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Sample records for asymmetric cell divisions

  1. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Conradt, Barbara

    2008-04-08

    Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  2. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hatzold

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  3. Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulson, Nicholas D.; Lechler, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Generation of three-dimensional tissue with distinct cell types is required for the development of all organs. On its own, mitotic spindle orientation allows tissues to change in length or shape. In combination with intrinsic or extrinsic cues this can also be coupled to the generation of diverse cell fates - a process known as asymmetric cell division (ACD). Understanding ACD’s has been greatly aided by studies in invertebrate model systems, where genetics and live imaging have provided the basis for much of what we know. ACD’s also drive the development and differentiation of the epidermis in mammals. While similar to the invertebrate models, the epidermis is distinct in balancing symmetric and asymmetric divisions to yield a tissue of the correct surface area and thickness. Here we review the roles of spindle orientation in driving both morphogenesis and cell fate decisions. We highlight the epidermis as a unique model system to study not only basic mechanisms of ACD, but also to study their regulation during development. PMID:22449491

  4. Asymmetric cell division in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Srinivasan; Nagaraja, Mukkayyan; Sebastian, Jees; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2014-03-01

    Recently, several reports showed that about 80 % of mid-log phase Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG cells divide symmetrically with 5-10 % deviation in the septum position from the median. However, the mode of cell division of the pathogenic mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, using electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy of septum- and nucleoid-stained live and fixed cells, and live cell time-lapse imaging, we show the occurrence of asymmetric cell division with unusually deviated septum/constriction in 20 % of the 15 % septating M. tuberculosis cells in the mid-log phase population. The remaining 80 % of the 15 % septating cells divided symmetrically but with 2-5 % deviation in the septum/constriction position, as reported for M. smegmatis, M. marinum, and M. bovis BCG cells. Both the long and the short portions of the asymmetrically dividing M. tuberculosis cells with unusually deviated septum contained nucleoids, thereby generating viable short and long cells from each asymmetric division. M. tuberculosis short cells were acid fast positive and, like the long cells, further readily underwent growth and division to generate micro-colony, thereby showing that they were neither mini cells, spores nor dormant forms of mycobacteria. The freshly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients' sputum samples, which are known for the prevalence of oxidative stress conditions, also contained short cells at the same proportion as that in the mid-log phase population. The probable physiological significance of the generation of the short cells through unusually deviated asymmetric cell division is discussed.

  5. Asymmetric Divisions in Oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Szczepan M; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Kloc, Malgorzata

    In the majority of animals, the oocyte/egg is structurally, molecularly, and functionally asymmetric. Such asymmetry is a prerequisite for a flawless fertilization and faithful segregation of maternal determinants during subsequent embryonic development. The oocyte asymmetry develops during oogenesis and must be maintained during consecutive and obligatorily asymmetric oogonial divisions, which depending on the species lead to the formation of either oocyte alone or oocyte and nurse cell complex. In the following chapter, we summarize current knowledge on the asymmetric oogonial divisions in invertebrate (insects) and vertebrate (Xenopus) species.

  6. Asymmetric Cell Division of T Cells Upon Antigen Presentation Utilizes Multiple Conserved Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliaro, Jane; Van Ham, Vanessa; Sacirbegovic, Faruk; Pasam, Anupama; Bomzon, Ze’ev; Pham, Kim; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J.; Waterhouse, Nigel J.; Bots, Michael; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Watt, Sally V.; Cluse, Leonie A.; Clarke, Chris J.P.; Izon, David J.; Chang, John T.; Thompson, Natalie; Gu, Min; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Smyth, Mark J.; Humbert, Patrick O.; Reiner, Steven L.; Russell, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division is a potential means by which cell fate choices during an immune response are orchestrated. Defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie asymmetric division of T cells is paramount for determining the role of this process in the generation of effector and memory T cell subsets. In other cell types, asymmetric cell division is regulated by conserved polarity protein complexes that control the localization of cell fate determinants and spindle orientation during division. We have developed a tractable, in vitro model of naïve CD8+ T cells undergoing initial division while attached to dendritic cells during antigen presentation to investigate whether similar mechanisms might regulate asymmetric division of T cells. Using this system, we show that direct interactions with antigen presenting cells provide the cue for polarization of T cells. Interestingly, the immunological synapse disseminates before division even though the T cells retain contact with the antigen presenting cell. The cue from the antigen presenting cell is translated into polarization of cell fate determinants via the polarity network of the Par3 and Scribble complexes and orientation of the mitotic spindle during division is orchestrated by the Pins/G protein complex. These findings suggest that T cells have selectively adapted a number of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms to generate diversity through asymmetric cell division. PMID:20530266

  7. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. Light micrograph of an asymmetrically dividing T. indica cell at various time intervals. Progress over a 12 hr period, showing that the larger component does not undergo further division. (A) 0 h, cell division at an early stage. (B) 5 h, lower half of cell undergoing further division. (C) 12 h, differentiated ...

  8. Asymmetric cell division of T cells upon antigen presentation uses multiple conserved mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliaro, Jane; Van Ham, Vanessa; Sacirbegovic, Faruk; Pasam, Anupama; Bomzon, Ze'ev; Pham, Kim; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J; Waterhouse, Nigel J; Bots, Michael; Hawkins, Edwin D; Watt, Sally V; Cluse, Leonie A; Clarke, Chris J P; Izon, David J; Chang, John T; Thompson, Natalie; Gu, Min; Johnstone, Ricky W; Smyth, Mark J; Humbert, Patrick O; Reiner, Steven L; Russell, Sarah M

    2010-07-01

    Asymmetric cell division is a potential means by which cell fate choices during an immune response are orchestrated. Defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie asymmetric division of T cells is paramount for determining the role of this process in the generation of effector and memory T cell subsets. In other cell types, asymmetric cell division is regulated by conserved polarity protein complexes that control the localization of cell fate determinants and spindle orientation during division. We have developed a tractable, in vitro model of naive CD8(+) T cells undergoing initial division while attached to dendritic cells during Ag presentation to investigate whether similar mechanisms might regulate asymmetric division of T cells. Using this system, we show that direct interactions with APCs provide the cue for polarization of T cells. Interestingly, the immunological synapse disseminates before division even though the T cells retain contact with the APC. The cue from the APC is translated into polarization of cell fate determinants via the polarity network of the Par3 and Scribble complexes, and orientation of the mitotic spindle during division is orchestrated by the partner of inscuteable/G protein complex. These findings suggest that T cells have selectively adapted a number of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms to generate diversity through asymmetric cell division.

  9. Asymmetric cell division of stem cells in the lung and other systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed eBerika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New insights have been added to identification, behavior and cellular properties of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells over the last few years. The modes of stem cell division, asymmetric versus symmetric, are tightly regulated during development and regeneration. The proper choice of a stem cell to divide asymmetrically or symmetrically has great consequences for development and disease because inappropriate asymmetric division disrupts organ morphogenesis, whereas uncontrolled symmetric division induces tumorigenesis. Therefore, understanding the behavior of lung stem cells could identify innovative solutions for restoring normal morphogenesis and/or regeneration of different organs. In this concise review, we describe recent studies in our laboratory about the mode of division of lung epithelial stem cells. We also compare asymmetric cell division in the lung stem cells with other tissues in different organisms.

  10. Uncovering the link between malfunctions in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric cell division and tumorigenesis

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    Kelsom Corey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asymmetric cell division is a developmental process utilized by several organisms. On the most basic level, an asymmetric division produces two daughter cells, each possessing a different identity or fate. Drosophila melanogaster progenitor cells, referred to as neuroblasts, undergo asymmetric division to produce a daughter neuroblast and another cell known as a ganglion mother cell (GMC. There are several features of asymmetric division in Drosophila that make it a very complex process, and these aspects will be discussed at length. The cell fate determinants that play a role in specifying daughter cell fate, as well as the mechanisms behind setting up cortical polarity within neuroblasts, have proved to be essential to ensuring that neurogenesis occurs properly. The role that mitotic spindle orientation plays in coordinating asymmetric division, as well as how cell cycle regulators influence asymmetric division machinery, will also be addressed. Most significantly, malfunctions during asymmetric cell division have shown to be causally linked with neoplastic growth and tumor formation. Therefore, it is imperative that the developmental repercussions as a result of asymmetric cell division gone awry be understood.

  11. Investigation of roles for LRR-RLKs PNL1 and PNL2 in asymmetric cell division in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Maiti Celina

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division is a vital component of plant development. It enables cell differentiation and cell diversity. A key component of asymmetric cell division is cell signaling. Signals are believed to control polarization and orientation of asymmetric divisions during stomatal development. The findings of this report suggest that PNL1 and PNL2, two LRR-RLKs found in Arabidopsis and closely related to maize PAN1 LRR-RLK, are possibly involved in the signaling events occurring during the ...

  12. Omics and modelling approaches for understanding regulation of asymmetric cell divisions in arabidopsis and other angiosperm plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Kaisa; Ramakrishna, Priya; Fisher, Adam; Bergmann, Dominique C; De Smet, Ive; Sozzani, Rosangela; Weijers, Dolf; Brady, Siobhan M

    2014-06-01

    Asymmetric cell divisions are formative divisions that generate daughter cells of distinct identity. These divisions are coordinated by either extrinsic ('niche-controlled') or intrinsic regulatory mechanisms and are fundamentally important in plant development. This review describes how asymmetric cell divisions are regulated during development and in different cell types in both the root and the shoot of plants. It further highlights ways in which omics and modelling approaches have been used to elucidate these regulatory mechanisms. For example, the regulation of embryonic asymmetric divisions is described, including the first divisions of the zygote, formative vascular divisions and divisions that give rise to the root stem cell niche. Asymmetric divisions of the root cortex endodermis initial, pericycle cells that give rise to the lateral root primordium, procambium, cambium and stomatal cells are also discussed. Finally, a perspective is provided regarding the role of other hormones or regulatory molecules in asymmetric divisions, the presence of segregated determinants and the usefulness of modelling approaches in understanding network dynamics within these very special cells. Asymmetric cell divisions define plant development. High-throughput genomic and modelling approaches can elucidate their regulation, which in turn could enable the engineering of plant traits such as stomatal density, lateral root development and wood formation.

  13. Biased inheritance of mitochondria during asymmetric cell division in the mouse oocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Caroline M.; Carroll, John

    2013-01-01

    Summary A fundamental rule of cell division is that daughter cells inherit half the DNA complement and an appropriate proportion of cellular organelles. The highly asymmetric cell divisions of female meiosis present a different challenge because one of the daughters, the polar body, is destined to degenerate, putting at risk essential maternally inherited organelles such as mitochondria. We have therefore investigated mitochondrial inheritance during the meiotic divisions of the mouse oocyte. We find that mitochondria are aggregated around the spindle by a dynein-mediated mechanism during meiosis I, and migrate together with the spindle towards the oocyte cortex. However, at cell division they are not equally segregated and move instead towards the oocyte-directed spindle pole and are excluded from the polar body. We show that this asymmetrical inheritance in favour of the oocyte is not caused by bias in the spindle itself but is dependent on an intact actin cytoskeleton, spindle–cortex proximity, and cell cycle progression. Thus, oocyte-biased inheritance of mitochondria is a variation on rules that normally govern organelle segregation at cell division, and ensures that essential maternally inherited mitochondria are retained to provide ATP for early mammalian development. PMID:23659999

  14. Dynamic interplay of spectrosome and centrosome organelles in asymmetric stem cell divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Chi; Cheng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells have remarkable self-renewal ability and differentiation potency, which are critical for tissue repair and tissue homeostasis. Recently it has been found, in many systems (e.g. gut, neurons, and hematopoietic stem cells), that the self-renewal and differentiation balance is maintained when the stem cells divide asymmetrically. Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs), one of the best characterized model systems with well-defined stem cell niches, were reported to divide asymmetrically, where centrosome plays an important role. Utilizing time-lapse live cell imaging, customized tracking, and image processing programs, we found that most acentrosomal GSCs have the spectrosomes reposition from the basal end (wild type) to the apical end close to hub-GSC interface (acentrosomal GSCs). In addition, these apically positioned spectrosomes were mostly stationary while the basally positioned spectrosomes were mobile. For acentrosomal GSCs, their mitotic spindles were still highly oriented and divided asymmetrically with longer mitosis duration, resulting in asymmetric divisions. Moreover, when the spectrosome was knocked out, the centrosomes velocity decreased and centrosomes located closer to hub-GSC interface. We propose that in male GSCs, the spectrosome recruited to the apical end plays a complimentary role in ensuring proper spindle orientation when centrosome function is compromised.

  15. Dynamic interplay of spectrosome and centrosome organelles in asymmetric stem cell divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Bang

    Full Text Available Stem cells have remarkable self-renewal ability and differentiation potency, which are critical for tissue repair and tissue homeostasis. Recently it has been found, in many systems (e.g. gut, neurons, and hematopoietic stem cells, that the self-renewal and differentiation balance is maintained when the stem cells divide asymmetrically. Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs, one of the best characterized model systems with well-defined stem cell niches, were reported to divide asymmetrically, where centrosome plays an important role. Utilizing time-lapse live cell imaging, customized tracking, and image processing programs, we found that most acentrosomal GSCs have the spectrosomes reposition from the basal end (wild type to the apical end close to hub-GSC interface (acentrosomal GSCs. In addition, these apically positioned spectrosomes were mostly stationary while the basally positioned spectrosomes were mobile. For acentrosomal GSCs, their mitotic spindles were still highly oriented and divided asymmetrically with longer mitosis duration, resulting in asymmetric divisions. Moreover, when the spectrosome was knocked out, the centrosomes velocity decreased and centrosomes located closer to hub-GSC interface. We propose that in male GSCs, the spectrosome recruited to the apical end plays a complimentary role in ensuring proper spindle orientation when centrosome function is compromised.

  16. Temporal controls of the asymmetric cell division cycle in Caulobacter crescentus.

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    Shenghua Li

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric cell division cycle of Caulobacter crescentus is orchestrated by an elaborate gene-protein regulatory network, centered on three major control proteins, DnaA, GcrA and CtrA. The regulatory network is cast into a quantitative computational model to investigate in a systematic fashion how these three proteins control the relevant genetic, biochemical and physiological properties of proliferating bacteria. Different controls for both swarmer and stalked cell cycles are represented in the mathematical scheme. The model is validated against observed phenotypes of wild-type cells and relevant mutants, and it predicts the phenotypes of novel mutants and of known mutants under novel experimental conditions. Because the cell cycle control proteins of Caulobacter are conserved across many species of alpha-proteobacteria, the model we are proposing here may be applicable to other genera of importance to agriculture and medicine (e.g., Rhizobium, Brucella.

  17. The Nuclear Matrix Protein Megator Regulates Stem Cell Asymmetric Division through the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex in Drosophila Testes.

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    Ying Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor, a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2 and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1 of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division.

  18. Increasing population growth by asymmetric segregation of a limiting resource during cell division

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avraham, Nurit; Soifer, Ilya; Carmi, Miri; Barkai, Naama

    .... Notably, while deletion of WHI5 alleviates daughter cell division arrest in low‐zinc conditions, it results in a lower final population size, as cell division rate becomes progressively slower...

  19. The role of GlsA in the evolution of asymmetric cell division in the green alga Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Fowler, Rachel; Tam, Lai-wa; Edwards, Lisseth; Miller, Stephen M

    2003-07-01

    Volvox carteri, a green alga in the order Volvocales, contains two completely differentiated cell types, small motile somatic cells and large reproductive cells called gonidia, that are set apart from each other during embryogenesis by a series of visibly asymmetric cell divisions. Mutational analysis has revealed a class of genes (gonidialess, gls) that are required specifically for asymmetric divisions in V. carteri, but that are dispensable for symmetric divisions. Previously we cloned one of these genes, glsA, and showed that it encodes a chaperone-like protein (GlsA) that has close orthologs in a diverse set of eukaryotes, ranging from fungi to vertebrates and higher plants. In the present study we set out to explore the role of glsA in the evolution of asymmetric division in the volvocine algae by cloning and characterizing a glsA ortholog from one of the simplest members of the group, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which does not undergo asymmetric divisions. This ortholog (which we have named gar1, for glsA related) is predicted to encode a protein that is 70% identical to GlsA overall, and that is most closely related to GlsA in the same domains that are most highly conserved between GlsA and its other known orthologs. We report that a gar1 transgene fully complements the glsA mutation in V. carteri, a result that suggests that asymmetric division probably arose through the modification of a gene whose product interacts with GlsA, but not through a modification of glsA itself.

  20. glsA, a Volvox gene required for asymmetric division and germ cell specification, encodes a chaperone-like protein.

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    Miller, S M; Kirk, D L

    1999-02-01

    The gls genes of Volvox are required for the asymmetric divisions that set apart cells of the germ and somatic lineages during embryogenesis. Here we used transposon tagging to clone glsA, and then showed that it is expressed maximally in asymmetrically dividing embryos, and that it encodes a 748-amino acid protein with two potential protein-binding domains. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of these, the J domain (by which Hsp40-class chaperones bind to and activate specific Hsp70 partners) abolishes the capacity of glsA to rescue mutants. Based on this and other considerations, including the fact that the GlsA protein is associated with the mitotic spindle, we discuss how it might function, in conjunction with an Hsp70-type partner, to shift the division plane in asymmetrically dividing cells.

  1. Auxin as an inducer of asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in stomatal complexes of Zea mays.

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    Livanos, Pantelis; Giannoutsou, Eleni; Apostolakos, Panagiotis; Galatis, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The data presented in this work revealed that in Zea mays the exogenously added auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), promoted the establishment of subsidiary cell mother cell (SMC) polarity and the subsequent subsidiary cell formation, while treatment with auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1-napthoxyacetic acid (NOA) specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. Furthermore, in young guard cell mother cells (GMCs) the PIN1 auxin efflux carriers were mainly localized in the transverse GMC faces, while in the advanced GMCs they appeared both in the transverse and the lateral ones adjacent to SMCs. Considering that phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is an active component of auxin signal transduction and that phospholipid signaling contributes in the establishment of polarity, treatments with the specific inhibitor of the PI3K LY294002 were carried out. The presence of LY294002 suppressed polarization of SMCs and prevented their asymmetrical division, whereas combined treatment with exogenously added NAA and LY294002 restricted the promotional auxin influence on subsidiary cell formation. These findings support the view that auxin is involved in Z. mays subsidiary cell formation, probably functioning as inducer of the asymmetrical SMC division. Collectively, the results obtained from treatments with auxin transport inhibitors and the appearance of PIN1 proteins in the lateral GMC faces indicate a local transfer of auxin from GMCs to SMCs. Moreover, auxin signal transduction seems to be mediated by the catalytic function of PI3K.

  2. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

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    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated.

  3. Increased asymmetric and multi-daughter cell division in mechanically confined microenvironments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Tat Kwong Tse

    Full Text Available As the microenvironment of a cell changes, associated mechanical cues may lead to changes in biochemical signaling and inherently mechanical processes such as mitosis. Here we explore the effects of confined mechanical environments on cellular responses during mitosis. Previously, effects of mechanical confinement have been difficult to optically observe in three-dimensional and in vivo systems. To address this challenge, we present a novel microfluidic perfusion culture system that allows controllable variation in the level of confinement in a single axis allowing observation of cell growth and division at the single-cell level. The device is capable of creating precise confinement conditions in the vertical direction varying from high (3 µm to low (7 µm confinement while also varying the substrate stiffness (E = 130 kPa and 1 MPa. The Human cervical carcinoma (HeLa model with a known 3N+ karyotype was used for this study. For this cell line, we observe that mechanically confined cell cycles resulted in stressed cell divisions: (i delayed mitosis, (ii multi- daughter mitosis events (from 3 up to 5 daughter cells, (iii unevenly sized daughter cells, and (iv induction of cell death. In the highest confined conditions, the frequency of divisions producing more than two progeny was increased an astounding 50-fold from unconfined environments, representing about one half of all successful mitotic events. Notably, the majority of daughter cells resulting from multipolar divisions were viable after cytokinesis and, perhaps suggesting another regulatory checkpoint in the cell cycle, were in some cases observed to re-fuse with neighboring cells post-cytokinesis. The higher instances of abnormal mitosis that we report in confined mechanically stiff spaces, may lead to increased rates of abnormal, viable, cells in the population. This work provides support to a hypothesis that environmental mechanical cues influences structural mechanisms of mitosis

  4. Increased asymmetric and multi-daughter cell division in mechanically confined microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Henry Tat Kwong; Weaver, Westbrook McConnell; Di Carlo, Dino

    2012-01-01

    As the microenvironment of a cell changes, associated mechanical cues may lead to changes in biochemical signaling and inherently mechanical processes such as mitosis. Here we explore the effects of confined mechanical environments on cellular responses during mitosis. Previously, effects of mechanical confinement have been difficult to optically observe in three-dimensional and in vivo systems. To address this challenge, we present a novel microfluidic perfusion culture system that allows controllable variation in the level of confinement in a single axis allowing observation of cell growth and division at the single-cell level. The device is capable of creating precise confinement conditions in the vertical direction varying from high (3 µm) to low (7 µm) confinement while also varying the substrate stiffness (E = 130 kPa and 1 MPa). The Human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) model with a known 3N+ karyotype was used for this study. For this cell line, we observe that mechanically confined cell cycles resulted in stressed cell divisions: (i) delayed mitosis, (ii) multi- daughter mitosis events (from 3 up to 5 daughter cells), (iii) unevenly sized daughter cells, and (iv) induction of cell death. In the highest confined conditions, the frequency of divisions producing more than two progeny was increased an astounding 50-fold from unconfined environments, representing about one half of all successful mitotic events. Notably, the majority of daughter cells resulting from multipolar divisions were viable after cytokinesis and, perhaps suggesting another regulatory checkpoint in the cell cycle, were in some cases observed to re-fuse with neighboring cells post-cytokinesis. The higher instances of abnormal mitosis that we report in confined mechanically stiff spaces, may lead to increased rates of abnormal, viable, cells in the population. This work provides support to a hypothesis that environmental mechanical cues influences structural mechanisms of mitosis such as

  5. The Asymmetric Cell Division Regulators Par3, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 Are Not Essential for Erythroid Development or Enucleation.

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    Christina B Wölwer

    Full Text Available Erythroid enucleation is the process by which the future red blood cell disposes of its nucleus prior to entering the blood stream. This key event during red blood cell development has been likened to an asymmetric cell division (ACD, by which the enucleating erythroblast divides into two very different daughter cells of alternate molecular composition, a nucleated cell that will be removed by associated macrophages, and the reticulocyte that will mature to the definitive erythrocyte. Here we investigated gene expression of members of the Par, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 asymmetric cell division complexes in erythroid cells, and functionally tested their role in erythroid enucleation in vivo and ex vivo. Despite their roles in regulating ACD in other contexts, we found that these polarity regulators are not essential for erythroid enucleation, nor for erythroid development in vivo. Together our results put into question a role for cell polarity and asymmetric cell division in erythroid enucleation.

  6. Absence of the Polar Organizing Protein PopZ Results in Reduced and Asymmetric Cell Division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Matthew; Aliashkevich, Alena; Salisbury, Anne K; Cava, Felipe; Bowman, Grant R; Brown, Pamela J B

    2017-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped bacterium that grows by polar insertion of new peptidoglycan during cell elongation. As the cell cycle progresses, peptidoglycan synthesis at the pole ceases prior to insertion of new peptidoglycan at midcell to enable cell division. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organelle development protein PopZ has been identified as a growth pole marker and a candidate polar growth-promoting factor. Here, we characterize the function of PopZ in cell growth and division of A. tumefaciens Consistent with previous observations, we observe that PopZ localizes specifically to the growth pole in wild-type cells. Despite the striking localization pattern of PopZ, we find the absence of the protein does not impair polar elongation or cause major changes in the peptidoglycan composition. Instead, we observe an atypical cell length distribution, including minicells, elongated cells, and cells with ectopic poles. Most minicells lack DNA, suggesting a defect in chromosome segregation. Furthermore, the canonical cell division proteins FtsZ and FtsA are misplaced, leading to asymmetric sites of cell constriction. Together, these data suggest that PopZ plays an important role in the regulation of chromosome segregation and cell division.IMPORTANCEA. tumefaciens is a bacterial plant pathogen and a natural genetic engineer. However, very little is known about the spatial and temporal regulation of cell wall biogenesis that leads to polar growth in this bacterium. Understanding the molecular basis of A. tumefaciens growth may allow for the development of innovations to prevent disease or to promote growth during biotechnology applications. Finally, since many closely related plant and animal pathogens exhibit polar growth, discoveries in A. tumefaciens may be broadly applicable for devising antimicrobial strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Interplay between ABA and GA Modulates the Timing of Asymmetric Cell Divisions in the Arabidopsis Root Ground Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin Ae; Jang, Sejeong; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Heo, Jung-Ok; Chang, Kwang Suk; Choi, Ji Won; Dhar, Souvik; Kim, Gyuree; Choe, Jeong-Eun; Heo, Jae Bok; Kwon, Chian; Ko, Jae-Heung; Hwang, Yong-Sic; Lim, Jun

    2016-06-06

    In multicellular organisms, controlling the timing and extent of asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) is crucial for correct patterning. During post-embryonic root development in Arabidopsis thaliana, ground tissue (GT) maturation involves an additional ACD of the endodermis, which generates two different tissues: the endodermis (inner) and the middle cortex (outer). It has been reported that the abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) pathways are involved in middle cortex (MC) formation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between ABA and GA during GT maturation remain largely unknown. Through transcriptome analyses, we identified a previously uncharacterized C2H2-type zinc finger gene, whose expression is regulated by GA and ABA, thus named GAZ (GA- AND ABA-RESPONSIVE ZINC FINGER). Seedlings ectopically overexpressing GAZ (GAZ-OX) were sensitive to ABA and GA during MC formation, whereas GAZ-SRDX and RNAi seedlings displayed opposite phenotypes. In addition, our results indicated that GAZ was involved in the transcriptional regulation of ABA and GA homeostasis. In agreement with previous studies that ABA and GA coordinate to control the timing of MC formation, we also confirmed the unique interplay between ABA and GA and identified factors and regulatory networks bridging the two hormone pathways during GT maturation of the Arabidopsis root. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The asymmetric cell division machinery in the spiral-cleaving egg and embryo of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakama, Aron B; Chou, Hsien-Chao; Schneider, Stephan Q

    2017-12-11

    Over one third of all animal phyla utilize a mode of early embryogenesis called 'spiral cleavage' to divide the fertilized egg into embryonic cells with different cell fates. This mode is characterized by a series of invariant, stereotypic, asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) that generates cells of different size and defined position within the early embryo. Astonishingly, very little is known about the underlying molecular machinery to orchestrate these ACDs in spiral-cleaving embryos. Here we identify, for the first time, cohorts of factors that may contribute to early embryonic ACDs in a spiralian embryo. To do so we analyzed stage-specific transcriptome data in eggs and early embryos of the spiralian annelid Platynereis dumerilii for the expression of over 50 candidate genes that are involved in (1) establishing cortical domains such as the partitioning defective (par) genes, (2) directing spindle orientation, (3) conveying polarity cues including crumbs and scribble, and (4) maintaining cell-cell adhesion between embryonic cells. In general, each of these cohorts of genes are co-expressed exhibiting high levels of transcripts in the oocyte and fertilized single-celled embryo, with progressively lower levels at later stages. Interestingly, a small number of key factors within each ACD module show different expression profiles with increased early zygotic expression suggesting distinct regulatory functions. In addition, our analysis discovered several highly co-expressed genes that have been associated with specialized neural cell-cell recognition functions in the nervous system. The high maternal contribution of these 'neural' adhesion complexes indicates novel general adhesion functions during early embryogenesis. Spiralian embryos are champions of ACD generating embryonic cells of different size with astonishing accuracy. Our results suggest that the molecular machinery for ACD is already stored as maternal transcripts in the oocyte. Thus, the spiralian egg can

  9. C. elegans GATA factors EGL-18 and ELT-6 function downstream of Wnt signaling to maintain the progenitor fate during larval asymmetric divisions of the seam cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrepati, Lakshmi; Thompson, Kenneth W; Eisenmann, David M

    2013-05-01

    The C. elegans seam cells are lateral epithelial cells arrayed in a single line from anterior to posterior that divide in an asymmetric, stem cell-like manner during larval development. These asymmetric divisions are regulated by Wnt signaling; in most divisions, the posterior daughter in which the Wnt pathway is activated maintains the progenitor seam fate, while the anterior daughter in which the Wnt pathway is not activated adopts a differentiated hypodermal fate. Using mRNA tagging and microarray analysis, we identified the functionally redundant GATA factor genes egl-18 and elt-6 as Wnt pathway targets in the larval seam cells. EGL-18 and ELT-6 have previously been shown to be required for initial seam cell specification in the embryo. We show that in larval seam cell asymmetric divisions, EGL-18 is expressed strongly in the posterior seam-fated daughter. egl-18 and elt-6 are necessary for larval seam cell specification, and for hypodermal to seam cell fate transformations induced by ectopic Wnt pathway overactivation. The TCF homolog POP-1 binds a site in the egl-18 promoter in vitro, and this site is necessary for robust seam cell expression in vivo. Finally, larval overexpression of EGL-18 is sufficient to drive expression of a seam marker in other hypodermal cells in wild-type animals, and in anterior hypodermal-fated daughters in a Wnt pathway-sensitized background. These data suggest that two GATA factors that are required for seam cell specification in the embryo independently of Wnt signaling are reused downstream of Wnt signaling to maintain the progenitor fate during stem cell-like divisions in larval development.

  10. Low concentrations of caffeine induce asymmetric cell division as observed in vitro by means of the CBMN-assay and iFISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Karakosta, Maria; Barszczewska, Katarzyna; Karachristou, Ioanna; Pantelias, Gabriel; Terzoudi, Georgia I

    2015-11-01

    The dual role of caffeine as a chromosomal damage inducer and G2/M-checkpoint abrogator is well known but it is observed mainly at relatively high concentrations. At low concentrations, caffeine enhances the cytogenetic effects of several carcinogens and its intake during pregnancy has been recently reported to cause adverse birth outcomes. Interestingly, a threshold below which this association is not apparent was not identified. Since chromosomal abnormalities and aneuploidy are the major genetic etiologies of spontaneous abortions and adverse birth outcomes, we re-evaluate here the effects of caffeine at the cytogenetic level and propose a model for the mechanisms involved. Our hypothesis is that low caffeine concentrations affect DNA replication and cause chromosomal aberrations and asymmetric cell divisions not easily detected at metaphase since damaged cells are delayed during their G2/M-phase transition and the low caffeine concentrations cannot abrogate the G2-checkpoint. To test this hypothesis, caffeine-induced chromatid breaks and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were evaluated in vitro after low caffeine concentration exposures, followed by a short treatment with 4mM of caffeine to abrogate the G2-checkpoint. The results show a statistically significant increase in chromatid breaks at caffeine concentrations ≥1mM. When caffeine was applied for G2/M-checkpoint abrogation, a statistically significant increase in chromatid breaks, compared to an active checkpoint, was only observed at 4mM of caffeine. The potential of low concentrations to induce asymmetric cell divisions was tested by applying a methodology combining the cytochalasin-B mediated cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with interphase FISH (iFISH), using selected centromeric probes. Interestingly, low caffeine concentrations induce a dose dependent aneuploidy through asymmetric cell divisions, which are caused by misalignment of chromosomes through a mechanism

  11. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals differential gene expression between asymmetric and symmetric zygotic divisions in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Xiang Hu

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell divisions occur widely during many developmental processes in plants. In most angiosperms, the first zygotic cell division is asymmetric resulting in two daughter cells of unequal size and with distinct fates. However, the critical molecular mechanisms regulating this division remain unknown. Previously we showed that treatment of tobacco zygotes with beta-glucosyl Yariv (βGlcY could dramatically alter the first zygotic asymmetric division to produce symmetric two-celled proembryos. In the present study, we isolated zygotes and two-celled asymmetric proembryos in vivo by micromanipulation, and obtained symmetric, two-celled proembryos by in vitro cell cultures. Using suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH and macroarray analysis differential gene expression between the zygote and the asymmetric and symmetric two-celled proembryos was investigated. After sequencing of the differentially expressed clones, a total of 1610 EST clones representing 685 non-redundant transcripts were obtained. Gene ontology (GO term analysis revealed that these transcripts include those involved in physiological processes such as response to stimulus, regulation of gene expression, and localization and formation of anatomical structures. A homology search against known genes from Arabidopsis indicated that some of the above transcripts are involved in asymmetric cell division and embryogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the up- or down-regulation of the selected candidate transcripts during zygotic division. A few of these transcripts were expressed exclusively in the zygote, or in either type of the two-celled proembryos. Expression analyses of select genes in different tissues and organs also revealed potential roles of these transcripts in fertilization, seed maturation and organ development. The putative roles of few of the identified transcripts in the regulation of zygotic division are discussed. Further functional work on these

  12. Computational modelling of epidermal stratification highlights the importance of asymmetric cell division for predictable and robust layer formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gord, Alexander; Holmes, William R; Dai, Xing; Nie, Qing

    2014-01-01

    .... Using a new stochastic, multi-scale computational modelling framework, the anisotropic subcellular element method, we investigate the role of cell morphology and biophysical cell-cell interactions...

  13. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive

  14. The cyclical development of Trypanosoma vivax in the tsetse fly involves an asymmetric division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher Pheng Ooi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma vivax is the most prevalent trypanosome species in African cattle. It is thought to be transmitted by tsetse flies after cyclical development restricted to the vector mouthparts. Here, we investigated the kinetics of T. vivax development in Glossina morsitans morsitans by serial dissections over one week to reveal differentiation and proliferation stages. After 3 days, stable numbers of attached epimastigotes were seen proliferating by symmetric division in the cibarium and proboscis, consistent with colonisation and maintenance of a parasite population for the remaining lifespan of the tsetse fly. Strikingly, some asymmetrically dividing cells were also observed in proportions compatible with a continuous production of pre- metacyclic trypomastigotes. The involvement of this asymmetric division in T. vivax metacyclogenesis is discussed and compared to other trypanosomatids.

  15. The Cyclical Development of Trypanosoma vivax in the Tsetse Fly Involves an Asymmetric Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Schuster, Sarah; Cren-Travaillé, Christelle; Bertiaux, Eloise; Cosson, Alain; Goyard, Sophie; Perrot, Sylvie; Rotureau, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma vivax is the most prevalent trypanosome species in African cattle. It is thought to be transmitted by tsetse flies after cyclical development restricted to the vector mouthparts. Here, we investigated the kinetics of T. vivax development in Glossina morsitans morsitans by serial dissections over 1 week to reveal differentiation and proliferation stages. After 3 days, stable numbers of attached epimastigotes were seen proliferating by symmetric division in the cibarium and proboscis, consistent with colonization and maintenance of a parasite population for the remaining lifespan of the tsetse fly. Strikingly, some asymmetrically dividing cells were also observed in proportions compatible with a continuous production of pre- metacyclic trypomastigotes. The involvement of this asymmetric division in T. vivax metacyclogenesis is discussed and compared to other trypanosomatids.

  16. Functional analysis of the Volvox carteri asymmetric division protein GlsA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Valeria; Miller, Stephen M

    2009-10-01

    The Zuotin-family J protein chaperone GlsA is essential for the asymmetric divisions that establish germ and somatic cell initials during embryogenesis in the green alga Volvox carteri, but it is not known on what cellular process GlsA acts to carry out this function. Most GlsA protein is nuclear, and GlsA possesses two SANT domains, suggesting that GlsA may function as a transcriptional regulator. On the other hand, close homologs from yeast and mice are ribosome-associated factors that regulate translation fidelity, implying GlsA might also regulate translation. Here we set out to gain additional evidence regarding the function of GlsA, specifically with respect to its possible involvement in transcription and translation. We found that like zuotin mutants, glsA mutants are ultrasensitive to both cold and to the ribosome-binding aminoglycoside antibiotic paromomycin, so some fraction of GlsA is likely to be ribosome associated. We also found that GlsA co-immunoprecipitates with histones and that this interaction is dependent on the presence of intact SANT domains. Through rescue experiments using transgenes that encode GlsA variants, we determined that the growth and asymmetric division defects of the glsA mutant are separable-a GlsA variant that rescued the growth defects did not completely rescue the asymmetric division phenotype. Considered in total, our results suggest that GlsA acts both at the level of translation and transcription, but the function that is essential for tolerance to paromomycin and cold is not sufficient for asymmetric cell division.

  17. Placental expression of estrogen receptor beta and its hormone binding variant – comparison with estrogen receptor alpha and a role for estrogen receptors in asymmetric division and differentiation of estrogen-dependent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henley Donald C

    2003-04-01

    differentiation, the ER-alpha is associated with a less, and ER-beta with the more differentiated state. Enhanced expression of ~64 kDa ER-beta variant in trophoblast cultures suggests a unique role of ER-beta hormone binding domain in the regulation of trophoblast differentiation. Our data also indicate that asymmetric segregation of ER-alpha may play a role in asymmetric division of estrogen-dependent cells.

  18. Asymmetric division and differential gene expression during a bacterial developmental program requires DivIVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahathees Eswaramoorthy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporulation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a developmental program in which a progenitor cell differentiates into two different cell types, the smaller of which eventually becomes a dormant cell called a spore. The process begins with an asymmetric cell division event, followed by the activation of a transcription factor, σF, specifically in the smaller cell. Here, we show that the structural protein DivIVA localizes to the polar septum during sporulation and is required for asymmetric division and the compartment-specific activation of σF. Both events are known to require a protein called SpoIIE, which also localizes to the polar septum. We show that DivIVA copurifies with SpoIIE and that DivIVA may anchor SpoIIE briefly to the assembling polar septum before SpoIIE is subsequently released into the forespore membrane and recaptured at the polar septum. Finally, using super-resolution microscopy, we demonstrate that DivIVA and SpoIIE ultimately display a biased localization on the side of the polar septum that faces the smaller compartment in which σF is activated.

  19. Hsp70A and GlsA interact as partner chaperones to regulate asymmetric division in Volvox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Pappas, Valeria; Hallmann, Armin; Miller, Stephen M

    2005-10-15

    GlsA, a J-protein chaperone, is required for the asymmetric divisions that set aside germ and somatic cell precursors during embryogenesis in Volvox carteri, and previous evidence indicated that this function requires an intact Hsp70-binding site. To determine if Hsp70A, the only known cytoplasmic Hsp70 in V. carteri, is the chaperone partner of GlsA, we investigated the localization of the two proteins during critical stages of embryogenesis and tested their capacity to interact. We found that a substantial fraction of Hsp70A co-localizes with GlsA, both in interphase and mitotic blastomeres. In addition, Hsp70A coimmunoprecipitated with GlsA, and co-expression of GlsA and Hsp70A variants partially rescued the Gls phenotype of a glsA mutant, whereas neither variant by itself rescued the mutant phenotype. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that GlsA is about equally abundant in all blastomeres at all cleavage stages examined but that Hsp70A is more abundant in anterior (asymmetrically dividing) blastomeres than in posterior (symmetrically dividing) blastomeres during the period of asymmetric division. We conclude that Hsp70A and GlsA function as chaperone partners that regulate asymmetric division and that the relative abundance of Hsp70A in asymmetrically dividing embryos may determine which blastomeres divide asymmetrically and which do not.

  20. Mitotic Spindle Asymmetry: A Wnt/PCP-Regulated Mechanism Generating Asymmetrical Division in Cortical Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Delaunay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of asymmetric cell division (ACD during corticogenesis is incompletely understood. We document that spindle-size asymmetry (SSA between the two poles occurs during corticogenesis and parallels ACD. SSA appears at metaphase and is maintained throughout division, and we show it is necessary for proper neurogenesis. Imaging of spindle behavior and division outcome reveals that neurons preferentially arise from the larger-spindle pole. Mechanistically, SSA magnitude is controlled by Wnt7a and Vangl2, both members of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP-signaling pathway, and relayed to the cell cortex by P-ERM proteins. In vivo, Vangl2 and P-ERM downregulation promotes early cell-cycle exit and prevents the proper generation of late-born neurons. Thus, SSA is a core component of ACD that is conserved in invertebrates and vertebrates and plays a key role in the tight spatiotemporal control of self-renewal and differentiation during mammalian corticogenesis.

