-set to disrupt processing and that there is an asymmetry between emotional and cognitive processing (i.e., emotional distracters disrupt cognitive processing, but not vice versa. These assumptions have remained largely untested, as common experimental probes of emotion-cognition interaction rarely manipulate task-relevance and only examine one side of the presumed asymmetry of interference. To test these propositions directly, a face-word Stroop protocol was adapted to independently manipulate (a the congruency between target and distracter stimulus features, (b the affective salience of distracter features, and (c the task-relevance of emotional compared to non-emotional target features. A three-way interaction revealed interdependent effects of distracter relevance, congruence, and affective salience. Compared to task-irrelevant distracters, task-relevant congruent distracters facilitated performance and task-relevant incongruent distracters impaired performance, but the latter effect depended on the nature of the target feature and task. Specifically, task-irrelevant emotional distracters resulted in equivalent performance costs as task-relevant non-emotional distracters, whereas task-irrelevant non-emotional distracters did not produce performance costs comparable to those generated by task-relevant emotional distracters. These results document asymmetric cross-task interference effects for affectively salient stimuli, supporting the notion of affective prioritization in human information processing.

  10. Designing Asymmetric Multiferroics with Strong Magnetoelectric Coupling


    Lu, X. Z.; Xiang, H. J.


    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Unfortunately, single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature has not been discovered. Here, we propose the concept of a new type of multiferroics, namely, "asymmetric multiferroic". In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from ...

  11. Stable Bound States of Asymmetric Dark Matter


    Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue


    The simplest renormalizable effective field theories with asymmetric dark matter bound states contain two additional gauge singlet fields one being the dark matter and the other a mediator particle that the dark matter annihilates into. We examine the physics of one such model with a Dirac fermion as the dark matter and a real scalar mediator. For a range of parameters the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter to the mediator gives rise to stable asymmetric dark matter bound states. We derive pr...

  12. A Numerical Comparison of Symmetric and Asymmetric Supersonic Wind Tunnels (United States)

    Clark, Kylen D.

    Supersonic wind tunnels are a vital aspect to the aerospace industry. Both the design and testing processes of different aerospace components often include and depend upon utilization of supersonic test facilities. Engine inlets, wing shapes, and body aerodynamics, to name a few, are aspects of aircraft that are frequently subjected to supersonic conditions in use, and thus often require supersonic wind tunnel testing. There is a need for reliable and repeatable supersonic test facilities in order to help create these vital components. The option of building and using asymmetric supersonic converging-diverging nozzles may be appealing due in part to lower construction costs. There is a need, however, to investigate the differences, if any, in the flow characteristics and performance of asymmetric type supersonic wind tunnels in comparison to symmetric due to the fact that asymmetric configurations of CD nozzle are not as common. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study has been conducted on an existing University of Michigan (UM) asymmetric supersonic wind tunnel geometry in order to study the effects of asymmetry on supersonic wind tunnel performance. Simulations were made on both the existing asymmetrical tunnel geometry and two axisymmetric reflections (of differing aspect ratio) of that original tunnel geometry. The Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved via NASAs OVERFLOW code to model flow through these configurations. In this way, information has been gleaned on the effects of asymmetry on supersonic wind tunnel performance. Shock boundary layer interactions are paid particular attention since the test section integrity is greatly dependent upon these interactions. Boundary layer and overall flow characteristics are studied. The RANS study presented in this document shows that the UM asymmetric wind tunnel/nozzle configuration is not as well suited to producing uniform test section flow as that of a symmetric configuration, specifically one

  13. Asymmetric Phosphatidylethanolamine Distribution Controls Fusion Pore Lifetime and Probability. (United States)

    Kreutzberger, Alex J B; Kiessling, Volker; Liang, Binyong; Yang, Sung-Tae; Castle, J David; Tamm, Lukas K


    Little attention has been given to how the asymmetric lipid distribution of the plasma membrane might facilitate fusion pore formation during exocytosis. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a cone-shaped phospholipid, is predominantly located in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and has been proposed to promote membrane deformation and stabilize fusion pores during exocytotic events. To explore this possibility, we modeled exocytosis using plasma membrane SNARE-containing planar-supported bilayers and purified neuroendocrine dense core vesicles (DCVs) as fusion partners, and we examined how different PE distributions between the two leaflets of the supported bilayers affected SNARE-mediated fusion. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, the fusion of single DCVs with the planar-supported bilayer was monitored by observing DCV-associated neuropeptide Y tagged with a fluorescent protein. The time-dependent line shape of the fluorescent signal enables detection of DCV docking, fusion-pore opening, and vesicle collapse into the planar membrane. Four different distributions of PE in the planar bilayer mimicking the plasma membrane were examined: exclusively in the leaflet facing the DCVs; exclusively in the opposite leaflet; equally distributed in both leaflets; and absent from both leaflets. With PE in the leaflet facing the DCVs, overall fusion was most efficient and the extended fusion pore lifetime (0.7 s) enabled notable detection of content release preceding vesicle collapse. All other PE distributions decreased fusion efficiency, altered pore lifetime, and reduced content release. With PE exclusively in the opposite leaflet, resolution of pore opening and content release was lost. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Asymmetric Bessel-Gauss beams. (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Skidanov, R V; Soifer, V A


    We propose a three-parameter family of asymmetric Bessel-Gauss (aBG) beams with integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aBG beams are described by the product of a Gaussian function by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind of complex argument, having finite energy. The aBG beam's asymmetry degree depends on a real parameter c≥0: at c=0, the aBG beam is coincident with a conventional radially symmetric Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam; with increasing c, the aBG beam acquires a semicrescent shape, then becoming elongated along the y axis and shifting along the x axis for c≫1. In the initial plane, the intensity distribution of the aBG beams has a countable number of isolated optical nulls on the x axis, which result in optical vortices with unit topological charge and opposite signs on the different sides of the origin. As the aBG beam propagates, the vortex centers undergo a nonuniform rotation with the entire beam about the optical axis (c≫1), making a π/4 turn at the Rayleigh range and another π/4 turn after traveling the remaining distance. At different values of the c parameter, the optical nulls of the transverse intensity distribution change their position, thus changing the OAM that the beam carries. An isolated optical null on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. A vortex laser beam shaped as a rotating semicrescent has been generated using a spatial light modulator.

  15. Gender, Marginalisation and Social Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing acc...... access to the five ressources: cultural, financial, mental, social and powerrelated resources is highlighted. It is demonstrated how gender involves living in different realities, and requires different solutions to create equal possibilities.......The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing...

  16. Asymmetric Flexible MXene-Reduced Graphene Oxide Micro-Supercapacitor

    KAUST Repository

    Couly, Cedric


    Current microfabrication of micro-supercapacitors often involves multistep processing and delicate lithography protocols. In this study, simple fabrication of an asymmetric MXene-based micro-supercapacitor that is flexible, binder-free, and current-collector-free is reported. The interdigitated device architecture is fabricated using a custom-made mask and a scalable spray coating technique onto a flexible, transparent substrate. The electrode materials are comprised of titanium carbide MXene (Ti3C2Tx) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), which are both 2D layered materials that contribute to the fast ion diffusion in the interdigitated electrode architecture. This MXene-based asymmetric micro-supercapacitor operates at a 1 V voltage window, while retaining 97% of the initial capacitance after ten thousand cycles, and exhibits an energy density of 8.6 mW h cm−3 at a power density of 0.2 W cm−3. Further, these micro-supercapacitors show a high level of flexibility during mechanical bending. Utilizing the ability of Ti3C2Tx-MXene electrodes to operate at negative potentials in aqueous electrolytes, it is shown that using Ti3C2Tx as a negative electrode and rGO as a positive one in asymmetric architectures is a promising strategy for increasing both energy and power densities of micro-supercapacitors.

  17. Contrasting Stories of Inclusion/Exclusion in the Chemistry Classroom (United States)

    de Fátima Cardoso Gomes, Maria; Mortimer, Eduardo F.; Kelly, Gregory J.


    This article reports on the construction process of inclusion/exclusion for high school chemistry students in two schools in Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We examined the interactional accomplishment of inclusion/exclusion of four students, two from a private school and two from a public school. The aim of this article is to describe these students' stories of inclusion/exclusion and to discuss what motivated them to learn chemistry in the classrooms investigated. To learn chemistry, students need to develop an individual understanding of the social language of the discipline. Inclusion/exclusion is accomplished interactively as members of different communities make choices about how to participate, involve others, and direct their actions. Such interactions are mediated by the teacher, and thus, through discourse, the collective group establishes certain learning opportunities.

  18. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia. (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S


    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  19. Queueing process with excluded-volume effect. (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi


    We introduce an extension of the M/M/1 queueing process with a spatial structure and excluded-volume effect. The rule of particle hopping is the same as for the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). A stationary-state solution is constructed in a slightly arranged matrix product form of the open TASEP. We obtain the critical line that separates the parameter space depending on whether the model has the stationary state. We calculate the average length of the model and the number of particles and show the monotonicity of the probability of the length in the stationary state. We also consider a generalization of the model with backward hopping of particles allowed and an alternate joined system of the M/M/1 queueing process and the open TASEP.

  20. Asymmetrical soft palate cleft repair: preliminary results. (United States)

    Bütow, K-W; Engelbrecht, H; Naidoo, S


    The reconstructions of the asymmetrical soft palate cleft is a surgical challenge when it comes to achieving symmetry and optimal soft palate muscular function. Three different versions of the intravelar veloplasty have been used: the intravelar veloplasty (1969) (type I), the modification according to anatomical defects (1991) (type II), and the modification using part of Sommerlad's technique and part of Ivanov's technique (2008) (type III). The perioperative outcomes of the type II and type III intravelar veloplasty were assessed and compared in asymmetrical cleft cases. Two hundred and seventy-seven soft palate clefts were reconstructed: 153 type II and 124 type III. Of these, 49 were asymmetrical (17.7%); 23 underwent the type II procedure and 26 the type III procedure. Of the type II procedure cases, 30.4% remained asymmetrical postoperatively compared to 3.8% of the type III cases. The uvula appeared subjectively atrophic in 47.8% of the type II cases and in 7.7% of type III cases. Oro-nasal fistula occurred in 13.0% of the type II cases and 3.8% of the type III cases. Speech results will only be assessed after 4 years of age. The type III modified intravelar veloplasty has had a major beneficial impact on patients who had an asymmetrical soft palate cleft. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma. (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S


    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  2. Social exclusion impairs distractor suppression but not target enhancement in selective attention. (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Zhang, Lijie; Yuan, Shuge; Yang, Dong


    Social exclusion has been thought to weaken one's ability to exert inhibitory control. Existing studies have primarily focused on the relationship between exclusion and behavioral inhibition, and have reported that exclusion impairs behavioral inhibition. However, whether exclusion also affects selective attention, another important aspect of inhibitory control, remains unknown. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore whether social exclusion impairs selective attention, and to specifically examine its effect on two hypothesized mechanisms of selective attention: target enhancement and distractor suppression. The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion. Participants then performed a visual search task while event-related potentials were recorded. In the visual search task, target and salient distractor were either both presented laterally or one was presented on the vertical midline and the other laterally. Results showed that social exclusion differentially affected target and distractor processing. While exclusion impaired distractor suppression, reflected as smaller distractor-positivity (Pd) amplitudes for the exclusion group compared to the inclusion group, it did not affect target enhancement, reflected as similar target-negativity (Nt) amplitudes for both the exclusion and inclusion groups. Together, these results extend our understanding of the relationship between exclusion and inhibitory control, and suggest that social exclusion affects selective attention in a more complex manner than previously thought. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons (United States)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas


    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  4. Asymmetric microscope. Fusho no kenbisho [exclamation point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tadashi. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))


    It is difficult for a conventional optical analysis means to determine the configuration of a substance with an ultra low optical purity. Recently, an asymmetric microscope has been reported as a new concept for solving the above-mentioned problem. Specifically, a product with slight asymmetry is obtained by using the substance with an ultra low optical purity as the chiral initiation, and then the asymmetry of the product is amplified dramatically due to the asymmetric autocatalysis, thus obtaining a product having a high optical purity. A new means is to determine the configuration of the original substance having the low optical purity from the configuration of the substance having the high optical purity. According to this method, the chirality of the substance having the low optical purity is transcribed to alkanol, and the chirality is amplified due to the asymmetric autocatalysis, thus the absolute configuration of the original compound can be determined from the absolute configuration of the final product. (NEDO)

  5. Multi-agent Bargaining under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Marcus; Genesove, David

    information aspect is due to partly unobserved individual valuations of an elevator. We tailor Hellwig (2003) to the features of the retrofitting problem and use this to predict which building characteristics should make it easier for owners to agree. Data from Copenhagen broadly support the model......It is well know that asymmetric information might lead to underprovision of public goods. To test the theoretical prediction, we study the decision to retrofit an elevator into an old apartment building, in which each owner has to agree on how the investment cost is split. The asymmetric......'s predictions. We use transaction data to estimate the market value of an elevator and conclude that for approximately 30-40 percent of the buildings without an elevator the aggregate increase in value exceeds the investment cost....

  6. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias


    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  7. Measurements of exclusive production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Iuppa, Roberto; The ATLAS collaboration


    In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been adopted to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs in the data taken at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. A measurement of exclusive production of dileptons (ee and mumu) proton-proton collisions is presented. The results show significant deviations from the pure QED prediction, which can be explained by photon coherence and proton rescattering effects. If available, a first measurement of the exclusive di-muon production in proton–proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and a measurement of the production of exclusive pions at 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector will be also presented. In addition, an analysis performed at 8 TeV concentrates on the electron-muon final state to study the exclusive prod...

  8. Spacecraft Observations and Analytic Theory of Crescent-Shaped Electron Distributions in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection (United States)

    Egedal, J.; Le, A.; Daughton, W.; Wetherton, B.; Cassak, P.A.; Chen, L.-J.; Lavraud, B.; Trobert, Roy; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; hide


    Supported by a kinetic simulation, we derive an exclusion energy parameter EX providing a lower kinetic energy bound for an electron to cross from one inflow region to the other during magnetic reconnection. As by a Maxwell Demon, only high energy electrons are permitted to cross the inner-reconnection region, setting the electron distribution function observed along the low density side separatrix during asymmetric reconnection. The analytic model accounts for the two distinct flavors of crescent-shaped electron distributions observed by spacecraft in a thin boundary layer along the low density separatrix.

  9. Proteomics analysis for asymmetric inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells in budding yeast. (United States)

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kusunoki, Shunta; Ishibashi, Yuko; Kito, Keiji


    In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited. The aim of this study is to propose a proteomics strategy for asymmetrical inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells. During synchronous culture for one generation, newly synthesized proteins were labeled with stable isotope amino acids to discriminate preexisting proteins originally expressed in mother cells, followed by separation of mother and daughter cells using a conventional method based on biotin labeling. Isotope incorporation ratios for individual proteins were quantified using mass spectrometry. We successfully identified 21 proteins whose preexisting versions were asymmetrically inherited in mother cells, including plasma membrane transporter involved in the aging process and organelle-anchoring proteins related to the stress response to misfolded proteins. Thus, our approach would be useful for making catalog of asymmetrically inherited proteins. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry de-Graft Acquah


    Full Text Available Information Criteria provides an attractive basis for selecting the best model from a set of competing asymmetric price transmission models or theories. However, little is understood about the sensitivity of the model selection methods to model complexity. This study therefore fits competing asymmetric price transmission models that differ in complexity to simulated data and evaluates the ability of the model selection methods to recover the true model. The results of Monte Carlo experimentation suggest that in general BIC, CAIC and DIC were superior to AIC when the true data generating process was the standard error correction model, whereas AIC was more successful when the true model was the complex error correction model. It is also shown that the model selection methods performed better in large samples for a complex asymmetric data generating process than with a standard asymmetric data generating process. Except for complex models, AIC's performance did not make substantial gains in recovery rates as sample size increased. The research findings demonstrate the influence of model complexity in asymmetric price transmission model comparison and selection.

  11. Scaling of triple differential cross-sections for asymmetric (e,2e ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asymmetric (e, 2e) process; triple differential cross-section; scaling; helium ... initial state wave function is not exactly known and those in use do not have an ... Z dependence of the target wave function for (e, 2e) process. Consider the one- parameter variational wave function of helium ground state φi ( r1, r2) = (. Z 3 π ).

  12. Algebraic Davis decomposition and asymmetric Doob inequalities


    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier


    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let $(\\M,\\tau)$ be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a weak-$*$ dense filtration of von Neumann subalgebras $(\\M_n)_{n \\ge 1}$. Let $\\E_n$ denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for $1 < p < 2$ and $x \\in L_p(\\M,\\tau)$ one can find $a, b \\in L_p(\\M,\\tau)$ and contractions $u_n, v_...

  13. Asymmetric multiscale behavior in PM2.5 time series: Based on asymmetric MS-DFA (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Zhiwei; Ni, Liping


    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mm or less (PM2.5) is one of the most serious air pollution, considered most harmful for people by World Health Organisation. In this paper, we utilized the asymmetric multiscale detrended fluctuation analysis (A-MSDFA) method to explore the existence of asymmetric correlation properties for PM2.5 daily average concentration in two USA cities (Fresno and Los Angeles) and two Chinese cities (Hong Kong and Shanghai), and to assess the properties of these asymmetric correlations. The results show the existences of asymmetric correlations, and the degree of asymmetric for two USA cities is stronger than that of two Chinese cities. Further, most of the local exponent β(n) are smaller than 0.5, which indicates the existence of anti-persistent long-range correlation for PM2.5 time series in four cities. In addition, we reanalyze the asymmetric correlation by the A-MSDFA method with secant rolling windows of different sizes, which can investigate dynamic changes in the multiscale correlation for PM2.5 time series with changing window size. Whatever window sizes, the correlations are asymmetric and display smaller asymmetries at small scales and larger asymmetries at large scales. Moreover, the asymmetries become increasingly weaker with the increase of window sizes.

