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Sample records for asymmetric exclusion process

  1. Formulas and Asymptotics for the Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Craig A.; Widom, Harold, E-mail: widom@ucsc.edu [University of California, Department of Mathematics (United States)

    2011-09-15

    This is an expanded version of a series of lectures delivered by the second author in June, 2009. It describes the results of three of the authors' papers on the asymmetric simple exclusion process, from the derivation of exact formulas for configuration probabilities, through Fredholm determinant representation, to asymptotics with step initial condition establishing KPZ universality. Although complete proofs are in general not given, at least the main elements of them are.

  2. On the asymmetric simple exclusion process with multiple species

    CERN Document Server

    Tracy, Craig A

    2011-01-01

    In the asymmetric simple exclusion process on the integers each particle waits exponential time, then with probability p it moves one step to the right if the site is unoccupied, otherwise it stays put; and with probability q=1-p it moves one step to the left if the site is unoccupied, otherwise it stays put. In previous work the authors, using the Bethe Ansatz, found for N-particle ASEP a formula --- a sum of multiple integrals --- for the probability that a system is in a particular configuration at time t given an initial configuration. The present work extends this to the case where particles are of different species, with particles of a higher species having priority over those of a lower species. Here the integrands in the multiple integrals are not given explicitly but are defined by a system of equations whose consistency requires verifying that the Yang-Baxter equations are satisfied.

  3. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    CERN Document Server

    Lakatos, G

    2003-01-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or ...

  4. Braess paradox in a network of totally asymmetric exclusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittihn, Stefan; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    We study the Braess paradox in the transport network as originally proposed by Braess with totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEPs) on the edges. The Braess paradox describes the counterintuitive situation in which adding an edge to a road network leads to a user optimum with higher travel times for all network users. Travel times on the TASEPs are nonlinear in the density, and jammed states can occur due to the microscopic exclusion principle, leading to a more realistic description of trafficlike transport on the network than in previously studied linear macroscopic mathematical models. Furthermore, the stochastic dynamics allows us to explore the effects of fluctuations on network performance. We observe that for low densities, the added edge leads to lower travel times. For slightly higher densities, the Braess paradox occurs in its classical sense. At intermediate densities, strong fluctuations in the travel times dominate the system's behavior due to links that are in a domain-wall state. At high densities, the added link leads to lower travel times. We present a phase diagram that predicts the system's state depending on the global density and crucial path-length ratios.

  5. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2003-02-28

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean-field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady-state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d {>=} 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean-field results.

  6. Koornwinder polynomials and the stationary multi-species asymmetric exclusion process with open boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Luigi; Garbali, Alexandr; de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael

    2016-11-01

    We prove that the normalisation of the stationary state of the multi-species asymmetric simple exclusion process (mASEP) is a specialisation of a Koornwinder polynomial. As a corollary we obtain that the normalisation of mASEP factorises as a product over multiple copies of the two-species ASEP.

  7. Non-stationary probabilities for the asymmetric exclusion process on a ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V B Priezzhev

    2005-06-01

    A solution of the master equation for a system of interacting particles for finite time and particle density is presented. By using a new form of the Bethe ansatz, the totally asymmetric exclusion process on a ring is solved for arbitrary initial conditions and time intervals.

  8. Comment on ``Steady-state properties of a totally asymmetric exclusion process with periodic structure''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wu, Qing-Song

    2008-07-01

    Lakatos [Phys. Rev. E 71, 011103 (2005)] have studied a totally asymmetric exclusion process that contains periodically varying movement rates. They have presented a cluster mean-field theory for the problem. We show that their cluster mean-field theory leads to redundant equations. We present a mean-field analysis in which there is no redundant equation.

  9. Dynamic screening in a two-species asymmetric exclusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; den Nijs, Marcel

    2007-08-01

    The dynamic scaling properties of the one-dimensional Burgers equation are expected to change with the inclusion of additional conserved degrees of freedom. We study this by means of one-dimensional (1D) driven lattice gas models that conserve both mass and momentum. The most elementary version of this is the Arndt-Heinzel-Rittenberg (AHR) process, which is usually presented as a two-species diffusion process, with particles of opposite charge hopping in opposite directions and with a variable passing probability. From the hydrodynamics perspective this can be viewed as two coupled Burgers equations, with the number of positive and negative momentum quanta individually conserved. We determine the dynamic scaling dimension of the AHR process from the time evolution of the two-point correlation functions, and find numerically that the dynamic critical exponent is consistent with simple Kardar-Parisi-Zhang- (KPZ) type scaling. We establish that this is the result of perfect screening of fluctuations in the stationary state. The two-point correlations decay exponentially in our simulations and in such a manner that in terms of quasiparticles, fluctuations fully screen each other at coarse grained length scales. We prove this screening rigorously using the analytic matrix product structure of the stationary state. The proof suggests the existence of a topological invariant. The process remains in the KPZ universality class but only in the sense of a factorization, as (KPZ)2. The two Burgers equations decouple at large length scales due to the perfect screening.

  10. Strong Asymmetric Coupling of Two Parallel Exclusion Processes: Effect of Unequal Injection Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Song; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Yanna

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, strong asymmetric coupling of two parallel exclusion processes: effect of unequal injection rates will be investigated. It is a generalization of the work of Xiao et al. (Phys. Lett. A 8, 374 (2009)), in which the particles only move on two lanes with rate 1 toward right. We can obtain the diverse phase diagram and density profiles of the system. The vertical cluster mean-field approach and extensively Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the system, and theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with simulation results.

  11. The Braess Paradox in a network of totally asymmetric exclusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Bittihn, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We study the Braess paradox in the transport network as originally proposed by Braess with totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEPs) on the edges. The Braess paradox describes the counterintuitive situation where adding an additional edge to a road network leads to a user optimum with higher traveltimes for all network users. Traveltimes on the TASEPs are nonlinear in the density and jammed states can occur due to the microscopic exclusion principle. Furthermore the individual edges influence each other. This leads to a much more realistic description of traffic-like transport on the network than in previously studied linear macroscopic mathematical models. Furthermore the stochastic dynamics allows to explore the effects of fluctuations on the network performance. We observe that for low densities the added edge leads to lower traveltimes. For slightly higher densities the Braess paradox in its classical sense occurs in a small density regime. In a large regime of intermediate densities strong fluctuat...

  12. Asymmetric simple exclusion processes with complex lattice geometries: A review of models and phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ming-Zhe; Li Shao-Da; Wang Rui-Li

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the findings of a large number of studies concerning the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with complex lattice geometries.The TASEP has been recognized as a paradigm in modeling and analyzing non-equilibrium traffic systems.The paper surveys both the observed physical phenomena and several popular meanfield approaches used to analyze the extended TASEP models.Several interesting physical phenomena,such as phase separation,spontaneous symmetry breaking,and the finite-size effect,have been identified and explained.The future investigations of the extended TASEP with complex lattice geometries are also introduced.This paper may help to obtain a better understanding of non-equilibrium systems.

  13. Effect of unequal injection rates on asymmetric exclusion processes with junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Song; Liu Ming-Zhe; Wang Jian-Jun; Wang Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of unequal injection rates on totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) with a 2-input 1-output junction and parallel update. A mean-field approach is developed to deal with the junction that connects two sub-chains and the single main chain. We obtain the stationary particle currents, density profiles and phase diagrams. Interestingly, we find that the number of stationary-state phases is changeable depending on the value of α1 (α1 is the injection rate on the first sub-chain). When α1 > 1/3, there are seven stationary-state phases in the system, however when α1 < 1/3, only six stationary-state phases exist in the system. The theoretical calculations are shown to be in agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. The Bose Gas and Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process on the Half-Line

    CERN Document Server

    Tracy, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we find explicit formulas for: (1) Green's function for a system of one-dimensional bosons interacting via a delta-function potential with particles confined to the positive half-line; and (2) the transition probability for the one-dimensional asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with particles confined to the nonnegative integers. These are both for systems with a finite number of particles. The formulas are analogous to ones obtained earlier for the Bose gas and ASEP on the line and integers, respectively. We use coordinate Bethe Ansatz appropriately modified to account for confinement of the particles to the half-line. As in the earlier work, the proof for the ASEP is less straightforward than for the Bose gas.

  15. The asymmetric simple exclusion process: an integrable model for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinelli, Olivier; Mallick, Kirone

    2006-10-01

    The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) plays the role of a paradigm in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We review exact results for the ASEP obtained by the Bethe ansatz and put emphasis on the algebraic properties of this model. The Bethe equations for the eigenvalues of the Markov matrix of the ASEP are derived from the algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using these equations we explain how to calculate the spectral gap of the model and how global spectral properties such as the existence of multiplets can be predicted. An extension of the Bethe ansatz leads to an analytic expression for the large deviation function of the current in the ASEP that satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen relation. Finally, we describe some variants of the ASEP that are also solvable by the Bethe ansatz.

  16. The asymmetric simple exclusion process: an integrable model for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golinelli, Olivier [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mallick, Kirone [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-10-13

    The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) plays the role of a paradigm in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We review exact results for the ASEP obtained by the Bethe ansatz and put emphasis on the algebraic properties of this model. The Bethe equations for the eigenvalues of the Markov matrix of the ASEP are derived from the algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using these equations we explain how to calculate the spectral gap of the model and how global spectral properties such as the existence of multiplets can be predicted. An extension of the Bethe ansatz leads to an analytic expression for the large deviation function of the current in the ASEP that satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen relation. Finally, we describe some variants of the ASEP that are also solvable by the Bethe ansatz.

  17. Zone inhomogeneity with the random asymmetric simple exclusion process in a one-lane system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Song; Cai Jiu-Ju; Liu Fei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we use theoretical analysis and extensive simulations to study zone inhomogeneity with the random asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP). In the inhomogeneous zone, the hopping probability is less than 1. Two typical lattice geometries axe investigated here. In case A, the lattice includes two equal segments. The hopping probability in the left segment is equal to 1, and in the right segment it is equal to p, which is less than 1. In case B, there are three equal segments in the system; the hopping probabilities in the left and right segments are equal to 1, and in the middle segment it is equal to p, which is leas than 1. Through theoretical analysis, we can discover the effect on these systems when p is changed.

  18. Nonequilibrium steady states in a closed inhomogeneous asymmetric exclusion process with generic particle nonconservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Bijoy; Mondal, Souvik; Chandra, Anjan Kumar; Banerjee, Tirthankar; Basu, Abhik

    2017-01-01

    We study the totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) on a nonuniform one-dimensional ring consisting of two segments having unequal hopping rates, or defects. We allow weak particle nonconservation via Langmuir kinetics (LK), which are parametrized by generic unequal attachment and detachment rates. For an extended defect, in the thermodynamic limit the system generically displays inhomogeneous density profiles in the steady state—the faster segment is either in a phase with spatially varying density having no density discontinuity, or a phase with a discontinuous density changes. Nonequilibrium phase transitions between the above phases are controlled by the inhomogeneity and LK. The slower segment displays only macroscopically uniform bulk density profiles in the steady states, reminiscent of the maximal current phase of TASEP but with a bulk density generally different from half. With a point defect, there are spatially uniform low- and high-density phases as well, in addition to the inhomogeneous density profiles observed for an extended defect. In all the cases, it is argued that the mean particle density in the steady state is controlled only by the ratio of the LK attachment and detachment rates.

  19. The asymmetric simple exclusion process on chains with a shortcut revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bunzarova, Nadezhda; Brankov, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) on open network consisting of three consecutively coupled macroscopic chain segments with a shortcut between the tail of the first segment and the head of the third one. The model was introduced by Y.-M. Yuan et al [J. Phys. A 40, 12351 (2007)] to describe directed motion of molecular motors along filaments. We report here unexpected results in the case of maximum current through the network which revise the previous findings. Our theoretical analysis, based on the effective rates approximation, shows that the second (shunted) segment can exist in both low-density and high-density phases, as well as in the coexistence (shock) phase. Numerical simulations demonstrate that it is the last option that takes place - the local density distribution and the nearest-neighbor correlations in the middle chain correspond to a shock phase with completely delocalized domain wall. Surprisingly, the main quantitative parameters of that shock phase are governed by a ...

  20. Tableaux combinatorics for the asymmetric exclusion process and Askey-Wilson polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Corteel, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Introduced in the late 1960's, the asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP) is an important model from statistical mechanics which describes a system of interacting particles hopping left and right on a one-dimensional lattice of n sites with open boundaries. It has been cited as a model for traffic flow and protein synthesis. In its most general form, particles may enter and exit at the left with probabilities alpha and gamma, and they may exit and enter at the right with probabilities beta and delta. In the bulk, the probability of hopping left is q times the probability of hopping right. The first main result of this paper is a combinatorial formula for the stationary distribution of the ASEP with all parameters general, in terms of a new class of tableaux which we call staircase tableaux. This generalizes our previous work for the ASEP with parameters gamma=delta=0. Using our first result and also results of Uchiyama-Sasamoto-Wadati, we derive our second main result: a combinatorial formula for the moments of ...

  1. On the Two Species Asymmetric Exclusion Process with Semi-Permeable Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyer, Arvind; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Speer, Eugene R.

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the structure of the nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) of a system of first and second class particles, as well as vacancies (holes), on L sites of a one-dimensional lattice in contact with first class particle reservoirs at the boundary sites; these particles can enter at site 1, when it is vacant, with rate α, and exit from site L with rate β. Second class particles can neither enter nor leave the system, so the boundaries are semi-permeable. The internal dynamics are described by the usual totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with second class particles. An exact solution of the NESS was found by Arita. Here we describe two consequences of the fact that the flux of second class particles is zero. First, there exist (pinned and unpinned) fat shocks which determine the general structure of the phase diagram and of the local measures; the latter describe the microscopic structure of the system at different macroscopic points (in the limit L→∞) in terms of superpositions of extremal measures of the infinite system. Second, the distribution of second class particles is given by an equilibrium ensemble in fixed volume, or equivalently but more simply by a pressure ensemble, in which the pair potential between neighboring particles grows logarithmically with distance. We also point out an unexpected feature in the microscopic structure of the NESS for finite L: if there are n second class particles in the system then the distribution of first class particles (respectively holes) on the first (respectively last) n sites is exchangeable.

  2. Generalized determinant solution of the discrete-time totally asymmetric exclusion process and zero-range process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankov, J G; Priezzhev, V B; Shelest, R V

    2004-06-01

    We consider the discrete-time evolution of a finite number of particles obeying the totally asymmetric exclusion process with backward-ordered update on an infinite chain. Our first result is a determinant expression for the conditional probability of finding the particles at given initial and final positions, provided that they start and finish simultaneously. The expression has the same form as the one obtained by J. Stat. Phys. 88, 427 (1997)] for the continuous-time process. Next we prove that under some sufficient conditions the determinant expression can be generalized to the case when the particles start and finish at their own times. The latter result is used to solve a nonstationary zero-range process on a finite chain with open boundaries.

  3. Signal optimization in urban transport: A totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with traffic lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Foulaadvand, M. Ebrahim; Santen, Ludger

    2017-03-01

    We consider the exclusion process on a ring with time-dependent defective bonds at which the hopping rate periodically switches between zero and one. This system models main roads in city traffics, intersecting with perpendicular streets. We explore basic properties of the system, in particular dependence of the vehicular flow on the parameters of signalization as well as the system size and the car density. We investigate various types of the spatial distribution of the vehicular density, and show existence of a shock profile. We also measure waiting time behind traffic lights, and examine its relationship with the traffic flow.

  4. Totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a time-dependent boundary: interaction between vehicles and pedestrians at intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between vehicles and pedestrians is seen in many areas such as crosswalks and intersections. In this paper, we study a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a bottleneck at a boundary caused by an interaction. Due to the time-dependent effect originating from the speed of pedestrians, the flow of the model varies even if the average hopping probability at the last site is the same. We analyze the phenomenon by using two types of approximations: (2+1)-cluster approximation and isolated rarefaction wave approximation. The approximate results capture intriguing features of the model. Moreover, we discuss the situation where vehicles turn right at the intersection by adding a traffic light at the boundary condition. The result suggests that pedestrian scrambles are valid to eliminate traffic congestion in the right turn lane.

  5. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-08-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions.

  6. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean-field model. By studying the phase space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a new multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamm...

  7. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model’s fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions. PMID:27627345

  8. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  9. Determinantal Representation of the Time-Dependent Stationary Correlation Function for the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Bogoliubov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic model of the non-equilibrium low dimensional physics the so-called totally asymmetric exclusion process is related to the 'crystalline limit' (q → ∞ of the SU_q(2 quantum algebra. Using the quantum inverse scattering method we obtain the exact expression for the time-dependent stationary correlation function of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process on a one dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions.

  10. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiyan Gao

    2003-11-01

    Mapping the transition from strongly interacting, non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics, where nucleon–meson degrees of freedom are effective to perturbative QCD of quark and gluon degrees of freedom, is one of the most fundamental, challenging tasks in nuclear and particle physics. Exclusive processes such as proton–proton elastic scattering, meson photoproduction, and deuteron photodisintegration have been pursued extensively at many laboratories over the years in the search for such a transition, particularly at Jefferson Lab in recent years, taking the advantage of the high luminosity capability of the CEBAF facility. In this talk, I review recent results from Jefferson Lab on deuteron photodisintegration and photopion production processes and the future 12 GeV program.

  11. Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012). In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1) constructional elements of social exclusion, (2) detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3) development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion, and (4) sources of social exclusion.

  12. Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.

  13. Self-organized criticality in asymmetric exclusion model with noise for freeway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    1995-02-01

    The one-dimensional asymmetric simple-exclusion model with open boundaries for parallel update is extended to take into account temporary stopping of particles. The model presents the traffic flow on a highway with temporary deceleration of cars. Introducing temporary stopping into the asymmetric simple-exclusion model drives the system asymptotically into a steady state exhibiting a self-organized criticality. In the self-organized critical state, start-stop waves (or traffic jams) appear with various sizes (or lifetimes). The typical interval between consecutive jams scales as ≃ Lv with v = 0.51 ± 0.05 where L is the system size. It is shown that the cumulative jam-interval distribution Ns( L) satisfies the finite-size scaling form ( Ns( L) ≃ L- vf( s/ Lv). Also, the typical lifetime ≃ Lv‧ with v‧ = 0.52 ± 0.05. The cumulative distribution Nm( L) of lifetimes satisfies the finite-size scaling form Nm( L)≃ L-1g( m/ Lv‧).

  14. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  15. Generalized parton distributions and exclusive processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzey, Vadim [Hampton U.

    2013-10-01

    In last fifteen years, GPDs have emerged as a powerful tool to reveal such aspects of the QCD structure of the nucleon as: - 3D parton correlations and distributions; - spin content of the nucleon. Further advances in the field of GPDs and hard exclusive processes rely on: - developments in theory and new methods in phenomenology such as new flexible parameterizations, neural networks, global QCD fits - new high-precision data covering unexplored kinematics: JLab at 6 and 12 GeV, Hermes with recoil detector, Compass, EIC. This slide-show presents: Nucleon structure in QCD, particularly hard processes, factorization and parton distributions; and a brief overview of GPD phenomenology, including basic properties of GPDs, GPDs and QCD structure of the nucleon, and constraining GPDs from experiments.

  16. Comment on "Generalized exclusion processes: Transport coefficients"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T.; Nelissen, K.; Cleuren, B.; Partoens, B.; Van den Broeck, C.

    2016-04-01

    In a recent paper, Arita et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 052108 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052108] consider the transport properties of a class of generalized exclusion processes. Analytical expressions for the transport-diffusion coefficient are derived by ignoring correlations. It is claimed that these expressions become exact in the hydrodynamic limit. In this Comment, we point out that (i) the influence of correlations upon the diffusion does not vanish in the hydrodynamic limit, and (ii) the expressions for the self- and transport diffusion derived by Arita et al. are special cases of results derived in Becker et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.110601].

  17. kT factorization of exclusive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Makiko; Li, Hsiang-Nan

    2003-02-01

    We prove the kT factorization theorem in perturbative QCD (PQCD) for exclusive processes by considering πγ*→γ(π) and B→γ(π)lν¯. The relevant form factors are expressed as the convolution of hard amplitudes with two-parton meson wave functions in the impact parameter b space, b being conjugate to the parton transverse momenta kT. The point is that on-shell valence partons carry longitudinal momenta initially, and acquire kT through collinear gluon exchanges. The b-dependent two-parton wave functions with an appropriate path for the Wilson links are gauge-invariant. The hard amplitudes, defined as the difference between the parton-level diagrams of on-shell external particles and their collinear approximation, are also gauge-invariant. We compare the predictions for two-body nonleptonic B meson decays derived from kT factorization (the PQCD approach) and from collinear factorization (the QCD factorization approach).

  18. Diffractive and Exclusive Processes at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the CMS results on diffractive and exclusive production.Measurements of inclusive single and double diffractive production are discussedas well as measurements of the diffractive production at a hard scale. Measurementsof charged particle multiplicities for single diffractive enhanced data sample and studies of central diffractive jet production were perfrmed in a collaboration with the TOTEM experiment. CMS results on cross section measurements for exclusive dilepton and WW production are also presented.

  19. Dynamic Conditional Correlations for Asymmetric Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper develops two Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models, namely the Wishart DCC (WDCC) model and the Matrix-Exponential Conditional Correlation (MECC) model. The paper applies the WDCC approach to the exponential GARCH (EGARCH) and GJR models to propose asymmetric DCC models.

  20. Nucleation Process in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Peres-Menezes, D

    1998-01-01

    An extended version of the non linear Walecka model, with rho mesons and eletromagnetic field is used to investigate the possibility of phase transitions in hot (warm) nuclear matter, giving rise to droplet formation. Surface properties of asymmetric nuclear matter as the droplet surface energy and its thickness are also examined.

  1. Dynamic Conditional Correlations for Asymmetric Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Manabu; McAleer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The paper develops two Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) models, namely the Wishart DCC (wDCC) model. The paper applies the wDCC approach to the exponential GARCH (EGARCH) and GJR models to propose asymmetric DCC models. We use the standardized multivariate t-distribution to accommodate heavy-tailed errors. The paper presents an empirical example using the trivariate data of the Nikkei 225, Hang Seng and Straits Times Indices for estimating and forecasting the wDCC-EGARCH and wDCC-GJR mod...

  2. Static large deviations of boundary driven exclusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Farfan, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the stationary measure associated to a boundary driven exclusion process in any dimension satisfies a large deviation principle with rate function given by the quasi potential of the Freidlin and Wentzell theory.

  3. Dissociable brain mechanisms for processing social exclusion and rule violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; McPartland, James C; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2011-02-01

    Social exclusion inherently involves an element of expectancy violation, in that we expect other people to follow the unwritten rule to include us in social interactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a unique modification of an interactive virtual ball-tossing game called "Cyberball" (Williams et al., 2000) and a novel paradigm called "Cybershape," in which rules are broken in the absence of social exclusion, to dissociate brain regions that process social exclusion from rule violations more generally. Our Cyberball game employed an alternating block design and removed evoked responses to events when the participant was throwing the ball in inclusion to make this condition comparable to exclusion, where participants did not throw. With these modifications, we replicated prior findings of ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), insula, and posterior cingulate cortex activity evoked by social exclusion relative to inclusion. We also identified exclusion-evoked activity in the hippocampi, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and left middle temporal gyrus. Comparing social exclusion and rule violation revealed a functional dissociation in the active neural systems as well as differential functional connectivity with vACC. Some overlap was observed in regions differentially modulated by social exclusion and rule violation, including the vACC and lateral parietal cortex. These overlapping brain regions showed different activation during social exclusion compared to rule violation, each relative to fair play. Comparing activation patterns to social exclusion and rule violation allowed for the dissociation of brain regions involved in the experience of exclusion versus expectancy violation.

  4. Exclusive multipotency and preferential asymmetric divisions in post-embryonic neural stem cells of the fish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanin, Lázaro; Ander, Janina-J; Hoeckendorf, Burkhard; Lust, Katharina; Kellner, Tanja; Kraemer, Isabel; Urbany, Cedric; Hasel, Eva; Harris, William A; Simons, Benjamin D; Wittbrodt, Joachim

    2014-09-01

    The potency of post-embryonic stem cells can only be addressed in the living organism, by labeling single cells after embryonic development and following their descendants. Recently, transplantation experiments involving permanently labeled cells revealed multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) of embryonic origin in the medaka retina. To analyze whether NSC potency is affected by developmental progression, as reported for the mammalian brain, we developed an inducible toolkit for clonal labeling and non-invasive fate tracking. We used this toolkit to address post-embryonic stem cells in different tissues and to functionally differentiate transient progenitor cells from permanent, bona fide stem cells in the retina. Using temporally controlled clonal induction, we showed that post-embryonic retinal NSCs are exclusively multipotent and give rise to the complete spectrum of cell types in the neural retina. Intriguingly, and in contrast to any other vertebrate stem cell system described so far, long-term analysis of clones indicates a preferential mode of asymmetric cell division. Moreover, following the behavior of clones before and after external stimuli, such as injuries, shows that NSCs in the retina maintained the preference for asymmetric cell division during regenerative responses. We present a comprehensive analysis of individual post-embryonic NSCs in their physiological environment and establish the teleost retina as an ideal model for studying adult stem cell biology at single cell resolution.

  5. The Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion in Physical Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Munk; Agergaard, Sine

    2015-01-01

    Existing research on inclusion and exclusion processes in physical education (PE) has particularly focused on exclusion from PE as something being done to students and attributed to specific social categories such as (female) gender, (low) physical skills or (minority) ethnic background....... This article aims to develop a social-relational perspective on inclusion and exclusion processes defined as students’ participation or non-participation in PE interpreted as a community of practice. In so doing, the article examines how students’ experiences of participation and non-participation in PE....... Some students were excluded from PE because they did not have the physical skills and social relations necessary to gain legitimacy from other students. Others chose not to participate because PE was not meaningful to them. This latter type of non-participation from students who experienced lacking...

  6. Educing GPDs from Amplitudes of Hard Exclusive Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Polyakov, M V

    2007-01-01

    The dual parametrization of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is considered in details. We discuss which part of information about hadron structure encoded in GPDs [part of total GPD image] can be restored from the known amplitude of a hard exclusive process. The physics content of this partial image is analyzed.

  7. Reply to "Comment on `Generalized exclusion processes: Transport coefficients' "

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, Kirone

    2016-07-01

    We reply to the Comment of Becker, Nelissen, Cleuren, Partoens, and Van den Broeck [Phys. Rev. E 93, 046101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.046101] on our article [Arita, Krapivsky, and Mallick, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052108 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052108] about the transport properties of a class of generalized exclusion processes.

  8. Inclusive and Exclusive Compton Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaker, Ales [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    In our work, we describe two types of Compton processes. As an example of an inclusive process, we consider the high-energy photoproduction of massive muon pairs off the nucleon. We analyze the process in the framework of the QCD parton model, in which the usual parton distributions emerge as a tool to describe the nucleon in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. To study its exclusive version, a new class of phenomenological functions is required, namely, generalized parton distributions. They can be considered as a generalization of the usual parton distributions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) may be observed in hard exclusive reactions such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. We develop an extension of this particular process into the weak interaction sector. We also investigate a possible application of the GPD formalism to wide-angle real Compton scattering.

  9. Generalized binomial multiplicative cascade processes and asymmetrical multifractal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.

    2014-04-01

    The concepts and models of multifractals have been employed in various fields in the geosciences to characterize singular fields caused by nonlinear geoprocesses. Several indices involved in multifractal models, i.e., asymmetry, multifractality, and range of singularity, are commonly used to characterize nonlinear properties of multifractal fields. An understanding of how these indices are related to the processes involved in the generation of multifractal fields is essential for multifractal modeling. In this paper, a five-parameter binomial multiplicative cascade model is proposed based on the anisotropic partition processes. Each partition divides the unit set (1-D length or 2-D area) into h equal subsets (segments or subareas) and m1 of them receive d1 (> 0) and m2 receive d2 (> 0) proportion of the mass in the previous subset, respectively, where m1+m2 ≤ h. The model is demonstrated via several examples published in the literature with asymmetrical fractal dimension spectra. This model demonstrates the various properties of asymmetrical multifractal distributions and multifractal indices with explicit functions, thus providing insight into and an understanding of the properties of asymmetrical binomial multifractal distributions.

  10. Hydrodynamic limit of symmetric exclusion processes in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Faggionato, A

    2010-01-01

    In \\cite{J} M. Jara has presented a method, reducing the proof of the hydrodynamic limit of symmetric exclusion processes to an homogenization problem, as unified approach to recent works on the field as \\cite{N}, \\cite{F1}, \\cite{F2} and \\cite{FJL}. Although not stated in \\cite{J}, the reduction of the hydrodynamic limit to an homogenization problem was already obtained (in a different way) in \\cite{N}, \\cite{F1}. This alternative and very simple relation between the two problems goes back to an idea of K.\\ Nagy \\cite{N}, is stated in \\cite{F1}[Section B] for exclusion processes on $\\bbZ^d$ and, as stressed in \\cite{F2}, is completely general. The above relation has been applied to \\cite{N}, \\cite{F1}, \\cite{F2} and \\cite{FJL} and could be applied to other symmetric exclusion processes, mentioned in \\cite{J}. In this short note we briefly recall this unified approach in a complete general setting. Finally, we recall how the homogenization problem has been solved in the above previous works.

  11. Collective dynamics of an inhomogeneous two-channel exclusion process: Theory and Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dhiman, Isha

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the development of a novel theoretical approach, named hybrid approach, to handle a localized bottleneck in a symmetrically coupled two-channel totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with Langmuir kinetics. The hybrid approach is combined with singular perturbation technique to get steady-state phase diagrams and density profiles. We have thoroughly examined the role played by the strength of bottleneck, binding constant and lane-changing rate in the system dynamics. The appearances of bottleneck-induced shock, a bottleneck phase and Meissner phase are explained. Further, the critical values of bottleneck rate are identified, which signify the changes in the topology of phase diagram. It is also found that increase in lane-changing rate as well as unequal attachment, detachment rates weaken the bottleneck effect. Our theoretical arguments are in good agreement with extensively performed Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. The AdS/QCD Correspondence and Exclusive Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Deur, Alexandre; /Jefferson Lab

    2010-08-25

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS}(q) and its {beta}-function which agrees with the effective coupling {alpha}{sub ga} extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable {zeta}, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties as well as decay constants, form factors, deeply virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. One thus obtains a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level with dimensional counting for hard exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer. As specific examples we discuss the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors in the space-like and time-like regions. We also review the phenomenology of exclusive processes including some anomalous empirical results.

  13. Condensation and transport in the totally asymmetric inclusion process (TASIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Johannes; Weber, Markus F.; Krueger, Torben; Frey, Erwin

    Transport phenomena are often modeled by the hopping of particles on regular lattices or networks. Such models describe, e.g., the exclusive movement of molecular motors along microtubules: no two motors may occupy the same site. In our work, we study inclusion processes that are the bosonic analogues of the fermionic exclusion processes. In inclusion processes, many particles may occupy a single site and hopping rates depend linearly on the occupation of departure and arrival sites. Particles thus attract other particles to their own site. Condensation occurs when particles collectively cluster in one or multiple sites, whereas other sites become depleted.We showed that inclusion processes describe both the selection of strategies in evolutionary zero-sum games and the condensation of non-interacting bosons into multiple quantum states in driven-dissipative systems. The condensation is captured by the antisymmetric Lotka-Volterra equation (ALVE), which constitutes a nonlinearly coupled dynamical system. We derived an algebraic method to analyze the ALVE and to determine the condensates. Our approach allows for the design of networks that result in condensates with oscillating occupations, and yields insight into the interplay between network topology and transport properties. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB-TR12), German Excellence Initiative (Nanosystems Initiative Munich), Center for NanoScience Munich.

  14. Integrable dissipative exclusion process: Correlation functions and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampe, N.; Ragoucy, E.; Rittenberg, V.; Vanicat, M.

    2016-09-01

    We study a one-parameter generalization of the symmetric simple exclusion process on a one-dimensional lattice. In addition to the usual dynamics (where particles can hop with equal rates to the left or to the right with an exclusion constraint), annihilation and creation of pairs can occur. The system is driven out of equilibrium by two reservoirs at the boundaries. In this setting the model is still integrable: it is related to the open XXZ spin chain through a gauge transformation. This allows us to compute the full spectrum of the Markov matrix using Bethe equations. We also show that the stationary state can be expressed in a matrix product form permitting to compute the multipoints correlation functions as well as the mean value of the lattice and the creation-annihilation currents. Finally, the variance of the lattice current is computed for a finite-size system. In the thermodynamic limit, it matches the value obtained from the associated macroscopic fluctuation theory.

  15. Tests of quantum chromodynamics in exclusive e sup + e sup minus and. gamma. gamma. processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1989-09-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: Factorization theorem for exclusive processes; Electromagnetic form factors of baryons; Suppression of final state interactions; The {gamma}{pi}{sub 0} Transition form factor; Exclusive charmonium decays; The {pi}-{rho} puzzle; Time-like compton processes; Multi-hadron production; Heavy Quark exclusive states and form factor zeros in QCD; Exclusive {gamma}{gamma} reactions; Higher twist effects; and Tauonium and threshold {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup {minus}} production. 41 refs., 15 figs. (LSP)

  16. Asymptotic Theory for Extended Asymmetric Multivariate GARCH Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe paper considers various extended asymmetric multivariate conditional volatility models, and derives appropriate regularity conditions and associated asymptotic theory. This enables checking of internal consistency and allows valid statistical inferences to be drawn based on empirical

  17. The transition probability and the probability for the left-most particle's position of the q-totally asymmetric zero range process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Marko [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Lee, Eunghyun [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Université de Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    We treat the N-particle zero range process whose jumping rates satisfy a certain condition. This condition is required to use the Bethe ansatz and the resulting model is the q-boson model by Sasamoto and Wadati [“Exact results for one-dimensional totally asymmetric diffusion models,” J. Phys. A 31, 6057–6071 (1998)] or the q-totally asymmetric zero range process (TAZRP) by Borodin and Corwin [“Macdonald processes,” Probab. Theory Relat. Fields (to be published)]. We find the explicit formula of the transition probability of the q-TAZRP via the Bethe ansatz. By using the transition probability we find the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t. To find the probability for the left-most particle's position we find a new identity corresponding to identity for the asymmetric simple exclusion process by Tracy and Widom [“Integral formulas for the asymmetric simple exclusion process,” Commun. Math. Phys. 279, 815–844 (2008)]. For the initial state that all particles occupy a single site, the probability distribution of the left-most particle's position at time t is represented by the contour integral of a determinant.

  18. Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Greg; O' Brien, John; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2006-03-10

    We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.

  19. The State University, Due Process and Summary Exclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Earl D.

    1974-01-01

    In Braxton v. Municipal Court, the California Supreme Court upheld a Penal Code statute allowing for the summary exclusion of students from college campuses. The author discusses the need for procedural safeguards and a reevaluation of the judicial treatment of colleges and universities. (Editor)

  20. Measurement of diffractive and exclusive processes with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gach, Grzegorz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has carried out a study diffractive dijet production at 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC, i.e. events with a hadronic system containing at least two jets in addition to a large region of pseudorapidity devoid of hadronic activity. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. Prospects for exclusive jet production studies with the forward proton tagging capability of the AFP sub-detector of ATLAS will be discussed. A first look at data taken jointly with the ATLAS and LHCf detectors in a p+Pb run will also be shown. In addition the measurement of the exclusive $\\gamma+\\gamma \\rightarrow ll$ production cross-section in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV has been carried out.

  1. Measurement of diffractive and exclusive processes with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gach Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS Collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV at the LHC. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. Prospects for exclusive jet production studies with the forward proton tagging capability of the AFP sub-detector of ATLAS are also discussed. First results based on data taken jointly with the ATLAS and the LHCf detectors in a p+Pb run will also be shown. In addition, the measurement of the cross-section for the exclusive production of di-lepton pairs in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV is discussed.

  2. Measurement of diffractive and exclusive processes with the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV at the LHC. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. Prospects for exclusive jet production studies with the forward proton tagging capability of the AFP sub-detector of ATLAS are also discussed. First results based on data taken jointly with the ATLAS and the LHCf detectors in a p+Pb run will also be shown. In addition, the measurement of the cross-section for the exclusive production of di-lepton pairs in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV is discussed.

  3. Exclusive processes at JLab at 6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Andrey [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Deeply virtual exclusive reactions provide a unique opportunity to probe the complex internal structure of the nucleon. They allow to access information about the correlations between parton transverse spatial and longitudinal momentum distributions from experimental observables. Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP) have been carried out at Jefferson Lab using continuous electron beam with energies up to 6 GeV. Unpolarized cross sections, beam, target and double spin asymmetries have been measured for DVCS as well as for π0 exclusive electroproduction. The data from Hall B provide a wide kinematic coverage with Q2=1-4.5 GeV2, xB=0.1-0.5, and -t up to 2 GeV2. Hall A data have limited kinematic range partially overlapping with Hall B kinematics but provide a high accuracy measurements. Scaling tests of the DVCS cross sections provide solid evidence of twist-2 dominance, which makes chiral-even GPDs accessible even at modest Q2. We will discuss the interpretation of these data in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) model. Successful description of the recent CLAS π0 exclusive production data within the framework of the GPD-based model provides a unique opportunity to access the chiral-odd GPDs.

  4. Deeply Virtual Exclusive Processes and Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    2011-06-01

    The goal of the comprehensive program in Deeply Virtual Exclusive Scattering at Jefferson Laboratory is to create transverse spatial images of quarks and gluons as a function of their longitudinal momentum fraction in the proton, the neutron, and in nuclei. These functions are the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the target nucleus. Cross section measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) reaction ep {yields} ep{gamma} in Hall A support the QCD factorization of the scattering amplitude for Q^2 {>=} 2 GeV^2. Quasi-free neutron-DVCS measurements on the Deuteron indicate sensitivity to the quark angular momentum sum rule. Fully exclusive H(e, e'p{gamma} ) measurements have been made in a wide kinematic range in CLAS with polarized beam, and with both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized targets. Existing models are qualitatively consistent with the JLab data, but there is a clear need for less constrained models. Deeply virtual vector meson production is studied in CLAS. The 12 GeV upgrade will be essential for for these channels. The {rho} and {omega} channels reactions offer the prospect of flavor sensitivity to the quark GPDs, while the {phi}-production channel is dominated by the gluon distribution.

  5. Metastability for the Exclusion Process with Mean-Field Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselah, Amine; Giacomin, Giambattista

    1998-12-01

    We consider an exclusion particle system with long-range, mean-field-type interactions at temperature 1/β. The hydrodynamic limit of such a system is given by an integrodifferential equation with one conservation law on the circle C: it is the gradient flux of the Kac free energy functional F β. For β≤1, any constant function with value m ∈ [-1, +1] is the global minimizer of F β in the space \\{ u:int_C {u(x)} dx = m\\} . For β>1, F β restricted to \\{ u:int_C {u(x)} dx = m\\} may have several local minima: in particular, the constant solution may not be the absolute minimizer of F β. We therefore study the long-time behavior of the particle system when the initial condition is close to a homogeneous stable state, giving results on the time of exit from (suitable) subsets of its domain of attraction. We follow the Freidlin-Wentzell approach: first, we study in detail F β together with the time asymptotics of the solution of the hydrodynamic equation; then we study the probability of rare events for the particle system, i.e., large deviations from the hydrodynamic limit.

  6. Equilibrium fluctuations for gradient exclusion processes with conductances in random environments

    CERN Document Server

    Farfan, Jonathan; Valentim, Fabio J

    2009-01-01

    We study the equilibrium fluctuations for a gradient exclusion process with conductances in random environments, which can be viewed as a central limit theorem for the empirical distribution of particles when the system starts from an equilibrium measure.

  7. Fractional Fick's Law for the Boundary Driven Exclusion Process with Long Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardin, Cédric; Oviedo Jimenez, Byron

    2016-01-01

    A fractional Fick's law and fractional hydrostatics for the one dimensional exclusion process with long jumps in contact with infinite reservoirs at different densities on the left and on the right are derived.