  1. A new asymmetric division contributes to the continuous production of infective trypanosomes in the tsetse fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, Brice; Subota, Ines; Buisson, Johanna; Bastin, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    African trypanosomes are flagellated protozoan parasites that cause sleeping sickness and are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly. To complete their life cycle in the insect, trypanosomes reach the salivary glands and transform into the metacyclic infective form. The latter are expelled with the saliva at each blood meal during the whole life of the insect. Here, we reveal a means by which the continuous production of infective parasites could be ensured. Dividing trypanosomes present in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies were monitored by live video-microscopy and by quantitative immunofluorescence analysis using molecular markers for the cytoskeleton and for surface antigens. This revealed the existence of two distinct modes of trypanosome proliferation occurring simultaneously in the salivary glands. The first cycle produces two equivalent cells that are not competent for infection and are attached to the epithelium. This mode of proliferation is predominant at the early steps of infection, ensuring a rapid colonization of the glands. The second mode is more frequent at later stages of infection and involves an asymmetric division. It produces a daughter cell that matures into the infective metacyclic form that is released in the saliva, as demonstrated by the expression of specific molecular markers - the calflagins. The levels of these calcium-binding proteins increase exclusively in the new flagellum during the asymmetric division, showing the commitment of the future daughter cell to differentiation. The coordination of these two alternative cell cycles contributes to the continuous production of infective parasites, turning the tsetse fly into an efficient and long-lasting vector for African trypanosomes.

  2. Arabidopsis JACKDAW and MAGPIE zinc finger proteins delimit asymmetric cell division and stabilize tissue boundaries by restricting SHORT-ROOT action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welch, D.; Hassan, H.; Blilou, I.; Immink, G.H.; Heidstra, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis root, the SHORT-ROOT transcription factor moves outward to the ground tissue from its site of transcription in the stele and is required for the specification of the endodermis and the stem cell organizing quiescent center cells. In addition, SHORT-ROOT and the downstream

  3. Arabidopsis JACKDAW and MAGPIE zinc finger proteins delimit asymmetric cell division and stabilize tissue boundaries by restricting SHORT-ROOT action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welch, D.R.; Hassan, H.B.M.; Blilou, I.; Immink, R.; Heidstra, R.; Scheres, B.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis root, the SHORT-ROOT transcription factor moves outward to the ground tissue from its site of transcription in the stele and is required for the pecification of the endodermis and the stem cell organizing quiescent center cells. In addition, SHORT-ROOT and the downstream

  4. Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Mikołaj; Salmonowicz, Hanna; Brown, Rachel; Turkowska, Joanna; Średniawa, Władysław; Pattabiraman, Sundararaghavan; Amen, Triana; Abraham, Ayelet-chen; Eichler, Noam; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Kaganovich, Daniel

    2014-06-03

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of several types of damage: in particular, damage to the proteome. Recent work points to a conserved replicative rejuvenation mechanism that works by preventing the inheritance of damaged and misfolded proteins by specific cells during division. Asymmetric inheritance of misfolded and aggregated proteins has been shown in bacteria and yeast, but relatively little evidence exists for a similar mechanism in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate, using long-term 4D imaging, that the vimentin intermediate filament establishes mitotic polarity in mammalian cell lines and mediates the asymmetric partitioning of damaged proteins. We show that mammalian JUNQ inclusion bodies containing soluble misfolded proteins are inherited asymmetrically, similarly to JUNQ quality-control inclusions observed in yeast. Mammalian IPOD-like inclusion bodies, meanwhile, are not always inherited by the same cell as the JUNQ. Our study suggests that the mammalian cytoskeleton and intermediate filaments provide the physical scaffold for asymmetric inheritance of dynamic quality-control JUNQ inclusions. Mammalian IPOD inclusions containing amyloidogenic proteins are not partitioned as effectively during mitosis as their counterparts in yeast. These findings provide a valuable mechanistic basis for studying the process of asymmetric inheritance in mammalian cells, including cells potentially undergoing polar divisions, such as differentiating stem cells and cancer cells.

  5. Small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains (SMIFH2 reveals the roles of the formin family of proteins in spindle assembly and asymmetric division in mouse oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available Dynamic actin reorganization is the main driving force for spindle migration and asymmetric cell division in mammalian oocytes. It has been reported that various actin nucleators including Formin-2 are involved in the polarization of the spindle and in asymmetric cell division. In mammals, the formin family is comprised of 15 proteins. However, their individual roles in spindle migration and/or asymmetric division have not been elucidated yet. In this study, we employed a newly developed inhibitor for formin family proteins, small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains (SMIFH2, to assess the functions of the formin family in mouse oocyte maturation. Treatment with SMIFH2 during in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes inhibited maturation by decreasing cytoplasmic and cortical actin levels. In addition, treatment with SMIFH2, especially at higher concentrations (500 μM, impaired the proper formation of meiotic spindles, indicating that formins play a role in meiotic spindle formation. Knockdown of the mDia2 formins caused a similar decrease in oocyte maturation and abnormal spindle morphology, mimicking the phenotype of SMIFH2-treated cells. Collectively, these results suggested that besides Formin-2, the other proteins of the formin, including mDia family play a role in asymmetric division and meiotic spindle formation in mammalian oocytes.

  6. Prokaryotic cell division: flexible and diverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Blaauwen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria have different approaches to position the cell division initiating Z-ring at the correct moment in their cell division cycle. The subsequent maturation into a functional division machine occurs in vastly different species in two steps with appreciable time in

  7. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  8. Regulation of Cell Polarity in Motility and Cell Division in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Dominik; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2017-09-08

    Rod-shaped Myxococcus xanthus cells are polarized with proteins asymmetrically localizing to specific positions. This spatial organization is important for regulation of motility and cell division and changes over time. Dedicated protein modules regulate motility independent of the cell cycle, and cell division dependent on the cell cycle. For motility, a leading-lagging cell polarity is established that is inverted during cellular reversals. Establishment and inversion of this polarity are regulated hierarchically by interfacing protein modules that sort polarized motility proteins to the correct cell poles or cause their relocation between cell poles during reversals akin to a spatial toggle switch. For division, a novel self-organizing protein module that incorporates a ParA ATPase positions the FtsZ-ring at midcell. This review covers recent findings concerning the spatiotemporal regulation of motility and cell division in M. xanthus and illustrates how the study of diverse bacteria may uncover novel mechanisms involved in regulating bacterial cell polarity.

  9. Aspm specifically maintains symmetric proliferative divisions of neuroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jennifer L; Kosodo, Yoichi; Enard, Wolfgang; Pääbo, Svante; Huttner, Wieland B

    2006-07-05

    The ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated) protein has previously been implicated in the determination of human cerebral cortical size, but the cell biological basis of this regulation has not been studied. Here we investigate the role of Aspm in mouse embryonic neuroepithelial (NE) cells, the primary stem and progenitor cells of the mammalian brain. Aspm was found to be concentrated at mitotic spindle poles of NE cells and to be down-regulated with their switch from proliferative to neurogenic divisions. Upon RNA interference in telencephalic NE cells, Aspm mRNA is reduced, mitotic spindle poles lack Aspm protein, and the cleavage plane of NE cells is less frequently oriented perpendicular to the ventricular surface of the neuroepithelium. The alteration in the cleavage plane orientation of NE cells increases the probability that these highly polarized cells undergo asymmetric division, i.e., that apical plasma membrane is inherited by only one of the daughter cells. Concomitant with the resulting increase in abventricular cells in the ventricular zone, a larger proportion of NE cell progeny is found in the neuronal layer, implying a reduction in the number of NE progenitor cells upon Aspm knock-down relative to control. Our results demonstrate that Aspm is crucial for maintaining a cleavage plane orientation that allows symmetric, proliferative divisions of NE cells during brain development. These data provide a cell biological explanation of the primary microcephaly observed in humans with mutations in ASPM, which also has implications for the evolution of mammalian brains.

  10. Asymmetricity Between Sister Cells of Pluripotent Stem Cells at the Onset of Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shogo; Maruyama, Atsushi; Kondo, Yuki; Kano, Ayumu; De Sousa, Olga M; Iwahashi, Masahiro; Hexig, Bayar; Akaike, Toshihiro; Li, Jingyue; Hayashi, Yohei; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2018-02-21

    Various somatic stem cells divide asymmetrically; however, it is not known whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) divide symmetrically or asymmetrically, not only while maintaining an undifferentiated state but also at the onset of differentiation. In this study, we observed single ESCs using time-lapse imaging and compared sister cell pairs derived from the same mother cell in either the maintenance or differentiation medium. Mouse ESCs were cultured on E-cadherin-coated glass-based dishes, which allowed us to trace single cells. The undifferentiated cell state was detected by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Nanog promoter, which is active only in undifferentiated cells. Cell population analysis using flow cytometry showed that the peak width indicating distribution of GFP expression broadened when cells were transferred to the differentiation medium compared to when they were in the maintenance medium. This finding suggested that the population of ESCs became more heterogeneous at the onset of differentiation. Using single-cell analysis by time-lapse imaging, we found that although the total survival ratio decreased by changing to differentiation medium, the one-live-one-dead ratio of sister cell pairs was smaller compared with randomly chosen non-sister cell pairs, defined as an unsynchronized cell pair control, in both media. This result suggested that sister cell pairs were more positively synchronized with each other compared to non-sister cell pairs. The differences in interdivision time (the time interval between mother cell division and the subsequent cell division) between sister cells was smaller than that between non-sister cell pairs in both media, suggesting that sister cells divided synchronously. Although the difference in Nanog-GFP intensity between sister cells was smaller than that between non-sister cells in the maintenance medium, it was the same in differentiation medium, suggesting asymmetrical Nanog-GFP intensity. These

  11. The fencing problem and Coleochaete cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuandi; Dou, Mingya; Zhou, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    The findings in this study suggest that the solution of a boundary value problem for differential equation system can be used to discuss the fencing problem in mathematics and Coleochaete, a green algae, cell division. This differential equation model in parametric expression is used to simulate the two kinds of cell division process, one is for the usual case and the case with a "dead" daughter cell.

  12. Cell Division and Evolution of Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Nicolas; Arcenegui-Siemens, Xavier; Schliecker, Gudrun

    A tissue is a geometrical, space-filling, random cellular network; it remains in this steady state while individual cells divide. Cell division (fragmentation) is a local, elementary topological transformation which establishes statistical equilibrium of the structure. Statistical equilibrium is characterized by observable relations (Lewis, Aboav) between cell shapes, sizes and those of their neighbours, obtained through maximum entropy and topological correlation extending to nearest neighbours only, i.e. maximal randomness. For a two-dimensional tissue (epithelium), the distribution of cell shapes and that of mother and daughter cells can be obtained from elementary geometrical and physical arguments, except for an exponential factor favouring division of larger cells, and exponential and combinatorial factors encouraging a most symmetric division. The resulting distributions are very narrow, and stationarity severely restricts the range of an adjustable structural parameter

  13. Proteomics analysis for asymmetric inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kusunoki, Shunta; Ishibashi, Yuko; Kito, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited. The aim of this study is to propose a proteomics strategy for asymmetrical inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells. During synchronous culture for one generation, newly synthesized proteins were labeled with stable isotope amino acids to discriminate preexisting proteins originally expressed in mother cells, followed by separation of mother and daughter cells using a conventional method based on biotin labeling. Isotope incorporation ratios for individual proteins were quantified using mass spectrometry. We successfully identified 21 proteins whose preexisting versions were asymmetrically inherited in mother cells, including plasma membrane transporter involved in the aging process and organelle-anchoring proteins related to the stress response to misfolded proteins. Thus, our approach would be useful for making catalog of asymmetrically inherited proteins. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M., E-mail: carien.niessen@uni-koeln.de

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  15. An electrostatic model for biological cell division

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, Eshel

    2010-01-01

    Probably the most fundamental processes for biological systems is their ability to create themselves through the use of cell division and cell differentiation. In this work a simple physical model is proposed for biological cell division. The model consists of a positive ionic gradient across the cell membrane, and concentration of charge at the nodes of the spindle and on the chromosomes. A simple calculation, based on Coulomb's Law, shows that under such circumstances a chromosome will tend to break up to its constituent chromatids and that the chromatids will be separated by a distance that is an order of thirty percent of the distance between the spindle nodes. Further repulsion between the nodes will tend to stretch the cell and eventually break the cell membrane between the separated chromatids, leading to cell division. The importance of this work is in continuing the understanding of the electromagnetic basis of cell division and providing it with an analytical model. A central implication of this and...

  16. Asymmetric adsorption in an open electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousiadi, S.; Lelidis, I.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of adsorption-desorption phenomenon of ions in an asymmetric electrolytic cell at open circuit conditions. Our approach is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory for electrolytes and the kinetic model of Langmuir for the description of adsorption-desorption phenomena on the electrodes. When the electrodes are immersed into the solution, selective ion adsorption takes place. It is shown, that the selective ion adsorption is responsible for generating an electrical potential difference between the electrodes of the cell. The analytical expressions for the potential difference and for the charge distribution are calculated. Finally, the time evolution of the system is investigated and the relaxation times of the problem are deduced numerically.

  17. Extralaryngeal division of the recurrent laryngeal nerve: A common and asymmetric anatomical variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludağ, Mehmet; Yetkin, Gürkan; Oran, Ebru Şen; Aygün, Nurcihan; Celayir, Fevzi; İşgör, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Recognition of extralaryngeal branching of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is crucial because prevention of vocal cord paralysis requires preservation of all branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We assessed the prevalence of extralaryngeal branching of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the median branching distance from the point of bifurcation to the entry point of the nerve into the larynx. Material and Methods Prospective operative data on recurrent laryngeal nerve branching were collected from 94 patients who underwent thyroid or parathyroid surgery between September 2011 and May 2012. Results A total of 161 recurrent laryngeal nerves were examined (82 right, 79 left). Overall, 77 (47.8%) of 161 recurrent laryngeal nerves were bifurcated before entering the larynx. There were 36 (43.9%) branching nerves on the right and 41 (51.9%) branching nerves on the left, and there was no significant difference between the sides in terms of branching (p=0.471). Among 67 patients who underwent bilateral exploration, 28.4% were found to have bilateral branching, 40.3% had unilateral branching, and the remaining 31.3% had no branching. The median branching distance was 15 mm (5–60mm). Conclusion Extralaryngeal division of recurrent laryngeal nerve is a common and asymmetric anatomical variant. These variations can be easily recognized if the recurrent laryngeal nerve is identified at the level of the inferior thyroid artery and then dissected totally to the entry point of the larynx. Inadvertent division of a branch may lead to vocal cord palsy postoperatively, even when the surgeon believes the integrity of the nerve has been preserved. PMID:28944327

  18. Prokaryotic cell division: flexible and diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Blaauwen, Tanneke

    2013-12-01

    Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria have different approaches to position the cell division initiating Z-ring at the correct moment in their cell division cycle. The subsequent maturation into a functional division machine occurs in vastly different species in two steps with appreciable time in between these. The function of this time delay is unclear, but may partly be explained by competition for Lipid-II between proteins involved in length growth that interact directly with the Z-ring early in the maturation phase and the proteins involved in septum synthesis. A second possible activity of the early Z-ring might be the monitoring of or the active involvement in DNA segregation through proteins such as ZapA and ZapB/MatP and their homologues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These organisms share several ultrastructural features with the other core chlorophytes (Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae). However, the role of Chlorodendrophycean algae as the evolutionary link between cellular individuality and cellular cooperation has been largely unstudied. Here, we show that ...

  20. Cell-sized asymmetric lipid vesicles facilitate the investigation of asymmetric membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetric lipid giant vesicles have been used to model the biochemical reactions in cell membranes. However, methods for producing asymmetric giant vesicles lead to the inclusion of an organic solvent layer that affects the mechanical and physical characteristics of the membrane. Here we describe the formation of asymmetric giant vesicles that include little organic solvent, and use them to investigate the dynamic responses of lipid molecules in the vesicle membrane. We formed the giant vesicles via the inhomogeneous break-up of a lipid microtube generated by applying a jet flow to an asymmetric planar lipid bilayer. The asymmetric giant vesicles showed a lipid flip-flop behaviour in the membrane, superficially similar to the lipid flip-flop activity observed in apoptotic cells. In vitro synthesis of membrane proteins into the asymmetric giant vesicles revealed that the lipid asymmetry in bilayer membranes improves the reconstitution ratio of membrane proteins. Our asymmetric giant vesicles will be useful in elucidating lipid-lipid and lipid-membrane protein interactions involved in the regulation of cellular functions.

  1. Mechanics of cell division in fission yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fred

    2012-02-01

    Cytokinesis is the stage of cell division in which a cell divides into two. A paradigm of cytokinesis in animal cells is that the actomyosin contractile ring provides the primary force to squeeze the cell into two. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cytokinesis also requires a actomyosin ring, which has been generally assumed to provide the force for cleavage. However, in contrast to animal cells, yeast cells assemble a cell wall septum concomitant with ring contraction and possess large (MPa) internal turgor pressure. Here, we show that the inward force generated by the division apparatus opposes turgor pressure; a decrease in effective turgor pressure leads to an increase in cleavage rate. We show that the ring cannot be the primary force generator. Scaling arguments indicate that the contractile ring can only provide a tiny fraction of the mechanical stress required to overcome turgor. Further, we show that cleavage can occur even in the absence of the contractile ring. Instead of the contractile ring, scaling arguments and modeling suggest that the large forces for cytokinesis are produced by the assembly of cell wall polymers in the growing septum.

  2. Cell Division, Differentiation and Dynamic Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Yomo, Tetsuya

    1993-01-01

    A novel mechanism for cell differentiation is proposed, based on the dynamic clustering in a globally coupled chaotic system. A simple model with metabolic reaction, active transport of chemicals from media, and cell division is found to show three successive stages with the growth of the number of cells; coherent growth, dynamic clustering, and fixed cell differentiation. At the last stage, disparity in activities, germ line segregation, somatic cell differentiation, and homeochaotic stability against external perturbation are found. Our results, in consistency with the experiments of the preceding paper, imply that cell differentiation can occur without a spatial pattern. From dynamical systems viewpoint, the new concept of ``open chaos" is proposed, as a novel and general scenario for systems with growing numbers of elements, also seen in economics and sociology.A

  3. A theory of germinal center B cell selection, division, and exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Mohr, Elodie; Pelletier, Nadége; Zhang, Yang; Victora, Gabriel D; Toellner, Kai-Michael

    2012-07-26

    High-affinity antibodies are generated in germinal centers in a process involving mutation and selection of B cells. Information processing in germinal center reactions has been investigated in a number of recent experiments. These have revealed cell migration patterns, asymmetric cell divisions, and cell-cell interaction characteristics, used here to develop a theory of germinal center B cell selection, division, and exit (the LEDA model). According to this model, B cells selected by T follicular helper cells on the basis of successful antigen processing always return to the dark zone for asymmetric division, and acquired antigen is inherited by one daughter cell only. Antigen-retaining B cells differentiate to plasma cells and leave the germinal center through the dark zone. This theory has implications for the functioning of germinal centers because compared to previous models, high-affinity antibodies appear one day earlier and the amount of derived plasma cells is considerably larger. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Polyhydroxybutyrate Production on Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen; Rahman, Asif; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biological engineering can be utilized to aide the advancement of improved long-term space flight. The potential to use synthetic biology as a platform to biomanufacture desired equipment on demand using the three dimensional (3D) printer on the International Space Station (ISS) gives long-term NASA missions the flexibility to produce materials as needed on site. Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are biodegradable, have properties similar to plastics, and can be produced in Escherichia coli using genetic engineering. Using PHBs during space flight could assist mission success by providing a valuable source of biomaterials that can have many potential applications, particularly through 3D printing. It is well documented that during PHB production E. coli cells can become significantly elongated. The elongation of cells reduces the ability of the cells to divide and thus to produce PHB. I aim to better understand cell division during PHB production, through the design, building, and testing of synthetic biological circuits, and identify how to potentially increase yields of PHB with FtsZ overexpression, the gene responsible for cell division. Ultimately, an increase in the yield will allow more products to be created using the 3D printer on the ISS and beyond, thus aiding astronauts in their missions.

  5. Asymmetric PI3K Signaling Driving Developmental and Regenerative Cell Fate Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsuan W. Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan sibling cells often diverge in activity and identity, suggesting links between growth signals and cell fate. We show that unequal transduction of nutrient-sensitive PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling during cell division bifurcates transcriptional networks and fates of kindred cells. A sibling B lymphocyte with stronger signaling, indexed by FoxO1 inactivation and IRF4 induction, undergoes PI3K-driven Pax5 repression and plasma cell determination, while its sibling with weaker PI3K activity renews a memory or germinal center B cell fate. PI3K-driven effector T cell determination silences TCF1 in one sibling cell, while its PI3K-attenuated sibling self-renews in tandem. Prior to bifurcations achieving irreversible plasma or effector cell fate determination, asymmetric signaling during initial divisions specifies a more proliferative, differentiation-prone lymphocyte in tandem with a more quiescent memory cell sibling. By triggering cell division but transmitting unequal intensity between sibling cells, nutrient-sensitive signaling may be a frequent arbiter of cell fate bifurcations during development and repair.

  6. The cell polarity determinant CDC42 controls division symmetry to block leukemia cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Benjamin; O'Brien, Eric; Moreira, Daniel C; Wunderlich, Mark; Hochstetler, Cindy L; Duan, Xin; Liu, Wei; Orr, Emily; Grimes, H Leighton; Mulloy, James C; Zheng, Yi

    2017-09-14

    As a central regulator of cell polarity, the activity of CDC42 GTPase is tightly controlled in maintaining normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSC/P) functions. We found that transformation of HSC/P to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with increased CDC42 expression and activity in leukemia cells. In a mouse model of AML, the loss of Cdc42 abrogates MLL-AF9 -induced AML development. Furthermore, genetic ablation of CDC42 in both murine and human MLL-AF9 (MA9) cells decreased survival and induced differentiation of the clonogenic leukemia-initiating cells. We show that MLL-AF9 leukemia cells maintain cell polarity in the context of elevated Cdc42-guanosine triphosphate activity, similar to nonmalignant, young HSC/Ps. The loss of Cdc42 resulted in a shift to depolarized AML cells that is associated with a decrease in the frequency of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions producing daughter cells capable of self-renewal. Importantly, we demonstrate that inducible CDC42 suppression in primary human AML cells blocks leukemia progression in a xenograft model. Thus, CDC42 loss suppresses AML cell polarity and division asymmetry, and CDC42 constitutes a useful target to alter leukemia-initiating cell fate for differentiation therapy. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Novel Coiled-Coil Cell Division Factor ZapB Stimulates Z Ring Assembly and Cell Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Gitte; Galli, Elizabeth; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    division. Deletion of zapB resulted in delayed cell division and the formation of ectopic Z rings and spirals whereas overexpression of ZapB resulted in nucleoid condensation and aberrant cell divisions. Localization of ZapB to the divisome depended on FtsZ but not FtsA, ZipA or FtsI and ZapB interacted...

  8. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    the two hormones require further investigation. In order to improve understanding in these areas we aimed to develop and characterise hormone and cell division markers in Lotus japonicus. Using the extensive genetic resources available in L. japonicus, these markers may then be used to develop a more...... comprehensive understanding of specific gene functions. The markers may also be used for identification of particular cell populations, such as early nodule primordia, and used for their isolation and transcriptome profiling. We optimised a robust DII-based auxin accumulation sensor and used this sensor...... together with the transcriptional read-out of DR5 to monitor auxin dynamics during nodulation in L. japonicus. We observed that during infection, auxin accumulates specifically in infected root hairs. Using chemical inhibitors of auxin biosynthesis, we confirmed the requirement for auxin biosynthesis...

  9. Plant cortical microtubule dynamics and cell division plane orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakrabortty, Bandan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis work aimed at a better understanding of the molecular basis of oriented cell division in plant cell. As, the efficiency of plant morphogenesis depends on oriented cell division, this work should contribute  towards a fundamental understanding of the  molecular basis of

  10. Cell Fate Decision Making through Oriented Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to dictate cell fate decisions is critical during animal development. Moreover, faithful execution of this process ensures proper tissue homeostasis throughout adulthood, whereas defects in the molecular machinery involved may contribute to disease. Evolutionarily conserved protein complexes control cell fate decisions across diverse tissues. Maintaining proper daughter cell inheritance patterns of these determinants during mitosis is therefore a fundamental step of the cell fate decision-making process. In this review, we will discuss two key aspects of this fate determinant segregation activity, cortical cell polarity and mitotic spindle orientation, and how they operate together to produce oriented cell divisions that ultimately influence daughter cell fate. Our focus will be directed at the principal underlying molecular mechanisms and the specific cell fate decisions they have been shown to control. PMID:26844213

  11. Ploidy-Dependent Unreductional Meiotic Cell Division in Polyploid Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis includes one round of DNA replication and two successive nuclear divisions, i.e. meiosis I (reductional) and meiosis II (equational). This specialized cell division reduces chromosomes in half and generates haploid gametes in sexual reproduction of eukaryotes. It ensures faithful transmiss...

  12. The significant role of centrosomes in stem cell division and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2011-08-01

    The role of centrosomes in stem cell division has recently been highlighted and further ascribes important functions to centrosomes in stem cell maintenance, cellular differentiation, and development. Advanced cell and molecular studies coupled with immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and live cell imaging of specific centrosome proteins have contributed greatly to our knowledge of centrosome composition, structure, and dynamics and have uncovered new insights into mechanisms of centrosome functions in asymmetric cell division. The establishment of asymmetry and differential positioning of mother and daughter centrosomes during stem cell mitosis is important for allowing one cell to maintain stem cell characteristics while the sibling cell undergoes differentiation. Another key role for centrosomes has been revealed in primary cilia of embryonic stem cells that play significant roles in cellular signaling and are therefore critically important for stem cell decisions. Studies of signaling through primary cilia may contribute important information that may aid in the production of specific cells that are suitable for tissue repair and regeneration in the field of regenerative medicine.

  13. Cell division and death inhibit glassy behaviour of confluent tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Matoz-Fernandez, D A; Sknepnek, Rastko; Barrat, J L; Henkes, S

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of cell division and apopotosis on collective dynamics in two-dimensional epithelial tissues. Our model includes three key ingredients observed across many epithelia, namely cell-cell adhesion, cell death and a cell division process that depends on the surrounding environment. We show a rich non-equilibrium phase diagram depending on the ratio of cell death to cell division and on the adhesion strength. For large apopotosis rates, cells die out and the tissue disintegrates. As the death rate decreases, however, we show, consecutively, the existence of a gas-like phase, a gel-like phase, and a dense confluent (tissue) phase. Most striking is the observation that the tissue is self-melting through its own internal activity, ruling out the existence of any glassy phase.

  14. Cellular Clocks : Coupled Circadian Dispatch and Cell Division Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrow, Martha; Roenneberg, Till

    2004-01-01

    Gating of cell division by the circadian clock is well known, yet its mechanism is little understood. Genetically tractable model systems have led to new hypotheses and questions concerning the coupling of these two cellular cycles.

  15. Numerical investigation of polarization insensitive two-mode division (De)multiplexer based on an asymmetric directional coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Cao Dung; Trinh, M. Tuan; Dang, Hoai Bac; Nguyen, Van Tho

    2017-02-01

    We propose a polarization insensitive two-mode division (de)multiplexer based on a silicon-on-insulator platform operating with a broadband, low insertion and scattering loss, and small crosstalk. By using an asymmetric directional coupler, two-mode (de)multiplexing functions for both polarization TE and TM states can be realized by the numerical simulation. Simulated results using a three dimensional beam propagation method (3D-BPM) incorporated with an effective index method (EIM) show high performance of the device with an operation efficiency above 81.2% (i.e., insertion loss is less than 0.9 dB) in the range of ±5 nm around the central wavelength of 1550 nm. Fabrication tolerances also have proved suitability to current manufacture technologies for the planar waveguides. Besides a low scattering loss of the sidewall roughness and a little influence of dispersion, a small footprint can bring the device to applications of high bitrate and compact on-chip silicon photonic integrated circuits.

  16. LKB1-AMPK modulates nutrient-induced changes in the mode of division of intestinal epithelial crypt cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Katherine; Zhou, Weinan; Dailey, Megan J

    2017-09-01

    Nutrient availability influences intestinal epithelial stem cell proliferation and tissue growth. Increases in food result in a greater number of epithelial cells, villi height and crypt depth. We investigated whether this nutrient-driven expansion of the tissue is the result of a change in the mode of intestinal epithelial stem cell division and if LKB1-AMPK signaling plays a role. We utilized in vivo and in vitro experiments to test this hypothesis. C57BL/6J mice were separated into four groups and fed varying amounts of chow for 18 h: (1) ad libitum, (2) 50% of their average daily intake (3) fasted or (4) fasted for 12 h and refed. Mice were sacrificed, intestinal sections excised and immunohistochemically processed to determine the mitotic spindle orientation. Epithelial organoids in vitro were treated with no (0 mM), low (5 mM) or high (20 mM) amounts of glucose with or without an activator (Metformin) or inhibitor (Compound C) of LKB1-AMPK signaling. Cells were then processed to determine the mode of stem cell division. Fasted mice show a greater % of asymmetrically dividing cells compared with the other feeding groups. Organoids incubated with 0 mM glucose resulted in a greater % of asymmetrically dividing cells compared with the low or high-glucose conditions. In addition, LKB1-AMPK activation attenuated the % of symmetric division normally seen in high-glucose conditions. In contrast, LKB1-AMPK inhibition attenuated the % of asymmetric division normally seen in no glucose conditions. These data suggest that nutrient availability dictates the mode of division and that LKB1-AMPK mediates this nutrient-driven effect on intestinal epithelial stem cell proliferation. Impact statement The underlying cell biology of changes in the polarity of mitotic spindles and its relevance to tissue growth is a new concept and, thus, these data provide novel findings to begin to explain how this process contributes to the regeneration and growth of tissues. We

  17. Defect driven shapes in nematic droplets: analogies with cell division

    CERN Document Server

    Leoni, Marco; Bowick, Mark J; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Building on the striking similarity between the structure of the spindle during mitosis in living cells and nematic textures in confined liquid crystals, we use a continuum model of two-dimensional nematic liquid crystal droplets, to examine the physical aspects of cell division. The model investigates the interplay between bulk elasticity of the microtubule assembly, described as a nematic liquid crystal, and surface elasticity of the cell cortex, modelled as a bounding flexible membrane, in controlling cell shape and division. The centrosomes at the spindle poles correspond to the cores of the topological defects required to accommodate nematic order in a closed geometry. We map out the progression of both healthy bipolar and faulty multi-polar division as a function of an effective parameter that incorporates active processes and controls centrosome separation. A robust prediction, independent of energetic considerations, is that the transition from a single cell to daughters cells occurs at critical value...

  18. Stationary Size Distributions of Growing Cells with Binary and Multiple Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rading, M. M.; Engel, T. A.; Lipowsky, R.; Valleriani, A.

    2011-10-01

    Populations of unicellular organisms that grow under constant environmental conditions are considered theoretically. The size distribution of these cells is calculated analytically, both for the usual process of binary division, in which one mother cell produces always two daughter cells, and for the more complex process of multiple division, in which one mother cell can produce 2 n daughter cells with n=1,2,3,… . The latter mode of division is inspired by the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The uniform response of the whole population to different environmental conditions is encoded in the individual rates of growth and division of the cells. The analytical treatment of the problem is based on size-dependent rules for cell growth and stochastic transition processes for cell division. The comparison between binary and multiple division shows that these different division processes lead to qualitatively different results for the size distribution and the population growth rates.

  19. Drosophila Hey is a target of Notch in asymmetric divisions during embryonic and larval neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastirioti, Maria; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Koumbanakis, Konstantinos A; Zacharioudaki, Evanthia; Deligiannaki, Myrto; Wech, Irmgard; Almeida, Mara; Preiss, Anette; Bray, Sarah; Delidakis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    bHLH-O proteins are a subfamily of the basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors characterized by an 'Orange' protein-protein interaction domain. Typical members are the Hairy/E(spl), or Hes, proteins, well studied in their ability, among others, to suppress neuronal differentiation in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Hes proteins are often effectors of Notch signalling. In vertebrates, another bHLH-O protein group, the Hey proteins, have also been shown to be Notch targets and to interact with Hes. We have studied the single Drosophila Hey orthologue. We show that it is primarily expressed in a subset of newly born neurons, which receive Notch signalling during their birth. Unlike in vertebrates, however, Hey is not expressed in precursor cells and does not block neuronal differentiation. It rather promotes one of two alternative fates that sibling neurons adopt at birth. Although in the majority of cases Hey is a Notch target, it is also expressed independently of Notch in some lineages, most notably the larval mushroom body. The availability of Hey as a Notch readout has allowed us to study Notch signalling during the genesis of secondary neurons in the larval central nervous system.

  20. Microtubule networks for plant cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de Jeroen; Mulder, B.M.; Janson, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    During cytokinesis the cytoplasm of a cell is divided to form two daughter cells. In animal cells, the existing plasma membrane is first constricted and then abscised to generate two individual plasma membranes. Plant cells on the other hand divide by forming an interior dividing wall, the so-called

  1. Division of Labor in Biofilms: the Ecology of Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The dense aggregation of cells on a surface, as seen in biofilms, inevitably results in both environmental and cellular heterogeneity. For example, nutrient gradients can trigger cells to differentiate into various phenotypic states. Not only do cells adapt physiologically to the local environmental conditions, but they also differentiate into cell types that interact with each other. This allows for task differentiation and, hence, the division of labor. In this article, we focus on cell differentiation and the division of labor in three bacterial species: Myxococcus xanthus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. During biofilm formation each of these species differentiates into distinct cell types, in some cases leading to cooperative interactions. The division of labor and the cooperative interactions between cell types are assumed to yield an emergent ecological benefit. Yet in most cases the ecological benefits have yet to be elucidated. A notable exception is M. xanthus, in which cell differentiation within fruiting bodies facilitates the dispersal of spores. We argue that the ecological benefits of the division of labor might best be understood when we consider the dynamic nature of both biofilm formation and degradation.

  2. Systematic analysis of asymmetric partitioning of yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells reveals “aging factors” and mechanism of lifespan asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; McCormick, Mark A.; Zheng, Jiashun; Xie, Zhengwei; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiyama, Scott; El-Samad, Hana; Ouyang, Qi; Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K.; Li, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Budding yeast divides asymmetrically, giving rise to a mother cell that progressively ages and a daughter cell with full lifespan. It is generally assumed that mother cells retain damaged, lifespan limiting materials (“aging factors”) through asymmetric division. However, the identity of these aging factors and the mechanisms through which they limit lifespan remain poorly understood. Using a flow cytometry-based, high-throughput approach, we quantified the asymmetric partitioning of the yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells during cell division, discovering 74 mother-enriched and 60 daughter-enriched proteins. While daughter-enriched proteins are biased toward those needed for bud construction and genome maintenance, mother-enriched proteins are biased towards those localized in the plasma membrane and vacuole. Deletion of 23 of the 74 mother-enriched proteins leads to lifespan extension, a fraction that is about six times that of the genes picked randomly from the genome. Among these lifespan-extending genes, three are involved in endosomal sorting/endosome to vacuole transport, and three are nitrogen source transporters. Tracking the dynamic expression of specific mother-enriched proteins revealed that their concentration steadily increases in the mother cells as they age, but is kept relatively low in the daughter cells via asymmetric distribution. Our results suggest that some mother-enriched proteins may increase to a concentration that becomes deleterious and lifespan-limiting in aged cells, possibly by upsetting homeostasis or leading to aberrant signaling. Our study provides a comprehensive resource for analyzing asymmetric cell division and aging in yeast, which should also be valuable for understanding similar phenomena in other organisms. PMID:26351681

  3. Systematic analysis of asymmetric partitioning of yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells reveals "aging factors" and mechanism of lifespan asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; McCormick, Mark A; Zheng, Jiashun; Xie, Zhengwei; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiyama, Scott; El-Samad, Hana; Ouyang, Qi; Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K; Li, Hao

    2015-09-22

    Budding yeast divides asymmetrically, giving rise to a mother cell that progressively ages and a daughter cell with full lifespan. It is generally assumed that mother cells retain damaged, lifespan limiting materials ("aging factors") through asymmetric division. However, the identity of these aging factors and the mechanisms through which they limit lifespan remain poorly understood. Using a flow cytometry-based, high-throughput approach, we quantified the asymmetric partitioning of the yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells during cell division, discovering 74 mother-enriched and 60 daughter-enriched proteins. While daughter-enriched proteins are biased toward those needed for bud construction and genome maintenance, mother-enriched proteins are biased towards those localized in the plasma membrane and vacuole. Deletion of 23 of the 74 mother-enriched proteins leads to lifespan extension, a fraction that is about six times that of the genes picked randomly from the genome. Among these lifespan-extending genes, three are involved in endosomal sorting/endosome to vacuole transport, and three are nitrogen source transporters. Tracking the dynamic expression of specific mother-enriched proteins revealed that their concentration steadily increases in the mother cells as they age, but is kept relatively low in the daughter cells via asymmetric distribution. Our results suggest that some mother-enriched proteins may increase to a concentration that becomes deleterious and lifespan-limiting in aged cells, possibly by upsetting homeostasis or leading to aberrant signaling. Our study provides a comprehensive resource for analyzing asymmetric cell division and aging in yeast, which should also be valuable for understanding similar phenomena in other organisms.

  4. Indole prevents Escherichia coli cell division by modulating membrane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimerel, Catalin; Field, Christopher M.; Piñero-Fernandez, Silvia; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Summers, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Indole is a bacterial signalling molecule that blocks E. coli cell division at concentrations of 3–5 mM. We have shown that indole is a proton ionophore and that this activity is key to the inhibition of division. By reducing the electrochemical potential across the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli, indole deactivates MinCD oscillation and prevents formation of the FtsZ ring that is a prerequisite for division. This is the first example of a natural ionophore regulating a key biological process. Our findings have implications for our understanding of membrane biology, bacterial cell cycle control and potentially for the design of antibiotics that target the cell membrane. PMID:22387460

  5. Memorizing Shape to Orient Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Marcus; Dahmann, Christian

    2016-03-21

    A century ago, Oscar Hertwig discovered that cells orient their cleavage plane orthogonal to their long axis. Reporting recently in Nature, Bosveld et al. (2016) shed light on how, showing that NuMA/Mud localization at tricellular junctions provides mitotic cells with the memory of interphase shape used to orient cleavage plane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial Cell Wall Growth, Shape and Division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derouaux, A.; Terrak, M.; den Blaauwen, T.; Vollmer, W.; Remaut, H.; Fronzes, R.

    2014-01-01

    The shape of a bacterial cell is maintained by its peptidoglycan sacculus that completely surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane. During growth the sacculus is enlarged by peptidoglycan synthesis complexes that are controlled by components linked to the cytoskeleton and, in Gram-negative bacteria, by

  7. Polyalkoxyflavonoids as inhibitors of cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. V.; Semenova, M. N.

    2015-02-01

    Being structural analogues of natural microtubule-destabilizing cytostatics, polyalkoxyflavonoids represent a promising class of compounds for anticancer drug design. The review covers synthetic routes to various polyalkoxyflavonoids and the results of biological assays in vitro on human cancer cells and in vivo using sea urchin embryos as a model. Mechanisms of action and structure-relationship activity for polyalkoxyflavonoids are discussed. The bibliography includes 151 references.

  8. Eukaryotic checkpoints are absent in the cell division cycle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    have demonstrated several unique features which suggest that the regulation of cell division in this parasite is .... showed that the DNA content of each nucleus varied from. 1n to 10n on an average (Das and Lohia 2002). ..... A 1997 Primary structure of Entamoeba histolytica γ tubulin and localization of amoebic microtubule ...

  9. A crucial step in cell division identified | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    When cell division doesn’t go according to plan, the resulting daughter cells can become unstable or even cancerous. A team of CCR investigators has now discovered a crucial step required for normal cell division to occur. Read more...

  10. Chromosome replication, cell growth, division and shape: a personal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieh eZaritsky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The origins of Molecular Biology and Bacterial Physiology are reviewed, from our personal standpoints, emphasizing the coupling between bacterial growth, chromosome replication and cell division, dimensions and shape. Current knowledge is discussed with historical perspective, summarizing past and present achievements and enlightening ideas for future studies. An interactive simulation program of the Bacterial Cell Division Cycle (BCD, described as The Central Dogma in Bacteriology, is briefly represented. The coupled process of transcription/translation of genes encoding membrane proteins and insertion into the membrane (so-called transertion is invoked as the functional relationship between the only two unique macromolecules in the cell, DNA and peptidoglycan embodying the nucleoid and the sacculus respectively. We envision that nucleoid complexity, defined as the weighted-mean DNA content associated with the replication terminus, is directly related to cell shape through the transertion process. Accordingly, the primary signal for cell division transmitted by DNA dynamics (replication, transcription and segregation to the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery is of a physico-chemical nature, eg stress in the plasma membrane, relieving nucleoid occlusion in the cell's center hence enabling the divisome to assemble and function between segregated daughter nucleoids.