  14. Cell-sized asymmetric lipid vesicles facilitate the investigation of asymmetric membranes (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Takeuchi, Shoji


    Asymmetric lipid giant vesicles have been used to model the biochemical reactions in cell membranes. However, methods for producing asymmetric giant vesicles lead to the inclusion of an organic solvent layer that affects the mechanical and physical characteristics of the membrane. Here we describe the formation of asymmetric giant vesicles that include little organic solvent, and use them to investigate the dynamic responses of lipid molecules in the vesicle membrane. We formed the giant vesicles via the inhomogeneous break-up of a lipid microtube generated by applying a jet flow to an asymmetric planar lipid bilayer. The asymmetric giant vesicles showed a lipid flip-flop behaviour in the membrane, superficially similar to the lipid flip-flop activity observed in apoptotic cells. In vitro synthesis of membrane proteins into the asymmetric giant vesicles revealed that the lipid asymmetry in bilayer membranes improves the reconstitution ratio of membrane proteins. Our asymmetric giant vesicles will be useful in elucidating lipid-lipid and lipid-membrane protein interactions involved in the regulation of cellular functions.

  15. Asymmetric transfer of auditory perceptual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sygal eAmitay


    Full Text Available Perceptual skills can improve dramatically even with minimal practice. A major and practical benefit of learning, however, is in transferring the improvement on the trained task to untrained tasks or stimuli, yet the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. Reduction of internal noise has been proposed as a mechanism of perceptual learning, and while we have evidence that frequency discrimination (FD learning is due to a reduction of internal noise, the source of that noise was not determined. In this study, we examined whether reducing the noise associated with neural phase locking to tones can explain the observed improvement in behavioural thresholds. We compared FD training between two tone durations (15 and 100 ms that straddled the temporal integration window of auditory nerve fibers upon which computational modeling of phase locking noise was based. Training on short tones resulted in improved FD on probe tests of both the long and short tones. Training on long tones resulted in improvement only on the long tones. Simulations of FD learning, based on the computational model and on signal detection theory, were compared with the behavioral FD data. We found that improved fidelity of phase locking accurately predicted transfer of learning from short to long tones, but also predicted transfer from long to short tones. The observed lack of transfer from long to short tones suggests the involvement of a second mechanism. Training may have increased the temporal integration window which could not transfer because integration time for the short tone is limited by its duration. Current learning models assume complex relationships between neural populations that represent the trained stimuli. In contrast, we propose that training-induced enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio offers a parsimonious explanation of learning and transfer that easily accounts for asymmetric transfer of learning.

  16. Gradually including potential users: A tool to counter design exclusions. (United States)

    Zitkus, Emilene; Langdon, Patrick; Clarkson, P John


    The paper describes an iterative development process used to understand the suitability of different inclusive design evaluation tools applied into design practices. At the end of this process, a tool named Inclusive Design Advisor was developed, combining data related to design features of small appliances with ergonomic task demands, anthropometric data and exclusion data. When auditing a new design the tool examines the exclusion that each design feature can cause, followed by objective recommendations directly related to its features. Interactively, it allows designers or clients to balance design changes with the exclusion caused. It presents the type of information that enables designers and clients to discuss user needs and make more inclusive design decisions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. arXiv Measurement of the exclusive $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ process in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahmani, Marzieh; Bahrasemani, Sina; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Bandyopadhyay, Anjishnu; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barkeloo, Jason Tyler Colt; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Beck, Helge Christoph; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Bruno, Salvatore; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cai, Huacheng; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrá, Sonia; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czekierda, Sabina; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'eramo, Louis; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Daneri, Maria Florencia; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davis, Douglas; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dulsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Förster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; García Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Geß{}ner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonski, Julia; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McNicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Peri, Francesco; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Forrest Hays; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggi, Riccardo; Poggioli, Luc; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Pohl, David-leon; Pokharel, Ishan; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Portillo Quintero, Dilia María; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potti, Harish; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rashid, Tasneem; Raspopov, Sergii; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ripellino, Giulia; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Ruettinger, Elias Michael; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sampsonidou, Despoina; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sano, Yuta; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Søgaard, Andreas; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Sopczak, Andre; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Sottocornola, Simone; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, D M S; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Tahirovic, Elvedin; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeda, Kosuke; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Lo\\"ic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Furelos, David; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Sebastian Mario; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Weston, Thomas; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Woods, Natasha Lee; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Xu, Tairan; Xu, Wenhao; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamane, Fumiya; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz


    The production of exclusive $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ events in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed for a dimuon invariant mass of 12 GeV $

  18. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2013 ... The Internet is an insecure open network and its use and connectivity have witnessed a significant growth, and this has made it vulnerable to all forms of attacks. A threat to a network can cause harm or interrupt the network. In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using asymmetric.

  19. Settling dynamics of asymmetric rigid fibers (United States)

    E.J. Tozzi; C Tim Scott; David Vahey; D.J. Klingenberg


    The three-dimensional motion of asymmetric rigid fibers settling under gravity in a quiescent fluid was experimentally measured using a pair of cameras located on a movable platform. The particle motion typically consisted of an initial transient after which the particle approached a steady rate of rotation about an axis parallel to the acceleration of gravity, with...

  20. Computing modal dispersion characteristics of radially Asymmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine how the modal characteristics change as circular Bragg fiber is changed to asymmetric Bragg fiber. The key to this transfer matrix method (TMM) is the accurate calculation of the propagation constants of modes. And validity of this method is verified by FDTD method. We compare these results with obtained from ...

  1. Organocatalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Johannes G.; Mrsic, Natasa; Mršić, Nataša


    The asymmetric organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation of imines can be accomplished in good yields with high enantioselectivities through the use of BINOL-derived phosphoric acids as catalysts and Hantzsch esters or benzothiazoles as the hydride source. The same method can also be applied to the

  2. Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A

    We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into

  3. Asymmetric volatility connectedness on the forex market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš


    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2017), s. 39-56 ISSN 0261-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14179S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : volatility * connectedness * asymmetric effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.853, year: 2016 http:// library

  4. Asymmetric Drift and the Stellar Velocity Ellipsoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.


    We present the decomposition of the stellar velocity ellipsoid using stellar velocity dispersions within a 40° wedge about the major-axis (smaj), the epicycle approximation, and the asymmetric drift equation. Thus, we employ no fitted forms for smaj and escape interpolation errors resulting from

  5. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.


    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  6. Spectral inequalities for the quantum asymmetric top

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourget, Alain; McMillen, Tyler [Department of Mathematics, California State University (Fullerton), McCarthy Hall 154, Fullerton, CA 92834 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We consider the spectrum of the quantum asymmetric top. Unlike in the case when two or three moments of inertia are equal, when the moments of inertia are distinct all degeneracy in the spectrum of the operator is removed. We derive inequalities for the spectra based on recent results on the interlacing of Van Vleck zeros.

  7. Palladium catalysed asymmetric alkylation of benzophenone Schiff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 4. Palladium catalysed asymmetric alkylation of benzophenone Schiff base glycine esters in ionic liquids. Dae Hyun Kim Jin Kyu Im Dae Won Kim Minserk Cheong Hoon Sik Kim Deb Kumar Mukherjee. Volume 123 Issue 4 July 2011 pp 467-476 ...

  8. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Internet is an insecure open network and its use and connectivity have witnessed a significant growth, and this has made it vulnerable to all forms of attacks. A threat to a network can cause harm or interrupt the network. In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using asymmetric cryptography, with ...

  9. Mixed gas plasticization phenomena in asymmetric membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Tymen


    This thesis describes the thorough investigation of mixed gas transport behavior of asymmetric membranes in the separation of feed streams containing plasticizing gases in order to gain more insights into the complicated behavior of plasticization. To successfully employ gas separation membranes in

  10. Human values and moral exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Goodale


    Full Text Available This article uses empirical data from the anthropology of human rights and the ethics of everyday life to examine the relationship between dominant value frames, moral action, and the rise of ‘counter-humanities’ in the form of cultural identitarianism, racial and class-based nationalism, apocalyptic theologies, and nativist populism. This article focuses, in particular, on the emergence and growing power of the value frame of human rights in the post-Cold War period and argues that the more recent spread of violent movements based in forms of moral exclusion was an ironic consequence of the power of human rights. After considering, and then rejecting, the possibility that citizenship can stand in for ‘humanity’ as a more sustainable value frame, the article concludes with an argument for the promise of a post-utopian solidarity inspired by the humanism of Montaigne and More and the pluralism of Berlin.

  11. Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco


    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown...... component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton...... flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric....

  12. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin


    Parallel processes in concurrency theory can be modelled in a geometric framework. A convenient model are the Higher Dimensional Automata of V. Pratt and E. Goubault with cubical complexes as their mathematical description. More abstract models are given by (locally) partially ordered topological...... spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...... information about essentially different schedules using higher dimensional "geometric'' representations of the state space and executions (directed paths) along it....

  13. Weave of senses: school inclusion and exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Giorgenon


    Full Text Available Supported by Discourse Analysis studies made by Michel Pêcheux, we aimed at listening and analyzing senses materialized in the writing of teachers (subjects of the investigation about the process of inclusion of children and teenagers with the so-called “mental disabilities” in regular Elementary Schools. Unwinding the discursive threads, we trace the way how ideology captures these individuals, by observing how they - as subjects affected by the position they occupy at school - name and take on discursive positions on this issue. Betting there is a “pre-constructed” concept that returns in present time intradiscourse, we reflect on school inclusion and exclusion, and listen to the silenced senses conveyed in discourse.

  14. Switchable regioselectivity in amine-catalysed asymmetric cycloadditions (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Zhou, Yuan-Chun; Xiao, Wei; Ouyang, Qin; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun


    Building small-molecule libraries with structural and stereogenic diversity plays an important role in drug discovery. The development of switchable intermolecular cycloaddition reactions from identical substrates in different regioselective fashions would provide an attractive protocol. However, this also represents a challenge in organic chemistry, because it is difficult to control regioselectivity to afford the products exclusively and at the same time achieve high levels of stereoselectivity. Here, we report the diversified cycloadditions of α‧-alkylidene-2-cyclopentenones catalysed by cinchona-derived primary amines. An asymmetric γ,β‧-regioselective intermolecular [6+2] cycloaddition reaction with 3-olefinic (7-aza)oxindoles is realized through the in situ generation of formal 4-aminofulvenes, while a different β,γ-regioselective [2+2] cycloaddition reaction with maleimides to access fused cyclobutanes is disclosed. In contrast, an intriguing α,γ-regioselective [4+2] cycloaddition reaction is uncovered with the same set of substrates, by employing an unprecedented dual small-molecule catalysis of amines and thiols. All of the cycloaddition reactions exhibit excellent regio- and stereoselectivity, producing a broad spectrum of chiral architectures with high structural diversity and molecular complexity.

  15. Determinant of asymmetric risks in Nigerian loan market: any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bank lending in Nigeria was dominated by the presence of asymmetric information, a wedge to financial intermediation. Using probit and correlation test methodology, evidence of low level asymmetric risk was found and the determinants of asymmetric risks in the market were not significantly different. The size of default ...

  16. Generic dynamical phase transition in one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases with exclusion (United States)

    Lazarescu, Alexandre


    Dynamical phase transitions are crucial features of the fluctuations of statistical systems, corresponding to boundaries between qualitatively different mechanisms of maintaining unlikely values of dynamical observables over long periods of time. They manifest themselves in the form of non-analyticities in the large deviation function of those observables. In this paper, we look at bulk-driven exclusion processes with open boundaries. It is known that the standard asymmetric simple exclusion process exhibits a dynamical phase transition in the large deviations of the current of particles flowing through it. That phase transition has been described thanks to specific calculation methods relying on the model being exactly solvable, but more general methods have also been used to describe the extreme large deviations of that current, far from the phase transition. We extend those methods to a large class of models based on the ASEP, where we add arbitrary spatial inhomogeneities in the rates and short-range potentials between the particles. We show that, as for the regular ASEP, the large deviation function of the current scales differently with the size of the system if one considers very high or very low currents, pointing to the existence of a dynamical phase transition between those two regimes: high current large deviations are extensive in the system size, and the typical states associated to them are Coulomb gases, which are highly correlated; low current large deviations do not depend on the system size, and the typical states associated to them are anti-shocks, consistently with a hydrodynamic behaviour. Finally, we illustrate our results numerically on a simple example, and we interpret the transition in terms of the current pushing beyond its maximal hydrodynamic value, as well as relate it to the appearance of Tracy-Widom distributions in the relaxation statistics of such models. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working

  17. Observation of Central Exclusive Diphoton Production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucken, Jens Erik [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Inst. of Physics (Finland)


    We have observed exclusive γγ production in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron at √ s = 1.96 TeV. We use data corresponding to 1.11 ± 0.07 fb-1 integrated luminosity taken by the Run II Collider Detector at Fermilab, with a trigger requiring two electromagnetic showers, each with transverse energy ET > 2 GeV, and vetoing on hits in the forward beam shower counters. We select events with two electromagnetic showers, each with transverse energy ET > 2.5 GeV and pseudorapidity |η| < 1.0, with no other particles detected in -7.4 < η < +7.4. The two showers have similar ET and an azimuthal angle separation Δφ ~ π; we find 34 events with exactly two matching charged particle tracks, agreeing with expectations for the QED process p¯p → p+e+e- + ¯p by two photon exchange; and we find 43 events with no tracks. The latter are candidates for the exclusive process p¯p → p + γγ + ¯p by double pomeron exchange. We use the strip and wire chambers at the longitudinal shower maximum position within the calorimeter to measure a possible exclusive background from IP + IP → π0π0, and conclude that it is consistent with zero and is < 15 events at 95% C.L. The measured cross section is σγγ,excl(|η| < 1, ET (γ) > 2.5 GeV) = 2.48 +0.40 -0.35(stat) +0.40 -0.51(syst) pb and in agreement with the theoretical predictions. This process is closely related to exclusive Higgs boson production pp → p + H + p at the Large Hadron Collider. The observation of the exclusive production of diphotons shows that exclusive Higgs production can happen and could be observed with a proper experimental setup.

  18. 78 FR 48158 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License (United States)


    ... Doc No: 2013-19075] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9843-9] Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent... license to practice the invention described and claimed in the U.S. patent entitled PROCESS FOR THE... HYDRAULIC FRACTURING, filed as U.S. serial number 10/395,893 on March 25, 2003 and issued as U.S. Patent 7...

  19. Central exclusive production within the Durham model: A Review (United States)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Khoze, V. A.; Ryskin, M. G.; Stirling, W. J.


    We review recent results within the Durham model of central exclusive production. We discuss the theoretical aspects of this approach and consider the phenomenological implications in a variety of processes, comparing to existing collider data and addressing the possibilities for the future.

  20. Indicators of Poverty and Social Exclusion in a Global Context (United States)

    Marlier, Eric; Atkinson, A. B.


    The measurement of poverty and social exclusion is analytically and operationally relevant at all levels of policymaking. Here our focus is on national governments making policy in a global or multinational context such as the European Union (EU). In this process, social indicators are playing a growing role, and we need to stand back and examine…

  1. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  2. Broadband Asymmetric Light Transmission at Metal/Dielectric Composite Grating. (United States)

    Zhu, Rui; Wu, Xuannan; Hou, Yidong; Zheng, Gaige; Zhu, Jianhua; Gao, Fuhua


    Optical diode-like effect has sparked growing interest in recent years due to its potential applications in integrated photonic systems. In this paper, we propose and numerically demonstrate a new type of easy-processing metal/dielectric cylinder composite grating on semi-sphere substrate, which can achieve high-contrast asymmetric transmission of unpolarized light for the sum of all diffraction modes in the entire visible region, and effectively guide the diffraction light transmitting out the substrate. The asymmetric light transmission (ALT) ratio is larger than 2 dB in the waveband from 380 nm to 780 nm and the maximum ALT ratio can reach to 13 dB at specified wavelengths. The thorough theoretical research reveals that the proposed metal/dielectric pillar composite grating structure, together with the substrate, can effectively excite localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) effect and waveguide mode (WGM), and enlarge the diffraction difference between forward and backward transmission spaces, including both number of diffraction orders and diffraction efficiency, thus resulting in high-contrast broadband ALT phenomenon. In particular, lowering the symmetry of the grating can achieve polarization-dependent ALT. Such a type of easy-processing ALT device with high performance for both polarized and unpolarized light can be regarded as suitable candidates in practical applications.

  3. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation of white wine chromophoric colloidal matter. (United States)

    Coelho, Christian; Parot, Jérémie; Gonsior, Michael; Nikolantonaki, Maria; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Parlanti, Edith; Gougeon, Régis D


    Two analytical separation methods-size-exclusion chromatography and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation-were implemented to evaluate the integrity of the colloidal composition of Chardonnay white wine and the impact of pressing and fermentations on the final macromolecular composition. Wine chromophoric colloidal matter, representing UV-visible-absorbing wine macromolecules, was evaluated by optical and structural measurements combined with the description of elution profiles obtained by both separative techniques. The objective of this study was to apply these two types of fractionation on a typical Chardonnay white wine produced in Burgundy and to evaluate how each of them impacted the determination of the macromolecular chromophoric content of wine. UV-visible and fluorescence measurements of collected fractions were successfully applied. An additional proteomic study revealed that grape and microorganism proteins largely impacted the composition of chromophoric colloidal matter of Chardonnay wines. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation appeared to be more reliable and less invasive with respect to the native chemical environment of chromophoric wine macromolecules, and hence is recommended as a tool to fractionate chromophoric colloidal matter in white wines. Graphical Abstract An innovative macromolecular separation method based on Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation was developed to better control colloidal dynamics across Chardonnay white winemaking.