  8. New effective treatment of the light-front nonvalence contribution in timelike exclusive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, C R; Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Choi, Ho-Meoyng

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a necessary nonvalence contribution in timelike exclusive processes. Following a Schwinger-Dyson type of approach, we relate the nonvalence contribution to an ordinary light-front wave function that has been extensively tested in the spacelike exclusive processes. A complicate four-body energy denominator is exactly cancelled in summing the light-front time-ordered amplitudes. Applying our method to $K_{\\ell3}$ and $D^0\\to K^- \\ell^+ \

  9. Full current statistics for a disordered open exclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyer, Arvind

    2016-04-01

    We consider the nonabelian sandpile model defined on directed trees by Ayyer et al (2015 Commun. Math. Phys. 335 1065) and restrict it to the special case of a one-dimensional lattice of n sites which has open boundaries and disordered hopping rates. We focus on the joint distribution of the integrated currents across each bond simultaneously, and calculate its cumulant generating function exactly. Surprisingly, the process conditioned on seeing specified currents across each bond turns out to be a renormalised version of the same process. We also remark on a duality property of the large deviation function. Lastly, all eigenvalues and both Perron eigenvectors of the tilted generator are determined.

  10. GenEx: A simple generator structure for exclusive processes in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kycia, R A; Staszewski, R; Turnau, J

    2014-01-01

    A simple C++ class structure for construction of a Monte Carlo event generators which can produce unweighted events within relativistic phase space is presented. The generator is self-adapting to the provided matrix element and acceptance cuts. The program is designed specially for exclusive processes and includes, as an example of such an application, implementation of the model for exclusive production of meson pairs $pp \\rightarrow p M^+M^- p $ in high energy proton-proton collisions.

  11. Effect of asymmetric strain relaxation on dislocation relaxation processes in heteroepitaxial semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.; Hull, R.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of asymmetric interfacial strain configurations upon the generation of misfit dislocation arrays in lattice mismatched epitaxy is considered. For example, elastic strain relaxation for Si1-xGex/Si(110) films is uniaxial, assuming glide on {111} planes as expected for the diamond cubic system, which leads to asymmetric strain relief. Here, we extend our previously developed relaxation model for generation of dislocation arrays in SiGe/Si, by accounting for how the different energetics of asymmetrically strained films affect the kinetics of the relaxation process. Similarly, non-polar III-nitride epitaxial films have asymmetric strain from the outset of growth due to the different c/a lattice parameter ratios. In both systems, the asymmetric strain is represented by an additional term in the misfit dislocation applied stress equation. In SiGe/Si(110), a simple elasticity analysis of the strain produced by the uniaxial array of dislocations predicts that the relaxation orthogonal to the dislocation line direction occurs at a faster rate than predicted by purely biaxial strain relief due to the contributions of the strain parallel to the dislocations. This difference is because the strain parallel to the dislocation line directions continues to resolve stress onto the misfit dislocations even as the orthogonal strain is minimized. As a result, the minimum strain energy is predicted to occur for a dislocation spacing, which produces tensile layer strain in the orthogonal direction. Such tensile strain may modify the (opto)electronic properties of a Si, Ge, or GeSi epilayer but is only predicted to occur for advanced stages of relaxation. These asymmetric derivations are applicable to any thin film system where strain is not strictly biaxial.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Symmetric and Asymmetric Three-roll Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesin A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-roll process is a significant technique in the production of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles for structural applications. Better mechanical properties of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles can be achieved due to large plastic deformation by the three-roll process. Asymmetric rolling is a novel technique characterised by a kinematic asymmetry linked to the difference in peripheral speed of the rolls, able to introduce additional shear strains through the bar thickness. In order to achieve this, asymmetrical three-roll rolling process was investigated to better control the deformation compared to the conventional three-roll rolling process in a stand with two three-roll calibers located very close to each other. Simulation of round-triangle-triangle pass rolling was performed. FEM simulations were carried out with using software DEFORM 3D. The influence of the friction coefficient and speed asymmetry on the shear strain and material flow was discussed. The results of simulation can be used to optimize the asymmetric three-roll rolling process to improve the mechanical properties of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles.

  13. [Female students in internships in Parisian hospitals (1871-1910). Exclusion and inclusion processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, María; Somavilla, Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the explicit and implicit exclusion mechanisms that limited the access of women to internships in Paris hospitals during the last decades of the 19th century through examination of the documentation generated in the admission process and the texts of female physicians who supported their access. In response to the applications of female medical students to register for the admission tests, the Conseil de Surveillance de l'Assistance Publique delayed their entry for some years until their registration was finally permitted. However, their inclusion in the institution did not produce integration because of the multiple dimensions of the exclusion mechanisms.

  14. Using Data Exclusivity Grants to Incentivize Cumulative Innovation of Biologics' Manufacturing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Eric Lawrence

    The pharmaceutical market is divided into two types of compounds: small-molecule chemical compounds and large-molecule biologics. Due to biologics’ molecular sizes and the current scientific state of biologics manufacturing, manufacturing facilities and processes require frequent reassessment to ensure production of safe, pure, and potent therapeutics. Manufacturers utilize patent and drug regulatory law to protect their investments and simultaneously signal where innovation and investment are lacking. The current four- and twelve-year regimented structures of the Biologics Price, Competition, and Innovation Act do not keep pace with scientific development; biologics manufacturing processes drift with time, and if a manufacturer can obtain a higher degree of process control, then it should not feel restricted to wait until their exclusivity period lapses. Currently, the FDA rarely grants market exclusivity privileges for manufacturing process improvements alone; hence, manufacturing processes--or at least large portions thereof--are typically withheld as trade secrets or strategically claimed within companion composition claims. As a result, significant opportunity exists in regulatory framework to incentivize the research and development of biologics manufacturing processes. By creating a one- to four-year data exclusivity extension opportunity, manufacturers will feel more comfortable reinvesting their returns on investment towards manufacturing efficiency, and manufacturers can capitalize on the complex-molecule nature of their biologic.

  15. Asymmetric Mid-Ocean ridges: Interplay Between Plate and Mantle Processes and Consequences for Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, L.; Bai, H.

    2014-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges constitute a fundamental component of the global plate tectonic system. The classical view of ridges is of symmetric system, where plates diverge, generating a mostly passive upwelling immediately underneath the ridge axis. However, observations of mid-ocean ridges draw quite a different picture. At the Southern East Pacific Rise, plate subsidence (related to plate age) occurs at different rates on the Pacific and Nazca plates, implying different rates of accretion on each side of the ridge. At greater depth, the melting region extends much further beneath the Pacific plate than the Nazca plate. Asymmetry is also evident in slow spreading center. For examples, at the 13°N segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, isochrons are more widely spaced on the American side than the European side. Core complexes along the axis are another manifestation of asymmetric accretion at that location. In this contribution, we seek to understand how is the melting system affected by ridge asymmetry. First, we discuss the different ways that an asymmetric ridge may develop. We present an analytical solution of mantle flow in the mantle underneath spreading centers that considers 1) different rates of accretion in on the two plates; 2) migration of the ridge system with respect to the underlying mantle (Couette flow in the asthenosphere); 3) mantle wind (Poiseuille flow in the asthenosphere); 4) different slopes of the lithosphere underneath each plate; and 5) any combination of the above. These solutions assume an isoviscous mantle underneath the lithosphere. Asymmetry in mantle flow is observed in each case. The temperature field associated with each case implies that melting is suppressed by the asymmetric accretion, although deeper processes have little effect on melting. As asymmetric accretion is thought to develop when melt flux to the axis is reduced, there is the possibility of a positive feedback that forces segments to switch between symmetric and asymmetric

  16. Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preller, Katrin H; Pokorny, Thomas; Hock, Andreas; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Scheidegger, Milan; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-05-03

    Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study assessed the neural response to social exclusion after the acute administration of Psi (0.215 mg/kg) or placebo (Pla) in 21 healthy volunteers by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Participants reported a reduced feeling of social exclusion after Psi vs. Pla administration, and the neural response to social exclusion was decreased in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the middle frontal gyrus, key regions for social pain processing. The reduced neural response in the dACC was significantly correlated with Psi-induced changes in self-processing and decreased aspartate (Asp) content. In conclusion, 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation with psilocybin seems to reduce social pain processing in association with changes in self-experience. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of negative social interaction processing in psychiatric disorders characterized by increased rejection sensitivity. The current results also emphasize the importance of 5-HT2A/1A receptor subtypes and the Asp system in the control of social functioning, and as prospective targets in the treatment of sociocognitive impairments in psychiatric illnesses.

  17. Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preller, Katrin H.; Pokorny, Thomas; Hock, Andreas; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Scheidegger, Milan; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study assessed the neural response to social exclusion after the acute administration of Psi (0.215 mg/kg) or placebo (Pla) in 21 healthy volunteers by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Participants reported a reduced feeling of social exclusion after Psi vs. Pla administration, and the neural response to social exclusion was decreased in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the middle frontal gyrus, key regions for social pain processing. The reduced neural response in the dACC was significantly correlated with Psi-induced changes in self-processing and decreased aspartate (Asp) content. In conclusion, 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation with psilocybin seems to reduce social pain processing in association with changes in self-experience. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of negative social interaction processing in psychiatric disorders characterized by increased rejection sensitivity. The current results also emphasize the importance of 5-HT2A/1A receptor subtypes and the Asp system in the control of social functioning, and as prospective targets in the treatment of sociocognitive impairments in psychiatric illnesses. PMID:27091970

  18. Probing non-perturbative QCD through hadronic matrix elements extracted from exclusive hard processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pire, B

    2009-01-01

    QCD is the theory of strong interactions and non-perturbative methods have been developed to address the confinement property of QCD. Many experimental measurements probe the confining dynamics, and it is well-known that hard scattering processes allow the extraction of non perturbative hadronic matrix elements. To study exclusive hard processes, such as electromagnetic form factors and reactions like gamma* N -> gamma N', gamma* N -> pi N', gamma* gamma -> pi pi, antiproton proton ->gamma* pi in particular kinematics (named as generalized Bjorken regime), one introduces specific non-perturbative objects, namely generalized parton distributions (GPDs), distribution amplitudes (DA) and transition distribution amplitudes (TDA), which are Fourier transformed non-diagonal matrix elements of non-local operators on the light-cone. We review here a selected sample of exclusive amplitudes in which the quark and gluon content of hadrons is probed, and emphasize that much remains to be done to successfully compute thei...

  19. Test practice and processes of in- and exclusion in school classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal

    Recently national mandatory standardized testing has been implemented in compulsory school in both Norway and Denmark. In Sweden the national school reform from emphasize such pedagogical practice. Assessment has profound impact on processes of marginalization and in- and exclusion in school (McD...... "as" Disability. In: Anthropology & Education Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 3. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge University Press....

  20. Formation of asymmetrical structured silica controlled by a phase separation process and implication for biosilicification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available Biogenetic silica displays intricate patterns assembling from nano- to microsize level and interesting non-spherical structures differentiating in specific directions. Several model systems have been proposed to explain the formation of biosilica nanostructures. Of them, phase separation based on the physicochemical properties of organic amines was considered to be responsible for the pattern formation of biosilica. In this paper, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OCH2CH34 as silica precursor, phospholipid (PL and dodecylamine (DA were introduced to initiate phase separation of organic components and influence silica precipitation. Morphology, structure and composition of the mineralized products were characterized using a range of techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA, infrared spectra (IR, and nitrogen physisorption. The results demonstrate that the phase separation process of the organic components leads to the formation of asymmetrically non-spherical silica structures, and the aspect ratios of the asymmetrical structures can be well controlled by varying the concentration of PL and DA. On the basis of the time-dependent experiments, a tentative mechanism is also proposed to illustrate the asymmetrical morphogenesis. Therefore, our results imply that in addition to explaining the hierarchical porous nanopatterning of biosilica, the phase separation process may also be responsible for the growth differentiation of siliceous structures in specific directions. Because organic amine (e.g., long-chair polyamines, phospholipids (e.g., silicalemma and the phase separation process are associated with the biosilicification of diatoms, our results may provide a new insight into the mechanism of biosilicification.

  1. Nonlinear giant magnetoimpedance and the asymmetric circumferential magnetization process in soft magnetic wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Polo, C.; Duque, J. G. S.; Knobel, M.

    2004-07-01

    The magnetoimpedance effect and its nonlinear terms are analysed for a (Co0.94Fe0.06)72.5Si12.5B15 amorphous wire. In order to enhance the nonlinear contribution the sample was previously subjected to current annealing (Joule heating) to induce a circumferential anisotropy. The effect of the application of a torsional strain on the nonlinear magnetoimpedance is analysed in terms of the torsional dependence of the magnetic permeability, evaluated through experimental circumferential hysteresis loops. The results obtained clearly confirm the direct correlation between the asymmetric circumferential magnetization process and the occurrence of nonlinear second-harmonic terms in the magnetoimpedance voltage.

  2. Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bungert

    Full Text Available There is a general agreement that physical pain serves as an alarm signal for the prevention of and reaction to physical harm. It has recently been hypothesized that "social pain," as induced by social rejection or abandonment, may rely on comparable, phylogenetically old brain structures. As plausible as this theory may sound, scientific evidence for this idea is sparse. This study therefore attempts to link both types of pain directly. We studied patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD because BPD is characterized by opposing alterations in physical and social pain; hyposensitivity to physical pain is associated with hypersensitivity to social pain, as indicated by an enhanced rejection sensitivity.Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education played a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball, with the conditions for exclusion, inclusion, and a control condition with predefined game rules. Each cyberball block was followed by a temperature stimulus (with a subjective pain intensity of 60% in half the cases. The cerebral responses were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to assess rejection sensitivity.Higher temperature heat stimuli had to be applied to BPD patients relative to HCs to reach a comparable subjective experience of painfulness in both groups, which suggested a general hyposensitivity to pain in BPD patients. Social exclusion led to a subjectively reported hypersensitivity to physical pain in both groups that was accompanied by an enhanced activation in the anterior insula and the thalamus. In BPD, physical pain processing after exclusion was additionally linked to enhanced posterior insula activation. After inclusion, BPD patients showed reduced amygdala activation during pain in comparison with HC. In BPD patients, higher rejection sensitivity was associated with lower activation differences during

  3. Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungert, Melanie; Koppe, Georgia; Niedtfeld, Inga; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a general agreement that physical pain serves as an alarm signal for the prevention of and reaction to physical harm. It has recently been hypothesized that “social pain,” as induced by social rejection or abandonment, may rely on comparable, phylogenetically old brain structures. As plausible as this theory may sound, scientific evidence for this idea is sparse. This study therefore attempts to link both types of pain directly. We studied patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) because BPD is characterized by opposing alterations in physical and social pain; hyposensitivity to physical pain is associated with hypersensitivity to social pain, as indicated by an enhanced rejection sensitivity. Method Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education) played a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball), with the conditions for exclusion, inclusion, and a control condition with predefined game rules. Each cyberball block was followed by a temperature stimulus (with a subjective pain intensity of 60% in half the cases). The cerebral responses were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to assess rejection sensitivity. Results Higher temperature heat stimuli had to be applied to BPD patients relative to HCs to reach a comparable subjective experience of painfulness in both groups, which suggested a general hyposensitivity to pain in BPD patients. Social exclusion led to a subjectively reported hypersensitivity to physical pain in both groups that was accompanied by an enhanced activation in the anterior insula and the thalamus. In BPD, physical pain processing after exclusion was additionally linked to enhanced posterior insula activation. After inclusion, BPD patients showed reduced amygdala activation during pain in comparison with HC. In BPD patients, higher rejection sensitivity was associated with lower activation

  4. Exclusive $J/\\psi$ process tamed to probe the low $x$ gluon

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, S P; Ryskin, M G; Teubner, T

    2016-01-01

    We address the question as to whether data for J/\\psi mesons produced exclusively in the forward direction at the LHC can be used in global parton analyses (based on collinear factorization) to pin down the low x gluon PDF. We show that it may be possible to overcome the problems that (i) the process is described by a skewed or Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD), (ii) it is very sensitive to the choice of factorization scale and (iii) there is bad LO, NLO,... perturbative stability to the predictions. However, we start by briefly explaining how the alternative k_T factorization approach has been used to describe the process.

  5. Process Considerations for the Asymmetric Synthesis of Chiral Amines using ω-Transaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Afonso Neto, Watson

    of suitable polymeric resins for product removal. The work has been performed in collaboration with c-LEcta GmbH (Leipzig, Germany) and DSM Innovative Synthesis (Geleen, The Netherlands) who supplied the enzymes for the case study, making possible the successful demonstration of the screening methodologies...... in order to eliminate infeasible routes. This work illustrates the Laboratory scale characterization of different process options for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines catalysed by ω-transaminase (ω –TAm). The studied process options include: (i) the immobilization of the biocatalyst to improve its......PR) to respectively alleviate product inhibition and shift the reaction equilibrium. From an academic point of view, more important than the implementation of these technologies to a specific example, is the development of a general methodology that can be later applied in other cases. Hence, this work has also...

  6. Productivity Gap and Asymmetric Trade Relations: The Canada-United States of America Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán H. Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of the European model of integration is currently subject to debate and the North American integration process has been largely ignored as a comparative framework. The asymmetrical relationship between Canada and the United States began a long time before NAFTA, and the study of this process could shed light on the usual problems faced by Latin American countries. This article attempts to encourage discussion about this topic. Particularly,there is evidence for a substantial and positive change in Canadian productivity at the time of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA. However, the enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA does not seem to have had the same effect as the earlier treaty.

  7. On the asymmetric effects of mind-wandering on levels of processing at encoding and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David R; Smilek, Daniel; Besner, Derek

    2014-06-01

    The behavioral consequences of off-task thought (mind-wandering) on primary-task performance are now well documented across an increasing range of tasks. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of mind-wandering on the encoding of information into memory in the context of a levels-of-processing framework (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). Mind-wandering was assessed via subjective self-reports in response to thought probes that were presented under both semantic (size judgment) and perceptual (case judgment) encoding instructions. Mind-wandering rates during semantic encoding negatively predicted subsequent recognition memory performance, whereas no such relation was observed during perceptual encoding. We discuss the asymmetric effects of mind-wandering on levels of processing in the context of attentional-resource accounts of mind-wandering.

  8. Studies of semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harutyun Avagyan

    2008-06-19

    The main goal of experiments proposed for the {\\tt CLAS12} detector in conjunction with the 12-GeV CEBAF accelerator is the study of the nucleon through hard exclusive, semi-inclusive, and inclusive processes. This will provide new insights into nucleon dynamics at the elementary quark and gluon level. In this contribution we provide an overview of ongoing studies of the structure of nucleon in terms of quark and gluon degrees of freedom and future physics program planned with CLAS and {\\tt CLAS12}.

  9. Law of large numbers for a transient random walk driven by a symmetric exclusion process

    CERN Document Server

    Avena, Luca; Völlering, Florian

    2011-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional simple symmetric exclusion process in equilibrium, constituting a dynamic random environment for a nearest-neighbor random walk that on occupied/vacant sites has two different local drifts to the right. We prove that the random walk has an a.s. positive constant global speed by using a regeneration-time argument. This result is part of an ongoing project aiming to analyze the behavior of random walks in slowly mixing dynamic random environments. A brief discussion on this topic is presented.

  10. On the constituent counting rules for hard exclusive processes involving multiquark states

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    At high energies, the cross section of a hard exclusive process at finite scattering angle falls off as a negative power of the center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. If all involved quark-gluon compositions undergo hard momentum transfers, the scaling of the fall-off is determined by the underlying valence structures of the initial and final states, known as the constituent counting rules. It was argued in the literature that the counting rules are a powerful tool to determine the valence degrees of freedom inside multiquark states when applied to exclusive production processes. However, we demonstrate that for hadrons with hidden flavors the naive application of the constituent counting rules is problematic, since it is not mandatory for all components to participate the hard scattering at the scale $\\sqrt{s}$. The correct scaling rules can be obtained easily by using effective field theory. A few examples involving the $Z_c(3900)^\\pm$ and $X(3872)$ are discussed.

  11. Asymmetric Processing of Numerical and Nonnumerical Magnitudes in the Brain: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovich, Tali; Vogel, Stephan E; Henik, Avishai; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that, when comparing nonsymbolic magnitudes (e.g., dot arrays), adults can use both numerical (i.e., the number of items) and nonnumerical (density, total surface areas, etc.) magnitudes. It is less clear which of these magnitudes is more salient or processed more automatically. In this fMRI study, we used a nonsymbolic comparison task to ask if different brain areas are responsible for the automatic processing of numerical and nonnumerical magnitudes, when participants were instructed to attend to either the numerical or the nonnumerical magnitudes of the same stimuli. An interaction of task (numerical vs. nonnumerical) and congruity (congruent vs. incongruent) was found in the right TPJ. Specifically, this brain region was more strongly activated during numerical processing when the nonnumerical magnitudes were negatively correlated with numerosity (incongruent trials). In contrast, such an interference effect was not evident during nonnumerical processing when the task-irrelevant numerical magnitude was incongruent. In view of the role of the right TPJ in the control of stimulus-driven attention, we argue that these data demonstrate that the processing of nonnumerical magnitudes is more automatic than that of numerical magnitudes and that, therefore, the influence of numerical and nonnumerical variables on each other is asymmetrical.

  12. Reconsolidation and extinction are dissociable and mutually exclusive processes: behavioral and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Emiliano; Milton, Amy L; Goozée, Zara Y; Theobald, David E; Everitt, Barry J

    2014-02-12

    Memory persistence is critically influenced by retrieval. In rats, a single presentation of a conditioned fear stimulus induces memory reconsolidation and fear memory persistence, while repeated fear cue presentations result in loss of fear through extinction. These two opposite behavioral outcomes are operationally linked by the number of cue presentations at memory retrieval. However, the behavioral properties and mechanistic determinants of the transition have not yet been explored; in particular, whether reconsolidation and extinction processes coexist or are mutually exclusive, depending on the exposure to non-reinforced retrieval events. We characterized both behaviorally and molecularly the transition from reconsolidation to extinction of conditioned fear and showed that an increase in calcineurin (CaN) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) supports the shift from fear maintenance to fear inhibition. Gradually increasing the extent of retrieval induces a gradual decrease in freezing responses to the conditioned stimulus and a gradual increase in amygdala CaN level. This newly synthesized CaN is required for the extinction, but not the reconsolidation, of conditioned fear. During the transition from reconsolidation to extinction, we have revealed an insensitive state of the fear memory where NMDA-type glutamate receptor agonist and antagonist drugs are unable either to modulate CaN levels in the BLA or alter the reconsolidation or extinction processes. Together, our data indicate both that reconsolidation and extinction are mutually exclusive processes and also reveal the presence of a transitional, or "limbo," state of the original memory between these two alternative outcomes of fear memory retrieval, when neither process is engaged.

  13. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rajchert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96 using an online ball throwing game and measured displaced aggressive behavior - intensity and duration of an unpleasant noise administrated to a stranger. In Study 2 participants (n = 140 were rejected by a peer on the basis of an interview that they gave and then could retaliate by reducing peer's chance for getting a job. The results show that exclusion effect on displaced aggression was moderated by cognitive readiness for aggression, while rejection effect on retaliatory aggression was shaped by emotional and personality-immanent readiness for aggression as well as ego-depletion. The results were discussed in light of the strength model of self-control by Baumeister, Vohs, and Tice (2007.

  14. Stepping and crowding of molecular motors: statistical kinetics from an exclusion process perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciandrini, Luca; Romano, M Carmen; Parmeggiani, Andrea

    2014-09-02

    Motor enzymes are remarkable molecular machines that use the energy derived from the hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate to generate mechanical movement, achieved through different steps that constitute their kinetic cycle. These macromolecules, nowadays investigated with advanced experimental techniques to unveil their molecular mechanisms and the properties of their kinetic cycles, are implicated in many biological processes, ranging from biopolymerization (e.g., RNA polymerases and ribosomes) to intracellular transport (motor proteins such as kinesins or dyneins). Although the kinetics of individual motors is well studied on both theoretical and experimental grounds, the repercussions of their stepping cycle on the collective dynamics still remains unclear. Advances in this direction will improve our comprehension of transport process in the natural intracellular medium, where processive motor enzymes might operate in crowded conditions. In this work, we therefore extend contemporary statistical kinetic analysis to study collective transport phenomena of motors in terms of lattice gas models belonging to the exclusion process class. Via numerical simulations, we show how to interpret and use the randomness calculated from single particle trajectories in crowded conditions. Importantly, we also show that time fluctuations and non-Poissonian behavior are intrinsically related to spatial correlations and the emergence of large, but finite, clusters of comoving motors. The properties unveiled by our analysis have important biological implications on the collective transport characteristics of processive motor enzymes in crowded conditions.

  15. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  16. The exclusive Drell-Yan process and deeply virtual pion production

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this talk it is reported on analyses of l p -> l pi+ n and pi- p -> l+ l- n within the handbag approach. It is argued that recent measurements of hard pion production performed by HERMES and CLAS clearly indicate the occurrence of strong contributions from transversely polarized photons. The gamma*T -> pi transitions are described by the transversity GPDs accompanied by twist-3 pion wave functions. The experiments also require strong contributions from the pion pole which can be modeled as a classical one-pion exchange. With these extensions the handbag approach leads to results on cross sections and spin asymmetries in fair agreement with experiment. This approach is also used for an estimate of the partial cross sections for the exclusive Drell-Yan process.

  17. The process of coevolutionary competitive exclusion: speciation, multifractality and power-laws in correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Chen-Ping; Yang, Hui-Jie; Xiong, Shi-Jie; Gu, Zhi-Ming; Shi, Da-Ning; He, Da-Ren; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2007-01-01

    Competitive exclusion, a key principle of ecology, can be generalized to understand many other complex systems. Individuals under surviving pressure tend to be different from others, and correlations among them change correspondingly to the updating of their states. We show with numerical simulation that these aptitudes can contribute to group formation or speciation in social fields. Moreover, they can lead to power-law topological correlations of complex networks. By coupling updating states of nodes with variation of connections in a network, structural properties with power-laws and functions like multifractality, spontaneous ranking and evolutionary branching of node states can emerge out simultaneously from the present self-organized model of coevolutionary process.

  18. Scaling of triple differential cross-sections for asymmetric (, 2) process on helium isoelectronic ions by fast electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Srivastava

    2005-01-01

    A simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 2) process on helium isoelectronic ions by fast electrons. It is based on treating the targets as having one active electron moving in the effective Coulomb field of the atomic core with an effective charge ' = − 5/8. This effective charge is also used in the description of the scattered and ejected electrons. The model has been tested against other available (, 2) results on helium in asymmetric geometry. The scaling law is found to work reasonably well for fast incident electrons and becomes increasingly accurate as target increases.

  19. Asymmetric Diketopyrrolopyrrole Conjugated Polymers for Field-Effect Transistors and Polymer Solar Cells Processed from a Nonchlorinated Solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yunjing; Xiao, Chengyi; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Jianqi; Li, Cheng; Wu, Yonggang; Wei, Zhixiang; Zhan, Xiaowei; Hu, Wenping; Wang, Zhaohui; Janssen, René A J; Li, Weiwei

    2016-02-01

    Newly designed asymmetric diketopyrrolopyrrole conjugated polymers with two different aromatic substituents possess a hole mobility of 12.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in field-effect transistors and a power conversion efficiency of 6.5% in polymer solar cells, when solution processed from a nonchlorinated toluene/diphenyl ether mixed solvent.

  20. A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat Ronald L. Cypert Scientific...units, along with coordination at the state and federal agency level, a dynamic process modeling capability was chosen to chart the myriad...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against

  1. Asymmetrical Processing of Olfactory Input in the Piriform Cortex Mediates "Activation" of the Avian Navigation Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Paulo E; Marques, Paulo A M; Pinto, Belmiro V; Phillips, John B

    2016-08-11

    The role of odors in the long-distance navigation of birds has elicited intense debate for more than half a century. Failure to resolve many of the issues fueling this debate is due at least in part to the absence of controls for a variety of non-specific effects that odors have on the navigational process. The present experiments were carried out to investigate whether the olfactory inputs are involved only in "activation" of neuronal circuitry involved in navigation or are also playing a role in providing directional information. Experienced adult pigeons were exposed to controlled olfactory stimuli during different segments of the journey (release site vs. displacement + release site). Protein levels of IEGs (immediate early genes used to mark synaptic activity) were analyzed in areas within the olfactory/navigation avian circuitry. The results indicate that 1) exposure to natural odors at the release site (and not before) elicit greater activation across brain regions than exposure to filtered air, artificial odors, and natural odors along the entire outward journey (from home to the release site, inclusive); 2) activation of the piriform cortex in terms of odor discrimination is lateralized; 3) activation of the navigation circuitry is achieved by means of lateralized activation of piriform cortex neurons. Altogether, the findings provide the first direct evidence that activation of the avian navigation circuitry is mediated by asymmetrical processing of olfactory input occurring in the right piriform cortex.

  2. [Analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazuaki; Sakamoto, Jun; Nagaoka, Kazuya; Takayama, Yohichi; Kanahori, Takashi; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Sato, Shinji; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric, iso-valeric and n-valeric acid) in anaerobic digestion process waters for biogas production was examined by ion-exclusion chromatography with dilute acidic eluents (benzoic acid, perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and sulfuric acid) and non-suppressed conductivity/ultraviolet (UV) detection. The columns used were a styrene/divinylbenzene-based strongly acidic cation-exchange resin column (TSKgel SCX) and a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column (TSKgel Super IC-A/C). Good separation was performed on the TSKgel SCX in shorter retention times. For the TSKgel Super IC-A/C, peak shape of the acids was sharp and symmetrical in spite of longer retention times. In addition, the mutual separation of the acids was good except for iso- and n-butyric acids. The better separation and good detection was achieved by using the two columns (TSKgel SCX and TSKgel Super IC-A/C connected in series), lower concentrations of PFBA and sulfuric acid as eluents, non-suppressed conductivity detection and UV detection at 210 nm. This analysis was applied to anaerobic digestion process waters. The chromatograms with conductivity detection were relatively simpler compared with those of UV detection. The use of two columns with different selectivities for the aliphatic carboxylic acids and the two detection modes was effective for the determination and identification of the analytes in anaerobic digestion process waters containing complex matrices.

  3. Test of QCD at large $Q^2$ with exclusive hadronic processes

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    My report consists of two parts: (1). Using samples of 102 million $\\Upsilon(1S)$ and 158 million $\\Upsilon(2S)$ events at Belle, we study 17 exclusive hadronic decays of these two bottomonium resonances to some Vector-Pseudoscalar (VP), Vector-Tensor (VT) and Axial-vector-Pseudoscalar (AP) processes and their final states. Branching fractions are measured for all the processes. The ratios of the branching fractions of $\\Upsilon(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon(1S)$ decays into the same final state are used to test a perturbative QCD (pQCD) prediction for OZI-suppressed bottomonium decays. (2). Using data samples of 89 fb$^{-1}$, 703 fb$^{-1}$, and 121 fb$^{-1}$ collected at center-of-mass (CMS) energies 10.52, 10.58, and 10.876~GeV, respectively, we measure the cross sections of $e^+e^- \\to \\omega\\pi^0$, $K^{\\ast}(892)\\bar{K}$, and $K_2^{\\ast}(1430)\\bar{K}$. The energy dependence of the cross sections is presented.

  4. Analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuaki ITO; Kazuhiko TANAKA; Jun SAKAMOTO; Kazuya NAGAOKA; Yohichi TAKAYAMA; Takashi KANAHORI; Hiroshi SUNAHARA; Tsuneo HAYASHI; Shinji SATO; Takeshi HIROKAWA

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids ( formic,acetic,propionic,iso-butyric,n-butyric,iso-valeric and n-valeric acid) in anaerobic digestion process waters for biogas production was examined by ion-exclusion chromatography with dilute acidic eluents (benzoic acid,perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and sulfuric acid) and non-suppressed conductivity/ultraviolet (UV) detection.The columns used were a styrene/divinylbenzene-based strongly acidic cation-exchange resin column ( TSKgel SCX) and a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column ( TSKgel Super IC-A/C ).Good separation was performed on the TSKgel SCX in shorter retention times.For the TSKgel Super IC-A/C,peak shape of the acids was sharp and symmetrical in spite of longer retention times.In addition,the mutual separation of the acids was good except for iso- and n-butyric acids.The better separation and good detection was achieved by using the two columns (TSKgel SCX and TSKgel Super IC-A/C connected in series),lower concentrations of PFBA and sulfuric acid as eluents,non-suppressed conductivity detection and UV detection at 210 nm.This analysis was applied to anaerobic digestion process waters.The chromatograms with conductivity detection were relatively simpler compared with those of UV detection.The use of two columns with different selectivities for the aliphatic carboxylic acids and the two detection modes was effective for the determination and identification of the analytes in anaerobic digestion process waters containing complex matrices.

  5. Analysis of Rolling Pressure in Asymmetrical Rolling Process by Slab Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong; GUO Yan-hui; WANG Zhao-dong; WANG Guo-dong

    2009-01-01

    The plane strain asymmetrical rolling was analyzed using slab method. The contact arc was replaced by parabola, and the constant surface friction status was adopted during the analysis. The deformation area was divided into three zones according to the direction of the friction. Then, the three zones were studied, respectively. A rolling force model and a rolling torque model were developed based on the analysis, and they were used to analyze the influence of asymmetrical rolling factors on deformation area and unit pressure if they had good precision which was determined by comparing the calculated results with the measured ones.

  6. Molecular Mass Characterization of Glycosaminoglycans with Different Degrees of Sulfation in Bioengineered Heparin Process by Size Exclusion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-10-01

    Different degrees of glycosaminoglycan sulfation result in their different charge densities. The charge density differences impact their migration behavior in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography, two of the most common methods for determining relative molecular masses of polysaccharides. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using commercially available heparin oligosaccharides as calibrants for measuring the relative molecular masses of intermediates in a bioengineered heparin process that have different levels of sulfation. A size exclusion chromatography method was established that eliminates this charge density effect and allows the determination of relative molecular mass using a single calibration curve with heparin oligosaccharides calibrants. This is accomplished by overcoming the electrostatic interaction between the glycosaminoglycans and size exclusion chromatography stationary phase using high ionic strength mobile phase.

  7. Differential neural processing of social exclusion in adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Groen, Georg; Bonenberger, Martina; Abler, Birgit

    2016-09-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent in adolescence and has been suggested as an autonomous diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). Social rejection is as potential risk-factor for NSSI and depression in adolescence. Objectives of this study were to identify differences in neural processing of social rejection in depressed adolescents with and without co-morbid NSSI and healthy controls. Participants were 28 depressed adolescents (14 with co-morbid NSSI, 79% females) and 15 healthy controls, with an average age of 15.2 years (SD=1.8). Social exclusion was implemented using the Cyberball paradigm 'Cyberball' during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All participants reported feelings of social exclusion after fMRI scanning. Investigating the effects of NSSI, we found that depressed adolescents with NSSI showed relatively enhanced activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) compared to depressed adolescents without NSSI and also compared to healthy controls. Results point towards divergent processing of social exclusion in depressed adolescents with NSSI as compared to adolescents with mere depression in brain regions previously related to the processing of social exclusion. This finding of distinct neurophysiological responses may stimulate further research on individual treatment approaches.

  8. Development of Neural Systems for Processing Social Exclusion from Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z.; Pitskel, Naomi B.; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of development in which peer relationships become especially important. A computer-based game (Cyberball) has been used to explore the effects of social exclusion in adolescents and adults. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used Cyberball to extend prior work to the cross-sectional study of…

  9. Searching saturation effects in inclusive and exclusive eA processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncalves V. P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The searching of saturation effects in inclusive and exclusive eA collisions is reviewed. In particular, we present a comparison between the linear and non-linear predictions for the nuclear structure functions as well as for the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering and vector meson production in future eA colliders.

  10. Competitive Exclusion and Axiomatic Set-Theory: De Morgan's Laws, Ecological Virtual Processes, Symmetries and Frozen Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J C

    2016-03-01

    This work applies the competitive exclusion principle and the concept of potential competitors as simple axiomatic tools to generalized situations in ecology. These tools enable apparent competition and its dual counterpart to be explicitly evaluated in poorly understood ecological systems. Within this set-theory framework we explore theoretical symmetries and invariances, De Morgan's laws, frozen evolutionary diversity and virtual processes. In particular, we find that the exclusion principle compromises the geometrical growth of the number of species. By theoretical extending this principle, we can describe interspecific depredation in the dual case. This study also briefly considers the debated situation of intraspecific competition. The ecological consequences of our findings are discussed; particularly, the use of our framework to reinterpret coupled mathematical differential equations describing certain ecological processes.

  11. The exclusive $J/\\psi$ process at the LHC tamed to probe the low $x$ gluon

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, S P; Ryskin, M G; Teubner, T

    2016-01-01

    The perturbative QCD expansion for $J/\\psi$ photoproduction appears to be unstable: the NLO correction is large (and of opposite sign) to the LO contribution. Moreover, the predictions are very sensitive to the choice of factorization and renormalization scales. Here we show that perturbative stability is greatly improved by imposing a $`Q_0$ cut' on the NLO coefficient functions; a cut which is required to avoid double counting. $Q_0$ is the input scale used in the parton DGLAP evolution. This result opens the possibility of high precision exclusive $J/\\psi$ data in the forward direction at the LHC being able to determine the low $x$ gluon distribution at low scales.

  12. Metastability for a non-reversible dynamics: the evolution of the condensate in totally asymmetric zero range processes

    CERN Document Server

    Landim, C

    2012-01-01

    Let $\\bb T_L = \\bb Z/L \\bb Z$ be the one-dimensional torus with $L$ points. For $\\alpha >0$, let $g: \\bb N\\to \\bb R_+$ be given by $g(0)=0$, $g(1)=1$, $g(k) = [k/(k-1)]^\\alpha$, $k\\ge 2$. Consider the totally asymmetric zero range process on $\\bb T_L$ in which a particle jumps from a site $x$, occupied by $k$ particles, to the site $x+1$ at rate $g(k)$. Let $N$ stand for the total number of particles. In the stationary state, if $\\alpha >1$, as $N\\uparrow\\infty$, all particles but a finite number accumulate on one single site. We show in this article that in the time scale $N^{1+\\alpha}$ the site which concentrates almost all particles evolves as a random walk on $\\bb T_L$ whose transition rates are proportional to the capacities of the underlying random walk, extending to the asymmetric case the results obtained in \\cite{bl3} for reversible zero-range processes on finite sets.

  13. Controlling stereochemical outcomes of asymmetric processes by catalyst remote molecular functionalizations: chiral diamino-oligothiophenes (DATs) as ligands in asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Vincenzo Giulio; Bandini, Marco; Barbarella, Giovanna; Melucci, Manuela; Monari, Magda; Piccinelli, Fabio; Tommasi, Simona; Umani-Ronchi, Achille

    2006-01-11

    The synthesis, characterization, and structure-guided application of a new class of highly versatile chiral C(2)-symmetric diamine-oligothiophene ligands in Pd-catalyzed asymmetric transformations are presented. Experimental investigations of the intimate role of pendant pi-conjugate oligothiophenes in determining the catalytic activity of the corresponding chiral Pd complexes are described. Their unusual behavior opens up new routes toward the logical design of finely tuned organometallic catalysts by remote structural functionalizations.

  14. Research on the rolling moment in the symmetrical and asymmetrical rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.; Kiss, I.; Cioată, C. G.

    2017-01-01

    Research distribution the rolling moments symmetrical and asymmetrical report presents great importance both in theory and to introduce clarifications to the calculation of rolling resistance line assemblies. Clarifying individuals of metallic material deformation between the rolls single cylinder diameters act of any difference of work and analysis of advance and delay phenomena. Torque drive value for each of the rolling cylinders was done by reducing the thickness of the laminate samples, an experimental facility located in the laboratory of plastic deformation of the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara. The analysis of research results show that in terms of power consumption for deformation and safety equipment in operation is rational for mills which require such a difference between the work rolls to execute about one cylinder operated.