  11. The NAC domain transcription factors FEZ and SOMBRERO control the orientation of cell division plane in Arabidopsis root stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Viola; Bauch, Marion; Bennett, Tom; Campilho, Ana; Wolkenfelt, Harald; Xu, Jian; Haseloff, Jim; Scheres, Ben

    2008-12-01

    Because plant cells do not migrate, cell division planes are crucial determinants of plant cellular architecture. In Arabidopsis roots, stringent control of cell divisions leads to a virtually invariant division pattern, including those that create new tissue layers. However, the mechanisms that control oriented cell divisions are hitherto poorly understood. Here, we reveal one such mechanism in which FEZ and SOMBRERO (SMB), two plant-specific NAC-domain transcription factors, control the delicately tuned reorientation and timing of cell division in a subset of stem cells. FEZ is expressed in root cap stem cells, where it promotes periclinal, root cap-forming cell divisions. In contrast, SMB negatively regulates FEZ activity, repressing stem cell-like divisions in the root cap daughter cells. FEZ becomes expressed in predivision stem cells, induces oriented cell division, and activates expression of its negative regulator, SMB, thus generating a feedback loop for controlled switches in cell division plane.

  12. Spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Mochizuki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation is a key regulator of tissue morphogenesis. We examined cell proliferation and cell division in zebrafish lens epithelium by visualizing cell-cycle phases and nuclear positions, using fluorescent-labeled geminin and histone proteins. Proliferation was low in the anterior region of lens epithelium and higher in the marginal zone anterior to the equator, suggesting that the proliferation zone, called the germinative zone, is formed in zebrafish lens. Interestingly, cell-division orientation was biased longitudinally in the anterior region, shifted from longitudinal to circumferential along the anterior–posterior axis of lens sphere, and was biased circumferentially in the peripheral region. These data suggest that cell-division orientation is spatially regulated in zebrafish lens epithelium. The Hertwig rule indicates that cells tend to divide along their long axes. Orientation of long axes and cell division were biased similarly in zebrafish lens epithelium, suggesting that cell geometry correlates with cell-division orientation. A cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, is expressed in lens epithelium. In a zebrafish e-cadherin mutant, the long axes and cell-division orientation were shifted more longitudinally. These data suggest that E-cadherin is required for the spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium.

  13. Formation of a cylindrical bridge in cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Daniel; Schmidt, Laura E.; Reichl, Elizabeth; Ren, Yixin; Robinson, Douglas; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2007-11-01

    In nature, the shape transition associated with the division of a mother cell into two daughter cells proceeds via a variety of routes. In the cylinder-thinning route, which has been observed in Dictyostelium and most animal cells, the mother cell first forms a broad bridge-like region, also known as a furrow, between two daughter cells. The furrow then rapidly evolves into a cylindrical bridge, which thins and eventually severs the mother cell into two. The fundamental mechanism underlying this division route is not understood. Recent experiments on Dictyostelium found that, while the cylinder-thinning route persists even when key actin cross-linking proteins are missing, it is disrupted by the removal of force-generating myosin-II proteins. Other measurements revealed that mutant cells lacking myosin-II have a much more uniform tension over the cell surface than wild-type cells. This suggests that tension variation may be important. Here we use a fluid model, previously shown to reproduce the thinning dynamics [Zhang & Robinson, PNAS 102, 7186 (2005)], to test this idea. Consistent with the experiments, the model shows that the cylinder formation process occurs regardless of the exact viscoelastic properties of the cell. In contrast to the experiments, a tension variation in the model hinders, rather then expedites, the cylinder formation.

  14. Cell division orientation is coupled to cell-cell adhesion by the E-cadherin/LGN complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloerich, Martijn; Bianchini, Julie M.; Siemers, Kathleen A.; Cohen, Daniel J.; Nelson, W. James

    2017-01-01

    Both cell-cell adhesion and oriented cell division play prominent roles in establishing tissue architecture, but it is unclear how they might be coordinated. Here, we demonstrate that the cell-cell adhesion protein E-cadherin functions as an instructive cue for cell division orientation. This is

  15. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  16. Compressible cell gas models for asymmetric fluid criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Orkoulas, Gerassimos

    2017-03-01

    We thoroughly describe a class of models recently presented by Fisher and coworkers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 040601 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.040601. The crucial feature of such models, termed compressible cell gases (CCGs), is that the individual cell volumes of a lattice gas are allowed to fluctuate. They are studied via the seldom-used (μ , p , T ) ensemble, which leads to their exact mapping onto the Ising model. Remarkably, CCGs obey complete scaling, a formulation for the thermodynamic behavior of fluids near the gas-liquid critical point that accommodates features inherent to the asymmetric nature of this phase transition like the Yang-Yang (YY) and singular coexistence-curve diameter anomalies. The CCG0 models generated when volumes vary freely reveal local free volume fluctuations as the origin of these phenomena. Local energy-volume coupling is found to be another relevant microscopic factor. Furthermore, the CCG class is greatly extended by using the decoration transformation, with an interesting example being the Sastry-Debenedetti-Sciortino-Stanley model for hydrogen bonding in low-temperature water. The magnitude of anomalies is characterized by a single parameter, the YY ratio, which for the models so far considered here ranges from -∞ to 1/2 .

  17. Cell division control by the Chromosomal Passenger Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, Maike S. van der; Hengeveld, Rutger C.C.; Horst, Armando van der; Lens, Susanne M.A., E-mail: s.m.a.lens@umcutrecht.nl

    2012-07-15

    The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) consisting of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin, is essential for genomic stability by controlling multiple processes during both nuclear and cytoplasmic division. In mitosis it ensures accurate segregation of the duplicated chromosomes by regulating the mitotic checkpoint, destabilizing incorrectly attached spindle microtubules and by promoting the axial shortening of chromosomal arms in anaphase. During cytokinesis the CPC most likely prevents chromosome damage by imposing an abscission delay when a chromosome bridge connects the two daughter cells. Moreover, by controlling proper cytoplasmic division, the CPC averts tetraploidization. This review describes recent insights on how the CPC is capable of conducting its various functions in the dividing cell to ensure chromosomal stability.

  18. Correlation between cationic lipid-based transfection and cell division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchenbuechler, Inka; Kirchenbuechler, David; Elbaum, Michael, E-mail: michael@elbaum.ac.il

    2016-07-01

    We evaluate the temporal relation between protein expression by cationic lipid-mediated transfection and cell division using time lapse fluorescence microscopy. Detailed image analysis provides new insights on the single cell level while simultaneously achieving appropriate statistics. Earlier evidence by less direct methods such as flow cytometry indicates a primary route for transfection involving nuclear envelope breakdown, but also suggests the existence of a pathway independent of mitosis. We confirm and quantify both mechanisms. We found the timing for successful transfection to be unexpectedly flexible, contrary to assertions of a narrow time window. Specifically, cells dividing more than 24 h after exposure to the transfection medium express the probed protein at a comparable level to cells in a mitotic state during or shortly after transfection. This finding can have a profound impact on the guidance and development of non-viral gene delivery materials. - Highlights: • Cationic lipid-based transfection supports protein expression without cell division. • Protein expression is unrelated to cell cycle status at the time of transfection. • Time-lapse imaging provides direct evaluation without statistical averaging. • Lipoplex dissociation is a likely target for improvement of transfection efficiency.

  19. The mechanics of microtubule networks in cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forth, Scott; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2017-06-05

    The primary goal of a dividing somatic cell is to accurately and equally segregate its genome into two new daughter cells. In eukaryotes, this process is performed by a self-organized structure called the mitotic spindle. It has long been appreciated that mechanical forces must be applied to chromosomes. At the same time, the network of microtubules in the spindle must be able to apply and sustain large forces to maintain spindle integrity. Here we consider recent efforts to measure forces generated within microtubule networks by ensembles of key proteins. New findings, such as length-dependent force generation, protein clustering by asymmetric friction, and entropic expansion forces will help advance models of force generation needed for spindle function and maintaining integrity. © 2017 Forth and Kapoor.

  20. The tension at the top of the animal pole decreases during meiotic cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuko K Satoh

    Full Text Available Meiotic maturation is essential for the reproduction procedure of many animals. During this process an oocyte produces a large egg cell and tiny polar bodies by highly asymmetric division. In this study, to fully understand the sophisticated spatiotemporal regulation of accurate oocyte meiotic division, we focused on the global and local changes in the tension at the surface of the starfish (Asterina pectinifera oocyte in relation to the surface actin remodeling. Before the onset of the bulge formation, the tension at the animal pole globally decreased, and started to increase after the onset of the bulge formation. Locally, at the onset of the bulge formation, tension at the top of the animal pole began to decrease, whereas that at the base of the bulge remarkably increased. As the bulge grew, the tension at the base of the bulge additionally increased. Such a change in the tension at the surface was similar to the changing pattern of actin distribution. Therefore, meiotic cell division was initiated by the bulging of the cortex, which had been weakened by actin reduction, and was followed by contraction at the base of the bulge, which had been reinforced by actin accumulation. The force generation system is assumed to allow the meiotic apparatus to move just under the membrane in the small polar body. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of the tension at the surface and the cortical actin distribution indicated another sophisticated feature, namely that the contraction at the base of the bulge was more vigorous than was presumed based on the actin distribution. These features of the force generation system will ensure the precise chromosome segregation necessary to produce a normal ovum with high accuracy in the meiotic maturation.

  1. Desynchronizing Embryonic Cell Division Waves Reveals the Robustness of Xenopus laevis Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Graham A; Gelens, Lendert; Baker, Julie C; Ferrell, James E

    2017-10-03

    The early Xenopus laevis embryo is replete with dynamic spatial waves. One such wave, the cell division wave, emerges from the collective cell division timing of first tens and later hundreds of cells throughout the embryo. Here, we show that cell division waves do not propagate between neighboring cells and do not rely on cell-to-cell coupling to maintain their division timing. Instead, intrinsic variation in division period autonomously and gradually builds these striking patterns of cell division. Disrupting this pattern of division by placing embryos in a temperature gradient resulted in highly asynchronous entry to the midblastula transition and misexpression of the mesodermal marker Xbra. Remarkably, this gene expression defect is corrected during involution, resulting in delayed yet normal Xbra expression and viable embryos. This implies the existence of a previously unknown mechanism for normalizing mesodermal gene expression during involution. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Björn; Bauwens, Andreas; Vollmer, Angelika; Ketelhut, Steffi; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Müthing, Johannes; Karch, Helge; von Bally, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) enables quantitative multifocus phase contrast imaging for nondestructive technical inspection and live cell analysis. Time-lapse investigations on human brain microvascular endothelial cells demonstrate the use of DHM for label-free dynamic quantitative monitoring of cell division of mother cells into daughter cells. Cytokinetic DHM analysis provides future applications in toxicology and cancer research.

  3. Correlation between cationic lipid-based transfection and cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchenbuechler, Inka; Kirchenbuechler, David; Elbaum, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We evaluate the temporal relation between protein expression by cationic lipid-mediated transfection and cell division using time lapse fluorescence microscopy. Detailed image analysis provides new insights on the single cell level while simultaneously achieving appropriate statistics. Earlier evidence by less direct methods such as flow cytometry indicates a primary route for transfection involving nuclear envelope breakdown, but also suggests the existence of a pathway independent of mitosis. We confirm and quantify both mechanisms. We found the timing for successful transfection to be unexpectedly flexible, contrary to assertions of a narrow time window. Specifically, cells dividing more than 24h after exposure to the transfection medium express the probed protein at a comparable level to cells in a mitotic state during or shortly after transfection. This finding can have a profound impact on the guidance and development of non-viral gene delivery materials. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Accelerated cell divisions drive the outgrowth of the regenerating spinal cord in axolotls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rost, Fabian; Rodrigo Albors, Aida; Mazurov, Vladimir; Brusch, Lutz; Deutsch, Andreas; Tanaka, Elly M; Chara, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    .... Previously, we showed that regenerating stem cells in the axolotl spinal cord revert to a molecular state resembling embryonic neuroepithelial cells and functionally acquire rapid proliferative divisions...

  5. Huntingtin Regulates Mammary Stem Cell Division and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Elias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation during mammary gland morphogenesis. Here, we report the presence of huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington’s disease, in mouse mammary basal and luminal cells throughout mammogenesis. Keratin 5-driven depletion of huntingtin results in a decreased pool and specification of basal and luminal progenitors, and altered mammary morphogenesis. Analysis of mitosis in huntingtin-depleted basal progenitors reveals mitotic spindle misorientation. In mammary cell culture, huntingtin regulates spindle orientation in a dynein-dependent manner. Huntingtin is targeted to spindle poles through its interaction with dynein and promotes the accumulation of NUMA and LGN. Huntingtin is also essential for the cortical localization of dynein, dynactin, NUMA, and LGN by regulating their kinesin 1-dependent trafficking along astral microtubules. We thus suggest that huntingtin is a component of the pathway regulating the orientation of mammary stem cell division, with potential implications for their self-renewal and differentiation properties.

  6. High incidence of non-random template strand segregation and asymmetric fate determination in dividing stem cells and their progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Conboy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Decades ago, the "immortal strand hypothesis" was proposed as a means by which stem cells might limit acquiring mutations that could give rise to cancer, while continuing to proliferate for the life of an organism. Originally based on observations in embryonic cells, and later studied in terms of stem cell self-renewal, this hypothesis has remained largely unaccepted because of few additional reports, the rarity of the cells displaying template strand segregation, and alternative interpretations of experiments involving single labels or different types of labels to follow template strands. Using sequential pulses of halogenated thymidine analogs (bromodeoxyuridine [BrdU], chlorodeoxyuridine [CldU], and iododeoxyuridine [IdU], and analyzing stem cell progeny during induced regeneration in vivo, we observed extraordinarily high frequencies of segregation of older and younger template strands during a period of proliferative expansion of muscle stem cells. Furthermore, template strand co-segregation was strongly associated with asymmetric cell divisions yielding daughters with divergent fates. Daughter cells inheriting the older templates retained the more immature phenotype, whereas daughters inheriting the newer templates acquired a more differentiated phenotype. These data provide compelling evidence of template strand co-segregation based on template age and associated with cell fate determination, suggest that template strand age is monitored during stem cell lineage progression, and raise important caveats for the interpretation of label-retaining cells.

  7. Evidence for equal size cell divisions during gametogenesis in a marine green alga Monostroma angicava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Tatsuya; Horinouchi, Yusuke; Sasaki, Hironobu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-03

    In cell divisions, relative size of daughter cells should play fundamental roles in gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Differences in gamete size between the two mating types underlie sexual selection. Size of daughter cells is a key factor to regulate cell divisions during cleavage. In cleavage, the form of cell divisions (equal/unequal in size) determines the developmental fate of each blastomere. However, strict validation of the form of cell divisions is rarely demonstrated. We cannot distinguish between equal and unequal cell divisions by analysing only the mean size of daughter cells, because their means can be the same. In contrast, the dispersion of daughter cell size depends on the forms of cell divisions. Based on this, we show that gametogenesis in the marine green alga, Monostroma angicava, exhibits equal size cell divisions. The variance and the mean of gamete size (volume) of each mating type measured agree closely with the prediction from synchronized equal size cell divisions. Gamete size actually takes only discrete values here. This is a key theoretical assumption made to explain the diversified evolution of isogamy and anisogamy in marine green algae. Our results suggest that germ cells adopt equal size cell divisions during gametogenesis.

  8. Circadian Clock, Cell Division, and Cancer: From Molecules to Organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Anton

    2017-01-01

    As a response to environmental changes driven by the Earth’s axial rotation, most organisms evolved an internal biological timer—the so called circadian clock—which regulates physiology and behavior in a rhythmic fashion. Emerging evidence suggests an intimate interplay between the circadian clock and another fundamental rhythmic process, the cell cycle. However, the precise mechanisms of this connection are not fully understood. Disruption of circadian rhythms has a profound impact on cell division and cancer development and, vice versa, malignant transformation causes disturbances of the circadian clock. Conventional knowledge attributes tumor suppressor properties to the circadian clock. However, this implication might be context-dependent, since, under certain conditions, the clock can also promote tumorigenesis. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular links regulating the physiological balance between the two cycles will have potential significance for the treatment of cancer and associated disorders. PMID:28425940

  9. Cell Division, a new open access online forum for and from the cell cycle community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaldis Philipp

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cell Division is a new, open access, peer-reviewed online journal that publishes cutting-edge articles, commentaries and reviews on all exciting aspects of cell cycle control in eukaryotes. A major goal of this new journal is to publish timely and significant studies on the aberrations of the cell cycle network that occur in cancer and other diseases.

  10. Tomato fruit growth : integrating cell division, cell growth and endoreduplication by experimentation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanwoua, J.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: cell division, cell growth, cell endoreduplication, fruit growth, genotype, G×E interaction, model, tomato. Fruit size is a major component of fruit yield and quality of many crops. Variations in fruit size can be tremendous due to genotypic and environmental factors. The mechanisms

  11. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Thomas W.

    2000-02-29

    Research in the latter part of the grant period was divided into two parts: (1) expansion of the macromolecular tool kit for studying plant cell division; (2) experiments in which the roles played by plant cell cycle regulators were to be cast in the light of the emerging yeast and animal cell paradigm for molecular control of the mitotic cycle. The first objectives were accomplished to a very satisfactory degree. With regard to the second part of the project, we were driven to change our objectives for two reasons. First, the families of cell cycle control genes that we cloned encoded such closely related members that the prospects for success at raising distinguishing antisera against each were sufficiently dubious as to be impractical. Epitope tagging is not feasible in Pisum sativum, our experimental system, as this species is not realistically transformable. Therefore, differentiating the roles of diverse cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was problematic. Secondly, our procedure for generating mitotically synchronized pea root meristems for biochemical studies was far too labor intensive for the proposed experiments. We therefore shifted our objectives to identifying connections between the conserved proteins of the cell cycle engine and factors that interface it with plant physiology and development. In this, we have obtained some very exciting results.

  12. Celebrating Soft Matter's 10th Anniversary: Cell division: a source of active stress in cellular monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doostmohammadi, Amin; Thampi, Sumesh P; Saw, Thuan B; Lim, Chwee T; Ladoux, Benoit; Yeomans, Julia M

    2015-10-07

    We introduce the notion of cell division-induced activity and show that the cell division generates extensile forces and drives dynamical patterns in cell assemblies. Extending the hydrodynamic models of lyotropic active nematics we describe turbulent-like velocity fields that are generated by the cell division in a confluent monolayer of cells. We show that the experimentally measured flow field of dividing Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells is reproduced by our modeling approach. Division-induced activity acts together with intrinsic activity of the cells in extensile and contractile cell assemblies to change the flow and director patterns and the density of topological defects. Finally we model the evolution of the boundary of a cellular colony and compare the fingering instabilities induced by cell division to experimental observations on the expansion of MDCK cell cultures.

  13. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-12-04

    Dec 4, 2015 ... Office, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, GSK, BP, Shell and BAE for the benefit of the India Higher Education. Sector and the UK Higher Education Sector. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the funding bodies. The authors wish to thank Dr Frederick Leliaert, Dr Sha- shi B Babbar, Venkat ...

  14. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Arora, M.; Anil, A.C.; Burgess, K.; Delany, J.E.; Mesbahi, E.

    algae as the evolutionary link between cellular individuality and cellular cooperation has been largely unstudied. Here, we show that clonal populations of a unicellular chlorophyte, Tetraselmis indica, consist of morphologically and ultrastructurally...

  15. Proximal tubular epithelial cells are generated by division of differentiated cells in the healthy kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogetseder, Alexander; Palan, Thomas; Bacic, Desa; Kaissling, Brigitte; Le Hir, Michel

    2007-02-01

    We searched for evidence for a contribution of stem cells in growth of the proximal S3 segments of healthy rats. According to the stem cell model, stem cells are undifferentiated and slow cycling; the bulk of cycling cells are transit amplifying, rapidly cycling cells. We show the following. 1) By continuous application of a thymidine analog (ThA) for 7 days, S3 proximal epithelial cells in healthy kidneys display a high-cycling rate. 2) Slow-cycling cells, identified by lack of ThA uptake during 14 days of continuous ThA application up to death and by expression of the cell cycle protein Ki67 at death, have the same degree of differentiation as quiescent cells. 3) To detect rapidly cycling cells, rats were killed at various time points after injection of a ThA. Double immunofluorescence for ThA and a cell cycle marker was performed, with colocalization indicating successive divisions. During one week after division, daughter cells display a very low proliferation rate, indicating the absence of rapidly cycling cells. 4) Labeling with cyclin D1 showed that this low proliferation rate is due to cycle arrest. 5) More than 50% of the S3 cells entered the cell cycle 36 h after a potent proliferative stimulus (lead acetate injection). We conclude that generation of new cells in the proximal tubule relies on division of differentiated, normally slow-cycling cells. These may rapidly enter the cycle under an adequate stimulus.

  16. Both asymmetric mitotic segregation and cell-to-cell invasion are required for stable germline transmission of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Landmann

    2012-04-01

    Parasitic filarial nematodes that belong to the Onchocercidae family live in mutualism with Wolbachia endosymbionts. We developed whole-mount techniques to follow the segregation patterns of Wolbachia through the somatic and germline lineages of four filarial species. These studies reveal multiple evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that are required for Wolbachia localization to the germline. During the initial embryonic divisions, Wolbachia segregate asymmetrically such that they concentrate in the posteriorly localized P2 blastomere, a precursor to the adult germline and hypodermal lineages. Surprisingly, in the next division they are excluded from the germline precursor lineage. Rather, they preferentially segregate to the C blastomere, a source of posterior hypodermal cells. Localization to the germline is accomplished by a distinct mechanism in which Wolbachia invade first the somatic gonadal cells close to the ovarian distal tip cell, the nematode stem cell niche, from the hypodermis. This tropism is associated with a cortical F-actin disruption, suggesting an active engulfment. Significantly, germline invasion occurs only in females, explaining the lack of Wolbachia in the male germline. Once in the syncytial environment of the ovaries, Wolbachia rely on the rachis to multiply and disperse into the germ cells. The utilization of cell-to-cell invasion for germline colonization may indicate an ancestral mode of horizontal transfer that preceded the acquisition of the mutualism.

  17. Both asymmetric mitotic segregation and cell-to-cell invasion are required for stable germline transmission of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Frédéric; Bain, Odile; Martin, Coralie; Uni, Shigehiko; Taylor, Mark J; Sullivan, William

    2012-06-15

    Parasitic filarial nematodes that belong to the Onchocercidae family live in mutualism with Wolbachia endosymbionts. We developed whole-mount techniques to follow the segregation patterns of Wolbachia through the somatic and germline lineages of four filarial species. These studies reveal multiple evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that are required for Wolbachia localization to the germline. During the initial embryonic divisions, Wolbachia segregate asymmetrically such that they concentrate in the posteriorly localized P(2) blastomere, a precursor to the adult germline and hypodermal lineages. Surprisingly, in the next division they are excluded from the germline precursor lineage. Rather, they preferentially segregate to the C blastomere, a source of posterior hypodermal cells. Localization to the germline is accomplished by a distinct mechanism in which Wolbachia invade first the somatic gonadal cells close to the ovarian distal tip cell, the nematode stem cell niche, from the hypodermis. This tropism is associated with a cortical F-actin disruption, suggesting an active engulfment. Significantly, germline invasion occurs only in females, explaining the lack of Wolbachia in the male germline. Once in the syncytial environment of the ovaries, Wolbachia rely on the rachis to multiply and disperse into the germ cells. The utilization of cell-to-cell invasion for germline colonization may indicate an ancestral mode of horizontal transfer that preceded the acquisition of the mutualism.

  18. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Hoest, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis

    2017-06-01

    This study included 238 good morphology blastocysts, which were transferred after vitrification-warming to 152 women by single blastocyst transfer in Holbæk Fertility Clinic, Denmark. Time-lapse recordings of transferred good morphology blastocysts were reassessed to recognize every abnormal cell division (ACD) from the 1st to the 4th cell cycle. ACDs were distinguished as failed cell divisions and multi-cell divisions. ACDs were recognized in 37.0% (no. 88/238) of good morphology blastocysts that were vitrified-warmed and transferred in our clinic. Good morphology blastocysts with ACDs showed a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd: 18.5%; 4th: 18.1%). More blastocysts presented failed cell divisions (no. 95) than multi-cell divisions (no. 14). Live births were achieved from blastocysts showing multi-cell divisions at any cell cycle and failed cell divisions from the 2nd cell cycle. Analyses of the subgroup of first blastocyst transferred to each patient showed similar to results. In conclusion, good morphology blastocysts presenting ACDs can result in live birth although lower compared to blastocysts with solely regular cell division. Pre-implantation embryos in vitro may undergo self-selection or correcting processes. This supports the transfer of blastocysts instead of cleavage stage embryos, giving first priority to blastocyst showing solely regular cell divisions, and giving second priority to blastocysts presenting ACDs at any cell cycle. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors affecting daughter cells' arrangement during the early bacterial divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Tzu Su

    Full Text Available On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath substratum may affect the arrangement of the daughter bacteria. To test this hypothesis, bacterial division on hyaluronic acid (HA gel, as an alternative substratum, was examined. Consistent with our proposition, the HA gel differs from agar by suppressing the typical side-by-side alignments to a rare population. Examination of bacterial surface molecules that may contribute to the daughter cells' arrangement yielded an observation that, with disrupted lpp, the E. coli daughter cells increasingly formed non-typical patterns, i.e. neither sliding side-by-side in parallel nor forming elongated strings. Therefore, our results suggest strongly that the early cell patterning is affected by multiple interaction factors. With oscillatory optical tweezers, we further demonstrated that the interaction force decreased in bacteria without Lpp, a result substantiating our notion that the side-by-side sliding phenomenon directly reflects the strength of in-situ interaction between bacteria and substratum.

  20. Intrinsic potential of cell membranes: opposite effects of lipid transmembrane asymmetry and asymmetric salt ion distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Using atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we consider the intrinsic cell membrane potential that is found to originate from a subtle interplay between lipid transmembrane asymmetry and the asymmetric distribution of monovalent salt ions on the two sides of the cell membrane. It turns out......Cl saline solution and the PE leaflet is exposed to KCl, the outcome is that the effects of asymmetric lipid and salt ion distributions essentially cancel one another almost completely. Overall, our study highlights the complex nature of the intrinsic potential of cell membranes under physiological...

  1. Single-cell analysis of growth and cell division of the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouchka eFievet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen significant progress in understanding basic bacterial cell cycle properties such as cell growth and cell division. While characterization and regulation of bacterial cell cycle is quite well documented in the case of fast growing aerobic model organisms, no data has been so far reported for anaerobic bacteria. This lack of information in anaerobic microorganisms can mainly be explained by the absence of molecular and cellular tools such as single cell microscopy and fluorescent probes usable for anaerobes and essential to study cellular events and/or subcellular localization of the actors involved in cell cycle.In this study, single-cell microscopy has been adapted to study for the first time, in real time, the cell cycle of a bacterial anaerobe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH. This single-cell analysis provides mechanistic insights into the cell division cycle of DvH, which seems to be governed by the recently discussed so-called incremental model that generates remarkably homogeneous cell sizes. Furthermore, cell division was reversibly blocked during oxygen exposure. This may constitute a strategy for anaerobic cells to cope with transient exposure to oxygen that they may encounter in their natural environment, thereby contributing to their aerotolerance. This study lays the foundation for the first molecular, single-cell assay that will address factors that cannot otherwise be resolved in bulk assays and that will allow visualization of a wide range of molecular mechanisms within living anaerobic cells.

  2. Electro-optics of ferro- and antiferroelectric liquid crystals in asymmetric cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Noureddine; Dabrowski, Roman; Spadło, Anna; Otón, Eva; Quintana, Xabier; Otón, José Manuel

    2011-08-01

    Ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) and antiferroelectric liquid crystals (AFLCs) have several interesting properties; such as low switching times, high contrast, and wide viewing angle. Such properties suggest that those materials can be appropriate for high end electro-optical applications. Upon manufacturing, the alignment conditioning of the cell plates where the liquid crystal is placed has a strong influence on the eventual electro-optical behavior of the device. If the alignment conditioning of either cell surface is different, asymmetric electro-optical responses can be obtained. Asymmetric devices having fluorinated block copolymers on one side and a conventional alignment layer on the other side seem to be promising for developing grayscale in FLCs and improving dynamic switching of AFLCs. This work explores the performance of FLC and AFLC materials in asymmetric cells showing some interesting effects such as video rate multiplexed analog grayscale.

  3. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Høst, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study included 238 good morphology blastocysts, which were transferred after vitrification-warming to 152 women by single blastocyst transfer in Holbæk Fertility Clinic, Denmark. Time-lapse recordings of transferred good morphology blastocysts were reassessed to recognize every abnormal cell...... division (ACD) from the 1st to the 4th cell cycle. ACDs were distinguished as failed cell divisions and multi-cell divisions. ACDs were recognized in 37.0% (no. 88/238) of good morphology blastocysts that were vitrified-warmed and transferred in our clinic. Good morphology blastocysts with ACDs showed...... a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd...

  4. Host Actin Polymerization Tunes the Cell Division Cycle of an Intracellular Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sloan Siegrist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and division are two of the most fundamental capabilities of a bacterial cell. While they are well described for model organisms growing in broth culture, very little is known about the cell division cycle of bacteria replicating in more complex environments. Using a D-alanine reporter strategy, we found that intracellular Listeria monocytogenes (Lm spend a smaller proportion of their cell cycle dividing compared to Lm growing in broth culture. This alteration to the cell division cycle is independent of bacterial doubling time. Instead, polymerization of host-derived actin at the bacterial cell surface extends the non-dividing elongation period and compresses the division period. By decreasing the relative proportion of dividing Lm, actin polymerization biases the population toward cells with the highest propensity to form actin tails. Thus, there is a positive-feedback loop between the Lm cell division cycle and a physical interaction with the host cytoskeleton.

  5. The cytological changes of tobacco zygote and proembryo cells induced by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent suggest the involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell division and cell plate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Miao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dicotyledonous plant, the first asymmetric zygotic division and subsequent several cell divisions are crucial for proembryo pattern formation and later embryo development. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a family of extensively glycosylated cell surface proteins that are thought to have important roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, including embryogenesis. Previous results from our laboratory show that AGPs are concerned with tobacco egg cell fertilization and zygotic division. However, how AGPs interact with other factors involved in zygotic division and proembryo development remains unknown. Results In this study, we used the tobacco in vitro zygote culture system and series of meticulous cell biology techniques to investigate the roles of AGPs in zygote and proembryo cell division. For the first time, we examined tobacco proembryo division patterns detailed to every cell division. The bright-field images and statistical results both revealed that with the addition of an exogenous AGPs inhibitor, beta-glucosyl Yariv (beta-GlcY reagent, the frequency of aberrant division increased remarkably in cultured tobacco zygotes and proembryos, and the cell plate specific locations of AGPs were greatly reduced after beta-GlcY treatment. In addition, the accumulations of new cell wall materials were also significantly affected by treating with beta-GlcY. Detection of cellulose components by Calcofluor white stain showed that strong fluorescence was located in the newly formed wall of daughter cells after the zygotic division of in vivo samples and the control samples from in vitro culture without beta-GlcY treatment; while there was only weak fluorescence in the newly formed cell walls with beta-GlcY treatment. Immunocytochemistry examination with JIM5 and JIM7 respectively against the low- and high-esterified pectins displayed that these two pectins located in opposite positions of zygotes and proembryos in

  6. Probabilistic model of microbial cell growth, division, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Joseph; Normand, Mark D; Corradini, Maria G; Peleg, Micha

    2010-01-01

    After a short time interval of length deltat during microbial growth, an individual cell can be found to be divided with probability Pd(t)deltat, dead with probability Pm(t)deltat, or alive but undivided with the probability 1-[Pd(t)+Pm(t)]deltat, where t is time, Pd(t) expresses the probability of division for an individual cell per unit of time, and Pm(t) expresses the probability of mortality per unit of time. These probabilities may change with the state of the population and the habitat's properties and are therefore functions of time. This scenario translates into a model that is presented in stochastic and deterministic versions. The first, a stochastic process model, monitors the fates of individual cells and determines cell numbers. It is particularly suitable for small populations such as those that may exist in the case of casual contamination of a food by a pathogen. The second, which can be regarded as a large-population limit of the stochastic model, is a continuous mathematical expression that describes the population's size as a function of time. It is suitable for large microbial populations such as those present in unprocessed foods. Exponential or logistic growth with or without lag, inactivation with or without a "shoulder," and transitions between growth and inactivation are all manifestations of the underlying probability structure of the model. With temperature-dependent parameters, the model can be used to simulate nonisothermal growth and inactivation patterns. The same concept applies to other factors that promote or inhibit microorganisms, such as pH and the presence of antimicrobials, etc. With Pd(t) and Pm(t) in the form of logistic functions, the model can simulate all commonly observed growth/mortality patterns. Estimates of the changing probability parameters can be obtained with both the stochastic and deterministic versions of the model, as demonstrated with simulated data.

  7. Sequential closure of the cytoplasm and then the periplasm during cell division in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Karl; Söderström, Bill; Widengren, Jerker; von Heijne, Gunnar; Daley, Daniel O

    2012-02-01

    To visualize the latter stages of cell division in live Escherichia coli, we have carried out fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on 121 cells expressing cytoplasmic green fluorescent protein and periplasmic mCherry. Our data show conclusively that the cytoplasm is sealed prior to the periplasm during the division event.

  8. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in sickle cell disease are related to the hemolytic phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landburg, P. P.; Teerlink, T.; Biemond, B. J.; Brandjes, D. P. M.; Muskiet, F. A. J.; Duits, A. J.; Schnog, J. B.; Grp, C. U. R. A. M. A. Study

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is associated with pulmonary hypertension (PHT) in sickle cell disease (SCD). We studied the relationship of ADMA to other SCD-related complications. Plasma ADMA and associated parameters were determined in 52 HbSS/HbS beta(0)-thalassemia and 24 HbSC/HbS

  9. High frame-rate resolution of cell division during Candida albicans filamentation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Darren D; Berman, Judith; Brand, Alexandra C

    2016-01-01

    The commensal yeast, Candida albicans, is an opportunistic pathogen in humans and forms filaments called hyphae and pseudohyphae, in which cell division requires precise temporal and spatial control to produce mononuclear cell compartments. High-frame-rate live-cell imaging (1 frame/min) revealed that nuclear division did not occur across the septal plane. We detected the presence of nucleolar fragments that may be extrachromosomal molecules carrying the ribosomal RNA genes. Cells occasionall...

  10. Auxin Import and Local Auxin Biosynthesis Are Required for Mitotic Divisions, Cell Expansion and Cell Specification during Female Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesh Panoli

    Full Text Available The female gametophyte of flowering plants, called the embryo sac, develops from a haploid cell named the functional megaspore, which is specified after meiosis by the diploid sporophyte. In Arabidopsis, the functional megaspore undergoes three syncitial mitotic divisions followed by cellularization to form seven cells of four cell types including two female gametes. The plant hormone auxin is important for sporophytic developmental processes, and auxin levels are known to be regulated by biosynthesis and transport. Here, we investigated the role of auxin biosynthetic genes and auxin influx carriers in embryo sac development. We find that genes from the YUCCA/TAA pathway (YUC1, YUC2, YUC8, TAA1, TAR2 are expressed asymmetrically in the developing ovule and embryo sac from the two-nuclear syncitial stage until cellularization. Mutants for YUC1 and YUC2 exhibited defects in cell specification, whereas mutations in YUC8, as well as mutations in TAA1 and TAR2, caused defects in nuclear proliferation, vacuole formation and anisotropic growth of the embryo sac. Additionally, expression of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 were observed at the micropylar pole of the embryo sac and in the adjacent cells of the ovule, and the aux1 lax1 lax2 triple mutant shows multiple gametophyte defects. These results indicate that both localized auxin biosynthesis and auxin import, are required for mitotic divisions, cell expansion and patterning during embryo sac development.

  11. Growth-arrest-specific protein 2 inhibits cell division in Xenopus embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    Full Text Available Growth-arrest-specific 2 gene was originally identified in murine fibroblasts under growth arrest conditions. Furthermore, serum stimulation of quiescent, non-dividing cells leads to the down-regulation of gas2 and results in re-entry into the cell cycle. Cytoskeleton rearrangements are critical for cell cycle progression and cell division and the Gas2 protein has been shown to co-localize with actin and microtubules in interphase mammalian cells. Despite these findings, direct evidence supporting a role for Gas2 in the mechanism of cell division has not been reported.To determine whether the Gas2 protein plays a role in cell division, we over-expressed the full-length Gas2 protein and Gas2 truncations containing either the actin-binding CH domain or the tubulin-binding Gas2 domain in Xenopus laevis embryos. We found that both the full-length Gas2 protein and the Gas2 domain, but not the CH domain, inhibited cell division and resulted in multinucleated cells. The observation that Gas2 domain alone can arrest cell division suggests that Gas2 function is mediated by microtubule binding. Gas2 co-localized with microtubules at the cell cortex of Gas2-injected Xenopus embryos using cryo-confocal microscopy and co-sedimented with microtubules in cytoskeleton co-sedimentation assays. To investigate the mechanism of Gas2-induced cell division arrest, we showed, using a wound-induced contractile array assay, that Gas2 stabilized microtubules. Finally, electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Gas2 bundled microtubules into higher-order structures.Our experiments show that Gas2 inhibits cell division in Xenopus embryos. We propose that Gas2 function is mediated by binding and bundling microtubules, leading to cell division arrest.

  12. Erythroleukemia cells: variants inducible for hemoglobin synthesis without commitment to terminal cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, P A; Chen, Z; Banks, J; Rifkind, R A

    1983-04-01

    Murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) are virus-transformed erythroid precursors that appear to be blocked at an erythroid precursor stage comparable to the erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-e). These cells are useful in examining factors regulating terminal differentiation. Induced MELC are characterized by a coordinated program of gene expression, including commitment to terminal cell division, accumulation of globin mRNAs and corresponding hemoglobins, and accumulation of several other proteins, including the chromatin-associated protein H1(0). Two cloned variant cell lines, DR10 and R1, have been developed from inducer-sensitive DS19 cells by selection for inducer resistance. DR10 and R1 cells fail to display commitment to terminal cell division when cultured with dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), or butyric acid. Both cell lines are induced by all three agents to accumulate H1(0). DR10 cells are resistant to Me2SO-mediated accumulation of hemoglobin but are sensitive to HMBA- or butyric acid-mediated accumulation. R1 cells are resistant to Me2SO- and HMBA-mediated accumulation of hemoglobin but are sensitive to butyric acid-mediated accumulation. Both DR10 and R1 are commitment-negative MELC variants, displaying variable responses to inducers with respect to other features of terminal erythroid cell differentiation.