  4. Measurements of exclusive production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, Leszek; The ATLAS collaboration


    In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been adopted to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs (ee and mumu) in proton-proton collision data taken at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV. The results show significant deviations from the pure QED prediction, which can be explained by photon coherence and proton rescattering effects. If available, a measurement of the production of exclusive pions at 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector will be also presented. In addition, an analysis performed at 8 TeV concentrates on the electron-muon final state to study the exclusive production of WW boson pairs. This analysis is re-optimised to search for the exclusive production of the Higgs boson in the WW* decay channel and the corresponding results will be discussed.

  5. Asymmetric Cell Division of T Cells Upon Antigen Presentation Utilizes Multiple Conserved Mechanisms (United States)

    Oliaro, Jane; Van Ham, Vanessa; Sacirbegovic, Faruk; Pasam, Anupama; Bomzon, Ze’ev; Pham, Kim; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J.; Waterhouse, Nigel J.; Bots, Michael; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Watt, Sally V.; Cluse, Leonie A.; Clarke, Chris J.P.; Izon, David J.; Chang, John T.; Thompson, Natalie; Gu, Min; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Smyth, Mark J.; Humbert, Patrick O.; Reiner, Steven L.; Russell, Sarah M.


    Asymmetric cell division is a potential means by which cell fate choices during an immune response are orchestrated. Defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie asymmetric division of T cells is paramount for determining the role of this process in the generation of effector and memory T cell subsets. In other cell types, asymmetric cell division is regulated by conserved polarity protein complexes that control the localization of cell fate determinants and spindle orientation during division. We have developed a tractable, in vitro model of naïve CD8+ T cells undergoing initial division while attached to dendritic cells during antigen presentation to investigate whether similar mechanisms might regulate asymmetric division of T cells. Using this system, we show that direct interactions with antigen presenting cells provide the cue for polarization of T cells. Interestingly, the immunological synapse disseminates before division even though the T cells retain contact with the antigen presenting cell. The cue from the antigen presenting cell is translated into polarization of cell fate determinants via the polarity network of the Par3 and Scribble complexes and orientation of the mitotic spindle during division is orchestrated by the Pins/G protein complex. These findings suggest that T cells have selectively adapted a number of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms to generate diversity through asymmetric cell division. PMID:20530266

  6. Asymmetric cell division of T cells upon antigen presentation uses multiple conserved mechanisms. (United States)

    Oliaro, Jane; Van Ham, Vanessa; Sacirbegovic, Faruk; Pasam, Anupama; Bomzon, Ze'ev; Pham, Kim; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J; Waterhouse, Nigel J; Bots, Michael; Hawkins, Edwin D; Watt, Sally V; Cluse, Leonie A; Clarke, Chris J P; Izon, David J; Chang, John T; Thompson, Natalie; Gu, Min; Johnstone, Ricky W; Smyth, Mark J; Humbert, Patrick O; Reiner, Steven L; Russell, Sarah M


    Asymmetric cell division is a potential means by which cell fate choices during an immune response are orchestrated. Defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie asymmetric division of T cells is paramount for determining the role of this process in the generation of effector and memory T cell subsets. In other cell types, asymmetric cell division is regulated by conserved polarity protein complexes that control the localization of cell fate determinants and spindle orientation during division. We have developed a tractable, in vitro model of naive CD8(+) T cells undergoing initial division while attached to dendritic cells during Ag presentation to investigate whether similar mechanisms might regulate asymmetric division of T cells. Using this system, we show that direct interactions with APCs provide the cue for polarization of T cells. Interestingly, the immunological synapse disseminates before division even though the T cells retain contact with the APC. The cue from the APC is translated into polarization of cell fate determinants via the polarity network of the Par3 and Scribble complexes, and orientation of the mitotic spindle during division is orchestrated by the partner of inscuteable/G protein complex. These findings suggest that T cells have selectively adapted a number of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms to generate diversity through asymmetric cell division.

  7. Asymmetric total synthesis of Apocynaceae hydrocarbazole alkaloids (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. (United States)

    Du, Ji-Yuan; Zeng, Chao; Han, Xiao-Jie; Qu, Hu; Zhao, Xian-He; An, Xian-Tao; Fan, Chun-An


    An unprecedented asymmetric catalytic tandem aminolysis/aza-Michael addition reaction of spirocyclic para-dienoneimides has been designed and developed through organocatalytic enantioselective desymmetrization. A unified strategy based on this key tandem methodology has been divergently explored for the asymmetric total synthesis of two natural Apocynaceae alkaloids, (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. The present studies not only enrich the tandem reaction design concerning the asymmetric catalytic assembly of a chiral all-carbon quaternary stereocenter contained in the densely functionalized hydrocarbazole synthons but also manifest the potential for the application of the asymmetric catalysis based on the para-dienone chemistry in asymmetric synthesis of natural products.

  8. Asymmetrical reinforcement and Wolbachia infection in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jaenike


    Full Text Available Reinforcement refers to the evolution of increased mating discrimination against heterospecific individuals in zones of geographic overlap and can be considered a final stage in the speciation process. One the factors that may affect reinforcement is the degree to which hybrid matings result in the permanent loss of genes from a species' gene pool. Matings between females of Drosophila subquinaria and males of D. recens result in high levels of offspring mortality, due to interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia infection of D. recens. Such hybrid inviability is not manifested in matings between D. recens females and D. subquinaria males. Here we ask whether the asymmetrical hybrid inviability is associated with a corresponding asymmetry in the level of reinforcement. The geographic ranges of D. recens and D. subquinaria were found to overlap across a broad belt of boreal forest in central Canada. Females of D. subquinaria from the zone of sympatry exhibit much stronger levels of discrimination against males of D. recens than do females from allopatric populations. In contrast, such reproductive character displacement is not evident in D. recens, consistent with the expected effects of unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility. Furthermore, there is substantial behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria, because females from populations sympatric with D. recens discriminate against allopatric conspecific males, whereas females from populations allopatric with D. recens show no discrimination against any conspecific males. Patterns of general genetic differentiation among populations are not consistent with patterns of behavioral discrimination, which suggests that the behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria results from selection against mating with Wolbachia-infected D. recens. Interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility may contribute not only to post-mating isolation, an effect already widely recognized, but also to

  9. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  10. Persistent random walk with exclusion (United States)

    Galanti, Marta; Fanelli, Duccio; Piazza, Francesco


    Modelling the propagation of a pulse in a dense milieu poses fundamental challenges at the theoretical and applied levels. To this aim, in this paper we generalize the telegraph equation to non-ideal conditions by extending the concept of persistent random walk to account for spatial exclusion effects. This is achieved by introducing an explicit constraint in the hopping rates, that weights the occupancy of the target sites. We derive the mean-field equations, which display nonlinear terms that are important at high density. We compute the evolution of the mean square displacement (MSD) for pulses belonging to a specific class of spatially symmetric initial conditions. The MSD still displays a transition from ballistic to diffusive behaviour. We derive an analytical formula for the effective velocity of the ballistic stage, which is shown to depend in a nontrivial fashion upon both the density (area) and the shape of the initial pulse. After a density-dependent crossover time, nonlinear terms become negligible and normal diffusive behaviour is recovered at long times.

  11. Drift waves, intense parallel electric fields, and turbulence associated with asymmetric magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Chen, L.-J.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Eriksson, S.; Usanova, M. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Holmes, J. C.; Sturner, A. P.; Malaspina, D. M.; Newman, D. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M. R.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Burch, J. L.; Webster, J. M.; Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Cassak, P. A.; Swisdak, M.; Shay, M. A.; Graham, D. B.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Hesse, M.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Retino, A.; Phan, T. D.; Goldman, M. V.; Stawarz, J. E.; Schwartz, S. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Hwang, K.-J.; Nakamura, R.; Wang, S.


    Observations of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause often display asymmetric structures that are accompanied by strong magnetic field (B) fluctuations and large-amplitude parallel electric fields (E||). The B turbulence is most intense at frequencies above the ion cyclotron frequency and below the lower hybrid frequency. The B fluctuations are consistent with a thin, oscillating current sheet that is corrugated along the electron flow direction (along the X line), which is a type of electromagnetic drift wave. Near the X line, electron flow is primarily due to a Hall electric field, which diverts ion flow in asymmetric reconnection and accompanies the instability. Importantly, the drift waves appear to drive strong parallel currents which, in turn, generate large-amplitude ( 100 mV/m) E|| in the form of nonlinear waves and structures. These observations suggest that turbulence may be common in asymmetric reconnection, penetrate into the electron diffusion region, and possibly influence the magnetic reconnection process.

  12. Structure, Catalysis, and Inhibition of OfChi-h, the Lepidoptera-exclusive Insect Chitinase. (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Yong; Jiang, Xi; Duan, Yanwei; Yang, Qing


    Chitinase-h (Chi-h) is of special interest among insect chitinases due to its exclusive distribution in lepidopteran insects and high sequence identity with bacterial and baculovirus homologs. Here OfChi-h, a Chi-h from Ostrinia furnacalis, was investigated. Crystal structures of both OfChi-h and its complex with chitoheptaose ((GlcN)7) reveal that OfChi-h possesses a long and asymmetric substrate binding cleft, which is a typical characteristics of a processive exo-chitinase. The structural comparison between OfChi-h and its bacterial homolog SmChiA uncovered two phenylalanine-to-tryptophan site variants in OfChi-h at subsites +2 and possibly -7. The F232W/F396W double mutant endowed SmChiA with higher hydrolytic activities toward insoluble substrates, such as insect cuticle, α-chitin, and chitin nanowhisker. An enzymatic assay demonstrated that OfChi-h outperformed OfChtI, an insect endo-chitinase, toward the insoluble substrates, but showed lower activity toward the soluble substrate ethylene glycol chitin. Furthermore, OfChi-h was found to be inhibited by N,N',N″-trimethylglucosamine-N,N',N″,N″'-tetraacetylchitotetraose (TMG-(GlcNAc)4), a substrate analog which can be degraded into TMG-(GlcNAc)1-2 Injection of TMG-(GlcNAc)4 into 5th-instar O. furnacalis larvae led to severe defects in pupation. This work provides insights into a molting-indispensable insect chitinase that is phylogenetically closer to bacterial chitinases than insect chitinases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposures: A Search for the Effect of Real Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom


    exposures of a group of blue chip, industrial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. In these companies the existence of real options is an integrated part of the exchange rate exposure management process. The result of the stock market approach is mixed. Statistically significant asymmetric...

  14. Scaling of triple differential cross-sections for asymmetric (e, 2e ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 1 ... A simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 2) process on helium isoelectronic ions by fast electrons. ... The scaling law is found to work reasonably well for fast incident electrons and becomes increasingly accurate as target increases.

  15. A one-way shooting algorithm for transition path sampling of asymmetric barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brotzakis, Z.F.; Bolhuis, P.G.


    We present a novel transition path sampling shooting algorithm for the efficient sampling of complex (biomolecular) activated processes with asymmetric free energy barriers. The method employs a fictitious potential that biases the shooting point toward the transition state. The method is similar in

  16. Asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions with 5-menthyloxy-2(5H)-furanones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Johannes Cornelis de


    At the beginning of the reseach described in this thesis the catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction had scarcely been investigated. No good catalytic processes with high enantiomeric excess were known at that time. At the same time the Diels-Alder reactions with chiral dienophiles needed further

  17. Settling dynamics of asymmetric rigid fibers (United States)

    Tozzi, E. J.; Scott, C. T.; Vahey, D.; Klingenberg, D. J.


    The three-dimensional motion of asymmetric rigid fibers settling under gravity in a quiescent fluid was experimentally measured using a pair of cameras located on a movable platform. The particle motion typically consisted of an initial transient after which the particle approached a steady rate of rotation about an axis parallel to the acceleration of gravity, with its center of mass following a helical trajectory. Numerical and analytical methods were used to predict translational and angular velocities as well as the evolution of the fiber orientation as a function of time. A comparison of calculated and measured values shows that it is possible to quantitatively predict complex motions of particles that have highly asymmetric shape. The relations between particle shape and settling trajectory have potential applications for hydrodynamic characterization of fiber shapes and fiber separation.

  18. Asymmetric synthesis and sensory evaluation of sedanenolide. (United States)

    Oguro, Daichi; Watanabe, Hidenori


    The synthesis and sensory evaluation of enantiomeric sets of sedanenolide (1) and 3-butylphthalide (3) are described. The asymmetric synthesis was achieved via the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of chiral propargylester (5) which was prepared from optically active propargyl alcohol (4) and 2,4-pentadienoic acid. The sensory evaluation of these enantiomers revealed that there were distinct differences between their aroma character and odor threshold.

  19. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates. (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L


    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of α,β-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good yields and high enantiomeric excess. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated through stereospecific transformations into multifunctional optically active compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li


    In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....

  1. Asymmetric monetary policy effects in EMU


    Clausen, Volker; Hayo, Bernd


    This paper uses a semi-structural dynamic modelling approach to investigate asymmetric monetary transmission in Europe. A system of equations containing reaction functions for monetary policy, output and inflation equations is simultaneously estimated for France, Germany, and Italy. Extensive cross equation tests show that relatively large differences in simulated impulse responses are still consistent with the notion that the transmission mechanism is homogeneous across the three major EMU c...

  2. Predicting tensorial electrophoretic effects in asymmetric colloids (United States)

    Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, T. A.


    We formulate a numerical method for predicting the tensorial linear response of a rigid, asymmetrically charged body to an applied electric field. This prediction requires calculating the response of the fluid to the Stokes drag forces on the moving body and on the countercharges near its surface. To determine the fluid's motion, we represent both the body and the countercharges using many point sources of drag known as Stokeslets. Finding the correct flow field amounts to finding the set of drag forces on the Stokeslets that is consistent with the relative velocities experienced by each Stokeslet. The method rigorously satisfies the condition that the object moves with no transfer of momentum to the fluid. We demonstrate that a sphere represented by 1999 well-separated Stokeslets on its surface produces flow and drag force like a solid sphere to 1% accuracy. We show that a uniformly charged sphere with 3998 body and countercharge Stokeslets obeys the Smoluchowski prediction [F. Morrison, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 210 (1970), 10.1016/0021-9797(70)90171-2] for electrophoretic mobility when the countercharges lie close to the sphere. Spheres with dipolar and quadrupolar charge distributions rotate and translate as predicted analytically to 4% accuracy or better. We describe how the method can treat general asymmetric shapes and charge distributions. This method offers promise as a way to characterize and manipulate asymmetrically charged colloid-scale objects from biology (e.g., viruses) and technology (e.g., self-assembled clusters).

  3. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin


    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  4. Inclusive and exclusive pion reactions (United States)

    Collier, Sandra Lee


    One inclusive and one exclusive pion reaction are addressed. For the first, a model for pion-induced pion production ( p,2p ) from nuclei is developed with particular interest in the dependence of the 2p invariant mass distribution as a function of the target mass. Data from ( p,2p ) reactions on free nucleons are used to predict modifications in the production cross sections on nuclei due to medium corrections which might arise from a change in the structure of the nucleon in the nucleus. The ( p,2p ) reaction from the nucleon is modeled using the pion pole diagram. The form factor which governs this cross section is modified to model changes of the nucleon structure within the nuclear medium. Another medium effect, the fermi motion of the nucleon with respect to the nucleus, is also considered. It is found that the differential cross section for production from nuclei is sensitive to the changes of the form factor, but the shape of the invariant mass distribution is not. Comparisons are made to recent experimental findings from 208Pb, 40Ca, 12C, and 2H. The elastic scattering of charged pions from the trinucleon system is then examined at a pion kinetic energy of 180 MeV. The motivation for this study is the structure seen in the angular distribution of back-angle scattering for p+-H3e and p--H3 but for neither p-- H3e nor p+-H3 . A double spin flip mechanism is included in an optical model treatment. It is found that the contribution of this term is non- negligible at large angles for p+-H3e and p--H3 , but it does not reproduce the structure seen in the experiment.

  5. Polarization-controlled asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Quan


    Free-space light can be coupled into propagating surface waves at a metal–dielectric interface, known as surface plasmons (SPs). This process has traditionally faced challenges in preserving the incident polarization information and controlling the directionality of the excited SPs. The recently reported polarization-controlled asymmetric excitation of SPs in metasurfaces has attracted much attention for its promise in developing innovative plasmonic devices. However, the unit elements in these works were purposely designed in certain orthogonal polarizations, i.e., linear or circular polarizations, resulting in limited two-level polarization controllability. Here, we introduce a coupled-mode theory to overcome this limit. We demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that, by utilizing the coupling effect between a pair of split-ring-shaped slit resonators, exotic asymmetric excitation of SPs can be obtained under the x-, y-, left-handed circular, and right-handed circular polarization incidences, while the polarization information of the incident light can be preserved in the excited SPs. The versatility of the presented design scheme would offer opportunities for polarization sensing and polarization-controlled plasmonic devices.

  6. Cholesterol Induces Uneven Curvature of Asymmetric Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Yesylevskyy


    Full Text Available A remarkable flexibility is observed in biological membranes, which allows them to form the structures of different curvatures. We addressed the question of intrinsic ability of phospholipid membranes to form highly curved structures and the role of cholesterol in this process. The distribution of cholesterol in the highly curved asymmetric DOPC/DOPS lipid bilayer was investigated by the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations in the membrane patches with large aspect ratio. It is shown that cholesterol induces uneven membrane curvature promoting the formation of extended flattened regions of the membrane interleaved by sharp bends. It is shown that the affinity of cholesterol to anionic DOPS or neutral DOPC lipids is curvature dependent. The cholesterol prefers DOPS to DOPC in either planar or highly curved parts of the membrane. In contrast, in the narrow interval of moderate membrane curvatures this preference is inverted. Our data suggest that there is a complex self-consistent interplay between the membrane curvature and cholesterol distribution in the asymmetric lipid bilayers. The suggested new function of cholesterol may have a biological relevance.