  15. The exclusive J/ψ process at the LHC tamed to probe the low x gluon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.P. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Martin, A.D. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Ryskin, M.G. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Teubner, T. [University of Liverpool, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    The perturbative QCD expansion for J/ψ photoproduction appears to be unstable: the NLO correction is large (and of opposite sign) to the LO contribution. Moreover, the predictions are very sensitive to the choice of factorisation and renormalisation scales. Here we show that perturbative stability is greatly improved by imposing a 'Q{sub 0} cut' on the NLO coefficient functions; a cut which is required to avoid double counting. Q{sub 0} is the input scale used in the parton DGLAP evolution. This result opens the possibility of high precision exclusive J/ψ data in the forward direction at the LHC being able to determine the low x gluon distribution at low scales. (orig.)

  16. A green and sustainable approach: celebrating the 30th anniversary of the asymmetric l-menthol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Makoto; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Takasago has been devoted to producing l-menthol since 1954, and our long history of manufacturing this important aroma chemical is reviewed here. The current asymmetric catalytic process had its 30th anniversary in 2013. Our l-menthol process is considered carbon-neutral, and, therefore, 'green' and sustainable. It uses renewable myrcene obtained from gum rosin as a starting material. In addition, the Rh-BINAP (=2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl) catalytic system is highly efficient. This pathway not only leads l-menthol, but a variety of 100% biobased aroma chemical products as well. By measuring the (14) C levels in a material, one can determine the percentage of carbon that is biobased. This biobased assay, described as the ratio plant-derived C/fossil-derived C, can clarify how renewable a product really is. This will be highlighted for several of Takasago's key aroma chemicals.

  17. Exclusive $J/\\psi$ Production in Diffractive Process with AdS/QCD Holographic Wave Function in BLFQ

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ya-ping; Zhao, Xingbo

    2016-01-01

    The AdS/QCD holographic wave function of basis light-front quantization (BLFQ) for vector meson $J/\\psi$ is applied in this manuscript. The exclusive production of $J/\\psi$ in diffractive process is computed in dipole model with AdS/QCD holographic wave function. We use IP-Sat and IIM model in the calculation of the differential cross section of the dipole scattering off the proton. The prediction of AdS/QCD holographic wave function in BLFQ gives a good agreement to the experimental data.

  18. Transverse Momentum and Sudakov Effects in Exclusive QCD Processes $\\gamma* \\gamma \\pi0$ Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Musatov, I V

    1997-01-01

    We analyze effects due to transverse degrees of freedom in QCD calculations of the fundamental hard exclusive amplitude of $\\gamma^*\\gamma \\to \\pi^0$ transition. A detailed discussion is given of the relation between the modified factorization approach (MFA) of Sterman {\\it et al.} and standard factorization (SFA). Working in Feynman gauge, we construct basic building blocks of MFA from the one-loop coefficient function of the SFA, demonstrating that Sudakov effects are distinctly different from higher-twist corrections. We show also that the handbag-type diagram, contrary to naive expectations, does not contain an infinite chain of $(M^2/Q^2)^n$ corrections: they come only from diagrams with transverse gluons emitted from the hard propagator. A simpler picture emerges within the QCD sum rule approach: the sum over soft $\\bar q G \\ldots G q$ Fock components is dual to $\\bar qq$ states generated by the local axial current. We combine the results based on QCD sum rules with pQCD radiative corrections and observ...

  19. Easy sperm processing technique allowing exclusive accumulation and later usage of DNA-strandbreak-free spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, T; Shebl, O; Moser, M; Mayer, R B; Arzt, W; Tews, G

    2011-01-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation is increased in poor-quality semen samples and correlates with failed fertilization, impaired preimplantation development and reduced pregnancy outcome. Common sperm preparation techniques may reduce the percentage of strandbreak-positive spermatozoa, but, to date, there is no reliable approach to exclusively accumulate strandbreak-free spermatozoa. To analyse the efficiency of special sperm selection chambers (Zech-selectors made of glass or polyethylene) in terms of strandbreak reduction, 39 subfertile men were recruited and three probes (native, density gradient and Zech-selector) were used to check for strand breaks using the sperm chromatin dispersion test. The mean percentage of affected spermatozoa in the ejaculate was 15.8 ± 7.8% (range 5.0–42.1%). Density gradient did not significantly improve the quality of spermatozoa selected(14.2 ± 7.0%). However, glass chambers completely removed 90% spermatozoa showing strand breaks and polyethylene chambers removed 76%. Both types of Zech-selectors were equivalent in their efficiency, significantly reduced DNA damage (P sperm preparation technique concentrating spermatozoa unaffected in terms of DNA damage. The special chambers most probably select for sperm motility and/or maturity.

  20. Multielement characterization of metal-humic substances complexation by size exclusion chromatography, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, ultrafiltration and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detection: a comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, E; Gorriz, M P; Bouby, M; Laborda, F; Castillo, J R; Geckeis, H

    2006-10-06

    The use of three different separation techniques, ultrafiltration (UF), high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF), for the characterization of a compost leachate is described. The possible interaction of about 30 elements with different size fractions of humic substances (HS) has been investigated coupling these separation techniques with UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detection techniques. The organic matter is constituted by a polydisperse mixture of humic substances ranging from low molecular weights (around 1kDa) to significantly larger entities. Elements can be classified into three main groups with regard to their interaction with HS. The first group is constituted by primarily the monovalent alkaline metal ions and anionic species like B, W, Mo, As existing as oxyanions all being not significantly associated to HS. The second group consists of elements that are at least partly associated to a smaller HS size fraction (such as Ni, Cu, Cr and Co). A third group of mainly tri- and tetravalent metal ions like Al, Fe, the lanthanides, Sn and Th are rather associated to larger-sized HS fractions. The three separation techniques provide a fairly consistent size classification for most of the metal ions, even though slight disagreements were observed. The number-average molecular weight (Mn), the weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and the polydispersity (rho) parameters have been calculated both from AsFlFFF and HPSEC experiments and compared for HS and some metal-HS species. Differences in values can be partly explained by an overloading effect observed in the AsFlFFF experiments induced by electrostatic repulsion effects in the low ionic strength, high pH carrier solution. Size information obtained from ultrafiltration is not as resolved as for the other methods. Molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of the individual filter

  1. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (, 3) process on helium-like ions by fast electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Srivastava

    2004-11-01

    An approximate simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 3) process on helium-like ions for double ionization by fast electrons. It is based on the equation $(Z'^{3} /)$ exp$[−Z' (r_{1} + r_{2})]$, $Z' = Z − (5/16)$ for ground state wave function of helium- like ions and $Z'^{2}$ scaling of energies. The scaling law is found to work very well if the lower energy electron is ejected along the momentum transfer direction and the other one is ejected in the opposite direction. It also works quite well if this electron is ejected within about 90° of the momentum transfer direction with the other electron going in the opposite direction. The scaling law becomes increasingly accurate as the target nuclear charge and the energy increase.

  2. Analysis on Shear Deformation for High Manganese Austenite Steel during Hot Asymmetrical Rolling Process Using Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-li SUI; Xin WANG; Jun ZHAO; Biao MA; Chang-sheng LI

    2015-01-01

    Based on the rigid-plastic ifnite element method (FEM), the shear stress ifeld of deformation region for high manganese austenite steel during hot asymmetrical rolling process was analyzed. The inlfuences of rolling parameters, such as thevelocity ratio of upper to lower rolls, theinitial temperature of workpiece and the reduction rate, on the shear deformation of three nodes in the upper, center and lower layers were discussed. As the rolling parameters change, distinct shear deformation appears in the up-per and lower layers, but the shear deformation in the center layer appears only when the velocity ratio is more than 1.00, and the absolute value of the shear stress in this layer is changed with rolling parameters. A mathematical model which relfected the change of the maximal absolute shear stress for the center layer was established, by which the maximal absolute shear stress for the center layer can be easily calculated and the appropriate rolling technology can be designed.

  3. Macroscopic transport equations in many-body systems from microscopic exclusion processes in disordered media: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, Marta; Fanelli, Duccio; Piazza, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Describing particle transport at the macroscopic or mesoscopic level in non-ideal environments poses fundamental theoretical challenges in domains ranging from inter and intra-cellular transport in biology to diffusion in porous media. Yet, often the nature of the constraints coming from many-body interactions or reflecting a complex and confining environment are better understood and modeled at the microscopic level. In this paper we review the subtle link between microscopic exclusion processes and the mean-field equations that ensue from them in the continuum limit. We show that in an inhomogeneous medium, i.e. when jumps are controlled by site-dependent hopping rates, one can obtain three different nonlinear advection-diffusion equations in the continuum limit, suitable for describing transport in the presence of quenched disorder and external fields, depending on the particular rule embodying site inequivalence at the microscopic level. In a situation that might be termed point-like scenario, when particles are treated as point-like objects, the effect of crowding as imposed at the microscopic level manifests in the mean-field equations only if some degree of inhomogeneity is enforced into the model. Conversely, when interacting agents are assigned a finite size, under the more realistic extended crowding framework, exclusion constraints persist in the unbiased macroscopic representation.

  4. Macroscopic transport equations in many-body systems from microscopic exclusion processes in disordered media: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Galanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Describing particle transport at the macroscopic or mesoscopic level in non-ideal environments poses fundamental theoretical challenges in domains ranging from inter and intra-cellular transport in biology to diffusion in porous media. Yet, often the nature of the constraints coming from many-body interactions or reflecting a complex and confining environment are better understood and modeled at the microscopic level.In this paper we review the subtle link between microscopic exclusion processes and the mean-field equations that ensue from them in the continuum limit. We show that in an inhomogeneous medium, i.e. when jumps are controlled by site-dependent hopping rates, one can obtain three different nonlinear advection-diffusion equations in the continuum limit, suitable for describing transport in the presence of quenched disorder and external fields, depending on the particular rule embodying site inequivalence at the microscopic level. In a situation that might be termed point-like scenario, when particles are treated as point-like objects, the effect of crowding as imposed at the microscopic level manifests in the mean-field equations only if some degree of inhomogeneity is enforced into the model. Conversely, when interacting agents are assigned a finite size, under the more realistic extended crowding framework, exclusion constraints persist in the unbiased macroscopic representation.

  5. Exclusive Dealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Chiara; Motta, Massimo; Rønde, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies a model whereby exclusive dealing (ED) can both promote investment and foreclose a more efficient supplier. Since ED promotes the incumbent seller's investment, the seller and the buyer realize a greater surplus from bilateral trade under exclusivity. Hence, the parties involved...

  6. NLO corrections to $\\chi_{bJ}$ two-body exclusive decay processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Long-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The next-to-leading order QCD corrections for $\\chi_{bJ}$, the p-wave bottomonium, to $J/\\psi$ pair decay processes were evaluated utilizing NRQCD factorization formalism. It was determined that the scale dependence was depressed with NLO corrections, and hence the uncertainties in the leading order results were greatly reduced. The total branch ratios were found to be the order of $10^{-5}$ for all three $\\chi_{bJ}\\rightarrow J/\\psi J/\\psi$ processes,indicating that they were observable in the LHC and super-B experiments.

  7. Information Processing at Successive Stages of Decision Making: Need for Cognition and Inclusion-Exclusion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin; Huneke; Jasper

    2000-07-01

    Levin and Jasper's (1995) phased narrowing technique for tracking changes in information usage across successive stages of the decision-making process was combined with Huneke's (1996) "pull-down menu" extension of Payne, Bettman, and Johnson's (1988) software package for generating measures of information processing. Because this technique provided considerable data for each individual subject at each stage, we were able to focus on individual differences in information processing across stages, most notably differences related to need for cognition (NC; Cacioppo & Petty, 1982). In a computerized information search and decision task, 60 college students were first asked to narrow their options for purchasing a notebook computer to form a consideration set and were then asked to make a final choice from this set. At the consideration set formation stage, half the subjects were instructed to adopt a mindset to include options while the other half were asked to exclude options. Especially in the inclusion condition where subjects showed greater narrowing of options, high NC subjects processed information in a more focused manner with greater depth and breadth than did low NC subjects, and the quality of their selections tended to be higher. There was no evidence of widespread shifts in strategy as individuals moved from set formation to final choice but, as a group, high NC subjects were more successful at adaptive decision making. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. Determination of ammonium ion in biological nitrification-denitrification process water by ion exclusion chromatography with ion exchange enhancement of conductivity detection.

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 一彦; 黒川, 利一; 中島, 良三; Fritz, James S.

    1988-01-01

    Ammonium ion in biological nitrification-denitrification process with batchwise treatment was determined by ion exclusion chromatography using water as an eluent with ion exchange enhancement of conductivity. Ammonium ion was selectively separated by ion exclusion from alkali metal and alkaline earth metal cations. The detection sensitivity of the ammonium ion was improved about 11-fold with two ion exchange enhancement columns inserted in series between the separation column packed with OH--...

  9. Process considerations for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines using transaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima-Ramos, Joana; Jensen, Jacob S; Al-Haque, Naweed; Neto, Watson; Woodley, John M

    2011-07-01

    Biocatalytic transamination is being established as key tool for the production of chiral amine pharmaceuticals and precursors due to its excellent enantioselectivity as well as green credentials. Recent examples demonstrate the potential for developing economically competitive processes using a combination of modern biotechnological tools for improving the biocatalyst alongside using process engineering and integrated separation techniques for improving productivities. However, many challenges remain in order for the technology to be more widely applicable, such as technologies for obtaining high yields and productivities when the equilibrium of the desired reaction is unfavorable. This review summarizes both the process challenges and the strategies used to overcome them, and endeavors to describe these and explain their applicability based on physiochemical principles. This article also points to the interaction between the solutions and the need for a process development strategy based on fundamental principles.

  10. Asymmetric Schiff bases derived from diaminomaleonitrile and their metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjie; Shi, Rufei; Zhou, Pei; Qiu, Qiming; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Asymmetric Schiff bases, due to its asymmetric structure, can be used as asymmetric catalyst, antibacterial, and mimic molecules during simulate biological processes, etc. In recent years, research on synthesis and properties of asymmetric Schiff bases have become an increase interest of chemists. This review summarizes asymmetric Schiff bases derived from diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) and DAMN-based asymmetric Schiff bases metal complexes. Applications of DAMN-based asymmetric Schiff bases are also discussed in this review.

  11. The Knowledge Structure of the Commander in Asymmetric Battlefield: The Six Sights and Sensemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    conscious experience is by its nature personal and private ( Eysenck & Keane, 1995; pp. 19) despite this, it is often assumed that introspection can...interact directly with that environment without the involvement of internal processes and representations ( Eysenck and Keane, 1995; pp. 73). This...adaptations on task constraints. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 273-305. Eysenck , W.W. and Keane, M.T. (1995). Cognitive Psychology: A Student’s

  12. Self-bias Dependence on Process Parameters in Asymmetric Cylindrical Coaxial Capacitively Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, J; Popović, S; Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Phillips, L; Vušković, L

    2015-01-01

    An rf coaxial capacitively coupled Ar/Cl2 plasma is applied to processing the inner wall of superconducting radio frequency cavities. A dc self-bias potential is established across the inner electrode sheath due to the surface area difference between inner and outer electrodes of the coaxial plasma. The self-bias potential measurement is used as an indication of the plasma sheath voltage asymmetry. The understanding of the asymmetry in sheath voltage distribution in coaxial plasma is important for the modification of the inner surfaces of three dimensional objects. The plasma sheath voltages were tailored to process the outer wall by providing an additional dc current to the inner electrode with the help of an external dc power supply. The dc self-bias potential is measured for different diameter electrodes and its variation on process parameters such as gas pressure, rf power and percentage of chlorine in the Ar/Cl2 gas mixture is studied. The dc current needed to overcome the self-bias potential to make it ...

  13. Asymmetric function of theta and gamma activity in syllable processing: an intra-cortical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eMorillon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-gamma (25-45 Hz and theta (4-8 Hz oscillations are proposed to underpin the integration of phonemic and syllabic information, respectively. How these two scales of analysis split functions across hemispheres is unclear. We analyzed cortical responses from an epileptic patient with a rare bilateral electrode implantation (stereotactic EEG in primary (A1/BA41 and A2/BA42 and association auditory cortices (BA22. Using time-frequency analyses, we confirmed the dominance of a 5-6 Hz theta activity in right and of a low-gamma (25-45 Hz activity in left primary auditory cortices (A1/A2, during both resting state and syllable processing. We further detected high-theta (7-8 Hz resting activity in left primary, but also associative auditory regions. In left BA22, its phase correlated with high-gamma induced power. Such a hierarchical relationship across theta and gamma frequency bands (theta/gamma phase-amplitude coupling could index the process by which the neural code shifts from stimulus feature- to phonological- encoding, and is associated with the transition from evoked to induced power responses. These data suggest that theta and gamma activity in right and left auditory cortices bear different functions. They support a scheme where slow parsing of the acoustic information dominates in right-hemisphere at a syllabic (5-6 Hz rate, and left auditory cortex exhibits a more complex cascade of oscillations, reflecting the possible extraction of transient acoustic cues at a fast (~25-45 Hz rate, subsequently integrated at a slower, e.g. syllabic one. Slow oscillations could functionally participate to speech processing by structuring gamma activity in left BA22, where abstract percepts emerge.

  14. Asymmetric photoredox transition-metal catalysis activated by visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Haohua; Shen, Xiaodong; Wang, Chuanyong; Zhang, Lilu; Röse, Philipp; Chen, Liang-An; Harms, Klaus; Marsch, Michael; Hilt, Gerhard; Meggers, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Asymmetric catalysis is seen as one of the most economical strategies to satisfy the growing demand for enantiomerically pure small molecules in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. And visible light has been recognized as an environmentally friendly and sustainable form of energy for triggering chemical transformations and catalytic chemical processes. For these reasons, visible-light-driven catalytic asymmetric chemistry is a subject of enormous current interest. Photoredox catalysis provides the opportunity to generate highly reactive radical ion intermediates with often unusual or unconventional reactivities under surprisingly mild reaction conditions. In such systems, photoactivated sensitizers initiate a single electron transfer from (or to) a closed-shell organic molecule to produce radical cations or radical anions whose reactivities are then exploited for interesting or unusual chemical transformations. However, the high reactivity of photoexcited substrates, intermediate radical ions or radicals, and the low activation barriers for follow-up reactions provide significant hurdles for the development of efficient catalytic photochemical processes that work under stereochemical control and provide chiral molecules in an asymmetric fashion. Here we report a highly efficient asymmetric catalyst that uses visible light for the necessary molecular activation, thereby combining asymmetric catalysis and photocatalysis. We show that a chiral iridium complex can serve as a sensitizer for photoredox catalysis and at the same time provide very effective asymmetric induction for the enantioselective alkylation of 2-acyl imidazoles. This new asymmetric photoredox catalyst, in which the metal centre simultaneously serves as the exclusive source of chirality, the catalytically active Lewis acid centre, and the photoredox centre, offers new opportunities for the `green' synthesis of non-racemic chiral molecules.

  15. Characteristics of Flux Decline in Forward Osmosis Process for Asymmetric Cellulose Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Myeong-Jin; Nam, Suk-Tae [Kyungil University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun-Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study examined the effect of concentration polarization on permeate flux in forward osmosis (FO) membrane process for saline and sucrose solution. The reduction in permeate flux during the FO membrane process is largely due to the formation of concentration polarization on membrane surfaces. The flux reduction due to internal concentration polarization formed on the porous support layer was larger than that due to the external concentration polarization on the active membrane surface. Water permeate flux through the FO membrane increased nonlinearly with the increase in osmotic pressure. The water permeability coefficient was 1.8081x10{sup -7} m/s·atm for draw solution on active layer (DS-AL) mode and 1.0957-10{sup -7} m/s·atm for draw solution on support layer (DS-SL) mode in NaCl solution system. The corresponding membrane resistance was 5.5306x10{sup 6} and 9.1266x10{sup 6} s·atm/m, respectively. With respect to the sucrose solution, the permeate flux for DS-AL mode was 1.33-1.90 times higher than that for DS-SL mode. The corresponding variation in the permeation flux (J) due to osmotic pressure (π) would be expressed as J=-0.0177+0.4506π-0.0032π{sup 2} for the forward and J=0.0948+0.3292π-0.0037π{sup 2} for the latter.

  16. A Matter of Time: Enacting the Exclusion of Onshore Refugee Applicants through the Reform and Acceleration of Refugee Determination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea Vogl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available State-based processes for determining refugee claims are crucial sites of inclusion or exclusion for onshore refugee applicants. This paper argues that cultures of disbelief and exclusion towards onshore refugee applicants are increasingly being enacted indirectly, via procedural reforms to Refugee Status Determination (RSD, which limit the ability of applicants to establish and articulate their claims. Focusing on Australia and Canada, this paper tracks the acceleration and truncation of RSD procedures, which first reflect and then frequently achieve the exclusion of onshore applicants. Two sets of reforms in particular have profoundly limited the terms on which applicants may present their claims. In Canada, this occurred as the result of a major overhaul of RSD that took place in December 2012. In Australia, the policy of ‘enhanced screening’ of applicants achieves the immediate screening-out of certain claims from the Australian determination system. Alongside analysing these reforms as a means of exclusion, this paper argues that the new procedures most disadvantage applicants making claims on the basis of gender-related persecution. Los procesos estatales para resolver las concesiones de asilo son situaciones cruciales para la inclusión o exclusión de los solicitantes de asilo una vez están en el territorio de acogida. Este artículo defiende que cada vez más, se está promulgando indirectamente la cultura de la desconfianza y exclusión hacia los solicitantes de asilo, a través de reformas procesuales de la Determinación del Estatus de Refugiado (DER, lo que limita la capacidad de los solicitantes para establecer y articular sus demandas de asilo. Centrándose en Australia y Canadá, este artículo realiza un seguimiento de la aceleración y el truncamiento de los procedimientos de DER que primero reflejan y después a menudo consiguen la exclusión de los solicitantes en el propio territorio de acogida. Dos grupos de reformas

  17. Deficiência e trabalho no setor informal: considerações sobre processos de inclusão e exclusão social Disability and work in the informal sector: consideration of inclusion and exclusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Tissi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo abordou a condição de trabalho com deficiência no comércio ambulante de São Paulo, enquanto vivência de processos de exclusão e, paradoxalmente, de inclusão social. O trabalho é concebido pelos ambulantes como elemento que proporciona relacionamentos sociais e confere dignidade e respeito na rede de relações das próprias vidas, mas o plano da sociabilidade, porém, mostra-se contraditório. No ponto de vista do processo de trabalho, a atuação no comércio ambulante revela traços de degradação moral e política; a permanência de um esquema de corrupção, a imposição da subordinação, etc., expressam uma exclusão social, mas os vendedores ambulantes com deficiência não podem ser considerados excluídos. É mais apropriado considerar que aproximam-se da zona de vulnerabilidade, caracterizada por Castel pela instabilidade ocupacional e relacionai.This study addressed work conditions and disability in street vendor activity in São Paulo as experience of exclusion processes and, paradoxically, of social inclusion. Work is considered by street vendors the element providing social relationships and dignity and respect in the social network, within strict limits, it also means opportunity for autonomy, decision, management of their own lives. However, as to sociability it is controversial. In respect to work process, street vendor activity shows signs of moral and political degradation. Maintenance of a corruption scheme, imposition of subordination, etc., express social exclusion, but the disabled street vendors could not be considered as excluded. It is more appropriate to consider them as closer to the vulnerability zone, characterized by occupational and relational unstability, according to Castel.

  18. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus: quantification of whole virus particles during the vaccine manufacturing process by size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitteler, Marcelo A; Fernández, Ignacio; Schabes, Erika; Krimer, Alejandro; Régulier, Emmanuel G; Guinzburg, Mariela; Smitsaart, Eliana; Levy, M Susana

    2011-09-22

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cattle, sheep, goats and swine causing severe economic losses worldwide. The efficacy of inactivated vaccines is critically dependent on the integrity of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. The recommended method to quantify the active ingredient of vaccines is the 140S quantitative sucrose density gradient analysis. This method has been an immensely valuable tool over the past three decades but it is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. We developed a method to quantify FMDV particles during the vaccine manufacturing process that is based on separation of components by size-exclusion chromatography and measurement of virus by absorption at 254nm. The method is linear in the 5-70μg/mL range, it is applicable to different FMDV strains, and has a good correlation with the 140S test. The proposed method uses standard chromatographic media and it is amenable to automation. The method has potential as a process analytical technology and for control of final product by manufacturers, international vaccine banks and regulatory agencies.

  19. Comparison of Diafiltration and Size-Exclusion Chromatography to Recover Hemicelluloses From Process Water From Thermomechanical Pulping of Spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Alexandra; Persson, Tobias; Zacchi, Guido; Stålbrand, Henrik; Jönsson, Ann-Sofi

    Hemicelluloses constitute one of the most abundant renewable resources on earth. To increase their utilization, the isolation of hemicelluloses from industrial biomass side-streams would be beneficial. A method was investigated to isolate hemicelluloses from process water from a thermomechanical pulp mill. The method consists of three steps: removal of solids by microfiltration, preconcentration of the hemicelluloses by ultrafiltration, and purification by either size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) or diafiltration. The purpose of the final purification step is to separate hemicelluloses from small oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, and salts. The ratio between galactose, glucose, and mannose in oligo- and polysaccharides after preconcentration was 0.8∶1∶2.8, which is similar to that found in galactoglucomannan. Continuous diafiltration was performed using a composite fluoro polymer membrane with cutoff of 1000 Da. After diafiltration with four diavolumes the purity of the hemicelluloses was 77% (gram oligo- and polysaccharides/ gram total dissolved solids) and the recovery was 87%. Purification by SEC was performed with 5, 20, and 40% sample loadings, respectively and a flow rate of 12 or 25 mL/min (9 or 19 cm/h). The purity of hemicelluloses after SEC was approx 82%, and the recovery was above 99%. The optimal sample load and flow rate were 20% and 25 mL/min, respectively. The process water from thermomechanical pulping of spruce is inexpensive. Thus, the recovery of hemicelluloses is not of main importance. If the purity of 77%, obtained with diafiltration, is sufficient for the utilization of the hemicelluloses, diafiltration probably offers a less expensive alternative in this application.

  20. Control of Listeria spp. by competitive-exclusion bacteria in floor drains of a poultry processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Podtburg, Teresa C; Zhao, Ping; Schmidt, Bruce E; Baker, David A; Cords, Bruce; Doyle, Michael P

    2006-05-01

    In previous studies workers determined that two lactic acid bacterium isolates, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C-1-92 and Enterococcus durans 152 (competitive-exclusion bacteria [CE]), which were originally obtained from biofilms in floor drains, are bactericidal to Listeria monocytogenes or inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes both in vitro and in biofilms at 4 to 37 degrees C. We evaluated the efficacy of these isolates for reducing Listeria spp. contamination of floor drains of a plant in which fresh poultry is processed. Baseline assays revealed that the mean numbers of Listeria sp. cells in floor drains sampled on six different dates (at approximately biweekly intervals) were 7.5 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 8, 4.9 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 3, 4.4 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 2, 4.1 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 4, 3.7 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 1, and 3.6 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 6. The drains were then treated with 10(7) CE/ml in an enzyme-foam-based cleaning agent four times in 1 week and twice a week for the following 3 weeks. In samples collected 1 week after CE treatments were applied Listeria sp. cells were not detectable (samples were negative as determined by selective enrichment culture) for drains 4 and 6 (reductions of 4.1 and 3.6 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2), respectively), and the mean numbers of Listeria sp. cells were 3.7 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 8 (a reduction of 3.8 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2)), culture; a reduction of 3.3 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2)), and 2.6 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2) for drain 3 (a reduction of 2.3 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2)). However, the aerobic plate counts for samples collected from floor drains before, during, and after CE treatment remained approximately the same. The results indicate that application of the two CE can greatly reduce the number of Listeria sp. cells in floor drains at 3 to 26 degrees C in a facility in which fresh poultry is processed.

  1. O processo sucessório em organizações familiares e a exclusão da mulher The successors process into family firms and exclusion of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Barbosa Macêdo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo aborda o processo sucessório em organizações familiares enfocando a exclusão da mulher deste processo. Trata-se de um estudo de caráter descritivo e exploratório, utilizando multicasos em organizações familiares localizadas no Estado de Goiás, por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada com diretores(as, gerentes e trabalhadores(as para coleta de dados, analisados com a técnica de análise gráfica do discurso de Lane (1985. Como resultados tem-se que, em decorrência de traços da cultura brasileira e da cultura das organizações pesquisadas, ocorre a exclusão da mulher do processo sucessório de organizações familiares, explicitada de duas formas: desconsiderando desde o início a possibilidade de promover mulheres para cargos de cúpula, ou considerando-as no início, mas descartando-as em etapas posteriores. Foi encontrado um número mínimo de diretores e gerentes do gênero feminino nas organizações pesquisadas, devendo-se salientar que os cargos diretivos e gerenciais ocupados por elas estão relacionados a funções consideradas "femininas".The present study approaches succession process in family firms focusing women exclusion from this process. This is an exploratory and descriptive multicase study in family firms located in the State of Goiás, Brazil, carried out through the means of semi-structured interviews with workers from managerial and operational levels and analyzed with the application of the graphical discourse technique by Lane (1985. The results show that, due to Brazilian culture and family firms' features, women are excluded from the succession process in family firms in two ways: the promotion of women to managerial jobs is not taken into consideration since the beginning of the process, or the possibility is taken into consideration at first but it is rejected later on. In the organizations investigated it was found a low number of directors and managers of feminine gender, and it should

  2. Molecular Mass Characterization of Glycosaminoglycans with Different Degrees of Sulfation in Bioengineered Heparin Process by Size Exclusion Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Robert J Linhardt

    2012-01-01

    Different degrees of glycosaminoglycan sulfation result in their different charge densities. The charge density differences impact their migration behavior in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography, two of the most common methods for determining relative molecular masses of polysaccharides. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using commercially available heparin oligosaccharides as calibrants for measuring the relative molecular masses of intermedia...

  3. Olefins-selective asymmetric carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for hybrid membrane-distillation processes for olefin/paraffin separations

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the development of asymmetric carbon molecular sieve (CMS) hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for olefin/paraffin separations based on the CMS membranes are reported. Membrane-based olefin/paraffin separations have been pursued extensively over the past decades. CMS membranes are promising to exceed the performance upper bound of polymer materials and have demonstrated excellent stability for gas separations. Previously, a substructure collapse phenomenon was found in Matrimid ® precursor derived CMS fiber. To overcome the permeance loss due to the increased separation layer thickness, 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM precursors were selected as potential new precursors for carbon membrane formation. Defect-free asymmetric 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM hollow fibers were successfully fabricated from a dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. Polymer rigidity, glass-rubber transition and asymmetric morphology were correlated. CMS hollow fiber membranes produced from 6FDA-polymer precursors showed significant improvement in permeance for ethylene/ethane and propylene/propane separations. Further studies revealed that the CMS membranes are olefins-selective, which means the membranes are able to effectively separate olefins (ethylene and propylene) from paraffins (ethane and propane). This unique feature of CMS materials enables advanced hybrid membrane-distillation process designs. By using the olefins-selective membranes, these new processes may provide advantages over previously proposed retrofitting concepts. Further applications of the membranes are explored for hydrocarbons processes. Significant energy savings and even reduced footprint may be achieved in olefins production units. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Sznajder, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we summarize recent measurements of exclusive meson production performed by the COMPASS Collaboration. In particular, recent results on the transverse target spin asymmetries for exclusive r 0 production are presented. Some of these asymmetries are sensitive to the GPDs E , which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks. Other asymmetries are sensitive to the chiral-odd, transverse GPDs H T . Measurements of exclusive processes, which are a part of the COMPASS-II proposal, are also discussed

  5. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers are reporting remarkable new findings that shed light on a decade-long debate about one kind of supernovae, the explosions that mark a star's final demise: does the star die in a slow burn or with a fast bang? From their observations, the scientists find that the matter ejected by the explosion shows significant peripheral asymmetry but a nearly spherical interior, most likely implying that the explosion finally propagates at supersonic speed. These results are reported today in Science Express, the online version of the research journal Science, by Lifan Wang, Texas A&M University (USA), and colleagues Dietrich Baade and Ferdinando Patat from ESO. "Our results strongly suggest a two-stage explosion process in this type of supernova," comments Wang. "This is an important finding with potential implications in cosmology." ESO PR Photo 44/06 ESO PR Photo 44/06 Clumpy Explosion (Artist's Impression) Using observations of 17 supernovae made over more than 10 years with ESO's Very Large Telescope and the McDonald Observatory's Otto Struve Telescope, astronomers inferred the shape and structure of the debris cloud thrown out from Type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are thought to be the result of the explosion of a small and dense star - a white dwarf - inside a binary system. As its companion continuously spills matter onto the white dwarf, the white dwarf reaches a critical mass, leading to a fatal instability and the supernova. But what sparks the initial explosion, and how the blast travels through the star have long been thorny issues. The supernovae Wang and his colleagues observed occurred in distant galaxies, and because of the vast cosmic distances could not be studied in detail using conventional imaging techniques, including interferometry. Instead, the team determined the shape of the exploding cocoons by recording the polarisation of the light from the dying stars. Polarimetry relies on the fact that light is composed of electromagnetic waves

  6. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: Integration of inclusion body solubilization and refolding using simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-12-06

    An integrated process which combines continuous inclusion body dissolution with NaOH and continuous matrix-assisted refolding based on closed-loop simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography was designed and experimentally evaluated at laboratory scale. Inclusion bodies from N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP1 from high cell density fermentation were continuously dissolved with NaOH, filtered and mixed with concentrated refolding buffer prior to refolding by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This process enabled an isocratic operation of the simulated moving bed (SMB) system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling by concentrating the raffinate using tangential flow filtration. With this continuous refolding process, we increased the refolding and cleavage yield of both model proteins by 10% compared to batch dilution refolding. Furthermore, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate could be recycled which reduced the buffer consumption significantly. Based on the actual refolding data, we compared throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption between two batch dilution refolding processes - one using urea for IB dissolution, the other one using NaOH for IB dissolution - and our continuous refolding process. The higher complexity of the continuous refolding process was rewarded with higher throughput and productivity as well as significantly lower buffer consumption compared to the batch dilution refolding processes.

  7. Determination of some aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazuaki; Takayama, Yohichi; Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Taoda, Hiroshi; Xu, Qun; Hu, Wenzhi; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Sato, Shinji; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-11

    The determination of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, n-butyric, isovaleric and n-valeric acids in anaerobic digestion process waters was examined using ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection. The analysis of these biologically important carboxylic acids is necessary as a measure for evaluating and controlling the process. The ion-exclusion chromatography system employed consisted of polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin columns (TSKgel OApak-A or TSKgel Super IC-A/C). weakly acidic eluent (benzoic acid), and conductimetric detection. Particle size and cation-exchange capacity were 5 microm and 0.1 meq./ml for TSKgel OApak-A and 3 microm and 0.2 meq./ml for TSKgel Super IC-A/C, respectively. A dilute eluent (1.0-2.0 mM) of benzoic acid was effective for the high resolution and highly conductimetric detection of the carboxylic acids. The good separation of isobutyric and n-butyric acids was performed using the TSKgel Super IC-A/C column (150 mm x 6.0 mm i.d. x 2). The simple and good chromatograms were obtained by the optimized ion-exclusion chromatography conditions for real samples from mesophilic anaerobic digestors, thus the aliphatic carboxylic acids were successfully determined without any interferences.

  8. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978) when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thin...

  9. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals differential gene expression between asymmetric and symmetric zygotic divisions in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Xiang Hu

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell divisions occur widely during many developmental processes in plants. In most angiosperms, the first zygotic cell division is asymmetric resulting in two daughter cells of unequal size and with distinct fates. However, the critical molecular mechanisms regulating this division remain unknown. Previously we showed that treatment of tobacco zygotes with beta-glucosyl Yariv (βGlcY could dramatically alter the first zygotic asymmetric division to produce symmetric two-celled proembryos. In the present study, we isolated zygotes and two-celled asymmetric proembryos in vivo by micromanipulation, and obtained symmetric, two-celled proembryos by in vitro cell cultures. Using suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH and macroarray analysis differential gene expression between the zygote and the asymmetric and symmetric two-celled proembryos was investigated. After sequencing of the differentially expressed clones, a total of 1610 EST clones representing 685 non-redundant transcripts were obtained. Gene ontology (GO term analysis revealed that these transcripts include those involved in physiological processes such as response to stimulus, regulation of gene expression, and localization and formation of anatomical structures. A homology search against known genes from Arabidopsis indicated that some of the above transcripts are involved in asymmetric cell division and embryogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the up- or down-regulation of the selected candidate transcripts during zygotic division. A few of these transcripts were expressed exclusively in the zygote, or in either type of the two-celled proembryos. Expression analyses of select genes in different tissues and organs also revealed potential roles of these transcripts in fertilization, seed maturation and organ development. The putative roles of few of the identified transcripts in the regulation of zygotic division are discussed. Further functional work on these

  10. LBM-LES Simulation of the Transient Asymmetric Flow and Free Surface Fluctuations under Steady Operating Conditions of Slab Continuous Casting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Li, Qiang; Kuang, S. B.; Zou, Zongshu

    2017-02-01

    Transient flow structures in a continuous casting mold can strongly influence the slag entrainment in liquid steel and the bubbles capture in the initial solidified shell, both of which are associated with the quality of the final product. This paper presents a numerical study of the turbulent flow with a top free surface in the continuous casting mold at a meso-scale level by a three-dimensional combined approach of Free Surface Lattice Boltzmann Method and Large Eddy Simulation (FSLBM-LES). The validity of the model is verified by the good agreement between the calculated results and the measurements from various water experiments in terms of the flow velocity and free surface profile. The mathematical model is then used to reveal the transient and spatiotemporal asymmetric characteristics associated with the transient flow field and the free surface fluctuation, although the steady state operation is considered during the continuous casting process. The results show that the locations of the jets of liquid steel from the two out ports of the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN) always fluctuate alternatively within a certain range, and periodically deviate from the design angle of the SEN within the same time period. The oscillating behavior of the jets promotes the asymmetric flow patterns and multi-scale vortices at both sides of the SEN. By introducing the Q-criterion in the results analysis, the formation, development, and shedding of the coherent structure (CS) of the turbulent flow are quantitatively characterized. The interaction between the transient flow patterns and the fluctuations of the top free surface as well as the evolution of the transient profile and velocities of the free surface are also demonstrated. The results obtained from the current study suggest that the FSLBM-LES model offers a promising way to study the complex flows and related transfer phenomena in the continuous casting process.

  11. Social and Health Care Access for the Physically Disabled in 19th Century French-Speaking Switzerland : A Double Process of Exclusion and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba, Mariama

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th century, an unprecedented process of medicalisation and institutionalisation took place in Europe. The parallel development of urbanised and industrialised areas furthered the densification of a network of care institutions such as infirmaries and dispensaries, whilst medical tourism was developed among the upper classes stimulating the founding of new private clinics. A more institutional kind of care structure for people suffering from a disability also emerged. This medical and/or social care structure was part of a process of integration or exclusion, according to whether the disabled person’s state of health was likely to improve or not. This paper will focus on physically disabled persons, who were vaguely referred to as invalids or as “incurable” in 19th century institutional documents. Being mainly interested in French-speaking Switzerland, I will present the access to social and health care in the cantons of Geneva, Vaud and Neuchâtel.

  12. Measurement of exclusive $\\rho^{+}\\rho^{-}$ production in mid-virtuality two-photon interactions and study of the $\\gamma \\gamma^{*} \\to \\rho\\rho$ process at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2005-01-01

    Exclusive rho+rho- production in two-photon collisions between a quasi-real photon, gamma, and a mid-virtuality photon, gamma*, is studied with data collected at LEP at centre-of-mass energies root(s)=183-209GeV with a total integrated luminosity of 684.8pb^-1. The cross section of the gamma gamma* -> rho+ rho- process is determined as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, and the two-photon centre-of-mass energy, W_gg, in the kinematic region: 0.2GeV^2 rho rho process over the Q^2-region 0.2GeV^2 < Q^2 < 30 GeV^2.