  13. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  14. Long-term microfluidic tracking of coccoid cyanobacterial cells reveals robust control of division timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feiqiao Brian; Willis, Lisa; Chau, Rosanna Man Wah; Zambon, Alessandro; Horowitz, Mark; Bhaya, Devaki; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Quake, Stephen R

    2017-02-14

    Cyanobacteria are important agents in global carbon and nitrogen cycling and hold great promise for biotechnological applications. Model organisms such as Synechocystis sp. and Synechococcus sp. have advanced our understanding of photosynthetic capacity and circadian behavior, mostly using population-level measurements in which the behavior of individuals cannot be monitored. Synechocystis sp. cells are small and divide slowly, requiring long-term experiments to track single cells. Thus, the cumulative effects of drift over long periods can cause difficulties in monitoring and quantifying cell growth and division dynamics. To overcome this challenge, we enhanced a microfluidic cell-culture device and developed an image analysis pipeline for robust lineage reconstruction. This allowed simultaneous tracking of many cells over multiple generations, and revealed that cells expand exponentially throughout their cell cycle. Generation times were highly correlated for sister cells, but not between mother and daughter cells. Relationships between birth size, division size, and generation time indicated that cell-size control was inconsistent with the "sizer" rule, where division timing is based on cell size, or the "timer" rule, where division occurs after a fixed time interval. Instead, single cell growth statistics were most consistent with the "adder" rule, in which division occurs after a constant increment in cell volume. Cells exposed to light-dark cycles exhibited growth and division only during the light period; dark phases pause but do not disrupt cell-cycle control. Our analyses revealed that the "adder" model can explain both the growth-related statistics of single Synechocystis cells and the correlation between sister cell generation times. We also observed rapid phenotypic response to light-dark transitions at the single cell level, highlighting the critical role of light in cyanobacterial cell-cycle control. Our findings suggest that by monitoring the growth

  15. Chromosome segregation impacts on cell growth and division site selection in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Donovan

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal regulation of bacterial cell division is imperative for the production of viable offspring. In many rod-shaped bacteria, regulatory systems such as the Min system and nucleoid occlusion ensure the high fidelity of midcell divisome positioning. However, regulation of division site selection in bacteria lacking recognizable Min and nucleoid occlusion remains less well understood. Here, we describe one such rod-shaped organism, Corynebacterium glutamicum, which does not always place the division septum precisely at midcell. Here we now show at single cell level that cell growth and division site selection are spatially and temporally regulated by chromosome segregation. Mutants defective in chromosome segregation have more variable cell growth and aberrant placement of the division site. In these mutants, division septa constrict over and often guillotine the nucleoid, leading to nonviable, DNA-free cells. Our results suggest that chromosome segregation or some nucleoid associated factor influences growth and division site selection in C. glutamicum. Understanding growth and regulation of C. glutamicum cells will also be of importance to develop strains for industrial production of biomolecules, such as amino acids.

  16. Patterns of cell division in the filamentous Desmidiaceae, close green algal relatives of land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John D; McCourt, Richard M; Delwiche, Charles F

    2008-06-01

    Patterns of cell division and cross wall formation vary among the charophytes, green algae closely related to land plants. One group of charophytes, the conjugating green algae (Zygnematophyceae), is species-rich and is known to vary substantially in the mode of cell division, but the details of these cell division patterns and their phylogenetic distribution remain poorly understood. We studied cross wall development in filamentous Desmidiaceae (a clade of conjugating green algae) using differential interference contrast and fluorescence light microscopy. All strains investigated had centripetal encroachment of a septum, but with several different developmental patterns. In most cases, cell wall formation was delayed with respect to the Cosmarium-type of cell division, and the cross wall was modified considerably after deposition in a manner specific to the particular clade of filamentous desmids. These characteristics were mapped on a phylogeny estimated from a data set of two organellar genes, and the evolutionary implications of the character state distribution were evaluated. The data suggest a complex history of evolution of cell division in this lineage and also imply that Desmidium and Spondylosium are polyphyletic. These results indicate that many features of the cell shape are determined at the time of cell division in conjugating green algae.

  17. A novel asymmetric 3D in-vitro assay for the study of tumor cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neufeld Gera

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The induction of tumor cell invasion is an important step in tumor progression. Due to the cost and slowness of in-vivo invasion assays, there is need for quantitative in-vitro invasion assays that mimic as closely as possible the tumor environment and in which conditions can be rigorously controlled. Methods We have established a novel asymmetric 3D in-vitro invasion assay by embedding a monolayer of tumor cells between two layers of collagen. The cells were then allowed to invade the upper and lower layers of collagen. To visualize invading cells the gels were sectioned perpendicular to the monolayer so that after seeding the monolayer appears as a thin line precisely defining the origin of invasion. The number of invading tumor cells, their proliferation rate, the distance they traverse and the direction of invasion could then be determined quantitatively. Results The assay was used to compare the invasive properties of several tumor cell types and the results compare well with those obtained by previously described assays. Lysyl-oxidase like protein-2 (Loxl2 is a potent inducer of invasiveness. Using our assay we show for the first time that inhibition of endogenous Loxl2 expression in several types of tumor cells strongly inhibits their invasiveness. We also took advantage of the asymmetric nature of the assay in order to show that fibronectin enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells more potently than laminin. The asymmetric properties of the assay were also used to demonstrate that soluble factors derived from fibroblasts can preferentially attract invading breast cancer cells. Conclusion Our assay displays several advantages over previous invasion assays as it is allows the quantitative analysis of directional invasive behavior of tumor cells in a 3D environment mimicking the tumor microenvironment. It should be particularly useful for the study of the effects of components of the tumor microenvironment on

  18. The NAC Domain Transcription Factors FEZ and SOMBRERO Control the Orientation of Cell Division Plane in Arabidopsis Root Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willemsen, Viola; Bauch, Marion; Bennett, Tom; Campilho, Ana; Wolkenfelt, Harald; Xu, Jian; Haseloff, Jim; Scheres, Ben

    2008-01-01

    .... Here, we reveal one such mechanism in which FEZ and SOMBRERO (SMB), two plant-specific NAC-domain transcription factors, control the delicately tuned reorientation and timing of cell division in a subset of stem cells...

  19. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H.; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Mouse fibroblasts cultured on 7-μm-long vertical nanowires are reported on page 4006 by C. N. Prinz and co-workers. Culturing cells on this kind of substrate interferes greatly with cell function, causing the cells to develop into widely different morphologies. The cells' division is impaired...

  20. How-to-Do-It: Hands-on Activities that Relate Mendelian Genetics to Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Heather R.; Gibson, Linda S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is an activity designed to connect Mendelian laws with the physical processes of cell division. Included are materials production, procedures and worksheets for the meiosis-mitosis game and a genetics game. (CW)

  1. ESCRT-III mediated cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius –A reconstitution perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHärtel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Synthetic Biology, it has become an intriguing question what would be the minimal representation of cell division machinery. Thus, it seems appropriate to compare how cell division is realized in different microorganisms. In particular, the cell division system of Crenarchaeota lacks certain proteins found in most bacteria and Euryarchaeota, such as FtsZ, MreB or the Min system. The Sulfolobaceae family encodes functional homologs of the eukaryotic proteins Vps4 and ESCRT-III. ESCRT-III is essential for several eukaryotic pathways, e.g. budding of intralumenal vesicles (ILVs, or cytokinesis, whereas Vps4 dissociates the ESCRT-III complex from the membrane. CdvA (Cell Division A is required for the recruitment of crenarchaeal ESCRT-III proteins to the membrane at mid-cell. The proteins polymerize and form a smaller structure during constriction. Thus, ESCRT-III mediated cell division in S. acidocaldarius shows functional analogies to the Z ring observed in prokaryotes like E. coli, which has recently begun to be reconstituted in vitro. In this short perspective, we discuss the possibility of building such an in vitro cell division system on basis of archaeal ESCRT-III.

  2. A Numerical Simulation of Cell Separation by Simplified Asymmetric Pinched Flow Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Tao Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a typical microfluidic cell sorting technique, the size-dependent cell sorting has attracted much interest in recent years. In this paper, a size-dependent cell sorting scheme is presented based on a controllable asymmetric pinched flow by employing an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM. The geometry of channels consists of 2 upstream branches, 1 transitional channel, and 4 downstream branches (D-branches. Simulations are conducted by varying inlet flow ratio, the cell size, and the ratio of flux of outlet 4 to the total flux. It is found that, after being randomly released in one upstream branch, the cells are aligned in a line close to one sidewall of the transitional channel due to the hydrodynamic forces of the asymmetric pinched flow. Cells with different sizes can be fed into different downstream D-branches just by regulating the flux of one D-branch. A principle governing D-branch choice of a cell is obtained, with which a series of numerical cases are performed to sort the cell mixture involving two, three, or four classes of diameters. Results show that, for each case, an adaptive regulating flux can be determined to sort the cell mixture effectively.

  3. Noc protein binds to specific DNA sequences to coordinate cell division with chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling Juan; Ishikawa, Shu; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Oshima, Taku; Ogasawara, Naotake; Errington, Jeff

    2009-07-08

    Coordination of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis is crucial for efficient cell proliferation. In Bacillus subtilis, the nucleoid occlusion protein Noc protects the chromosomes by associating with the chromosome and preventing cell division in its vicinity. Using protein localization, ChAP-on-Chip and bioinformatics, we have identified a consensus Noc-binding DNA sequence (NBS), and have shown that Noc is targeted to about 70 discrete regions scattered around the chromosome, though absent from a large region around the replication terminus. Purified Noc bound specifically to an NBS in vitro. NBSs inserted near the replication terminus bound Noc-YFP and caused a delay in cell division. An autonomous plasmid carrying an NBS array recruited Noc-YFP and conferred a severe Noc-dependent inhibition of cell division. This shows that Noc is a potent inhibitor of division, but that its activity is strictly localized by the interaction with NBS sites in vivo. We propose that Noc serves not only as a spatial regulator of cell division to protect the nucleoid, but also as a timing device with an important role in the coordination of chromosome segregation and cell division.

  4. Asymmetric intramembrane charge movement in mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chameau, P; Bournaud, R; Shimahara, T

    1995-12-08

    Intramembrane charge movement was recorded from freshly dissociated hippocampal pyramidal cells from mice using the whole cell clamp technique. Once the ionic currents were suppressed, a depolarizing pulse from a holding potential of -80 mV elicited a capacitive transient outward current at onset and a capacitive inward current at offset of the pulse. The amount of charge displaced at the onset of the pulse (Qon) was equivalent to the charge moved at repolarization (Qoff). The relationship between the amount of charge moved and pulse potential could be expressed by a simple two states Boltzmann equation: Q = Qmax/(1 + exp[-(V-V1/2)/k]), where Qmax is the maximum charge, V1/2 the membrane potential at which Q is half of Qmax and k is a slope factor. On average, Qmax was 10.90 +/- 0.62 nC/microF, V1/2 was 1.70 +/- 2.90 mV, and k was 18.80 +/- 1.20 mV (n = 16). Phenylglyoxal (10 mM), an arginine modifying reagent, reduced the maximum amount of charge movement to 14% of control. The inhibitory effect of phenylglyoxal was time dependent and the decline time course of maximum amount of charge movement could be fitted by a single exponential curve with a time constant of 5.79 min. The dihydropyridine (DHP) receptor antagonist, nifedipine, immobilized 54% of the charge movement. These results suggest that a part of the charge movement reflects the conformational change of the DHP receptors upon membrane depolarization.

  5. Periplasmic Acid Stress Increases Cell Division Asymmetry (Polar Aging of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle W Clark

    Full Text Available Under certain kinds of cytoplasmic stress, Escherichia coli selectively reproduce by distributing the newer cytoplasmic components to new-pole cells while sequestering older, damaged components in cells inheriting the old pole. This phenomenon is termed polar aging or cell division asymmetry. It is unknown whether cell division asymmetry can arise from a periplasmic stress, such as the stress of extracellular acid, which is mediated by the periplasm. We tested the effect of periplasmic acid stress on growth and division of adherent single cells. We tracked individual cell lineages over five or more generations, using fluorescence microscopy with ratiometric pHluorin to measure cytoplasmic pH. Adherent colonies were perfused continually with LBK medium buffered at pH 6.00 or at pH 7.50; the external pH determines periplasmic pH. In each experiment, cell lineages were mapped to correlate division time, pole age and cell generation number. In colonies perfused at pH 6.0, the cells inheriting the oldest pole divided significantly more slowly than the cells inheriting the newest pole. In colonies perfused at pH 7.50 (near or above cytoplasmic pH, no significant cell division asymmetry was observed. Under both conditions (periplasmic pH 6.0 or pH 7.5 the cells maintained cytoplasmic pH values at 7.2-7.3. No evidence of cytoplasmic protein aggregation was seen. Thus, periplasmic acid stress leads to cell division asymmetry with minimal cytoplasmic stress.

  6. Electrophoretic mobility of biological cells in asymmetric electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J P; Lin, S H; Tseng, S

    1996-09-21

    The electrophoretic mobility of a particle covered by a membrane in an a:b electrolyte solution is modeled theoretically. The membrane, which simulates the surface of a biological cell, is ion-penetrable, and carries homogeneously distributed negative fixed charges. An approximate expression for the electrophoretic mobility is derived. Based on the results of numerical simulation, we conclude the following: (1) The absolute Donnan potential increases with the concentration of the fixed charges C0, but decreases with the ionic strength I. (2) The greater the valence of cation alpha, the lower the absolute potential distribution. (3) The greater the C0, the greater the absolute mobility of a particle, magnitude of mu, and the greater the friction coefficient of the membrane phase gamma, the smaller the magnitude of mu. (4) A large I or a large a leads to a small magnitude of mu. (5) The greater the ratio (permittivity of solution/permittivity of membrane phase), the smaller the magnitude of mu. (6) For a large gamma, magnitude of mu decreases with the thickness of membrane d under the condition of constant amount of fixed charges. However, if gamma is sufficiently small, the variation of magnitude of mu as a function of d exhibits a maximum. The classic result of Smoluchowski for the electrophoretic mobility of a rigid particle can be recovered as a limiting case of the present model.

  7. From cell differentiation to cell collectives: Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell-cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called "van Gogh bundles") of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity.

  8. From cell differentiation to cell collectives: Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi van Gestel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The organization of cells, emerging from cell-cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called "van Gogh bundles" of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity.

  9. Plant nuclear gene knockout reveals a role in plastid division for the homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an ancestral tubulin

    OpenAIRE

    Strepp, René; Scholz, Sirkka; Kruse, Sven; Speth, Volker; Reski, Ralf

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about the division of eukaryotic cell organelles and up to now neither in animals nor in plants has a gene product been shown to mediate this process. A cDNA encoding a homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an ancestral tubulin, was isolated from the eukaryote Physcomitrella patens and used to disrupt efficiently the genomic locus in this terrestrial seedless plant. Seven out of 51 transgenics obtained were knockout plants generated by homologous recombination; ...

  10. Asymmetric rhenium tricarbonyl complexes show superior luminescence properties in live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszeja, Lukasz J; Siegmund, Daniel; Cordes, Anna L; Güldenhaupt, Jörn; Gerwert, Klaus; Hahn, Stephan; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2017-01-16

    The synthesis and photophysical properties of a novel series of rhenium tricarbonyl complexes based on tridentate phenanthridinyl-containing ligands are described. Photophysical data reveal beneficial luminescence behaviour especially for compounds with an asymmetric ligand set. These advantageous properties are not limited to organic solvents, but indeed also improved in aqueous solutions. The suitability of our new rhenium complexes as potent imaging agents has been confirmed by fluorescence microscopy on living cancer cells, which also confirms superior long-time stability under fluorescence microscopy conditions. Colocalisation studies with commercial organelle stains reveal an accumulation of the complexes in the endoplasmic reticulum for all tested cell lines.

  11. SEPT9_v1 Functions in Breast Cancer Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    SEPT2 with respect to the microtubule cytoskeleton of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Immunofluorescence and live cell imaging of nonpolarized...quadruplicates. Live Cell Imaging and FRAP—Cells were grown on collagen- coated coverslips for 24 h at subconfluent density and imaged in phenol red-free...organization observed by immunofluorescence microscopy (Fig. 2B). Live cell imaging of HeLa cells treated with FCF also showed gradual changes in cellmor

  12. Site-directed fluorescence labeling reveals a revised N-terminal membrane topology and functional periplasmic residues in the Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezuk, Alison M; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M

    2014-08-22

    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Cell division versus cell elongation: the control of radicle elongation during thermoinhibition of Tagetes minuta achenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicky J; Hills, Paul N; van Staden, Johannes

    2007-12-01

    Endogenous embryo factors, which act mainly in the radicle, prevent germination in Tagetes minuta at high temperatures. These factors act to prevent cell elongation, which is critical for radicle protrusion under optimal conditions. Once the radicle has emerged both cell elongation and cell division are required for post-germination growth. Germination can be induced at high temperatures by fusicoccin, which rapidly stimulates cell elongation. In addition, priming seeds at 25 degrees C on polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and mannitol could also induce germination on water at 36 degrees C, indicating that priming prevents radicle protrusion at a point subsequent to the point of control in thermoinhibited achenes. Flow cytometry studies revealed that DNA synthesis occurs during thermoinhibition and the inhibition of DNA synthesis during this process inhibits subsequent germination on water under optimal conditions, suggesting a protective role for DNA synthesis in thermoinhibited achenes of T. minuta.

  14. Optical path length and trajectory stability in rotationally asymmetric multipass cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Galen H; Cortes-Herrera, Luis E; Hoffman, Anthony J

    2016-08-22

    We describe the behavior of optical trajectories in multipass rotationally asymmetric cavities (RACs) using a phase-space motivated approach. Emphasis is placed on generating long optical paths. A trajectory with an optical path length of 18 m is generated within a 68 cm3 volume. This path length to volume ratio (26.6 cm-2) is large compared to current state of the art multipass cells such as the cylindrical multipass cell (6.6 cm-2) and astigmatic Herriott cell (9 cm-2). Additionally, the effect of small changes to the input conditions on the path length is studied and compared to the astigmatic Herriott cell. This work simplifies the process of designing RACs with long optical path lengths and could lead to broader implementation of these multipass cells.

  15. Division of Labor in Biofilms : the Ecology of Cell Differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    The dense aggregation of cells on a surface, as seen in biofilms, inevitably results in both environmental and cellular heterogeneity. For example, nutrient gradients can trigger cells to differentiate into various phenotypic states. Not only do cells adapt physiologically to the local environmental

  16. Asymmetric Nano/Microtopography Biases Cytoskeletal Dynamics and Promotes Unidirectional Cell Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyu; Driscoll, Meghan; Guven, Can; Das, Satarupa; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John; Losert, Wolfgang

    Many biological and physiological processes depend upon directed migration of cells, which is typically mediated by chemical or physical gradients or by signal relay. Here we show that cells can be guided in a single preferred direction based solely on local asymmetries in nano/microtopography on subcellular scales. These asymmetries can be repeated, and thereby provide directional guidance, over arbitrarily large areas. The direction and strength of the guidance is sensitive to the details of the nano/microtopography, suggesting that this phenomenon plays a context-dependent role in vivo. We demonstrate that asymmetric nano/microtopography guides the direction of internal actin polymerization waves (esotaxis), and that cells move in the same direction as these waves (microthigmotaxis). This phenomenon is observed both for the pseudopod-dominated migration of the amoeboid Dictyostelium discoideum and for the lamellipod-driven migration of human neutrophils. The conservation of this mechanism across cell types and the asymmetric shape of many natural scaffolds suggests that actin-wave-based guidance is important in biology and physiology.

  17. Pentapeptide-rich peptidoglycan at the Bacillus subtilis cell-division site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Angeles, Danae; Liu, Yun; Hartman, Alwin M; Borisova, Marina; de Sousa Borges, Anabela; de Kok, Niels; Beilharz, Katrin; Veening, Jan-Willem; Mayer, Christoph; Hirsch, Anna K H; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    Peptidoglycan (PG), the major component of the bacterial cell wall, is one large macromolecule. To allow for the different curvatures of PG at cell poles and division sites, there must be local differences in PG architecture and eventually also chemistry. Here we report such local differences in the

  18. Determination of somatic and cancer stem cell self-renewing symmetric division rate using sphere assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loic P Deleyrolle

    Full Text Available Representing a renewable source for cell replacement, neural stem cells have received substantial attention in recent years. The neurosphere assay represents a method to detect the presence of neural stem cells, however owing to a deficiency of specific and definitive markers to identify them, their quantification and the rate they expand is still indefinite. Here we propose a mathematical interpretation of the neurosphere assay allowing actual measurement of neural stem cell symmetric division frequency. The algorithm of the modeling demonstrates a direct correlation between the overall cell fold expansion over time measured in the sphere assay and the rate stem cells expand via symmetric division. The model offers a methodology to evaluate specifically the effect of diseases and treatments on neural stem cell activity and function. Not only providing new insights in the evaluation of the kinetic features of neural stem cells, our modeling further contemplates cancer biology as cancer stem-like cells have been suggested to maintain tumor growth as somatic stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis. Indeed, tumor stem cell's resistance to therapy makes these cells a necessary target for effective treatment. The neurosphere assay mathematical model presented here allows the assessment of the rate malignant stem-like cells expand via symmetric division and the evaluation of the effects of therapeutics on the self-renewal and proliferative activity of this clinically relevant population that drive tumor growth and recurrence.

  19. Evolutionary Cell Biology of Division Mode in the Bacterial Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia- Chlamydiae Superphylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Marín, Elena; Canosa, Inés; Devos, Damien P

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria from the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are exceptions to the otherwise dominant mode of division by binary fission, which is based on the interaction between the FtsZ protein and the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis machinery. Some PVC bacteria are deprived of the FtsZ protein and were also thought to lack PG. How these bacteria divide is still one of the major mysteries of microbiology. The presence of PG has recently been revealed in Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, and proteins related to PG synthesis have been shown to be implicated in the division process in Chlamydiae, providing important insights into PVC mechanisms of division. Here, we review the historical lack of observation of PG in PVC bacteria, its recent detection in two phyla and its involvement in chlamydial cell division. Based on the detection of PG-related proteins in PVC proteomes, we consider the possible evolution of the diverse division mechanisms in these bacteria. We conclude by summarizing what is known and what remains to be understood about the evolutionary cell biology of PVC division modes.

  20. Suppression of a thermosensitive zipA cell division mutant by altering amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Daniel Vega; Margolin, William

    2017-10-23

    ZipA is essential for cell division in Escherichia coli, acting early in the process to anchor polymers of FtsZ to the cytoplasmic membrane. Along with FtsA, FtsZ and ZipA form a proto-ring at midcell that recruits additional proteins to eventually build the division septum. Cells carrying the thermosensitive zipA1 allele divide fairly normally at 30°C in rich medium but cease dividing at temperatures above 34°C, forming long filaments. In a search for suppressors of zipA1, we found that deletions of specific genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis could partially cell rescue growth and division at 34°C or 37°C, but not at 42°C. Notably, although a diverse group of amino acid biosynthetic gene deletions could partially rescue growth of zipA1 cells at 34°C, only deletions of genes related to the biosynthesis of threonine, glycine, serine and methionine could rescue at 37°C. Adding exogenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP), a cofactor for many of the enzymes affected by this study, partially suppressed zipA1 thermosensitivity. For many of the deletions, PLP had an additive rescuing effect on zipA1 Moreover, added PLP partially suppressed the thermosensitivity of ftsQ and ftsK mutants, weakly suppressed an ftsI mutant, but failed to suppress ftsA or ftsZ thermosensitive mutants. Along with the ability of a deletion of metC to partially suppress ftsK, our results suggest that perturbations of amino acid metabolic pathways, particularly those that redirect the flow of carbon away from synthesis of threonine, glycine, or methionine, are able to partially rescue some cell division defects.IMPORTANCE Cell division of bacteria such as Escherichia coli is essential for their successful colonization. It is becoming increasingly clear that nutritional status and central metabolism can affect bacterial size and shape; for example, a metabolic enzyme (OpgH) can moonlight as a regulator of FtsZ, an essential cell division protein. Here, we demonstrate a link between amino

  1. Hoxb1b controls oriented cell division, cell shape and microtubule dynamics in neural tube morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigman, Mihaela; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Titus, Tom; Postlethwait, John; Moens, Cecilia B.

    2014-01-01

    Hox genes are classically ascribed to function in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals; however, their role in directing molecular mechanisms underlying morphogenesis at the cellular level remains largely unstudied. We unveil a non-classical role for the zebrafish hoxb1b gene, which shares ancestral functions with mammalian Hoxa1, in controlling progenitor cell shape and oriented cell division during zebrafish anterior hindbrain neural tube morphogenesis. This is likely distinct from its role in cell fate acquisition and segment boundary formation. We show that, without affecting major components of apico-basal or planar cell polarity, Hoxb1b regulates mitotic spindle rotation during the oriented neural keel symmetric mitoses that are required for normal neural tube lumen formation in the zebrafish. This function correlates with a non-cell-autonomous requirement for Hoxb1b in regulating microtubule plus-end dynamics in progenitor cells in interphase. We propose that Hox genes can influence global tissue morphogenesis by control of microtubule dynamics in individual cells in vivo. PMID:24449840

  2. Experimental studies of 7-cell dual axis asymmetric cavity for energy recovery linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, I. V.; Metodiev, K.; Lancaster, A. J.; Burt, G.; Ainsworth, R.; Seryi, A.

    2017-10-01

    High average current, transportable energy recovery linacs (ERLs) can be very attractive tools for a number of applications including next generation high-luminosity, compact light sources. Conventional ERLs are based on an electron beam circulating through the same set of rf cavity cells. This leads to an accumulation of high-order modes inside the cavity cells, resulting in the development of a beam breakup (BBU) instability, unless the beam current is kept below the BBU start current. This limits the maximum current which can be transported through the ERL and hence the intensity of the photon beam generated. It has recently been proposed that splitting the accelerating and decelerating stages, tuning them separately and coupling them via a resonance coupler can increase the BBU start current. The paper presents the first experimental rf studies of a dual axis 7-cell asymmetric cavity and confirms the properties predicted by the theoretical model. The field structures of the symmetric and asymmetric modes are measured and good agreement with the numerical predictions is demonstrated. The operating mode field flatness was also measured and discussed. A novel approach based on the coupled mode (Fano-like) model has been developed for the description of the cavity eigenmode spectrum and good agreement between analytical theory, numerical predictions and experimental data is shown. Numerical and experimental results observed are analyzed, discussed and a good agreement between theory and experiment is demonstrated.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Transmigrates at Epithelial Cell-Cell Junctions, Exploiting Sites of Cell Division and Senescent Cell Extrusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Golovkine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve systemic infection, bacterial pathogens must overcome the critical and challenging step of transmigration across epithelial barriers. This is particularly true for opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an agent which causes nosocomial infections. Despite extensive study, details on the mechanisms used by this bacterium to transmigrate across epithelial tissues, as well as the entry sites it uses, remain speculative. Here, using real-time microscopy and a model epithelial barrier, we show that P. aeruginosa employs a paracellular transmigration route, taking advantage of altered cell-cell junctions at sites of cell division or when senescent cells are expelled from the cell layer. Once a bacterium transmigrates, it is followed by a cohort of bacteria using the same entry point. The basal compartment is then invaded radially from the initial penetration site. Effective transmigration and propagation require type 4 pili, the type 3 secretion system (T3SS and a flagellum, although flagellum-deficient bacteria can occasionally invade the basal compartment from wounded areas. In the basal compartment, the bacteria inject the T3SS toxins into host cells, disrupting the cytoskeleton and focal contacts to allow their progression under the cells. Thus, P. aeruginosa exploits intrinsic host cell processes to breach the epithelium and invade the subcellular compartment.

  4. Ultrafast video imaging of cell division from zebrafish egg using multimodal microscopic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Jang, Bumjoon; Kim, Dong Hee; Park, Chang Hyun; Bae, Gyuri; Park, Seung Woo; Park, Seung-Han

    2017-07-01

    Unlike those of other ordinary laser scanning microscopies in the past, nonlinear optical laser scanning microscopy (SHG, THG microscopy) applied ultrafast laser technology which has high peak powers with relatively inexpensive, low-average-power. It short pulse nature reduces the ionization damage in organic molecules. And it enables us to take bright label-free images. In this study, we measured cell division of zebrafish egg with ultrafast video images using multimodal nonlinear optical microscope. The result shows in-vivo cell division label-free imaging with sub-cellular resolution.

  5. Vegetative Cell Division and Nuclear Translocation in Three Algae Species of Netrium (Zygnematales, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAN HENDRAYANTI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Netrium oblongum, N. digitus v. latum, and N. interruptum were studied for their mode in the vegetative cell division and nuclear translocation during mitosis using light and fluorescence microscopy. The process of cell division in the three species began with the prominent constriction at the chloroplast in both semicells about half way from the apex. The constriction of chloroplast was mostly visible in N. digitus v. latum. Soon after nucleus divided, septum was formed across the cell and cytokinesis occurred. Observation with fluorescence microscope showed that the movement of nucleus moved back into the center of daughter cells was not always synchronous. Division of chloroplast in N. oblongum and N. digitus v. latum were different with that of N. interruptum. Chloroplast division in two former species occured following the movement of the nucleus down semicell. However, in N. interruptum, chloroplast divided later after nucleus occupied the position at the center of the daughter cells. Cell restoration started after the completion of mitosis and cytokinesis.

  6. Polarity, cell division, and out-of-equilibrium dynamics control the growth of epithelial structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Benedetta; Puliafito, Alberto; Shewan, Annette M.; Yu, Wei; Combes, Alexander N.; Little, Melissa H.; Chianale, Federica; Primo, Luca; Serini, Guido; Mostov, Keith E.; Celani, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The growth of a well-formed epithelial structure is governed by mechanical constraints, cellular apico-basal polarity, and spatially controlled cell division. Here we compared the predictions of a mathematical model of epithelial growth with the morphological analysis of 3D epithelial structures. In both in vitro cyst models and in developing epithelial structures in vivo, epithelial growth could take place close to or far from mechanical equilibrium, and was determined by the hierarchy of time-scales of cell division, cell–cell rearrangements, and lumen dynamics. Equilibrium properties could be inferred by the analysis of cell–cell contact topologies, and the nonequilibrium phenotype was altered by inhibiting ROCK activity. The occurrence of an aberrant multilumen phenotype was linked to fast nonequilibrium growth, even when geometric control of cell division was correctly enforced. We predicted and verified experimentally that slowing down cell division partially rescued a multilumen phenotype induced by altered polarity. These results improve our understanding of the development of epithelial organs and, ultimately, of carcinogenesis. PMID:24145168

  7. Cytokinesis: cells go back and forth about division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Jonas F; Maddox, Amy Shaub

    2011-10-25

    An elegant quantitative model to explain cellular oscillations during cytokinesis reveals a novel function for polar blebbing and raises the question as to why cells live right on the edge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aspm Specifically Maintains Symmetric Proliferative Divisions of Neuroepithelial Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer L. Fish; Yoichi Kosodo; Wolfgang Enard; Svante Pääbo; Wieland B. Huttner

    2006-01-01

    The ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated) protein has previously been implicated in the determination of human cerebral cortical size, but the cell biological basis of this regulation has not been...

  9. Division genes in Escherichia coli are expressed coordinately to cell septum requirements by gearbox promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, M; Garrido, T; Pla, J; Vicente, M

    1990-11-01

    The cell division ftsQAZ cluster and the ftsZ-dependent bolA morphogene of Escherichia coli are found to be driven by gearboxes, a distinct class of promoters characterized by showing an activity that is inversely dependent on growth rate. These promoters contain specific sequences upstream from the mRNA start point, and their -10 region is essential for the inverse growth rate dependence. Gearbox promoters are essential for driving ftsQAZ and bolA gene expression so that the encoded products are synthesized at constant amounts per cell independently of cell size. This mode of regulation would be expected for the expression of proteins that either play a regulatory role in cell division or form a stoichiometric component of the septum, a structure that, independently of cell size and growth rate, is produced once per cell cycle.

  10. Phased cell division, specific division rates and other biological observations of Dinophysis populations in sub-surface layers off the south coast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Velo-Suarez, Lourdes; Reguera, Beatriz; Raine, Robin

    2014-03-01

    The proportions of viable cells of Dinophysis spp. that were paired (dividing) and recently divided during a cell cycle were measured on populations of D. acuta and D. acuminata observed off the south coast of Ireland in July 2007 and July 2009. Both species exhibited phased cell division in 2009 with maximum frequency of division (fmax) 2 h after sunrise. Different patterns of division (timing of fmax) were shown by D. acuta in 2007, when the population aggregated in a thin layer was transported by a coastal jet flow. High resolution (decimetre-scale) profiles within the thin layer showed large differences in the vertical distribution of biological properties (feeding status, mortality). Values of the specific growth rate μ were compared to estimates derived in similar fashion from observations on Dinophysis populations elsewhere. Different patterns exhibited by the same species in different regions may be attributed to adaptations to latitudinal differences (length of photoperiod). The question of whether phased cell division always occurs in Dinophysis populations, and the incorporation of the potential specific division rate into models of Dinophysis growth are discussed. Comprehensive field data sets demonstrate the impact of the results on the coherence of Dinophysis populations during their transport along the Irish coast in jet-like flows towards sites of intensive shellfish culture.

  11. Cell division and the ESCRT complex: A surprise from the archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Thijs Jg; Bernander, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The Archaea constitute the third domain of life, a separate evolutionary lineage together with the Bacteria and the Eukarya.1 Species belonging to the Archaea contain a surprising mix of bacterial (metabolism, life style, genomic organization) and eukaryotic (replication, transcription, translation) features.2 The archaeal kingdom comprises two main phyla, the Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota. Regarding the cell division process in archaeal species (reviewed in ref. 3), members of the Euryarchaeota rely on an FtsZ-based cell division mechanism4 whereas, previously, no division genes had been detected in the crenarchaea. However, we recently reported the discovery of the elusive cell division machinery in crenarchaea from the genus Sulfolobus.5 The minimal machinery consists of three genes, which we designated cdvA, B and C (for cell division), organized into an operon that is widely conserved among crenarchaea. The gene products polymerize between segregating nucleoids at the early mitotic stage, forming a complex that remains associated with the leading edge of constriction throughout cytokinesis. Interestingly, CdvB and CdvC were shown to be related to the eukaryotic ESCRT-III protein sorting machinery (reviewed in ref. 6), indicating shared common ancestry and mechanistic similarities to endosomal vesicle formation and viral (HIV) budding in eukaryotes. We also demonstrated that the cdv operon is subject to checkpoint-like regulation, and that the genes display a complementary phylogenetic distribution within the Archaea domain relative to FtsZ-dependent division systems.5 Here, the findings are further explored and discussed, and topics for further investigation are suggested.

  12. Asymmetric dimethylarginine upregulates the expression of ACAT-1 in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-dong; Jia, Jun-qin; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Yong-jin; Wang, Dian-hua

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the effects of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) on ACAT-1 expression and cholesterol content in THP-1-derived macrophages and foam cells. THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into macrophages and further into foam cells. The macrophages and foam cells were exposed to different concentrations (0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, and 30 µmol/L) of ADMA for varying time lengths (6, 12, and 24 h), and the changes in ACAT-1 mRNA and protein levels in the cells were measured with RT-PCR and Western blotting. The cellular cholesterol content was measured with enzyme-linked colorimetry assay. In THP-1-derived macrophages and foam cells, the expression levels of ACAT-1 mRNA and protein and cellular cholesterol content increased significantly in response to ADMA treatment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. ADMA may play an important role in inducing foam cell formation from macrophages. ACAT-1 inhibition targeting the macrophages and foam cells may serve as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  13. Microfluidic devices for label-free separation of cells through transient interaction with asymmetric receptor patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Singh, R.; Hollatz, M. H.; Lee, C.-H.; Karp, J.; Karnik, R.

    2012-02-01

    Cell sorting serves an important role in clinical diagnosis and biological research. Most of the existing microscale sorting techniques are either non-specific to antigen type or rely on capturing cells making sample recovery difficult. We demonstrate a simple; yet effective technique for isolating cells in an antigen specific manner by using transient interactions of the cell surface antigens with asymmetric receptor patterned surface. Using microfluidic devices incorporating P-selectin patterns we demonstrate separation of HL60 cells from K562 cells. We achieved a sorting purity above 90% and efficiency greater than 85% with this system. We also present a mathematical model incorporating flow mediated and adhesion mediated transport of cells in the microchannel that can be used to predict the performance of these devices. Lastly, we demonstrate the clinical significance of the method by demonstrating single step separation of neutrophils from whole blood. When whole blood is introduced in the device, the granulocyte population gets separated exclusively yielding neutrophils of high purity (cell sorting applications.

  14. Control of the meiotic cell division program in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, T.G.; Schnittger, A.

    2013-01-01

    While the question of why organisms reproduce sexually is still a matter of controversy, it is clear that the foundation of sexual reproduction is the formation of gametes with half the genomic DNA content of a somatic cell. This reduction in genomic content is accomplished through meiosis that, in

  15. Loss of growth homeostasis by genetic decoupling of cell division from biomass growth: implication for size control mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Hannah; Barkai, Naama

    2014-12-23

    Growing cells adjust their division time with biomass accumulation to maintain growth homeostasis. Size control mechanisms, such as the size checkpoint, provide an inherent coupling of growth and division by gating certain cell cycle transitions based on cell size. We describe genetic manipulations that decouple cell division from cell size, leading to the loss of growth homeostasis, with cells becoming progressively smaller or progressively larger until arresting. This was achieved by modulating glucose influx independently of external glucose. Division rate followed glucose influx, while volume growth was largely defined by external glucose. Therefore, the coordination of size and division observed in wild-type cells reflects tuning of two parallel processes, which is only refined by an inherent feedback-dependent coupling. We present a class of size control models explaining the observed breakdowns of growth homeostasis. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Effect of anolyte on growth and division of Chinese hamster cancerous cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Mohammadzadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: At present, cancer can be controlled by chemotherapy, but unfortunately, this method has strong side effects and scientist try to reduce them using different substances. 2 kinds of activated water called anolyte and catholyte have electrochemical property and antibacterial and oxidative properties respectively. The aim of this research is to study the effect of anolyte on growth and division of cancerous cells. Materials and Methods: In this research, different concentration of anolyte, 1 . 7, 2, 5,8.3 and 10 percent of anolyte and control with 2 and 5 percent of serum physiologic were added on converted cell of Chinese hamster (line b11dii-FAF28 clone 237 in 12 plastic and 15 glass flasks. After adding, converted cell was counted with the help of hoemocytometer and microscope. Data of experiment analyzed and results compared by t test, as well as using Excell software their diagrams were drawn. Results: The results indicated that anolyte had significant effect on cancer cells. In concentration of 1.7% cell division was decreased but in concentration of 8.3 %, division of cancerous cells was blocked and cells were fixed. Conclusion: Considering the low amount of sodium chloride in anolyte, it seems that, this solution (Anolyte hasn’t side effects and advers effect on the cells body.

  17. Gibberellin reactivates and maintains ovary-wall cell division causing fruit set in parthenocarpic Citrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesejo, Carlos; Yuste, Roberto; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Bermejo, Almudena; Germanà, M Antonietta; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Agustí, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Citrus is a wide genus in which most of the cultivated species and cultivars are natural parthenocarpic mutants or hybrids (i.e. orange, mandarin, tangerine, grapefruit). The autonomous increase in GA1 ovary concentration during anthesis was suggested as being the stimulus responsible for parthenocarpy in Citrus regardless of the species. To determine the exact GA-role in parthenocarpic fruit set, the following hypothesis was tested: GA triggers and maintains cell division in ovary walls causing fruit set. Obligate and facultative parthenocarpic Citrus species were used as a model system because obligate parthenocarpic Citrus sp (i.e. Citrus unshiu) have higher GA levels and better natural parthenocarpic fruit set compared to other facultative parthenocarpic Citrus (i.e. Citrus clementina). The autonomous activation of GA synthesis in C. unshiu ovary preceded cell division and CYCA1.1 up-regulation (a G2-stage cell cycle regulator) at anthesis setting a high proportion of fruits, whereas C. clementina lacked this GA-biosynthesis and CYCA1.1 up-regulation failing in fruit set. In situ hybridization experiments revealed a tissue-specific expression of GA20ox2 only in the dividing tissues of the pericarp. Furthermore, CYCA1.1 expression correlated endogenous GA1 content with GA3 treatment, which stimulated cell division and ovary growth, mostly in C. clementina. Instead, paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor) negated cell division and reduced fruit set. Results suggest that in parthenocarpic citrus the specific GA synthesis in the ovary walls at anthesis triggers cell division and, thus, the necessary ovary growth rate to set fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Building the perfect parasite: cell division in apicomplexa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Striepen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexans are pathogens responsible for malaria, toxoplasmosis, and crytposporidiosis in humans, and a wide range of livestock diseases. These unicellular eukaryotes are stealthy invaders, sheltering from the immune response in the cells of their hosts, while at the same time tapping into these cells as source of nutrients. The complexity and beauty of the structures formed during their intracellular development have made apicomplexans the darling of electron microscopists. Dramatic technological progress over the last decade has transformed apicomplexans into respectable genetic model organisms. Extensive genomic resources are now available for many apicomplexan species. At the same time, parasite transfection has enabled researchers to test the function of specific genes through reverse and forward genetic approaches with increasing sophistication. Transfection also introduced the use of fluorescent reporters, opening the field to dynamic real time microscopic observation. Parasite cell biologists have used these tools to take a fresh look at a classic problem: how do apicomplexans build the perfect invasion machine, the zoite, and how is this process fine-tuned to fit the specific niche of each pathogen in this ancient and very diverse group? This work has unearthed a treasure trove of novel structures and mechanisms that are the focus of this review.