  7. Asymmetric switching in a homodimeric ABC transporter: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Aittoniemi


    Full Text Available ABC transporters are a large family of membrane proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes, including multidrug and tumor resistance and ion channel regulation. Advances in the structural and functional understanding of ABC transporters have revealed that hydrolysis at the two canonical nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs is co-operative and non-simultaneous. A conserved core architecture of bacterial and eukaryotic ABC exporters has been established, as exemplified by the crystal structure of the homodimeric multidrug exporter Sav1866. Currently, it is unclear how sequential ATP hydrolysis arises in a symmetric homodimeric transporter, since it implies at least transient asymmetry at the NBSs. We show by molecular dynamics simulation that the initially symmetric structure of Sav1866 readily undergoes asymmetric transitions at its NBSs in a pre-hydrolytic nucleotide configuration. MgATP-binding residues and a network of charged residues at the dimer interface are shown to form a sequence of putative molecular switches that allow ATP hydrolysis only at one NBS. We extend our findings to eukaryotic ABC exporters which often consist of two non-identical half-transporters, frequently with degeneracy substitutions at one of their two NBSs. Interestingly, many residues involved in asymmetric conformational switching in Sav1866 are substituted in degenerate eukaryotic NBS. This finding strengthens recent suggestions that the interplay of a consensus and a degenerate NBS in eukaroytic ABC proteins pre-determines the sequence of hydrolysis at the two NBSs.

  8. Modular knowledge systems accelerate human migration in asymmetric random environments. (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Deem, Michael W


    Migration is a key mechanism for expansion of communities. In spatially heterogeneous environments, rapidly gaining knowledge about the local environment is key to the evolutionary success of a migrating population. For historical human migration, environmental heterogeneity was naturally asymmetric in the north-south (NS) and east-west (EW) directions. We here consider the human migration process in the Americas, modelled as random, asymmetric, modularly correlated environments. Knowledge about the environments determines the fitness of each individual. We present a phase diagram for asymmetry of migration as a function of carrying capacity and fitness threshold. We find that the speed of migration is proportional to the inverse complement of the spatial environmental gradient, and in particular, we find that NS migration rates are lower than EW migration rates when the environmental gradient is higher in the NS direction. Communication of knowledge between individuals can help to spread beneficial knowledge within the population. The speed of migration increases when communication transmits pieces of knowledge that contribute in a modular way to the fitness of individuals. The results for the dependence of migration rate on asymmetry and modularity are consistent with existing archaeological observations. The results for asymmetry of genetic divergence are consistent with patterns of human gene flow. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Low Viscosity Imides Based on Asymmetric Oxydiphthalic Anhydride (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Criss, Jim M., Jr.; Mintz, Eric A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; McCorkle, Linda S.


    A series of low-melt viscosity imide resins were prepared from asymmetric oxydiphthalic dianhydride (a-ODPA) and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride as the endcap, along with 3,4' - oxydianiline (3,4' -ODA), 3,4' -methylenedianiline (3,4' -MDA), 3,3' -methylenedianiline (3,3' - MDA) and 3,3'-diaminobenzophenone (3,3'-DABP), using a solvent-free melt process. These imide oligomers displays low-melt viscosities (2-15 poise) at 260-280 C, which made them amenable to low-cost resin transfer molding (RTM) process. The a-ODPA based RTM resins exhibits glass transition temperatures (Tg's) in the range of 265-330 C after postcure at 343 C. The mechanical properties of these polyimide/carbon fiber composites fabricated by RTM will be discussed.

  10. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh


    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  11. 33 CFR 87.3 - Exclusive use. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive use. 87.3 Section 87.3...: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.3 Exclusive use. The use or exhibition of any of the foregoing signals except for the purpose of indicating distress and need of assistance and the use of other signals which may be confused...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    data from the focus group discussions was analysed using content analysis with the help of qualitative research computer software Nvivo. Results: The prevalence of exclusive breast feeding practice was at 61%. The factors that were found to be statistically significant to exclusive breast feeding were age of infant and ...

  13. Exclusive breastfeeding - the relationship between maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour adopted by individuals is moulded by their perception of various issues. In spite of well established benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to babies, mothers and society, the EBF practice rate (EBFPr) in our environment has remained low. To evaluatemother's perception of exclusive breastfeeding and ...

  14. Social exclusion and shame in obesity. (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank; Kohlmann, Sebastian


    Weight bias often results in the social exclusion of individuals with obesity. The direct, short-term psychological effects of social exclusion in obesity have not been investigated yet. This study experimentally tests whether social exclusion elicits stronger negative emotions in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight controls. Specifically, we test whether social exclusion has a specific impact on shame. In total, N=299 individuals (n=130 with body mass index [BMI]≤30 and n=169 with BMI>30) were randomly assigned to a social exclusion condition or a control condition that was implemented with an online Cyberball paradigm. Before and after, they filled out questionnaires assessing state emotionality. Social exclusion increased negative emotionality in both groups compared to the control condition (pshame in the group with obesity during social exclusion (pshame. As social exclusion is frequent in individuals with obesity, psychological interventions focussing shame-related emotional distress could be crucial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    that was extracted from the women's database. Results: The overall rates of exclusive and full breastfeeding were 49.0% and 68.2% respectively. Maternal ... atopic eczema, and allergy during childhood (2, 5, 6). In resource poor countries, where the negative impact of. HIV/AIDS is high, exclusive breastfeeding for the first.

  16. 40 CFR 21.6 - Exclusions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusions. 21.6 Section 21.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL SMALL BUSINESS § 21.6 Exclusions. (a... for financial assistance in meeting revenue and service charges imposed upon a small business by a...

  17. Rescinding the Ground Combat Exclusion Policy (United States)


    Miller, " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat," in Women in the Military, ed. Rita James Simon (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction...index.php/issuepapers (accessed November 23, 2010). Miller, Laura L. " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat." In Women in the Military

  18. Disciplinary Exclusion: The Influence of School Ethos (United States)

    Hatton, Lucy Ann


    Disciplinary exclusion is a strategy used by some schools in response to challenging behaviour. While some studies have explored interventions that can be implemented to reduce the exclusion of "at risk" pupils, others have considered how the underlying school ethos influences how challenging behaviour is understood and managed. The…

  19. Influence of asymmetrical drawing radius deviation in micro deep drawing (United States)

    Heinrich, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Shimizu, T.; Yang, M.; Vollertsen, F.


    Nowadays, an increasing demand for small metal parts in electronic and automotive industries can be observed. Deep drawing is a well-suited technology for the production of such parts due to its excellent qualities for mass production. However, the downscaling of the forming process leads to new challenges in tooling and process design, such as high relative deviation of tool geometry or blank displacement compared to the macro scale. FEM simulation has been a widely-used tool to investigate the influence of symmetrical process deviations as for instance a global variance of the drawing radius. This study shows a different approach that allows to determine the impact of asymmetrical process deviations on micro deep drawing. In this particular case the impact of an asymmetrical drawing radius deviation and blank displacement on cup geometry deviation was investigated for different drawing ratios by experiments and FEM simulation. It was found that both variations result in an increasing cup height deviation. Nevertheless, with increasing drawing ratio a constant drawing radius deviation has an increasing impact, while blank displacement results in a decreasing offset of the cups geometry. This is explained by different mechanisms that result in an uneven cup geometry. While blank displacement leads to material surplus on one side of the cup, an unsymmetrical radius deviation on the other hand generates uneven stretching of the cups wall. This is intensified for higher drawing ratios. It can be concluded that the effect of uneven radius geometry proves to be of major importance for the production of accurately shaped micro cups and cannot be compensated by intentional blank displacement.

  20. Testing exclusion restrictions and additive separability in sample selection models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni


    Standard sample selection models with non-randomly censored outcomes assume (i) an exclusion restriction (i.e., a variable affecting selection, but not the outcome) and (ii) additive separability of the errors in the selection process. This paper proposes tests for the joint satisfaction of these......Standard sample selection models with non-randomly censored outcomes assume (i) an exclusion restriction (i.e., a variable affecting selection, but not the outcome) and (ii) additive separability of the errors in the selection process. This paper proposes tests for the joint satisfaction...... of these assumptions by applying the approach of Huber and Mellace (Testing instrument validity for LATE identification based on inequality moment constraints, 2011) (for testing instrument validity under treatment endogeneity) to the sample selection framework. We show that the exclusion restriction and additive...... separability imply two testable inequality constraints that come from both point identifying and bounding the outcome distribution of the subpopulation that is always selected/observed. We apply the tests to two variables for which the exclusion restriction is frequently invoked in female wage regressions: non...

  1. Participatory Exclusions, Community Forestry, and Gender: An Analysis for South Asia and a Conceptual Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, Bina


    ... sections, such as women. It provides a typology of participation, spells out the gender equity and efficiency implications of such exclusions, and analyzes what underlies them. It also outlines a conceptual framework to help analyze the process of gender exclusion and how it might be alleviated.

  2. 78 FR 19568 - Limited Service Exclusion for Household Goods Motor Carriers and Related Registration... (United States)


    ... quality moving services.'' Q-Bic Crates provides binding and nonbinding estimates and inventorying... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Limited Service Exclusion for Household Goods Motor Carriers... comments on the Agency's process for determining the appropriate use of the Limited Service Exclusion (LSE...

  3. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  4. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors. (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro


    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers' social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother's negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  5. Exclusive Minilateralism: An Emerging Discourse within International Climate Change Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Scott McGee


    Full Text Available Over the past five years there have been a series of significant international climate change agreements involving only elite state actors. The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, APEC Sydney Leaders Declaration and US Major Economies Process all displayed a shift towards a model of international climate change governance involving a small group of economically powerful states, to the exclusion of less powerful states and environmental NGOs. The modest result from the UNFCCC COP 15 meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009 and subsequent UNFCCC meetings has strengthened calls for international climate governance to be pared down to smaller decision making forums of key states only. This article argues that these developments evidence an emerging discourse of ‘exclusive minilateralism’ in international climate policy that is challenging the inclusive multilateral discourse that has formed the bedrock of international climate change governance since the inception of UN climate regime in the early 1990s. The exclusive minilateralism discourse offers a significant challenge to both the cosmopolitan and discursive democratic aspirations of international climate change governance. One response to the exclusive minilateral discourse is to reform the UNFCCC consensus-based decision making rule to provide the COP with greater ease of decision making on key issues relating to mitigation and adaptation. Another response is to more formally include the exclusive minilateralism discourse within the UNFCCC COP process. This could be achieved by forming a small peak body of states and key NGO groups to act as an influential advisor to the COP process on key issues requiring expedition and resolution.

  6. Not for me : Exclusion and self-exclusion from democracy


    Tina, Vikor


    Disinterest and feelings of alienation from politics keep many citizens away from active participation in the democratic process. Based on interviews with inhabitants in Skogås, a suburb of Stockholm, Sweden, and on participant observation at local meeting places, this thesis explores various aspects that shape people’s willingness and ability to exert power in the democratic political system, and identifies the political culture as well as personal encounters with fellow inhabitants and pol...

  7. Construal Level and Social Exclusion: Concrete Thinking Impedes Recovery From Social Exclusion. (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Lermer, Eva; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer


    Social exclusion is a painful experience. Recent research has shown, however, that coping with exclusion can be facilitated by favorable conditions. In the current research, we investigated whether construal level affects recovery from social exclusion. We hypothesized that an abstract vs. concrete mindset would moderate coping with exclusion. Indeed, lower compared to higher concrete thinking (Study 1) and abstract compared to concrete thinking (Study 2) bolstered the basic need of belonging when excluded. Priming of abstract thinking, moreover, increased participants' sense of belonging both in response to exclusion and inclusion relative to no priming (Study 3). Our results are the first to establish a relationship between construal level and social exclusion, thereby suggesting an alleviating "abstraction discount" effect for the consequences of social exclusion.

  8. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty...... and social exclusion by 2020. In the aftermath of the crisis welfare states are called to address multi-level social risks while securing their financial sustainability. This Review presents evidence from Framework Programme research projects with a view to address the challenges of poverty and social...

  9. Preview-based Asymmetric Load Reduction of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mathias; Filsø, Jakob; Soltani, Mohsen


    Fatigue loads on wind turbines caused by an asymmetric wind field become an increasing concern when the scale of wind turbines increases. This paper presents a model based predictive approach to reduce asymmetric loads by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) measurements. The Model Predictive...... to the same controller without LIDAR data. The results showed that the MPC with LIDAR was able to reduce the asymmetric loads compared to the MPC without LIDAR while still maintaining the power reference....

  10. Asymmetric joint multifractal analysis in Chinese stock markets (United States)

    Chen, Yuwen; Zheng, Tingting


    In this paper, the asymmetric joint multifractal analysis method based on statistical physics is proposed to explore the asymmetric correlation between daily returns and trading volumes in Chinese stock markets. The result shows asymmetric multifractal correlations exist between return and trading volume in Chinese stock markets. Moreover, when the stock indexes are upward, the fluctuations of returns are always weaker than when they are downward, whether the trading volumes are more or less.

  11. Combined shear/compression structural testing of asymmetric sandwich structures


    Castanié, Bruno; Barrau, Jean-Jacques; Jaouen, Jean-Pierre; Rivallant, Samuel


    Asymmetric sandwich technology can be applied in the design of lightweight, non-pressurized aeronautical structures such as those of helicopters. A test rig of asymmetric sandwich structures subjected to compression/shear loads was designed, validated, and set up. It conforms to the standard certification procedure for composite aeronautical structures set out in the “test pyramid”, a multiscale approach. The static tests until failure showed asymmetric sandwich structures to be extremely res...

  12. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)


    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  13. On asymmetric causal relationships in Petropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Feyza


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine whether the First Law of Petropolitics denominated by Friedman in 2006 is valid for OPEC countries. To do this, this paper analyses the relationship between political risk and oil supply by applying the asymmetric panel causality test suggested by Hatemi-J (2011 to these countries for the period 1984-2014. The results show that the First Law of Petropolitics is valid for Angola, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE, given that positive oil supply shocks significantly lead to negative political stability shocks, and negative oil supply shocks significantly lead to positive shocks in political stability.

  14. RHIC operation with asymmetric collisions in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Aschenauer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Atoian, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ottavio, T. D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Drees, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hayes, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laster, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Makdisi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marr, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morris, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Narayan, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nemesure, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poblaguev, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schmidke, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severino, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shrey, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yip, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    To study low-x shadowing/saturation physics as well as other nuclear effects [1], [2], proton-gold (p-Au, for 5 weeks) and proton-Aluminum (p-Al, for 2 weeks) collisions were provided for experiments in 2015 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with polarized proton beam in the Blue ring and Au/Al beam in the Yellow ring. The special features of the asymmetric run in 2015 will be introduced. The operation experience will be reviewed as well in the report.

  15. Chiral Diamine-catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Da-zhen; WU Lu-lu; WANG Yong-mei


    A highly efficient catalytic system composed of a simple and commercially available chiral primary diamine (1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine(6) and trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) was employed for asymmetric Aldol reaction in i-PrOH at room temperature.A loading of 10%(molar fraction) catalyst 6 with TFA as a cocatalyst could catalyze the Aldol reactions of various ketones or aldehydes with a series of aromatic aldehydes,furnishing Aldol products in moderate to high yields(up to >99%) with enantioselectivities of up to >99% and diastereoselectivities of up to 99:1.

  16. Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada


    Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.

  17. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric oxidation of sulfides. (United States)

    O'Mahony, Graham E; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Anita R


    Copper-catalyzed asymmetric sulfoxidation of aryl benzyl and aryl alkyl sulfides, using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant, has been investigated. A relationship between the steric effects of the sulfide substituents and the enantioselectivity of the oxidation has been observed, with up to 93% ee for 2-naphthylmethyl phenyl sulfoxide, in modest yield in this instance (up to 30%). The influence of variation of solvent and ligand structure was examined, and the optimized conditions were then used to oxidize a number of aryl alkyl and aryl benzyl sulfides, producing sulfoxides in excellent yields in most cases (up to 92%), and good enantiopurities in certain cases (up to 84% ee).

  18. Analysis of the Temporal Response of Coupled Asymmetrical Zero-Power Subcritical Bare Metal Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klain, Kimberly L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The behavior of symmetrical coupled-core systems has been extensively studied, yet there is a dearth of research on asymmetrical systems due to the increased complexity of the analysis of such systems. In this research, the multipoint kinetics method is applied to asymmetrical zeropower, subcritical, bare metal reactor systems. Existing research on asymmetrical reactor systems assumes symmetry in the neutronic coupling; however, it will be shown that this cannot always be assumed. Deep subcriticality adds another layer of complexity and requires modification of the multipoint kinetics equations to account for the effect of the external neutron source. A modified set of multipoint kinetics equations is derived with this in mind. Subsequently, the Rossi-alpha equations are derived for a two-region asymmetrical reactor system. The predictive capabilities of the radiation transport code MCNP6 for neutron noise experiments are shown in a comparison to the results of a series of Rossi-alpha measurements performed by J. Mihalczo utilizing a coupled set of symmetrical bare highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders. The ptrac option within MCNP6 can generate time-tagged counts in a cell (list-mode data). The list-mode data can then be processed similarly to measured data to obtain values for system parameters such as the dual prompt neutron decay constants observable in a coupled system. The results from the ptrac simulations agree well with the historical measured values. A series of case studies are conducted to study the effects of geometrical asymmetry in the coupling between two bare metal HEU cylinders. While the coupling behavior of symmetrical systems has been reported on extensively, that of asymmetrical systems remains sparse. In particular, it appears that there has been no previous research in obtaining the coupling time constants for asymmetrically-coupled systems. The difficulty in observing such systems is due in part to the inability to determine the

  19. Theta signal as the neural signature of social exclusion. (United States)

    Cristofori, Irene; Moretti, Laura; Harquel, Sylvain; Posada, Andres; Deiana, Gianluca; Isnard, Jean; Mauguière, François; Sirigu, Angela


    The feeling of being excluded from a social interaction triggers social pain, a sensation as intense as actual physical pain. Little is known about the neurophysiological underpinnings of social pain. We addressed this issue using intracranial electroencephalography in 15 patients performing a ball game where inclusion and exclusion blocks were alternated. Time-frequency analyses showed an increase in power of theta-band oscillations during exclusion in the anterior insula (AI) and posterior insula, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC), and the fusiform "face area" (FFA). Interestingly, the AI showed an initial fast response to exclusion but the signal rapidly faded out. Activity in the sACC gradually increased and remained significant thereafter. This suggests that the AI may signal social pain by detecting emotional distress caused by the exclusion, whereas the sACC may be linked to the learning aspects of social pain. Theta activity in the FFA was time-locked to the observation of a player poised to exclude the participant, suggesting that the FFA encodes the social value of faces. Taken together, our findings suggest that theta activity represents the neural signature of social pain. The time course of this signal varies across regions important for processing emotional features linked to social information.