  13. The psychology of exclusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Jollimore

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Friendship and romantic love are, by their very nature, exclusive relationships. This paper suggests that we can better understand the nature of the exclusivity in question by understanding what is wrong with the view of practical reasoning I call the Comprehensive Surveyor View. The CSV claims that practical reasoning, in order to be rational, must be a process of choosing the best available alternative from a perspective that is as detached and objective as possible. But this view, while it means to be neutral between various value-bearers, in fact incorporates a bias against those value-bearers that can only be appreciated from a perspective that is not detached—that can only be appreciated, for instance, by agents who bear long-term commitments to the values in question. In the realm of personal relationships, such commitments tend to give rise to the sort of exclusivity that characterizes friendship and romantic love; they prevent the agent from being impartial between her beloved’s needs, interests, etc., and those of other persons. In such contexts, I suggest, needs and claims of other persons may be silenced in much the way that, as John McDowell has suggested, the temptations of immorality are silenced for the virtuous agent.

  14. Exclusive Dijet production from CDF2LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-04-01

    Exclusive dijet production at the Tevatron can be used as a benchmark to establish predictions on exclusive diffractive Higgs production, a process with a much smaller cross section. Exclusive dijet production in Double Pomeron Exchange processes, including diffractive Higgs production with measurements at the Tevatron and predictions for the Large Hadron Collider are presented. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented and compared to current theoretical predictions.

  15. 40 CFR 261.39 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Broken Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... complete until any such claim is resolved in accordance with 40 CFR 260.2. (v) The export of CRTs is... CFR part 266, subpart C instead of the requirements of this section. ... Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and Processed CRT Glass Undergoing Recycling. 261.39 Section 261.39 Protection...

  16. Size exclusion and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/UV for routine control of thermal processing of cows' and donkey milk major proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Carina; Martins, Zita E; Petisca, Catarina; Figurska, Agata M; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-05-01

    Cows' and donkey milks (raw and thermally processed) and respective whey were analysed for quantification of major proteins. Two different chromatographic approaches, size exclusion (SE-HPLC) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) both coupled to UV detection were used. Usefulness of these methods for routine control of the effect of thermal processing was evaluated. The external standard method was used to calibrate the SE-HPLC and RP-HPLC systems. Concerning quantification of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), α-lactalbumin (α-la), lysozyme (lys), and total casein (cn), no significant differences between results obtained by SE-HPLC and by RP-HPLC (t-test, P>0·05) were observed for raw milks and whey. Heating of cows' milk promoted aggregation of denatured proteins as observed by SE-HPLC, whereas α-la and β-lg from donkey milk were stable to thermal processing at 100 °C (5 min). Lys was quantified in donkey raw milk and whey however, in thermally processed donkey milk lys was denatured and could not be quantified by HPLC.

  17. Exclusive dimuon production with LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Shears, Tara

    2011-01-01

    We report on studies of exclusive dimuon production using LHCb experimental data. Exclusively produced muon pairs can be produced by two photon fusion (a QED process ideally suited to obtaining a precise integrated luminosity measure), or through resonances produced by pomeron-photon fusion or double pomeron exchange.We present cross-section measurements for exclusive dimuon production, and the first observations at a proton-proton collider of exclusive J/psi, psi’ and chi_c states, obtained with 37 pb-1 of data at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. The resolution of the LHCb detectors allow the chic0, chic1 and chic2 states to be separated. We compare our results to theoretical predictions.

  18. QED radiative effects in the processes of exclusive photon electroproduction from polarized protons with the next-to-leading accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akushevich, Igor V. [Duke University, JLAB; Ilyichev, Alexander [Byelorussian State University; Shumeiko, Nikolai M [Byelorussian State University

    2014-08-01

    Radiative effects in the electroproduction of photons in polarized ep-scattering are calculated with the next-to-leading (NLO) accuracy. The contributions of loops and two photon emission were presented in analytical form. The covariant approach of Bardin and Shumeiko was used to extract the infrared divergence. All contributions to the radiative correction were presented in the form of the correction to the leptonic tensor thus allowing for further applications in other experiments, e.g., deep inelastic scattering. The radiative corrections (RC) to the cross sections and polarization asymmetries were analyzed numerically for kinematical conditions of the current measurement at Jefferson Lab. Specific attention was paid on analyzing kinematical conditions for the process with large radiative effect when momenta of two photons in the final state are collinear to momenta of initial and final electrons, respectively.

  19. QED radiative effects in the processes of exclusive photon electroproduction from polarized protons with the next-to-leading accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Akushevich, Igor; Shumeiko, Nikolai M

    2014-01-01

    Radiative effects in the electroproduction of photons in polarized $ep$-scattering are calculated with the next-to-leading (NLO) accuracy. The contributions of loops and two photon emission were presented in analytical form. The covariant approach of Bardin and Shumeiko was used to extract the infrared divergence. All contributions to the radiative correction were presented in the form of the correction to the leptonic tensor thus allowing for further applications in other experiments, e.g., deep inelastic scattering. The radiative corrections (RC) to the cross sections and polarization asymmetries were analyzed numerically for kinematical conditions of the current measurement at Jefferson Lab. Specific attention was paid on analyzing kinematical conditions for the process with large radiative effect when momenta of two photons in the final state are collinear to momenta of initial and final electrons, respectively.

  20. Formation of hexagonal boron nitride nanoscrolls induced by inclusion and exclusion of self-assembling molecules in solution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Da Young; Suh, Dong Hack

    2014-06-01

    Unlike nanoscrolls of 2D graphene, those of 2D h-BN have not been demonstrated, except for only a few experimental reports. Nanoscrolls of h-BN with high yields and reproducibility are first synthesized by a simple solution process. Inner-tube diameters of BNSs including LCAs, N-(2-aminoethyl)-3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-amide, a bile acid derivative and self-assembling material, can be controlled by adjusting the diameter of the LCA fiber which is grown by self-assembly. TEM and SEM images show that BNSs have a tube-like morphology and the inner-tube diameter of BNSs can be controlled in the range from 20 to 60 nm for a smaller diameter, up to 300 nm for a larger diameter by LCA fiber growth inside the BNSs. Finally, open cylindrical BNSs with hollow cores were obtained by dissolving LCAs inside BNSs.

  1. Listening to an audio drama activates two processing networks, one for all sounds, another exclusively for speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Boldt

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have shown considerable intersubject synchronization of brain activity when subjects watch the same movie or listen to the same story. Here we investigated the across-subjects similarity of brain responses to speech and non-speech sounds in a continuous audio drama designed for blind people. Thirteen healthy adults listened for ∼19 min to the audio drama while their brain activity was measured with 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. An intersubject-correlation (ISC map, computed across the whole experiment to assess the stimulus-driven extrinsic brain network, indicated statistically significant ISC in temporal, frontal and parietal cortices, cingulate cortex, and amygdala. Group-level independent component (IC analysis was used to parcel out the brain signals into functionally coupled networks, and the dependence of the ICs on external stimuli was tested by comparing them with the ISC map. This procedure revealed four extrinsic ICs of which two-covering non-overlapping areas of the auditory cortex-were modulated by both speech and non-speech sounds. The two other extrinsic ICs, one left-hemisphere-lateralized and the other right-hemisphere-lateralized, were speech-related and comprised the superior and middle temporal gyri, temporal poles, and the left angular and inferior orbital gyri. In areas of low ISC four ICs that were defined intrinsic fluctuated similarly as the time-courses of either the speech-sound-related or all-sounds-related extrinsic ICs. These ICs included the superior temporal gyrus, the anterior insula, and the frontal, parietal and midline occipital cortices. Taken together, substantial intersubject synchronization of cortical activity was observed in subjects listening to an audio drama, with results suggesting that speech is processed in two separate networks, one dedicated to the processing of speech sounds and the other to both speech and non-speech sounds.

  2. SEEKING JUSTICE, GUARANTEEING PROTECTION AND ENSURING DUE PROCESS: ADDRESSING THE TENSIONS BETWEEN EXCLUSION FROM REFUGEE PROTECTION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEfforts to secure protection for refugees in the Netherlands are being undermined by over-enthusiastic use of the exclusion principle in refugee status determination procedures. Inappropriate use of the exclusion principle is tied to accelerated (albeit ineffective) efforts to secure jus

  3. Scaling Solution in the Large Population Limit of the General Asymmetric Stochastic Luria-Delbrück Evolution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert

    2015-02-01

    One of the most popular models for quantitatively understanding the emergence of drug resistance both in bacterial colonies and in malignant tumors was introduced long ago by Luria and Delbrück. Here, individual resistant mutants emerge randomly during the birth events of an exponentially growing sensitive population. A most interesting limit of this process occurs when the population size is large and mutation rates are low, but not necessarily small compared to . Here we provide a scaling solution valid in this limit, making contact with the theory of Levy -stable distributions, in particular one discussed long ago by Landau. One consequence of this association is that moments of the distribution are highly misleading as far as characterizing typical behavior. A key insight that enables our solution is that working in the fixed population size ensemble is not the same as working in a fixed time ensemble. Some of our results have been presented previously in abbreviated form [12].

  4. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    ’ (Barad 2007). My definition in this chapter contributed to the shorter definition of bullying in the Introduction (see page XX), but it is more fully developed here in relation to the types of mechanisms and processes involved. Barad’s term ‘intra-action’ helps draw attention to the mutually......The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying...... . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces...

  5. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: integration of refolding and purification using simulated moving bed size-exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-04-11

    Continuous processing of recombinant proteins was accomplished by combining continuous matrix-assisted refolding and purification by tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Recombinant proteins, N(pro) fusion proteins from inclusion bodies were dissolved with NaOH and refolded in the SMB system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling of the refolding buffer of the raffinate by tangential flow filtration. For further purification of the refolded proteins, a second SMB operation also based on SEC was added. The whole system could be operated isocratically with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer, and buffer recycling could also be applied in the purification step. Thus, a significant reduction in buffer consumption was achieved. The system was evaluated with two proteins, the N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP-1. Refolding solution, which contained residual N(pro) fusion peptide, the cleaved autoprotease N(pro), and the cleaved target peptide was used as feed solution. Full separation of the cleaved target peptide from residual proteins was achieved at a purity and recovery in the raffinate and extract, respectively, of approximately 100%. In addition, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate was recycled. A comparison of throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption of the integrated continuous process with two batch processes demonstrated that up to 60-fold higher throughput, up to 180-fold higher productivity, and at least 28-fold lower buffer consumption can be obtained by the integrated continuous process, which compensates for the higher complexity.

  6. Social exclusion and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/accessibility/availability is one of the factors that significantly influence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation. At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, development and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries. The subject of this paper is the educational structure of population of Serbia and the accessibility of education. The analysis covers the educational structure with regard to age, gender and type of settlement (city and other/villages settlements.

  7. Regenerating a symmetry in asymmetric dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-06

    Asymmetric dark matter theories generically allow for mass terms that lead to particle-antiparticle mixing. Over the age of the Universe, dark matter can thus oscillate from a purely asymmetric configuration into a symmetric mix of particles and antiparticles, allowing for pair-annihilation processes. Additionally, requiring efficient depletion of the primordial thermal (symmetric) component generically entails large annihilation rates. We show that unless some symmetry completely forbids dark matter particle-antiparticle mixing, asymmetric dark matter is effectively ruled out for a large range of masses, for almost any oscillation time scale shorter than the age of the Universe.

  8. Generation of central exclusive final states

    CERN Document Server

    Lönnblad, Leif

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme for the generation of central exclusive final states in the Pythia 8 program. The implementation allows for the investigation of higher order corrections to such exclusive processes as approximated by the initial-state parton shower in Pythia 8. To achieve this, the spin and colour decomposition of the initial-state shower has been worked out, in order to determine the probability that a partonic state generated from an inclusive sub-process followed by a series of initial-state parton splittings can be considered as an approximation of an exclusive colour- and spin-singlet process. We use our implementation to investigate effects of parton showers on some examples of central exclusive processes, and find sizeable effects on di-jet production, while the effects on e.g. central exclusive Higgs production are minor.

  9. DISE: directed sphere exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Alberto; Lee, Man-Ling

    2003-01-01

    The Sphere Exclusion algorithm is a well-known algorithm used to select diverse subsets from chemical-compound libraries or collections. It can be applied with any given distance measure between two structures. It is popular because of the intuitive geometrical interpretation of the method and its good performance on large data sets. This paper describes Directed Sphere Exclusion (DISE), a modification of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm, which retains all positive properties of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm but generates a more even distribution of the selected compounds in the chemical space. In addition, the computational requirement is significantly reduced, thus it can be applied to very large data sets.

  10. Quantitative LC-MS of polymers: determining accurate molecular weight distributions by combined size exclusion chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry with maximum entropy data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendling, Till; Guilhaus, Michael; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2008-09-15

    We report on the successful application of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and refractive index (RI) detection for the determination of accurate molecular weight distributions of synthetic polymers, corrected for chromatographic band broadening. The presented method makes use of the ability of ESI-MS to accurately depict the peak profiles and retention volumes of individual oligomers eluting from the SEC column, whereas quantitative information on the absolute concentration of oligomers is obtained from the RI-detector only. A sophisticated computational algorithm based on the maximum entropy principle is used to process the data gained by both detectors, yielding an accurate molecular weight distribution, corrected for chromatographic band broadening. Poly(methyl methacrylate) standards with molecular weights up to 10 kDa serve as model compounds. Molecular weight distributions (MWDs) obtained by the maximum entropy procedure are compared to MWDs, which were calculated by a conventional calibration of the SEC-retention time axis with peak retention data obtained from the mass spectrometer. Comparison showed that for the employed chromatographic system, distributions below 7 kDa were only weakly influenced by chromatographic band broadening. However, the maximum entropy algorithm could successfully correct the MWD of a 10 kDa standard for band broadening effects. Molecular weight averages were between 5 and 14% lower than the manufacturer stated data obtained by classical means of calibration. The presented method demonstrates a consistent approach for analyzing data obtained by coupling mass spectrometric detectors and concentration sensitive detectors to polymer liquid chromatography.

  11. 32 CFR 989.13 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 989.13 Section 989.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.13 Categorical exclusion. (a) CATEXs define those...

  12. Explaining Social Exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Cok Vrooman

    2007-01-01

    Although social exclusion has become a key issue on the European policy agenda in recent years, both the social phenomena the term refers to and the best way to monitor these remain unclear. In response to this, we developed a conceptual model for social exclusion and a methodology for its empirical

  13. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng

    2006-12-15

    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  14. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  15. Asymmetrical field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  16. Comparative Study of Mutual Exclusion Algorithms in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijnasa Patil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutual Exclusion is an important phenomenon in distributed systems. In this paper, we analyze and compare various mutual exclusion algorithms in distributed systems. In permission based mutual exclusion process waits for permission from other processes to enter into a critical section. In token based mutual exclusion, a special message called token is passed over the system and process holding the token can enter into the critical section. We present a comparative study of quorum based, token ring token asking and multiple token algorithms for mutual exclusion in distributed systems.

  17. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hatzold

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  18. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B

    2002-01-01

    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmet

  19. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yin Mak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed.

  20. Asymmetric catalysis with helical polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, Rik P.; Roelfes, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by nature, the use of helical biopolymer catalysts has emerged over the last years as a new approach to asymmetric catalysis. In this Concept article the various approaches and designs and their application in asymmetric catalysis will be discussed.

  1. The Influence of the Asymmetric Arb Process on the Properties of Al-Mg-Al Multi-Layer Sheets / Wpływ Asymetrii W Procesie Arb Na Właściwości Wielowarstwowych Blach Al-Mg-Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzba A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the experimental study of the three-layer Al-Mg-Al sheets rolling process by the ARB method. The tests carried out were limited to single-pass symmetric and asymmetric rolling processes. An Al-Mg-Al package with an initial thickness of 4 mm (1-2-1 mm was subjected to the process of rolling with a relative reduction of 50%. To activate the shear band in the strip being deformed, an asymmetry factor of av=2 was applied. From the test results, an increase in the tensile strength of the multi-layer Al-Mg-Al sheets obtained from the asymmetric process was observed. Microhardness tests did not show any significant differences in aluminium layer between respective layers of sheets obtained from the symmetric and the asymmetric process. By contrast, for the magnesium layer, an increase in microhardness from 72 HV to 79 HV could be observed for the asymmetric rolling. The analysis of the produced Al-Mg-Al sheets shows that the good bond between individual layers and grain refinement in the magnesium layer contributed to the obtaining of higher mechanical properties in the multi-layer sheets produced in the asymmetric process compared to the sheets obtained from the symmetric process.

  2. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.

    2007-12-15

    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  3. Homogeneous asymmetric catalysis in fragrance chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappa, Alessandra; Bovo, Sara; Bertoldini, Matteo; Scrivanti, Alberto; Matteoli, Ugo

    2008-06-01

    Opposite enantiomers of a chiral fragrance may exhibit different olfactory activities making a synthesis in high enantiomeric purity commercially and scientifically interesting. Accordingly, the asymmetric synthesis of four chiral odorants, Fixolide, Phenoxanol, Citralis, and Citralis Nitrile, has been investigated with the aim to develop practically feasible processes. In the devised synthetic schemes, the key step that leads to the formation of the stereogenic center is the homogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation of a prochiral olefin. By an appropriate choice of the catalyst and the reaction conditions, Phenoxanol, Citralis, and Citralis Nitrile were obtained in high enantiomeric purity, and odor profiles of the single enantiomers were determined.

  4. Social exclusion of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This report

  5. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN bulletin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Ombudsman Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.

  6. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.   Contact the Ombuds Early!

  7. Factors associated with latent fingerprint exclusion determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2017-02-22

    Exclusion is the determination by a latent print examiner that two friction ridge impressions did not originate from the same source. The concept and terminology of exclusion vary among agencies. Much of the literature on latent print examination focuses on individualization, and much less attention has been paid to exclusion. This experimental study assesses the associations between a variety of factors and exclusion determinations. Although erroneous exclusions are more likely to occur on some images and for some examiners, they were widely distributed among images and examiners. Measurable factors found to be associated with exclusion rates include the quality of the latent, value determinations, analysis minutia count, comparison difficulty, and the presence of cores or deltas. An understanding of these associations will help explain the circumstances under which errors are more likely to occur and when determinations are less likely to be reproduced by other examiners; the results should also lead to improved effectiveness and efficiency of training and casework quality assurance. This research is intended to assist examiners in improving the examination process and provide information to the broader community regarding the accuracy, reliability, and implications of exclusion decisions.

  8. Asymmetric information and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an expression of the economic concept of asymmetric information with which it is possible to derive the dynamical laws of an economy. To illustrate the utility of this approach we show how the assumption of optimal information flow leads to a general class of investment strategies including the well-known Q theory of Tobin. Novel consequences of this formalism include a natural definition of market efficiency and an uncertainty principle relating capital stock and investment flow.

  9. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço; Mônica Tirre de Souza Araújo

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portugue...

  10. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  11. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  12. Model of reversible vesicular transport with exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Karamched, Bhargav R.

    2016-08-01

    A major question in neurobiology concerns the mechanics behind the motor-driven transport and delivery of vesicles to synaptic targets along the axon of a neuron. Experimental evidence suggests that the distribution of vesicles along the axon is relatively uniform and that vesicular delivery to synapses is reversible. A recent modeling study has made explicit the crucial role that reversibility in vesicular delivery to synapses plays in achieving uniformity in vesicle distribution, so called synaptic democracy (Bressloff et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 168101). In this paper we generalize the previous model by accounting for exclusion effects (hard-core repulsion) that may occur between molecular motor-cargo complexes (particles) moving along the same microtubule track. The resulting model takes the form of an exclusion process with four internal states, which distinguish between motile and stationary particles, and whether or not a particle is carrying vesicles. By applying a mean field approximation and an adiabatic approximation we reduce the system of ODEs describing the evolution of occupation numbers of the sites on a 1D lattice to a system of hydrodynamic equations in the continuum limit. We find that reversibility in vesicular delivery allows for synaptic democracy even in the presence of exclusion effects, although exclusion does exacerbate nonuniform distributions of vesicles in an axon when compared with a model without exclusion. We also uncover the relationship between our model and other models of exclusion processes with internal states.

  13. The Inclusiveness of Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Barelli; Suren Basov; Mauricio Bugarin; Ian King

    2010-01-01

    We extend Armstrong’s (1996) result on exclusion in multi-dimensional screening models in two key ways, providing support for the view that this result is quite generic and applicable to many different markets. First, we relax the strong technical assumptions he imposed on preferences and consumer types. Second, we extend the result beyond the monopolistic market structure to generalized oligopoly settings with entry. We also analyse applications to several quite different settings: credit ma...

  14. NEET and Youth Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mihai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and social exclusion represent one of the most important themes in contemporary social policy both in UE countries and the rest of the world. In order to combat this and to improve the inclusion rate among NEET youth the social policies need to be channeled in three directions: education, training and employment. This study allows us a broad view of the proposed policies based on the analysis of this indicator.

  15. Challenging gender stereotypes: resistance and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls.

  16. Exclusion and Hierarchy of Time Scales Lead to Spatial Segregation of Molecular Motors in Cellular Protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkoviezky, I.; Gov, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular motors that carry cargo along biopolymer filaments within cells play a crucial role in the functioning of the cell. In particular, these motors are essential for the formation and maintenance of the cellular protrusions that play key roles in motility and specific functionalities, such as the stereocilia in hair cells. Typically, there are several species of motors, carrying different cargos, that share the same track. Furthermore, it was observed that in the mature stereocilia, the different motors occupy well-segregated bands as a function of distance from the tip. We use a totally asymmetric exclusion process model with two- and three-motor species, to study the conditions that give rise to such spatial patterns. We find that the well-segregated bands appear for motors with a strong hierarchy of attachment or detachment rates. This is a striking example of pattern formation in nonequilibrium, low-dimensional systems.

  17. Domain-wall theory and nonstationarity in driven flow with exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, R. B.; de Queiroz, S. L. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the dynamical evolution toward steady state of the stochastic nonequilibrium model known as the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process, in both uniform and nonuniform (staggered) one-dimensional systems with open boundaries. Domain-wall theory and numerical simulations are used and, where pertinent, their results are compared to existing mean-field predictions and exact solutions where available. For uniform chains we find that the inclusion of fluctuations inherent to the domain-wall formulation plays a crucial role in providing good agreement with simulations, which is severely lacking in the corresponding mean-field predictions. For alternating-bond chains the domain-wall predictions for the features of the phase diagram in the parameter space of injection and ejection rates turn out to be realized only in an incipient and quantitatively approximate way. Nevertheless, significant quantitative agreement can be found between several additional domain-wall theory predictions and numerics.

  18. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  19. Asymmetric flow networks

    OpenAIRE

    Olaizola Ortega, María Norma; Valenciano Llovera, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a new model of network formation that bridges the gap between the two benchmark models by Bala and Goyal, the one-way flow model, and the two-way flow model, and includes both as particular extreme cases. As in both benchmark models, in what we call an "asymmetric flow" network a link can be initiated unilaterally by any player with any other, and the flow through a link towards the player who supports it is perfect. Unlike those models, in the opposite direction there is ...

  20. Individual choice and social exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Why is social exclusion a problem? What about ‘voluntary’ social exclusion – when an individual chooses to exclude him or herself from the wider society? Brain Barry has addressed these questions in a recent CASE book, arguing that social exclusion, voluntary or involuntary, offends against social justice and social solidarity. This paper contends that Barry’s arguments are weak for voluntary social exclusion and argues that, perhaps surprisingly, a better case can be made for treating volunt...

  1. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    McNulty, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production (CEP) is a unique process at hadron machines in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. LHCb have measured the cross-sections for the CEP of vector mesons, $J/\\psi,\\psi(2S),\\Upsilon(1S),\\Upsilon(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon(3S)$, which are photo-produced. In the double pomeron exchange process, preliminary measurements have been made of $\\chi_{c0},\\chi_{c1}, \\chi_{c2}$ meson production while the first observations of the CEP of pairs of charmonia, $J/\\psi J/\\psi$ and $J/\\psi \\psi(2S)$, have been made and limits obtained on the pair production of other charmonia.

  2. Choreography of Ig allelic exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar, Howard; Bergman, Yehudit

    2008-06-01

    Allelic exclusion guarantees that each B or T cell only produces a single antigen receptor, and in this way contributes to immune diversity. This process is actually initiated in the early embryo when the immune receptor loci become asynchronously replicating in a stochastic manner with one early and one late allele in each cell. This distinct differential replication timing feature then serves an instructive mark that directs a series of allele-specific epigenetic events in the immune system, including programmed histone modification, nuclear localization and DNA demethylation that ultimately bring about preferred rearrangement on a single allele, and this decision is temporally stabilized by feedback mechanisms that inhibit recombination on the second allele. In principle, these same molecular components are also used for controlling monoallelic expression at other genomic loci, such as those carrying interleukins and olfactory receptor genes that require the choice of one gene out of a large array. Thus, allelic exclusion appears to represent a general epigenetic phenomenon that is modeled on the same basis as X chromosome inactivation.

  3. Social exclusion in finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  4. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  5. The asymmetric sandwich theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the asymmetric sandwich theorem, a generalization of the Hahn-Banach theorem. As applications, we derive various results on the existence of linear functionals that include bivariate, trivariate and quadrivariate generalizations of the Fenchel duality theorem. Most of the results are about affine functions defined on convex subsets of vector spaces, rather than linear functions defined on vector spaces. We consider both results that use a simple boundedness hypothesis (as in Rockafellar's version of the Fenchel duality theorem) and also results that use Baire's theorem (as in the Robinson-Attouch-Brezis version of the Fenchel duality theorem). This paper also contains some new results about metrizable topological vector spaces that are not necessarily locally convex.

  6. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  7. Asymmetric synthesis of (-)-adaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamazaki, Naoki; Kibayashi, Chihiro

    2002-07-25

    [reaction: see text] An enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-adaline has been achieved starting from a chiral 6,6-disubstituted piperidone derivative previously prepared by diastereoselective allylation of a chiral tricyclic N-acyl-N,O-acetal. The key steps include lithium ion-activated SN2-type alkynylation of the tricyclic N,O-acetal leading to exclusive formation of the (6S)-ethynylpiperidine and ring-closing olefin metathesis of the (2R,6S)-cis-2,6-dialkenylpiperidine for constructing the bridged azabicyclononane.

  8. The Mechanisms of Interpersonal Privacy in Social Networking Websites: A Study of Subconscious Processes, Social Network Analysis, and Fear of Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    With increasing usage of social networking sites like Facebook there is a need to study privacy. Previous research has placed more emphasis on outcome-oriented contexts, such as e-commerce sites. In process-oriented contexts, like Facebook, privacy has become a source of conflict for users. The majority of architectural privacy (e.g. privacy…

  9. Starvation-free mutual exclusion with semaphores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; IJbema, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The standard implementation of mutual exclusion by means of a semaphore allows starvation of processes. Between 1979 and 1986, three algorithms were proposed that preclude starvation. These algorithms use a special kind of semaphore. We model this so-called buffered semaphore rigorously and provide

  10. Exclusion performance and learning by exclusion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaine, Isabela; Domeniconi, Camila; de Rose, Julio C

    2016-05-01

    Responding by exclusion is a type of emergent repertoire in which an individual chooses an alternative by the apparent exclusion of other available alternatives. In this case it is possible to respond appropriately to an undefined stimulus (one that has not previously acquired discriminative functions) by excluding the defined alternatives. There is evidence of exclusion in humans and nonhuman animals, although learning as an outcome of exclusion does not always occur. This study aimed to investigate exclusion in visual simple discriminations and learning of new simple discriminations resulting from exclusion in four border collies. Subjects were trained to perform simple simultaneous discriminations between pairs of tridimensional objects, and were then tested for exclusion, novelty control and learning of new simple discriminations. All dogs successfully responded by exclusion, choosing an undefined stimulus displayed with an S-. For three dogs, it was possible to conclude that these previously undefined stimuli acquired S+ functions, documenting learning of new simple discriminations. However, this required up to four exposures to exclusion trials with each pair of stimuli.

  11. Research on the Design and Modification of Asymmetric Spur Gear

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohe Deng; Lin Hua; Xinghui Han

    2015-01-01

    A design method for the geometric shape and modification of asymmetric spur gear was proposed, in which the geometric shape and modification of the gear can be obtained directly according to the rack-cutter profile. In the geometric design process of the gear, a rack-cutter with different pressure angles and fillet radius in the driving side and coast side was selected, and the generated asymmetric spur gear profiles also had different pressure angles and fillets accordingly. In the modificat...

  12. Asymmetric zygote division: A mystery starting point of embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2016-10-02

    In angiosperm, asymmetric zygote division is critical for embryogenesis. The molecular mechanism underlying this process has gained a great attention recently. Some players involve in the control of both accurate position and correct orientation of zygote division plane have been found, which provide useful clues for the extensive investigations. It is getting clear that both internal and external factors are involved in this complex regulatory mechanism and the asymmetric zygote division seems with great impact in cell fate determination and embryo pattern formation.

  13. Characterization of enzymatically synthesized amylopectin analogs via asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Rolland-Sabate, Agnes; Guilois, Sophie; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4), when coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), is a very powerful technique for determination of the macromolecular structure of high molar mass (branched) polysaccharides. AF4 is a size fractionation technique just as size exclusion c

  14. The asymmetric alkylation of dimethylhydrazones; intermolecular chirality transfer using sparteine as chiral ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Christina M; Foley, Vera M; McGlacken, Gerard P

    2014-12-01

    The asymmetric alkylation of ketones represents a fundamental transformation in organic chemistry. Chiral auxiliaries have been used almost exclusively for this transformation. Herein we describe a strategy for the generation of enantiomerically enriched α-alkylated ketones up to an er of 83 : 17, using a chiral ligand protocol.

  15. Development of a preliminary design of a method to measure the effectiveness of virus exclusion during water process reclamation at zero-G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.; Linnecke, C. B.

    1976-01-01

    Organon Diagnostics has developed, under NASA sponsorship, a monitoring system to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water. In this system, a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. An engineering preliminary design has been performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings present a preliminary instrument design of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation.

  16. Enhancing molecule fluorescence with asymmetrical plasmonic antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guowei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianyue; Shen, Hongming; Perriat, Pascal; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Gu, Ying; He, Yingbo; Wang, Yuwei; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-07-21

    We propose and justify by the finite-difference time-domain method an efficient strategy to enhance the spontaneous emission of a fluorophore with a multi-resonance plasmonic antenna. The custom-designed asymmetrical antenna consists of two plasmonic nanoparticles with different sizes and is able to couple efficiently to free space light through multiple localized surface plasmon resonances. This design simultaneously permits a large near-field excitation near the antenna as well as a high quantum efficiency, which results in an unusual and significant enhancement of the fluorescence of a single emitter. Such an asymmetrical antenna presents intrinsic advantages over single particle or dimer based antennas made using two identical nanostructures. This promising concept can be exploited in the large domain of light-matter interaction processes involving multiple frequencies.

  17. Asymmetric Gepner Models (Revisited)

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2010-01-01

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as th...

  18. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle life....

  19. Verifying Mutual Exclusion and Liveness Properties with Split Preconditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh; Anup Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    2004-01-01

    This work is focused on presenting a split precondition approach for the modeling and proving the correctness of distributed algorithms. Formal specification and precise analysis of Peterson's distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for two process has been considered. The proof of properties like, mutual exclusion, liveness, and lockout-freedom have also been presented.

  20. Tests of quantum chromodynamics in exclusive and inclusive electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: overview of electroproduction phenomenology; hadronization of the quark and spectator systems; hadronization in nuclei; shadowing and anti- shadowing; color transparency; exclusive channels in electroproduction; hadronic wavefunction phenomenology; diffractive electroproduction; exclusive nuclear processes in QCD; and relation of electroproduction to QCD wavefunctions. 58 refs., 22 figs. (LSP)

  1. Contrasting Stories of Inclusion/Exclusion in the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Maria de Fatima Cardoso; Mortimer, Eduardo F.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the construction process of inclusion/exclusion for high school chemistry students in two schools in Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We examined the interactional accomplishment of inclusion/exclusion of four students, two from a private school and two from a public school. The aim of this article…

  2. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  3. On Asymmetric Quantum MDS Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Ezerman, Martianus Frederic; Ling, San

    2010-01-01

    Assuming the validity of the MDS Conjecture, the weight distribution of all MDS codes is known. Using a recently-established characterization of asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes, linear MDS codes can be used to construct asymmetric quantum MDS codes with $d_{z} \\geq d_{x}\\geq 2$ for all possible values of length $n$ for which linear MDS codes over $\\F_{q}$ are known to exist.

  4. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong

    2017-01-01

    and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...

  5. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  6. Exclusion Statistics: a Generalized Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-Quan; WANG Yu-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ By constructing the fused-particle representation of the free boson gas, we propose a description of the exclusion statistics which allows us to connect the Bose-Einstein statistics and the Fermi-Dirac statistics smoothly.With an proper choice of the exclusion factors γl, Hadane-Wu's fractional statistics is retrieved in this representation.

  7. A framework for the direct evaluation of large deviations in non-Markovian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Massimo; Harris, Rosemary J.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a general framework to simulate stochastic trajectories with arbitrarily long memory dependence and efficiently evaluate large deviation functions associated to time-extensive observables. This extends the ‘cloning’ procedure of Giardiná et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 120603) to non-Markovian systems. We demonstrate the validity of this method by testing non-Markovian variants of an ion-channel model and the totally asymmetric exclusion process, recovering results obtainable by other means.

  8. Abnormal neural responses to social exclusion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradin, Victoria B; Waiter, Gordon; Kumar, Poornima; Stickle, Catriona; Milders, Maarten; Matthews, Keith; Reid, Ian; Hall, Jeremy; Steele, J Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Social exclusion is an influential concept in politics, mental health and social psychology. Studies on healthy subjects have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region involved in emotional and social information processing, in neural responses to social exclusion. Impairments in social interactions are common in schizophrenia and are associated with reduced quality of life. Core symptoms such as delusions usually have a social content. However little is known about the neural underpinnings of social abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of social exclusion in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls underwent fMRI while participating in a popular social exclusion paradigm. This task involves passing a 'ball' between the participant and two cartoon representations of other subjects. The extent of social exclusion (ball not being passed to the participant) was parametrically varied throughout the task. Replicating previous findings, increasing social exclusion activated the mPFC in controls. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to modulate mPFC responses with increasing exclusion. Furthermore, the blunted response to exclusion correlated with increased severity of positive symptoms. These data support the hypothesis that the neural response to social exclusion differs in schizophrenia, highlighting the mPFC as a potential substrate of impaired social interactions.

  9. Perfil dos internos no sistema prisional do Rio de Janeiro: especificidades de gênero no processo de exclusão social Profile of prisoners in the Rio de Janeiro prison system: specifities of gender in the social exclusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lazaro de Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do perfil sociodemográfico, história penal, uso de drogas e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis da população carcerária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, em 1998, permitiu conhecer diferentes características da população prisional por sexo. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar se o perfil de exclusão social a que essa população é submetida difere quanto ao sexo. Foram entrevistados 2.039 presos por estudo seccional, e utilizada a razão de prevalência como medida de associação entre sexo e as demais variáveis. A análise multivariada, através de regressão logística, compõe um modelo final de explicação dessas diferenças. A população é jovem, de baixa escolaridade, e apresenta ruptura de vínculos da vida social em várias dimensões para ambos os sexos. Fatores mais fortemente associados ao sexo masculino: visita íntima na prisão, estar preso por sete anos ou mais, ser casado, condenação por roubo, ter ainda três anos ou mais a cumprir de pena e uso de maconha antes de ser preso; para o sexo feminino: doença sexualmente transmissível, ser viúva, estrangeira, usar tranqüilizante na prisão, ter visitado alguém na prisão antes de ser presa e ter 35 anos ou mais. A análise dos dados permitiu concluir que embora esses homens e mulheres sejam igualmente excluídos da "vida social" muito antes e também depois da prisão, existem algumas características que os diferenciam nesse processo de injustiça social.The study of the social and demographic profile, criminal records, drug use and sexually transmitted diseases of the prison population of Rio de Janeiro State in 1998 offered a view of different aspects of this population by gender. The objective of this study is to identify if the profile of social exclusion this population is submitted differs by gender. Through a sectional study, 2,039 prisoners were interviewed, using the prevalence ratio as an association measure between gender and the other

  10. Latest Results in Central Exclusive Production: A Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Harland-Lang, L A; Ryskin, M G; Stirling, W J

    2013-01-01

    Selected new results in central exclusive production (CEP) processes within the pQCD-based Durham model are discussed. Topics covered include the CEP of SM and BSM Higgs-like particles, meson pair CEP and the gap survival probability.

  11. Nonlinear effects in asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Abraham, Susan; Kagan, Henri B

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds for various applications. An efficient approach to achieve this goal is asymmetric catalysis. The chiral catalyst is usually prepared from a chiral auxiliary, which itself is derived from a natural product or by resolution of a racemic precursor. The use of non-enantiopure chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric catalysis seems unattractive to preparative chemists, since the anticipated enantiomeric excess (ee) of the reaction product should be proportional to the ee value of the chiral auxiliary (linearity). In fact, some deviation from linearity may arise. Such nonlinear effects can be rich in mechanistic information and can be synthetically useful (asymmetric amplification). This Review documents the advances made during the last decade in the use of nonlinear effects in the area of organometallic and organic catalysis.

  12. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  13. CERN Summer Student Project: Central Exclusive Diffraction and Glueball Searches

    CERN Document Server

    van Beest, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    CERN Summer Student work project report on work conducted in the Diffraction group at the ALICE experiment as well as the obtained results. These include a kinematical calculation with respect to a generic central exclusive process, the selection rules for a centrally produced system with respect to a specific central exclusive diffraction process, and finally a case study of one of the first contributions to the search for glueballs at CERN.

  14. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul

    1996-01-01

    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b......A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines...

  15. Softening the Blow of Social Exclusion: The Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Gili; Williams, Kipling D; Beer, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources) who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources' needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication. We propose that sources have three options: explicit rejection (clearly stating no), ostracism (ignoring), and ambiguous rejection (being unclear). Drawing on psychology, sociology, communications, and business research, we propose that when sources use explicit rejection, targets' feelings will be less hurt, their needs will be better protected, and sources will experience less backlash and emotional toil than if sources use ambiguous rejection or ostracism. Finally, we propose how the language of rejections may impact both parties.

  16. Neuronal Alignment On Asymmetric Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Beighley, Ross; Sekeroglu, Koray; Atherton, Timothy; Demirel, Melik C; Staii, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the development of the nervous system. Here we present experimental and theoretical results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on asymmetric surfaces and quantify the role that biomechanical surface cues play in neuronal growth. These results represent an important step towards engineering directed axonal growth for neuro-regeneration studies.

  17. Asymmetric disassembly and robustness in declining networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Uzzi, Brian

    2008-10-28

    Mechanisms that enable declining networks to avert structural collapse and performance degradation are not well understood. This knowledge gap reflects a shortage of data on declining networks and an emphasis on models of network growth. Analyzing >700,000 transactions between firms in the New York garment industry over 19 years, we tracked this network's decline and measured how its topology and global performance evolved. We find that favoring asymmetric (disassortative) links is key to preserving the topology and functionality of the declining network. Based on our findings, we tested a model of network decline that combines an asymmetric disassembly process for contraction with a preferential attachment process for regrowth. Our simulation results indicate that the model can explain robustness under decline even if the total population of nodes contracts by more than an order of magnitude, in line with our observations for the empirical network. These findings suggest that disassembly mechanisms are not simply assembly mechanisms in reverse and that our model is relevant to understanding the process of decline and collapse in a broad range of biological, technological, and financial networks.

  18. Exclusive Jewelry Joits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POGREBISKY David

    2012-01-01

    There are shown the wide possibilities of combined micro plasma welding methods.They permit,for example,to do the local surfacing without essential deformations of rather thin jewelry elements,including a big growth a rise or layer of metal which exceeds it thickness in 2~8 times at the space with the approximately the same sizes.Such opportunities are based on the various possibilities of the joint producing - with different participation of metal parts and filler material.It may be added as a standard paste,wire,strip,etc.An operator can easy choose - where it is reasonable to apply only welding or brazing process as well as their combinationsdue to his qualification,the concrete jewelry good design,needed accuracy of the given joint adjustment and,of course,the operators fantasy.At the same time he has excellentchances to repair the spoiled jewelry good or its element.All these processes are very easy for realization and theymay be even made by beginners and not only in jewelry,but also forrepairing of copper tubes,brass heat exchangers,various bronze goods,in dental purposes.