  19. Exploring Middle School Students' Conceptions of the Relationship between Genetic Inheritance and Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle; DeBarger, Angela Haydel; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Zhou, Xuechun; Tate, Erika

    2012-01-01

    This study examines students' understanding of the normative connections between key concepts of cell division, including both mitosis and meiosis, and underlying biological principles that are critical for an in-depth understanding of genetic inheritance. Using a structural equation modeling method, we examine middle school students'…

  20. Tracking the big ones : novel dynamics of organelles and macromolecular complexes during cell division and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, Sjoerd Jan van

    2015-01-01

    In this Thesis we address two important aspects of protein dynamics: protein synthesis and distribution upon cell division and dynamics of the protein degradation machinery. In Chapter 2, we present novel technology (Recombination-Induced Tag Exchange)to distinguish and simultaneously track old and

  1. Regulation of DNA synthesis and cell division by polyamines in Catharanthus roseus suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Minocha; S.C. Minocha; A. Komamine; W.C. Shortle

    1991-01-01

    Various inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis were used to study the role of polyamines in DNA synthesis and cell division in suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L) G. Don. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.19) was the major enzyme responsible for putrescine production. DL α-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ADC activity, cellular...

  2. FtsZ-less prokaryotic cell division as well as FtsZ- and dynamin-less chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastid division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ya eMiyagishima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The chloroplast division machinery is a mixture of a stromal FtsZ-based complex descended from a cyanobacterial ancestor of chloroplasts and a cytosolic dynamin-related protein (DRP 5B-based complex derived from the eukaryotic host. Molecular genetic studies have shown that each component of the division machinery is normally essential for normal chloroplast division. However, several exceptions have been found. In the absence of the FtsZ ring, nonphotosynthetic plastids are able to proliferate, likely by elongation and budding. Depletion of DRP5B impairs, but does not stop chloroplast division. Chloroplasts in glaucophytes, which possesses a peptidoglycan (PG layer, divide without DRP5B. Certain parasitic eukaryotes possess nonphotosynthetic plastids of secondary endosymbiotic origin, but neither FtsZ nor DRP5B is encoded in their genomes. Elucidation of the FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast division mechanism will lead to a better understanding of the function and evolution of the chloroplast division machinery and the finding of the as-yet-unknown mechanism that is likely involved in chloroplast division. Recent studies have shown that FtsZ was lost from a variety of prokaryotes, many of which lost PG by regressive evolution. In addition, even some of the FtsZ-bearing bacteria are able to divide when FtsZ and PG are depleted experimentally. In some cases, alternative mechanisms for cell division, such as budding by an increase of the cell surface-to-volume ratio, are proposed. Although PG is believed to have been lost from chloroplasts other than in glaucophytes, there is some indirect evidence for the existence of PG in chloroplasts. Such information is also useful for understanding how nonphotosynthetic plastids are able to divide in FtsZ-depleted cells and the reason for the retention of FtsZ in chloroplast division. Here we summarize information to facilitate analyses of FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast and nonphotosynthetic plastid

  3. Sugar beet guard cell protoplasts demonstrate a remarkable capacity for cell division enabling applications in stomatal physiology and molecular breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Riksen-Bruinsma, T.; Weyens, G.; LefObvre, M.; Dunwell, J.M.; Tunen, van A.; Krens, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    A highly-efficient protocol for the large-scale isolation of guard cell protoplasts from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) has been developed. Optimization of conditions for culturing these protoplasts resulted in extensive cell division and colony formation, at frequencies exceeding 50%. Plants can

  4. Partitioning and Exocytosis of Secretory Granules during Division of PC12 Cells

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    Nickolay Vassilev Bukoreshtliev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biogenesis, maturation, and exocytosis of secretory granules in interphase cells have been well documented, whereas the distribution and exocytosis of these hormone-storing organelles during cell division have received little attention. By combining ultrastructural analyses and time-lapse microscopy, we here show that, in dividing PC12 cells, the prominent peripheral localization of secretory granules is retained during prophase but clearly reduced during prometaphase, ending up with only few peripherally localized secretory granules in metaphase cells. During anaphase and telophase, secretory granules exhibited a pronounced movement towards the cell midzone and, evidently, their tracks colocalized with spindle microtubules. During cytokinesis, secretory granules were excluded from the midbody and accumulated at the bases of the intercellular bridge. Furthermore, by measuring exocytosis at the single granule level, we showed, that during all stages of cell division, secretory granules were competent for regulated exocytosis. In conclusion, our data shed new light on the complex molecular machinery of secretory granule redistribution during cell division, which facilitates their release from the F-actin-rich cortex and active transport along spindle microtubules.

  5. miR-430 regulates oriented cell division during neural tube development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Carter M; Giraldez, Antonio J

    2016-01-15

    MicroRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression. Originally shown to regulate developmental timing, microRNAs have since been implicated in a wide range of cellular functions including cell identity, migration and signaling. miRNA-430, the earliest expressed microRNA during zebrafish embryogenesis, is required to undergo morphogenesis and has previously been shown to regulate maternal mRNA clearance, Nodal signaling, and germ cell migration. The functions of miR-430 in brain morphogenesis, however, remain unclear. Herein we find that miR-430 instructs oriented cell divisions in the neural rod required for neural midline formation. Loss of miR-430 function results in mitotic spindle misorientation in the neural rod, failed neuroepithelial integration after cell division, and ectopic cell accumulation in the dorsal neural tube. We propose that miR-430, independently of canonical apicobasal and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways, coordinates the stereotypical cell divisions that instruct neural tube morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Microgravity effects during fertilization, cell division, development, and calcium metabolism in sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Heide

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to explore the role of microgravity during fertilization, early development, cytoskeletal organization, and skeletal calcium deposition in a model development system: the sea urchin eggs and embryos. While pursuing these objectives, we have also helped to develop, test, and fly the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF) system. Cells were fixed at preselected time points to preserve the structures and organelles of interest with regards to cell biology events during development. The protocols used for the analysis of the results had been developed during the earlier part of this research and were applied for post-flight analysis using light and (immuno)fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The structures of interest are: microtubules during fertilization, cell division, and cilia movement; microfilaments during cell surface restructuring and cell division; centrosomes and centrioles during cell division, cell differentiation, and cilia formation and movement; membranes, Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and chromosomes at all stages of development; and calcium deposits during spicule formation in late-stage embryos. In addition to further explore aspects important or living in space, several aspects of this research are also aimed at understanding diseases that affect humans on Earth which may be accelerated in space.

  7. The exon junction complex component Magoh controls brain size by regulating neural stem cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Debra L.; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E.; Schreck, Karisa C.; Pierfelice, Tarran J.; Larson, Denise M.; Burnetti, Anthony J.; Liaw, Hung-Jiun; Myung, Kyungjae; Walsh, Christopher A.; Gaiano, Nicholas; Pavan, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Brain structure and size requires precise division of neural stem cells (NSCs), which self-renew and generate intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) and neurons. The factors that regulate NSCs remain poorly understood, as do mechanistic explanations of how aberrant NSC division causes reduced brain size as seen in microcephaly. Here we demonstrate that Magoh, a component of the exon junction complex (EJC) that binds RNA, controls mouse cerebral cortical size by regulating NSC division. Magoh haploinsufficiency causes microcephaly due to INP depletion and neuronal apoptosis. Defective mitosis underlies these phenotypes as depletion of EJC components disrupts mitotic spindle orientation and integrity, chromosome number, and genomic stability. In utero rescue experiments revealed that a key function of Magoh is to control levels of the microcephaly-associated protein, LIS1, during neurogenesis. This study uncovers new requirements for the EJC in brain development, NSC maintenance, and mitosis, thus implicating this complex in the pathogenesis of microcephaly. PMID:20364144

  8. Force generation by a dynamic Z-ring in Escherichia coli cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Jun F; Cytrynbaum, Eric N

    2009-01-06

    FtsZ, a bacterial homologue of tubulin, plays a central role in bacterial cell division. It is the first of many proteins recruited to the division site to form the Z-ring, a dynamic structure that recycles on the time scale of seconds and is required for division to proceed. FtsZ has been recently shown to form rings inside tubular liposomes and to constrict the liposome membrane without the presence of other proteins, particularly molecular motors that appear to be absent from the bacterial proteome. Here, we propose a mathematical model for the dynamic turnover of the Z-ring and for its ability to generate a constriction force. Force generation is assumed to derive from GTP hydrolysis, which is known to induce curvature in FtsZ filaments. We find that this transition to a curved state is capable of generating a sufficient force to drive cell-wall invagination in vivo and can also explain the constriction seen in the in vitro liposome experiments. Our observations resolve the question of how FtsZ might accomplish cell division despite the highly dynamic nature of the Z-ring and the lack of molecular motors.

  9. Fission yeast cells undergo nuclear division in the absence of spindle microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Castagnetti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis in eukaryotic cells employs spindle microtubules to drive accurate chromosome segregation at cell division. Cells lacking spindle microtubules arrest in mitosis due to a spindle checkpoint that delays mitotic progression until all chromosomes have achieved stable bipolar attachment to spindle microtubules. In fission yeast, mitosis occurs within an intact nuclear membrane with the mitotic spindle elongating between the spindle pole bodies. We show here that in fission yeast interference with mitotic spindle formation delays mitosis only briefly and cells proceed to an unusual nuclear division process we term nuclear fission, during which cells perform some chromosome segregation and efficiently enter S-phase of the next cell cycle. Nuclear fission is blocked if spindle pole body maturation or sister chromatid separation cannot take place or if actin polymerization is inhibited. We suggest that this process exhibits vestiges of a primitive nuclear division process independent of spindle microtubules, possibly reflecting an evolutionary intermediate state between bacterial and Archeal chromosome segregation where the nucleoid divides without a spindle and a microtubule spindle-based eukaryotic mitosis.

  10. Asymmetric RNA Distribution among Cells and Their Secreted Exosomes: Biomedical Meaning and Considerations on Diagnostic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ragusa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, exosomes and their RNA cargo have been extensively studied because of the fascinating biological roles they play in cell-to-cell communication, including the signal exchange among cancer, stromal, and immune cells, leading to modifications of tumor microenvironment. RNAs, especially miRNAs, stored within exosomes, seem to be among the main determinants of such signaling: their sorting into exosomes appears to be cell-specific and related to cellular physiopathology. Accordingly, the identification of exosomal miRNAs in body fluids from pathological patients has become one of the most promising activity in the field of biomarker discovery. Several analyses on the qualitative and quantitative distribution of RNAs between cells and their secreted exosomes have given rise to questions on whether and how accurately exosomal RNAs would represent the transcriptomic snapshot of the physiological and pathological status of secreting cells. Although the exact molecular mechanisms of sorting remain quite elusive, many papers have reported an evident asymmetric quantitative distribution of RNAs between source cells and their exosomes. This phenomenon could depend both on passive and active sorting mechanisms related to: (a RNA turnover; (b maintaining the cytoplasmic miRNA:target equilibrium; (c removal of RNAs not critical or even detrimental for normal or diseased cells. These observations represent very critical issues in the exploitation of exosomal miRNAs as cancer biomarkers. In this review, we will discuss how much the exosomal and corresponding donor cell transcriptomes match each other, to better understand the actual reliability of exosomal RNA molecules as pathological biomarkers reflecting a diseased status of the cells.

  11. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

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    Jing Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our time-lapse studies suggest that cytoophidia are dynamic. Once the mother cell divides, the cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia independently partition into one of the two daughter cells. Although the two daughter cells differ from one another morphologically, they possess similar chances of inheriting the cytoplasmic cytoophidium from the mother cell, suggesting that the partition of cytoophidium is a stochastic process. Our findings on asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in S. pombe offer an exciting opportunity to study the inheritance of metabolic enzymes in a well-studied model system.

  12. Cell growth, division, and death in cohesive tissues: A thermodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Marcq, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    Cell growth, division, and death are defining features of biological tissues that contribute to morphogenesis. In hydrodynamic descriptions of cohesive tissues, their occurrence implies a nonzero rate of variation of cell density. We show how linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics allows us to express this rate as a combination of relevant thermodynamic forces: chemical potential, velocity divergence, and activity. We illustrate the resulting effects of the nonconservation of cell density on simple examples inspired by recent experiments on cell monolayers, considering first the velocity of a spreading front, and second an instability leading to mechanical waves.

  13. Illumination of growth, division and secretion by metabolic labeling of the bacterial cell surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, M. Sloan; Swarts, Benjamin M.; Fox, Douglas M.; Lim, Shion An; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface is the essential interface between a bacterium and its surroundings. Composed primarily of molecules that are not directly genetically encoded, this highly dynamic structure accommodates the basic cellular processes of growth and division as well as the transport of molecules between the cytoplasm and the extracellular milieu. In this review, we describe aspects of bacterial growth, division and secretion that have recently been uncovered by metabolic labeling of the cell envelope. Metabolite derivatives can be used to label a variety of macromolecules, from proteins to non-genetically-encoded glycans and lipids. The embedded metabolite enables precise tracking in time and space, and the versatility of newer chemoselective detection methods offers the ability to execute multiple experiments concurrently. In addition to reviewing the discoveries enabled by metabolic labeling of the bacterial cell envelope, we also discuss the potential of these techniques for translational applications. Finally, we offer some guidelines for implementing this emerging technology. PMID:25725012

  14. Effects of Copaifera duckei Dwyer oleoresin on the cell wall and cell division of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Dos Santos, Elizabeth Cristina; Donnici, Claudio Luis; Camargos, Elizabeth Ribeiro da Silva; Augusto de Rezende, Adriana; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Farias, Luiz de Macêdo; Roque de Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora; Almeida, Maria das Graças

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Copaifera duckei oleoresin and to determine its possible mechanism of action against bacteria of clinical and food interest. The antibacterial activity was determined by agar diffusion and dilution methods; the mechanism of action by transmission electron microscopy and by SDS-PAGE; the bioactive compounds by bioautography; and the chemical analysis by GC/MS. Oleoresin showed activity against nine of the 11 strains of bacteria tested. Bacillus cereus was the most sensitive, with a MIC corresponding to 0.03125 mg ml(-1) and with a bactericidal action. Oleoresin acted on the bacterial cell wall, removing proteins and the S-layer, and interfering with the cell-division process. This activity probably can be attributed to the action of terpenic compounds, among them the bisabolene compound. Gram-negative bacteria tested were not inhibited. C. duckei oleoresin is a potential antibacterial, suggesting that this oil could be used as a therapeutic alternative, mainly against B. cereus.

  15. Asymmetric reduction of substituted acetophenones using once immobilized Rhodotorula glutinis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, Esabi B; Zilbeyaz, Kani; Ozdal, Murat; Taskin, Mesut; Kurbanoglu, Namudar I

    2010-06-01

    The asymmetric reductions of acetophenone and its analogues using once immobilized Rhodotorula glutinis cells were studied. The performance and reaction parameters of the immobilized cells were also investigated and it was determined that the cells could be used 15 times in batch processes. All chiral alcohols obtained using purification procedures were of sufficient enantiopurity (>99%) of the (S)-enantiomer. The applicability of the optimized process for a preparative scale bioreduction was shown. Under the optimum conditions, 35mM (4.3g) of the product ((S)-1-phenylethanol) was produced from 45mM (5.4g) of the substrate (acetophenone) with one time immobilized R. glutinis EBK-2 cells (6g wet weight). The yield was calculated as 77%. In this study, it was found that the buffer level had a very significant effect on the reaction activity. Our results demonstrate that the optimized process can be implemented on a preparative scale. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Localization of cytokinesis factors to the future cell division site by microtubule-dependent transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Erdinc; Burgess, David; Chang, Fred

    2012-11-01

    The mechanism by which spindle microtubules (MTs) determine the site of cell division in animal cells is still highly controversial. Putative cytokinesis "signals" have been proposed to be positioned by spindle MTs at equatorial cortical regions to increase cortical contractility and/or at polar regions to decrease contractility [Rappaport, 1986; von Dassow, 2009]. Given the relative paucity of MTs at the future division site, it has not been clear how MTs localize cytokinesis factors there. Here, we test cytokinesis models using computational and experimental approaches. We present a simple lattice-based model in which signal-kinesin complexes move by transient plus-end directed movements on MTs interspersed with occasions of uniform diffusion in the cytoplasm. In simulations, complexes distribute themselves initially at the spindle midzone and then move on astral MTs to accumulate with time at the equatorial cortex. Simulations accurately predict cleavage patterns of cells with different geometries and MT arrangements and elucidate several experimental observations that have defied easy explanation by previous models. We verify this model with experiments on indented sea urchin zygotes showing that cells often divide perpendicular to the spindle at sites distinct from the indentations. These studies support an equatorial stimulation model and provide a simple mechanism explaining how cytokinesis factors localize to the future division site. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Observation of polyphosphate bodies and DNA during the cell division cycle of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Y; Nitta, K; Kaneko, Y

    2014-01-01

    Although most cyanobacterial cells contain prominent polyphosphate bodies in the central cytoplasmic area enclosed by the peripheral thylakoid membranes, their roles are not fully understood. Storing phosphate for nucleotide production might be one of their important roles in survival of the cells. As a step towards identifying a possible contribution of the polyphosphate bodies to DNA synthesis, the relationship between polyphosphate bodies and DNA throughout cell division cycle of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 cells cultured under light/dark cycles was investigated with light and electron microscopy. During the dark period, the average size of polyphosphate bodies increased gradually without significant change in their number and distribution. However, during the light period, the number of polyphosphate bodies increased, while the size of each polyphosphate body decreased and cells elongated until the end of the light period, when most cells divided. The ratio of the content of polyphosphate bodies to cell length increased gradually during the dark period and decreased during the light period. Hoechst 33342-stained DNA appeared diffuse during the dark period, but in the light period it became condensed and eventually formed a wavy, rope-like structure prior to cell division. Close association between fibres containing DNA and polyphosphate bodies was demonstrated by TEM using DNA-specific staining and BrdU labelling. These regular coordinated changes of polyphosphate bodies and DNA shape during the cell division cycle, together with their intimate interaction, imply a role of polyphosphate bodies in supplying material for DNA. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Role of the Number of Microtubules in Chromosome Segregation during Cell Division

    CERN Document Server

    Bertalan, Zsolt; La Porta, Caterina A M; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Faithful segregation of genetic material during cell division requires alignment of chromosomes between two spindle poles and attachment of their kinetochores to each of the poles. Failure of these complex dynamical processes leads to chromosomal instability (CIN), a characteristic feature of several diseases including cancer. While a multitude of biological factors regulating chromosome congression and bi-orientation have been identified, it is still unclear how they are integrated so that coherent chromosome motion emerges from a large collection of random and deterministic processes. Here we address this issue by a three dimensional computational model of motor-driven chromosome congression and bi-orientation during mitosis. Our model reveals that successful cell division requires control of the total number of microtubules: if this number is too small bi-orientation fails, while if it is too large not all the chromosomes are able to congress. The optimal number of microtubules predicted by our model compa...

  19. An interplay of migratory and division forces as a generic mechanism for stem cell patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Hannezo, Edouard; Joanny, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    In many adult tissues, stem cells and differentiated cells are not homogeneously distributed : stem cells are arranged in periodic "niches", and differentiated cells are constantly produced and migrate out of these niches. In this article, we provide a general theoretical framework to study mixtures of dividing and actively migrating particles, which we apply to biological tissues. We show in particular that the interplay between the stresses arising from active cell migration and stem cell division give rise to robust stem cell patterns. The instability of the tissue leads to spatial patterns which are either steady or oscillating in time. The wavelength of the instability has an order of magnitude consistent with the biological observations. We also discuss the implications of these results for future in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  20. Asymmetric triplex metallohelices with high and selective activity against cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Alan D.; Kaner, Rebecca A.; Abdallah, Qasem M. A.; Clarkson, Guy; Fox, David J.; Gurnani, Pratik; Howson, Suzanne E.; Phillips, Roger M.; Roper, David I.; Simpson, Daniel H.; Scott, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Small cationic amphiphilic α-helical peptides are emerging as agents for the treatment of cancer and infection, but they are costly and display unfavourable pharmacokinetics. Helical coordination complexes may offer a three-dimensional scaffold for the synthesis of mimetic architectures. However, the high symmetry and modest functionality of current systems offer little scope to tailor the structure to interact with specific biomolecular targets, or to create libraries for phenotypic screens. Here, we report the highly stereoselective asymmetric self-assembly of very stable, functionalized metallohelices. Their anti-parallel head-to-head-to-tail ‘triplex’ strand arrangement creates an amphipathic functional topology akin to that of the active sub-units of, for example, host-defence peptides and p53. The metallohelices display high, structure-dependent toxicity to the human colon carcinoma cell-line HCT116 p53++, causing dramatic changes in the cell cycle without DNA damage. They have lower toxicity to human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-468) and, most remarkably, they show no significant toxicity to the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  1. Divisome and segrosome components of Deinococcus radiodurans interact through cell division regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Ganesh K; Modi, Kruti; Misra, Hari S

    2016-08-01

    The Deinococcus radiodurans genome encodes many of the known components of divisome as well as four sets of genome partitioning proteins, ParA and ParB on its multipartite genome. Interdependent regulation of cell division and genome segregation is not understood. In vivo interactions of D. radiodurans' sdivisome, segrosome and other cell division regulatory proteins expressed on multicopy plasmids were studied in Escherichia coli using a bacterial two-hybrid system and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation with the proteins made in E. coli. Many of these showed interactions both with the self and with other proteins. For example, DrFtsA, DrFtsZ, DrMinD, DrMinC, DrDivIVA and all four ParB proteins individually formed at least homodimers, while DrFtsA interacted with DrFtsZ, DrFtsW, DrFtsE, DrFtsK and DrMinD. DrMinD also showed interaction with DrFtsW, DrFtsE and DrMinC. Interestingly, septum site determining protein, DrDivIVA showed interactions with secondary genome ParAs as well as ParB1, ParB3 and ParB4 while DrMinC interacted with ParB1 and ParB3. PprA, a pleiotropic protein recently implicated in cell division regulation, neither interacted with divisome proteins nor ParBs but interacted at different levels with all four ParAs. These results suggest the formation of independent multiprotein complexes of 'DrFts' proteins, segrosome proteins and cell division regulatory proteins, and these complexes could interact with each other through DrMinC and DrDivIVA, and PprA in D. radiodurans.

  2. Cumulative number of cell divisions as a meaningful timescale for adaptive laboratory evolution of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Feist, Adam M; Barrett, Christian L; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) under controlled conditions has become a valuable approach for the study of the genetic and biochemical basis for microbial adaptation under a given selection pressure. Conventionally, the timescale in ALE experiments has been set in terms of number of generations. As mutations are believed to occur primarily during cell division in growing cultures, the cumulative number of cell divisions (CCD) would be an alternative way to set the timescale for ALE. Here we show that in short-term ALE (up to 40-50 days), Escherichia coli, under growth rate selection pressure, was found to undergo approximately 10(11.2) total cumulative cell divisions in the population to produce a new stable growth phenotype that results from 2 to 8 mutations. Continuous exposure to a low level of the mutagen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine was found to accelerate this timescale and led to a superior growth rate phenotype with a much larger number of mutations as determined with whole-genome sequencing. These results would be useful for the fundamental kinetics of the ALE process in designing ALE experiments and provide a basis for its quantitative description.

  3. Cumulative number of cell divisions as a meaningful timescale for adaptive laboratory evolution of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Lee

    Full Text Available Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE under controlled conditions has become a valuable approach for the study of the genetic and biochemical basis for microbial adaptation under a given selection pressure. Conventionally, the timescale in ALE experiments has been set in terms of number of generations. As mutations are believed to occur primarily during cell division in growing cultures, the cumulative number of cell divisions (CCD would be an alternative way to set the timescale for ALE. Here we show that in short-term ALE (up to 40-50 days, Escherichia coli, under growth rate selection pressure, was found to undergo approximately 10(11.2 total cumulative cell divisions in the population to produce a new stable growth phenotype that results from 2 to 8 mutations. Continuous exposure to a low level of the mutagen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine was found to accelerate this timescale and led to a superior growth rate phenotype with a much larger number of mutations as determined with whole-genome sequencing. These results would be useful for the fundamental kinetics of the ALE process in designing ALE experiments and provide a basis for its quantitative description.

  4. Citral induces auxin and ethylene-mediated malformations and arrests cell division in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, E; Sotelo, T; Díaz-Tielas, C; Araniti, F; Krasuska, U; Bogatek, R; Reigosa, M J; Sánchez-Moreiras, A M

    2013-02-01

    Citral is a linear monoterpene which is present, as a volatile component, in the essential oil of several different aromatic plants. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of citral to alter the mitotic microtubules of plant cells, especially at low concentrations. The changes to the microtubules may be due to the compound acting directly on the treated root and coleoptile cells or to indirect action through certain phytohormones. This study, performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, analysed the short-term effects of citral on the auxin content and mitotic cells, and the long-term effects of these alterations on root development and ethylene levels. The results of this study show that citral alters auxin content and cell division and has a strong long-term disorganising effect on cell ultra-structure in A. thaliana seedlings. Its effects on cell division, the thickening of the cell wall, the reduction in intercellular communication, and the absence of root hairs confirm that citral is a strong phytotoxic compound, which has persistent effects on root development.

  5. Image analysis of neural stem cell division patterns in the zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupperger, Valerio; Buggenthin, Felix; Chapouton, Prisca; Marr, Carsten

    2017-11-10

    Proliferating stem cells in the adult body are the source of constant regeneration. In the brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide to maintain the stem cell population and generate neural progenitor cells that eventually replenish mature neurons and glial cells. How much spatial coordination of NSC division and differentiation is present in a functional brain is an open question. To quantify the patterns of stem cell divisions, one has to (i) identify the pool of NSCs that have the ability to divide, (ii) determine NSCs that divide within a given time window, and (iii) analyze the degree of spatial coordination. Here, we present a bioimage informatics pipeline that automatically identifies GFP expressing NSCs in three-dimensional image stacks of zebrafish brain from whole-mount preparations. We exploit the fact that NSCs in the zebrafish hemispheres are located on a two-dimensional surface and identify between 1,500 and 2,500 NSCs in six brain hemispheres. We then determine the position of dividing NSCs in the hemisphere by EdU incorporation into cells undergoing S-phase and calculate all pairwise NSC distances with three alternative metrics. Finally, we fit a probabilistic model to the observed spatial patterns that accounts for the non-homogeneous distribution of NSCs. We find a weak positive coordination between dividing NSCs irrespective of the metric and conclude that neither strong inhibitory nor strong attractive signals drive NSC divisions in the adult zebrafish brain. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. Tetracycline hypersensitivity of an ezrA mutant links GalE and TseB (YpmB) to cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamba, P.; Rietkötter, E.; Daniel, R.A.; Hamoen, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure at midcell that functions as a scaffold for the other cell division proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the conserved cell division protein EzrA is involved in modulation of Z-ring formation and coordination

  7. Cell division responsive peptides for optimized plasmid DNA delivery: the mitotic window of opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaut, K; Symens, N; Lucas, B; Demeester, J; De Smedt, S C

    2014-04-10

    The delivery of plasmid DNA remains hard to achieve, especially due to the presence of the nuclear membrane barrier. During cell division, however, the nuclear membrane is temporarily disassembled. We evaluated two different strategies to optimize plasmid DNA delivery in dividing cells: 1) phosphorylation responsive peptides that release plasmid DNA preferentially during mitosis and 2) chromatin targeting peptides to anchor plasmid DNA in newly formed nuclei upon cell division. Peptide/DNA particles alone were not efficient in penetrating cells. Upon co-delivery with lipid-based carriers, however, transfection efficiency drastically improved when compared to controls. For the phosphorylation responsive peptides, the presence of the phosphorylation sequence slightly increased transfection efficiency. For the chromatin targeting peptides, however, the chromatin targeting sequence did not seem to be the main reason for the improvement of transfection efficiency when applied in living cells. In conclusion, the pre-condensation of plasmid DNA with peptides improves lipid based delivery, but the nature of the peptides (cell responsive or not) does not seem to be the main reason for the improvement. It seems that the nuclear entry of foreign plasmid DNA is still under tight control, even during the mitotic window of opportunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M. C.; Brum, Felipe L.; da Silva, Camila C.; Zuma, Aline A.; Elias, Maria C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number. PMID:26082757

  9. Polar flagellar biosynthesis and a regulator of flagellar number influence spatial parameters of cell division in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Balaban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and numerical regulation of flagellar biosynthesis results in different flagellation patterns specific for each bacterial species. Campylobacter jejuni produces amphitrichous (bipolar flagella to result in a single flagellum at both poles. These flagella confer swimming motility and a distinctive darting motility necessary for infection of humans to cause diarrheal disease and animals to promote commensalism. In addition to flagellation, symmetrical cell division is spatially regulated so that the divisome forms near the cellular midpoint. We have identified an unprecedented system for spatially regulating cell division in C. jejuni composed by FlhG, a regulator of flagellar number in polar flagellates, and components of amphitrichous flagella. Similar to its role in other polarly-flagellated bacteria, we found that FlhG regulates flagellar biosynthesis to limit poles of C. jejuni to one flagellum. Furthermore, we discovered that FlhG negatively influences the ability of FtsZ to initiate cell division. Through analysis of specific flagellar mutants, we discovered that components of the motor and switch complex of amphitrichous flagella are required with FlhG to specifically inhibit division at poles. Without FlhG or specific motor and switch complex proteins, cell division occurs more often at polar regions to form minicells. Our findings suggest a new understanding for the biological requirement of the amphitrichous flagellation pattern in bacteria that extend beyond motility, virulence, and colonization. We propose that amphitrichous bacteria such as Campylobacter species advantageously exploit placement of flagella at both poles to spatially regulate an FlhG-dependent mechanism to inhibit polar cell division, thereby encouraging symmetrical cell division to generate the greatest number of viable offspring. Furthermore, we found that other polarly-flagellated bacteria produce FlhG proteins that influence cell division, suggesting that

  10. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Shuting; Gong, Fei; Lu, Changfu; Zhang, Shuoping; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles, n = 799) were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42). Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively). In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas potential irrespective of division behaviors. In NB embryos, the blastocyst formation rate increased with cell number from 7.4% (10C). In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  11. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid biosynthetic mutant dwarf7-1 exhibits slower rates of cell division and shoot induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Burkhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on both cell division and cell expansion. Plant hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs, are central to the control of these two cellular processes. Despite clear evidence that BRs regulate cell elongation, their roles in cell division have remained elusive. Results Here, we report results emphasizing the importance of BRs in cell division. An Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic mutant, dwarf7-1, displayed various characteristics attributable to slower cell division rates. We found that the DWARF4 gene which encodes for an enzyme catalyzing a rate-determining step in the BR biosynthetic pathways, is highly expressed in the actively dividing callus, suggesting that BR biosynthesis is necessary for dividing cells. Furthermore, dwf7-1 showed noticeably slower rates of callus growth and shoot induction relative to wild-type control. Flow cytometric analyses of the nuclei derived from either calli or intact roots revealed that the cell division index, which was represented as the ratio of cells at the G2/M vs. G1 phases, was smaller in dwf7-1 plants. Finally, we found that the expression levels of the genes involved in cell division and shoot induction, such as PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN2 (PCNA2 and ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION2 (ESR2, were also lower in dwf7-1 as compared with wild type. Conclusions Taken together, results of callus induction, shoot regeneration, flow cytometry, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis suggest that BRs play important roles in both cell division and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.

  12. Peptidoglycan synthesis machinery in Agrobacterium tumefaciens during unipolar growth and cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Todd A; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zupan, John R; Zik, Justin J; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2014-05-27

    The synthesis of peptidoglycan (PG) in bacteria is a crucial process controlling cell shape and vitality. In contrast to bacteria such as Escherichia coli that grow by dispersed lateral insertion of PG, little is known of the processes that direct polar PG synthesis in other bacteria such as the Rhizobiales. To better understand polar growth in the Rhizobiales Agrobacterium tumefaciens, we first surveyed its genome to identify homologs of (~70) well-known PG synthesis components. Since most of the canonical cell elongation components are absent from A. tumefaciens, we made fluorescent protein fusions to other putative PG synthesis components to assay their subcellular localization patterns. The cell division scaffolds FtsZ and FtsA, PBP1a, and a Rhizobiales- and Rhodobacterales-specific l,d-transpeptidase (LDT) all associate with the elongating cell pole. All four proteins also localize to the septum during cell division. Examination of the dimensions of growing cells revealed that new cell compartments gradually increase in width as they grow in length. This increase in cell width is coincident with an expanded region of LDT-mediated PG synthesis activity, as measured directly through incorporation of exogenous d-amino acids. Thus, unipolar growth in the Rhizobiales is surprisingly dynamic and represents a significant departure from the canonical growth mechanism of E. coli and other well-studied bacilli. Many rod-shaped bacteria, including pathogens such as Brucella and Mycobacteriu, grow by adding new material to their cell poles, and yet the proteins and mechanisms contributing to this process are not yet well defined. The polarly growing plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used as a model bacterium to explore these polar growth mechanisms. The results obtained indicate that polar growth in this organism is facilitated by repurposed cell division components and an otherwise obscure class of alternative peptidoglycan transpeptidases (l

  13. LIS1 RNA interference blocks neural stem cell division, morphogenesis, and motility at multiple stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jin-Wu; Chen, Yu; Kriegstein, Arnold R; Vallee, Richard B

    2005-09-12

    Mutations in the human LIS1 gene cause the smooth brain disease classical lissencephaly. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we conducted in situ live cell imaging analysis of LIS1 function throughout the entire radial migration pathway. In utero electroporation of LIS1 small interference RNA and short hairpin dominant negative LIS1 and dynactin cDNAs caused a dramatic accumulation of multipolar progenitor cells within the subventricular zone of embryonic rat brains. This effect resulted from a complete failure in progression from the multipolar to the migratory bipolar state, as revealed by time-lapse analysis of brain slices. Surprisingly, interkinetic nuclear oscillations in the radial glial progenitors were also abolished, as were cell divisions at the ventricular surface. Those few bipolar cells that reached the intermediate zone also exhibited a complete block in somal translocation, although, remarkably, process extension persisted. Finally, axonal growth also ceased. These results identify multiple distinct and novel roles for LIS1 in nucleokinesis and process dynamics and suggest that nuclear position controls neural progenitor cell division.

  14. PomZ, a ParA-like protein, regulates Z-ring formation and cell division in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuner-Lange, Anke; Aguiluz, Kryssia; van der Does, Chris; Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Harms, Andrea; Schumacher, Dominik; Lenz, Peter; Hoppert, Michael; Kahnt, Jörg; Muñoz-Dorado, José; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Accurate positioning of the division site is essential to generate appropriately sized daughter cells with the correct chromosome number. In bacteria, division generally depends on assembly of the tubulin homologue FtsZ into the Z-ring at the division site. Here, we show that lack of the ParA-like protein PomZ in Myxococcus xanthus resulted in division defects with the formation of chromosome-free minicells and filamentous cells. Lack of PomZ also caused reduced formation of Z-rings and incorrect positioning of the few Z-rings formed. PomZ localization is cell cycle regulated, and PomZ accumulates at the division site at midcell after chromosome segregation but prior to FtsZ as well as in the absence of FtsZ. FtsZ displayed cooperative GTP hydrolysis in vitro but did not form detectable filaments in vitro. PomZ interacted with FtsZ in M. xanthus cell extracts. These data show that PomZ is important for Z-ring formation and is a spatial regulator of Z-ring formation and cell division. The cell cycle-dependent localization of PomZ at midcell provides a mechanism for coupling cell cycle progression and Z-ring formation. Moreover, the data suggest that PomZ is part of a system that recruits FtsZ to midcell, thereby, restricting Z-ring formation to this position. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. A millifluidic study of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth-rate and cell-division capability in populations of isogenic cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima P Damodaran

    Full Text Available To address possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth dynamics of isogenic cell populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed a millifluidic drop-based device that not only allows the analysis of populations grown from single cells over periods of a week, but is also able to sort and collect drops of interest, containing viable and healthy cells, which can be used for further experimentation. In this study, we used isogenic algal cells that were first synchronized in mixotrophic growth conditions. We show that these synchronized cells, when placed in droplets and kept in mixotrophic growth conditions, exhibit mostly homogeneous growth statistics, but with two distinct subpopulations: a major population with a short doubling-time (fast-growers and a significant subpopulation of slowly dividing cells (slow-growers. These observations suggest that algal cells from an isogenic population may be present in either of two states, a state of restricted division and a state of active division. When isogenic cells were allowed to propagate for about 1000 generations on solid agar plates, they displayed an increased heterogeneity in their growth dynamics. Although we could still identify the original populations of slow- and fast-growers, drops inoculated with a single progenitor cell now displayed a wider diversity of doubling-times. Moreover, populations dividing with the same growth-rate often reached different cell numbers in stationary phase, suggesting that the progenitor cells differed in the number of cell divisions they could undertake. We discuss possible explanations for these cell-to-cell heterogeneities in growth dynamics, such as mutations, differential aging or stochastic variations in metabolites and macromolecules yielding molecular switches, in the light of single-cell heterogeneities that have been reported among isogenic populations of other eu- and prokaryotes.

  16. Judging diatoms by their cover: variability in local elasticity of Lithodesmium undulatum undergoing cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Karp-Boss

    Full Text Available Unique features of diatoms are their intricate cell covers (frustules made out of hydrated, amorphous silica. The frustule defines and maintains cell shape and protects cells against grazers and pathogens, yet it must allow for cell expansion during growth and division. Other siliceous structures have also evolved in some chain-forming species as means for holding neighboring cells together. Characterization and quantification of mechanical properties of these structures are crucial for the understanding of the relationship between form and function in diatoms, but thus far only a handful of studies have addressed this issue. We conducted micro-indentation experiments, using atomic force microscopy (AFM, to examine local variations in elastic (Young's moduli of cells and linking structures in the marine, chain-forming diatom Lithodesmium undulatum. Using a fluorescent tracer that is incorporated into new cell wall components we tested the hypothesis that new siliceous structures differ in elastic modulus from their older counterparts. Results show that the local elastic modulus is a highly dynamic property. Elastic modulus of stained regions was significantly lower than that of unstained regions, suggesting that newly formed cell wall components are generally softer than the ones inherited from the parent cells. This study provides the first evidence of differentiation in local elastic properties in the course of the cell cycle. Hardening of newly formed regions may involve incorporation of additional, possibly organic, material but further studies are needed to elucidate the processes that regulate mechanical properties of the frustule during the cell cycle.

  17. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H.; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, highly curved but intact nuclear membranes are observed, showing no direct contact between the nanowires and the DNA. The nanowires possibly induce cellular stress and high respiration rates, which trigger the formation of ROS, which in turn results in DNA......Nanowires are commonly used as tools for interfacing living cells, acting as biomolecule-delivery vectors or electrodes. It is generally assumed that the small size of the nanowires ensures a minimal cellular perturbation, yet the effects of nanowires on cell migration and proliferation remain...... largely unknown. Fibroblast behaviour on vertical nanowire arrays is investigated, and it is shown that cell motility and proliferation rate are reduced on nanowires. Fibroblasts cultured on long nanowires exhibit failed cell division, DNA damage, increased ROS content and respiration. Using focused ion...

  18. EzrA: a spectrin-like scaffold in the bacterial cell division machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Cleverley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in identifying the components of the divisome, the assembly of proteins that undertakes the vital process of cell division in bacteria. However, how the highly interdependent processes on either side of the membrane are coordinated during division is a major unresolved question. How is the degradation and synthesis of the cell wall on the outside of the cell coordinated with cytokinesis and membrane fission, which are driven from the inside of the cell by the tubulin homologue FtsZ? A possible key mediator of such coordination is the membrane protein EzrA, as it interacts both with FtsZ and the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs that synthesize peptidoglycan. Cleverley et al. [Nature Communications (2014 5, 5421] have recently solved the crystal structure of the cytoplasmic domain of B. subtilis EzrA, which points to an important scaffolding role for EzrA in the divisome. The structure resembles the eukaryotic, cytoskeletal spectrin proteins, which link actin filaments in the cytoskeleton and also connect the actin cytoskeleton to membrane-bound integrin proteins.