  20. Exclusion of identification by negative superposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takač Šandor


    Full Text Available The paper represents the first report of negative superposition in our country. Photo of randomly selected young, living woman was superimposed on the previously discovered female skull. Computer program Adobe Photoshop 7.0 was used in work. Digitilized photographs of the skull and face, after uploaded to computer, were superimposed on each other and displayed on the monitor in order to assess their possible similarities or differences. Special attention was payed to matching the same anthropometrical points of the skull and face, as well as following their contours. The process of fitting the skull and the photograph is usually started by setting eyes in correct position relative to the orbits. In this case, lower jaw gonions go beyond the face contour and gnathion is highly placed. By positioning the chin, mouth and nose their correct anatomical position cannot be achieved. All the difficulties associated with the superposition were recorded, with special emphasis on critical evaluation of work results in a negative superposition. Negative superposition has greater probative value (exclusion of identification than positive (possible identification. 100% negative superposition is easily achieved, but 100% positive - almost never. 'Each skull is unique and viewed from different perspectives is always a new challenge'. From this point of view, identification can be negative or of high probability.

  1. Experimental test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S


    A short review is given of three experimental works on tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) in which the author has been involved during the last 10 years. In the first work a search for anomalous carbon atoms was done and a limit on the existence of such atoms was determined, $^{12}\\tilde{\\mathrm C}$ / $^{12}$C $< 2.5\\times10^{-12}$. In the second work PEP was tested with the NEMO-2 detector and the limits on the violation of PEP for p-shell nucleons in $^{12}$C were obtained. Specifically, transitions to the fully occupied $1s_{1/2}$-shell yielded a limit of $4.2\\times10^{24}$ y for the process with the emission of a $\\gamma$-quantum. Similarly limits of $3.1\\times10^{24}$ y for $\\beta^-$ and $2.6\\times10^{24}$ y for $\\beta^+$ Pauli-forbidded transition of $^{12}$C $\\to$ $^{12}\\tilde{\\mathrm N}$($^{12}\\tilde{\\mathrm B}$) are reported. In the third work it was assumed that PEP is violated for neutrinos, and thus, neutrinos obey at least partly the Bose-Einstein statistics. Consequences of the viol...

  2. Photovoltaic effect in individual asymmetrically contacted lead sulfide nanosheets. (United States)

    Dogan, Sedat; Bielewicz, Thomas; Lebedeva, Vera; Klinke, Christian


    Solution-processable, two-dimensional semiconductors are promising optoelectronic materials which could find application in low-cost solar cells. Lead sulfide nanocrystals raised attention since the effective band gap can be adapted over a wide range by electronic confinement and observed multi-exciton generation promises higher efficiencies. We report on the influence of the contact metal work function on the properties of transistors based on individual two-dimensional lead sulfide nanosheets. Using palladium we observed mobilities of up to 31 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Furthermore, we demonstrate that asymmetrically contacted nanosheets show photovoltaic effect and that the nanosheets' height has a decisive impact on the device performance. Nanosheets with a thickness of 5.4 nm contacted with platinum and titanium show a power conversion efficiency of up to 0.94% (EQE 75.70%). The results underline the high hopes put on such materials.

  3. Asymmetric Bellow Flexible Pneumatic Actuator for Miniature Robotic Soft Gripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesha Udupa


    Full Text Available The necessity of the soft gripping devices is increasing day-by-day in medical robotics especially when safe, gentle motions and soft touch are necessary. In this paper, a novel asymmetric bellow flexible pneumatic actuator (AFPA has been designed and fabricated to construct a miniaturised soft gripper that could be used to grip small objects. The model of AFPA is designed using solid works and its bending motion is simulated in Abaqus software for optimisation and compared with experimental results. The actuator is fabricated using compression molding process that includes micromachining of the molds. Experiments conducted show the bending characteristics of the actuator at different pressures. The actuator shows excellent bending performance and the eccentricity in its design supports increased bending or curling motion up to a certain extent compared to normal bellows without eccentricity. The effects of profile shape and eccentricity on the actuator performance are analysed and the results are presented.

  4. Asymmetric electrooptic response in a nematic liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dascalu, Constanta [Politechnica University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)


    An asymmetric electrooptic response in nematic liquid crystal (LC) has been obtained. The liquid crystal hybrid cell was made by using a standard configuration. One of the ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) electrodes was covered with a surfactant, which induces a homeotropic alignment. The second of the indium tin oxide electrodes was covered by a thin layer of photopolymer, which was previously mixed with an acid, which favours a process of release of protons. Such cations are responsible of electrochemical process in the LC leading to an asymmetric electrooptic response, which depend on the polarity of the applied electric field. This fact is due to an internal field, which change the effective voltage thresholds for the reorientation of the liquid crystal. During the anodic polarization, the optical switching is inhibited because the effective field decreases below the threshold value. On contrary for the opposite polarization the effective field is enough to determine a homeotropic alignment. [Spanish] Se ha obtenido una respuesta electro-optica asimetrica en cristales liquidos neumaticos. La celula hibrida de cristal liquido fue construida utilizando una configuracion estandar. Uno de los electrodos ITO fue cubierto con una pelicula delgada de material organico para inducir una alineacion homeotropa. El otro electrodo ITO fue cubierto con una pelicula delgada de fotopolimero anteriormente mezclada con un acido para favorecer la emision de protones. Estos cationes son responsables del proceso electroquimico en LC, conduciendo a una respuesta electro-optica asimetrica que depende de la polaridad del campo electrico aplicado. Este efecto es originado por un campo interno que cambia el umbral efectivo del voltaje para la reorientacion del cristal liquido. Durante la polarizacion anodica, la conmutacion optica se inhibe debido a que el campo efectivo disminuye abajo del valor del umbral. Por el contrario, para la polarizacion opuesta el campo efectivo es suficiente para


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryszard Kata; Alina Walenia


    .... farmers and small entrepreneurs. The extent and reasons for fi nancial exclusion among such entities have been identifi ed and accompanied by the analysis of access to banking services - the key to effective management...

  6. Shape Separation of Colloidal Metal Nanoparticles via Size Exclusion Chromatography


    Marvi, Sarrah


    The inherent polydispersity of solution-based, colloidal nanoparticle syntheses has necessitated the development of facile post-processing methods for the purification of anisotropic nanoparticles. Here, the use of size exclusion chromatography is explored for the shape separation of colloidal silver nanocube and colloidal gold bipyramid solutions. Multiple column packing materials, pore sizes, and mobile phases were tested to address the prevalent issues of metal adsorption to the high surfa...

  7. 42 CFR 402.205 - Length of exclusion. (United States)


    ... maximum time limit for the period of exclusion. Social Security Actparagraph Code of Federal... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Length of exclusion. 402.205 Section 402.205 Public... PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS Exclusions § 402.205 Length of exclusion. The...

  8. At Low SNR Asymmetric Quantizers Are Better

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Tobias


    We study the capacity of the discrete-time Gaussian channel when its output is quantized with a one-bit quantizer. We focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, where communication at very low spectral efficiencies takes place. In this regime a symmetric threshold quantizer is known to reduce channel capacity by 2/pi, i.e., to cause an asymptotic power loss of approximately two decibels. Here it is shown that this power loss can be entirely avoided by using asymmetric threshold quantizers and asymmetric signaling constellations. We prove that in order to avoid this power loss flash-signaling input-distributions are essential. Consequently, one-bit output quantization of the Gaussian channel reduces spectral efficiency. Threshold quantizers are not only asymptotically optimal: as we prove, at every fixed SNR, a threshold quantizer maximizes capacity among all one-bit output quantizers. The picture changes on the Rayleigh-fading channel. In the noncoherent case we show that a one-bit output quantizer ...

  9. Asymmetric DSL Technology of Signal Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević


    Full Text Available Asymmetric flow of information is the key feature of theADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop technology, i.e.higher data transmission rate towards the user than from theuser towards the network. Characteristic is the short messagesending by the user with a certain request to the se!Ver. These!Ver responds to the request by a significantly longer messageof various electronic forms (data, digitized speech, pictures orvideo. Therefore, this technology is most often used by smalland medium users. ADSL is currently the only commerciallyavailable DSL technology which is still experiencing the breakthroughon the seiVice market. It enables faster access to theInternet, LAN (Local Area Network, videoconferencing, VoD(Video on Demand and interactive multimedia. In order tostandardize such se/Vices, the !TU (International TelecommunicationsUnion G. 992.1 (standardized DMT-discrete multi-tone line coding technology and ANSJ (American NationalStandards Institution Tl.413-95!98 are used for ADSL. DMT(Discrete Multi Tone, as the more popular one, uses the linecoding technique, which splits a certain frequency range intoseveral sub-channels. Most of these sub-channels are used forupstream and downstream transmission of speech and data,whereas some are used as pilot signals or kept in rese/Ve. Suchmodulation technique expands the frequency spectrum, allowingthe usage ofbroadband se/Vices per one pair of wires. In thisway the sharing of speech and data se/Vice transmission is realized.

  10. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics (United States)

    Pinier, Jeremy T


    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  11. Algebraic Davis Decomposition and Asymmetric Doob Inequalities (United States)

    Hong, Guixiang; Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier


    In this paper we investigate asymmetric forms of Doob maximal inequality. The asymmetry is imposed by noncommutativity. Let {({M}, τ)} be a noncommutative probability space equipped with a filtration of von Neumann subalgebras {({M}_n)_{n ≥ 1}}, whose union {bigcup_{n≥1}{M}_n} is weak-* dense in {{M}}. Let {{E}_n} denote the corresponding family of conditional expectations. As an illustration for an asymmetric result, we prove that for {1 Hardy spaces {{H}_p^r({M})} and {{H}_p^c({M})} respectively. In particular, this solves a problem posed by the Defant and Junge in 2004. In the case p = 1, our results establish a noncommutative form of the Davis celebrated theorem on the relation betwe en martingale maximal and square functions in L 1, whose noncommutative form has remained open for quite some time. Given {1 ≤ p ≤ 2}, we also provide new weak type maximal estimates, which imply in turn left/right almost uniform convergence of {{E}_n(x)} in row/column Hardy spaces. This improves the bilateral convergence known so far. Our approach is based on new forms of Davis martingale decomposition which are of independent interest, and an algebraic atomic description for the involved Hardy spaces. The latter results are new even for commutative von Neumann algebras.

  12. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles]. (United States)

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B


    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  14. Student portfolios and the hidden curriculum on gender: mapping exclusion. (United States)

    Phillips, Christine B


    The hidden curriculum - the norms, values and practices that are transmitted to students through modelling by preceptors and teachers, and decisions about curricular exclusions and inclusions - can be profoundly important in the socialising of trainee doctors. However, tracking the hidden curriculum as it evolves can be challenging for medical schools. This study aimed to explore the content of student e-portfolios on gender issues, a key perspective often taught through a hidden curriculum. Online posts for a gender and medicine e-portfolio task completed by two cohorts of students in Year 3 of a 4-year medical course (n = 167, 66% female) were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A process of gendered 'othering' was applied to both men and women in the medical school using different pedagogical strategies. Curricular emphases on women's health and lack of support for male students to acquire gynaecological examination skills were seen as explicit ways of excluding males. For female medical students, exclusion tended to be implicit, operating through modelling and aphoristic comments about so-called 'female-friendly' career choices and the negative impact of motherhood on career. E-portfolios can be a useful way of tracking the hidden curriculum as it evolves. Responses to gendered exclusion may be developed more readily for the explicit processes impacting on male students than for the implicit processes impacting on female students, which often reflect structural issues related to training and employment.

  15. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri


    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  16. The development of stereotyping and exclusion. (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie


    This article reviews the developmental science literature on stereotyping and exclusion, with a focus on gender, race, and ethnicity. Stereotyping of others, which is defined as the attribution of traits to individuals based on group membership, is often used to justify exclusion of others in social group contexts. This review includes a focus on the links between these two constructs. Research on stereotyping and exclusion has drawn on several theoretical traditions, including social domain theory, social identity developmental theory, and subjective group dynamics theory, which are also discussed in the context of the research findings. Key findings on stereotyping include categorization and classification in relationship with decreased in-group bias, and the role of stereotypes in encoding information. Findings on exclusion include the use of available information to make judgments, preferences for in-group members who are normative and out-group members who are deviant, the increased importance, with age, of group functioning in exclusion decisions, and decreased negative evaluation of in-group members who partake in exclusionary behaviors. Though little research has explicitly studied the links between stereotyping and exclusion from groups, this review describes the current literature in both areas and suggests future directions for research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Dynamic interplay of spectrosome and centrosome organelles in asymmetric stem cell divisions. (United States)

    Bang, Chi; Cheng, Jun


    Stem cells have remarkable self-renewal ability and differentiation potency, which are critical for tissue repair and tissue homeostasis. Recently it has been found, in many systems (e.g. gut, neurons, and hematopoietic stem cells), that the self-renewal and differentiation balance is maintained when the stem cells divide asymmetrically. Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs), one of the best characterized model systems with well-defined stem cell niches, were reported to divide asymmetrically, where centrosome plays an important role. Utilizing time-lapse live cell imaging, customized tracking, and image processing programs, we found that most acentrosomal GSCs have the spectrosomes reposition from the basal end (wild type) to the apical end close to hub-GSC interface (acentrosomal GSCs). In addition, these apically positioned spectrosomes were mostly stationary while the basally positioned spectrosomes were mobile. For acentrosomal GSCs, their mitotic spindles were still highly oriented and divided asymmetrically with longer mitosis duration, resulting in asymmetric divisions. Moreover, when the spectrosome was knocked out, the centrosomes velocity decreased and centrosomes located closer to hub-GSC interface. We propose that in male GSCs, the spectrosome recruited to the apical end plays a complimentary role in ensuring proper spindle orientation when centrosome function is compromised.

  18. Dynamic interplay of spectrosome and centrosome organelles in asymmetric stem cell divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Bang

    Full Text Available Stem cells have remarkable self-renewal ability and differentiation potency, which are critical for tissue repair and tissue homeostasis. Recently it has been found, in many systems (e.g. gut, neurons, and hematopoietic stem cells, that the self-renewal and differentiation balance is maintained when the stem cells divide asymmetrically. Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs, one of the best characterized model systems with well-defined stem cell niches, were reported to divide asymmetrically, where centrosome plays an important role. Utilizing time-lapse live cell imaging, customized tracking, and image processing programs, we found that most acentrosomal GSCs have the spectrosomes reposition from the basal end (wild type to the apical end close to hub-GSC interface (acentrosomal GSCs. In addition, these apically positioned spectrosomes were mostly stationary while the basally positioned spectrosomes were mobile. For acentrosomal GSCs, their mitotic spindles were still highly oriented and divided asymmetrically with longer mitosis duration, resulting in asymmetric divisions. Moreover, when the spectrosome was knocked out, the centrosomes velocity decreased and centrosomes located closer to hub-GSC interface. We propose that in male GSCs, the spectrosome recruited to the apical end plays a complimentary role in ensuring proper spindle orientation when centrosome function is compromised.

  19. Transition from symmetric discharge to asymmetric discharge in a short gap helium dielectric barrier discharge (United States)

    Ning, Wenjun; Dai, Dong; Zhang, YuHui; Hao, Yanpeng; Li, Licheng


    The discharge dynamics of a 2.08 mm gap helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are studied with a one-dimensional fluid model. By increasing the amplitude of a sinusoidal voltage source, it is observed that the discharge is symmetric at first and abruptly turns into an asymmetric state after passing a certain critical value. Compared with former publications dealing with relatively larger gap-distance DBD, our simulation results indicate some new discoveries. First, in both the symmetric and asymmetric states, every discharge event is fully developed from Townsend discharge to glow discharge, and the discharge current appears as a steep narrow pulse. Second, the residual positive column is always completely dissipated before the next break down; therefore, its influence on the symmetric-to-asymmetric transition can be eliminated. It is further revealed that the symmetric-to-asymmetric transition in the short-gap DBD is more delicate. A subtle phase shift is observed before the transition process. When the phase shift is further promoted with voltage rising, a discordance of the evolution paces between electron and ions occurs, which consequently leads to the formation of discharge asymmetry.