  19. Experimental Quantification of Asymmetric Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Xu, Jin-Shi; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wu, Yu-Chun; Chen, Jing-Ling; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-04-22

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one observer to nonlocally "steer" the other observer's state through local measurements. EPR steering exhibits a unique asymmetric property; i.e., the steerability can differ between observers, which can lead to one-way EPR steering in which only one observer obtains steerability in the steering process. This property is inherently different from the symmetric concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, and it has attracted increasing interest. Here, we experimentally demonstrate asymmetric EPR steering for a class of two-qubit states in the case of two measurement settings. We propose a practical method to quantify the steerability. We then provide a necessary and sufficient condition for EPR steering and clearly demonstrate one-way EPR steering. Our work provides new insight into the fundamental asymmetry of quantum nonlocality and has potential applications in asymmetric quantum information processing.

  20. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production at 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC, i.e. events with a hadronic system containing at least two jets in addition to a large region of pseudorapidity devoid of hadronic activity. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been exploited to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs in the data taken at centreofmass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The 7 TeV study concentrates on a precision measurement of the dielectron and dimuon process, while the 8 TeV measurement explores the exclusive production of WW pairs in the elec...

  1. Diffractive and Exclusive Measurements at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ruspa, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Recent measurements are discussed of inclusive and exclusive diffractive processes in pp colli- sions at √ s = 7 TeV at the LHC using the CMS detector. Results are presented of the single- and double-diffractive cross section and of the inclusive differential cross section for events with a forward rapidity gap. A study of exclusive W + W − production by two-photon exchange, where, in different kinematic regions, both con fi rmation and deviations from the Standard Model predic- tions are searched, is reported. Finally, a joint measurement with the CMS and TOTEM detectors of the pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles produced in pp collisions at √ s = 8 TeV is presented. This is the fi rst joint study between the two experiments.

  2. Synthesis of Asymmetric Propanetriol Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From natural tartaric acid, (R)-2-benzyloxy-3-(2-tetrahydropyranyloxy) propanol 3 was designed and synthesized, and (R)-2-benzyloxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyloxy) propanol 7 was prepared in a new method. They can be used as chiral synthons of lysophosphatidic acid and other compounds with asymmetric propanetriol backbone.

  3. Catalytic Asymmetric Bromocyclization of Polyenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ramesh C; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2017-02-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric bromonium ion-induced polyene cyclization has been achieved by using a chiral BINOL-derived thiophosphoramide catalyst and 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin as an electrophilic bromine source. Bromocyclization products are obtained in high yields, with good enantiomeric ratios and high diastereoselectivity, and are abundantly found as scaffolds in natural products.

  4. Neurons derive from the more apical daughter in asymmetric divisions in the zebrafish neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Paula; Reugels, Alexander M; Barker, David; Blanc, Eric; Clarke, Jonathan D W

    2010-06-01

    In the developing CNS, asymmetric cell division is critical for maintaining the balanced production of differentiating neurons while renewing the population of neural progenitors. In invertebrates, this process depends on asymmetric inheritance of fate determinants during progenitor divisions. A similar mechanism is widely believed to underlie asymmetrically fated divisions in vertebrates, but compelling evidence for this is missing. We used live imaging of individual progenitors in the intact zebrafish embryo CNS to test this hypothesis. We found that asymmetric inheritance of a subcellular domain is strongly correlated with asymmetric daughter fates and our results reveal an unexpected feature of this process. The daughter cell destined to become a neuron was derived from the more apical of the two daughters, whereas the more basal daughter inherited the basal process and replenished the apical progenitor pool.

  5. CMS results on exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Khakzad, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A search for exclusive or quasi-exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow W^{+}W^{-}$ production, ${\\rm pp} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} W^{+}W^{-} {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\mu^{\\pm} {\\rm e}^{\\mp} {\\rm p}^{(*)}$, at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV (7 TeV) are reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\rm {fb}^{-1}$ (5.5$\\rm {fb}^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. We also report a measurement of the exclusive production of pairs of charged pions in proton-proton collisions. The differential cross sections for $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ pairs as a function of the pion pair invariant mass is measured and compared to several phenomenological predictions.

  6. Mini review of Central Exclusive Production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brona, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    The LHC experiments provide an unprecedented coverage in pseudo-rapidity. This advantage and the high LHC luminosity allow for broad studies of central exclusive production (CEP) \\mbox{processes} such as exclusive production of $\\Upsilon$, di-leptons, di-photons and di-jets. With the proposed near beam detectors (FP420 and FP220) exclusive Higgs and SUSY states will be also \\mbox{accesible}. The \\mbox{discussion} is focused on the CMS programme, but both CMS and ATLAS have similar \\mbox{kinematical} coverage and may perform similar studies.

  7. Mini review of Central Exclusive Production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brona, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    The LHC experiments provide an unprecedented coverage in pseudo-rapidity. This advantage and high LHC luminosity allow for broad studies of central exclusive production (CEP) processes such as exclusive production of ¡, di-leptons, di-photons and di-jets. Finally, with the proposed near beam detectors (FP420 and FP220) the exclusive Higgs and SUSY states will be also accesible. The discussion is focused on the CMS programme, as both CMS and ATLAS have similar kinematical coverage and may perform similar studies.

  8. Limit process of stationary TASEP near the characteristic line

    CERN Document Server

    Baik, Jinho; Péché, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    The totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) on Z with the Bernoulli-rho measure as initial conditions, 0process limit in tandem queues in equilibrium.

  9. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 907.10... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.10 Categorical exclusion. The CEQ Regulations provide for the categorical exclusion... administrative operations of the Corporation. (b) List of categorical exclusions. Categories of...

  10. 42 CFR 1002.203 - Mandatory exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mandatory exclusion. 1002.203 Section 1002.203... AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-STATE-INITIATED EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICAID Mandatory Exclusion § 1002.203 Mandatory exclusion. (a) The State agency, in order to receive Federal financial participation (FFP),...

  11. Asymmetric Multilevel Diversity Coding and Asymmetric Gaussian Multiple Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Mohajer, Soheil; Diggavi, Suhas N

    2009-01-01

    We consider the asymmetric multilevel diversity (A-MLD) coding problem, where a set of $2^K-1$ information sources, ordered in a decreasing level of importance, is encoded into $K$ messages (or descriptions). There are $2^K-1$ decoders, each of which has access to a non-empty subset of the encoded messages. Each decoder is required to reproduce the information sources up to a certain importance level depending on the combination of descriptions available to it. We obtain a single letter characterization of the achievable rate region for the 3-description problem. In contrast to symmetric multilevel diversity coding, source-separation coding is not sufficient in the asymmetric case, and ideas akin to network coding need to be used strategically. Based on the intuitions gained in treating the A-MLD problem, we derive inner and outer bounds for the rate region of the asymmetric Gaussian multiple description (MD) problem with three descriptions. Both the inner and outer bounds have a similar geometric structure t...

  12. Smurfs have "fused" into the asymmetric division of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven Y. Cheng; Ying E. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The asymmetric cell division is the way in which a stem cell divides into one daughter stem cell and one differentiated daughter cell.This process is one of the key principles of developmental biology that ensures the perpetual supply of stem cells while allowing a particular cell lineage to be populated.During Drosophila oogenesis, the fate of the daughter stem cell produced from the asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by Decapentaplegic (Dpp), but the other daughter cell has almost equal access to the Dpp signal.

  13. Climate agreements under limited participation, asymmetric information and market imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagem, Cathrine

    1996-12-31

    This thesis relates to climate agreements and cost efficiency by analysing the formation of a system of quota leading to distributed discharge of emissions between countries. Main fields concerned are the greenhouse effect, the political process, efficient and cost-effective climate agreements, and climate agreements under limited participation, asymmetric information and market imperfections covering fields like limited participation in climate agreements, limited participation and indirect impact on non-participating countries` emissions, limited participation and direct impact on non-participating countries` emissions under asymmetric information, and non-competitive market for tradeable quotas. 166 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size-asymmetric ......A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size...

  15. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  16. Non-linear QCD dynamics and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, M V T; Meneses, A R

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we analyse the cross sections for the exclusive vector meson production as well as the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) relying on the color dipole approach and considering the numerical solution of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation including running coupling corrections. Comparisons to DESY-HERA data on exclusive processes and predictions to the Large Hadron Electron Collider, LHeC, are presented.

  17. Market Efficiency and Price Formation When Dealers are Asymmetrically Informed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagno, R.; Lovo, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effect of asymmetric information on the price formation process in a quote-driven market where one market maker receives a private signal on the security fundamental.A model is presented where market makers repeatedly compete in prices: at each stage a bid-ask auction occurs and the

  18. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, J; Moinester, M A; Piller, G; Sandacz, A; Vanderhaeghen, M; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    1999-01-01

    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  19. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  20. Exclusive meson production at NLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M.; Kugler, W.

    2007-06-15

    We report on numerical studies of the NLO corrections to exclusive meson electroproduction, both in collider and fixed-target kinematics. Corrections are found to be huge at small x{sub B} and moderate at intermediate or large x{sub B}. (orig.)

  1. Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, R; Menzel, C; Rockstuhl, C; Azad, A K; Cheville, R A; Lederer, F; Zhang, W; Zheludev, N I

    2009-01-01

    We show for the first time that a planar metamaterial, an array of coupled metal split-ring resonators with a unit cell lacking mirror symmetry, exhibits asymmetric transmission of terahertz radiation propagating through it in opposite directions. This intriguing effect, that is compatible with Lorentz reciprocity and time-reversal, depends on a directional difference in conversion efficiency of the incident circularly polarized wave into one of opposite handedness, that is only possible in lossy low-symmetry planar chiral metamaterials. We show that asymmetric transmission is linked to excitation of enantiomerically sensitive plasmons, these are induced charge-field excitations that depend on the mutual handedness of incident wave and metamaterial pattern. Various bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities have been identified indicating the opportunity to develop polarization sensitive negative index and slow light media based on such metamaterials.

  2. Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Mikołaj; Salmonowicz, Hanna; Brown, Rachel; Turkowska, Joanna; Średniawa, Władysław; Pattabiraman, Sundararaghavan; Amen, Triana; Abraham, Ayelet-chen; Eichler, Noam; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Kaganovich, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of several types of damage: in particular, damage to the proteome. Recent work points to a conserved replicative rejuvenation mechanism that works by preventing the inheritance of damaged and misfolded proteins by specific cells during division. Asymmetric inheritance of misfolded and aggregated proteins has been shown in bacteria and yeast, but relatively little evidence exists for a similar mechanism in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate, using long-term 4D imaging, that the vimentin intermediate filament establishes mitotic polarity in mammalian cell lines and mediates the asymmetric partitioning of damaged proteins. We show that mammalian JUNQ inclusion bodies containing soluble misfolded proteins are inherited asymmetrically, similarly to JUNQ quality-control inclusions observed in yeast. Mammalian IPOD-like inclusion bodies, meanwhile, are not always inherited by the same cell as the JUNQ. Our study suggests that the mammalian cytoskeleton and intermediate filaments provide the physical scaffold for asymmetric inheritance of dynamic quality-control JUNQ inclusions. Mammalian IPOD inclusions containing amyloidogenic proteins are not partitioned as effectively during mitosis as their counterparts in yeast. These findings provide a valuable mechanistic basis for studying the process of asymmetric inheritance in mammalian cells, including cells potentially undergoing polar divisions, such as differentiating stem cells and cancer cells.

  3. Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno R. Bohm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of time asymmetry in quantum physics is discussed. On the basis of a mathematical theorem, the Stone-von Neumann theorem, the solutions of the dynamical equations, the Schrödinger equation (1 for states or the Heisenberg equation (6a for observables are given by a unitary group. Dirac kets require the concept of a RHS (rigged Hilbert space of Schwartz functions; for this kind of RHS a mathematical theorem also leads to time symmetric group evolution. Scattering theory suggests to distinguish mathematically between states (defined by a preparation apparatus and observables (defined by a registration apparatus (detector. If one requires that scattering resonances of width Γ and exponentially decaying states of lifetime τ=h/Γ should be the same physical entities (for which there is sufficient evidence one is led to a pair of RHS's of Hardy functions and connected with it, to a semigroup time evolution t_0≤t<∞, with the puzzling result that there is a quantum mechanical beginning of time, just like the big bang time for the universe, when it was a quantum system. The decay of quasi-stable particles is used to illustrate this quantum mechanical time asymmetry. From the analysis of these processes, we show that the properties of rigged Hilbert spaces of Hardy functions are suitable for a formulation of time asymmetry in quantum mechanics.

  4. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

  5. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  6. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.

    2010-09-01

    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  7. Asymmetrical Γ-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Poh Chiang, Loh; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    , inverters with coupled transformers have been introduced, but they usually lead to high turns ratio, and hence many winding turns, at high gain. An alternative would then be the asymmetrical Γ-source inverters proposed in this paper, whose gain is raised by lowering their turns ratio toward unity. The input...... current drawn by the proposed inverters is smoother and, hence, more adaptable by the source. Theories and experimental results have been presented in this paper for validating the concepts proposed....

  8. Global trends in exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xiaodong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant and young child feeding is critical for child health and survival. Proportion of infants 0–5 months who are fed exclusively with breast milk is a common indicator used for monitoring and evaluating infant and young child feeding in a given country and region. Despite progress made since 1990, a previous review in 2006 of global and regional trends found improvement to be modest. The current study provides an update in global and regional trends in exclusive breastfeeding from 1995 to 2010, taking advantage of the wealth of data from recent household surveys. Methods Using the global database of infant and young child feeding maintained by the United Nations Children’s Fund, the authors examined estimates from 440 household surveys in 140 countries over the period between 1995 and 2010 and calculated global and regional averages of the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0–5 months for the two time points to assess the trends. Results Trend data suggest the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than six months in developing countries increased from 33% in 1995 to 39% in 2010. The prevalence increased in almost all regions in the developing world, with the biggest improvement seen in West and Central Africa. Conclusions In spite of the well-recognized importance of exclusive breastfeeding, the practice is not widespread in the developing world and increase on the global level is still very modest with much room for improvement. Child nutrition programmes worldwide continue to require investments and commitments to improve infant feeding practices in order to have maximum impact on children’s lives.

  9. Up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Bulk toroidal rotation has proven capable of stabilising both dangerous MHD modes and turbulence. In this thesis, we explore a method to drive rotation in large tokamaks: up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. We seek to maximise this rotation by finding optimal up-down asymmetric flux surface shapes. First, we use the ideal MHD model to show that low order external shaping (e.g. elongation) is best for creating up-down asymmetric flux surfaces throughout the device. Then, we calculate realistic up-down asymmetric equilibria for input into nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence analysis. Analytic gyrokinetics shows that, in the limit of fast shaping effects, a poloidal tilt of the flux surface shaping has little effect on turbulent transport. Since up-down symmetric surfaces do not transport momentum, this invariance to tilt implies that devices with mirror symmetry about any line in the poloidal plane will drive minimal rotation. Accordingly, further analytic investigation suggests that non-mirror symmetri...

  10. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Benzophenone Dianhydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the composition and processes for preparing thermoset polyimides derived from an asymmetric dianhydride, namely 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) with at least one diamine, and a monofunctional terminal endcaps. The monofunctional terminating groups include 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride ester-acid derivatives, phenylethyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA) and its ester derivatives as well as 3-phenylethynylaniline. The process of polyimide composite comprises impregnating monomer reactants of dianhydride or its ester-acid derivatives, diamine and with monofunctional reactive endcaps into glass, carbon, quartz or synthetic fibers and fabrics, and then stack up into laminates and subsequently heated to between 150-375.degree. C. either at atmosphere or under pressure to promote the curing and crosslinking of the reactive endcaps to form a network of thermoset polyimides.

  11. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Parallel processes in concurrency theory can be modelled in a geometric framework. A convenient model are the Higher Dimensional Automata of V. Pratt and E. Goubault with cubical complexes as their mathematical description. More abstract models are given by (locally) partially ordered topological...... spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  12. Bullying and social exclusion anxiety in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I develop a new conceptual framework, a new thinking technology, for understanding the bullying that takes place between children in schools. In addition, I propose a new definition of bullying. This new thinking technology reflects a shift in focus from individual characteristics...... to the social processes that may lead to bullying. The social approach theorises bullying as one of many reactions to particular kinds of social insecurity. The concepts I develop include the necessity of belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults...... during a comprehensive five-year study of bullying....

  13. Uncovering the link between malfunctions in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric cell division and tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsom Corey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asymmetric cell division is a developmental process utilized by several organisms. On the most basic level, an asymmetric division produces two daughter cells, each possessing a different identity or fate. Drosophila melanogaster progenitor cells, referred to as neuroblasts, undergo asymmetric division to produce a daughter neuroblast and another cell known as a ganglion mother cell (GMC. There are several features of asymmetric division in Drosophila that make it a very complex process, and these aspects will be discussed at length. The cell fate determinants that play a role in specifying daughter cell fate, as well as the mechanisms behind setting up cortical polarity within neuroblasts, have proved to be essential to ensuring that neurogenesis occurs properly. The role that mitotic spindle orientation plays in coordinating asymmetric division, as well as how cell cycle regulators influence asymmetric division machinery, will also be addressed. Most significantly, malfunctions during asymmetric cell division have shown to be causally linked with neoplastic growth and tumor formation. Therefore, it is imperative that the developmental repercussions as a result of asymmetric cell division gone awry be understood.

  14. Social exclusion and stereotyping: why and when exclusion fosters individuation of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claypool, Heather M; Bernstein, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Exclusion triggers a desire to re-capture connections with others. To facilitate this goal, excluded individuals typically process social information especially carefully. One implication of this is that exclusion may foster judgments of others that are reliant on a careful consideration of their idiosyncratic behaviors rather than on more superficial features. We predicted, therefore, that excluded individuals should individuate more and stereotype less than non-excluded individuals and that such effects should be in service of identifying appropriate re-affiliation candidates. In 3 replications of Experiment 1, excluded (compared to non-excluded) individuals rendered less stereotypic judgments of occupational and racial group members described with mildly or ambiguously counter-stereotypic information. Confirming such processes aid with re-affiliation, Experiments 2 and 3 showed that these effects occurred for social targets that represented reasonable sources of re-affiliation, but not for offensive social targets (i.e., Skinheads) or non-social agents. Experiment 4 underscored that excluded participants process presented social information more carefully (individuate), showing greater differentiation in judgments of highly stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent targets. Implications for the social exclusion literature are discussed.

  15. [Paternity exclusion tests in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralewska-Kordel, Małgorzata; Kordel, Krzysztof; Przybylski, Zygmunt; Wiśniewski, Sławomir A

    2006-01-01

    The study comprises the analysis of expert's hemogenetic reports carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, in the years 1980-2004 and associated with paternity determination or exclusion. In the analyzed period, the authors established 1064 cases of paternity exclusion in serological tests, 97 paternity exclusions in the HLA examinations, and 129 cases of paternity exclusions processed in DNA testing. On the base of gene frequencies, the theoretical chance of paternity exclusion was determined for every test. The significant usefulness of DNA testing in legal processes did not cause an increase in the percentage of paternity exclusions. Moreover, the authors observed a significant decrease in the number of paternity exclusions in comparison with results of serological tests (from 24.25% to 19.43%). With the drop in the number of births, the number of expert's reports significantly decreased.

  16. Exclusive rare radiative decays of B mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N. [Physics Department, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India); Kar, S.; Dash, P.C. [Physics Department, Prananath College, Khurda-752057 (India)

    1998-01-01

    The exclusive rare radiative B decays are studied in the relativistic independent quark model based on the confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The relevant form factors as well as the branching ratios for the processes B{sup 0}{r_arrow}K{sup {asterisk}0}{gamma} and B{sup {plus_minus}}{r_arrow}K{sup {asterisk}{plus_minus}}{gamma} have been estimated in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The result compares well with several other model predictions. The calculation has been extended to the CKM-favored process B{sub s}{r_arrow}{phi}{gamma} and CKM-suppressed processes B{sub u,d}{r_arrow}{rho}{gamma} and B{sub s}{r_arrow}K{sup {asterisk}}{gamma}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Research on the Design and Modification of Asymmetric Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohe Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A design method for the geometric shape and modification of asymmetric spur gear was proposed, in which the geometric shape and modification of the gear can be obtained directly according to the rack-cutter profile. In the geometric design process of the gear, a rack-cutter with different pressure angles and fillet radius in the driving side and coast side was selected, and the generated asymmetric spur gear profiles also had different pressure angles and fillets accordingly. In the modification design of the gear, the pressure angle modification of rack-cutter was conducted firstly and then the corresponding modified involute gear profile was obtained. The geometric model of spur gears was developed using computer-aided design, and the meshing process was analyzed using finite element simulation method. Furthermore, the transmission error and load sharing ratio of unmodified and modified asymmetric spur gears were investigated. Research results showed that the proposed gear design method was feasible and desired spur gear can be obtained through one time rapid machining by the method. Asymmetric spur gear with better transmission characteristic can be obtained via involute modification.

  18. 提高女大学生就业能力的必要性及价值分析%Social Exclusion Condition Investigation in Female College Students' Employment Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚强; 梁彦红

    2012-01-01

    To understand the current employment status of female students, this paper analyzed the main reason for "the difficult employment" and social exclusion of female college students, and put forward relevant countermeasures. In the survey on female college students' employment, it found that the girls were more difficult to get a job than boys and the biggest harder that girls faced was sex discrimination and social exclusion. Government departments, the employer and the schools should adopt positive improvement measures to help female college students' employment and reduce social exclusion.%为把握了解当前女大学生的就业现状,分析女大学生“就业难”和社会排挤的主要原因,研究分析并提出相关对策建议,我们对某高校女大学生就业情况进行问卷调查.调查中我们发现就业过程中确实存在女生比男生更难就业,女生就业面临的最大困难就是性别歧视和社会排挤.政府部门、用人单位与学校应采用积极的改进措施帮助女大学生就业和减少社会排挤.

  19. Photon splitting in a strongly magnetized, charge-asymmetric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistyakov M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of the photon splitting, γ → γγ, is investigated in the presence of strongly magnetized charge-asymmetric cold plasma. The dispersion properties of photons and the new polarization selection rules are obtained in such plasma. The absorption rate of the leading photon splitting channel are calculated with taking account of the photon dispersion and wave function renormalization. In addition, a comparison of the photon splitting and the Compton scattering processes is performed.

  20. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Yamada, Masaki [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  1. The asymmetric Goos-H\\"anchen effect

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Manoel P.; Carvalho, Silvânia A.; De Leo, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We show in which conditions optical gaussian beams, propagating throughout an homogeneous dielectric right angle prism, present an asymmetric Goos-H\\"anchen (GH) effect. This asymmetric behavior is seen for incidence at critical angles and happens in the propagation direction of the outgoing beam. The asymmetric GH effect can be also seen as an amplification of the standard GH shift. Due to the fact that it only depends on the ratio between the wavelength and the minimal waist size of the inc...

  2. Review of Composite Asymmetric Spur Gear

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep C. Dhaduti; Dr. S. G. Sarganachari

    2015-01-01

    Gears made from composite materials are widely used in many power and motion transmission applications. Due to lower weight to stiffness ratio, composite gears may be replaced by conventional material gears in power transmission systems. Design of gears with asymmetric teeth enables to increase load capacity, reduce weight, size and vibration level. This article includes a summary of asymmetric gear design parameters, new developments of asymmetric spur gear and their ...

  3. C. elegans HAM-1 functions in the nucleus to regulate asymmetric neuroblast division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Amy; Hua, Khang; Ramachandran, Pavitra; Hingwing, Kyla; Wu, Maria; Koh, Pei Luan; Hawkins, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    All 302 neurons in the C. elegans hermaphrodite arise through asymmetric division of neuroblasts. During embryogenesis, the C. elegans ham-1 gene is required for several asymmetric neuroblast divisions in lineages that generate both neural and apoptotic cells. By antibody staining, endogenous HAM-1 is found exclusively at the cell cortex in many cells during embryogenesis and is asymmetrically localized in dividing cells. Here we show that in transgenic embryos expressing a functional GFP::HAM-1 fusion protein, GFP expression is also detected in the nucleus, in addition to the cell cortex. Consistent with the nuclear localization is the presence of a putative DNA binding winged-helix domain within the N-terminus of HAM-1. Through a deletion analysis we determined that the C-terminus of the protein is required for nuclear localization and we identified two nuclear localization sequences (NLSs). A subcellular fractionation experiment from wild type embryos, followed by Western blotting, revealed that endogenous HAM-1 is primarily found in the nucleus. Our analysis also showed that the N-terminus is necessary for cortical localization. While ham-1 function is essential for asymmetric division in the lineage that generates the PLM mechanosensory neuron, we showed that cortical localization may not required. Thus, our results suggest that there is a nuclear function for HAM-1 in regulating asymmetric neuroblast division and that the requirement for cortical localization may be lineage dependent.

  4. Token Ring Algorithm To Achieve Mutual Exclusion In Distributed System - A Centralized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Basu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm for achieving mutual exclusion in Distributed System. The proposed algorithm is a betterment of the already existing Token Ring Algorithm, used to handle mutual exclusion in Distributed system. In the already existing algorithm, there are few problems, which, if occur during process execution, then the distributed system will not be able to ensure mutual exclusion among the processes and consequently unwanted situations may arise. The proposed algorithm will overcome all the problems in the existing algorithm, and ensures mutual exclusion among the processes, when they want to execute in their critical section of code.

  5. Positioning of polarity formation by extracellular signaling during asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seirin Lee, Sungrim

    2016-07-07

    Anterior-posterior (AP) polarity formation of cell membrane proteins plays a crucial role in determining cell asymmetry, which ultimately generates cell diversity. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a single fertilized egg cell (P0), its daughter cell (P1), and the germline precursors (P2 and P3 cells) form two exclusive domains of different PAR proteins on the membrane along the anterior-posterior axis. However, the phenomenon of polarity reversal has been observed in which the axis of asymmetric cell division of the P2 and P3 cells is formed in an opposite manner to that of the P0 and P1 cells. The extracellular signal MES-1/SRC-1 has been shown to induce polarity reversal, but the detailed mechanism remains elusive. Here, using a mathematical model, I explore the mechanism by which MES-1/SRC-1 signaling can induce polarity reversal and ultimately affect the process of polarity formation. I show that a positive correlation between SRC-1 and the on-rate of PAR-2 is the essential mechanism underlying polarity reversal, providing a mathematical basis for the orientation of cell polarity patterns.

  6. The asymmetric Goos-H\\"anchen effect

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Manoel P; De Leo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We show in which conditions optical gaussian beams, propagating throughout an homogeneous dielectric right angle prism, present an asymmetric Goos-H\\"anchen (GH) effect. This asymmetric behavior is seen for incidence at critical angles and happens in the propagation direction of the outgoing beam. The asymmetric GH effect can be also seen as an amplification of the standard GH shift. Due to the fact that it only depends on the ratio between the wavelength and the minimal waist size of the incoming gaussian beam, it can be also used to determine one of these parameters. Multiple peaks interference is an additional phenomenon seen in the presence of such asymmetric effects.

  7. Eigenstate localization in an asymmetric coupled quantum well pair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mialitsin, Aleksej; Schmult, Stefan; Solov'yov, Ilia;

    2012-01-01

    exclusively either in the wide or the narrow parts of the well pair. The energy of the narrow-well localized state determines the minimal excitation energy for optically pumped charge carriers separation. In a previously used design [Guliamov et al., PRB 64 035314 (2001)] this narrow well transition energy......Optical pumping of a type-I/type-II coupled asymmetric quantum well pair induces a spatially separated two dimensional charge carriers plasma in the well’s wide and narrow parts. Treating the two coupled wells as a single system we find that the eigenstate probability distribution localizes...... was measured to correspond to a wavelength of 646 nm. We propose modifications to the design suggested earlier with the purpose of pushing up the energy required for the optical pumping of the two-dimensional plasma into the green and blue regions of the visible spectrum....

  8. Deeply Virtual Exclusive Reactions with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valery Kubarovsky

    2011-11-01

    Deeply virtual exclusive reactions offer an unique opportunity to study the structure of the nucleon at the parton level as one has access to Bjorken x{sub B} and momentum transfer to the nucleon t at the same time. Such processes can reveal much more information about the structure of the nucleon than either inclusive electroproduction or elastic form factors alone. Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP) have been carried out in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. DVCS helicity–dependent and helicity–independent cross sections and beam spin asymmetries have been measured with CLAS, as well as cross sections and asymmetries for the {pi}{sup }0, {eta} , {rho}{sup }0, {rho}{sup +}, {omega} and {phi} for exclusive electroproduction. The data were taken in a wide kinematic range in Q{sup 2}=1–4.5 GeV{sup 2}, x{sub B}=0.1–0.5, and {absval t} up to 2 GeV{sup 2}. We will discuss the interpretation of these data in terms of traditional Regge and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) models. The successful description of the recent CLAS pseudoscalar meson exclusive production data by GPD-based model provides a unique opportunity to access the transversity GPDs. We view the work presented in this report as leading into the program of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade. The increased energy and luminosity will allow us to acquire data at much higher Q{sup 2} and x{sub B}, and perform Rosenbluth L/T separations of the cross sections.

  9. Thin lenses of asymmetric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is generally supposed that thin systems, including refracting surfaces and thin lenses, have powers that are necessarily symmetric.  In other words they have powers which can be represented assymmetric dioptric power matrices and in the familar spherocylindrical form used in optometry and ophthalmology.  This paper shows that this is not correct and that it is indeed possible for a thin system to have a power that is not symmetric and which cannot be expressed in spherocylindrical form.  Thin systems of asymmetric power are illustratedby means of a thin lens that is modelled with small prisms and is chosen to have a dioptric power ma-trix that is antisymmetric.  Similar models can be devised for a thin system whose dioptric power matrix is any  2 2 ×  matrix.  Thus any power, symmetric, asymmetric or antisymmetric, is possible for a thin system.  In this sense our understanding of the power of thin systems is now complete.

  10. Excitons in asymmetric quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Kurdyubov, A. S.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Shapochkin, P. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance dielectric response of excitons is studied for the high-quality InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with wide asymmetric quantum wells (QWs). To highlight effects of the QW asymmetry, we have grown and studied several heterostructures with nominally square QWs as well as with triangle-like QWs. Several quantum confined exciton states are experimentally observed as narrow exciton resonances. A standard approach for the phenomenological analysis of the profiles is generalized by introducing different phase shifts for the light waves reflected from the QWs at different exciton resonances. Good agreement of the phenomenological fit to the experimentally observed exciton spectra for high-quality structures allowed us to reliably obtain parameters of the exciton resonances: the exciton transition energies, the radiative broadenings, and the phase shifts. A direct numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the heavy-hole excitons in asymmetric QWs is used for microscopic modeling of the exciton resonances. Remarkable agreement with the experiment is achieved when the effect of indium segregation is taken into account. The segregation results in a modification of the potential profile, in particular, in an asymmetry of the nominally square QWs.

  11. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  12. 5 CFR 551.214 - Statutory exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory exclusion. 551.214 Section 551.214 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.214 Statutory exclusion....

  13. 12 CFR 1815.110 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1815.110 Section 1815... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.110 Categorical exclusion. The CEQ regulations provide for the categorical exclusion of actions that do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the...

  14. 22 CFR 513.210 - Voluntary exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary exclusion. 513.210 Section 513.210... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action § 513.210 Voluntary exclusion. Persons who accept voluntary exclusions under § 513.315 are excluded in accordance with the terms of...

  15. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.4 Categorical exclusion. Categorical exclusion means a category of actions which do not individually...

  16. Exclusive physics at the LHC with SuperChic 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L.A. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Khoze, V.A. [University of Durham, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryskin, M.G. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    We present a range of physics results for central exclusive production processes at the LHC, using the new SuperChic 2 Monte Carlo event generator. This includes significant theoretical improvements and updates, most importantly a fully differential treatment of the soft survival factor, as well as a greater number of generated processes. We provide an overview of the latest theoretical framework, and consider in detail a selection of final states, namely exclusive 2 and 3 jets, photoproduced vector mesons, two-photon initiated muon and W boson pairs and heavy χ{sub c,b} quarkonia. (orig.)

  17. Exclusive physics at the LHC with SuperChic 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L. A., E-mail: l.harland-lang@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London (United Kingdom); Khoze, V. A. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, DH1 3LE, Durham (United Kingdom); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina, 188300, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryskin, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina, 188300, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-06

    We present a range of physics results for central exclusive production processes at the LHC, using the new SuperChic 2 Monte Carlo event generator. This includes significant theoretical improvements and updates, most importantly a fully differential treatment of the soft survival factor, as well as a greater number of generated processes. We provide an overview of the latest theoretical framework, and consider in detail a selection of final states, namely exclusive 2 and 3 jets, photoproduced vector mesons, two-photon initiated muon and W boson pairs and heavy χ{sub c,b} quarkonia.

  18. Asymmetric sequential Landau-Zener dynamics of Bose condensed atoms in a cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Lee, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    We explore the asymmetric sequential Landau-Zener (LZ) dynamics in an ensemble of interacting Bose condensed two-level atoms coupled with a cavity field. Assuming the couplings between all atoms and the cavity field are identical, the interplay between atom-atom interaction and detuning may lead to a series of LZ transitions. Unlike the conventional sequential LZ transitions, which are symmetric to the zero detuning, the LZ transitions of Bose condensed atoms in a cavity field are asymmetric and sensitively depend on the photon number distribution of the cavity. In LZ processes involving single excitation numbers, both the variance of the relative atom number and the step slope of the sequential population ladder are asymmetric, and the asymmetry become more significant for smaller excitation numbers. Furthermore, in LZ processes involving multiple excitation numbers, there may appear asymmetric population ladders with decreasing step heights. During a dynamical LZ process, due to the atom-cavity coupling, th...

  19. Probing the perturbative dynamics of exclusive meson pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Harland-Lang, L A; Ryskin, M G; Stirling, W J

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a recent novel application of the `hard exclusive' perturbative formalism to the process gg --> MMbar at large angles, where M (Mbar) is a light meson (anti-meson). As well as discussing the important theoretical features of the relevant leading-order gg --> qqbar(gg) qqbar(gg) 6-parton amplitudes, we also comment on their phenomenological implications. In particular, we consider the central exclusive production of meson pairs at comparatively large transverse momentum k_t, which is expected to proceed via this mechanism. We show that this leads to various non-trivial predictions for a range of exclusive processes, and that the cross sections for the eta' and eta mesons display significant sensitivity to any valence gg component of the meson wavefunctions.

  20. Softening the Blow of Social Exclusion: The Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Freedman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources’ needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication. We propose that sources have three options: explicit rejection (clearly stating no, ostracism (ignoring, and ambiguous rejection (being unclear. Drawing on psychology, sociology, communications, and business research, we propose that when sources use explicit rejection, targets’ feelings will be less hurt, their needs will be better protected, and sources will experience less backlash and emotional toil than if sources use ambiguous rejection or ostracism. Finally, we propose how the language of rejections may impact both parties.

  1. Noise Exclusion Ability in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geroldene Tsui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An important perceptual ability is to filter out background distractions from relevant information. However, prior research has not identified when this begins in humans. Our study aims to investigate whether noise exclusion ability occurs in infancy. Infants' contrast sensitivity function (CSF was measured by a Baynesian adaptive inference method. Infants' attention was directed to the middle of a monitor where an 8.72 degree static Gabor grating was presented on the left or right side of the monitor. In half the trials, the grating was presented against a gray background; in the other half, against a 16% contrast random-dot noise background. The experimenter and two independent coders judged which side the infants gazed at (force-choice preferential looking paradigm. One-hundred babies aged from 4 to 10 months satisfied the 70% interrater consistency criterion for inclusion. Four parameters defined the best-fitted CSF for each infant. Of these, peak spatial frequency, bandwidth and truncation of CSF were similar in conditions with and without noise. The peak gain estimate was most significantly impaired by external noise, but a marked 31% improvement was observed in 7- to 10-month-olds. This may be the first sign of development of human's noise exclusion ability, and is worth further study.

  2. Asymmetric catalysis : ligand design and microwave acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Bremberg, Ulf

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals partly with the design and synthesis ofligands for use in asymmetric catalysis, and partly with theapplication of microwave heating on metal-based asymmetriccatalytic reactions. Enantiomerically pure pyridyl alcohols and bipyridylalcohols were synthesized from the chiral pool for future usein asymmetric catalysis. Lithiated pyridines were reacted withseveral chiral electrophiles, yielding diastereomeric mixturesthat could be separated without the use of resolutiontechniques....

  3. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  4. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis. I...

  5. The Catalytic Asymmetric Intramolecular Stetter Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alaniz, Javier Read; Rovis, Tomislav

    2009-05-01

    This account chronicles our efforts at the development of a catalytic asymmetric Stetter reaction using chiral triazolium salts as small molecule organic catalysts. Advances in the mechanistically related azolium-catalyzed asymmetric benzoin reaction are discussed, particularly as they apply to catalyst design. A chronological treatise of reaction discovery, catalyst optimization and reactivity extension follows.

  6. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; He, Neil; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared...

  7. A THRESHOLD COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS OF ASYMMETRIC ADJUSTMENTS IN THE GHANAIAN MAIZE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. de-Graft Acquah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the long-run equilibrium relationship between retail and wholesale Ghanaian maize prices with cointegration test assuming asymmetric adjustment. Using the Enders-Siklos asymmetric cointegration tests, it is found that the retail and wholesale prices are cointegrated with threshold adjustment. Furthermore, the adjustment process is asymmetric when the retail and wholesale prices adjust to achieve the long-term equilibrium. Finally, there is faster convergence for negative deviations from long-term equilibrium than for positive deviations. These results imply that price increases tend to persist whereas decreases tend to revert quickly towards equilibrium.

  8. Asymmetrical Information and Public Failure in the Myriad Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Shareef

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Public Value concept is a Public Management normative process that utilizes efficiency and ethics as co-equal determinants to assess organizational outcomes. As such, Public Value represents what Ghoshal calls intellectual pluralism or the utilization of normative management processes in the social sciences to challenge the intellectual absolutism of the Chicago School. One discipline where Public Value can be used to assess normative results is Legal Studies’ antitrust field. This research applies Public Value criteria in evaluating the U.S. Supreme Court’s 2013 ruling in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics. The conclusions tentatively found the Court’s decision will (a create Public Value at the macro level but (b trigger public failure at the micro level for poor women because of an asymmetrical information network. This outcome fits with Stiglitz’s hypothesis concerning asymmetrical information and market failure. Further empirical research on Myriad’s policy is recommended.

  9. Watermarking in gyrator domain using an asymmetric cryptosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Sunanda; Yadav, A. K.; Singh, Hukun; Singh, Kehar

    2015-06-01

    A watermarking scheme is proposed based on optical asymmetric cryptography using double random phase encoding in the gyrator transform domain. It is based on the phase and amplitude truncation during the encryption process. The scheme is validated through computer simulations showing the scheme's sensitivity to decryption keys and orders of the gyrator transform. The occlusion and noise attacks have also been analysed. The proposed scheme is significantly resistant to both these attacks.

  10. Asymmetric coherent transmission for single particle diode and gyroscope

    OpenAIRE

    S. Yang; Song, Z; Sun, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    We study the single particle scattering process in a coherent multi-site system consisting of a tight-binding ring threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux and several attaching leads. The asymmetric behavior of scattering matrix is discovered analytically in the framework of both Bethe Ansatz and Green's function formalism. It is found that, under certain conditions, a three-site electronic system can behave analogous to a perfect semiconductor diode where current flows only in one direction. The g...

  11. DIFLUORPHOS and SYNPHOS in asymmetric catalysis: Synthetic applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sebastien Prevost; Tahar Ayad; Jean-Pierre Genet; Phannarath Phansavath; Virginie Ratovelomanana-Vidal

    2014-03-01

    Enantiomerically pure diphosphines play an important role in various homogeneous metalcatalyzed asymmetric reactions. Over the last few years, our group has been involved in the design and synthesis of atropisomeric ligands named SYNPHOS and DIFLUORPHOS with complementary stereoelectronic properties. This paper shows the high catalytic performances of DIFLUORPHOS, SYNPHOS and SYNPHOS analogues for some C-H and C-C bond forming processes as well as for the synthesis of biorelevant targets.