  19. Morphology and ultrastructure of Interfilum and Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) with special reference to cell division and thallus formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Holzinger, Andreas; Massalski, Andrzej; Karsten, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Representatives of the closely related genera, Interfilum and Klebsormidium, are characterized by unicells, dyads or packets in Interfilum and contrasting uniseriate filaments in Klebsormidium. According to the literature, these distinct thallus forms originate by different types of cell division, sporulation (cytogony) versus vegetative cell division (cytotomy), but investigations of their morphology and ultrastructure show a high degree of similarity. Cell walls of both genera are characterized by triangular spaces between cell walls of neighbouring cells and the parental wall or central space among the walls of a cell packet, exfoliations and projections of the parental wall and cap-like and H-like fragments of the cell wall. In both genera, each cell has its individual cell wall and it also has part of the common parental wall or its remnants. Therefore, vegetative cells of Interfilum and Klebsormidium probably divide by the same type of cell division (sporulation-like). Various strains representing different species of the two genera are characterized by differences in cell wall ultrastructure, particularly the level of preservation, rupture or gelatinization of the parental wall surrounding the daughter cells. The differing morphologies of representatives of various lineages result from features of the parental wall during cell separation and detachment. Cell division in three planes (usual in Interfilum and a rare event in Klebsormidium) takes place in spherical or short cylindrical cells, with the chloroplast positioned perpendicularly or obliquely to the filament (dyad) axis. The morphological differences are mainly a consequence of differing fates of the parental wall after cell division and detachment. The development of different morphologies within the two genera mostly depends on characters such as the shape of cells, texture of cell walls, mechanical interactions between cells and the influence of environmental conditions. PMID:26504365

  20. Asymmetrical Interleaved DC/DC Switching Converters for Photovoltaic and Fuel Cell Applications—Part 2: Control-Oriented Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ignacio Serna-Garces

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A previous article has presented the members of the asymmetrical interleaved dc/dc switching converters family as very appropriate candidates to interface between photovoltaic or fuel cell generators and their loads because of their reduced ripple and increased current processing capabilities. After a review of the main modeling methods suitable for high-order converters operating, as the asymmetrical interleaved converters (AIC ones, in discontinuous current conduction mode a full-order averaged model has been adapted and improved to describe the dynamic behavior of AIC. The excellent agreement between the mathematical model predictions, the switched simulations and the experimental results has allowed for satisfactory design of a linear-quadratic regulator (LQR in a fuel-cell application example, which demonstrates the usefulness of the improved control-oriented modeling approach when the switching converters operate in discontinuous conduction mode.

  1. Effect of microgravity environment on cell wall regeneration, cell divisions, growth, and differentiation of plants from protoplasts (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to investigate if microgravity has any influence on growth and differentiation of protoplasts. Formation of new cell walls on rapeseed protoplasts takes place within the first 24 hours after isolation. Cell division can be observed after 2-4 days and formation of cell aggregates after 5-7 days. Therefore, it is possible during the 7 day IML-1 Mission to investigate if cell wall formation, cell division, and cell differentiation are influenced by microgravity. Protoplasts of rapeseeds and carrot will be prepared shortly before launch and injected into 0.6 ml polyethylene bags. Eight bags are placed in an aluminum block inside the ESA Type 1 container. The containers are placed at 4 C in PTCU's and transferred to orbiter mid-deck. At 4 C all cell processes are slowed down, including cell wall formation. Latest access to the shuttle will be 12 hours before launch. In orbit the containers will be transferred from the PTC box to the 22 C Biorack incubator. The installation of a 1 g centrifuge in Biorack will make it possible to distinguish between effects of near weightlessness and effects caused by cosmic radiation and other space flight factors including vibrations. Parallel control experiments will be carried out on the ground. Other aspects of the experiment are discussed.

  2. How bacterial cell division might cheat turgor pressure - a unified mechanism of septal division in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Harold P

    2017-08-01

    An important question for bacterial cell division is how the invaginating septum can overcome the turgor force generated by the high osmolarity of the cytoplasm. I suggest that it may not need to. Several studies in Gram-negative bacteria have shown that the periplasm is isoosmolar with the cytoplasm. Indirect evidence suggests that this is also true for Gram-positive bacteria. In this case the invagination of the septum takes place within the uniformly high osmotic pressure environment, and does not have to fight turgor pressure. A related question is how the V-shaped constriction of Gram-negative bacteria relates to the plate-like septum of Gram-positive bacteria. I collected evidence that Gram-negative bacteria have a latent capability of forming plate-like septa, and present a model in which septal division is the basic mechanism in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Contribution of Stochastic Partitioning at Human Embryonic Stem Cell Division to NANOG Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jincheng; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity is an often unappreciated characteristic of stem cell populations yet its importance in fate determination is becoming increasingly evident. Although gene expression noise has received greater attention as a source of non-genetic heterogeneity, the effects of stochastic partitioning of cellular material during mitosis on population variability have not been researched to date. We examined self-renewing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which typically exhibit a dispersed distribution of the pluripotency marker NANOG. In conjunction with our experiments, a multiscale cell population balance equation (PBE) model was constructed accounting for transcriptional noise and stochastic partitioning at division as sources of population heterogeneity. Cultured hESCs maintained time-invariant profiles of size and NANOG expression and the data were utilized for parameter estimation. Contributions from both sources considered in this study were significant on the NANOG profile, although elimination of the gene expression noise resulted in greater changes in the dispersion of the NANOG distribution. Moreover, blocking of division by treating hESCs with nocodazole or colcemid led to a 39% increase in the average NANOG content and over 68% of the cells had higher NANOG level than the mean NANOG expression of untreated cells. Model predictions, which were in excellent agreement with these findings, revealed that stochastic partitioning accounted for 17% of the total noise in the NANOG profile of self-renewing hESCs. The computational framework developed in this study will aid in gaining a deeper understanding of how pluripotent stem/progenitor cells orchestrate processes such as gene expression and proliferation for maintaining their pluripotency or differentiating along particular lineages. Such models will be essential in designing and optimizing efficient differentiation strategies and bioprocesses for the production of therapeutically suitable stem cell progeny

  4. CeFra-seq reveals broad asymmetric mRNA and noncoding RNA distribution profiles in Drosophila and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit Bouvrette, Louis Philip; Cody, Neal A L; Bergalet, Julie; Lefebvre, Fabio Alexis; Diot, Cédric; Wang, Xiaofeng; Blanchette, Mathieu; Lécuyer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Cells are highly asymmetrical, a feature that relies on the sorting of molecular constituents, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, to distinct subcellular locales. The localization of RNA molecules is an important layer of gene regulation required to modulate localized cellular activities, although its global prevalence remains unclear. We combine biochemical cell fractionation with RNA-sequencing (CeFra-seq) analysis to assess the prevalence and conservation of RNA asymmetric distribution on a transcriptome-wide scale in Drosophila and human cells. This approach reveals that the majority (∼80%) of cellular RNA species are asymmetrically distributed, whether considering coding or noncoding transcript populations, in patterns that are broadly conserved evolutionarily. Notably, a large number of Drosophila and human long noncoding RNAs and circular RNAs display enriched levels within specific cytoplasmic compartments, suggesting that these RNAs fulfill extra-nuclear functions. Moreover, fraction-specific mRNA populations exhibit distinctive sequence characteristics. Comparative analysis of mRNA fractionation profiles with that of their encoded proteins reveals a general lack of correlation in subcellular distribution, marked by strong cases of asymmetry. However, coincident distribution profiles are observed for mRNA/protein pairs related to a variety of functional protein modules, suggesting complex regulatory inputs of RNA localization to cellular organization. © 2018 Benoit Bouvrette et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  5. Histogen Layers Contributing to Adventitious Bud Formation Are Determined by their Cell Division Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo-Jung; Ohno, Sho; Honda, Keita; Deguchi, Ayumi; Doi, Motoaki; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2017-01-01

    Saintpaulia ionantha is propagated by adventitious buds in horticulture, and periclinal chimeral cultivars are usually difficult to propagate. However, some periclinal chimeral cultivars can be propagated with adventitious buds, and the mechanism of which has been unknown. Striped flower cultivars "Kaname," "Concord," and "Monique" were used to investigate what causes flower color separation in adventitious shoot-derived plants by tissue culture. These cultivars were revealed to have mutated flavonoid 3', 5' hydroxylase (SiF3'5'H), WDR1 (SiWDR1), or flavonoid 3 hydroxylase (SiF3H), respectively, in their L1 layer. From our previous study using "Kaname," all flowers from adventitious shoots were colored pink, which was the epidermal color of mother plants' flowers. We used "Concrd" and "Monique" from which we obtained not only monochromatic-colored plants the same as the epidermal color of mother plants, but also plants with a monochromatic colored plants, same as the subepidermal color, and a striped flower color the same as mother plants. Histological observations revealed that epidermal cells divided actively at 14 d after culture and they were involved in the formation of adventitious shoots in the cultured leaf segments of "Kaname." On the other hand, in "Concord" and "Monique," the number of divided cells in the subepidermis was rather higher than that of epidermal cells, and subepidermal cells were sometimes involved in shoot formation. In addition, the plant and leaf size of L1-derived plants from "Concord" and "Monique" were non-vigorous and smaller than those derived from the subepidermal layer. In conclusion, periclinal chimeral cultivars of Saintpaulia can be divided into two types. One type has a high cell division activity in the L1 layer, from which only single flower-colored plants derived from L1 can be obtained as adventitious shoots. Another type has a low cell division activity in the L1 layer, from which striped flower-colored plants the same as

  6. Histogen Layers Contributing to Adventitious Bud Formation Are Determined by their Cell Division Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Nabeshima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Saintpaulia ionantha is propagated by adventitious buds in horticulture, and periclinal chimeral cultivars are usually difficult to propagate. However, some periclinal chimeral cultivars can be propagated with adventitious buds, and the mechanism of which has been unknown. Striped flower cultivars “Kaname,” “Concord,” and “Monique” were used to investigate what causes flower color separation in adventitious shoot-derived plants by tissue culture. These cultivars were revealed to have mutated flavonoid 3′, 5′ hydroxylase (SiF3′5′H, WDR1 (SiWDR1, or flavonoid 3 hydroxylase (SiF3H, respectively, in their L1 layer. From our previous study using “Kaname,” all flowers from adventitious shoots were colored pink, which was the epidermal color of mother plants' flowers. We used “Concrd” and “Monique” from which we obtained not only monochromatic-colored plants the same as the epidermal color of mother plants, but also plants with a monochromatic colored plants, same as the subepidermal color, and a striped flower color the same as mother plants. Histological observations revealed that epidermal cells divided actively at 14 d after culture and they were involved in the formation of adventitious shoots in the cultured leaf segments of “Kaname.” On the other hand, in “Concord” and “Monique,” the number of divided cells in the subepidermis was rather higher than that of epidermal cells, and subepidermal cells were sometimes involved in shoot formation. In addition, the plant and leaf size of L1-derived plants from “Concord” and “Monique” were non-vigorous and smaller than those derived from the subepidermal layer. In conclusion, periclinal chimeral cultivars of Saintpaulia can be divided into two types. One type has a high cell division activity in the L1 layer, from which only single flower-colored plants derived from L1 can be obtained as adventitious shoots. Another type has a low cell division activity

  7. Modeling the Mechanics of Cell Division: Influence of Spontaneous Membrane Curvature, Surface Tension, and Osmotic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, Elena; Almendro-Vedia, Víctor G.; Monroy, Francisco; Cao, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Many cell division processes have been conserved throughout evolution and are being revealed by studies on model organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and protozoa. Cellular membrane constriction is one of these processes, observed almost universally during cell division. It happens similarly in all organisms through a mechanical pathway synchronized with the sequence of cytokinetic events in the cell interior. Arguably, such a mechanical process is mastered by the coordinated action of a constriction machinery fueled by biochemical energy in conjunction with the passive mechanics of the cellular membrane. Independently of the details of the constriction engine, the membrane component responds against deformation by minimizing the elastic energy at every constriction state following a pathway still unknown. In this paper, we address a theoretical study of the mechanics of membrane constriction in a simplified model that describes a homogeneous membrane vesicle in the regime where mechanical work due to osmotic pressure, surface tension, and bending energy are comparable. We develop a general method to find approximate analytical expressions for the main descriptors of a symmetrically constricted vesicle. Analytical solutions are obtained by combining a perturbative expansion for small deformations with a variational approach that was previously demonstrated valid at the reference state of an initially spherical vesicle at isotonic conditions. The analytic approximate results are compared with the exact solution obtained from numerical computations, getting a good agreement for all the computed quantities (energy, area, volume, constriction force). We analyze the effects of the spontaneous curvature, the surface tension and the osmotic pressure in these quantities, focusing especially on the constriction force. The more favorable conditions for vesicle constriction are determined, obtaining that smaller constriction forces are required for positive spontaneous

  8. Modeling the Mechanics of Cell Division: Influence of Spontaneous Membrane Curvature, Surface Tension, and Osmotic Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, Elena; Almendro-Vedia, Víctor G; Monroy, Francisco; Cao, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Many cell division processes have been conserved throughout evolution and are being revealed by studies on model organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and protozoa. Cellular membrane constriction is one of these processes, observed almost universally during cell division. It happens similarly in all organisms through a mechanical pathway synchronized with the sequence of cytokinetic events in the cell interior. Arguably, such a mechanical process is mastered by the coordinated action of a constriction machinery fueled by biochemical energy in conjunction with the passive mechanics of the cellular membrane. Independently of the details of the constriction engine, the membrane component responds against deformation by minimizing the elastic energy at every constriction state following a pathway still unknown. In this paper, we address a theoretical study of the mechanics of membrane constriction in a simplified model that describes a homogeneous membrane vesicle in the regime where mechanical work due to osmotic pressure, surface tension, and bending energy are comparable. We develop a general method to find approximate analytical expressions for the main descriptors of a symmetrically constricted vesicle. Analytical solutions are obtained by combining a perturbative expansion for small deformations with a variational approach that was previously demonstrated valid at the reference state of an initially spherical vesicle at isotonic conditions. The analytic approximate results are compared with the exact solution obtained from numerical computations, getting a good agreement for all the computed quantities (energy, area, volume, constriction force). We analyze the effects of the spontaneous curvature, the surface tension and the osmotic pressure in these quantities, focusing especially on the constriction force. The more favorable conditions for vesicle constriction are determined, obtaining that smaller constriction forces are required for positive spontaneous

  9. Hydrocarbons Are Essential for Optimal Cell Size, Division, and Growth of Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea-Smith, David J; Ortiz-Suarez, Maite L; Lenn, Tchern; Nürnberg, Dennis J; Baers, Laura L; Davey, Matthew P; Parolini, Lucia; Huber, Roland G; Cotton, Charles A R; Mastroianni, Giulia; Bombelli, Paolo; Ungerer, Petra; Stevens, Tim J; Smith, Alison G; Bond, Peter J; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Howe, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are intricately organized, incorporating an array of internal thylakoid membranes, the site of photosynthesis, into cells no larger than other bacteria. They also synthesize C15-C19 alkanes and alkenes, which results in substantial production of hydrocarbons in the environment. All sequenced cyanobacteria encode hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathways, suggesting an important, undefined physiological role for these compounds. Here, we demonstrate that hydrocarbon-deficient mutants of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 exhibit significant phenotypic differences from wild type, including enlarged cell size, reduced growth, and increased division defects. Photosynthetic rates were similar between strains, although a minor reduction in energy transfer between the soluble light harvesting phycobilisome complex and membrane-bound photosystems was observed. Hydrocarbons were shown to accumulate in thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. Modeling of membranes suggests these compounds aggregate in the center of the lipid bilayer, potentially promoting membrane flexibility and facilitating curvature. In vivo measurements confirmed that Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 mutants lacking hydrocarbons exhibit reduced thylakoid membrane curvature compared to wild type. We propose that hydrocarbons may have a role in inducing the flexibility in membranes required for optimal cell division, size, and growth, and efficient association of soluble and membrane bound proteins. The recent identification of C15-C17 alkanes and alkenes in microalgal species suggests hydrocarbons may serve a similar function in a broad range of photosynthetic organisms. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Loss of CDKC;2 increases both cell division and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Yaqiong; Xie, Qi; Wu, Yaorong

    2017-09-01

    Drought stress is one of the abiotic stresses that limit plant growth and agricultural productivity. To further understand the mechanism of drought tolerance and identify the genes involved in this process, a genetic screen for altered drought response was conducted in Arabidopsis. One mutant with enhanced drought tolerance was isolated and named Arabidopsis drought tolerance mutant 1 (atdtm1), which has larger lateral organs, prolonged growth duration, increased relative water content and a reduced leaf stomatal density compared with the wild type. The loss of AtDTM1 increases cell division during leaf development. The phenotype is caused by the loss of a T-DNA tagged gene encoding CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE C;2 (CDKC;2), which functions in the regulation of transcription by influencing the phosphorylation status of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Here, we show that CDKC;2 affects the transcription of downstream genes such as cell cycle genes and genes involved in stomatal development, resulting in altered plant organ size as well as drought tolerance of the plant. These results reveal the crucial role of CDKC;2 in modulating both cell division and the drought response in Arabidopsis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. BMP and Hh signaling affects primordial germ cell division in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Ogata, Jun; Niki, Yuzo

    2010-10-01

    The germline is segregated from the remainder of the soma during early embryonic development in metazoan species. In Drosophila, female primordial germ cells (PGCs) continue to proliferate during larval development, and become germline stem cells at the early pupal stage. To elucidate the roles of growth factors in larval PGC division, we examined expression patterns of a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) growth factor, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), and Hedgehog (Hh), along with factors downstream of each, in the ovary during larval development. Dpp signaling appeared in the ovarian soma from early larval development, and was prominent in the terminal filament cells at late larval stage, whereas Hh appeared in the ovarian soma and PGCs from the third instar larval stage. The number of PGCs decreased when components of these signal transduction pathways were abrogated by RNAi in the PGCs, indicating that both Dpp and Hh signals directly regulate PGC proliferation. Experiments on the up- and down-regulation of Dpp and Hh with a tissue-specific Gal4 driver indicated that Dpp and Hh act as extrinsic and autocrine growth factors. Furthermore, heat-pulse experiments with hs-Gal4 showed that Dpp is active in PGC proliferation throughout larval development, whereas Hh has effects only during late larval development. In addition to Dpp, the reduction of Glass bottom boat (Gbb), another BMP molecule, caused a decrease in the number of PGCs and initiation of larval PGCs differentiation into cystocytes, indicating that Gbb functions to promote PGC division and repress differentiation.

  12. Quantum counting: Operator methods for discrete population dynamics with applications to cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T R; Haven, E; Fry, A M

    2017-11-01

    The set of natural numbers may be identified with the spectrum of eigenvalues of an operator (quantum counting), and the dynamical equations of populations of discrete, countable items may be formulated using operator methods. These equations take the form of time dependent operator equations, involving Hamiltonian operators, from which the statistical time dependence of population numbers may be determined. The quantum operator method is illustrated by a novel approach to cell population dynamics. This involves Hamiltonians that mimic the process of stimulated cell division. We evaluate two different models, one in which the stimuli are expended in the division process and one in which the stimuli act as true catalysts. While the former model exhibits only bounded cell population variations, the latter exhibits two distinct regimes; one has bounded population fluctuations about a mean level and in the other, the population can undergo growth to levels that are orders of magnitude above threshold levels, through an instability that could be interpreted as a cancerous growth phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanics of kinetochore microtubules and their interactions with chromosomes during cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Fürthauer, Sebastian; Redemann, Stephanie; Baumgart, Johannes; Lindow, Norbert; Kratz, Andrea; Prohaska, Steffen; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Shelley, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The accurate segregation of chromosomes, and subsequent cell division, in Eukaryotic cells is achieved by the interactions of an assembly of microtubules (MTs) and motor-proteins, known as the mitotic spindle. We use a combination of our computational platform for simulating cytoskeletal assemblies and our structural data from high-resolution electron tomography of the mitotic spindle, to study the kinetics and mechanics of MTs in the spindle, and their interactions with chromosomes during chromosome segregation in the first cell division in C.elegans embryo. We focus on kinetochore MTs, or KMTs, which have one end attached to a chromosome. KMTs are thought to be a key mechanical component in chromosome segregation. Using exploratory simulations of MT growth, bending, hydrodynamic interactions, and attachment to chromosomes, we propose a mechanical model for KMT-chromosome interactions that reproduces observed KMT length and shape distributions from electron tomography. We find that including detailed hydrodynamic interactions between KMTs is essential for agreement with the experimental observations.

  14. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones A Maxwell P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L. was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27 in controls to 65.3% (±4.60. Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59 by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived

  15. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates mode of cell division of early cerebral cortex progenitors and increases astrogliogenesis

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    Geissy LL Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH plays a critical role in the development of different tissues. In the central nervous system, SHH is well known to contribute to the patterning of the spinal cord and separation of the brain hemispheres. In addition, it has recently been shown that SHH signaling also contributes to the patterning of the telencephalon and establishment of adult neurogenic niches. In this work, we investigated whether SHH signaling influences the behavior of neural progenitors isolated from the dorsal telencephalon, which generate excitatory neurons and macroglial cells in vitro. We observed that SHH increases proliferation of cortical progenitors and generation of astrocytes, whereas blocking SHH signaling with cyclopamine has opposite effects. In both cases, generation of neurons did not seem to be affected. However, cell survival was broadly affected by blockade of SHH signaling. SHH effects were related to three different cell phenomena: mode of cell division, cell cycle length and cell growth. Together, our data in vitro demonstrate that SHH signaling controls cell behaviors that are important for proliferation of cerebral cortex progenitors, as well as differentiation and survival of neurons and astroglial cells.

  16. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

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    Fliur Macaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  17. Live imaging of individual cell divisions in mouse neuroepithelium shows asymmetry in cilium formation and Sonic hedgehog response

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    Piotrowska-Nitsche Karolina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that play important roles in developmental signaling pathways. Recent work demonstrated that, in cell culture, the daughter cell that inherits the older mother centriole generates a primary cilium and responds to external stimuli prior to its sister cell. This asynchrony in timing of cilia formation could be especially critical during development as cell divisions are required for both differentiation and maintenance of progenitor cell niches. Methods Here we integrate several fluorescent markers and use ex vivo live imaging of a single cell division within the mouse E8.5 neuroepithelium to reveal both the formation of a primary cilium and the transcriptional response to Sonic hedgehog in the daughter cells. Results We show that, upon cell division, cilia formation and the Sonic hedgehog response are asynchronous between the daughter cells. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that we can directly observe single cell divisions within the developing neuroepithelium and concomitantly monitor cilium formation or Sonic hedgehog response. We expect this method to be especially powerful in examining whether cellular behavior can lead to both differentiation and maintenance of cells in a progenitor niche.

  18. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyi Kong

    Full Text Available Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI treatment cycles, n = 799 were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42. Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively. In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas 10C. In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  19. Formation of asymmetric vesicles via phospholipase D-mediated transphosphatidylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Rina; Kurosaki, Haruko; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Keisuke; Nakano, Minoru

    2018-02-01

    Most biomembranes have an asymmetric structure with regard to phospholipid distribution between the inner and outer leaflets of the lipid bilayers. Control of the asymmetric distribution plays a pivotal role in several cellular functions such as intracellular membrane fusion and cell division. The mechanism by which membrane asymmetry and its alteration function in these transformation processes is not yet clear. To understand the significance of membrane asymmetry on trafficking and metabolism of intracellular vesicular components, a system that experimentally reproduces the asymmetric nature of biomembranes is essential. Here, we succeeded in obtaining asymmetric vesicles by means of transphosphatidylation reactions with phospholipase D (PLD), which acts exclusively on phosphatidylcholine (PC) present in the outer leaflet of vesicles. By treating PC vesicles with PLD in the presence of 1.7M serine and 0.3M ethanolamine, we obtained asymmetric vesicles that are topologically similar to intracellular vesicles containing phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the cytosolic leaflet. PLD and other unwanted compounds could be removed by trypsin digestion followed by dialysis. Our established technique has a great advantage over conventional methods in that asymmetric vesicles can be provided at high yield and high efficiency, which is requisite for most physicochemical assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CXCR6, a newly defined biomarker of tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal, identifies more aggressive human melanoma cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh Taghizadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in cancer research is identifying the cell type that is capable of sustaining neoplastic growth and its origin from normal tissue cells. Recent investigations of a variety of tumor types have shown that phenotypically identifiable and isolable subfractions of cells possess the tumor-forming ability. In the present paper, using two lineage-related human melanoma cell lines, primary melanoma line IGR39 and its metastatic derivative line IGR37, two main observations are reported. The first one is the first phenotypic evidence to support the origin of melanoma cancer stem cells (CSCs from mutated tissue-specific stem cells; and the second one is the identification of a more aggressive subpopulation of CSCs in melanoma that are CXCR6+.We defined CXCR6 as a new biomarker for tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal. Thus, the relationship between melanoma formation and ABCG2 and CXCR6 expression was investigated. Consistent with their non-metastatic character, unsorted IGR39 cells formed significantly smaller tumors than unsorted IGR37 cells. In addition, ABCG2+ cells produced tumors that had a 2-fold greater mass than tumors produced by unsorted cells or ABCG2- cells. CXCR6+ cells produced more aggressive tumors. CXCR6 identifies a more discrete subpopulation of cultured human melanoma cells with a more aggressive MCSC phenotype than cells selected on the basis of the ABCG2+ phenotype alone.The association of a more aggressive tumor phenotype with asymmetric self-renewal phenotype reveals a previously unrecognized aspect of tumor cell physiology. Namely, the retention of some tissue-specific stem cell attributes, like the ability to asymmetrically self-renew, impacts the natural history of human tumor development. Knowledge of this new aspect of tumor development and progression may provide new targets for cancer prevention and treatment.

  1. Bacterial cell division regulation by Ser/Thr kinases: a structural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Alessia; De Simone, Paola; Smaldone, Giovanni; Squeglia, Flavia; Berisio, Rita

    2012-12-01

    Recent genetic, biochemical and structural studies have established that eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein-kinases are critical mediators of developmental changes and host pathogen interactions in bacteria. Although with lower abundance compared to their homologues from eukaryotes, Ser/Thr protein-kinases are widespread in gram-positive bacteria. These data underline a key role of reversible Ser/Thr phosphorylation in bacterial physiology and virulence. Numerous studies have revealed how phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Ser/Thr protein-kinases governs cell division and cell wall biosynthesis and that Ser/Thr protein kinases are responsible for distinct phenotypes, dependent on different environmental signals. In this review we discuss the current understandings of Ser/Thr protein-kinases functional processes based on structural data.

  2. High Antioxidant Activity Facilitates Maintenance of Cell Division in Leaves of Drought Tolerant Maize Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramova, Viktoriya; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Vasileva, Ivanina; Petrova, Alexandra S; Holek, Anna; Mariën, Joachim; Asard, Han; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2017-01-01

    We studied the impact of drought on growth regulation in leaves of 13 maize varieties with different drought sensitivity and geographic origins (Western Europe, Egypt, South Africa) and the inbred line B73. Combining kinematic analysis of the maize leaf growth zone with biochemical measurements at a high spatial resolution allowed us to examine the correlation between the regulation of the cellular processes cell division and elongation, and the molecular redox-regulation in response to drought. Moreover, we demonstrated differences in the response of the maize lines to mild and severe levels of water deficit. Kinematic analysis indicated that drought tolerant lines experienced less impact on leaf elongation rate due to a smaller reduction of cell production, which, in turn, was due to a smaller decrease of meristem size and number of cells in the leaf meristem. Clear differences in growth responses between the groups of lines with different geographic origin were observed in response to drought. The difference in drought tolerance between the Egyptian hybrids was significantly larger than between the European and South-African hybrids. Through biochemical analyses, we investigated whether antioxidant activity in the growth zone, contributes to the drought sensitivity differences. We used a hierarchical clustering to visualize the patterns of lipid peroxidation, H2O2 and antioxidant concentrations, and enzyme activities throughout the growth zone, in response to stress. The results showed that the lines with different geographic region used different molecular strategies to cope with the stress, with the Egyptian hybrids responding more at the metabolite level and African and the European hybrids at the enzyme level. However, drought tolerance correlated with both, higher antioxidant levels throughout the growth zone and higher activities of the redox-regulating enzymes CAT, POX, APX, and GR specifically in leaf meristems. These findings provide evidence for a link

  3. Fruit illumination stimulates cell division but has no detectable effect on fruit size in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Robert C O; Heuvelink, Ep; de Visser, Pieter H B; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Marcelis, Leo F M; Struik, Paul C

    2015-05-01

    Light affects plant growth through assimilate availability and signals regulating development. The effects of light on growth of tomato fruit were studied using cuvettes with light-emitting diodes providing white, red or blue light to individual tomato trusses for different periods during daytime. Hypotheses tested were as follows: (1) light-grown fruits have stronger assimilate sinks than dark-grown fruits, and (2) responses depend on light treatment provided, and fruit development stage. Seven light treatments [dark, 12-h white, 24-h white, 24-h red and 24-h blue light, dark in the first 24 days after anthesis (DAA) followed by 24-h white light until breaker stage, and its reverse] were applied. Observations were made between anthesis and breaker stage at fruit, cell and gene levels. Fruit size and carbohydrate content did not respond to light treatments while cell division was strongly stimulated at the expense of cell expansion by light. The effects of light on cell number and volume were independent of the combination of light color and intensity. Increased cell division and decreased cell volume when fruits were grown in the presence of light were not clearly corroborated by the expression pattern of promoters and inhibitors of cell division and expansion analyzed in this study, implying a strong effect of posttranscriptional regulation. Results suggest the existence of a complex homeostatic regulatory system for fruit growth in which reduced cell division is compensated by enhanced cell expansion. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Par1b links lumen polarity with LGN-NuMA positioning for distinct epithelial cell division phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazaro-Dieguez, Francisco; Cohen, David; Fernandez, Dawn; Hodgson, Louis; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Muesch, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Columnar epithelia establish their luminal domains and their mitotic spindles parallel to the basal surface and undergo symmetric cell divisions in which the cleavage furrow bisects the apical domain. Hepatocyte lumina interrupt the lateral domain of neighboring cells perpendicular to two basal

  5. Absence of nucleoid occlusion effector Noc impairs formation of orthogonal FtsZ rings during Staphylococcus aureus cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Helena; Jorge, Ana M; Pinho, Mariana G

    2011-06-01

    The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus divides by synthesizing the septum in three orthogonal planes over three consecutive division cycles. This process has to be tightly coordinated with chromosome segregation to avoid bisection of the nucleoid by the septum. Here we show that deletion of the nucleoid occlusion effector Noc in S. aureus results in the formation of Z-rings over the nucleoid, as well as in DNA breaks, indicating that Noc has an important role as an antiguillotine checkpoint that prevents septa from forming over the DNA. Furthermore, Noc deleted cells show multiple Z-rings which are no longer placed in perpendicular planes. We propose that the axis of chromosome segregation has a role in determining the placement of the division septum. This is achieved via the action of Noc which restricts the placement of the division septum to one of an infinite number of potential division planes that exist in S. aureus. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. SpoIIE is necessary for asymmetric division, sporulation, and expression of sigmaF, sigmaE, and sigmaG but does not control solvent production in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Changhao; Jones, Shawn W; Hess, Daniel R; Tracy, Bryan P; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-10-01

    In order to better characterize the initial stages of sporulation past Spo0A activation and the associated solventogenesis in the important industrial and model organism Clostridium acetobutylicum, the spoIIE gene was successfully disrupted and its expression was silenced. By silencing spoIIE, sporulation was blocked prior to asymmetric division, and no mature spores or any distinguishable morphogenetic changes developed. Upon plasmid-based complementation of spoIIE, sporulation was restored, although the number of spores formed was below that of the plasmid control strain. To investigate the impact of silencing spoIIE on the regulation of sporulation, transcript levels of sigF, sigE, and sigG were examined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and the corresponding σF, σE, and σG protein levels were determined by Western analysis. Expression of sigF was significantly reduced in the inactivation strain, and this resulted in very low σF protein levels. Expression of sigE was barely detected, and no sigG transcript was detected at all; consequently, no σE or σG proteins were detected. These data suggest an autostimulatory role for σF in C. acetobutylicum, in contrast to the model organism for endospore formation, Bacillus subtilis, and confirm that high-level expression of σF is required for expression of σE and σG. Unlike the σF and σE inactivation strains, the SpoIIE inactivation strain did not exhibit inoculum-dependent solvent formation and produced good levels of solvents from both exponential- and stationary-phase inocula. Thus, we concluded that SpoIIE does not control solvent formation.

  7. Function of the aux and rol genes of the Ri plasmid in plant cell division in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Keiichirou; Hara, Masamitsu; Suzuki, Masashi; Seki, Hikaru; Oka, Atsuhiro; Muranaka, Toshiya; Mano, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Auxin-autonomous growth in vitro may be related to the integration and expression of the aux and rol genes from the root-inducing (Ri) plasmid in plant cells infected by agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes. To elucidate the functions of the aux and rol genes in plant cell division, plant cell lines transformed with the aux1 and aux2 genes or with the rolABCD genes were established using tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. The introduction of the aux1 and aux2 genes enabled the auxin-autonomous growth of BY-2 cells, but the introduction of the rolABCD genes did not affect the auxin requirement of the BY-2 cells. The results clearly show that the aux genes are necessary for auxinautotrophic cell division, and that the rolABCD genes are irrelevant in auxin autotrophy.

  8. Intestinal stem cell division and genetic diversity. A computer and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, J L; Davis, S D; Baker, S M; Liskay, R M; Shibata, D

    1997-08-01

    Somatic mutations are expected to arise with age. This process is accelerated in mice lacking the DNA mismatch repair gene Pms2. The distributions of microsatellite alleles present in small patches of normal Pms2 -/- intestines revealed a general increase in genetic diversity or the number of mutations with age. However, the patterns were complex with different distributions and variances present within a single mouse. Computer simulations indicate that the experimental data are consistent with mutation rates between 0.0020 and 0.0025 mutations per division, nonrandom cell death, and an effective population size of 20 or fewer cells. Small numbers of cells exacerbate the random accumulation of mutations expected of a stochastic mutation process. The computer simulations and experimental data are consistent with known patterns of intestinal development and renewal by small numbers of stem cells and demonstrate relatively high mutation rates in histologically normal epithelium. These findings provide background for the analysis of microsatellite mutations in normal and tumor tissue lacking mismatch repair and further support the hypothesis that microsatellite loci can function as molecular tumor clocks.

  9. ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control cytokinetic abscission during germline stem cell division in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsmund H Eikenes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abscission is the final step of cytokinesis that involves the cleavage of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Recent studies have given novel insight into the spatiotemporal regulation and molecular mechanisms controlling abscission in cultured yeast and human cells. The mechanisms of abscission in living metazoan tissues are however not well understood. Here we show that ALIX and the ESCRT-III component Shrub are required for completion of abscission during Drosophila female germline stem cell (fGSC division. Loss of ALIX or Shrub function in fGSCs leads to delayed abscission and the consequent formation of stem cysts in which chains of daughter cells remain interconnected to the fGSC via midbody rings and fusome. We demonstrate that ALIX and Shrub interact and that they co-localize at midbody rings and midbodies during cytokinetic abscission in fGSCs. Mechanistically, we show that the direct interaction between ALIX and Shrub is required to ensure cytokinesis completion with normal kinetics in fGSCs. We conclude that ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control abscission in Drosophila fGSCs and that their complex formation is required for accurate abscission timing in GSCs in vivo.

  10. ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control cytokinetic abscission during germline stem cell division in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenes, Åsmund H; Malerød, Lene; Christensen, Anette Lie; Steen, Chloé B; Mathieu, Juliette; Nezis, Ioannis P; Liestøl, Knut; Huynh, Jean-René; Stenmark, Harald; Haglund, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Abscission is the final step of cytokinesis that involves the cleavage of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Recent studies have given novel insight into the spatiotemporal regulation and molecular mechanisms controlling abscission in cultured yeast and human cells. The mechanisms of abscission in living metazoan tissues are however not well understood. Here we show that ALIX and the ESCRT-III component Shrub are required for completion of abscission during Drosophila female germline stem cell (fGSC) division. Loss of ALIX or Shrub function in fGSCs leads to delayed abscission and the consequent formation of stem cysts in which chains of daughter cells remain interconnected to the fGSC via midbody rings and fusome. We demonstrate that ALIX and Shrub interact and that they co-localize at midbody rings and midbodies during cytokinetic abscission in fGSCs. Mechanistically, we show that the direct interaction between ALIX and Shrub is required to ensure cytokinesis completion with normal kinetics in fGSCs. We conclude that ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control abscission in Drosophila fGSCs and that their complex formation is required for accurate abscission timing in GSCs in vivo.

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Quinazolines as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Gabriella M; Chan, Katie M; Huynh, Valerie; Martin, Kevin S; Moore, Jared T; O'Brien, Terrence E; Pollo, Luiz A E; Sarabia, Francisco J; Tadeus, Clarissa; Yao, Zi; Anderson, David E; Ames, James B; Shaw, Jared T

    2015-03-12

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is one of many potential targets for the development of novel antibiotics. Recently, zantrin Z3 was shown to be a cross-species inhibitor of FtsZ; however, its specific interactions with the protein are still unknown. Herein we report the synthesis of analogues that contain a more tractable core structure and an analogue with single-digit micromolar inhibition of FtsZ's GTPase activity, which represents the most potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli FtsZ reported to date. In addition, the zantrin Z3 core has been converted to two potential photo-cross-linking reagents for proteomic studies that could shed light on the molecular interactions between FtsZ and molecules related to zantrin Z3.

  12. From cell differentiation to cell collectives : Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell-cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In

  13. Germ band differentiation in the stomatopod Gonodactylaceus falcatus and the origin of the stereotyped cell division pattern in Malacostraca (Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Antje H L; Pabst, Tino; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2010-11-01

    We analysed aspects of the embryonic development of the stomatopod crustacean Gonodactylaceus falcatus focusing on the cell division in the ectoderm of the germ band. As in many other malacostracan crustaceans, the growth zone in the caudal papilla is formed by 19 ectoteloblasts and 8 mesoteloblasts arranged in rings. These teloblasts give rise to the cellular material of the largest part of the post-naupliar germ band in a stereotyped cell division pattern. The regularly arranged cells of the genealogical units produced by the ectoteloblast divide twice in longitudinal direction. The intersegmental furrows form within the descendants of one genealogical unit in the ectoderm. Hence, embryos of G. falcatus share some features of the stereotyped cell division pattern with that in other malacostracan crustaceans, which is unique among arthropods. In contrast to the other malacostracan taxa studied so far, stomatopods show slightly oblique spindle direction and a tilted position of the cells within the genealogical units. The inclusion of data on Leptostraca suggests that aspects of stereotyped cell divisions in the germ band must be assumed for the ground pattern of Malacostraca. Moreover, Stomatopoda and Leptostraca share the lateral displacement of cells during the mediolateral divisions of the ectodermal genealogical units in the post-naupliar germ band. The Caridoida within the Eumalacostraca apomorphically evolved the strict longitudinal orientation of spindle axes and cell positions, reaching the highest degree of regularity in the Peracarida. The phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of developmental characters is the prerequisite for the analysis of the evolution of developmental patterns and mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of a null allelic mutant of the rice NAL1 gene reveals its role in regulating cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jiang

    Full Text Available Leaf morphology is closely associated with cell division. In rice, mutations in Narrow leaf 1 (NAL1 show narrow leaf phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that NAL1 plays a role in regulating vein patterning and increasing grain yield in indica cultivars, but its role in leaf growth and development remains unknown. In this report, we characterized two allelic mutants of NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1, nal1-2 and nal1-3, both of which showed a 50% reduction in leaf width and length, as well as a dwarf culm. Longitudinal and transverse histological analyses of leaves and internodes revealed that cell division was suppressed in the anticlinal orientation but enhanced in the periclinal orientation in the mutants, while cell size remained unaltered. In addition to defects in cell proliferation, the mutants showed abnormal midrib in leaves. Map-based cloning revealed that nal1-2 is a null allelic mutant of NAL1 since both the whole promoter and a 404-bp fragment in the first exon of NAL1 were deleted, and that a 6-bp fragment was deleted in the mutant nal1-3. We demonstrated that NAL1 functions in the regulation of cell division as early as during leaf primordia initiation. The altered transcript level of G1- and S-phase-specific genes suggested that NAL1 affects cell cycle regulation. Heterogeneous expression of NAL1 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe further supported that NAL1 affects cell division. These results suggest that NAL1 controls leaf width and plant height through its effects on cell division.