  20. Asymmetric lipid-polymer particles (LIPOMER) by modified nanoprecipitation: role of non-solvent composition. (United States)

    Jindal, Anil B; Devarajan, Padma V


    Asymmetric lipid polymer nanostructures (LIPOMER) comprising glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as lipid and Gantrez AN 119 (Gantrez) as polymer, revealed enhanced splenic accumulation. In the present paper, we attempt to explain the formation of asymmetric GMS LIPOMER using real time imaging. Particles were prepared by precipitation under static conditions using different non-solvent phase compositions. The process was video recorded and the videos converted to time elapsed images using the FFmpeg 0.10.2 software at 25 frames/sec. Non-solvent compositions comprising >30% of IPA/Acetone revealed significant stranding of the solvent phase and slower onset of precipitation(2-6s). At lower concentrations of IPA and acetone, and in non-solvent compositions comprising ethanol/water the stranding phenomenon was not evident. Further, rapid precipitation(solubility parameter(Δδtotal) and high mixing enthalpy(ΔHM) of GMS in IPA resulted in droplets with random shapes analogous to an amoeba with pseudopodia, which on precipitation formed asymmetric particles. Asymmetric particles could be readily designed through appropriate selection of solutes and non-solvent phase by modified nanoprecipitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Details on Exclusive Use Data Protection for Minor Use Registrations (United States)

    This document provides information about issues related to exclusive use data protection for minor use registrations, including extension of the exclusive use period and establishing a new exclusive use period.

  2. Belongingness as a core personality trait: how social exclusion influences social functioning and personality expression. (United States)

    DeWall, C Nathan; Deckman, Timothy; Pond, Richard S; Bonser, Ian


    People have a fundamental need for positive and lasting relationships. This need to belong is rooted in evolutionary history and gave rise to the development of traits that enable individuals to gain acceptance and to avoid rejection. Because belongingness is a core component of human functioning, social exclusion should influence many cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes and personality expression. This article summarizes recent evidence that social exclusion causes an assortment of outcomes, many of which depend on whether the excluded can gain acceptance or forestall possible distress. It highlights common overlap in physical and social pain systems and how a physical painkiller can reduce the pain of social exclusion. Finally, it shows how social exclusion moderates the effects of traits on cognition, emotion, and behavior. To appreciate personality processes in social contexts, scientists should consider how people respond to social exclusion and how the need to belong influences personality expression. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.


    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  4. Hard exclusive neutrino production of a light meson (United States)

    Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wagner, J.


    We update the leading order in αs QCD amplitude for deep exclusive neutrino and antineutrino production of a light meson on an unpolarized nucleon. The factorization theorems of the collinear QCD approach allow us to write the amplitude as the convolution of generalized parton distributions and perturbatively calculable coefficient functions. We study both the pseudoscalar-meson and longitudinally polarized vector-meson cases. It turns out that, contrarily to the electroproduction case, the leading-twist scattering amplitudes for π and ρL productions are proportional to one another, which may serve as an interesting new test of the leading-twist dominance of exclusive processes at medium scale. The importance of the gluonic contribution to most cross sections is stressed.

  5. Alliance formation with exclusion in the spatial public goods game (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Chen, Xiaojie


    Detecting defection and alarming partners about the possible danger could be essential to avoid being exploited. This act, however, may require a huge individual effort from those who take this job, hence such a strategy seems to be unfavorable. But structured populations can provide an opportunity where a largely unselfish excluder strategy can form an effective alliance with other cooperative strategies, hence they can sweep out defection. Interestingly, this alliance is functioning even at the extremely high cost of exclusion where the sole application of an exclusion strategy would be harmful otherwise. These results may explain why the emergence of extreme selfless behavior is not necessarily against individual selection but could be the result of an evolutionary process.

  6. Cooperation induced by random sequential exclusion (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long


    Social exclusion is a common and powerful tool to penalize deviators in human societies, and thus to effectively elevate collaborative efforts. Current models on the evolution of exclusion behaviors mostly assume that each peer excluder independently makes the decision to expel the defectors, but has no idea what others in the group would do or how the actual punishment effect will be. Thus, a more realistic model, random sequential exclusion, is proposed. In this mechanism, each excluder has to pay an extra scheduling cost and then all the excluders are arranged in a random order to implement the exclusion actions. If one free rider has already been excluded by an excluder, the remaining excluders will not participate in expelling this defector. We find that this mechanism can help stabilize cooperation under more unfavorable conditions than the normal peer exclusion can do, either in well-mixed population or on social networks. However, too large a scheduling cost may undermine the advantage of this mechanism. Our work validates the fact that collaborative practice among punishers plays an important role in further boosting cooperation.

  7. Asymmetric pair distribution functions in catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, B. S.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    of asymmetric pair distribution functions for nano-sized particles and how they influence the structural parameters obtained from the standard data analysis. An alternative method, which takes into account deviations from the Gaussian pair distribution function typically used in the analysis of EXAFS spectra......, will be described. The method is based on an analysis of the pair distribution functions derived from molecular dynamics simulations of small metal particles and its reliability is demonstrated by comparing structural parameters obtained from independent X-ray diffraction experiments.......The structural parameters, i.e., coordination numbers, bond distances and disorder obtained from the analysis of EXAFS spectra may sometimes be significantly influenced by errors introduced due to the inadequacy of the analysis method applied. Especially in the case of heterogeneous catalysts...

  8. Optical Nonreciprocity in Asymmetric Optomechanical Couplers (United States)

    Wang, Zheqi; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xinbiao; Zhang, Xinliang


    We propose an all-optical integrated nonreciprocal device on the optomechanical platform with a large nonreciprocal bandwidth and low operating power. The device is based on an asymmetric silicon coupler consisting of two branches. One of them is a conventional strip waveguide fixed on the substrate, and the other is a freestanding nanostring suspended above a groove in the substrate. When light is launched into the coupler, the optical gradient force between the freestanding nanostring and the underlying substrate leads to the deflection of the nanostring, and finally results in destruction of the initial phase-matching condition between the two branches. The suspended branch would achieve distinct deflections when light is incident from different ports. The simulation results show a nonreciprocal bandwidth of 13.1 nm with operating power of 390 μW. With the advantages of simple structure, low power consumption and large operating bandwidth, our work provides a promising solution for on-chip passive nonreciprocal device.

  9. Asymmetric adsorption in an open electrolytic cell (United States)

    Bousiadi, S.; Lelidis, I.


    We investigate the effect of adsorption-desorption phenomenon of ions in an asymmetric electrolytic cell at open circuit conditions. Our approach is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory for electrolytes and the kinetic model of Langmuir for the description of adsorption-desorption phenomena on the electrodes. When the electrodes are immersed into the solution, selective ion adsorption takes place. It is shown, that the selective ion adsorption is responsible for generating an electrical potential difference between the electrodes of the cell. The analytical expressions for the potential difference and for the charge distribution are calculated. Finally, the time evolution of the system is investigated and the relaxation times of the problem are deduced numerically.

  10. Bilateral asymmetrical traumatic sternoclavicular joint dislocations. (United States)

    Albarrag, Mohammed K


    Unilateral and bilateral sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocations are rare injuries. The difficulty in assessing this condition often leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report a rare case of bilateral asymmetrical traumatic SCJ dislocations in a 45-year-old male. The right anterior SCJ dislocation was reduced in the emergency room (ER) and resulted in residual instability. The left posterior SCJ dislocation was asymptomatic and unnoticed for six months. It is important for ER physicians and orthopaedic surgeons to be able identify and treat this condition. All suspected SCJ dislocations should be evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scan for confirmation of the diagnosis and evaluation of both SCJs. Posterior SCJ dislocation is a potentially fatal injury and should not be overlooked due to the presence of other injuries. Surgical intervention is often necessary in acute and old cases.

  11. Bilateral Asymmetrical Traumatic Sternoclavicular Joint Dislocations (United States)

    Albarrag, Mohammed K.


    Unilateral and bilateral sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocations are rare injuries. The difficulty in assessing this condition often leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report a rare case of bilateral asymmetrical traumatic SCJ dislocations in a 45-year-old male. The right anterior SCJ dislocation was reduced in the emergency room (ER) and resulted in residual instability. The left posterior SCJ dislocation was asymptomatic and unnoticed for six months. It is important for ER physicians and orthopaedic surgeons to be able identify and treat this condition. All suspected SCJ dislocations should be evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scan for confirmation of the diagnosis and evaluation of both SCJs. Posterior SCJ dislocation is a potentially fatal injury and should not be overlooked due to the presence of other injuries. Surgical intervention is often necessary in acute and old cases. PMID:23275851

  12. Asymmetrical Integration: Lessons from a Railway Empire. (United States)

    McDonald, Kate


    This article reexamines railway imperialism in Manchuria from the perspective of global network building. Through a case study of the Japanese-owned South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR), I trace how one railway empire used through traffic agreements to integrate Northeast Asian railways into a global network while at the same time installing itself as the necessary intermediary between European and Asian overland traffic. I argue that the SMR's pursuit of global reach and local dominance compels us to reconsider the traditional division of border-crossing railways into international and imperialist types, and instead to examine how border-crossing railways contributed to the uneven or "asymmetrical" integration of the global transportation infrastructure.

  13. Procesos de estigma y exclusión en salud: Articulaciones entre estigmatización, derechos ciudadanos, uso de drogas y drogadependencia Processes of stigma and exclusion in health: Joints between stigmatization, civil rights, use of drugs and dependence of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vázquez


    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es establecer articulaciones entre la estigmatización, los derechos ciudadanos, el uso de drogas y la drogadependencia, como un caso particular de exclusión en salud. La estigmatización produce grupos de personas que ven condicionado su ejercicio de ciudadanía al negárseles el cumplimiento de derechos tales como el derecho a la salud. Uno de estos grupos, lo configuran los usuarios de drogas y los drogadependientes. Es relevante estudiar los procesos de estigma como barrera de accesibilidad a la atención en salud, para identificar componentes que disminuyan dicha exclusión (OPS/OMS, 2005. La reducción de la estigmatización y la discriminación del uso de drogas y la drogadependencia, es fundamental para la elaboración de políticas de inclusión desde una lógica de respeto por los derechos humanos.The aim of the work is to establish joints between the stigmatization, the civil rights, drugs use and dependence of drug, as a particular case of exclusion in health. The stigmatization produces groups of persons who have problems for the exercise of citizenship. These persons are refused in the fulfillment of rights such as the right to the health. One of these groups, it is formed by the users of drugs and the dependents of drugs. It´s relevant to study the processes of stigma as accessibility barrier to the attention in health, to identify components that diminish the above mentioned exclusion. (OPS/OMS,2005. The reduction of the stigmatization and the discrimination of the use of drugs and dependence of drug, it's fundamental for the elaboration of policies of incorporation from logic of respect for the human rights.

  14. Correlates of Social Exclusion in Social Anxiety Disorder: An fMRI study. (United States)

    Heeren, Alexandre; Dricot, Laurence; Billieux, Joël; Philippot, Pierre; Grynberg, Delphine; de Timary, Philippe; Maurage, Pierre


    Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is maintained by biased information-processing vis-à-vis threat of social exclusion. However, uncertainty still abounds regarding the very nature of this sensitivity to social exclusion in SAD. Especially, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in SAD. Our primary purpose was thus to determine both the self-report and neural correlates of social exclusion in this population. 23 patients with SAD and 23 matched nonanxious controls played a virtual game ("Cyberball") during fMRI recording. Participants were first included by other players, then excluded, and finally re-included. At the behavioral level, patients with SAD exhibited significantly higher levels of social exclusion feelings than nonanxious controls. At the brain level, patients with SAD exhibited significantly higher activation within the left inferior frontal gyrus relative to nonanxious controls during the re-inclusion phase. Moreover, self-report of social exclusion correlates with the activity of this cluster among individuals qualifying for SAD diagnosis. Our pattern of findings lends strong support to the notion that SAD may be better portrayed by a poor ability to recover following social exclusion than during social exclusion per se. These findings value social neuroscience as an innovative procedure to gain new insight into the underlying mechanisms of SAD.

  15. Enhanced neural responses to rule violation in children with autism: a comparison to social exclusion. (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; McPartland, James C; Kaiser, Martha D; Wyk, Brent C Vander; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A


    The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates of two characteristic deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD); social impairment and restricted, repetitive behavior patterns. To this end, we used comparable experiences of social exclusion and rule violation to probe potentially atypical neural networks in ASD. In children and adolescents with and without ASD, we used the interactive ball-toss game (Cyberball) to elicit social exclusion and a comparable game (Cybershape) to elicit a non-exclusive rule violation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we identified group differences in brain responses to social exclusion and rule violation. Though both groups reported equal distress following exclusion, the right insula and ventral anterior cingulate cortex were hypoactive during exclusion in children with ASD. In rule violation, right insula and dorsal prefrontal cortex were hyperactive in ASD. Right insula showed a dissociation in activation; it was hypoactive to social exclusion and hyperactive to rule violation in the ASD group. Further probed, different regions of right insula were modulated in each game, highlighting differences in regional specificity for which subsequent analyses revealed differences in patterns of functional connectivity. These results demonstrate neurobiological differences in processing social exclusion and rule violation in children with ASD.

  16. [Acid-base catalysis of chiral Pd complexes: development of novel asymmetric reactions]. (United States)

    Hamashima, Yoshitaka


    Using a unique character of the chiral palladium complexes 1 and 2, several types of novel catalytic asymmetric reactions have been developed. In contrast to the conventional Pd(0)-catalyzed reactions, these complexes function as an acid-base catalyst. Thus active methine compounds were activated to form chiral palladium enolates, which underwent the enantioselective Michael reaction and Mannich-type reaction with up to 99% ee. Interestingly, these palladium enolates acted cooperatively with a strong protic acid activating the electrophiles, formed concomitantly during the formation of the enolates, whereby the C-C bond-forming reaction was promoted. In addition, this palladium enolate chemistry was also applicable to the electrophilic asymmetric fluorination reactions, and thus various carbonyl compounds including beta-ketoesters, beta-ketophosphonates, and oxindoles were fluorinated in a highly enantioselective manner (up to 98% ee). It is advantageous that these reactions were carried out in environmentally friendly alcoholic solvents such as ethanol, and exclusion of air and moisture is not necessary.

  17. Fluorescence exclusion: A simple versatile technique to calculate cell volumes and local heights (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Thouvenin, Olivier; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude


    Understanding volume regulation during mitosis is technically challenging. Indeed, a very sensitive non invasive imaging over time scales ranging from seconds to hours and over large fields is required. Therefore, Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) would be a perfect tool for such a project. However, because of asymmetric protein segregation during mitosis, an efficient separation of the refractive index and the height in the phase signal is required. Even though many strategies to make such a separation have been developed, they usually are difficult to implement, have poor sensitivity, or cannot be performed in living cells, or in a single shot. In this paper, we will discuss the use of a new technique called fluorescence exclusion to perform volume measurements. By coupling such technique with a simultaneous phase measurement, we were also able to recover the refractive index inside the cells. Fluorescence exclusion is a versatile and powerful technique that allows the volume measurement of many types of cells. A fluorescent dye, which cannot penetrate inside the cells, is mixed with the external medium in a confined environment. Therefore, the fluorescent signal depends on the inverse of the object's height. We could demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that fluorescence exclusion can accurately measure cell volumes, even for cells much higher than the depth of focus of the objective. A local accurate height and RI measurement can also be obtained for smaller cells. We will also discuss the way to optimize the confinement of the observation chamber, either mechanically or optically.

  18. Evolutionary Diversification of Prey and Predator Species Facilitated by Asymmetric Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zu

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of asymmetric interactions on coevolutionary dynamics of a predator-prey system by using the theory of adaptive dynamics. We assume that the defense ability of prey and the attack ability of predators all can adaptively evolve, either caused by phenotypic plasticity or by behavioral choice, but there are certain costs in terms of their growth rate or death rate. The coevolutionary model is constructed from a deterministic approximation of random mutation-selection process. To sum up, if prey's trade-off curve is globally weakly concave, then five outcomes of coevolution are demonstrated, which depend on the intensity and shape of asymmetric predator-prey interactions and predator's trade-off shape. Firstly, we find that if there is a weakly decelerating cost and a weakly accelerating benefit for predator species, then evolutionary branching in the predator species may occur, but after branching further coevolution may lead to extinction of the predator species with a larger trait value. However, if there is a weakly accelerating cost and a weakly accelerating benefit for predator species, then evolutionary branching in the predator species is also possible and after branching the dimorphic predator can evolutionarily stably coexist with a monomorphic prey species. Secondly, if the asymmetric interactions become a little strong, then prey and predators will evolve to an evolutionarily stable equilibrium, at which they can stably coexist on a long-term timescale of evolution. Thirdly, if there is a weakly accelerating cost and a relatively strongly accelerating benefit for prey species, then evolutionary branching in the prey species is possible and the finally coevolutionary outcome contains a dimorphic prey and a monomorphic predator species. Fourthly, if the asymmetric interactions become more stronger, then predator-prey coevolution may lead to cycles in both traits and equilibrium population densities. The Red

  19. Reactive solute transport in an asymmetrical fracture-rock matrix system (United States)

    Zhou, Renjie; Zhan, Hongbin


    The understanding of reactive solute transport in a single fracture-rock matrix system is the foundation of studying transport behavior in the complex fractured porous media. When transport properties are asymmetrically distributed in the adjacent rock matrixes, reactive solute transport has to be considered as a coupled three-domain problem, which is more complex than the symmetric case with identical transport properties in the adjacent rock matrixes. This study deals with the transport problem in a single fracture-rock matrix system with asymmetrical distribution of transport properties in the rock matrixes. Mathematical models are developed for such a problem under the first-type and the third-type boundary conditions to analyze the spatio-temporal concentration and mass distribution in the fracture and rock matrix with the help of Laplace transform technique and de Hoog numerical inverse Laplace algorithm. The newly acquired solutions are then tested extensively against previous analytical and numerical solutions and are proven to be robust and accurate. Furthermore, a water flushing phase is imposed on the left boundary of system after a certain time. The diffusive mass exchange along the fracture/rock matrixes interfaces and the relative masses stored in each of three domains (fracture, upper rock matrix, and lower rock matrix) after the water flushing provide great insights of transport with asymmetric distribution of transport properties. This study has the following findings: 1) Asymmetric distribution of transport properties imposes greater controls on solute transport in the rock matrixes. However, transport in the fracture is mildly influenced. 2) The mass stored in the fracture responses quickly to water flushing, while the mass stored in the rock matrix is much less sensitive to the water flushing. 3) The diffusive mass exchange during the water flushing phase has similar patterns under symmetric and asymmetric cases. 4) The characteristic distance

  20. Route-asymmetrical optical transmission and logic gate based on optical gradient force. (United States)

    Min, Shucun; Liao, Shasha; Zou, Changling; Zhang, Xinliang; Dong, Jianji


    We put forward a route-asymmetrical optical transmission scheme employing optical gradient force, which means that forward and backward propagation of an optical device have different transmittance provided they are not present simultaneously. The device is based on optical gradient force between two single-mode waveguides followed by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our numerical investigation shows that the forward transmittance is about -6 dB while the backward transmittance is suppressed below -20.5 dB in C + L bands. The proposed device is passive, wideband, and compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. Furthermore, we demonstrate the applications of route-asymmetrical transmission such as an all-optical switch and all-optical AND gate for all-optical information processing.