  12. Transition-Metal-Free Biomolecule-Based Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Wang, Hua; Hao, Rui; Guo, Lin

    2016-09-01

    A transition-metal-free asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is successfully fabricated based on an earth-abundant biomass derived redox-active biomolecule, named lawsone. Such an ASC exhibits comparable or even higher energy densities than most of the recently reported transition-metal-based ASCs, and this green ASC generation from renewable resources is promising for addressing current issues of electronic hazard processing, high cost, and unsustainability.

  13. Asymmetric Superradiant Scattering Patterns from Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuan-Kai; ZHOU Xiao-Ji; YANG Fan; CHEN Xu-Zong

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric patterns of superradiance from Bose-Einstein condensates are studied for the spatially inhomogeneous pump pulse with the semiclassical Maxwell-Schr(o)dinger equations.The coupling dynamics between the optical field and condensate in the strong pulse and a faded wing in the weak coupling regime are discussed,which not only explain the spatial effects in the process of superradiance,but also supply a new method to control its patterns.

  14. Observation of Central Exclusive Diphoton Production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucken, Jens Erik [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Inst. of Physics (Finland)

    2013-01-01

    We have observed exclusive γγ production in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron at √ s = 1.96 TeV. We use data corresponding to 1.11 ± 0.07 fb-1 integrated luminosity taken by the Run II Collider Detector at Fermilab, with a trigger requiring two electromagnetic showers, each with transverse energy ET > 2 GeV, and vetoing on hits in the forward beam shower counters. We select events with two electromagnetic showers, each with transverse energy ET > 2.5 GeV and pseudorapidity |η| < 1.0, with no other particles detected in -7.4 < η < +7.4. The two showers have similar ET and an azimuthal angle separation Δφ ~ π; we find 34 events with exactly two matching charged particle tracks, agreeing with expectations for the QED process p¯p → p+e+e- + ¯p by two photon exchange; and we find 43 events with no tracks. The latter are candidates for the exclusive process p¯p → p + γγ + ¯p by double pomeron exchange. We use the strip and wire chambers at the longitudinal shower maximum position within the calorimeter to measure a possible exclusive background from IP + IP → π0π0, and conclude that it is consistent with zero and is < 15 events at 95% C.L. The measured cross section is σγγ,excl(|η| < 1, ET (γ) > 2.5 GeV) = 2.48 +0.40 -0.35(stat) +0.40 -0.51(syst) pb and in agreement with the theoretical predictions. This process is closely related to exclusive Higgs boson production pp → p + H + p at the Large Hadron Collider. The observation of the exclusive production of diphotons shows that exclusive Higgs production can happen and could be observed with a proper experimental setup.

  15. On the Generalized Exclusion Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rachidi, M; Zerouaoui, J

    2001-01-01

    We review the principal steps leading to drive the wave function $\\psi _{\\{k_1,k_2,...,k_N \\}}(1,2,...,N)$ of a gaz of $N$ identical particle states with exotic statistics. For spins $s=1/M$ $mod(1)$, we show that the quasideterminant conjectured in [19], by using $2d$ conformal field theoretical methods, is indeed related to the quantum determinant of noncommutative geometry. The q-number $[N]!=\\prod_{n=1}^N(\\sum_{j=0}^{N-1} q^j)$ carrying the effect of the generalized Pauli exclusion principle, according to which no more than $(M-1)$ identical particles of spin $s=1/M$ $mod(1)$ can live altogether on the same quantum state, is rederived in rigourous from the q-antisymmetry. Other features are also given.

  16. Hard Exclusive Reactions at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubarovsky, Valery P. [JLAB

    2011-09-20

    Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP) have been carried out at Jefferson Lab. DVCS helicity--dependent and helicity--independent cross sections and beam spin asymmetries have been measured, as well as cross sections and asymmetries for the $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$, $\\rho^0$, $\\rho^+$, $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ for exclusive electroproduction. The data were taken in a wide kinematic range in $Q^2$=1--4.5 GeV$^2$, $x_B$=0.1--0.5, and $|t|$ up to 2 GeV$^2$. The presented results offer a unique opportunity to study the structure of the nucleon at the parton level as one has access to Bjorken $x_B$ and momentum transfer to the nucleon $t$ at the same time.

  17. Social exclusion and shame in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank; Kohlmann, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Weight bias often results in the social exclusion of individuals with obesity. The direct, short-term psychological effects of social exclusion in obesity have not been investigated yet. This study experimentally tests whether social exclusion elicits stronger negative emotions in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight controls. Specifically, we test whether social exclusion has a specific impact on shame. In total, N=299 individuals (n=130 with body mass index [BMI]≤30 and n=169 with BMI>30) were randomly assigned to a social exclusion condition or a control condition that was implemented with an online Cyberball paradigm. Before and after, they filled out questionnaires assessing state emotionality. Social exclusion increased negative emotionality in both groups compared to the control condition (psocial exclusion was also significant (p=0.035) and arose from a significant, specific increase of shame in the group with obesity during social exclusion (psocial exclusion, individuals with obesity do not respond with more intensive negative emotions in general compared to controls, but with a specific increase in shame. As social exclusion is frequent in individuals with obesity, psychological interventions focussing shame-related emotional distress could be crucial.

  18. Asymmetric ion track nanopores for sensor technology. Reconstruction of pore profile from conductometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Pavel Yu; Blonskaya, Irina V.; Orelovitch, Oleg L.; Sartowska, Bozena A.; Spohr, Reimar

    2012-06-01

    We reconstruct the profile of asymmetric ion track nanopores from an algorithm developed for conductometric measurements of symmetric nanopores. The validity of the reconstruction is supported by FESEM observations. Our analysis reveals that asymmetric pores fabricated by one-sided etching are funnel-like and not conical. The analysis provides the constriction diameter and the pore profile as a function of etching time. The reconstruction of the pore profile defines the starting conditions of asymmetric nanopores at breakthrough. The deviation from the conical shape is most pronounced at the pore tip. This critical zone dominates transport properties relevant to ion conductance, selectivity, current rectification, resistive pulse sensing and biosensors. The classical cone approximation used until now underestimates the tip diameter by a factor of two. As transport processes in nanopores depend in a highly nonlinear way on the constriction diameter the presented reconstruction must be taken into account when studying ionic and molecular transport processes in asymmetric pores.

  19. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen QU; Wang, Yuru; Huang, Yunyun

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game (UG), participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fa...

  20. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen eQu; Yuru eWang; Yunyun eHuang

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game, participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/un...

  1. Central exclusive production within the Durham model: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Harland-Lang, L A; Ryskin, M G; Stirling, W J

    2014-01-01

    We review recent results within the Durham model of central exclusive production. We discuss the theoretical aspects of this approach and consider the phenomenological implications in a variety of processes, comparing to existing collider data and addressing the possibilities for the future.

  2. SATurated Models of Pupildom: Assessment and Inclusion/Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathy; Collins, Janet; Benjamin, Shereen; Nind, Melanie; Sheehy, Kieron

    2004-01-01

    Adopting a sociocultural theoretical framework and based on ethnographic data from two primary schools, this article seeks to answer the question: what meanings about inclusion and exclusion are encoded in school and classroom practices? It documents the (inclusionary and) exclusionary pedagogic processes that influence learning and children's…

  3. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  4. Indicators of Poverty and Social Exclusion in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Eric; Atkinson, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of poverty and social exclusion is analytically and operationally relevant at all levels of policymaking. Here our focus is on national governments making policy in a global or multinational context such as the European Union (EU). In this process, social indicators are playing a growing role, and we need to stand back and examine…

  5. Liquid-Gas Phase Transition for Asymmetric Nuclear Matter in the Zimanyi-Moszkowski Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu-Ming; QIAN Wei-Liang; SU Ru-Keng

    2004-01-01

    By using the improved Zimanyi-Moszkowski (ZM) model including the freedom of nucleons, σ mesons, ω mesons and ρ mesons, we investigate the liquid-gas phase transition for asymmetric nuclear matter. It is found that the phase transition for asymmetric nuclear matter in the improved ZM model with the isospin vector ρ meson degree of freedom is well defined. The binodal surface, which is essential in the study of the phase transition process, is addressed.

  6. Exclusive use of alternative medicine as a positive choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Lasse; Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Verhoef, Marja

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A survey of members of the Danish MS Society revealed that a minority of MS patients choose to forgo all types of conventional treatment and use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) exclusively. A qualitative follow-up study was performed to elucidate the choice of exclusive CAM...... from the data through meaning condensation. RESULTS: Four themes characterized the participants' treatment assumptions: 1) conventional medicine contains chemical substances that affect the body in negative ways; 2) CAM treatments can strengthen the organism and make it more capable of resisting...... the impact of MS; 3) the patient's active participation is an important component of the healing process; 4) bodily sensations can be used to guide treatment selection. CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive use of CAM by MS patients may reflect embracing CAM rather than a rejection of conventional medicine. Health...

  7. Asymmetric stem cell division: lessons from Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pao-Shu; Egger, Boris; Brand, Andrea H

    2008-06-01

    Asymmetric cell division is an important and conserved strategy in the generation of cellular diversity during animal development. Many of our insights into the underlying mechanisms of asymmetric cell division have been gained from Drosophila, including the establishment of polarity, orientation of mitotic spindles and segregation of cell fate determinants. Recent studies are also beginning to reveal the connection between the misregulation of asymmetric cell division and cancer. What we are learning from Drosophila as a model system has implication both for stem cell biology and also cancer research.

  8. On-chip asymmetric microcavity optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Soheil; Hudnut, Alexa W; Armani, Andrea M

    2016-12-26

    High quality factor (Q) optical resonators have enabled rapid growth in the field of cavity-enhanced, radiation pressure-induced optomechanics. However, because research has focused on axisymmetric devices, the observed regenerative excited mechanical modes are similar. In the present work, a strategy for fabricating high-Q whispering gallery mode microcavities with varying degrees of asymmetry is developed and demonstrated. Due to the combination of high optical Q and asymmetric device design, two previously unobserved modes, the asymmetric cantilever and asymmetric crown mode, are demonstrated with sub-mW thresholds for onset of oscillations. The experimental results are in good agreement with computational modeling predictions.

  9. Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis Using A Cocrystal Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Koshima

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Absolute asymmetric synthesis by means of solid-state reaction of chiral crystals self-assembled from achiral molecules is an attractive and promising methodology for asymmetric synthesis because it is not necessary to employ any external chiral source like a chiral catalyst.In order to design reliably absolute asymmetric syntheses in the solid state,it is inevitable to prepare and predict the formation of chiral crystals from achiral compounds.We have prepared a number of chiral cocrystals co...

  10. Asymmetric dark matter in braneworld cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B., E-mail: Michael.Meehan@my.jcu.edu.au, E-mail: Ian.Whittingham@jcu.edu.au [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811 Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the effect of a braneworld expansion era on the relic density of asymmetric dark matter. We find that the enhanced expansion rate in the early universe predicted by the Randall-Sundrum II (RSII) model leads to earlier particle freeze-out and an enhanced relic density. This effect has been observed previously by Okada and Seto (2004) for symmetric dark matter models and here we extend their results to the case of asymmetric dark matter. We also discuss the enhanced asymmetric annihilation rate in the braneworld scenario and its implications for indirect detection experiments.

  11. Enantiopure sulfoxides: recent applications in asymmetric synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, M Carmen; Hernández-Torres, Gloria; Ribagorda, María; Urbano, Antonio

    2009-11-07

    Sulfoxides are nowadays recognised as powerful chiral auxiliaries that may participate in a wide range of asymmetric reactions. Their high configurational stability, the existence of several efficient methods allowing the access to both configurations as well as their synthetic versatility are characteristic features offering a tremendous potential to develop new applications. Significant recent advances leading to high asymmetric inductions in carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bond forming reactions, and applications of homochiral sulfoxides to atroposelective synthesis and asymmetric catalysis are discussed. New uses of sulfoxides in the design of chiroptical switches are also shown.

  12. 27 CFR 8.51 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion, in general. 8..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion... a competitor's product. (b) Section 8.52 lists practices that result in exclusion. Section...

  13. R & D STRATEGIC INVESTMENT IN AN ASYMMETRICAL CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minggao XUE; Pu GONG

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes R & D investment decisions in an asymmetrical case. The investment decisions share three important characteristics. First, the investment is completely irreversible. Second,there are two kinds of uncertainties over the future returns from the investment and over technology in R & D process, respectively. Third, there is strategic competition in the asymmetrical case. This article presents the optimal investment threshold values and the optimal investment rule of high-efficient firm (leader), and shows that the investment threshold values are reduced by competition of two firms.Finally, the mixed investment strategies for two firms, the probability that each firm separately exercises the option to invest, and the probability that two firms simultaneously exercise the option are given in the paper.

  14. Improving performance of resonant tunneling devices in asymmetric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun-jie; Sanders, Barry C.; Pan, Shao-hua; Goldys, E. M.

    2001-06-01

    Based on the global coherent tunneling model, we present a self-consistent calculation and show that structural asymmetry of double barrier resonant tunneling structures (DBRTSs) significantly modifies the current-voltage characteristics compared to the symmetric structures. Within the framework of the dielectric continuum model, we further investigate the phonon-assisted tunneling (PAT) current in symmetric and asymmetric DBRTSs. Both the interface modes and the confined bulk-like longitudinal-optical phonons are considered. The results indicate that the four higher-frequency interface phonon modes (especially the one which has the largest electron-phonon interaction at either interface of the emitter barrier) dominate the PAT processes. We show that a suitably designed asymmetric structure can produce much larger peak current and absolute value of the negative differential conductivity than its commonly used symmetric counterpart.

  15. Corporate governance ratings as a means to reduce asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Balling, Morten; Poulsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    -set suggest that rating providers by selecting relevant attributes in an intelligent way can improve the screening of companies according to governance quality. In contrast, it seems questionable that weighting, aggregation, and classification of corporate governance attributes considerably improve......Can corporate governance ratings reduce problems of asymmetric information between companies and investors? To answer this question, we set out to examine the information basis for providing such ratings by reviewing corporate governance attributes that are required or recommended in laws...... governance ratings as a means to reduce asymmetric information in a more general manner. We propose that the rating process may be seen as consisting of two general activities, namely a data reduction phase, and a data weighting, aggregation, and classification phase. Findings based on a Danish data...

  16. Tunable asymmetric reflectance in silver films near the percolation threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Aiqing

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate semi-transparent thin films exhibiting unique tunable asymmetry in reflectance and simultaneously preserve symmetry in transmittance under light illuminations from opposite directions. The films are obtained using a multi-step process, where a nanocrystalline silver film is first deposited on a glass substrate and then subsequently coated with additional silver via thermal vacuum-deposition. We show that the dispersions of reflectance asymmetries may be tuned both in sign and in magnitude, as well as a universal, tunable spectral crossover point near percolation threshold, which are attributed to asymmetric losses from surface plasmon enhanced absorption and scatterings. The broadband and tunable asymmetric reflectors may have potential applications to light enhancement and light harvesting of photovoltaics.

  17. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, X.

    2016-02-19

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  18. Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Quan; Li, Quan; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-02-01

    Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.

  19. Depinning of domain walls in permalloy nanowires with asymmetric notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; You, B.; Ruan, X. Z.; Liu, M. Y.; Yang, H. L.; Zhan, Q. F.; Li, Z.; Lei, N.; Zhao, W. S.; Pan, D. F.; Wan, J. G.; Wu, J.; Tu, H. Q.; Wang, J.; Zhang, W.; Xu, Y. B.; Du, J.

    2016-09-01

    Effective control of the domain wall (DW) motion along the magnetic nanowires is of great importance for fundamental research and potential application in spintronic devices. In this work, a series of permalloy nanowires with an asymmetric notch in the middle were fabricated with only varying the width (d) of the right arm from 200 nm to 1000 nm. The detailed pinning and depinning processes of DWs in these nanowires have been studied by using focused magneto-optic Kerr effect (FMOKE) magnetometer, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and micromagnetic simulation. The experimental results unambiguously exhibit the presence of a DW pinned at the notch in a typical sample with d equal to 500 nm. At a certain range of 200 nm notch, resulting in two DW depinning fields. Those two depinning fields have opposite d dependences, which may be originated from different potential well/barrier generated by the asymmetric notch with varying d.

  20. Backgrounds To Higgs Boson Searches from Asymmetric Internal Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Richard C; Park, Michael; Somalwar, Sunil; Thomas, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A class of potential backgrounds for Higgs boson searches in the W W to di-lepton channel at both the Tevatron and Large Hadron Collider is presented. Backgrounds from W photon production with external conversion of the on-shell photon in detector material to an asymmetric electron-positron pair, with loss of the trailing electron or positron has been treated adequately in Higgs searches. Here we consider analogous backgrounds from the production of a W with an off-shell photon and with the internal conversion of the off-shell photon in vacuum to an asymmetric lepton-anti-lepton pair. While the former process yields almost entirely electrons or positrons, the latter can give electron, positron, muon, and anti-muon backgrounds in roughly equal amounts. We estimate that asymmetric internal conversion backgrounds are comparable to the Higgs boson signal in the standard signal region of phase space. These processes also represent potential backgrounds for new physics searches in same-sign di-lepton channels. Some...

  1. Asymmetric dark matter bound state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Zhaofeng; Ko, P.; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun

    2017-02-01

    We propose an interesting framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has novel collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local U (1 )d symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson X . The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into X -pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form a bound state due to its large self-interaction via X mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with b b ¯. The resulting signature at the LHC depends on the decays of X . In this paper we consider a case of particular interest: p p →b b ¯ +ADMonium followed by ADMonium→2 X →2 e+e- where the electrons are identified as (un)converted photons. It may provide a competitive explanation to heavy di-photon resonance searches at the LHC.

  2. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.

  3. Force on an Asymmetric Capacitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bahder, T B; Bahder, Thomas B.; Fazi, Chris

    2002-01-01

    When a high voltage (~30 kV) is applied to a capacitor whose electrodes have different physical dimensions, the capacitor experiences a net force toward the smaller electrode (Biefeld-Brown effect). We have verified this effect by building four capacitors of different shapes. The effect may have applications to vehicle propulsion and dielectric pumps. We review the history of this effect briefly through the history of patents by Thomas Townsend Brown. At present, the physical basis for the Biefeld-Brown effect is not understood. The order of magnitude of the net force on the asymmetric capacitor is estimated assuming two different mechanisms of charge conduction between its electrodes: ballistic ionic wind and ionic drift. The calculations indicate that ionic wind is at least three orders of magnitude too small to explain the magnitude of the observed force on the capacitor. The ionic drift transport assumption leads to the correct order of magnitude for the force, however, it is difficult to see how ionic dr...

  4. Asymmetric total synthesis of vindoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Boger, Dale L

    2010-03-24

    A concise asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-vindoline (1) is detailed based on a tandem intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of a 1,3,4-oxadiazole inspired by the natural product structure, in which the tether linking the initiating dienophile and oxadiazole bears a chiral substituent that controls the facial selectivity of the initiating Diels-Alder reaction and sets absolute stereochemistry of the remaining six stereocenters in the cascade cycloadduct. This key reaction introduces three rings and four C-C bonds central to the pentacyclic ring system setting all six stereocenters and introducing essentially all the functionality found in the natural product in a single step. Implementation of the approach also required the development of a unique ring expansion reaction to provide a six-membered ring suitably functionalized for introduction of the Delta (6, 7)-double bond found in the core structure of vindoline and defined our use of a protected hydroxymethyl group as the substituent used to control the stereochemical course of the cycloaddition cascade.

  5. Exclusive channels in semi-inclusive production of pions and kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Diehl; Wolfgang Kugler; Andreas Schaefer; Christian Weiss

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the role of exclusive channels in semi-inclusive electroproduction of pions and kaons. Using the QCD factorization theorem for hard exclusive processes we evaluate the cross sections for exclusive pseudoscalar and vector meson production in terms of generalized parton distributions and meson distribution amplitudes. We investigate the uncertainties arising from the modeling of the nonperturbative input quantities. Combining these results with available experimental data, we compare the cross sections for exclusive channels to that obtained from quark fragmentation in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We find that rho0 production is the only exclusive channel with significant contributions to semi-inclusive pion production at large z and moderate Q2. The corresponding contribution to kaon production from the decay of exclusively produced phi and Kstar is rather small.

  6. Exclusive meson production at HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Manaenkov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The data were accumulated with the HERMES forward spectrometer using the 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron or positron beam of HERA. Exclusive electroproduction of $\\omega$ mesons on unpolarized hydrogen and deuterium targets is studied in the kinematic region of $Q^2>1.0$ GeV$^2$, 3.0 GeV $< W <$ 6.3 GeV, and $-t'< 0.2 $ GeV$^{2}$, while for $\\rho^0$-meson production on a transversely polarized hydrogen target $-t'< 0.4$ GeV$^{2}$ is used. Spin-density matrix elements for $\\omega$ production are presented in projections of $Q^2$ or $-t'$, while the ratios of the helicity amplitudes for the reaction $\\gamma^*+p \\to \\rho^0+p$ are obtained in the entire kinematic region. The usage of the transversely polarized target allows for the first time the extraction of the ratios of certain nucleon-helicity-flip amplitudes to the natural-parity exchange amplitude $T_{0\\frac{1}{2}0\\frac{1}{2}}$ without the nucleon-helicity flip describing the longitudinal $\\rho^0$-meson production by the longitudinal...

  7. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  8. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Arava, Veera R; Laxminarasimhulu Gorentla; Pramod K. Dubey

    2012-01-01

    A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described.

  9. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera R. Arava

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described.

  10. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentla, Laxminarasimhulu; Dubey, Pramod K

    2012-01-01

    Summary A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described. PMID:23019473

  11. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornillos, Valentin; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of ,-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good y

  12. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Gergely, L A; K\\'{e}p\\'{\\i}r\\'{o}, Ibolya

    2006-01-01

    We consider Swiss-cheese brane universes embedded asymmetrically into the bulk. Neither the junction conditions between the Schwarzschild spheres and the sorrounding Friedmann brane regions with cosmological constant $\\Lambda $, nor the evolution of the scale factor are changed with respect to the symmetric case. The universe expands and decelerates forever. The asymmetry however has a drastic influence on the evolution of the cosmological fluid. Instead of the two branches of the symmetric case, in the asymmetric case four branches emerge. Moreover, the future pressure singularity arising in the symmetric case only for huge values of $\\Lambda $ becomes quite generic in the asymmetric case. Such pressure singularities emerge also when $\\Lambda=0$ is set. Then they are due entirely to the asymmetric embedding. For generic values of $\\Lambda $ we introduce a critical value of a suitably defined asymmetry parameter, which separates Swiss-cheese cosmologies with and without pressure singularities.

  13. Congenital asymmetric crying face: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Kara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital asymmetric crying face is an anomalia caused by unilateral absence or weakness of depressor anguli oris muscle The major finding of the disease is the absence or weakness in the outer and lower movement of the commissure during crying. The other expression muscles are normal and the face is symmetric at rest. The asymmetry in congenital asymmetric crying face is most evident during infancy but decreases by age. Congenital asymmetric crying face can be associated with cervicofacial, musclebone, respiratory, genitourinary and central nervous system anomalia. It is diagnosed by physical examination. This paper presents a six days old infant with Congenital asymmetric crying face and discusses the case in terms of diagnosis and disease features.

  14. DOES VOLATILITY RESPOND ASYMMETRIC TO PAST SHOCKS?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Botoc

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to examine if the stock market volatility exhibits asymmetric or an asymmetric response to past shocks, for certain CEE countries (Romania,Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland) over the period May 2004 - September 2014. For the stock marketsfrom East Europe the results are in line with the symmetric volatility, i.e. volatility is similaraffected by both positive and negative returns with the same magnitude. For the stock marketsfrom Central Europe the results are consistent ...

  15. A Teacher Accountability Model for Overcoming Self-Exclusion of Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Abu-Hussain; Tilchin, Oleg; Essawi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Self-exclusion of pupils is one of the prominent challenges of education. In this paper we propose the TERA model, which shapes the process of creating formative accountability of teachers to overcome the self-exclusion of pupils. Development of the model includes elaboration and integration of interconnected model components. The TERA model…

  16. Asymmetric logistic peak as a suitable function for the resolution of highly asymmetric voltammograms in non-bilinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshki, Mojtaba; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Abdollahi, Hamid; Ariño, Cristina; Esteban, Miquel

    2011-11-21

    The asymmetric logistic peak is tested as a new function for the parametric signal fitting (PSF) of highly asymmetric electrochemical signals in non-bilinear datasets, such as those obtained in linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) or in the presence of irreversible electrochemical processes. This new multivariate curve resolution strategy (PSF-ALPA) is successfully applied to LS voltammograms measured for the Cd(II)-glutathione system with a hanging mercury drop electrode, where Cd(II) is reversibly reduced, and to differential pulse voltammograms (DPV) measured at a glassy carbon electrode, where Cd(II) reduction becomes irreversible. Matrix augmentation by using LS voltammograms measured at different scan rates provides good results and encourages the development of ALPA methodology for third order data.

  17. A Numerical Comparison of Symmetric and Asymmetric Supersonic Wind Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kylen D.

    Supersonic wind tunnels are a vital aspect to the aerospace industry. Both the design and testing processes of different aerospace components often include and depend upon utilization of supersonic test facilities. Engine inlets, wing shapes, and body aerodynamics, to name a few, are aspects of aircraft that are frequently subjected to supersonic conditions in use, and thus often require supersonic wind tunnel testing. There is a need for reliable and repeatable supersonic test facilities in order to help create these vital components. The option of building and using asymmetric supersonic converging-diverging nozzles may be appealing due in part to lower construction costs. There is a need, however, to investigate the differences, if any, in the flow characteristics and performance of asymmetric type supersonic wind tunnels in comparison to symmetric due to the fact that asymmetric configurations of CD nozzle are not as common. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study has been conducted on an existing University of Michigan (UM) asymmetric supersonic wind tunnel geometry in order to study the effects of asymmetry on supersonic wind tunnel performance. Simulations were made on both the existing asymmetrical tunnel geometry and two axisymmetric reflections (of differing aspect ratio) of that original tunnel geometry. The Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved via NASAs OVERFLOW code to model flow through these configurations. In this way, information has been gleaned on the effects of asymmetry on supersonic wind tunnel performance. Shock boundary layer interactions are paid particular attention since the test section integrity is greatly dependent upon these interactions. Boundary layer and overall flow characteristics are studied. The RANS study presented in this document shows that the UM asymmetric wind tunnel/nozzle configuration is not as well suited to producing uniform test section flow as that of a symmetric configuration, specifically one

  18. Barbed congruence of the asymmetric chi calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao-ju; FU Yu-xi

    2006-01-01

    The chi calculus is a model of mobile processes. It has evolved from the pi-calculus with motivations from simplification and communication-as-cut-elimination. This paper studies the chi calculus in the framework incorporating asymmetric communication. The major feature of the calculus is the identification of two actions:x/x and τ. The investigation on the barbed bisimilarity shows how the property affects the observational theory.Based on the definition of the barbed bisimilarity, the simulation properties of the barbed bisimilarity are studied. It shows that the algebraic properties of the barbed bisimilarity have changed greatly compared with the chi calculus. Although the definition of the barbed bisimilarity is very simple, the property of closeness under contexts makes it difficult to understand the barbed bisimilarity directly. Therefore an open style definition of the barbed bisimilarity is given, which is a context free description of barbed bisimilarity. Its definition is complex,but it is a well-behaved relation for it coincides with the barbed bisimilarity. It also helps to build an axiomatization system for the barbed congruence. Besides the axioms for the strong barbed bisimilarity, the paper proposes a new tau law and four new update laws for the barbed congruence. Both the operational and algebraic properties of the enriched calculus improve the understanding of the bisimulation behaviors of the model.

  19. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Dianhydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to the compositions and processes for preparing thermoset and thermoplastic polyimides derived from novel asymmetrical dianhydrides: specifically 2,3,3',4' benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA), and 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (a-6FDA). The a-BTDA anhydride is prepared by Suzuki coupling with catalysts from a mixed anhydride of 3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid or 2,3-dimethylbenzoic acid with 2,3-dimethylphenylboronic acid or 3,4-dimethylphenylboronic acid respectively, to form 2,3,3',4'-tetramethylbenzophenone which is oxidized to form 2,3,3',4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid followed by cyclodehydration to obtain a-BTDA. The a-6FDA is prepared by nucleophilic triflouoromethylation of 2,3,3',4'-tetramethylbenzophenone with trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane to form 3,4'-(trifluoromethylmethanol)-bis(o-xylene) which is converted to 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene-bis(o-xylene). The 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(o-xylene) is oxidized to the corresponding tetraacid followed by cyclodehydration to yield a-6FDA.

  20. Social exclusion modulates priorities of attention allocation in cognitive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Zhang, Lijie; Yuan, Jiajin; Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have investigated how exclusion affects cognitive control and have reported inconsistent results. However, these studies usually treated cognitive control as a unitary concept, whereas it actually involved two main sub-processes: conflict detection and response implementation. Furthermore, existing studies have focused primarily on exclusion’s effects on conscious cognitive control, while recent studies have shown the existence of unconscious cognitive control. Therefore, the present study investigated whether and how exclusion affects the sub-processes underlying conscious and unconscious cognitive control differently. The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion and participants subsequently performed a masked Go/No-Go task during which event-related potentials were measured. For conscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a larger N2 but smaller P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest more attention in conscious conflict detection, but less in conscious inhibition of impulsive responses. However, for unconscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a smaller N2 but larger P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest less attention in unconscious conflict detection, but more in unconscious inhibition of impulsive responses. Together, these results suggest that exclusion causes people to rebalance attention allocation priorities for cognitive control according to a more flexible and adaptive strategy.

  1. Testing exclusion restrictions and additive separability in sample selection models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Standard sample selection models with non-randomly censored outcomes assume (i) an exclusion restriction (i.e., a variable affecting selection, but not the outcome) and (ii) additive separability of the errors in the selection process. This paper proposes tests for the joint satisfaction of these......Standard sample selection models with non-randomly censored outcomes assume (i) an exclusion restriction (i.e., a variable affecting selection, but not the outcome) and (ii) additive separability of the errors in the selection process. This paper proposes tests for the joint satisfaction...... of these assumptions by applying the approach of Huber and Mellace (Testing instrument validity for LATE identification based on inequality moment constraints, 2011) (for testing instrument validity under treatment endogeneity) to the sample selection framework. We show that the exclusion restriction and additive...... separability imply two testable inequality constraints that come from both point identifying and bounding the outcome distribution of the subpopulation that is always selected/observed. We apply the tests to two variables for which the exclusion restriction is frequently invoked in female wage regressions: non...

  2. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  3. Disciplinary Exclusion: The Influence of School Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Lucy Ann

    2013-01-01

    Disciplinary exclusion is a strategy used by some schools in response to challenging behaviour. While some studies have explored interventions that can be implemented to reduce the exclusion of "at risk" pupils, others have considered how the underlying school ethos influences how challenging behaviour is understood and managed. The…

  4. Exclusion from School and Recognition of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet; Fordyce, Mariela

    2016-01-01

    There has been an overall decrease in exclusion rates and numbers in recent years across the UK. This change has often been heralded as evidence that national inclusion policies are "working" and that schools themselves are becoming increasingly inclusive. This article examines findings from a recent study on school exclusion in Wales,…

  5. Social exclusion of the poor people

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical part is devoted to the social exclusion of poor people and its requisites. The introductory chapters explain what is the social exclusion of poor people, and what is the problem with poverty. There are also analyzed the different legal standards. The practical part is aimed at socially excluded people, their social life and their comparison.

  6. Azimuthal asymmetries in hard exclusive meson muoproduction off transversely polarized protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolbeek, Johannes ter

    2015-04-15

    In 2010, the COMPASS experiment at CERN took data with a 160 GeV μ{sup +} beam and a transversely polarized NH{sub 3} target. In this thesis, this data is analyzed for azimuthal target spin asymmetries, including five single spin and three double spin asymmetries in hard exclusive ω meson production. This thesis is the worldwide first analysis investigating on azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive ω muoproduction (μ'p→μ'+p'+ω→μ'+p'+π{sup +}π{sup -}π{sup 0}). The analysis is confronted with several challenges beside the small cross section of the examined process. The detection of two photons in the final state requires an excellent performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters as well as a good understanding of the detector. To increase the yield of reconstructed γ pairs from a decaying π{sup 0} meson, a decay product of the ω meson, extensive studies relating to performance of the calorimeters were necessary. Firstly the time information of the calorimeters had to be parametrized in dependence of the cluster energy to ensure the assignment of beam particle and photon due to a correlation in time. Secondly, a parametrization of the invariant mass of the photon pair was performed in terms of the energy of the reconstructed π{sup 0}, for the better discrimination of signal and background. In the setup with the transversely polarized target, the recoiled proton cannot be detected. Thus in order to ensure the exclusivity of the process, the missing energy is calculated. The signal region, defined at vertical stroke E{sub miss} vertical stroke < 3GeV, contains ω mesons from exclusive events as well as from semi-inclusive production. Hence the understanding of non-exclusive background is essential for the further analysis. For this purpose, a semiinclusive Monte Carlo sample is studied. In order to reach a better agreement of the Monte Carlo and data, like-sign samples from both, real data and Monte Carlo, are compared and the

  7. Exclusion and Education in South Africa: An Education Law Perspective of Emerging Alternative Understandings of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The new democratic dispensation in South Africa (1994) was accompanied by law and policy aimed at preventing unfair exclusion from educational opportunities and promoting equal access to educational opportunities. However, feelings of unfair exclusion remain and new understandings of exclusion are emerging. This paper examines the new policy and…

  8. Exclusive Minilateralism: An Emerging Discourse within International Climate Change Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Scott McGee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years there have been a series of significant international climate change agreements involving only elite state actors. The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, APEC Sydney Leaders Declaration and US Major Economies Process all displayed a shift towards a model of international climate change governance involving a small group of economically powerful states, to the exclusion of less powerful states and environmental NGOs. The modest result from the UNFCCC COP 15 meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009 and subsequent UNFCCC meetings has strengthened calls for international climate governance to be pared down to smaller decision making forums of key states only. This article argues that these developments evidence an emerging discourse of ‘exclusive minilateralism’ in international climate policy that is challenging the inclusive multilateral discourse that has formed the bedrock of international climate change governance since the inception of UN climate regime in the early 1990s. The exclusive minilateralism discourse offers a significant challenge to both the cosmopolitan and discursive democratic aspirations of international climate change governance. One response to the exclusive minilateral discourse is to reform the UNFCCC consensus-based decision making rule to provide the COP with greater ease of decision making on key issues relating to mitigation and adaptation. Another response is to more formally include the exclusive minilateralism discourse within the UNFCCC COP process. This could be achieved by forming a small peak body of states and key NGO groups to act as an influential advisor to the COP process on key issues requiring expedition and resolution.

  9. Exclusively Breastfeeding and Hypernatremic Dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Çağlar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that breast-feeding is the best and safest way of feeding infants. Physiological weight loss occurs in the first two or three days of life, and the achievement of birth weight is expected towards the end of the first week. Hypernatremic dehydration may occur in exclusively breast-fed infants if milk supply is low during these first few days. It is not because of the high sodium content in breast milk; it is because of insufficient lactation. That is, the main cause of hypernatremic dehydration is water deprivation. There are many causes for low milk intake. Since most causes are preventable or able to be improved, mothers, particularly first time mothers, should receive more reassurance and practical advice in the technique of breast-feeding. Before their discharge from the hospital, they should be educated about the associated features of unsuccessful breast-feeding, such as going to the breast infrequently or for short times, infrequent passage of urine and stool, jaundice, lethargy, irritability and fever. Late diagnosis may cause catastrophic outcomes, such as a variety of palsies, apnea, bradycardia, seizures, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrotising enterocolitis after establishing full oral feeds, amputation of an extremity secondary to arterial thrombus, multiple cerebral infarctions, intracranial hemorrhages, massive intra ventricular hemorrhage, multiple dural thromboses. If babies are weighed on the day of the Guthrie test, those in the early onset of a disease and those who could not achieve their birth weight can be easily identified. The latter should be closely followed.

  10. Recent Developments in the Area of Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Walsgrove

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of an enantiomerically pure amino alcohol, coupled to a transfer hydrogenation process, in the asymmetric catalysis of the reduction of ketones to alcohols, is described. The process works well for unfunctionalised ketones, affording e.e.s of up to 98%, and excellent conversions. We have recently extended, for the first time in this application, the scope of the methodology to the reductions of a-heteroatom substituted substrates, through the use of the appropriate protecting groups on each atom.

  11. Stochastic modeling of cell growth with symmetric or asymmetric division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Amir, Ariel

    2016-07-01

    We consider a class of biologically motivated stochastic processes in which a unicellular organism divides its resources (volume or damaged proteins, in particular) symmetrically or asymmetrically between its progeny. Assuming the final amount of the resource is controlled by a growth policy and subject to additive and multiplicative noise, we derive the recursive integral equation describing the evolution of the resource distribution over subsequent generations and use it to study the properties of stable resource distributions. We find conditions under which a unique stable resource distribution exists and calculate its moments for the class of affine linear growth policies. Moreover, we apply an asymptotic analysis to elucidate the conditions under which the stable distribution (when it exists) has a power-law tail. Finally, we use the results of this asymptotic analysis along with the moment equations to draw a stability phase diagram for the system that reveals the counterintuitive result that asymmetry serves to increase stability while at the same time widening the stable distribution. We also briefly discuss how cells can divide damaged proteins asymmetrically between their progeny as a form of damage control. In the appendixes, motivated by the asymmetric division of cell volume in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we extend our results to the case wherein mother and daughter cells follow different growth policies.

  12. All-optical adder/subtractor based on tera-hertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Kumar Gayen; Rajat Kumar Pal; Jitendra Nath Roy

    2009-01-01

    An all-optical adder/subtractor (A/S) unit with the help of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) is proposed.Tile all-optical A/S unit with a set of all-optical full-adders and optical exclusive-ORs (XORs),can be used to perform a fast central processor unit using optical hardware components.We try to exploit the advantages of TOAD-based optical switch to design an integrated all-optical circuit which can perform binary addition and subtraction.With computer simulation results confirming the described methods,conclusions are given.

  13. Spacecraft observations and analytic theory of crescent-shaped electron distributions in asymmetric magnetic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Egedal, J; Daughton, W; Wetherton, B; Cassak, P A; Chen, L -J; Lavraud, B; Trobert, R B; Dorelli, J; Gershman, D J; Avanov, L A

    2016-01-01

    Supported by a kinetic simulation, we derive an exclusion energy parameter $\\cal{E}_X$ providing a lower kinetic energy bound for an electron to cross from one inflow region to the other during magnetic reconnection. As by a Maxwell Demon, only high energy electrons are permitted to cross the inner reconnection region, setting the electron distribution function observed along the low density side separatrix during asymmetric reconnection. The analytic model accounts for the two distinct flavors of crescent-shaped electron distributions observed by spacecraft in a thin boundary layer along the low density separatrix.

  14. A new chromatographic response function for use in size-exclusion chromatography optimization strategies: Application to complex organic mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Duarte, Armando C

    2010-11-26

    A new chromatographic response function (CRF) is presented aiming at designing an optimal chromatographic separation protocol for assessing the molecular size distribution of complex organic mixtures, such as those of natural organic matter from different sources (atmospheric, aqueous, and terrestrial). This CRF can be applied to mixtures of unknown solutes, being well suited for describing separation processes of pair of peaks of highly unequal area, and also for overlapping and asymmetric peaks. The performance of the developed CRF was compared to that of an existing response function, using simulated chromatograms. The capability of the new function to qualify the resolution degree that it is attained under different chromatographic conditions was further assessed through a size-exclusion chromatography study of a variety of different organic compounds, via a two-level full factorial design. It was proved that this function is a reliable alternative to optimize simultaneously the composition of the mobile phase (pH, ionic strength, and organic modifier concentration) and the instrumental variables (flow rate).