  15. Interrogating cell division errors using random and chromosome-specific missegregation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Peter; Cleveland, Don W

    2017-07-03

    Accurate segregation of the duplicated genome in mitosis is essential for maintaining genetic stability. Errors in this process can cause numerical and/or structural chromosome abnormalities - hallmark genomic features commonly associated with both tumorigenesis and developmental disorders. A cell-based approach was recently developed permitting inducible missegregation of the human Y chromosome by selectively disrupting kinetochore assembly onto the Y centromere. Although this strategy initially requires several steps of genetic manipulation, it is easy to use, highly efficient and specific for the Y without affecting the autosomes or the X, and does not require cell cycle synchronization or mitotic perturbation. Here we describe currently available tools for studying chromosome segregation errors, aneuploidy, and micronuclei, as well as discuss how the Y-specific missegregation system has been used to elucidate how chromosomal micronucleation can trigger a class of extensive rearrangements termed chromothripsis. The combinatorial use of these different tools will allow unresolved aspects of cell division defects and chromosomal instability to be experimentally explored.

  16. Diel in situ picophytoplankton cell death cycles coupled with cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llabres, M.; Agustí, S.; Herndl, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The diel variability in picophytoplankton cell death was analyzed by quantifying the proportion of dead cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus cells along several in situ diel cycles in the open Mediterranean Sea. During the diel cycle, total cell abundance varied on average 2.8 +/- 0.6 and

  17. Loss of PodJ in Agrobacterium tumefaciens Leads to Ectopic Polar Growth, Branching, and Reduced Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Furgeson, James C; Zupan, John R; Grangeon, Romain; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2016-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that elongates by unipolar addition of new cell envelope material. Approaching cell division, the growth pole transitions to a nongrowing old pole, and the division site creates new growth poles in sibling cells. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organizing protein PopZ localizes specifically to growth poles. In contrast, the A. tumefaciens homolog of the C. crescentus polar organelle development protein PodJ localizes to the old pole early in the cell cycle and accumulates at the growth pole as the cell cycle proceeds. FtsA and FtsZ also localize to the growth pole for most of the cell cycle prior to Z-ring formation. To further characterize the function of polar localizing proteins, we created a deletion of A. tumefaciens podJ (podJAt). ΔpodJAt cells display ectopic growth poles (branching), growth poles that fail to transition to an old pole, and elongated cells that fail to divide. In ΔpodJAt cells, A. tumefaciens PopZ-green fluorescent protein (PopZAt-GFP) persists at nontransitioning growth poles postdivision and also localizes to ectopic growth poles, as expected for a growth-pole-specific factor. Even though GFP-PodJAt does not localize to the midcell in the wild type, deletion of podJAt impacts localization, stability, and function of Z-rings as assayed by localization of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP. Z-ring defects are further evidenced by minicell production. Together, these data indicate that PodJAt is a critical factor for polar growth and that ΔpodJAt cells display a cell division phenotype, likely because the growth pole cannot transition to an old pole. How rod-shaped prokaryotes develop and maintain shape is complicated by the fact that at least two distinct species-specific growth modes exist: uniform sidewall insertion of cell envelope material, characterized in model organisms such as Escherichia coli, and unipolar growth, which occurs in several

  18. Asymmetric segregation of damaged cellular components in spatially structured multicellular organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Strandkvist

    Full Text Available The asymmetric distribution of damaged cellular components has been observed in species ranging from fission yeast to humans. To study the potential advantages of damage segregation, we have developed a mathematical model describing ageing mammalian tissue, that is, a multicellular system of somatic cells that do not rejuvenate at cell division. To illustrate the applicability of the model, we specifically consider damage incurred by mutations to mitochondrial DNA, which are thought to be implicated in the mammalian ageing process. We show analytically that the asymmetric distribution of damaged cellular components reduces the overall damage level and increases the longevity of the cell population. Motivated by the experimental reports of damage segregation in human embryonic stem cells, dividing symmetrically with respect to cell-fate, we extend the model to consider spatially structured systems of cells. Imposing spatial structure reduces, but does not eliminate, the advantage of asymmetric division over symmetric division. The results suggest that damage partitioning could be a common strategy for reducing the accumulation of damage in a wider range of cell types than previously thought.

  19. Evolutionary transition towards permanent chloroplasts? - Division of kleptochloroplasts in starved cells of two species of Dinophysis (Dinophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Møller Rusterholz

    Full Text Available Species within the marine toxic dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis are phagotrophic organisms that exploit chloroplasts (kleptochloroplasts from other protists to perform photosynthesis. Dinophysis spp. acquire the kleptochloroplasts from the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, which in turn acquires the chloroplasts from a unique clade of cryptophytes. Dinophysis spp. digest the prey nuclei and all other cell organelles upon ingestion (except the kleptochloroplasts and they are therefore believed to constantly acquire new chloroplasts as the populations grow. Previous studies have, however, indicated that Dinophysis can keep the kleptochloroplasts active during long term starvation and are able to produce photosynthetic pigments when exposed to prey starvation. This indicates a considerable control over the kleptochloroplasts and the ability of Dinophysis to replicate its kleptochloroplasts was therefore re-investigated in detail in this study. The kleptochloroplasts of Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis acuminata were analyzed using confocal microscopy and 3D bioimaging software during long term starvation experiments. The cell concentrations were monitored to confirm cell divisions and samples were withdrawn each time a doubling had occurred. The results show direct evidence of kleptochloroplastidic division and that the decreases in total kleptochloroplast volume, number of kleptochloroplasts and number of kleptochloroplast centers were not caused by dilution due to cell divisions. This is the first report of division of kleptochloroplasts in any protist without the associated prey nuclei. This indicates that Dinophysis spp. may be in a transitional phase towards possessing permanent chloroplasts, which thereby potentially makes it a key organism to understand the evolution of phototrophic protists.

  20. LocZ is a new cell division protein involved in proper septum placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holečková, Nela; Doubravová, Linda; Massidda, Orietta; Molle, Virginie; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-13 ISSN 2150-7511 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/1568; GA ČR GAP302/12/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell division * septum placement * Streptococcus pneumoniae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.975, year: 2015

  1. Architecture of the ring formed by the tubulin homologue FtsZ in bacterial cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedziak, Piotr; Wang, Qing; Bharat, Tanmay A M; Tsim, Matthew; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Membrane constriction is a prerequisite for cell division. The most common membrane constriction system in prokaryotes is based on the tubulin homologue FtsZ, whose filaments in E. coli are anchored to the membrane by FtsA and enable the formation of the Z-ring and divisome. The precise architecture of the FtsZ ring has remained enigmatic. In this study, we report three-dimensional arrangements of FtsZ and FtsA filaments in C. crescentus and E. coli cells and inside constricting liposomes by means of electron cryomicroscopy and cryotomography. In vivo and in vitro, the Z-ring is composed of a small, single-layered band of filaments parallel to the membrane, creating a continuous ring through lateral filament contacts. Visualisation of the in vitro reconstituted constrictions as well as a complete tracing of the helical paths of the filaments with a molecular model favour a mechanism of FtsZ-based membrane constriction that is likely to be accompanied by filament sliding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04601.001 PMID:25490152

  2. Microgravity Effecs During Fertilization, Cell Division, Development, and Calcium Metabolism in Sea Urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Heide

    1999-01-01

    Calcium loss and muscle atrophy are two of the main metabolic changes experienced by astronauts and crew members during exposure to microgravity in space. For long-term exposure to space it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms for altered physiological functions. Fundamental occurrences in cell biology which are likely to depend on gravity include cytoskeletal dynamics, chromatin and centrosome cycling, and ion immobilization. These events can be studied during fertilization and embryogenesis within invertebrate systems. We have chosen the sea urchin system to study the effects of microgravity on cytoskeletal processes and calcium metabolism during fertilization, cell division, development, and embryogenesis. Experiments during an aircraft parabolic flight (KC-135) demonstrated: (1) the viability of sea urchin eggs prior to fertilization, (2) the suitability of our specimen containment system, (3) the feasibility of fertilization in a reduced gravity environment (which was achieved during 25 seconds of reduced gravity under parabolic flight conditions). Two newly developed pieces of spaceflight hardware made further investigations possible on a spaceflight (STS-77); (1) the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), and (2) the Fertilization Syringe Unit (FSU). The Canadian Space Agency developed ARF to conduct aquatic spaceflight experiments requiring controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, illumination, and fixation at predetermined time points. It contained a control centrifuge which simulated the 1 g environment of earth during spaceflight. The FSU was developed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) by the Bionetics Corporation specifically to enable the crew to perform sea urchin fertilization operations in space.

  3. Chromothripsis: potential origin in gametogenesis and preimplantation cell divisions. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellestor, Franck; Gatinois, Vincent; Puechberty, Jacques; Geneviève, David; Lefort, Geneviève

    2014-12-01

    To review the discovery of chromothripsis and analyze its impact on human reproduction. Database and literature analysis. University hospital. Carriers of massive and complex chromosomal rearrangements. Cytogenetic analysis and molecular testing (fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarray, whole-genome sequencing). Chromothripsis occurrence in human gametes and preimplantation embryos, with regard to the potential causative mechanisms described in literature. Databases were searched for the literature published up to March 2014. Chromothripsis is characterized by the shattering of one (or a few) chromosome segments followed by a haphazard reassembly of the fragments generated, arising through a single initial catastrophic event. Several mechanisms involving abortive apoptosis, telomere erosion, mitotic errors, micronuclei formation, and p53 inactivation might cause chromothripsis. The remarkable point is that all these plausible mechanisms have been identified in the field of human reproduction as causal factors for reproductive failures and the genesis of chromosomal abnormalities. Specific features of gametogenesis and early embryonic development such as the weakness of cell cycle and mitosis checkpoints and the rapid kinetics of division in germ cells and early cleavage embryos may contribute to the emergence of chromothripsis. The discovery of this new class of massive chromosomal rearrangement has deeply modified our understanding on the genesis of complex genomic rearrangements. Data presented in this review support the assumption that chromothripsis could operate in human germlines and during early embryonic development. Chromothripsis might arise more frequently than previously thought in both gametogenesis and early human embryogenesis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The deletion of bacterial dynamin and flotillin genes results in pleiotrophic effects on cell division, cell growth and in cell shape maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dempwolff Felix

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotic cells, dynamin and flotillin are involved in processes such as endocytosis and lipid raft formation, respectively. Dynamin is a GTPase that exerts motor-like activity during the pinching off of vesicles, while flotillins are coiled coil rich membrane proteins with no known enzymatic activity. Bacteria also possess orthologs of both classes of proteins, but their function has been unclear. Results We show that deletion of the single dynA or floT genes lead to no phenotype or a mild defect in septum formation in the case of the dynA gene, while dynA floT double mutant cells were highly elongated and irregularly shaped, although the MreB cytoskeleton appeared to be normal. DynA colocalizes with FtsZ, and the dynA deletion strain shows aberrant FtsZ rings in a subpopulation of cells. The mild division defect of the dynA deletion is exacerbated by an additional deletion in ezrA, which affects FtsZ ring formation, and also by the deletion of a late division gene (divIB, indicating that DynA affects several steps in cell division. DynA and mreB deletions generated a synthetic defect in cell shape maintenance, showing that MreB and DynA play non-epistatic functions in cell shape maintenance. TIRF microscopy revealed that FloT forms many dynamic membrane assemblies that frequently colocalize with the division septum. The deletion of dynA did not change the pattern of localization of FloT, and vice versa, showing that the two proteins play non redundant roles in a variety of cellular processes. Expression of dynamin or flotillin T in eukaryotic S2 cells revealed that both proteins assemble at the cell membrane. While FloT formed patch structures, DynA built up tubulated structures extending away from the cells. Conclusions Bacillus subtilis dynamin ortholog DynA plays a role during cell division and in cell shape maintenance. It shows a genetic link with flotillin T, with both proteins playing non-redundant functions at

  5. A systematic analysis of cell cycle regulators in yeast reveals that most factors act independently of cell size to control initiation of division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Hoose

    Full Text Available Upstream events that trigger initiation of cell division, at a point called START in yeast, determine the overall rates of cell proliferation. The identity and complete sequence of those events remain unknown. Previous studies relied mainly on cell size changes to identify systematically genes required for the timely completion of START. Here, we evaluated panels of non-essential single gene deletion strains for altered DNA content by flow cytometry. This analysis revealed that most gene deletions that altered cell cycle progression did not change cell size. Our results highlight a strong requirement for ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis for initiation of cell division. We also identified numerous factors that have not been previously implicated in cell cycle control mechanisms. We found that CBS, which catalyzes the synthesis of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine, advances START in two ways: by promoting cell growth, which requires CBS's catalytic activity, and by a separate function, which does not require CBS's catalytic activity. CBS defects cause disease in humans, and in animals CBS has vital, non-catalytic, unknown roles. Hence, our results may be relevant for human biology. Taken together, these findings significantly expand the range of factors required for the timely initiation of cell division. The systematic identification of non-essential regulators of cell division we describe will be a valuable resource for analysis of cell cycle progression in yeast and other organisms.

  6. A systematic analysis of cell cycle regulators in yeast reveals that most factors act independently of cell size to control initiation of division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoose, Scott A; Rawlings, Jeremy A; Kelly, Michelle M; Leitch, M Camille; Ababneh, Qotaiba O; Robles, Juan P; Taylor, David; Hoover, Evelyn M; Hailu, Bethel; McEnery, Kayla A; Downing, S Sabina; Kaushal, Deepika; Chen, Yi; Rife, Alex; Brahmbhatt, Kirtan A; Smith, Roger; Polymenis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Upstream events that trigger initiation of cell division, at a point called START in yeast, determine the overall rates of cell proliferation. The identity and complete sequence of those events remain unknown. Previous studies relied mainly on cell size changes to identify systematically genes required for the timely completion of START. Here, we evaluated panels of non-essential single gene deletion strains for altered DNA content by flow cytometry. This analysis revealed that most gene deletions that altered cell cycle progression did not change cell size. Our results highlight a strong requirement for ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis for initiation of cell division. We also identified numerous factors that have not been previously implicated in cell cycle control mechanisms. We found that CBS, which catalyzes the synthesis of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine, advances START in two ways: by promoting cell growth, which requires CBS's catalytic activity, and by a separate function, which does not require CBS's catalytic activity. CBS defects cause disease in humans, and in animals CBS has vital, non-catalytic, unknown roles. Hence, our results may be relevant for human biology. Taken together, these findings significantly expand the range of factors required for the timely initiation of cell division. The systematic identification of non-essential regulators of cell division we describe will be a valuable resource for analysis of cell cycle progression in yeast and other organisms.

  7. Identification, visualization and clonal analysis of intestinal stem cells in fish.

    OpenAIRE

    Aghaallaei, N.; Gruhl, F; Schaefer, C.Q.; Wernet, T.; Weinhardt, V.; Centanin, L; Loosli, F; Baumbach, T.; Wittbrodt, J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a stochastic model of symmetrical stem cell division followed by neutral drift has been proposed for intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which has been suggested to represent the predominant mode of stem cell progression in mammals. In contrast, stem cells in the retina of teleost fish show an asymmetric division mode. To address whether the mode of stem cell division follows phylogenetic or ontogenetic routes, we analysed the entire gastrointestinal tract of the teleost medaka (Oryzias l...

  8. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S Martins-Duarte

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite's DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13-25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment. Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition--with the appearance of 'tethered' parasites--malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results

  9. Investigating the Molecular Mechanism of TSO1 Function in Arabidopsis cell division and meristem development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongchi Liu

    2004-10-01

    Unlike animals, plants are constantly exposed to environmental mutagens including ultraviolet light and reactive oxygen species. Further, plant cells are totipotent with highly plastic developmental programs. An understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of plants to monitor and repair its DNA and to eliminate damaged cells are of great importance. Previously we have identified two genes, TSO1 and TSO2, from a flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in these two genes cause callus-like flowers, fasciated shoot apical meristems, and abnormal cell division, indicating that TSO1 and TSO2 may encode important cell cycle regulators. Previous funding from DOE led to the molecular cloning of TSO1, which was shown to encode a novel nuclear protein with two CXC domains suspected to bind DNA. This DOE grant has allowed us to characterize and isolate TSO2 that encodes the small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR comprises two large subunits (R1) an d two small subunits (R2), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the production of deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA replication and repair. Previous studies in yeast and mammals indicated that defective RNR often led to cell cycle arrest, growth retardation and p53-dependent apoptosis while abnormally elevated RNR activities led to higher mutation rates. Subsequently, we identified two additional R2 genes, R2A and R2B in the Arabidopsis genome. Using reverse genetics, mutations in R2A and R2B were isolated, and double and triple mutants among the three R2 genes (TSO2, R2A and R2B) were constructed and analyzed. We showed that Arabidopsis tso2 mutants, with reduced dNTP levels, were more sensitive to UV-C. While r2a or r2b single mutants did not exhibit any phenotypes, tso2 r2b double mutants were embryonic lethal and tso2 r2a double mutants were seedling lethal indicating redundant functions among the three R2 genes. Furthermore, tso2 r2a double mutants exhibited increased DNA dam age

  10. Model-Based Analysis of Arabidopsis Leaf Epidermal Cells Reveals Distinct Division and Expansion Patterns for Pavement and Guard Cells1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Leila Kheibarshekan; Dhondt, Stijn; Boudolf, Véronique; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Govaerts, Willy; De Veylder, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    To efficiently capture sunlight for photosynthesis, leaves typically develop into a flat and thin structure. This development is driven by cell division and expansion, but the individual contribution of these processes is currently unknown, mainly because of the experimental difficulties to disentangle them in a developing organ, due to their tight interconnection. To circumvent this problem, we built a mathematic model that describes the possible division patterns and expansion rates for individual epidermal cells. This model was used to fit experimental data on cell numbers and sizes obtained over time intervals of 1 d throughout the development of the first leaf pair of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The parameters were obtained by a derivative-free optimization method that minimizes the differences between the predicted and experimentally observed cell size distributions. The model allowed us to calculate probabilities for a cell to divide into guard or pavement cells, the maximum size at which it can divide, and its average cell division and expansion rates at each point during the leaf developmental process. Surprisingly, average cell cycle duration remained constant throughout leaf development, whereas no evidence for a maximum cell size threshold for cell division of pavement cells was found. Furthermore, the model predicted that neighboring cells of different sizes within the epidermis expand at distinctly different relative rates, which could be verified by direct observations. We conclude that cell division seems to occur independently from the status of cell expansion, whereas the cell cycle might act as a timer rather than as a size-regulated machinery. PMID:21693673

  11. Cosuppression of Eukaryotic Release Factor 1-1 in Arabidopsis Affects Cell Elongation and Radial Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsch, Katherine Anne; Mylne, Joshua; Botella, José Ramón

    2005-01-01

    The role of the eukaryotic release factor 1 (eRF1) in translation termination has previously been established in yeast; however, only limited characterization has been performed on any plant homologs. Here, we demonstrate that cosuppression of eRF1-1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has a profound effect on plant morphology, resulting in what we term the broomhead phenotype. These plants primarily exhibit a reduction in internode elongation causing the formation of a broomhead-like cluster of malformed siliques at the top of the inflorescence stem. Histological analysis of broomhead stems revealed that cells are reduced in height and display ectopic lignification of the phloem cap cells, some phloem sieve cells, and regions of the fascicular cambium, as well as enhanced lignification of the interfascicular fibers. We also show that cell division in the fascicular cambial regions is altered, with the majority of vascular bundles containing cambial cells that are disorganized and possess enlarged nuclei. This is the first attempt at functional characterization of a release factor in vivo in plants and demonstrates the importance of eRF1-1 function in Arabidopsis. PMID:16113224

  12. Progressive ganglion cell loss and optic nerve degeneration in DBA/2J mice is variable and asymmetric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Katherine T

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the retina, characterized by the degeneration of axons in the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cell apoptosis. DBA/2J inbred mice develop chronic hereditary glaucoma and are an important model system to study the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and novel therapeutic interventions designed to attenuate the loss of retinal ganglion cells. Although the genetics of this disease in these mice are well characterized, the etiology of its progression, particularly with respect to retinal degeneration, is not. We have used two separate labeling techniques, post-mortem DiI labeling of axons and ganglion cell-specific expression of the βGeo reporter gene, to evaluate the time course of optic nerve degeneration and ganglion cell loss, respectively, in aging mice. Results Optic nerve degeneration, characterized by axon loss and gliosis is first apparent in mice between 8 and 9 months of age. Degeneration appears to follow a retrograde course with axons dying from their proximal ends toward the globe. Although nerve damage is typically bilateral, the progression of disease is asymmetric between the eyes of individual mice. Some nerves also exhibit focal preservation of tracts of axons generally in the nasal peripheral region. Ganglion cell loss, as a function of the loss of βGeo expression, is evident in some mice between 8 and 10 months of age and is prevalent in the majority of mice older than 10.5 months. Most eyes display a uniform loss of ganglion cells throughout the retina, but many younger mice exhibit focal loss of cells in sectors extending from the optic nerve head to the retinal periphery. Similar to what we observe in the optic nerves, ganglion cell loss is often asymmetric between the eyes of the same animal. Conclusion A comparison of the data collected from the two cohorts of mice used for this study suggests that the initial site of damage in this disease is

  13. Nanoscale imaging of the growth and division of bacterial cells on planar substrates with the atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Hofstadt, M. [Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), C/ Baldiri i Reixac 11-15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Hüttener, M.; Juárez, A. [Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), C/ Baldiri i Reixac 11-15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Microbiologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomila, G., E-mail: ggomila@ibecbarcelona.eu [Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), C/ Baldiri i Reixac 11-15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Marti i Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    With the use of the atomic force microscope (AFM), the Nanomicrobiology field has advanced drastically. Due to the complexity of imaging living bacterial processes in their natural growing environments, improvements have come to a standstill. Here we show the in situ nanoscale imaging of the growth and division of single bacterial cells on planar substrates with the atomic force microscope. To achieve this, we minimized the lateral shear forces responsible for the detachment of weakly adsorbed bacteria on planar substrates with the use of the so called dynamic jumping mode with very soft cantilever probes. With this approach, gentle imaging conditions can be maintained for long periods of time, enabling the continuous imaging of the bacterial cell growth and division, even on planar substrates. Present results offer the possibility to observe living processes of untrapped bacteria weakly attached to planar substrates. - Highlights: • Gelatine coatings used to weakly attach bacterial cells onto planar substrates. • Use of the dynamic jumping mode as a non-perturbing bacterial imaging mode. • Nanoscale resolution imaging of unperturbed single living bacterial cells. • Growth and division of single bacteria cells on planar substrates observed.

  14. Dark-field light scattering imaging of living cancer cell component from birth through division using bioconjugated gold nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Huang, Xiaohua; Kang, Bin; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2010-01-01

    Novel methods and technologies that could extend and complement the capabilities of the prevailing fluorescence microscope in following the cell cycle under different perturbations are highly desirable in the area of biological and biomedical imaging. We report a newly designed instrument for long-term light scattering live cell imaging based on integrating a homebuilt environmental cell incubation minichamber and an angled dark-field illumination system into a conventional inverted light microscope. Peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles that are selectively delivered to either the cytoplasmic or nuclear region of the cell are used as light scattering contrast agents. The new system enables us to carry out continuous and intermittence-free dark-field live cell imaging over several tens of hours. A variety of applications of this imaging system are demonstrated, such as monitoring the nuclear uptake of peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles, tracking the full cycle of cancer cells from birth to division, following the chromosome dynamics during cell mitosis, and observing the intracellular distribution of gold nanoparticles after cell division. We also discuss the overall effect of nuclear targeting gold nanoparticles on the cell viability of parent and daughter cells.

  15. Settlement and cell division of diatom Navicula can be influenced by light of various qualities and intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shan; Wang, Jiadao; Chen, Darong

    2013-11-01

    Diatom settlement and cell division is important in two major aspects. Firstly, biofouling is a costly problem in the shipping industry that necessitates the effective inhibition of diatom settlement and proliferation. Secondly, biological coatings on the basis of ordered and densely packed cell lawns of diatom are useful for nano- and biotechnology. This study demonstrated that the settlement and cell division of the marine unicellular diatom Navicula sp. can be influenced by light-emitting diodes of various light qualities and intensities. Except for blue light, the settlement of diatoms was reduced by weak (approx. 0.14-6 µE m(-2) s(-1)) green, yellow or red light. When the irradiance intensity, however, was higher than 8-9 µE m(-2) s(-1), the settlement was stimulated. This phenomenon could be explained by the hypothesis of spatial interference between a chloroplast and a holdfast-like structure. Densely packed lawn of diatoms with uniform distribution can be fabricated for nanotechnologies, using blue light that stimulates diatom cell division. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, are elevated in sickle cell patients but do not increase further during painful crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landburg, Precious P.; Teerlink, Tom; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Duits, Ashley J.; Schnog, John-John B.

    Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, are elevated in the clinically asymptomatic state of sickle cell disease (SCD). However, the role of ADMA during vaso-occlusive complications has not been defined. ADMA concentrations were

  17. Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde derivatives as inhibitors of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Sheng, Juzheng; Huang, Guihua; Ma, Ruixin; Yin, Fengxin; Song, Di; Zhao, Can; Ma, Shutao

    2015-06-05

    In an attempt to discover potential antibacterial agents against the increasing bacterial resistance, novel cinnamaldehyde derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity against nine significant pathogens using broth microdilution method, and their cell division inhibitory activity against four representative strains. In the in vitro antibacterial activity, the newly synthesized compounds generally displayed better efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 than the others. In particular, compounds 3, 8 and 10 exerted superior or comparable activity to all the reference drugs. In the cell division inhibitory activity, all the compounds showed the same trend as their in vitro antibacterial activity, exhibiting better activity against S. aureus ATCC25923 than the other strains. Additionally, compounds 3, 6, 7 and 8 displayed potent cell division inhibitory activity with an MIC value of below 1 μg/mL, over 256-fold better than all the reference drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of contrast flow modification in aneurysms treated with closed-cell self-deploying asymmetric vascular stents (SAVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Ciprian N.; Wang, Weiyuan; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    The Asymmetric Vascular Stent (AVS) for intracranial aneurysm (IA) treatment is an experimental device, specially designed for intra-aneurysmal blood flow diversion and thrombosis promotion. The stent has a low-porous patch to cover only the aneurysm neck while the rest of the stent is very porous to avoid blockage of adjacent branches. The latest AVS design is similar to state-of-art, closed-cell, self-expanding, neurovascular stent. The stents were used to treat sixteen rabbit-elastase aneurysm models. The treatment effect was analyzed using normalized-time-density-curves (NTDC) measured by pixel-value integration over a region-of-interest containing the aneurysm. Normalization constant was the total bolus injection determined angiographically. Based on NTDC measurement, five quantities were derived to describe the contrast flow. Two are related to the amount of contrast entering the aneurysm: NTDC peak and NTDC input slope. The other three are related to contrast presence in the aneurysmal dome: time-to-peak (TTP), wash-out-time (WOT) and mean-transit-time (MTT). Flow modification descriptions using the contrast related quantities were expressed as a pre-/post-stented NTDC parameter ratio, while the time related quantities were expressed as a post-/prestented ratio, so that ratios smaller than one indicate a desired effect. Thirteen aneurysms were treated successfully and achieved significant aneurysm occlusion. For these cases, the resulting average parameters were: peak-ratio=0.17+0.21; input-slope-ratio=0.19+/-0.24, TTP-ratio=0.17+0.21, WOT-ratio=0.58+/-0.73 and MTT-ratio=0.65+/-0.97). All the quantities revealed decreased aneurysmal flow due to blood flow diversion using the new self-expanding asymmetrical vascular stent (SAVS). Treatment outcome results and angiographic analysis indicate that the new self-deploying stent design has great potential for clinical implementation.

  19. Sparse feature selection identifies H2A.Z as a novel, pattern-specific biomarker for asymmetrically self-renewing distributed stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hoon Huh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a long-standing unmet clinical need for biomarkers with high specificity for distributed stem cells (DSCs in tissues, or for use in diagnostic and therapeutic cell preparations (e.g., bone marrow. Although DSCs are essential for tissue maintenance and repair, accurate determination of their numbers for medical applications has been problematic. Previous searches for biomarkers expressed specifically in DSCs were hampered by difficulty obtaining pure DSCs and by the challenges in mining complex molecular expression data. To identify such useful and specific DSC biomarkers, we combined a novel sparse feature selection method with combinatorial molecular expression data focused on asymmetric self-renewal, a conspicuous property of DSCs. The analysis identified reduced expression of the histone H2A variant H2A.Z as a superior molecular discriminator for DSC asymmetric self-renewal. Subsequent molecular expression studies showed H2A.Z to be a novel “pattern-specific biomarker” for asymmetrically self-renewing cells, with sufficient specificity to count asymmetrically self-renewing DSCs in vitro and potentially in situ.

  20. Asymmetric Distribution of Primary Cilia Allocates Satellite Cells for Self-Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar Marican, Nur Hayati; Cruz-Migoni, Sara B; Borycki, Anne-Gaëlle

    2016-06-14

    Regeneration of vertebrate skeletal muscles requires satellite cells, a population of stem cells that are quiescent in normal conditions and divide, differentiate, and self-renew upon activation triggered by exercise, injury, and degenerative diseases. Satellite cell self-renewal is essential for long-term tissue homeostasis, and previous work has identified a number of external cues that control this process. However, little is known of the possible intrinsic control mechanisms of satellite cell self-renewal. Here, we show that quiescent satellite cells harbor a primary cilium, which is rapidly disassembled upon entry into the cell cycle. Contrasting with a commonly accepted belief, cilia reassembly does not occur uniformly in cells exiting the cell cycle. We found that primary cilia reassemble preferentially in cells committed to self-renew, and disruption of cilia reassembly causes a specific deficit in self-renewing satellite cells. These observations indicate that primary cilia provide an intrinsic cue essential for satellite cell self-renewal. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rate and topography of peptidoglycan synthesis during cell division in Escherichia coli: Concept of a leading edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wientjes, F.B.; Nanninga, N. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-06-01

    The rate at which the peptidoglycan of Escherichia coli is synthesized during the division cycle was studied with two methods. One method involved synchronization of E. coli MC4100 lysA cultures by centrifugal elutriation and subsequent pulse-labeling of the synchronously growing cultures with (meso-{sup 3}H)diaminopimelic acid (({sup 3}H)Dap). The second method was autoradiography of cells pulse-labeled with ({sup 3}H)Dap. It was found that the peptidoglycan is synthesized at a more or less exponentially increasing rate during the division cycle with a slight acceleration in this rate as the cells start to constrict. Apparently, polar cap formation requires synthesis of extra surface components, presumably to accommodate for a change in the surface-to-volume ratio. Furthermore, it was found that the pool size of Dap was constant during the division cycle. Close analysis of the topography of ({sup 3}H)Dap incorporation at the constriction site revealed that constriction proceeded by synthesis of peptidoglycan at the leading edge of the invaginating cell envelope. During constriction, no reallocation of incorporation occurred, i.e., the incorporation at the leading edge remained high throughout the process of constriction. Impairment of penicillin-binding protein 3 by mutation or by the specific {beta}-lactam antibiotic furazlocillin did not affect ({sup 3}H)Dap incorporation during initiation of constriction. However, the incorporation at the constriction site was inhibited in later stages of the constriction process. It is concluded that during division at least two peptidoglycan-synthesizing systems are operating sequentially.

  2. Universal Protein Distributions in a Model of Cell Growth and Division

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Naama; Osmanovic, Dino; Rabin, Yitzhak; Salman, Hanna; Stein, D L

    2015-01-01

    Protein distributions measured under a broad set of conditions in bacteria and yeast exhibit a universal skewed shape, with variances depending quadratically on means. For bacteria these properties are reproduced by protein accumulation and division dynamics across generations. We present a stochastic growth-and-division model with feedback which captures these observed properties. The limiting copy number distribution is calculated exactly, and a single parameter is found to determine the distribution shape and the variance-to-mean relation. Estimating this parameter from bacterial temporal data reproduces the measured universal distribution shape with high accuracy, and leads to predictions for future experiments.

  3. Cell signaling in root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Cell signaling has recently been shown to be of major importance in cell specification during Arabidopsis root development. In the ground tissue, cues of unknown molecular nature convey positional information and two genes provide an interesting link between asymmetric cell division and the

  4. Sea urchin akt activity is Runx-dependent and required for post-cleavage stage cell division

    KAUST Repository

    Robertson, Anthony J.

    2013-03-25

    In animal development following the initial cleavage stage of embryogenesis, the cell cycle becomes dependent on intercellular signaling and controlled by the genomically encoded ontogenetic program. Runx transcription factors are critical regulators of metazoan developmental signaling, and we have shown that the sea urchin Runx gene runt-1, which is globally expressed during early embryogenesis, functions in support of blastula stage cell proliferation and expression of the mitogenic genes pkc1, cyclinD, and several wnts. To obtain a more comprehensive list of early runt-1 regulatory targets, we screened a Strongylocentrotus purpuratus microarray to identify genes mis-expressed in mid-blastula stage runt-1 morphants. This analysis showed that loss of Runx function perturbs the expression of multiple genes involved in cell division, including the pro-growth and survival kinase Akt (PKB), which is significantly underexpressed in runt-1 morphants. Further genomic analysis revealed that Akt is encoded by two genes in the S. purpuratus genome, akt-1 and akt-2, both of which contain numerous canonical Runx target sequences. The transcripts of both genes accumulate several fold during blastula stage, contingent on runt-1 expression. Inhibiting Akt expression or activity causes blastula stage cell cycle arrest, whereas overexpression of akt-1 mRNA rescues cell proliferation in runt-1 morphants. These results indicate that post-cleavage stage cell division requires Runx-dependent expression of akt.

  5. Composition and dynamics of the nucleolinus, a link between the nucleolus and cell division apparatus in surf clam (Spisula) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliegro, Mark C; Hartson, Steven; Alliegro, Mary Anne

    2012-02-24

    The nucleolinus is a little-known cellular structure, discovered over 150 years ago (Agassiz, L. (1857) Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America, First Monograph, Part IIL, Little, Brown and Co., Boston) and thought by some investigators in the late 19th to mid-20th century to function in the formation of the centrosomes or spindle. A role for the nucleolinus in formation of the cell division apparatus has recently been confirmed in oocytes of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima (Alliegro, M. A., Henry, J. J., and Alliegro, M. C. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 13718-13723). However, we know so little about the composition and dynamics of this compartment, it is difficult to construct mechanistic hypotheses or even to be sure that prior reports were describing analogous structures in the cells of mammals, amphibians, plants, and other organisms where it was observed. Surf clam oocytes are an attractive model to approach this problem because the nucleolinus is easily visible by light microscopy, making it accessible by laser microsurgery as well as isolation by common cell fractionation techniques. In this report, we analyze the macromolecular composition of isolated Spisula nucleolini and examine the relationship of this structure to the nucleolus and cell division apparatus. Analysis of nucleolinar RNA and protein revealed a set of molecules that overlaps with but is nevertheless distinct from the nucleolus. The proteins identified were primarily ones involved in nucleic acid metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Monoclonal antibodies generated against isolated nucleolini revealed centrosomal forerunners in the oocyte cytoplasm. Finally, induction of damage to the nucleolinus by laser microsurgery altered the trafficking of α- and γ-tubulin after fertilization. These observations strongly support a role for the nucleolinus in cell division and represent our first clues regarding mechanism.

  6. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I. [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaacob, W. A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  7. Nanocellulose based asymmetric composite membrane for the multiple functions in cell encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minsung; Shin, Sungchul; Cheng, Jie; Hyun, Jinho

    2017-02-20

    We describe the nanocomposite membrane for cell encapsulation using nanocelluose hydrogels. One of the surfaces of bacterial cellulose (BC) pellicles was coated with collagen to enhance cell adhesion and the opposite side of the BC pellicles was coated with alginate to protect transplanted cells from immune rejection by the reduced pore size of the composite membrane. The morphology of nanocomposite membrane was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the permeability of the membrane was estimated by the release test using different molecular weights of polymer solution. The nanocomposite membrane was permeable to small molecules but impermeable to large molecules such as IgG antibodies inferring the potential use in cell implantation. In addition, the BC-based nanocomposite membrane showed a superior mechanical property due to the incorporation of compared with alginate membranes. The cells attached efficiently to the surface of BC composite membranes with a high level of cell viability as well as bioactivity. Cells grown on the BC composite membrane kit released dopamine freely to the medium through the membrane, which showed that the BC composite membrane would be a promising cell encapsulation material in implantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell division in Apicomplexan parasites is organized by a homolog of the striated rootlet fiber of algal flagella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Francia

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa are intracellular parasites that cause important human diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis. During host cell infection new parasites are formed through a budding process that parcels out nuclei and organelles into multiple daughters. Budding is remarkably flexible in output and can produce two to thousands of progeny cells. How genomes and daughters are counted and coordinated is unknown. Apicomplexa evolved from single celled flagellated algae, but with the exception of the gametes, lack flagella. Here we demonstrate that a structure that in the algal ancestor served as the rootlet of the flagellar basal bodies is required for parasite cell division. Parasite striated fiber assemblins (SFA polymerize into a dynamic fiber that emerges from the centrosomes immediately after their duplication. The fiber grows in a polarized fashion and daughter cells form at its distal tip. As the daughter cell is further elaborated it remains physically tethered at its apical end, the conoid and polar ring. Genetic experiments in Toxoplasma gondii demonstrate two essential components of the fiber, TgSFA2 and 3. In the absence of either of these proteins cytokinesis is blocked at its earliest point, the initiation of the daughter microtubule organizing center (MTOC. Mitosis remains unimpeded and mutant cells accumulate numerous nuclei but fail to form daughter cells. The SFA fiber provides a robust spatial and temporal organizer of parasite cell division, a process that appears hard-wired to the centrosome by multiple tethers. Our findings have broader evolutionary implications. We propose that Apicomplexa abandoned flagella for most stages yet retained the organizing principle of the flagellar MTOC. Instead of ensuring appropriate numbers of flagella, the system now positions the apical invasion complexes. This suggests that elements of the invasion apparatus may be derived from flagella or flagellum associated structures.

  9. An APC:WNT counter-current-like mechanism regulates cell division along the colonic crypt axis: a mechanism that explains how APC mutations induce proliferative abnormalities that drive colon cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M Boman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside. WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g. survivin are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric. APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly-proliferating cells during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes.

  10. A P-Loop NTPase Regulates Quiescent Center Cell Division and Distal Stem Cell Identity through the Regulation of ROS Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianqian; Tian, Huiyu; Yue, Kun; Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Bing; Li, Xugang; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized as important regulators of cell division and differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana P-loop NTPase encoded by APP1 affects root stem cell niche identity through its control of local ROS homeostasis. The disruption of APP1 is accompanied by a reduction in ROS level, a rise in the rate of cell division in the quiescent center (QC) and the promotion of root distal stem cell (DSC) differentiation. Both the higher level of ROS induced in the app1 mutant by exposure to methyl viologen (MV), and treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) rescued the mutant phenotype, implying that both the increased rate of cell division in the QC and the enhancement in root DSC differentiation can be attributed to a low level of ROS. APP1 is expressed in the root apical meristem cell mitochondria, and its product is associated with ATP hydrolase activity. The key transcription factors, which are defining root distal stem niche, such as SCARECROW (SCR) and SHORT ROOT (SHR) are both significantly down-regulated at both the transcriptional and protein level in the app1 mutant, indicating that SHR and SCR are important downstream targets of APP1-regulated ROS signaling to control the identity of root QC and DSCs.

  11. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  12. Construction of synthetic nucleoli and what it tells us about propagation of sub-nuclear domains through cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Alice; McStay, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The cell nucleus is functionally compartmentalized into numerous membraneless and dynamic, yet defined, bodies. The cell cycle inheritance of these nuclear bodies (NBs) is poorly understood at the molecular level. In higher eukaryotes, their propagation is challenged by cell division through an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope disassembles along with most NBs. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved can be achieved using the engineering principles of synthetic biology to construct artificial NBs. Successful biogenesis of such synthetic NBs demonstrates knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved. Application of this approach to the nucleolus, a paradigm of nuclear organization, has highlighted a key role for mitotic bookmarking in the cell cycle propagation of NBs.

  13. Microcystin quota, cell division and microcystin net production of precultured Microcystis aeruginosa CYA 228 (Chroococcales, Cyanophyceae) under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, S.; Christoffersen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between the specific cell division rate (mu(c)), the specific microcystin (mcyst) production rate (mu(mcyst)) and the cellular content of mcyst (Q(mcyst)) was investigated during growth of Microcystis aeruginosa strain CYA 228 cells in the field (microcosms), and the results were...... compared with previous data obtained from batch cultures. Growth of an easily recognizable unicellular culture alga in the field made it possible to evaluate different ways of expressing mcyst field data as the ratio of mcyst to dry weight, protein or chlorophyll a (Chl a) against the mcyst quota....... The population of CYA 228 cells increased from day 1 to day 7, but decreased from day 7 to day 17. More than a threefold variation was observed in Q(mcyst) of M. aeruginosa cells under field conditions, which indicates that the relationship between mu(c) and mu(mcyst) was not strictly linear. The data from...