  1. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard


    .e., lack of hardware devices and Internet services) and accessibility (which include the division between rural and urban areas, as well as disparities in ICT literacy and information literacy). These factors are multi-tiered and overlapping. Studies on the digital divide, digital exclusion, and barriers...... underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i......The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...

  2. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard


    The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...... underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i...... to ICT adoption in higher education deal with similar factors, but these are experienced differently in different contexts. While generalizing these factors into categories enables a better understanding of the nature of digital exclusion, solving and circumventing them remains complex due...

  3. Hard exclusive reactions and generalized parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrapetyan Avetik


    Full Text Available The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs allows connecting the experimental information of hard exclusive reactions to the spin contribution and even to the angular momentum contribution of quarks in the nucleon. By selecting different quantum numbers of the final state in exclusive productions, different GPDs can be addressed separately. The HERMES experiment at the HERA ring at DESY (Hamburg made pioneering contributions and first constraints to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs, using hard exclusive vector meson production (EVMP and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS. Using a novel recoil detector, HERMES managed to measure DVCS and EVMP free of any significant background. Selected results are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  4. The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya


    The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, "second-order" freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation, or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the secon...

  5. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion. (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos


    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding among Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazina Sharmin


    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the unique source of nutrition and it plays an important role in the growth, development and survival of the infants. The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour and continuation of only breast milk up to six months ensure maximum benefits. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh is 56% which is low. We designed this study to find out the factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To study the factors influencing noncompliance to exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Dhaka Shishu Hospital during the period January to June 2011. It includes 125 infant (1–12 months-mother pairs randomly selected from the inpatient and outpatient departments of Dhaka Shishu Hospital. Mother-infant pairs were divided into two groups based on continuation of only breastfeeding up to six months. Outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: In this study exclusive breastfeeding was found in 27.2% and nonexclusive breastfeeding was in 72.8% cases. It was found that in most cases (40% termination of breastfeeding was at 3--4 months. The study revealed that insufficient milk production due to poor position and attachment, social factors such as influence of husband and other family members, joining to service etc act as barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Mass media and advice from health professionals had a higher influence on lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Women who were multiparous, housewives were more likely to maintain optimal breastfeeding. Conclusion: The present study reveals some important factors contributing to low rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh.

  7. Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates. (United States)

    Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan


    Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.

  8. Applications of ortho-Quinone Methide Intermediates in Catalysis and Asymmetric Synthesis


    Pathak, Tejas P.; Sigman, Matthew S.


    Ortho -quinone methides are important synthetic intermediates and widely implicated in biological processes. In this Synopsis, recent advances concerning the synthesis and utility of these intermediates are discussed with a particular emphasis on metal-catalyzed formation of quinone methide intermediates. Additionally, applications of these intermediates as partners in asymmetric synthesis will be discussed including methods we have developed that involve the enantioselective Pd-catalyzed for...

  9. All-Optical Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (toad) Based Binary Comparator:. a Proposal (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    Comparator determines whether a number is greater than, equals to or less than another number. It plays a significant role in fast central processing unit in all-optical scheme. In all-optical scheme here 1-bit binary comparator is proposed and described by Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch. Simulation result by Mathcad-7 is also given. Cascading technique of building up the n-bit binary comparator with this 1-bit comparator block is also proposed here.

  10. Education and Language Policy in Colombia: Exploring Processes of Inclusion, Exclusion, and Stratification in Times of Global Reform Políticas educativas y lingüísticas en Colombia: procesos de inclusión, exclusión y estratificación en tiempos de reforma educativa global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Usma Wilches


    Full Text Available This paper examines the National Bilingual Program in connection with other education and language reforms in Colombia and some of the processes of inclusion, exclusion, and stratification that accompany current school reforms. The author outlines some patterns that have accompanied language innovations in the country and highlights some interconnected processes that seem to be favored in international reform and are reflected in current national policy agendas; namely, the externalization of policy discourses; the instrumentalization of languages; the stratification of groups, languages and cultures; and the standardization and marketization of foreign language teaching and learning. This paper attempts to demonstrate that processes of inclusion, exclusion and stratification through schooling are favored not only through the overt exercise of power and control, but also through the introduction of new discourses, policies, and practices.Este artículo analiza el Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo en conexión con otras reformas educativas y lingüísticas promovidas en Colombia y distintos procesos de inclusión, exclusión y estratificación que las acompañan. El autor esboza algunos patrones que han acompañado distintas reformas educativas y lingüísticas en el país y diversos fenómenos reportados a nivel internacional que ahora se pueden evidenciar en Colombia. Estos incluyen: la "externalización" de discursos, la instrumentalización de las lenguas, la estratificación de grupos, idiomas y culturas, y la estandarización y marketización de las lenguas extranjeras. Este artículo busca demostrar que los procesos de inclusión, exclusión, y estratificación social a través de la escuela son favorecidos no solamente a través del ejercicio del poder y el control de parte del gobierno, sino también mediante la introducción de nuevos discursos, políticas, y practicas escolares.

  11. An attempt to understand exclusive π + electroproduction (United States)

    Goloskokov, S. V.; Kroll, P.


    Hard exclusive π + electroproduction is investigated within the handbag approach. The prominent role of the pion-pole contribution is demonstrated. It is also shown that the experimental data require a twist-3 effect which ensues from the helicity-flip generalized parton distribution H T and the twist-3 pion wave function. The results calculated from this handbag approach are compared in detail with the experimental data on cross sections and spin asymmetries measured with a polarized target. It is also commented on consequences of this approach for exclusive π 0 and vector-meson electroproduction.

  12. Exclusive B Decays to Charmonium Final States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara


    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/{psi}, {psi}(2S), and {chi}{sub c1}. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K* decay, and measurements of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  13. Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4. (United States)


    Snustad , D. P. (1966). Limited genome expression of Bacteriophage T4-infectcd Ese h e -r ichia -coli. 1. Demonstration of the Effect. Genetics 5:2~!5...AD-RIGS 463 GENETIC EXCLUSION IN BACTERIOPHAGE T4(U) AIR FORCE INST 1/2 OF TECH NRIGHT-PRTTERSON SF9 OH J W OSRINGER 199? RFIT/CI/NR-8?-141D...10? ________4______ F4L TITLE (an Iubfil) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PEIOD COVERSO6 Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4 Afifis/DISSETATION 41. PERFORMING

  14. Exclusive Jet Production with Forward Proton Tagging

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration


    The feasibility of measuring central exclusive jet production at ATLAS using the AFP detectors is presented. Two data-taking scenarios are considered; an average number of interactions per bunch crossing of $\\mu = 23$ with integrated luminosity of 40~fb$^{-1}$ and $\\mu = 46$ with integrated luminosity of 300 fb$^{-1}$. After the event selection, a signal-to-background ratio of 0.57 (0.16) for $\\mu = 23$ (46) was achieved. The expected precision of the central exclusive dijet cross section measurement is shown with an estimation of the dominant systematic uncertainties.

  15. Hard Exclusive Processes at COMPASS and COMPASS-II

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hose, N


    A major part of the future COMPASS program [1] is dedicated to the study of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Meson Production (DVMP) to investigate nucleon structure through Generalised Parton Distributions (GPD). The high energy of the muon beam allows us to measure the xB-dependence of the t-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. In a first phase the use of positive and negative polarised muon beams and of an unpolarised proton target allow measurements of the Beam Charge and Spin Difference of the DVCS cross sections to access the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H. In a second phase we consider to use a transversely polarized proton target to constrain the GPD E.

  16. Diffusion of tagged particle in an exclusion process. (United States)

    Barkai, E; Silbey, R


    We study the diffusion of tagged hard-core interacting Brownian point particles under the influence of an external force field in one dimension. Using the Jepsen line we map this many-particle problem onto a single particle one. We obtain general equations for the distribution and the mean-square displacement of the tagged center particle valid for rather general external force fields and initial conditions. The case of symmetric distribution of initial conditions around the initial position of the tagged particle on x=0 and symmetric potential fields V(x)=V(-x) yields zero drift =0 and is investigated in detail. We find =R(1-R)/2Nr2 where 2N is the (large) number of particles in the system. R is a single particle reflection coefficient, i.e., the probability that a particle free of collisions starts on x0>0 and remains in x>0 while r is the probability density of noninteracting particles on the origin. We show that this equation is related to the mathematical theory of order statistics and it can be used to find even when the motion between collision events is not Brownian (e.g., it might be ballistic or anomalous diffusion). As an example we derive the Percus relation for non-Gaussian diffusion. A wide range of physical behaviors emerge which are very different than the classical single file subdiffusion approximately t1/2 found for uniformly distributed particles in an infinite space and in the absence of force fields.

  17. Aluminum exclusion and aluminum tolerance in woody plants. (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Sperisen, Christoph


    The aluminum (Al) cation Al(3) (+) is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al(3) (+) conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al(3) (+) from root cells (exclusion mechanisms) and those that enable plants to tolerate Al(3) (+) once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms). The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al(3) (+) exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al(3) (+) adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  18. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner


    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  19. Minimal model of transcriptional elongation processes with pauses (United States)

    Wang, Jingkui; Pfeuty, Benjamin; Thommen, Quentin; Romano, M. Carmen; Lefranc, Marc


    Fundamental biological processes such as transcription and translation, where a genetic sequence is sequentially read by a macromolecule, have been well described by a classical model of nonequilibrium statistical physics, the totally asymmetric exclusion principle (TASEP). This model describes particles hopping between sites of a one-dimensional lattice, with the particle current determining the transcription or translation rate. An open problem is how to analyze a TASEP where particles can pause randomly, as has been observed during transcription. In this work, we report that surprisingly, a simple mean-field model predicts well the particle current for all values of the average pause duration, using a simple description of blocking behind paused particles.

  20. Perception and knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk not being enough was the main reason why women did not exclusively breastfeed. The preferred duration of breastfeeding was 18 months in 58% of the women and the main source of information was the health facilities for 48% of the women. The results from this study showed that women have increased knowledge ...

  1. 19 CFR 10.304 - Exclusions. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions. 10.304 Section 10.304 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10...

  2. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School (United States)

    Carlile, Anna


    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…

  3. Exclusive photoproduction of gamma mesons at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H. -P.; Juengst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Samson, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Kamaluddin, B.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Lukasik, J.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, R.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Parenti, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Tomaszewska, J.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Drugakov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Perrey, H.; Schleper, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Stadie, H.; Turcato, M.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Borodin, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Sorokin, Iu.; Verbytskyi, A.; Volynets, O.; Zolko, M.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Terron, J.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Corriveau, F.; Schwartz, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W. B.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Kooijman, R.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vazquez, M.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Horton, K.; Oliver, K.; Robertson, A.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Stern, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Stewart, T. P.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; Luzniak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Perlanski, W.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Brownson, E.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.


    The exclusive photoproduction reaction gamma p -> gamma p has been studied with the ZEUS experiment in ep collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb(-1). The measurement covers the kinematic range 60

  4. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.


    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  5. Unearthing exclusions: Towards more inclusive Zimbabwean cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Zimbabwe now faces significant challenges associated with urban overcrowding, unemployment, violence, and inadequate services. This project seeks to examine the causes and impacts of urban violence and inequalities. Researchers will explore how historically rooted causes of exclusion have-and continue to-frame ...

  6. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. Background: Despite the demonstrated benefits of breast milk, the prevalence of breastfeeding, in-particular exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), in many developing countries including Ethiopia is lower than the international recommendation of EBF for the first six months of life. Objective: To assess the practice of EBF ...

  7. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the demonstrated benefits of breast milk, the prevalence of breastfeeding, in-particular exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), in many developing countries including Ethiopia is lower than the international recommendation of EBF for the first six months of life. Objective: To assess the practice of EBF and ...

  8. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study could help mothers, Ministry of Health and other nongovernmental organisations working with child health programmes, in likely interventions and supporting the ongoing child survival programmes, by taking appropriate steps in enhancing exclusive breastfeeding. As mothers attend antenatal and ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate the among the unemployed and self-employed mothers was lower than that of those in paid employment. This is contrary to expectation, since the unemployed/scif~employed are usually not separated from their children unlike those in paid employment who usually separated during working. Exclusive breast feeding ...

  10. Exclusive breastfeedingand postnatal changes in maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the impact of exclusive breastfeeding (EBFing) practice on maternal anthropometry during the first 6months of birth. Measurement of weight, height, triceps skin-fold thickness (TST), and mid-arm circumference (MAC) was carried out in a matched cohort of women practicing EBFing and those using other ...

  11. 12 CFR 367.5 - Exclusions. (United States)


    ... mitigating or aggravating circumstances shall be considered in making any exclusion decision. ... also prohibited from conducting business with FDIC as agents or representatives of other contractors... Ethics Counselor's decision to exclude the contractor pursuant to § 367.16. Provided further, that the...

  12. Combating Labour Market Exclusion: Does Training Work? (United States)

    Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred


    This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…

  13. The Banality of Exclusion in Australian Universities (United States)

    White, Julie


    The systematic exclusion of asylum seekers from Australian higher education reveals much about present day Australia. This essay begins with a brief context and outline of the international refugee crisis and Australia's reaction. Next, consideration is given to how this nation has identified itself historically and how it has behaved in recent…

  14. Six months of exclusive breastfeeding recommendation: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public health organisations, including the World Health Organisation recommend 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding for optimal growth, cognitive development and health. In addition, the provision of nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods to the infants while breastfeeding continues up until 2 years of age ...

  15. 36 CFR 220.6 - Categorical exclusions. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusions. 220.6 Section 220.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL... portion of a stand damaged by a wind or ice event and construction of a short temporary road to access the...

  16. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion. (United States)


    ... human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 907.10 Section 907.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION...

  17. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the knowledge and practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding1 (EBF) among lactating mothers with infants aged zero2 to six months at Ahero Sub District Hospital in Nyando District, Kenya. A cross- sectional design was conducted to 117 breastfeeding ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others were paid employment with maternity leave ... (ENE) and five community health workers who had been trained prior to onset of study and who showed understanding. DEFINITIONS. Exclusive breast feeding: the infant has received only ... mothers with paid employment and this was significant when compares with ...

  19. Homogenous asymmetric hydrogenation: Recent trends and industrial applications. (United States)

    Palmer, Andreas M; Zanotti-Gerosa, Antonio


    Recent advances in the field of homogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation are presented in this review. An analysis of academic literature published in the past 2 years highlights significant advances in the asymmetric hydrogenation of functional groups that previously were considered difficult to hydrogenate, as well as the emergence of novel concepts in catalysis, such as the use of non-traditional metals, phosphine-free catalysts and chiral counterions. An analysis of industry publications from 2009 and 2010 highlights more established applications of asymmetric hydrogenation reactions; these are discussed with a particular focus on practical aspects, such as catalyst selection, experimental conditions and the removal of metal residues.

  20. Coping with Asymmetric Channel Losses in CSMA/CA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank


    /CA is very sensitive to asymmetric channel losses caused by channel conditions. Leveraging this analysis, we present an adaptive channel priority protocol that copes with asymmetric channel losses while being compatible with CSMA/CA. We implement this protocol and perform real-life measurements that (i......) confirm the sensitivity of the CSMA/CA scheme in real implementations, and (ii) shows that our adaptive protocol provides a simple, yet potent mechanism to cope with asymmetric channel losses and ultimately to enhance end-to-end throughput in high-load scenarios....

  1. Generic approach for synthesizing asymmetric nanoparticles and nanoassemblies (United States)

    Sun, Yugang; Hu, Yongxing


    A generic route for synthesis of asymmetric nanostructures. This approach utilizes submicron magnetic particles (Fe.sub.3O.sub.4--SiO.sub.2) as recyclable solid substrates for the assembly of asymmetric nanostructures and purification of the final product. Importantly, an additional SiO.sub.2 layer is employed as a mediation layer to allow for selective modification of target nanoparticles. The partially patched nanoparticles are used as building blocks for different kinds of complex asymmetric nanostructures that cannot be fabricated by conventional approaches. The potential applications such as ultra-sensitive substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) have been included.