  15. Social exclusion and pain sensitivity: why exclusion sometimes hurts and sometimes numbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Michael J; Claypool, Heather M

    2012-02-01

    Some research indicates that social exclusion leads to increased emotional- and physical-pain sensitivity, whereas other work indicates that exclusion causes emotional- and physical-pain numbing. This research sought to examine what causes these opposing outcomes. In Study 1, the paradigm used to instantiate social exclusion was found to moderate the social exclusion-physical pain relation: Future-life exclusion led to a numbing of physical pain whereas Cyberball exclusion led to hypersensitivity. Study 2 examined the underlying mechanism, which was hypothesized to be the severity of the "social injury." Participants were subjected to either the standard future-life exclusion manipulation (purported to be a highly severe social injury) or a newly created, less-severe version. Supporting our hypothesis, the standard (highly severe) future-life exclusion led to physical-pain numbing, whereas the less-severe future-life exclusion resulted in hypersensitivity. Implications of these results for understanding the exclusion-pain relation and other exclusion effects are discussed.

  16. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  17. Asymmetric tandem organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Thomas J.

    where it is used to predict the short-circuit current (Jsc) generation of the sub-cells, which is not accessible experimentally. Current-matching is then used to predict the Jsc of the complete tandem device. . As a support to the optical modelling, ellipsometry measurements of thin films of ClAlPc are presented. These films of known thickness are analysed to extract the complex refractive index for use in optical modelling calculations. A dependence of the complex refractive index on film thickness and substrate is also noted. Finally, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) technique is considered as applied to solar cells, and an additional method is proposed to characterise current balancing in asymmetric tandem cells under illumination. This technique is verified experimentally by two separate sets of data..

  18. Construal Level and Social Exclusion: Concrete Thinking Impedes Recovery From Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Lermer, Eva; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    Social exclusion is a painful experience. Recent research has shown, however, that coping with exclusion can be facilitated by favorable conditions. In the current research, we investigated whether construal level affects recovery from social exclusion. We hypothesized that an abstract vs. concrete mindset would moderate coping with exclusion. Indeed, lower compared to higher concrete thinking (Study 1) and abstract compared to concrete thinking (Study 2) bolstered the basic need of belonging when excluded. Priming of abstract thinking, moreover, increased participants' sense of belonging both in response to exclusion and inclusion relative to no priming (Study 3). Our results are the first to establish a relationship between construal level and social exclusion, thereby suggesting an alleviating "abstraction discount" effect for the consequences of social exclusion.

  19. Analysis of Capillary Rise in Asymmetric Branch-Like Capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caoxiong; Shen, Yinghao; Ge, Hongkui; Yang, Zhihui; Su, Shuai; Ren, Kai; Huang, Heyu

    2016-05-01

    Transport in porous media is common in nature, attracting many attentions for a long time. Tree-like network model is often used as a simplification for porous space, expressing the complexity of pore spaces instead of capillary bundle. To investigate spontaneous imbibition characteristics in this network, a dynamic asymmetric branch-like capillary model is used to represent basic network structure, using fractal method to represent tortuosity. This work investigates the influence of parameters on imbibition process in the branch-like capillary model. An analytical equation for the imbibition mass versus time is derived. Parameters from capillary structures to liquid properties are taken into account and analyzed based on the numerical solution of the equation. It is found that the imbibition process in asymmetric branch-like capillary model can be recognized by four sections and brunching tubes are positive for imbibition process. Concomitantly, meniscus arrest event is simulated and discussed. Moreover, the influence of parameters on imbibition process is discussed. These parameters can be classified as static and dynamic. Static parameters mainly change the capillary force, which are related to the ultimate imbibition mass or imbibition ability, while dynamic parameters mainly have influence on resistance of flowing fluid, which are related to the imbibition speed in the imbibition process.

  20. Theta signal as the neural signature of social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofori, Irene; Moretti, Laura; Harquel, Sylvain; Posada, Andres; Deiana, Gianluca; Isnard, Jean; Mauguière, François; Sirigu, Angela

    2013-10-01

    The feeling of being excluded from a social interaction triggers social pain, a sensation as intense as actual physical pain. Little is known about the neurophysiological underpinnings of social pain. We addressed this issue using intracranial electroencephalography in 15 patients performing a ball game where inclusion and exclusion blocks were alternated. Time-frequency analyses showed an increase in power of theta-band oscillations during exclusion in the anterior insula (AI) and posterior insula, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC), and the fusiform "face area" (FFA). Interestingly, the AI showed an initial fast response to exclusion but the signal rapidly faded out. Activity in the sACC gradually increased and remained significant thereafter. This suggests that the AI may signal social pain by detecting emotional distress caused by the exclusion, whereas the sACC may be linked to the learning aspects of social pain. Theta activity in the FFA was time-locked to the observation of a player poised to exclude the participant, suggesting that the FFA encodes the social value of faces. Taken together, our findings suggest that theta activity represents the neural signature of social pain. The time course of this signal varies across regions important for processing emotional features linked to social information.

  1. Asymmetric Synthesis of Substituted Thiolanes through Domino Thia-Michael-Henry Dynamic Covalent Systemic Resolution using Lipase Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Vongvilai, Pornrapee; Sakulsombat, Morakot; Fischer, Andreas; Ramström, Olof

    2014-03-24

    Dynamic systems based on consecutive thia-Michael and Henry reactions were generated and transformed using lipase-catalyzed asymmetric transformation. Substituted thiolane structures with three contiguous stereocenters were resolved in the process in high yields and high enantiomeric excesses.

  2. Mutual Exclusion Principle for Multithreaded Web Crawlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Kumar Perisetla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes mutual exclusion principle for multithreaded web crawlers. The existing web crawlers use data structures to hold frontier set in local address space. This space could be used to run more crawler threads for faster operation. All crawler threads fetch the URL to crawl from the centralized frontier. The mutual exclusion principle is used to provide access to frontier for each crawler thread in synchronized manner to avoid deadlock. The approach to utilize the waiting time on mutual exclusion lock in efficient manner has been discussed in detail.

  3. [Development of new methods in asymmetric reactions and their applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Node, Manabu

    2002-01-01

    Several novel methods using chiral reagents and biocatalysts for asymmetric reactions are described. Among those reactions, asymmetric reduction via a novel tandem Michael addition/Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction of acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones using a chiral mercapto alcohol, asymmetric synthesis of allene-1,3-dicarboxylate via crystallization induced asymmetric transformation, and improved asymmetric nitroolefination of lactones and lactames at alpha-carbon using new chiral reagents were developed. In the reactions using biocatalysts, asymmetric dealkoxycarbonylation of bicyclic beta-keto diesters having sigma-symmetry with lipase or esterase to give optically active beta-keto esters, the asymmetric reduction of bicyclic 1,3-diketones having sigma-symmetry with Baker's yeast to give optically active keto alcohols, and the asymmetric aldol reaction of glycine with threonine aldolase were also developed. The above mentioned products were effectively utilized as chiral building blocks for the asymmetric synthesis of natural products and drugs.

  4. 27 CFR 10.51 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion, in general. 10..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Exclusion § 10.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion... in exclusion. Section 10.54 lists the criteria used for determining whether other practices can...

  5. 42 CFR 402.205 - Length of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum time limit for the period of exclusion. Social Security Actparagraph Code of Federal... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Length of exclusion. 402.205 Section 402.205 Public... PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS Exclusions § 402.205 Length of exclusion....

  6. Individual peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nankunda, Jolly

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Breastfeeding remains a potent child survival strategy estimated to save up to 1.5 million infant deaths every year when optimally practiced. Despite breastfeeding being universal in most of sub-Saharan Africa, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is rarely practiced. Peer counselling for EBF, particularly in non-African settings, has been reported to lead to increased EBF levels. This thesis explores the experiences from the process of setting up a community-based ind...

  7. Dc SQUIDs with asymmetric shunt resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, Matthias; Nagel, Joachim; Kemmler, Matthias; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena in LISAplus, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Meckbach, Johannes Maximilian; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated asymmetrically shunted Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb dc SQUIDs. Simulations based on the coupled Langevin equations predict that the optimum energy resolution ε, and thus also the noise performance of such an asymmetric SQUID, can be 3-4 times better than that of its symmetric counterpart. While keeping the total resistance R identical to a comparable symmetric SQUID with R{sup -1} = R{sub 1}{sup -1} + R{sub 2}{sup -1}, we shunted only one of the two Josephson junctions with R = R{sub 1,2}/2. Both types of SQUIDs were characterized with respect to their transport and noise properties at temperature T = 4.2 K, and we compared the experimental results with numerical simulations. Experiments yielded ε ∼ 32 ℎ for an asymmetric SQUID with an inductance L = 22 pH, whereas a comparable symmetric device achieved ε = 110 ℎ.

  8. Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the history of ideas, social science, political science and literature studies, Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion offers thirteen investigations into the co-constitutive relationship between subjectivity and political and legal order, combining theoretical reflection with empirical and historical...

  9. The communicative constitution of representation and exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the light of current debate on representation, specifically engaging with literature showing how representation is communicatively constituted, this paper empirically shows how exclusion also can be seen as communicatively constituted. The interpretive approach toward communication employed in th

  10. ASYMMETRIC PRICE TRANSMISSION MODELING: THE IMPORTANCE OF MODEL COMPLEXITY AND THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SELECTION CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry de-Graft Acquah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Criteria provides an attractive basis for selecting the best model from a set of competing asymmetric price transmission models or theories. However, little is understood about the sensitivity of the model selection methods to model complexity. This study therefore fits competing asymmetric price transmission models that differ in complexity to simulated data and evaluates the ability of the model selection methods to recover the true model. The results of Monte Carlo experimentation suggest that in general BIC, CAIC and DIC were superior to AIC when the true data generating process was the standard error correction model, whereas AIC was more successful when the true model was the complex error correction model. It is also shown that the model selection methods performed better in large samples for a complex asymmetric data generating process than with a standard asymmetric data generating process. Except for complex models, AIC's performance did not make substantial gains in recovery rates as sample size increased. The research findings demonstrate the influence of model complexity in asymmetric price transmission model comparison and selection.

  11. Rescinding the Ground Combat Exclusion Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    military. Many opponents believe that the military is being used as an experiment to "further social change in our society without regard for military...Miller, " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat," in Women in the Military, ed. Rita James Simon (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction...index.php/issuepapers (accessed November 23, 2010). Miller, Laura L. " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat." In Women in the Military

  12. Asymmetric transfer of auditory perceptual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sygal eAmitay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual skills can improve dramatically even with minimal practice. A major and practical benefit of learning, however, is in transferring the improvement on the trained task to untrained tasks or stimuli, yet the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. Reduction of internal noise has been proposed as a mechanism of perceptual learning, and while we have evidence that frequency discrimination (FD learning is due to a reduction of internal noise, the source of that noise was not determined. In this study, we examined whether reducing the noise associated with neural phase locking to tones can explain the observed improvement in behavioural thresholds. We compared FD training between two tone durations (15 and 100 ms that straddled the temporal integration window of auditory nerve fibers upon which computational modeling of phase locking noise was based. Training on short tones resulted in improved FD on probe tests of both the long and short tones. Training on long tones resulted in improvement only on the long tones. Simulations of FD learning, based on the computational model and on signal detection theory, were compared with the behavioral FD data. We found that improved fidelity of phase locking accurately predicted transfer of learning from short to long tones, but also predicted transfer from long to short tones. The observed lack of transfer from long to short tones suggests the involvement of a second mechanism. Training may have increased the temporal integration window which could not transfer because integration time for the short tone is limited by its duration. Current learning models assume complex relationships between neural populations that represent the trained stimuli. In contrast, we propose that training-induced enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio offers a parsimonious explanation of learning and transfer that easily accounts for asymmetric transfer of learning.

  13. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  14. Asymmetric gear rectifies random robot motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Zhang, H. P.

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally study the dynamics of centimetric robots and their interactions with rotary gears through inelastic collisions. Under the impacts of self-propelled robots, a gear with symmetric teeth diffuses with no preferred direction of motion. An asymmetric gear, however, rectifies random motion of nearby robots which, in return, exert a torque on the gear and drive it into unidirectional motion. Rectification efficiency increases with the degree of gear asymmetry. Our work demonstrates that asymmetric environments can be used to rectify and extract energy from random motion of macroscopic self-propelled particles.

  15. Asymmetric catalysis with short-chain peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Bartosz; Wennemers, Helma

    2014-10-01

    Within this review article we describe recent developments in asymmetric catalysis with peptides. Numerous peptides have been established in the past two decades that catalyze a wide variety of transformations with high stereoselectivities and yields, as well as broad substrate scope. We highlight here catalytically active peptides, which have addressed challenges that had thus far remained elusive in asymmetric catalysis: enantioselective synthesis of atropoisomers and quaternary stereogenic centers, regioselective transformations of polyfunctional substrates, chemoselective transformations, catalysis in-flow and reactions in aqueous environments.

  16. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong-xiang, E-mail: jsdxshx@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yuan, Shou-qi, E-mail: Shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Shu-yi [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  17. Integrated asymmetric vertical coupler pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Askin; Akcag, Imran; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-08-01

    Design and analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator asymmetric integrated vertical coupler is presented. The coupler is composed of a single mode low index waveguide and a thin silicon slab. Wavelength selective optical modulation of asymmetric vertical coupler is examined in detail. Its potential for sensing applications is highlighted as an integrated optical pressure sensor which can be realized by standard silicon micro-fabrication. Sensitivity of transmission of such couplers on refractive index change of silicon slab ensures that they are good candidates for applications requiring high sensitivities.

  18. Asymmetric localization in disordered Landau bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nita, M [Institute of Physics and Technology of Materials, PO Box MG7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Aldea, A [Institute of Physics and Technology of Materials, PO Box MG7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Zittartz, J [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Cologne University, 50937 Cologne (Germany)

    2007-06-06

    We show that, due to band mixing, the eigenstate localization within the disordered Landau bands gets an asymmetric structure: the degree of localization increases in the lower part of the band and decreases in the upper one. The calculation is performed for a two-dimensional lattice with the Anderson disorder potential and we prove that this effect is related to the upper shift of the extended states within the band and is enhanced by the disorder strength. The asymmetric localization and the energy shift disappear when the interband coupling is switched off.

  19. Asymmetric multiscale behavior in PM2.5 time series: Based on asymmetric MS-DFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Zhiwei; Ni, Liping

    2016-11-01

    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mm or less (PM2.5) is one of the most serious air pollution, considered most harmful for people by World Health Organisation. In this paper, we utilized the asymmetric multiscale detrended fluctuation analysis (A-MSDFA) method to explore the existence of asymmetric correlation properties for PM2.5 daily average concentration in two USA cities (Fresno and Los Angeles) and two Chinese cities (Hong Kong and Shanghai), and to assess the properties of these asymmetric correlations. The results show the existences of asymmetric correlations, and the degree of asymmetric for two USA cities is stronger than that of two Chinese cities. Further, most of the local exponent β(n) are smaller than 0.5, which indicates the existence of anti-persistent long-range correlation for PM2.5 time series in four cities. In addition, we reanalyze the asymmetric correlation by the A-MSDFA method with secant rolling windows of different sizes, which can investigate dynamic changes in the multiscale correlation for PM2.5 time series with changing window size. Whatever window sizes, the correlations are asymmetric and display smaller asymmetries at small scales and larger asymmetries at large scales. Moreover, the asymmetries become increasingly weaker with the increase of window sizes.

  20. Asymmetric Synthesis Using Enzymes in Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Matsuda

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Great efforts have been extended to catalysis in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) since the early 1990's due to the environmental friendliness, high diffusivity, high solubilizing power, easiness of the product separation,etc.. A combined process of scCO2 and enzymatic catalyst system would be a promising synthetic tool to produce optically active compounds because the enzyme has advantages of being natural and having high enantioselectivity in nature. Here we report asymmetric synthesis using lipase and alcohol dehydrogenase in scCO2[1,2].

  1. Pairing effects on spinodal decomposition of asymmetric nuclear matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrello S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis framed in the general context of two-component fermionic systems subjected to pairing correlations. The study is conducted for unstable asymmetric nuclear matter at low temperature, along the clusterization process driven by spinodal instabilities. It is shown that, especially around the transition temperature from the superfluid to the normal phase, pairing correlations may have non-negligible effects on the isotopic features of the clusterized low-density matter, which could be of interest also in the astrophysical context.

  2. Symmetric and Asymmetric Coalescence of Drops on a Substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Sanchez, J F; Eddi, A; Snoeijer, J H

    2012-01-01

    The coalescence of viscous drops on a substrate is studied experimentally and theoretically. We consider cases where the drops can have different contact angles, leading to a very asymmetric coalescence process. Side view experiments reveal that the "bridge" connecting the drops evolves with self-similar dynamics, providing a new perspective on the coalescence of sessile drops. We show that the universal shape of the bridge is accurately described by similarity solutions of the one-dimensional lubrication equation. Our theory predicts a bridge that grows linearly in time and stresses the strong dependence on the contact angles. Without any adjustable parameters, we find quantitative agreement with all experimental observations.

  3. Passage times of asymmetric anomalous walks with multiple paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Manuel O [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, and CONICET, 8400, Bariloche (Argentina); Insua, G Liliana [Facultad de Ingenieria, Univ. Nac. del Comahue, 8300, Neuquen (Argentina)

    2005-04-29

    We investigate the transient and the long-time behaviour of asymmetric anomalous walks in heterogeneous media. Two types of disorder are worked out explicitly: weak and strong disorder; in addition, the occurrence of disordered multiple paths is considered. We calculate the first passage time distribution of the associated stochastic transport process. We discuss the occurrence of the crossover from a power law to an exponential decay for the long-time behaviour of the distribution of the first passage times of disordered biased walks.

  4. Upper Bounds on Asymmetric Dark Matter Self Annihilation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Ellwanger, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Most models for asymmetric dark matter allow for dark matter self annihilation processes, which can wash out the asymmetry at temperatures near and below the dark matter mass. We study the coupled set of Boltzmann equations for the symmetric and antisymmetric dark matter number densities, and derive conditions applicable to a large class of models for the absence of a significant wash-out of an asymmetry. These constraints are applied to various existing scenarios. In the case of left- or right-handed sneutrinos, very large electroweak gaugino masses, or very small mixing angles are required.

  5. A joint asymmetric watermarking and image encryption scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boato, G.; Conotter, V.; De Natale, F. G. B.; Fontanari, C.

    2008-02-01

    Here we introduce a novel watermarking paradigm designed to be both asymmetric, i.e., involving a private key for embedding and a public key for detection, and commutative with a suitable encryption scheme, allowing both to cipher watermarked data and to mark encrypted data without interphering with the detection process. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the above principles, we present an explicit example where the watermarking part, based on elementary linear algebra, and the encryption part, exploiting a secret random permutation, are integrated in a commutative scheme.

  6. Measurements of exclusive dilepton production at 7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rifki, Othmane; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been exploited to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs in the data taken at centre­of­mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. A measurement of exclusive production of dileptons (ee and mumu) in 7 TeV pp collisions is presented. The results show significant deviations from the pure QED prediction, which can be explained by photon coherence and proton rescattering effects. A new analysis performed at 8 TeV concentrates on the emu final state to search for the exclusive production of WW boson pairs. Furthermore the analysis is re­optimised to search for the exclusive production of the Higgs boson in the WW* decay channel.

  7. Belongingness as a core personality trait: how social exclusion influences social functioning and personality expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, C Nathan; Deckman, Timothy; Pond, Richard S; Bonser, Ian

    2011-12-01

    People have a fundamental need for positive and lasting relationships. This need to belong is rooted in evolutionary history and gave rise to the development of traits that enable individuals to gain acceptance and to avoid rejection. Because belongingness is a core component of human functioning, social exclusion should influence many cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes and personality expression. This article summarizes recent evidence that social exclusion causes an assortment of outcomes, many of which depend on whether the excluded can gain acceptance or forestall possible distress. It highlights common overlap in physical and social pain systems and how a physical painkiller can reduce the pain of social exclusion. Finally, it shows how social exclusion moderates the effects of traits on cognition, emotion, and behavior. To appreciate personality processes in social contexts, scientists should consider how people respond to social exclusion and how the need to belong influences personality expression.

  8. Modeling of severe deformation and mechanical properties in Mg-3A1-1Zn alloy through asymmetric hot-extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    One-pass asymmetric hot extrusion performed at 673 K was applied to fabricate an AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet.Finite element method(FEM)was used to model the process of asymmetric hot-extrusion.Simulation results indicate that strain rate gradient througa the thickness introduced a grain size gradient along the thickness direction and shear deformation during the asymmetric hot-extrusion results in weakened and tilted(0002)basal texture.The asymmetric hot extrusion effectively weakens the basal texture and improves the ductility,at room temperature.

  9. Enhanced neural responses to rule violation in children with autism: a comparison to social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; McPartland, James C; Kaiser, Martha D; Wyk, Brent C Vander; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2011-07-01

    The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates of two characteristic deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD); social impairment and restricted, repetitive behavior patterns. To this end, we used comparable experiences of social exclusion and rule violation to probe potentially atypical neural networks in ASD. In children and adolescents with and without ASD, we used the interactive ball-toss game (Cyberball) to elicit social exclusion and a comparable game (Cybershape) to elicit a non-exclusive rule violation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we identified group differences in brain responses to social exclusion and rule violation. Though both groups reported equal distress following exclusion, the right insula and ventral anterior cingulate cortex were hypoactive during exclusion in children with ASD. In rule violation, right insula and dorsal prefrontal cortex were hyperactive in ASD. Right insula showed a dissociation in activation; it was hypoactive to social exclusion and hyperactive to rule violation in the ASD group. Further probed, different regions of right insula were modulated in each game, highlighting differences in regional specificity for which subsequent analyses revealed differences in patterns of functional connectivity. These results demonstrate neurobiological differences in processing social exclusion and rule violation in children with ASD.

  10. Hybrid Asymmetric Space Vector Modulation for inverter based direct torque control induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumar Sundararaju

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes novel hybrid asymmetric space vector modulation technique for inverter operated direct torque control induction motor drive. The hybridization process is performed by the combination of continuous asymmetric space vector modulation pulse width technique (ASVPWM and fuzzy operated discontinuous ASVPWM technique. Combination process is based on pulse mismatching technique. Pulse mismatching technique helps to reduce the active region of the switch. Finally, optimal pulses are applied to control the inverter. The optimal hybrid pulse condense switching losses of the inverter and also improves the operating performance of the direct torque control (DTC based drive system like smooth dynamic response in speed reversal, minimum torque error, settling time of speed. Simulation results of proposed hybrid asymmetric space vector pulse width modulation technique to direct torque control (HASVPWM-DTC approach has been carried out by using Matlab-Simulink environment.

  11. Asymmetric and axisymmetric dynamics of tropical cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Persing

    2013-05-01

    into annular rings, the azimuthally-averaged heating rate and radial gradient thereof is considerably less than that in the AX model. This lack of organization results broadly in a slower intensification rate in the 3-D model and leads ultimately to a weaker mature vortex after 12 days of model integration. While axisymmetric heating rates in the 3-D model are weaker than those in the AX model, local heating rates in the 3-D model exceed those in the AX model and at times the vortex in the 3-D model intensifies more rapidly than AX. Analyses of the 3-D model output do not support a recent hypothesis concerning the key role of small-scale vertical mixing processes in the upper-tropospheric outflow in controlling the intensification process. In the 3-D model, surface drag plays a particularly important role in the intensification process for the prototype intensification problem on meteorologically relevant time scales by helping foster the organization of convection in azimuth. There is a radical difference in the behaviour of the 3-D and AX simulations when the surface drag is reduced or increased from realistic values. Borrowing from ideas developed in a recent paper, we give a partial explanation for this difference in behaviour. Our results provide new qualitative and quantitative insight into the differences between the asymmetric and symmetric dynamics of tropical cyclones and would appear to have important consequences for the formulation of a fluid dynamical theory of tropical cyclone intensification and mature intensity. In particular, the results point to some fundamental limitations of strict axisymmetric theory and modelling for representing the azimuthally-averaged behaviour of tropical cyclones in three dimensions.

  12. Asymmetric Tyrosine Kinase Arrangements in Activation or Autophosphorylation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Bae; J Schlessinger

    2011-12-31

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play important roles in the control of many cellular processes including cell proliferation, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Ligand-induced dimerization of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation and activation of RTKs. Structural studies have shown that while isolated ectodomains of several RTKs form symmetric dimers the isolated cytoplasmic kinase domains of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) form asymmetric dimers during their activation. Binding of one kinase molecule of EGFR to a second kinase molecule asymmetrically leads to stimulation of kinase activity and enhanced autophosphorylation. Furthermore, the structures of the kinase domain of FGFR1 and FGFR2 reveal the formation of asymmetric interfaces in the processes of autophosphorylation at their specific phosphotyrosine (pY) sites. Disruption of asymmetric dimer interface of EGFR leads to reduction in enzymatic activity and drastic reduction of autophosphorylation of FGFRs in ligandstimulated live cells. These studies demonstrate that asymmetric dimer formation is as a common phenomenon critical for activation and autophosphorylation of RTKs.

  13. Is Amino-Acid Homochirality Due To Asymmetric Photolysis In Space?

    CERN Document Server

    Cerf, C

    1999-01-01

    Amino acids occurring in proteins are, with rare exceptions, exclusively of the L-configuration. Among the many scenarios put forward to explain the origin of this chiral homogeneity (i.e., homochirality), one involves the asymmetric photolysis of amino acids present in space, triggered by circularly polarized UV radiation. The recent observation of circularly polarized light (CPL) in the Orion OMC-1 star-forming region (Bailey et al. 1998, Science 281, 672) has been presented as providing a strong validation of this scenario. The present paper reviews the situation. It is stressed for example that one important condition for the asymmetric photolysis by CPL to be at the origin of the terrestrial homochirality of natural amino acids is generally overlooked, namely, the asymmetric photolysis should favour the L-enantiomer for ALL the primordial amino acids involved in the genesis of life (i.e., biogenic amino acids). Although this condition is probably satisfied for aliphatic amino acids, some non-aliphatic am...

  14. THz operation of asymmetric-nanochannel devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balocco, C.; Halsall, M.; Vinh, N. Q.; Song, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The THz spectrum lies between microwaves and the mid-infrared, a region that remains largely unexplored mainly due to the bottleneck issue of lacking compact, solid state, emitters and detectors. Here, we report on a novel asymmetric-nanochannel device, known as the self-switching device, which can

  15. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  16. Weak chaos in the asymmetric heavy top

    CERN Document Server

    Barrientos, M; Ranada, A F

    1995-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of the slightly asymmetric heavy top, a non-integrable system obtained from the Lagrange top by breaking the symmetry of its inertia tensor. It shows signs of weak chaos, which we study numerically. We argue that it is a good example for introducing students to non-integrability and chaos. (author)

  17. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-06-26

    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of α,β-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good yields and high enantiomeric excess. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated through stereospecific transformations into multifunctional optically active compounds.

  18. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  19. Three dimensional force balance of asymmetric droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Cho, Kun; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    An equilibrium contact angle of a droplet is determined by a horizontal force balance among vapor, liquid, and solid, which is known as Young's law. Conventional wetting law is valid only for axis-symmetric droplets, whereas real droplets are often asymmetric. Here we show that three-dimensional geometry must be considered for a force balance for asymmetric droplets. By visualizing asymmetric droplets placed on a free-standing membrane in air with X-ray microscopy, we are able to identify that force balances in one side and in other side control pinning behaviors during evaporation of droplets. We find that X-ray microscopy is powerful for realizing the three-dimensional force balance, which would be essential in interpretation and manipulation of wetting, spreading, and drying dynamics for asymmetric droplets. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  20. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G.; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee

  1. Integrated Optical Asymmetric Coupler Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-05-01

    Analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) asymmetric vertical coupler is presented. The integrated optical component is a coupler composed of a single mode (SM) low index waveguide and a thin silicon slab. High sensitivities of about 0.14 rad.kPa-1 should be achieved.

  2. Asymmetric relationships between proteins shape genome evolution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notebaart, R.A.; Kensche, P.R.; Huynen, M.A.; Dutilh, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationships between proteins are often asymmetric: one protein (A) depends for its function on another protein (B), but the second protein does not depend on the first. In metabolic networks there are multiple pathways that converge into one central pathway. The enzymes in the conv

  3. City structure – the phenomenon of exclusion of space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Marta Szejnfeld

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A special feature of spaces with urban character is the phenomenon of exclusion, which refers both to the space and the community, causing deformation and the disappearanceof the unity of the urban structure as a whole. Spatial segregation processes – resulting from social polarization – causes low–income or marginalized groups lack of access to a high–quality urban space. Excluded spaces have become a constant component of visual reality in which gated communities, guarded buildings, or corporation complexes have divided the urban fabric, and in opposition to the city, are capturing more and more spaces. The result of the appearance of the excluded spaces is the lack of the right to the city for all its inhabitants. Foresaid lack deprives the participant of the possibility of observation and penetration the urban structure, which further deepens the sense of alienation. In such spatial conditions the longing for re–evoking the idea of a sustainable city is born. Theessence is therefore an insightful diagnosis of the impact of uncontrolled processes shaping the urban structure deepening segregation and exclusion from the urban space.Keywords: urban transformation, exclusion, inhabitants

  4. Central Exclusive Production in the STAR Experiment at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) performs studies of diffractive processes with the focus on the exclusive production of particles in central range of rapidity. In 2015 STAR collected 18 pb$^{-1}$ of data in polarized proton+proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV to measure Central Exclusive Production (CEP) process $pp\\to pXp$ through Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) mechanism. The intact protons moving inside the RHIC beampipe after the collision were measured in silicon strip detectors (SSD), which were placed in the Roman Pot vessels. This enables full control over interaction kinematics and verification of the exclusivity of the reaction by measuring the total (missing) transverse momenta of all final state particles: the central diffractive system in the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the forward protons in the Roman Pots. With the use of ionization energy loss in the TPC, d$E$/d$x$, it was possible to discriminate various production channels in $pp\\to pXp$ reaction. Th...

  5. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2012-01-01

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical differentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  6. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical dierentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  7. Process to remove turbidity-causing components from a fluid by micro-filtration - passes the fluid across an asymmetric membrane with inlet pores larger than those of nominal size, and cleans the membrane by backwashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    turbidity-causing components from beer, wine, fruit juice, milk and blood, and from bacterial and enzyme suspensions. ADVANTAGE-The process greatly reduces the lost production time associated with earlier filtration methods, and beneficial components can pass through the membrane, thereby improving...

  8. Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown...... component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton...... flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric....

  9. Responding by exclusion in temporal discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippola, Nathália Sabaine; Domeniconi, Camila; Machado, Armando

    2014-03-01

    Responding by exclusion, one of the most robust phenomena in Experimental Psychology, describes a particular form of responding observed in symbolic, matching-to-sample tasks. Given two comparison stimuli, one experimentally defined and one experimentally undefined, the participant prefers the undefined comparison following an undefined sample. The goal of the present study was to determine whether responding by exclusion could be obtained using samples that varied along a single dimension. Using a double temporal bisection task, 10 university students learned to choose visual comparisons (colored circles) based on the duration of a tone. In tests of exclusion, sample stimuli with new durations were followed by comparison sets that included one previously trained, defined comparison (colored circle) and one previously untrained, undefined comparison (geometric shape). Participants preferred the defined comparisons following the defined samples and the undefined comparisons following the undefined samples, the choice pattern typical of responding by exclusion. The use of samples varying along a single dimension allows us to study the interaction between stimulus generalization gradients and exclusion in the control of conditional responding.

  10. Cooperation induced by random sequential exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-06-01

    Social exclusion is a common and powerful tool to penalize deviators in human societies, and thus to effectively elevate collaborative efforts. Current models on the evolution of exclusion behaviors mostly assume that each peer excluder independently makes the decision to expel the defectors, but has no idea what others in the group would do or how the actual punishment effect will be. Thus, a more realistic model, random sequential exclusion, is proposed. In this mechanism, each excluder has to pay an extra scheduling cost and then all the excluders are arranged in a random order to implement the exclusion actions. If one free rider has already been excluded by an excluder, the remaining excluders will not participate in expelling this defector. We find that this mechanism can help stabilize cooperation under more unfavorable conditions than the normal peer exclusion can do, either in well-mixed population or on social networks. However, too large a scheduling cost may undermine the advantage of this mechanism. Our work validates the fact that collaborative practice among punishers plays an important role in further boosting cooperation.

  11. Fourier synthesis of asymmetrical optical potentials for atoms; Fourier-Synthese von asymmetrischen optischen Potentialen fuer Atome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritt, G.

    2007-07-13

    In this work a dissipationless asymmetrical optical potential for cold atoms was produced. In a first step a new type of optical lattice was generated, whose spatial periodicity only corresponds to a quarter of the wavelength of the light used for the generation. This corresponds to the half of the periodicity of a conventional optical lattice, which is formed by the light of the same wavelength. The generation of this new type of optical lattice was reached by the use of two degenerated raman transitions. Virtual processes occur, in which four photons are involved. In conventional optical lattices however virtual two-photon processes occur. By spatially superimposing this optical lattice with a conventional optical lattice an asymmetrical optical potential could be formed. By diffraction of a Bose Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms at the transient activated asymmetrical potential the asymmetrical structure was proven. (orig.)

  12. Relationships of exclusion and cohesion with health: the case of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2009-08-01

    The concept of social exclusion, applied widely in the European Union, has in recent years been gaining use in Bangladesh, mostly by international development agencies. Does this discourse of deprivation, developed in the welfare states of northern Europe, have salience in its application to deprivation in countries like Bangladesh where, for example, 31% of the rural population lives in chronic poverty? The concept of social exclusion has three principal components: a dynamic and relational perspective which requires the identification of who or what causes exclusion; an explicit recognition of multiple dimensions of deprivation; and a longitudinal perspective, recognizing that individuals and groups are dynamic intra- and intergenerationally. The Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health expanded the concept to include health status as a contributor to and an outcome of exclusion and to show that actors beyond the state or public sector can critically impact exclusionary processes. In the Bangladesh application, the relevance of the modified model was explored to find that while there are negative associations between social exclusion and health status, much stronger documentation is needed of the relationship. The modification of including multiple sectors, such as private enterprise and civil society, in addition to the state, as having potential to impact exclusionary processes is fundamental to the application of the social exclusion model in Bangladesh.

  13. Concise Review: Asymmetric Cell Divisions in Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Murke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic stem cells are rare cells with unique properties residing in many organs and tissues. They are undifferentiated cells responsible for tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and contain both the capacity to self-renew in order to maintain their stem cell potential and to differentiate towards tissue-specific, specialized cells. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms controlling somatic stem cell fate decisions remains sparse. One mechanism which has been described to control daughter cell fates in selected somatic stem cell systems is the process of asymmetric cell division (ACD. ACD is a tightly regulated and evolutionary conserved process allowing a single stem or progenitor cell to produce two differently specified daughter cells. In this concise review, we will summarize and discuss current concepts about the process of ACD as well as different ACD modes. Finally, we will recapitulate the current knowledge and our recent findings about ACD in human hematopoiesis.

  14. The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, "second-order" freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation, or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the secon...

  15. Hard exclusive reactions and generalized parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrapetyan Avetik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs allows connecting the experimental information of hard exclusive reactions to the spin contribution and even to the angular momentum contribution of quarks in the nucleon. By selecting different quantum numbers of the final state in exclusive productions, different GPDs can be addressed separately. The HERMES experiment at the HERA ring at DESY (Hamburg made pioneering contributions and first constraints to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs, using hard exclusive vector meson production (EVMP and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS. Using a novel recoil detector, HERMES managed to measure DVCS and EVMP free of any significant background. Selected results are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  16. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention.

  17. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...... underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i...... to ICT adoption in higher education deal with similar factors, but these are experienced differently in different contexts. While generalizing these factors into categories enables a better understanding of the nature of digital exclusion, solving and circumventing them remains complex due...

  18. On Ternary Inclusion-Exclusion Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, Gennady

    2010-01-01

    Taking a combinatorial point of view on cyclotomic polynomials leads to a larger class of polynomials we shall call the inclusion-exclusion polynomials. This gives a more appropriate setting for certain types of questions about the coefficients of these polynomials. After establishing some basic properties of inclusion-exclusion polynomials we turn to a detailed study of the structure of ternary inclusion-exclusion polynomials. The latter subclass is exemplified by cyclotomic polynomials $\\Phi_{pqr}$, where $p

  19. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu (Petrascu), C; Di Matteo, S; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Romero Vidal, A; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10$^{-29}$ - 10$^{-30}$, thus improving the previous limit by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented.

  20. Exclusive Jet Production with Forward Proton Tagging

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring central exclusive jet production at ATLAS using the AFP detectors is presented. Two data-taking scenarios are considered; an average number of interactions per bunch crossing of $\\mu = 23$ with integrated luminosity of 40~fb$^{-1}$ and $\\mu = 46$ with integrated luminosity of 300 fb$^{-1}$. After the event selection, a signal-to-background ratio of 0.57 (0.16) for $\\mu = 23$ (46) was achieved. The expected precision of the central exclusive dijet cross section measurement is shown with an estimation of the dominant systematic uncertainties.

  1. Exclusive B decays to charmonium final states

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; De Bonis, I; Favier, Jean; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Galeazzi, F; Jérémie, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zachariadou, K; Palano, A; Chen, G P; Chen Jia Chao; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Reinertsen, P L; Stugu, B; Abbott, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Clark, A R; Fan, Q; Gill, M S; Gowdy, S J; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kluth, S; Kral, J F; Leclerc, C; Levi, M E; Liu, T; Lynch, G; Meyer, A B; Momayezi, M; Oddone, P J; Perazzo, A; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Strother, P; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Champion, T J; Hawkes, C M; Kirk, A; O'Neale, S W; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Koch, H; Krug, J; Kunze, M; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Andress, J C; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, N; De Groot, N; Dyce, N; Foster, B; Mass, A; McFall, J D; Wallom, D; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Camanzi, B; McKemey, A K; Tinslay, J; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Bukin, D A; Buzykaev, A R; Dubrovin, M S; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Salnikov, A A; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Yushkov, A N; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Stoker, D P; Ahsan, A; Arisaka, K; Buchanan, C D; Chun, S; Branson, J G; Faccini, R; MacFarlane, D B; Rahatlou, S; Raven, G; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N P; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Yellin, S; Beringer, J; Dorfan, D E; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Johnson, R P; Kröger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Sadrozinski, H F W; Schalk, T L; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Williams, D C; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoredsky, A P; Hitlin, D G; Kolomensky, Yu G; Metzler, S; Oyang, J Y T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Weaver, M; Yang, S; Zhu, R Y; Aleksan, Roy; De Domenico, G; de Lesquen, A; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Devmal, S C; Geld, T L; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blouw, J; Harton, J L; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Fahey, S; Ford, W T; Gaede, F; Johnson, D R; Michael, A K; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Park, H; Rankin, P; Roy, J D; Sen, S; Smith, J G; Wagner, D L; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dahlinger, G; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Kocian, M L; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Behr, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; Roussot, E; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Di Lodovico, F; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Bozzi, C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Treadwell, E A; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Musenich, R; Parodi, R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F; Patrignani, C; Pia, M G; Priano, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Fischer, P A; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Rosenberg, E I; Bartoldus, R; Dignan, T; Hamilton, R; Mallik, U; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Morganti, M; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Benkebil, M; Grosdidier, G; Hast, C; Höcker, A; Le Peltier, V; Lutz, A M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Valassi, Andrea; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljevic, V; Fackler, O; Fujino, D; Lange, D J; Mugge, M; Shi, X; Wenaus, T J; Wright, D M; Wuest, C R; Carroll, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; McMahon, S; McMahon, T R; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Dauncey, P D; Eschrich, I; Gunawardane, N J W; Martin, R D; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Smith, D; Azzopardi, D E; Back, J J; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Vidal, P B; Williams, M I; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Kurup, A; McGrath, P; Scott, I; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Li, Y; Pavlovich, J; Trunov, A G; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Boyd, J T; Fullwood, J; Khan, A; Lafferty, G D; Savvas, N; Simopoulos, E T; Thompson, R J; Weatherall, J H; Dallapiccola, C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Olsen, J; Roberts, D A; Brau, B; Cowan, R; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Blaylock, G; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R R; Lin, C S; Willocq, S; Wittlin, J; Bloom, P; Britton, D I; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Trischuk, J; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Booke, M; Cremaldi, L M; Kroeger, R A; Reidy, J; Sanders, D; Summers, D J; Arguin, J F; Martin, J P; Nief, J Y; Seitz, R; Taras, P; Woch, A; Zacek, V; Nicholson, H; Sutton, C S; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Falbo, M; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R G; Gabriel, T A; Handler, T; Colecchia, F; Dal Corso, F; Michelon, G; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stroili, R; Torassa, E; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Le Diberder, F R; Leruste, P J; Lory, J; Martínez-Vidal, F; Roos, L; Stark, J; Versille, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Speziali, V; Frank, E D; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J H; Haire, M J; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Albert, J; Bula, C; Kelsey, M H; Lü, C; McDonald, K T; Miftakov, V; Schaffner, S F; Smith, A J S; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Cavoto, G; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Fratini, K; Lamanna, E; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Waldi, R; Jacques, P F; Kalelkar, M S; Plano, R J; Adye, T; Egede, U; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, Gian P; Copty, N K; Purohit, M V; Yumiceva, F X; Adam, I; Anthony, P L; Anulli, F; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Bloom, Elliott D; Boyarski, A M; Bulos, F; Calderini, G; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Coward, D H; Dorfan, J; Doser, Michael; Dunwoodie, W M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G L; Grosso, P; Hewett, J L; Himel, Thomas M; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kim, P; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Manzin, G; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Morii, M; Mount, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Paolucci, P; Petrak, S; Quinn, Helen R; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Rochester, L S; Roodman, A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Sciolla, G; Serbo, V V; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Spanier, S M; Stahl, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Talby, M; Tanaka, H A; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weinstein, A J; Wisniewski, W J; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Cheng, C H; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; De Silva, A; Henderson, R; Bugg, W; Cohn, H; Hart, E; Weidemann, A W; Benninger, T; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Turcotte, M; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Di Girolamo, B; Gamba, D; Smol, A V; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Vallazza, E; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Brown, C M; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Charles, E; Dasu, S; Elmer, P; Johnson, J R; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Yu, Z; Zobernig, H

    2000-01-01

    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/psi, psi(2S), and chi_C1. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B0 --> J/psi K* decay, and measurements of the B0 and B+ masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  2. ICT and Socio-Economic Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haisken-DeNew, John P.; D'AMBROSIO, CONCHITA

    2003-01-01

    Using an innovative dataset for ICT use for five countries in Europe, we examine the impact and association of ICT on socio-economic exclusion. Using OLS regression we find significant wage premiums for PC and internet usage at the workplace. Following Dinardo/Fortin/Lemieux (1997), we examine the impact of ICT on the distribution of wages. We find that the risk of economic exclusion increases markedly for those not having ICT at the workplace, with the largest effects being found in Britain....

  3. 2008年汶川地震(Ms 8.0)非对称同震破碎带的确定:来自WFSD-1随钻流体的证据%Real time drilling mud gas records the asymmetric damaging process associated with the 2008 Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚正; 李海兵; 劳昌玲; 唐力君; 罗立强; 李成龙; 云锟; 张佳佳; 王雷振

    2015-01-01

    地震过程中相当可观的一部分能量消耗于裂隙的活化与形成,来自汶川地震断裂带科学钻探一号孔(WFSD-1)的随钻流体表明,地震新形成的裂隙对应有较强的流体异常,它们为流体的入侵提供了良好的通道。随钻流体呈非对称性分布于主滑移面的两侧,主要的流体异常带集中在主滑移带下方须家河组顶部120 m范围内,该带中气体的含量以及变动的频率明显高于上部相同的宽度范围以及下部沉积岩层,来自地球物理测井的资料同样显示这一带破碎严重并伴随有大量水的侵入,暗示汶川地震形成的裂隙具有非对称性分布的特征。这一特征可能同时受控于断裂上盘彭灌杂岩与下盘须家河组岩层的力学性质差异以及地震破裂过程中形成的非对称性应力分布。%A considerable part of energy released during an earthquake is used to create fractures within the surrounding rocks. The real-time drilling mud gas from WFSD-1 shows that the fractures generated during the Wenchuan Earthquake coincide with large fluid peaks, and hence they are favorable passages for underground fluid migrations. The drilling mud gas distributes asymmetrically around the principal slip zone (PSZ), with the major anomaly zone emerging 120 m below the PSZ. Gas concentrations are much higher and vary more intensively than the upper 120 m. Additionally, the geophysical logs also prove that this zone is highly fractured and associated with serious water inrush, suggesting that the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake caused more damage to the footwall than to the hanging wall. The difference in rock strength between the volcanic hanging wall of Pengguan complex and the sedimentary footwall of Xujiahe Formation and the asymmetric stress during the rupture propagation might have contributed to the damage process.

  4. Asymmetrically Compressed Stereoscopic 3D Videos: Quality Assessment and Rate-Distortion Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiheng; Wang, Shiqi; Wang, Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Objective quality assessment of stereoscopic 3D video is challenging but highly desirable, especially in the application of stereoscopic video compression and transmission, where useful quality models are missing, that can guide the critical decision making steps in the selection of mixed-resolution coding, asymmetric quantization, and pre- and post-processing schemes. Here we first carry out subjective quality assessment experiments on two databases that contain various asymmetrically compressed stereoscopic 3D videos obtained from mixed-resolution coding, asymmetric transform-domain quantization coding, their combinations, and the multiple choices of postprocessing techniques. We compare these asymmetric stereoscopic video coding schemes with symmetric coding methods and verify their potential coding gains. We observe a strong systematic bias when using direct averaging of 2D video quality of both views to predict 3D video quality. We then apply a binocular rivalry inspired model to account for the prediction bias, leading to a significantly improved full reference quality prediction model of stereoscopic videos. The model allows us to quantitatively predict the coding gain of different variations of asymmetric video compression, and provides new insight on the development of high efficiency 3D video coding schemes.

  5. Cost modeling of biocontrol strains Pseudomonas chlororaphis and P. flurorescens for competitive exclusion of Salmonella enterica on tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of foodborne pathogens may complement postharvest intervention measures to enhance food safety of minimally processed produce. The purpose of this research was to develop cost model estimates for application of competitive exclusion process (CEM) using Pseudomonas chlororaphis and...

  6. Asymmetrical reinforcement and Wolbachia infection in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jaenike

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement refers to the evolution of increased mating discrimination against heterospecific individuals in zones of geographic overlap and can be considered a final stage in the speciation process. One the factors that may affect reinforcement is the degree to which hybrid matings result in the permanent loss of genes from a species' gene pool. Matings between females of Drosophila subquinaria and males of D. recens result in high levels of offspring mortality, due to interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia infection of D. recens. Such hybrid inviability is not manifested in matings between D. recens females and D. subquinaria males. Here we ask whether the asymmetrical hybrid inviability is associated with a corresponding asymmetry in the level of reinforcement. The geographic ranges of D. recens and D. subquinaria were found to overlap across a broad belt of boreal forest in central Canada. Females of D. subquinaria from the zone of sympatry exhibit much stronger levels of discrimination against males of D. recens than do females from allopatric populations. In contrast, such reproductive character displacement is not evident in D. recens, consistent with the expected effects of unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility. Furthermore, there is substantial behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria, because females from populations sympatric with D. recens discriminate against allopatric conspecific males, whereas females from populations allopatric with D. recens show no discrimination against any conspecific males. Patterns of general genetic differentiation among populations are not consistent with patterns of behavioral discrimination, which suggests that the behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria results from selection against mating with Wolbachia-infected D. recens. Interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility may contribute not only to post-mating isolation, an effect already widely recognized, but also to

  7. Direct Asymmetric Aldol Type Reaction with Ethyl Diazoacetate: Stereoselective Synthesis of α, β-Dihydroxy Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Ming-Yi; YAO Wen-Gang; FENG Hai-Tao; WANG Jian-Bo

    2003-01-01

    @@ Enantioselective aldol condensation under catalytic condition remains a challenging task in modern organic synthesis, and numerous efforts have been directed to this area. In particular, the direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction is very attractive considering the requirement of atom efficiency. This has been studied only recently, and several very practical processes have been developed. We have recently initiated a study on the direct asymmetric aldol type reaction with ethyl diazoacetate as nucleophile. Moderate enantioselectivities (65% ~91% ee ) were achieved in the condensation of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by the chiral complex of BINOL derivatives-Zr (OBu- t )4. [1

  8. Numerical modeling of oxygen exclusion experiments of anaerobic bioventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihopoulos, Philip G.; Suidan, Makram T.; Sayles, Gregory D.; Kaskassian, Sebastien

    2002-10-01

    A numerical and experimental study of transport phenomena underlying anaerobic bioventing (ABV) is presented. Understanding oxygen exclusion patterns in vadose zone environments is important in designing an ABV process for bioremediation of soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents. In particular, the establishment of an anaerobic zone of influence by nitrogen injection in the vadose zone is investigated. Oxygen exclusion experiments are performed in a pilot scale flow cell (2×1.1×0.1 m) using different venting flows and two different outflow boundary conditions (open and partially covered). Injection gas velocities are varied from 0.25×10 -3 to 1.0×10 -3 cm/s and are correlated with the ABV radius of influence. Numerical simulations are used to predict the collected experimental data. In general, reasonable agreement is found between observed and predicted oxygen concentrations. Use of impervious covers can significantly reduce the volume of forcing gas used, where an increase in oxygen exclusion efficiency is consistent with a decrease in the outflow area above the injection well.

  9. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  10. 27 CFR 6.151 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion, in general. 6.151 Section 6.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.151 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion,...

  11. Overcoming asymmetric goals in teams: the interactive roles of team learning orientation and team identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Venkataramani, Vijaya

    2015-05-01

    Although members of teams share a common, ultimate objective, they often have asymmetric or conflicting individual goals that shape the way they contribute to, and pursue, the shared goal of the team. Compounding this problem, they are frequently unaware of the nature of these goal asymmetries or even the fact that such differences exist. Drawing on, and integrating, social interdependence and representational gaps theories, we identify 2 emergent states that combine interactively to enable teams to overcome asymmetric goals: team identification and team learning orientation. Using data from long-term, real-life teams that engaged in a computer simulation designed to create both asymmetric goals and representational gaps about those goals, we found that teams were most effective when they had a high learning orientation coupled with high team identification and that this effect was mediated by teams' ability to form more accurate team goal mental models and engage in effective planning processes. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  12. Effect of plate asymmetric rolling parameters on the change of the total unit pressure of roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kawalek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the results of theoretical analysis of asymmetric rolling process of plates in the finishing mill of plate rolling. Its aim was to determine the influence of asymmetry velocity of working rolls on decrease of unit pressure of metal on the rolls. The lower value of the unit pressure will reduce the elastic deflection of the finishing stand and improve the cross-section shape of plate. Three-dimensional simulation of asymmetric hot rolling of S355J2G3 steel plates was done with the aid of FORGE 2008® software. The tensor polynomial interpolation was used for comparing the values of the unit pressure obtaining from symmetric and asymmetric rolling.

  13. Education and Language Policy in Colombia: Exploring Processes of Inclusion, Exclusion, and Stratification in Times of Global Reform Políticas educativas y lingüísticas en Colombia: procesos de inclusión, exclusión y estratificación en tiempos de reforma educativa global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Usma Wilches

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the National Bilingual Program in connection with other education and language reforms in Colombia and some of the processes of inclusion, exclusion, and stratification that accompany current school reforms. The author outlines some patterns that have accompanied language innovations in the country and highlights some interconnected processes that seem to be favored in international reform and are reflected in current national policy agendas; namely, the externalization of policy discourses; the instrumentalization of languages; the stratification of groups, languages and cultures; and the standardization and marketization of foreign language teaching and learning. This paper attempts to demonstrate that processes of inclusion, exclusion and stratification through schooling are favored not only through the overt exercise of power and control, but also through the introduction of new discourses, policies, and practices.Este artículo analiza el Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo en conexión con otras reformas educativas y lingüísticas promovidas en Colombia y distintos procesos de inclusión, exclusión y estratificación que las acompañan. El autor esboza algunos patrones que han acompañado distintas reformas educativas y lingüísticas en el país y diversos fenómenos reportados a nivel internacional que ahora se pueden evidenciar en Colombia. Estos incluyen: la "externalización" de discursos, la instrumentalización de las lenguas, la estratificación de grupos, idiomas y culturas, y la estandarización y marketización de las lenguas extranjeras. Este artículo busca demostrar que los procesos de inclusión, exclusión, y estratificación social a través de la escuela son favorecidos no solamente a través del ejercicio del poder y el control de parte del gobierno, sino también mediante la introducción de nuevos discursos, políticas, y practicas escolares.

  14. Design of Asymmetric Peptide Bilayer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Mehta, Anil K; Sidorov, Anton N; Orlando, Thomas M; Jiang, Zhigang; Anthony, Neil R; Lynn, David G

    2016-03-16

    Energetic insights emerging from the structural characterization of peptide cross-β assemblies have enabled the design and construction of robust asymmetric bilayer peptide membranes. Two peptides differing only in their N-terminal residue, phosphotyrosine vs lysine, coassemble as stacks of antiparallel β-sheets with precisely patterned charged lattices stabilizing the bilayer leaflet interface. Either homogeneous or mixed leaflet composition is possible, and both create nanotubes with dense negative external and positive internal solvent exposed surfaces. Cross-seeding peptide solutions with a preassembled peptide nanotube seed leads to domains of different leaflet architecture within single nanotubes. Architectural control over these cross-β assemblies, both across the bilayer membrane and along the nanotube length, provides access to highly ordered asymmetric membranes for the further construction of functional mesoscale assemblies.

  15. Asymmetric dark matter models in SO(10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A.; Zheng, Jiaming

    2017-02-01

    We systematically study the possibilities for asymmetric dark matter in the context of non-supersymmetric SO(10) models of grand unification. Dark matter stability in SO(10) is guaranteed by a remnant Z2 symmetry which is preserved when the intermediate scale gauge subgroup of SO(10) is broken by a {126} dimensional representation. The asymmetry in the dark matter states is directly generated through the out-of-equilibrium decay of particles around the intermediate scale, or transferred from the baryon/lepton asymmetry generated in the Standard Model sector by leptogenesis. We systematically classify possible asymmetric dark matter candidates in terms of their quantum numbers, and derive the conditions for each case that the observed dark matter density is (mostly) explained by the asymmetry of dark matter particles.

  16. Asymmetric Dark Matter Models in SO(10)

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Natsumi; Zheng, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    We systematically study the possibilities for asymmetric dark matter in the context of non-supersymmetric SO(10) models of grand unification. Dark matter stability in SO(10) is guaranteed by a remnant $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry which is preserved when the intermediate scale gauge subgroup of SO(10) is broken by a ${\\bf 126}$ dimensional representation. The asymmetry in the dark matter states is directly generated through the out-of-equilibrium decay of particles around the intermediate scale, or transferred from the baryon/lepton asymmetry generated in the Standard Model sector by leptogenesis. We systematically classify possible asymmetric dark matter candidates in terms of their quantum numbers, and derive the conditions for each case that the observed dark matter density is (mostly) explained by the asymmetry of dark matter particles.

  17. Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We develop the model proposed by Cort\\^es, Gomes & Smolin, to predict cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric extensions of general relativity they proposed recently. Within this class of models the equation of motion of chiral fermions is modified by a torsion term. This term leads to a dispersion law for neutrinos that associates a new time-varying energy with each particle. We find a new neutrino contribution to the Friedmann equation resulting from the torsion term in the Ashtekar connection. In this note we explore the phenomenology of this term and observational consequences for cosmological evolution. We show that constraints on the critical energy density will ordinarily render this term unobservably small, a maximum of order $10^{-25}$ of the neutrino energy density today. However, if the time-asymmetric dark energy is tuned to cancel the cosmological constant, the torsion effect may be a dark matter candidate.

  18. 24 CFR 58.35 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... impact statement or environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact under NEPA is required... significant impact. Compliance with the other applicable Federal environmental laws and authorities listed in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Categorical exclusions....

  19. 40 CFR 68.126 - Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion. 68.126 Section 68.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention § 68.126...

  20. Testing the exclusivity effect in location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel P A; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom

    2013-01-01

    There is growing literature exploring the possibility of parallel retrieval of location memories, although this literature focuses primarily on the speed of retrieval with little attention to the accuracy of location memory recall. Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, and Parkin (2006) found that when a person has two or more memories for an object's location, their recall accuracy suggests that only one representation can be retrieved at a time (exclusivity). This finding is counterintuitive given evidence of non-exclusive recall in the wider memory literature. The current experiment explored the exclusivity effect further and aimed to promote an alternative outcome (i.e., independence or superadditivity) by encouraging the participants to combine multiple representations of space at encoding or retrieval. This was encouraged by using anchor (points of reference) labels that could be combined to form a single strongly associated combination. It was hypothesised that the ability to combine the anchor labels would allow the two representations to be retrieved concurrently, generating higher levels of recall accuracy. The results demonstrate further support for the exclusivity hypothesis, showing no significant improvement in recall accuracy when there are multiple representations of a target object's location as compared to a single representation.

  1. The Exclusive Pursuit of Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Ivor

    2005-01-01

    Despite its best intentions, social exclusion has grown rather than diminished under New Labour's education policies. In order to understand this, Ivor Goodson argues that we need to engage with the history of the formal curriculum and the long and continuing fight over what counts as proper knowledge. Taking science and environmental science as…

  2. Exclusive Diffraction at HERA and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, S

    2010-01-01

    The exclusive diffractive production of vector mesons and real photons in ep collisions has been studied at HERA in a wide kinematic range. Here the most recent experimental results are presented together with a Regge-type model and projects for new diffractive studies at LHC.

  3. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  4. Encounters with Exclusion through Disability Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines disability arts and its role in identifying exclusion and barriers to participation within society. The work of selected writers, poets and musicians is presented and its value as a form of ideological critique is explored. It is suggested that disability arts has the potential to succeed where other forms of ideological…

  5. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  6. Venture Capital Contracting Under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Trester

    1993-01-01

    The author develops a model of venture capital contracting in which the entrepreneur and venture capitalist contract under symmetric information. A condition of asymmetric information may arise subsequent to the first contract. The author shows that this condition makes debt contracts infeasible and leads to the use of preferred equity contracts. The author notes that discussions of the relation between venture capital and capital structure are rare. This paper expands the literature by addre...

  7. Fluorous Mixture Synthesis of Asymmetric Dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yu, Yihua Bruce

    2010-01-01

    A divergent fluorous mixture synthesis (FMS) of asymmetric fluorinated dendrimers has been developed. Four generations of fluorinated dendrimers with the same fluorinated moiety were prepared with high efficiency, yield and purity. Comparison of the physicochemical properties of these dendrimers provided valuable information for their application and future optimization. This strategy has not only provided a practical method for the synthesis and purification of dendrimers, but also established the possibility of utilizing the same fluorinated moiety for FMS. PMID:20170088

  8. Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....

  9. New electric field in asymmetric magnetic reconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakit, K; Shay, M A; Cassak, P A; Ruffolo, D

    2013-09-27

    We present a theory and numerical evidence for the existence of a previously unexplored in-plane electric field in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection. This electric field, dubbed the "Larmor electric field," is associated with finite Larmor radius effects and is distinct from the known Hall electric field. Potentially, it could be an important indicator for the upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale mission to locate reconnection sites as we expect it to appear on the magnetospheric side, pointing earthward, at the dayside magnetopause reconnection site.

  10. Asymmetric Information – Adverse Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper makes an introduction in the contract theory starting with the definitions of asymmetric information and some of the problems that generate: moral hazard and adverse selection. We provide an insight of the latest empirical studies in adverse selection in different markets. An adverse selection model, based on Rothchild and Stiglitz is also present to give a perspective of the theoretical framework.

  11. Position and enforcement practice of the People's Republic of China's pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Yu, Xiang; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The concept of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection comes from the West. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) establishes the basic rules for pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection. People's Republic of China's domestic law is consistent with the TRIPS agreement. In the drug registration approval process of the People's Republic of China's Drug Supervision Department, pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection has encountered some problems, including data authentication, exclusive rights to data, number of drugs requiring data to be submitted, and drug costs. In view of the long-term interests of the People's Republic of China's pharmaceutical industry and intellectual property protection trends, there are a lot of difficulties in the enforcement of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection law that need to be overcome. Some measures can be taken, such as establishing a shorter data exclusivity protection period, only protecting the data submitted and relied on in the People's Republic of China, only protecting the drugs that use new chemical components, allowing application and necessary research before the expiry of pharmaceutical data exclusivity protection period of generic drugs.

  12. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  13. Asymmetric Conditional Volatility in International Stock Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, N B; Menezes, R; Ferreira, Nuno B.; Mendes, Diana A.; Menezes, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the S&P 500, FTSE100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of chan...

  14. Multiple Traveling Salesmen in Asymmetric Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Friggstad, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    We consider some generalizations of the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Path problem. Suppose we have an asymmetric metric G = (V,A) with two distinguished nodes s,t. We are also given a positive integer k. The goal is to find k paths of minimum total cost from s to t whose union spans all nodes. We call this the k-Person Asymmetric Traveling Salesmen Path problem (k-ATSPP). Our main result for k-ATSPP is a bicriteria approximation that, for some parameter b >= 1 we may choose, finds between k and k + k/b paths of total length O(b log |V|) times the optimum value of an LP relaxation based on the Held-Karp relaxation for the Traveling Salesman problem. On one extreme this is an O(log |V|)-approximation that uses up to 2k paths and on the other it is an O(k log |V|)-approximation that uses exactly k paths. Next, we consider the case where we have k pairs of nodes (s_1,t_1), ..., (s_k,t_k). The goal is to find an s_i-t_i path for every pair such that each node of G lies on at least one of these paths. Simple appro...

  15. Traceless Synthesis of Asymmetrically Modified Bivalent Nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Carolin C; Agashe, Ninad D; Fierz, Beat

    2016-02-18

    Nucleosomes carry extensive post-translational modifications (PTMs), which results in complex modification patterns that are involved in epigenetic signaling. Although two copies of each histone coexist in a nucleosome, they may not carry the same PTMs and are often differently modified (asymmetric). In bivalent domains, a chromatin signature prevalent in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), namely H3 methylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), coexists with H3K27me3 in asymmetric nucleosomes. We report a general, modular, and traceless method for producing asymmetrically modified nucleosomes. We further show that in bivalent nucleosomes, H3K4me3 inhibits the activity of the H3K27-specific lysine methyltransferase (KMT) polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) solely on the same histone tail, whereas H3K27me3 stimulates PRC2 activity across tails, thereby partially overriding the H3K4me3-mediated repressive effect. To maintain bivalent domains in ESCs, PRC2 activity must thus be locally restricted or reversed.

  16. SPECT using asymmetric pinholes with truncated projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jianyu; Meikle, Steven R, E-mail: jianyu.lin@curtin.edu.au [Ramaciotti Imaging Centre, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2011-07-07

    Tomographic systems employing truncated projections have been developed for parallel and fan beam collimation and for cone beam CT but the idea has not been extensively explored in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this paper, we explore the sampling requirements and system performance of SPECT systems with asymmetric pinhole collimators and truncated projections. We demonstrate that complete 3D sampling can be achieved by using multiple detectors with truncated asymmetric pinholes, offset axially from each other, and a spiral orbit. The use of truncated projections can be exploited in the design of pinhole SPECT systems by moving the pinholes closer to the subject, resulting in increased sensitivity and improved spatial resolution. Truncated and untruncated pinhole systems were evaluated using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculated from the linearized local impulse response as a figure of merit. The CNR for the truncated pinhole system was up to 60% greater than that for the untruncated system at matched resolution for a source voxel near the centre of a uniform phantom and 30% greater at the edge. We conclude that an object can be reconstructed from asymmetric pinholes with truncated projections, which leads to potentially important design considerations and applications in single- and multi-pinhole SPECT.

  17. A Proof of Principle of Asymmetric Bunch Pair Merging

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Vallet, J L; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    Bunch splitting was established as a routine operation in the arsenal of rf gymnastics in the PS Complex long before it became the saving grace of the beam for the LHC. Historically, however, it was born out of the time-reversed analogue process of merging, in which a pair of bunches are combined. Hitherto, both operations have been performed with bunches of equal longitudinal emittance. Now an asymmetric merging process has been demonstrated. By combining a bunch with a small empty bucket, it is possible to deplete only the central density of the resultant particle distribution. This would allow bunches to be tailored with quasi-flat line densities. The details of the method are presented together with some measurements.

  18. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  19. Comparison of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analysa Margaretha Bogar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for the prevention of rickets. Human milk typically contains a vitamin D concentration of 25 IU/L or less. Bbreastfed infants are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Previous studies conducted in countries with four seasons have reported that risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency influence the vitamin D status in exclusively breastfed infants. Objective To compare the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OoHD in exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed infants. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Singkil District, Manado from February to May 2011. Of 48 Posyandu (Integrated Health Center, 4 were chosen to be the sources of subjects for this study. Subjects were collected consecutively among infants aged 6-7 months. The resulting exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed groups had 36 infants each. Results The mean 25(OHD level in the exclusively breastfed group was 61.75 nmol/L (95% CI 58.02 to 65.48 and in the non-exclusively breastfed group was 85.09 nmol/L (95% CI 79.49 to 90.68. The difference in 25(D levels in the two groups was statistically significant. However, 25(OHD levels of both groups were within the normal range. Conclusion The 25(D level was significantly lower in ex-exclusively breastfed infants compared to that in non-exclusively breastfed infants, but both levels were still in the normal range. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:157-60].

  20. Micro/nanofluidic Diode using Asymmetric Ion Concentration Polarization Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Seoyun; Cho, Inhee; Kim, Sung Jae

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments of ion concentration polarization (ICP) theory would suggest that an over-limiting conductance (OLC) of the device is subject to the morphology of ICP layer and a micro-structure is able to alter the morphology. In this study, we demonstrated an ion rectification resulted only from asymmetric microscale structures, while conventional nanofluidic diode applications have usually employed a nanoscale asymmetry which requires sophisticate and expensive fabrication processes. We designed two dead-end microchannels incorporated with the nanoporous membrane. The difference in width of the microchannels was designed to yield asymmetry to the device. Cyclic voltammetry measurement was conducted to investigate the OLC behaviors on both forward and reverse bias. The diodic characteristics on I-V responses were observed at various ratio of the different microchannel width. In addition, we experimentally verified the logarithmical linearity between the ratios and the rectification ratios of OLC. This quantitative analysis would guide the further application utilizing microscale asymmetric diode device that now can be realized with minimum fabrication endeavors.

  1. Modular knowledge systems accelerate human migration in asymmetric random environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Deem, Michael W

    2016-12-01

    Migration is a key mechanism for expansion of communities. In spatially heterogeneous environments, rapidly gaining knowledge about the local environment is key to the evolutionary success of a migrating population. For historical human migration, environmental heterogeneity was naturally asymmetric in the north-south (NS) and east-west (EW) directions. We here consider the human migration process in the Americas, modelled as random, asymmetric, modularly correlated environments. Knowledge about the environments determines the fitness of each individual. We present a phase diagram for asymmetry of migration as a function of carrying capacity and fitness threshold. We find that the speed of migration is proportional to the inverse complement of the spatial environmental gradient, and in particular, we find that NS migration rates are lower than EW migration rates when the environmental gradient is higher in the NS direction. Communication of knowledge between individuals can help to spread beneficial knowledge within the population. The speed of migration increases when communication transmits pieces of knowledge that contribute in a modular way to the fitness of individuals. The results for the dependence of migration rate on asymmetry and modularity are consistent with existing archaeological observations. The results for asymmetry of genetic divergence are consistent with patterns of human gene flow.

  2. Role of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Preventing Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifah Rohmah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk has protective factors for infants’ digestive tract. Infants are vulnerable to diseases, one of which is diarrhea. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the relation between the proportion of diarrhea in infants and the administration of exclusive breastfeeding in Jatinangor. Methods: This study was an observational study. Data on mothers with 6 months old infants were collected from Jatinangor Primary Health Center (PHC infant records. The inclusion criteria applied were infants born in April 2012, alive, and living in Jatinangor subdistrict. One hundred and seventy one infants were recorded in April of 2012 in the PHC data. Thirty five were excluded because they were not born in April 2012. Another 45 were excluded because they were not permanent residents of Jatinangor subdistrict, while 4 infants died, and 23 had incomplete data. Therefore, only 66 infants were included as study subjects. Those infants came from 12 villages in the subdistrict of Jatinangor. Data collection was then performed using a questionnaire to the parents during the period of 21–31 October 2012. Results: From 66 infants, the proportion of diarrhea was 66.7%. Only 27.3% of all infants received exclusive breastfeeding. There was a difference in the proportion of diarrhea between infants who were exclusively breastfed and those who were not. Exclusive breastfeeding also reduced the risk of diarrhea (OR= 0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.83. Conclusions: There is a relation between the proportion of diarrhea in infants and exclusive breastfeeding in Jatinangor. Breastfeeding has a protective effect against diarrhea in infants.

  3. Inclusion and exclusion processes in teacher trainees' professional practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Birgitte

    , which become visible as the study relates to some of actual economic, cultural, and politically powerful discourses in Denmark. Thematization and de-naturalization of established cultural, economical, and politically powerful discourses and connections are important, as part of a teacher education....

  4. The AdS/QCD Correspondence and Exclusive Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, Stanley J; Deur, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum $L$ and radial quantum number $n$ for both mesons and baryons. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling $\\alpha_s^{AdS}(Q)$ and its $\\beta$-function which agrees with the effective coupling $\\alpha_{g_1}$ extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space $z$ to an invariant impact separation variable $\\zeta$, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which e...

  5. Exclusive Multipotency and Preferential Asymmetric Divisions in Post-Embryonic Neural Stem Cells of the Fish Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Centanin, L.; Ander, J.-J.; Hoeckendorf, B.; Lust, K.; T. Kellner; Kraemer, I.; Urbany, C.; Hasel, E.; Harris, W.A.; Simons, B. D.; Wittbrodt, J

    2014-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It has been published by The Company of Biologists Ltd in Development here: http://dev.biologists.org/content/early/2014/08/19/dev.109892.long. The potency of post-embryonic stem cells can only be addressed in the living organism, by labeling single cells after embryonic development and following their descendants. Recently, transplantation experiments involving permanently labeled cells revealed multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) of embryonic or...

  6. Social exclusion: the interplay of group goals and individual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cameron B; Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2014-08-01

    Past research has shown that adolescents justify social exclusion based on concerns for group functioning, and yet, to date, no study has evaluated whether group functioning justifications shift or remain stable across different exclusion contexts. In this study, we systematically manipulated exclusion context (i.e., competitive or noncompetitive soccer groups) and individual characteristics of the target of exclusion to test the nature of the interaction between these factors during exclusion judgments. Adolescents' (N = 201; 61% Female) exclusion judgments differed across contexts only when an individual's ability was under consideration. Intergroup (i.e., gender, nationality) and interpersonal (i.e., aggression, shyness) characteristics overwhelmed contextual considerations. Results indicate the complexity of factors weighed by adolescents when making exclusion judgments, and suggest the need for extension of the present findings to understand more fully the interaction between the context of exclusion and individual characteristics in exclusion judgments.

  7. The ethics of biometrics: the risk of social exclusion from the widespread use of electronic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickins, Jeremy

    2007-03-01

    Discussions about biotechnology tend to assume that it is something to do with genetics or manipulating biological processes in some way. However, the field of biometrics-the measurement of physical characteristics-is also biotechnology and is likely to affect the lives of more people more quickly than any other form. The possibility of social exclusion resulting from the use of biometrics data for such uses as identity cards has not yet been fully explored. Social exclusion is unethical, as it unfairly discriminates against individuals or classes of people. Social exclusion is unethical, as it unfairly discriminates against individuals or classes of people. This article looks at some of the ways in which social exclusion might arise from the use of biometric data, and introduces a model of balancing individual interests with which to analyse whether it is justified to run the risk of excluding some members of society for the benefit of others.

  8. Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Walter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion social inclusion are useful concepts for making sense of the deeply embedded socio-economic disadvantaged position of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in Australian. The concepts not only describe exclusion from social and economic participation; but seek to understand the dynamic processes behind their creation and reproduction. Yet few Australian studies go beyond describing Aboriginal over-representation on social exclusion indicators. Neither do they address the translatability of the concepts from non-Indigenous to Indigenous contexts despite mainstream studies finding the pattern of social exclusion (and therefore what social inclusion might look like differs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to that of other disadvantaged groups. This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous children to explore patterns of social exclusion across social, economic, well-being and community dimensions for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait families. The paper then develops a contextual understanding of the processes and patterns that create and sustain social exclusion and the opportunities and challenges of moving to greater social inclusion for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people/s.

  9. Centralized and decentralized global outer-synchronization of asymmetric recurrent time-varying neural network by data-sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenlian; Zheng, Ren; Chen, Tianping

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss outer-synchronization of the asymmetrically connected recurrent time-varying neural networks. By using both centralized and decentralized discretization data sampling principles, we derive several sufficient conditions based on three vector norms to guarantee that the difference of any two trajectories starting from different initial values of the neural network converges to zero. The lower bounds of the common time intervals between data samples in centralized and decentralized principles are proved to be positive, which guarantees exclusion of Zeno behavior. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the efficiency of the theoretical results.

  10. Exclusive hadronic decays of B mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Andreas

    1991-06-01

    The recent experimental results on exclusive hadronic decays of B mesons obtained by the ARGUS collaboration are presented in the talk. The results include exclusive hadronic decays involving a b → c transition, namely B decays with a D, D ∗ plus several pions and B decays to J/ψ or ψ' mesons plus Kaons have been studied. The measurements of branching ratios for two-body B decays involving a J/ψ or ψ' meson are of wide interest in the light of proposals for the study of CP violation in future experiments. The branching ratios are compared with the predictions of the model of Bauer, Stech and Wirbel and with a model of A.V. Dobrovolskaya. Using the cleanest decay channels, the masses and mass difference of the charged and neutral B meson are obtained. This mass difference is then compared with the mass splitting in other isospinmultipletts and with theoretical models.

  11. Immunoglobulin heavy chain exclusion in the shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Malecek

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system depends on specific antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (Ig in B lymphocytes and T cell receptors (TCR in T lymphocytes. Adaptive responses to immune challenge are based on the expression of a single species of antigen receptor per cell; and in B cells, this is mediated in part by allelic exclusion at the Ig heavy (H chain locus. How allelic exclusion is regulated is unclear; we considered that sharks, the oldest vertebrates possessing the Ig/TCR-based immune system, would yield insights not previously approachable and reveal the primordial basis of the regulation of allelic exclusion. Sharks have an IgH locus organization consisting of 15-200 independently rearranging miniloci (VH-D1-D2-JH-Cmu, a gene organization that is considered ancestral to the tetrapod and bony fish IgH locus. We found that rearrangement takes place only within a minilocus, and the recombining gene segments are assembled simultaneously and randomly. Only one or few H chain genes were fully rearranged in each shark B cell, whereas the other loci retained their germline configuration. In contrast, most IgH were partially rearranged in every thymocyte (developing T cell examined, but no IgH transcripts were detected. The distinction between B and T cells in their IgH configurations and transcription reveals a heretofore unsuspected chromatin state permissive for rearrangement in precursor lymphocytes, and suggests that controlled limitation of B cell lineage-specific factors mediate regulated rearrangement and allelic exclusion. This regulation may be shared by higher vertebrates in which additional mechanistic and regulatory elements have evolved with their structurally complex IgH locus.

  12. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Various aspects of forward physics have been studied by the ATLAS collaboration using data from Run I at the LHC. In this text, main results of three published analyses are summarized, based on data from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ or 8 TeV collected between 2010 and 2012. One analysis deals with diffractive signature with at least two jets in the final state, the other two study exclusive production of a pair of leptons or W bosons.

  13. Exclusive ω meson production at COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive ω meson production is studied by the COMPASS Collaboration using the CERN 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarised proton target. Single-spin and double-spin asymmetries are measured, some of which are sensitive to the Generalised Parton Distributions E that are related to quark orbital angular momenta. The results, which are sensitive also to the pion-pole contribution to the production mechanism, are compared to the predictions of a phenomenological model.

  14. Exclusive nonleptonic B→VV decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, N.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita

    2009-07-01

    The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B→VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the logitudinal polarization fraction (RL) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R⊥) for B→D*D(s)* decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.

  15. Hard Exclusive Production of Tensor Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, V M

    2001-01-01

    We point out that hard exclusive production of tensor mesons $f_2(1270)$ with helicity $\\lambda=\\pm 2$ is dominated by the gluon component in the meson wave function and can be used to determine gluon admixture in tensor mesons in a theoretically clean manner. We present a detailed analysis of the tensor meson distribution amplitudes and calculate the transition form factor $\\gamma+\\gamma^*\\to f_2(1270)$ for one real and one virtual photon.

  16. Exclusive ω meson production at COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Sznajder, Paweł

    2016-11-01

    Exclusive ω meson production is studied by the COMPASS Collaboration using the CERN 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarised proton target. Single-spin and double-spin asymmetries are measured, some of which are sensitive to the Generalised Parton Distributions E that are related to quark orbital angular momenta. The results, which are sensitive also to the pion-pole contribution to the production mechanism, are compared to the predictions of a phenomenological model.

  17. Dropout in VET – institutional selection and social exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    . The study shows how the institutionalised selection of students is integrated in the working of the colleges, and that this practice contributes to dropouts. In addition the students make friendships and form groups in their daily life in college and outside according to gender, ethnicity, age, residential...... of the complex processes of dropping out. The present study is part of a large national research project on retention in VET. The paper aims to understand dropout as a result of the interplay of students’ agentic actions and social interactions and the opportunities for participation afforded by the colleges....... Dropout is studied as a combination of on the one hand processes of social and cultural in- and exclusion among the students and on the other hand processes of institutional selection of vocational colleges. It draws on critical theories of reproduction in education and cultural studies of education...

  18. MAJOR HEPATIC RESECTION UNDER TOTAL VASCULAR EXCLUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季加孚; 顾晋; 苏向前; 焦春雨; 王怡; 欧阳晓辉; 董培德; 杨成旺

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To eveluate major liver resections with vascular exclusion (TVE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Sixteen consecutive, major liver resections performed with TVE in HCC patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patients' mean ages were 54 years. Ten patients had cirrhosis and eleven patients had chronic hepatitis B. Results: There was no perioperative death and the mean hospital stay was 20 days and the average amount of intraoperative blood transfusion was 400 mL (range 0-2000 mL). Forty-four percent of the patients did not receive intraoperative blood transfusion. The mean total bilirubin(T-BIL) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were 24μmol/L (range 8-56μmol/L) and 56 IU/L (range 10-204 IU/L) measured prior to discharge. Conclusion: In our experience, total vascular exclusion is invaluable in major or difficult liver resections, especially when lesions adjacent to the hepatic veins and vena cava. It is associated with a low blood transfusion requirement and a low incidence of complications. It further obviates the need for dissection of the porta hepatis thus reduces the associated risks. Total vascular exclusion time of 30min appears to be well tolerated, even in patients with cirrhosis..

  19. The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, ‘second-order’ freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the second-order freeriders from eroding the social immune system. PMID:23222449

  20. Exclusion testing in pregnancy for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, A; Quarrell, O W; Lazarou, L P; Meredith, A L; Harper, P S

    1990-01-01

    The results of DNA analysis are presented for a series of 90 couples, with one partner at 50% risk for Huntington's disease (HD), who were referred for exclusion testing in pregnancy over a three year period. Thirty-seven couples were studied in detail. The aims of the study were to evaluate attitudes towards prenatal testing, before pregnancy and afterwards, and the effectiveness of our counseling and methods of organising the service. Problems which could arise in relation to presymptomatic testing are documented. It is concluded that exclusion testing is a valuable form of prediction for some couples, particularly where family structure does not permit prediction for the person at risk. The need for intensive counselling was highlighted by the difficulties experienced by many couples in understanding how the test worked. Particular ethical and organisational problems may arise which require careful consideration beforehand and some recommendations are made. The proportion of couples who will continue to request exclusion testing as pre-symptomatic testing becomes more widely applicable remains unknown. PMID:2145437