  2. Dynamics of asymmetrical hybridization in North American wood ferns: reconciling patterns of inheritance with gametophyte reproductive biology. (United States)

    Testo, Weston L; Watkins, James E; Barrington, David S


    Hybridization is an important evolutionary force in plants, but the mechanisms underlying it have not been well studied for many groups. In particular, the drivers of non-random patterns of interspecific gene flow (asymmetrical hybridization) remain poorly understood, especially in the seed-free vascular plants. Here, we examine patterns of asymmetrical hybridization in two widespread fern hybrids from eastern North America and study the role of gametophyte ecology in the determination of hybridization bias. We characterized the maternal parentage of > 140 hybrid sporophytes by sequencing a c. 350-bp region of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). To identify factors contributing to patterns of asymmetrical hybridization, we cultured gametophytes of the parental species and evaluated critical aspects of their reproductive biology. We found that asymmetrical hybridization was prevalent across the populations of both hybrids. Reproductive traits varied across species and suggest that selfing potential, antheridiogen responsiveness, sperm dispersal capacity and gamete size all contribute to the mediation of the direction of hybridization in this group. Our findings suggest that asymmetrical hybridization in ferns is driven by an array of reproductive traits. This study helps to sharpen and define a mechanistic understanding of patterns of hybridization in this group and demonstrates the importance of considering gametophyte biology when studying evolutionary processes in ferns. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Examining the Cultural Leadership Behaviors of Schoo l Principal s within the Context of Symmetric and Asymmetric School Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül BALKAR


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the opinions of teachers on contributions of school principals’ cultural leadership behaviors to forming symmetric and asymmetric culture. The participants of the study consisted of 27 secondary school teachers working in Gaziantep province. Data of the study were collected through semi - structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. Contributions of each cultural leader ship behavior to symmetric and asymmetric culture types were determined by taking relations between cultural leadership behaviors and symmetric and asymmetric cultures into consideration in the process of content analysis. According to the findings of the study ; supporting development of teachers and reflecting developments and innovations on schools are among the cultural leadership behaviors contributing to forming asymmetric culture at schools. Interpreting tasks and missions of school and ensuring neces sary environment for keeping social values alive at schools are among the cultural leadership behaviors contributing to forming symmetric culture at schools. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested that school principals should follow developmen ts in educational issues and transfer these developments into school practices. They should place more importance on supporting innovative behaviors of teachers in order to create asymmetric culture at schools.

  4. Fast simulation of asymmetric incremental sheet metal forming (United States)

    Bambach, Markus


    Asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) is a flexible manufacturing process for the production of low volumes of sheet metal parts. In AISF, a sheet metal part is formed gradually by the localized plastic deformation produced by a CNC controlled, ball-headed forming tool. The local plastic deformation under the tool leads to a number of challenges for numerical process simulation. Previous work indicates that implicit finite element (FE) methods are at present not efficient enough to allow for the simulation of AISF for industrially relevant parts, mostly due to the fact that the moving contact requires a very small time step. Finite element methods based on explicit time integration can be sped up using mass or time scaling to enable the simulation of large-scale sheet metal forming problems. However, AISF still requires dedicated adaptive methods to further reduce the calculation times. In this paper, an adaptive remeshing strategy based on a multi-mesh method is applied to the simulation of incremental sheet forming and combined with subcycling to further reduce the calculation times. For the forming example considered, it is shown that savings in CPU time of up to 80% are possible with good accuracy.

  5. Asymmetric Branching in Biological Resource Distribution Networks (United States)

    Brummer, Alexander Byers

    There is a remarkable relationship between an organism's metabolic rate (resting power consumption) and the organism's mass. It may be a universal law of nature that an organism's resting metabolic rate is proportional to its mass to the power of 3/4. This relationship, known as Kleiber's Law, appears to be valid for both plants and animals. This law is important because it implies that larger organisms are more efficient than smaller organisms, and knowledge regarding metabolic rates are essential to a multitude of other fields in ecology and biology. This includes modeling the interactions of many species across multiple trophic levels, distributions of species abundances across large spatial landscapes, and even medical diagnostics for respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies. Previous models of vascular networks that seek to identify the origin of metabolic scaling have all been based on the unrealistic assumption of perfectly symmetric branching. In this dissertation I will present a theory of asymmetric branching in self-similar vascular networks (published by Brummer et al. in [9]). The theory shows that there can exist a suite of vascular forms that result in the often observed 3/4 metabolic scaling exponent of Kleiber's Law. Furthermore, the theory makes predictions regarding major morphological features related to vascular branching patterns and their relationships to metabolic scaling. These predictions are suggestive of evolutionary convergence in vascular branching. To test these predictions, I will present an analysis of real mammalian and plant vascular data that shows: (i) broad patterns in vascular networks across entire animal kingdoms and (ii) within these patterns, plant and mammalian vascular networks can be uniquely distinguished from one another (publication in preparation by Brummer et al.). I will also present results from a computational study in support of point (i). Namely, that asymmetric branching may be the optimal strategy to

  6. Efficient One-Step Fusion PCR Based on Dual-Asymmetric Primers and Two-Step Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Jinjin; Thygesen, Anders


    Gene splicing by fusion PCR is a versatile and widely used methodology, especially in synthetic biology. We here describe a rapid method for splicing two fragments by one-round fusion PCR with a dual-asymmetric primers and two-step annealing (ODT) method. During the process, the asymmetric...... produced with this method were successfully applied in seamless genome editing. The fusion of two fragments by this method takes less than 0.5 day. The method is expected to facilitate various kinds of complex genetic engineering projects with enhanced efficiency....

  7. Asymmetric Switch Costs in Numeral Naming and Number Word Reading: Implications for Models of Bilingual Language Production. (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Schlöffel, Sophie; Peressotti, Francesca


    One approach used to gain insight into the processes underlying bilingual language comprehension and production examines the costs that arise from switching languages. For unbalanced bilinguals, asymmetric switch costs are reported in speech production, where the switch cost for L1 is larger than the switch cost for L2, whereas, symmetric switch costs are reported in language comprehension tasks, where the cost of switching is the same for L1 and L2. Presently, it is unclear why asymmetric switch costs are observed in speech production, but not in language comprehension. Three experiments are reported that simultaneously examine methodological explanations of task related differences in the switch cost asymmetry and the predictions of three accounts of the switch cost asymmetry in speech production. The results of these experiments suggest that (1) the type of language task (comprehension vs. production) determines whether an asymmetric switch cost is observed and (2) at least some of the switch cost asymmetry arises within the language system.

  8. Tailoring the microstructure of porous MgO supports for asymmetric oxygen separation membranes: Optimization of thermoplastic feedstock systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Clemens, F.; Glasscock, Julie


    Porous magnesium oxide (MgO) structures were prepared by thermoplastic processing for use as supports in asymmetric thin film oxygen transport membranes (OTMs). The open porosity, pore size distribution, and resulting gas permeability of the MgO structures were measured for different feedstock...

  9. Computation in Dynamically Bounded Asymmetric Systems (United States)

    Rutishauser, Ueli; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Douglas, Rodney


    Previous explanations of computations performed by recurrent networks have focused on symmetrically connected saturating neurons and their convergence toward attractors. Here we analyze the behavior of asymmetrical connected networks of linear threshold neurons, whose positive response is unbounded. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, this asymmetry brings interesting and computationally useful dynamical properties. When driven by input, the network explores potential solutions through highly unstable ‘expansion’ dynamics. This expansion is steered and constrained by negative divergence of the dynamics, which ensures that the dimensionality of the solution space continues to reduce until an acceptable solution manifold is reached. Then the system contracts stably on this manifold towards its final solution trajectory. The unstable positive feedback and cross inhibition that underlie expansion and divergence are common motifs in molecular and neuronal networks. Therefore we propose that very simple organizational constraints that combine these motifs can lead to spontaneous computation and so to the spontaneous modification of entropy that is characteristic of living systems. PMID:25617645

  10. Asymmetric sensory reweighting in human upright stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logan

    Full Text Available To investigate sensory reweighting as a fundamental property of sensor fusion during standing, we probed postural control with simultaneous rotations of the visual scene and surface of support. Nineteen subjects were presented with pseudo-random pitch rotations of visual scene and platform at the ankle to test for amplitude dependencies in the following conditions: low amplitude vision: high amplitude platform, low amplitude vision: low amplitude platform, and high amplitude vision: low amplitude platform. Gain and phase of frequency response functions (FRFs to each stimulus were computed for two body sway angles and a single weighted EMG signal recorded from seven muscles. When platform stimulus amplitude was increased while visual stimulus amplitude remained constant, gain to vision increased, providing strong evidence for inter-modal reweighting between vision and somatosensation during standing. Intra-modal reweighting of vision was also observed as gains to vision decreased as visual stimulus amplitude increased. Such intra-modal and inter-modal amplitude dependent changes in gain were also observed in muscular activity. Gains of leg segment angle and muscular activity relative to the platform, on the other hand, showed only intra-modal reweighting. That is, changing platform motion amplitude altered the responses to both visual and support surface motion whereas changing visual scene motion amplitude did not significantly affect responses to support surface motion, indicating that the sensory integration scheme between somatosensation (at the support surface and vision is asymmetric.

  11. Asymmetric translation between multiple representations in chemistry (United States)

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II


    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests that presenting concrete representations before abstract representations can increase the effectiveness of MR instruction; however, little work has been conducted on varying the order of different representations during instruction and the role of concreteness in assessment. In this study, we investigated the application of concreteness fading to MR instruction and assessment in teaching chemistry. In two experiments, undergraduate students in either introductory psychology courses or general chemistry courses were given MR instruction on phase changes using different orders of presentation and MR assessment questions based on the representations in the chemistry triplet. Our findings indicate that the order of presentation based on levels of concreteness in MR chemistry instruction is less important than implementation of comprehensive MR assessments. Even after MR instruction, students display an asymmetric understanding of the chemical phenomenon on the MR assessments. Greater emphasis on MR assessments may be an important component in MR instruction that effectively moves novices toward more expert MR understanding.

  12. Biomechanical reevaluation of orthodontic asymmetric headgear. (United States)

    Chi, Lu; Cheng, Mulin; Hershey, H Garland; Nguyen, Tung; Ko, Ching-Chang


    To investigate the distribution of distal and lateral forces produced by orthodontic asymmetric headgear (AHG) using mathematical models to assess periodontal ligament (PDL) influence and to attempt to resolve apparent inconsistencies in the literature. Mechanical models for AHG were constructed to calculate AHG force magnitudes and direction using the theory of elasticity. The PDL was simulated by elastic springs attached to the inner-bow terminals of the AHG. The total storage energy (E(t)) of the AHG and the supporting springs was integrated to evaluate the distal and lateral forces produced by minimizing E(t) (Castigliano's theorem). All analytical solutions were derived symbolically. The spring-supported headgear model (SSHG) predicted the magnitude and distribution of distal forces consistent with our data and the published data of others. The SSHG model revealed that the lateral forces delivered to the inner-bow terminals were not equal, and the spring constant (stiffness of the PDL) affected the magnitude and direction of the resultant lateral forces. Changing the stiffness of the PDL produced a greater biomechanical effect than did altering the face-bow design. The PDL spring model appeared to help resolve inconsistencies in the literature between laboratory in vitro experiments and clinical in vivo studies. Force magnitude and direction of AHG were predicted precisely using the present model and may be applied to improve the design of AHG to minimize unwanted lateral tooth movement.

  13. Neural Network Control of Asymmetrical Multilevel Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice WIRA


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a neural implementation of a harmonic eliminationstrategy (HES to control a Uniform Step Asymmetrical Multilevel Inverter(USAMI. The mapping between the modulation rate and the requiredswitching angles is learned and approximated with a Multi-Layer Perceptron(MLP neural network. After learning, appropriate switching angles can bedetermined with the neural network leading to a low-computational-costneural controller which is well suited for real-time applications. Thistechnique can be applied to multilevel inverters with any number of levels. Asan example, a nine-level inverter and an eleven-level inverter are consideredand the optimum switching angles are calculated on-line. Comparisons to thewell-known sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM have been carriedout in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Simulationresults demonstrate the technical advantages of the proposed neuralimplementation over the conventional method (SPWM in eliminatingharmonics while controlling a nine-level and eleven-level USAMI. Thisneural approach is applied for the supply of an asynchronous machine andresults show that it ensures a highest quality torque by efficiently cancelingthe harmonics generated by the inverters.

  14. Asymmetric evaluation promotes cooperation in network population (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Li, Xiaoping; Shi, Lei; Deng, Zhenghong


    The evolution of cooperation remains a fundamental challenge in human society. Many previous studies investigated these questions via spatial reciprocity, where players obtain their payoffs by interacting with their direct neighbors. It has also been verified that environmental factors can influence the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. In reality, however, individuals may have the limit knowledge about their indirect neighbors. Inspired by this fact, we consider an asymmetric fitness calculation mechanism, which only integrates the environment factors into the focal player, to explore the evolution of cooperation. Here, the environmental factor is defined as the average payoff of all individual neighbors, which is regulated by a tunable parameter u. Through numerical simulation, we find that, compared with the traditional version (u = 0), that the cooperation level can be greatly enhanced when u is positive. Interestingly, the larger the value of u, the higher the level of cooperation. Finally, to explore the generality of this finding, we have tested the results on different topologies.

  15. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Butenolides and Butyrolactones. (United States)

    Mao, Bin; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    γ-Butenolides, γ-butyrolactones, and derivatives, especially in enantiomerically pure form, constitute the structural core of numerous natural products which display an impressive range of biological activities which are important for the development of novel physiological and therapeutic agents. Furthermore, optically active γ-butenolides and γ-butyrolactones serve also as a prominent class of chiral building blocks for the synthesis of diverse biological active compounds and complex molecules. Taking into account the varying biological activity profiles and wide-ranging structural diversity of the optically active γ-butenolide or γ-butyrolactone structure, the development of asymmetric synthetic strategies for assembling such challenging scaffolds has attracted major attention from synthetic chemists in the past decade. This review offers an overview of the different enantioselective synthesis of γ-butenolides and γ-butyrolactones which employ catalytic amounts of metal complexes or organocatalysts, with emphasis focused on the mechanistic issues that account for the observed stereocontrol of the representative reactions, as well as practical applications and synthetic potentials.

  16. Asymmetrically coupled resonators for mass sensing (United States)

    Marquez, S.; Alvarez, M.; Plaza, J. A.; Villanueva, L. G.; Dominguez, C.; Lechuga, L. M.


    Mechanically coupled resonators have been applied in the last years to the development of nanomechanical mass-sensors based on the detection of the different vibration modes of the system by measuring on a single resonator. Their sensitivity and capability for detecting multiple analytes strongly depends on the design and coupling strength between the mechanically coupled resonators in an array format. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the behavior of an asymmetrically coupled array of four different resonators. These doubly clamped beam resonators are elastically coupled by an overhang region of varying length along the transversal axis of the array. The results show that parameters such as the gap between microbeams and the overhang length affect the coupling strength, tuning the system from highly disordered and highly localized (weak coupling) to highly delocalized (strong coupling). In the strong coupling and partially localized case, the distances between resonant peaks are larger, reaching higher eigenfrequency values. In this case, relative changes in a specific eigenstate, due to an added mass, can be markedly large due to the energy distribution over a single microbeam. A strong coupling also facilitates performing the detection on the relative frequency shift mode, which can usually be resolved with better precision than the amplitude changes.

  17. Performance of an AGATA asymmetric detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, A.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Dimmock, M.R.; Unsworth, C.; Boston, H.C.; Cooper, R.J.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Jones, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Slee, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)


    High-resolution gamma-ray detectors based on high-purity germanium crystals (HPGe) are one of the key workhorses of experimental nuclear science. The technical development of such detector technology has been dramatic in recent years. Large volume, high-granularity, electrically segmented HPGe detectors have been realised and a methodology to improve position sensitivity using pulse-shape analysis coupled with the novel technique of gamma-ray tracking has been developed. Collaborations have been established in Europe (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA)) [J. Simpson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36 (2005) 1383] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA) [C.W. Beausang, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 204 (2003)] to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the first AGATA asymmetric detector that has been tested at the University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector.

  18. Micromagnetic simulation of Fe asymmetric nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, J.L.; Morales-Concha, C.; Leighton, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Escrig, J., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile)


    During the last decade several methods to control the vortex chirality in nanodots have been proposed. One of them, the introduction of asymmetry in the geometry of the dots, originates interesting effects on the magnetic behavior of the particle. However, asymmetry in core-free structures is also interesting to investigate because of the reproducibility of their magnetic properties. In this work we report systematic changes in the coercivity and remanence in asymmetric nanorings. The angular dependence is also addressed. For specific geometries and magnetic field direction newly reversal modes appear associated with important changes in the coercivity and remanence of the rings. - Highlights: > We report that the existence of asymmetry strongly influences the coercivity and the remanence. > Magnetization reversal is driven by the nucleation of a C state and propagation of a vortex state. > We also conclude that the lack of a core contributes to the stability of the vortex state. > Asymmetry can be useful for tailoring specific magnetic characteristics of these systems.

  19. Trade Credit Insurance and Asymmetric Information Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolovska Olena


    Full Text Available The presence of different risk factors in international trade gives evidence of the necessity of support in gaps that may affect exporters’ activity. To maximize the trade volumes and in the same time to minimize the exporters’ risks the stakeholders use trade credit insurance. The paper provides analysis of conceptual background of the trade credit insurance in the world. We analyzed briefly the problems, arising in insurance markets due to asymmetric information, such as adverse selection and moral hazard. Also we discuss the main stages of development of trade credit insurance in countries worldwide. Using comparative and graphical analysis we provide a brief evaluation of the dynamics of claims and recoveries for different forms of trade credit insurance. We found that the claims related to the commercial risk for medium and long trade credits in recent years exceed the recoveries, while with the political risk the reverse trend holds. And we originally consider these findings in terms of information asymmetry in the trade credit insurance differentiated by type of risk.

  20. High sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer. (United States)

    Chavarria, Mario A; Matheoud, Alessandro V; Marmillod, Philippe; Liu, Youjiang; Kong, Deyi; Brugger, Jürgen; Boero, Giovanni


    A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 10 12 V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz 1/2 during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency. The FAIMS system was characterized by detecting different standard chemical compounds. Additionally, we investigated the use of a synchronous modulation/demodulation technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in FAIMS measurements. In particular, we implemented the modulation of the compensation voltage with the synchronous demodulation of the ion current. The analysis of the measurements at low concentration levels led to an extrapolated limit of detection for acetone of 10 ppt with an averaging time of 1 s.