  14. Increased genome instability is not accompanied by sensitivity to DNA damaging agents in aged yeast cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novarina, Daniele; Mavrova, Sara N.; Janssens, Georges E.; Rempel, Irina L.; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Chang, Michael

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae divides asymmetrically, producing a new daughter cell from the original mother cell. While daughter cells are born with a full lifespan, a mother cell ages with each cell division and can only generate on average 25 daughter cells before dying. Aged yeast

  15. Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia elongate through zones of peptidoglycan synthesis that mark division sites of daughter cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Brandon Lyon; Scott, Molly; Parry, Bradley; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-08-16

    Agents that cause Lyme disease, relapsing fever, leptospirosis, and syphilis belong to the phylum Spirochaetae-a unique lineage of bacteria most known for their long, spiral morphology. Despite the relevance to human health, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of spirochete growth. Here, using quantitative microscopy to track peptidoglycan cell-wall synthesis, we found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi displays a complex pattern of growth. B. burgdorferi elongates from discrete zones that are both spatially and temporally regulated. In addition, some peptidoglycan incorporation occurs along the cell body, with the notable exception of a large region at the poles. Newborn cells inherit a highly active zone of peptidoglycan synthesis at midcell that contributes to elongation for most of the cell cycle. Concomitant with the initiation of nucleoid separation and cell constriction, second and third zones of elongation are established at the 1/4 and 3/4 cellular positions, marking future sites of division for the subsequent generation. Positioning of elongation zones along the cell is robust to cell length variations and is relatively precise over long distances (>30 µm), suggesting that cells ‟sense" relative, as opposed to absolute, cell length to establish zones of peptidoglycan synthesis. The transition from one to three zones of peptidoglycan growth during the cell cycle is also observed in relapsing fever Borrelia. However, this mode of growth does not extend to representative species from other spirochetal genera, suggesting that this distinctive growth mode represents an evolutionary divide in the spirochete phylum.

  16. Division of labor: subsets of dorsal-appendage-forming cells control the shape of the entire tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael J; French, Rachael L; Cosand, K Amber; Dorman, Jennie B; Kiehart, Daniel P; Berg, Celeste A

    2010-10-01

    The function of an organ relies on its form, which in turn depends on the individual shapes of the cells that create it and the interactions between them. Despite remarkable progress in the field of developmental biology, how cells collaborate to make a tissue remains an unsolved mystery. To investigate the mechanisms that determine organ structure, we are studying the cells that form the dorsal appendages (DAs) of the Drosophila melanogaster eggshell. These cells consist of two differentially patterned subtypes: roof cells, which form the outward-facing roof of the lumen, and floor cells, which dive underneath the roof cells to seal off the floor of the tube. In this paper, we present three lines of evidence that reveal a further stratification of the DA-forming epithelium. Laser ablation of only a few cells in the anterior of the region causes a disproportionately severe shortening of the appendage. Genetic alteration through the twin peaks allele of tramtrack69 (ttk(twk)), a female-sterile mutation that leads to severely shortened DAs, causes no such shortening when removed from a majority of the DA-forming cells, but rather, produces short appendages only when removed from cells in the very anterior of the tube-forming tissue. Additionally we show that heterotrimeric G-protein function is required for DA morphogenesis. Like TTK69, Gbeta 13F is not required in all DA-forming follicle cells but only in the floor and leading roof cells. The different phenotypes that result from removal of Gbeta 13F from each region demonstrate a striking division of function between different DA-forming cells. Gbeta mutant floor cells are unable to control the width of the appendage while Gbeta mutant leading roof cells fail to direct the elongation of the appendage and the convergent-extension of the roof-cell population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation on cascade multilevel inverter with symmetric, asymmetric, hybrid and multi-cell configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Suresh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent past, numerous multilevel architectures came into existence. In this background, cascaded multilevel inverter (CMLI is the promising structure. This type of multilevel inverters synthesizes a medium voltage output based on a series connection of power cells which use standard low-voltage component configurations. This characteristic allows one to achieve high-quality output voltage and current waveforms. However, when the number of levels increases switching components and the count of dc sources are also increased. This issue became a key motivation for the present paper. The present paper is devoted to investigate different types of CMLI which use less number of switching components and dc sources and finally proposed a new version of Multi-cell based CMLI. In order to verify the proposed topology, MATLAB – simulations and hardware verifications are carried out and results are presented.

  18. Intergroup Joint Scheduling for Mitigating Asymmetric Uplink Interference in Self-Organizing Virtual Cell Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohyun Jo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of self-organizing VCN (virtual cell network. Here self-organizing VCN topology for efficient operation will be configured, and the functions of the each element will be defined. Also, the operation scenarios of VCN will be described. Then, we propose an efficient scheduling algorithm that considers the asymmetry of interference between downlink and uplink to mitigate intercell interference with little computing overhead. The basic concept is to construct scheduling groups that consist of several users. Each user in a scheduling group is affiliated with a different cell. Then, the intercell groups are managed efficiently in the proposed VCNs. There is no need for the exchange of a lot of information among base stations to schedule the users over the entire network.

  19. Tetracycline hypersensitivity of an ezrA mutant links GalE and TseB (YpmB to cell division

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    Pamela eGamba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure at midcell that functions as a scaffold for the other cell division proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the conserved cell division protein EzrA is involved in modulation of Z-ring formation and coordination of septal peptidoglycan synthesis. Here, we show that an ezrA mutant is hypersensitive to tetracycline, even when the tetracycline efflux pump TetA is present. This effect is not related to the protein translation inhibiting activity of tetracycline. Overexpression of FtsL suppresses this phenotype, which appears to be related to the intrinsic low FtsL levels in an ezrA mutant background. A transposon screen indicated that the tetracycline effect can also be suppressed by overproduction of the cell division protein ZapA. In addition, tetracycline sensitivity could be suppressed by transposon insertions in galE and the unknown gene ypmB, which was renamed tseB (tetracycline sensitivity suppressor of ezrA. GalE is an epimerase using UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as substrate. Deletion of this protein bypasses the synthetic lethality of zapA ezrA and sepF ezrA double mutations, indicating that GalE influences cell division. The transmembrane protein TseB contains an extracytoplasmic peptidase domain, and a GFP fusion shows that the protein is enriched at cell division sites. A tseB deletion causes a shorter cell phenotype, indicating that TseB plays a role in cell division. Why a deletion of ezrA renders B. subtilis cells hypersensitive for tetracycline remains unclear. We speculate that this phenomenon is related to the tendency of tetracycline analogues to accumulate into the lipid bilayer, which may destabilize certain membrane proteins.

  20. Tetracycline hypersensitivity of an ezrA mutant links GalE and TseB (YpmB) to cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Pamela; Rietkötter, Eva; Daniel, Richard A; Hamoen, Leendert W

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure at midcell that functions as a scaffold for the other cell division proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the conserved cell division protein EzrA is involved in modulation of Z-ring formation and coordination of septal peptidoglycan synthesis. Here, we show that an ezrA mutant is hypersensitive to tetracycline, even when the tetracycline efflux pump TetA is present. This effect is not related to the protein translation inhibiting activity of tetracycline. Overexpression of FtsL suppresses this phenotype, which appears to be related to the intrinsic low FtsL levels in an ezrA mutant background. A transposon screen indicated that the tetracycline effect can also be suppressed by overproduction of the cell division protein ZapA. In addition, tetracycline sensitivity could be suppressed by transposon insertions in galE and the unknown gene ypmB, which was renamed tseB (tetracycline sensitivity suppressor of ezrA). GalE is an epimerase using UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as substrate. Deletion of this protein bypasses the synthetic lethality of zapA ezrA and sepF ezrA double mutations, indicating that GalE influences cell division. The transmembrane protein TseB contains an extracytoplasmic peptidase domain, and a GFP fusion shows that the protein is enriched at cell division sites. A tseB deletion causes a shorter cell phenotype, indicating that TseB plays a role in cell division. Why a deletion of ezrA renders B. subtilis cells hypersensitive for tetracycline remains unclear. We speculate that this phenomenon is related to the tendency of tetracycline analogs to accumulate into the lipid bilayer, which may destabilize certain membrane proteins.

  1. AHP6 inhibits cytokinin signaling to regulate the orientation of pericycle cell division during lateral root initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Moreira

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral roots (LRs initiate from anticlinal cell divisions of pericycle founder cells. The formation of LR primordia is regulated antagonistically by the phytohormones cytokinin and auxin. It has previously been shown that cytokinin has an inhibitory effect on the patterning events occurring during LR formation. However, the molecular players involved in cytokinin repression are still unknown. In a similar manner to protoxylem formation in Arabidopsis roots, in which AHP6 (ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 6 acts as a cytokinin inhibitor, we reveal that AHP6 also functions as a cytokinin repressor during early stages of LR development. We show that AHP6 is expressed at different developmental stages during LR formation and is required for the correct orientation of cell divisions at the onset of LR development. Moreover, we demonstrate that AHP6 influences the localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1, which is necessary for patterning the LR primordia. In summary, we show that the inhibition of cytokinin signaling through AHP6 is required to establish the correct pattern during LR initiation.

  2. Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical for intestinal stem cell division, survival, and differentiation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamori, Ryotaro; Das, Soumyashree; Yu, Shiyan

    2012-01-01

    Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical regulators of these processes in mice. Conditional ablation of Cdc42 in the mouse intestinal epithelium resulted in the formation of large intracellular vacuolar structures containing microvilli (microvillus inclusion bodies) in epithelial enterocytes, a phenotype...... reminiscent of human microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), a devastating congenital intestinal disorder that results in severe nutrient deprivation. Further analysis revealed that Cdc42-deficient stem cells had cell division defects, reduced capacity for clonal expansion and differentiation into Paneth cells......, and increased apoptosis. Cdc42 deficiency impaired Rab8a activation and its association with multiple effectors, and prevented trafficking of Rab8a vesicles to the midbody. This impeded cytokinesis, triggering crypt apoptosis and disrupting epithelial morphogenesis. Rab8a was also required for Cdc42-GTP...

  3. Dynein dynamics at the microtubule plus-ends and cortex during division in the C. $\\textit{elegans}$ zygote

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Ruddi Rodriguez; Chesneau, Laurent; Pastezeur, Sylvain; Roul, Julien; Tramier, Marc; Pécréaux, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    During asymmetric cell division, dynein generates forces, which position the spindle to reflect polarity and ensure correct daughter cell fates. The transient cortical localization of dynein raises the question of its targeting. We found that it accumulates at the microtubule plus-ends like in budding yeast, indirectly hitch-hiking on $\\text{EBP-2}^{\\text{EB1}}$ likely via dynactin. Importantly, this mechanism, which modestly accounts for cortical forces, does not transport dynein, which disp...

  4. Pathogenic Chlamydia Lack a Classical Sacculus but Synthesize a Narrow, Mid-cell Peptidoglycan Ring, Regulated by MreB, for Cell Division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Liechti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The peptidoglycan (PG cell wall is a peptide cross-linked glycan polymer essential for bacterial division and maintenance of cell shape and hydrostatic pressure. Bacteria in the Chlamydiales were long thought to lack PG until recent advances in PG labeling technologies revealed the presence of this critical cell wall component in Chlamydia trachomatis. In this study, we utilize bio-orthogonal D-amino acid dipeptide probes combined with super-resolution microscopy to demonstrate that four pathogenic Chlamydiae species each possess a ≤ 140 nm wide PG ring limited to the division plane during the replicative phase of their developmental cycles. Assembly of this PG ring is rapid, processive, and linked to the bacterial actin-like protein, MreB. Both MreB polymerization and PG biosynthesis occur only in the intracellular form of pathogenic Chlamydia and are required for cell enlargement, division, and transition between the microbe's developmental forms. Our kinetic, molecular, and biochemical analyses suggest that the development of this limited, transient, PG ring structure is the result of pathoadaptation by Chlamydia to an intracellular niche within its vertebrate host.

  5. Cell Biology of Cheating-Transmission of Centromeres and Other Selfish Elements Through Asymmetric Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmátal, Lukáš; Schultz, Richard M; Black, Ben E; Lampson, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Mendel's First Law of Genetics states that a pair of alleles segregates randomly during meiosis so that one copy of each is represented equally in gametes. Whereas male meiosis produces four equal sperm, in female meiosis only one cell, the egg, survives, and the others degenerate. Meiotic drive is a process in which a selfish DNA element exploits female meiotic asymmetry and segregates preferentially to the egg in violation of Mendel's First Law, thereby increasing its transmission to the offspring and frequency in a population. In principle, the selfish element can consist either of a centromere that increases its transmission via an altered kinetochore connection to the meiotic spindle or a centromere-like element that somehow bypasses the kinetochore altogether in doing so. There are now examples from eukaryotic model systems for both types of meiotic drive. Although meiotic drive has profound evolutionary consequences across many species, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We discuss examples in various systems and open questions about the underlying cell biology, and propose a mechanism to explain biased segregation in mammalian female meiosis.

  6. Phosphorylation of Serine 148 in Giardia lamblia End-binding 1 Protein is Important for Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juri; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Park, Soon-Jung

    2017-07-01

    Giardia lamblia is a unicellular organism, showing a polarity with two nuclei and cytoskeletal structures. Accurate positioning of these organelles is essential for division of G. lamblia, which is poorly understood. Giardia lamblia end-binding 1 (GlEB1) protein and G. lamblia aurora kinase (GlAK) have been shown to modulate microtubule (MT) distribution during cytokinesis. A direct association between GlEB1 and GlAK was demonstrated. Like GlEB1, GlAK was also found at nuclear envelopes and median bodies of G. lamblia. In vitro kinase assays using Giardia lysates immunoprecipitated with anti-GlAK antibodies or recombinant GlAK suggested that GlEB1 is a substrate of GlAK. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that threonine-205 in GlAK was auto-phosphorylated and that GlAK phosphorylated serine (Ser)-148 in GlEB1. Ectopic expression of a mutant GlEB1 (with conversion of Ser-148 into alanine of GlEB1) resulted in an increased number of Giardia cells with division defects. Treatment of G. lamblia with an AK inhibitor triggered cytokinesis defects, and ectopic expression of a phospho-mimetic mutant GlEB1 (with conversion of Ser-148 into aspartate) rescued the defects in Giardia cell division caused by the AK inhibitor. These results suggested that phosphorylation of GlEB1 played a role in cytokinesis in G. lamblia. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  7. Somatic mosaicism in families with hemophilia B: 11% of germline mutations originate within a few cell divisions post-fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoell, A.; Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E. [Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Previous molecular estimates of mosaicism in the dystrophin and other genes generally have focused on the transmission of the mutated allele to two or more children by an individual without the mutation in leukocyte DNA. We have analyzed 414 families with hemophilia B by direct genomic sequencing and haplotype analysis, and have deduced the origin of mutation in 56 families. There was no origin individual who transmitted a mutant allele to more than one child. However, somatic mosaicism was detected by sequence analysis of four origin individuals (3{female} and 1{male}). The sensitivity of this analysis is typically one part in ten. In one additional female who had close to a 50:50 ratio of mutant to normal alleles, three of four noncarrier daughters inherited the haplotype associated with the mutant allele. This highlights a caveat in molecular analysis: a presumptive carrier in a family with sporadic disease does not necessarily have a 50% probability of transmitting the mutant allele to her offspring. After eliminating those families in which mosaicism could not be detected because of a total gene deletion or absence of DNA from a deduced origin individual, 5 of 43 origin individuals exhibited somatic mosaicism at a level that reflects a mutation within the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In one patient, analysis of cervical scrapings and buccal mucosa confirm the generalized distribution of somatic mutation. Are the first few cell divisions post-fertilization highly mutagenic, or do mutations at later divisions also give rise to somatic mosaicism? To address this question, DNA from origin individuals are being analyzed to detect somatic mosaicism at a sensitivity of 1:1000. Single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) has been utilized in eight families to date and no mosaicism has been detected. When the remaining 30 samples are analyzed, it will be possible to compare the frequency of somatic mosaicism at 0.1-10% with that of {ge}10%.

  8. Identification of proteins likely to be involved in morphogenesis, cell division, and signal transduction in Planctomycetes by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogler, Christian; Waldmann, Jost; Huang, Xiaoluo; Jogler, Mareike; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Mascher, Thorsten; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Members of the Planctomycetes clade share many unusual features for bacteria. Their cytoplasm contains membrane-bound compartments, they lack peptidoglycan and FtsZ, they divide by polar budding, and they are capable of endocytosis. Planctomycete genomes have remained enigmatic, generally being quite large (up to 9 Mb), and on average, 55% of their predicted proteins are of unknown function. Importantly, proteins related to the unusual traits of Planctomycetes remain largely unknown. Thus, we embarked on bioinformatic analyses of these genomes in an effort to predict proteins that are likely to be involved in compartmentalization, cell division, and signal transduction. We used three complementary strategies. First, we defined the Planctomycetes core genome and subtracted genes of well-studied model organisms. Second, we analyzed the gene content and synteny of morphogenesis and cell division genes and combined both methods using a "guilt-by-association" approach. Third, we identified signal transduction systems as well as sigma factors. These analyses provide a manageable list of candidate genes for future genetic studies and provide evidence for complex signaling in the Planctomycetes akin to that observed for bacteria with complex life-styles, such as Myxococcus xanthus.

  9. Biological Insights from a Simulation Model of the Critical FtsZ Accumulation Required for Prokaryotic Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Claire E; van den Berg, Hugo A; Roper, David I; Rodger, Alison

    2015-06-23

    A simulation model of prokaryotic Z-ring assembly, based on the observed behavior of FtsZ in vitro as well as on in vivo parameters, is used to integrate critical processes in cell division. According to the model, the cell's ability to divide depends on a "contraction parameter" (χ) that links the force of contraction to the dynamics of FtsZ. This parameter accurately predicts the outcome of division. Evaluating the GTP binding strength, the FtsZ polymerization rate, and the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis/dissociation activity, we find that inhibition of GTP-FtsZ binding is an inefficient antibacterial target. Furthermore, simulations indicate that the temperature sensitivity of the ftsZ84 mutation arises from the conversion of FtsZ to a dual-specificity NTPase. Finally, the sensitivity to temperature of the rate of ATP hydrolysis, over the critical temperature range, leads us to conclude that the ftsZ84 mutation affects the turnover rate of the Z-ring much less strongly than previously reported.

  10. Size distribution of retrovirally marked lineages matches prediction from population measurements of cell cycle behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Hayes, Nancy L.; Takahashi, Takao; Caviness, Verne S Jr; Nowakowski, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanisms that regulate neuron production in the developing mouse neocortex were examined by using a retroviral lineage marking method to determine the sizes of the lineages remaining in the proliferating population of the ventricular zone during the period of neuron production. The distribution of clade sizes obtained experimentally in four different injection-survival paradigms (E11-E13, E11-E14, E11-E15, and E12-E15) from a total of over 500 labeled lineages was compared with that obtained from three models in which the average behavior of the proliferating population [i.e., the proportion of cells remaining in the proliferative population (P) vs. that exiting the proliferative population (Q)] was quantitatively related to lineage size distribution. In model 1, different proportions of asymmetric, symmetric terminal, and symmetric nonterminal cell divisions coexisted during the entire developmental period. In model 2, the developmental period was divided into two epochs: During the first, asymmetric and symmetric nonterminal cell divisions occurred, but, during the second, asymmetric and symmetric terminal cell divisions occurred. In model 3, the shifts in P and Q are accounted for by changes in the proportions of the two types of symmetric cell divisions without the inclusion of any asymmetric cell divisions. The results obtained from the retroviral experiments were well accounted for by model 1 but not by model 2 or 3. These findings demonstrate that: 1) asymmetric and both types of symmetric cell divisions coexist during the entire period of neurogenesis in the mouse, 2) neuron production is regulated in the proliferative population by the independent decisions of the two daughter cells to reenter S phase, and 3) neurons are produced by both asymmetric and symmetric terminal cell divisions. In addition, the findings mean that cell death and/or tangential movements of cells in the proliferative population occur at only a low rate and that there are no

  11. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of standing waves and wave-induced hysteresis in asymmetric capacitive discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, De-Qi; Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Wang, You-Nian

    2017-12-01

    Asymmetrically excited, high frequency cylindrical capacitive discharges are widely used for materials etching and thin film deposition. Two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show the existence of standing waves and wave-induced hysteresis of the plasma density, i.e. two different steady states for the same driving rf voltage amplitude, when the voltage is increased from a low value or decreased from a high value. The phenomenon is explored over a range of pressures (10–30 mTorr) and frequencies (60–80 MHz). Examined at 73 MHz, with increasing gas pressure, the hysteresis loop gradually shrinks and vanishes. To understand the hysteresis induced by z-symmetric and z-antisymmetric radial wave propagation modes, the PIC results are compared with a nonlinear transmission line model assuming uniform bulk plasma density, to determine the symmetric and antisymmetric voltage amplitudes. The model results are in good agreement with the PIC observations, showing central-low and central-high profiles of the antisymmetric mode voltage at low density and high density, respectively. The results are then used to determine the parameters of a lumped circuit model of the two modes, from which the hysteresis is induced by the density dependence of the symmetric and anti-symmetric wave mode absorbed electron powers. For the low density state, the discharge is sustained mainly by the symmetric mode excitation. At high density, the discharge is sustained by both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes, with the latter partly showing a spatial resonance. The results are also shown to be frequency dependent, with an onset of the hysteresis at about 66 MHz.

  12. Characterization of the minimum domain required for targeting budding yeast myosin II to the site of cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolliday Nicola J

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All eukaryotes with the exception of plants use an actomyosin ring to generate a constriction force at the site of cell division (cleavage furrow during mitosis and meiosis. The structure and filament forming abilities located in the C-terminal or tail region of one of the main components, myosin II, are important for localising the molecule to the contractile ring (CR during cytokinesis. However, it remains poorly understood how myosin II is recruited to the site of cell division and how this recruitment relates to myosin filament assembly. Significant conservation between species of the components involved in cytokinesis, including those of the CR, allows the use of easily genetically manipulated organisms, such as budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the study of cytokinesis. Budding yeast has a single myosin II protein, named Myo1. Unlike most other class II myosins, the tail of Myo1 has an irregular coiled coil. In this report we use molecular genetics, biochemistry and live cell imaging to characterize the minimum localisation domain (MLD of budding yeast Myo1. Results We show that the MLD is a small region in the centre of the tail of Myo1 and that it is both necessary and sufficient for localisation of Myo1 to the yeast bud neck, the pre-determined site of cell division. Hydrodynamic measurements of the MLD, purified from bacteria or yeast, show that it is likely to exist as a trimer. We also examine the importance of a small region of low coiled coil forming probability within the MLD, which we call the hinge region. Removal of the hinge region prevents contraction of the CR. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP, we show that GFP-tagged MLD is slightly more dynamic than the GFP-tagged full length molecule but less dynamic than the GFP-tagged Myo1 construct lacking the hinge region. Conclusion Our results define the intrinsic determinant for the localization of budding yeast myosin II and show

  13. Coordination between chromosome replication, segregation, and cell division in Caulobacter crescentus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bugge

    2006-01-01

    Progression through the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle is coupled to a cellular differentiation program. The swarmer cell is replicationally quiescent, and DNA replication initiates at the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition. There is a very short delay between initiation of DNA replication...

  14. Phylogeography, salinity adaptations and metabolic potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria based on a partial single cell genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nigro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that has been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome (SAG of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis – previously developed based on 14C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines - that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source.

  15. The Escherichia coli cell division protein ZipA forms homodimers prior to association with FtsZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Karl; Daley, Daniel O

    2012-02-21

    ZipA is an essential component of the cell division machinery in E. coli and other closely related bacteria. It is an integral membrane protein that binds to FtsZ, tethering it to the inner membrane. ZipA also induces bundling of FtsZ protofilaments and may play a role in regulating FtsA activity; however, the molecular details behind these observations are not clear. In this study we have analyzed the oligomeric state of ZipA in vivo, by chemical cross-linking, and in vitro, by native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Our data indicate that ZipA can self-associate as a homodimer and that this self-interaction is not dependent on the FtsZ-binding domain. This observation rules out the possibility that FtsZ polymers mediate the ZipA self-interaction. Given this observation, it is possible that a certain population of ZipA is recruited to the division septum in a homodimeric form.

  16. Conformation of cytoskeletal elements during the division of infected Lupinus albus L. nodule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Elena E; de Felipe, María R; Pueyo, José J; Lucas, M Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Lupin nodule cells maintain their ability to divide for several cycles after being infected by endosymbiotic rhizobia. The conformation of the cytoskeletal elements of nodule cells was studied by fluorescence labelling, immunocytochemistry, and laser confocal and transmission electron microscopy. The dividing infected cells showed the normal microtubule and actin patterns of dividing plant cells. The clustered symbiosomes were tethered to the spindle-pole regions and moved to the cell poles during spindle elongation. In metaphase, anaphase, and early telophase, the symbiosomes were found at opposite cell poles where they did not interfere with the spindle filaments or phragmoplast. This symbiosome positioning was comparable with that of the organelles (which ensures organelle inheritance during plant cell mitosis). Tubulin microtubules and actin microfilaments appeared to be in contact with the symbiosomes. The possible presence of actin molecular motor myosin in nodules was analysed using a monoclonal antibody against the myosin light chain. The antigen was detected in protein extracts of nodule and root cytosol as bands of approximately 20 kDa (the size expected). In the nodules, an additional polypeptide of 65 kDa was found. Immunogold techniques revealed the antigen to be localized over thin microfilaments linked to the cell wall, as well as over the thicker microfilament bundles and surrounding the symbiosomes. The pattern of cytoskeleton rearrangement in dividing infected cells, along with the presence of myosin antigen, suggests that the positioning of symbiosomes in lupin nodule cells might depend on the same mechanisms used to partition genuine plant cell organelles during mitosis.

  17. Dynamic FtsA and FtsZ localization and outer membrane alterations during polar growth and cell division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, John R; Cameron, Todd A; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2013-05-28

    Growth and cell division in rod-shaped bacteria have been primarily studied in species that grow predominantly by peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis along the length of the cell. Rhizobiales species, however, predominantly grow by PG synthesis at a single pole. Here we characterize the dynamic localization of several Agrobacterium tumefaciens components during the cell cycle. First, the lipophilic dye FM 4-64 predominantly stains the outer membranes of old poles versus growing poles. In cells about to divide, however, both poles are equally labeled with FM 4-64, but the constriction site is not. Second, the cell-division protein FtsA alternates from unipolar foci in the shortest cells to unipolar and midcell localization in cells of intermediate length, to strictly midcell localization in the longest cells undergoing septation. Third, the cell division protein FtsZ localizes in a cell-cycle pattern similar to, but more complex than, FtsA. Finally, because PG synthesis is spatially and temporally regulated during the cell cycle, we treated cells with sublethal concentrations of carbenicillin (Cb) to assess the role of penicillin-binding proteins in growth and cell division. Cb-treated cells formed midcell circumferential bulges, suggesting that interrupted PG synthesis destabilizes the septum. Midcell bulges contained bands or foci of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP and no FM 4-64 label, as in untreated cells. There were no abnormal morphologies at the growth poles in Cb-treated cells, suggesting unipolar growth uses Cb-insensitive PG synthesis enzymes.

  18. Aging and death in an organism that reproduces by morphologically symmetric division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Stewart

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In macroscopic organisms, aging is often obvious; in single-celled organisms, where there is the greatest potential to identify the molecular mechanisms involved, identifying and quantifying aging is harder. The primary results in this area have come from organisms that share the traits of a visibly asymmetric division and an identifiable juvenile phase. As reproductive aging must require a differential distribution of aged and young components between parent and offspring, it has been postulated that organisms without these traits do not age, thus exhibiting functional immortality. Through automated time-lapse microscopy, we followed repeated cycles of reproduction by individual cells of the model organism Escherichia coli, which reproduces without a juvenile phase and with an apparently symmetric division. We show that the cell that inherits the old pole exhibits a diminished growth rate, decreased offspring production, and an increased incidence of death. We conclude that the two supposedly identical cells produced during cell division are functionally asymmetric; the old pole cell should be considered an aging parent repeatedly producing rejuvenated offspring. These results suggest that no life strategy is immune to the effects of aging, and therefore immortality may be either too costly or mechanistically impossible in natural organisms.

  19. The garlic allelochemical diallyl disulfide affects tomato root growth by influencing cell division, phytohormone balance and expansin gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diallyl disulfide (DADS is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L., and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. seed germination, root growth, mitotic index and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs, auxin transport genes (SlPINs and expansin genes (EXPs in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01-0.62 mM of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20-20.67 mM showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM. This result suggests that tomato root growth

  20. Influences of Asymmetrically Distributed Defect States at Rear c-Si/a-Si:H Interface on Performances of Silicon Hetero-Junction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junkang; Xu, Jingping; Lei, Qingsong; Wang, Lisheng

    2013-08-01

    The performances of silicon double hetero-junction solar cells are investigated by the numerical simulator "Automat For Simulation of Hetero-structures (AFORS-HET)". Asymmetrical distribution of acceptor and donor defect states at the rear hetero-junction interface is introduced in both a-Si:H(n)/c-Si(p)/a-Si:H(p+) and a-Si:H(p)/c-Si(n)/a-Si:H(n+) structures in our study. The influences of total defect density and rear emitter parameters (doping concentration and band discontinuity to silicon substrate) on performances of the solar cells are analyzed. The simulated results indicate that the npp+ cells with acceptor dominated defect states at the rear interface can obtain better performances, and the same for the pnn+ cells with donor dominated defect states. Moreover, the npp+ cells are more sensitive to the total interface defect density and its distribution mode due to the unfavorable band offset between the absorber and the rear emitter. But when total defect density is small, the npp+ cells show more sensitivity to change of the doping concentration at the rear emitter than the pnn+ cells, and conversely, the pnn+ cells show more sensitivity to the distribution mode of defect states at the rear emitter than the npp+ cells. Due to weaker inherent back diffusion ability of minority carrier, the pnn+ cells with moderate band offset (0.25 0.37 eV) at the rear hetero-junction are more sensitive to the incentive effect of localized charges at the interface formed by asymmetrically distributed defect states, and the interface with donor dominated defect states is a better option for the pnn+ cells when the total defect density is relatively small.

  1. The PAR Proteins: Fundamental Players in Animal Cell Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Bob; Macara, Ian G.

    2007-01-01

    The par genes were discovered in genetic screens for regulators of cytoplasmic partitioning in the early embryo of C. elegans, and encode six different proteins required for asymmetric cell division by the worm zygote. Some of the PAR proteins are localized asymmetrically and form physical complexes with one another. Strikingly, the PAR proteins have been found to regulate cell polarization in many different contexts in diverse animals, suggesting they form part of an ancient and fundamental ...

  2. Comparative proteome analysis between C . briggsae embryos and larvae reveals a role of chromatin modification proteins in embryonic cell division

    KAUST Repository

    An, Xiaomeng

    2017-06-21

    Caenorhabditis briggsae has emerged as a model for comparative biology against model organism C. elegans. Most of its cell fate specifications are completed during embryogenesis whereas its cell growth is achieved mainly in larval stages. The molecular mechanism underlying the drastic developmental changes is poorly understood. To gain insights into the molecular changes between the two stages, we compared the proteomes between the two stages using iTRAQ. We identified a total of 2,791 proteins in the C. briggsae embryos and larvae, 247 of which undergo up- or down-regulation between the two stages. The proteins that are upregulated in the larval stages are enriched in the Gene Ontology categories of energy production, protein translation, and cytoskeleton; whereas those upregulated in the embryonic stage are enriched in the categories of chromatin dynamics and posttranslational modification, suggesting a more active chromatin modification in the embryos than in the larva. Perturbation of a subset of chromatin modifiers followed by cell lineage analysis suggests their roles in controlling cell division pace. Taken together, we demonstrate a general molecular switch from chromatin modification to metabolism during the transition from C. briggsae embryonic to its larval stages using iTRAQ approach. The switch might be conserved across metazoans.

  3. Conserved components, but distinct mechanisms for the placement and assembly of the cell division machinery in unicellular and filamentous ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Stephan; Justa-Schuch, Daniela

    2010-12-01

    Cytokinesis is essential for cell proliferation, yet its molecular description is challenging, because >100 conserved proteins must be spatially and temporally co-ordinated. Despite the high importance of a tight co-ordination of cytokinesis with chromosome and organelle segregation, the mechanism for determining the cell division plane is one of the least conserved aspects of cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. Budding and fission yeast have developed fundamentally distinct mechanisms to ensure proper nuclear segregation. The extent to which these pathways are conserved in multicellular fungi remains unknown. Recent progress indicates common components, but different mechanisms that are required for proper selection of the septation site in the different groups of Ascomycota. Cortical cues are used in yeast- and filament-forming species of the Saccharomycotina clade that are established at the incipient bud site or the hyphal tip respectively. In contrast, septum formation in the filament-forming Pezizomycotina species Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa seems more closely related to the fission yeast programme in that they may combine mitotic signals with a cell end-based marker system and Rho GTPase signalling. Thus, significant differences in the use and connection of conserved signalling modules become apparent that reflect the phylogenetic relationship of the analysed models. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Hsp70 protects mitotic cells against heat-induced centrosome damage and division abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, HMJ; Kampinga, HH; Sibon, OCM

    The effect of heat shock on centrosomes has been mainly studied in interphase cells. Centrosomes play a key role in proper segregation of DNA during mitosis. However, the direct effect and consequences of heat shock on mitotic cells and a possible cellular defense system against proteotoxic stress

  5. Suppression of cell division by pKi-67 antisense-RNA and recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchrow, M; Schmidt, M H; Zingler, M; Anemüller, S; Bruch, H P; Broll, R

    2001-01-01

    The human antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (pKi-67) is a human nuclear protein strongly associated with cell proliferation and found in all tissues studied. It is widely used as a marker of proliferating cells, yet its function is unknown. To investigate its function we suppressed pKi-67 expression by antisense RNA and overexpressed a partial structure of pKi-67 in HeLa cells. A BrdU-incorporation assay showed a significant decrease in DNA synthesis after antisense inhibition. Cell cycle analysis indicated a higher proportion of cells in G1 phase and a lower proportion of cells in S phase while the number of G(2)/M phase cells remained constant. Overexpression of a recombinant protein encoding three of the repetitive elements from exon 13 of pKi-67 had a similar effect to that obtained by antisense inhibition. The similarity of the effect of expressing 'Ki-67 repeats' and pKi-67 antisense RNA could be explained by a negative effect on the folding of the endogenous protein in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore excessive self-association of pKi-67 via the repeat structure could inhibit its nuclear transport, preventing it from getting to its presumptive site of action. We conclude that the Ki-67 protein has an important role in the regulation of the cell cycle, which is mediated in part by its repetitive elements. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-11

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  7. The receptor-like kinases GSO1 and GSO2 together regulate root growth in Arabidopsis through control of cell division and cell fate specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racolta, Adriana; Bryan, Anthony C; Tax, Frans E

    2014-02-01

    The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis is established post-embryonically as the main source of root cells, and its activity is maintained by complex bidirectional signaling between stem cells and mature cells. The receptor-like kinases GASSHO1 (GSO1) and GSO2 have been shown to regulate aerial epidermal function and seedling growth in Arabidopsis. Here we show that gso1; gso2 seedlings also have root growth and patterning defects. Analyses of mutant root morphology indicate abnormal numbers of cells in longitudinal files and radial cell layers, as well as aberrant stem cell division planes. gso1; gso2 double mutants misexpress markers for stem cells and differentiated root cell types. In addition, gso1; gso2 root growth defects, but not marker missexpression or patterning phenotypes, are rescued by growth on media containing metabolizable sugars. We conclude that GSO1 and GSO2 function together in intercellular signaling to positively regulate cell proliferation, differentiation of root cell types, and stem cell identity. In addition, GSO1 and GSO2 control seedling root growth by modulating sucrose response after germination. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. ASPM regulates symmetric stem cell division by tuning Cyclin E ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecchi, Mario R; Pozner, Amir

    2015-11-19

    We generate a mouse model for the human microcephaly syndrome by mutating the ASPM locus, and demonstrate a premature exhaustion of the neuronal progenitor pool due to dysfunctional self-renewal processes. Earlier studies have linked ASPM mutant progenitor excessive cell cycle exit to a mitotic orientation defect. Here, we demonstrate a mitotic orientation-independent effect of ASPM on cell cycle duration. We pinpoint the cell fate-determining factor to the length of time spent in early G1 before traversing the restriction point. Characterization of the molecular mechanism reveals an interaction between ASPM and the Cdk2/Cyclin E complex, regulating the Cyclin activity by modulating its ubiquitination, phosphorylation and localization into the nucleus, before the cell is fated to transverse the restriction point. Thus, we reveal a novel function of ASPM in mediating the tightly coordinated Ubiquitin- Cyclin E- Retinoblastoma- E2F bistable-signalling pathway controlling restriction point progression and stem cell maintenance.

  9. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S; De La Torre, Carola M; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G; Grundler, Florian M W

    2015-10-13

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction.

  10. Metabolism and the Control of Cell Fate Decisions and Stem Cell Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kyoko; Ito, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Although the stem cells of various tissues remain in the quiescent state to maintain their undifferentiated state, they also undergo cell divisions as required, and if necessary, even a single stem cell is able to provide for lifelong tissue homeostasis. Stem cell populations are precisely controlled by the balance between their symmetric and asymmetric divisions, with their division patterns determined by whether the daughter cells involved retain their self-renewal capacities. Recent studies have reported that metabolic pathways and the distribution of mitochondria are regulators of the division balance of stem cells and that metabolic defects can shift division balance toward symmetric commitment, which leads to stem cell exhaustion. It has also been observed that in asymmetric division, old mitochondria, which are central metabolic organelles, are segregated to the daughter cell fated to cell differentiation, whereas in symmetric division, young and old mitochondria are equally distributed between both daughter cells. Thus, metabolism and mitochondrial biology play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. As these decisions directly affect tissue homeostasis, understanding their regulatory mechanisms in the context of cellular metabolism is critical. PMID:27482603

  11. Inhibition of Cell Division and DNA Replication Impair Mouse-Naïve Pluripotency Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Ariel; Vazquez Echegaray, Camila; Solari, Claudia; Cosentino, María Soledad; Martyn, Iain; Deglincerti, Alessia; Ozair, Mohammad Zeeshan; Ruzo, Albert; Barañao, Lino; Miriuka, Santiago; Brivanlou, Ali; Guberman, Alejandra

    2017-09-01

    The cell cycle has gained attention as a key determinant for cell fate decisions, but the contribution of DNA replication and mitosis in stem cell differentiation has not been extensively studied. To understand if these processes act as "windows of opportunity" for changes in cell identity, we established synchronized cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells as they exit the ground state of pluripotency. We show that initial transcriptional changes in this transition do not require passage through mitosis and that conversion to primed pluripotency is linked to lineage priming in the G1 phase. Importantly, we demonstrate that impairment of DNA replication severely blocks transcriptional switch to primed pluripotency, even in the absence of p53 activity induced by the DNA damage response. Our data suggest an important role for DNA replication during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation, which could shed light on why pluripotent cells are only receptive to differentiation signals during G1, that is, before the S phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disruption of an M. tuberculosis membrane protein causes a magnesium-dependent cell division defect and failure to persist in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichole Goodsmith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes necessary for persistence in vivo provides insight into bacterial biology as well as host defense strategies. We show that disruption of M. tuberculosis membrane protein PerM (Rv0955 resulted in an IFN-γ-dependent persistence defect in chronic mouse infection despite the mutant's near normal growth during acute infection. The perM mutant required increased magnesium for replication and survival; incubation in low magnesium media resulted in cell elongation and lysis. Transcriptome analysis of the perM mutant grown in reduced magnesium revealed upregulation of cell division and cell wall biosynthesis genes, and live cell imaging showed PerM accumulation at the division septa in M. smegmatis. The mutant was acutely sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics, including specific inhibitors of cell division-associated peptidoglycan transpeptidase FtsI. Together, these data implicate PerM as a novel player in mycobacterial cell division and pathogenesis, and are consistent with the hypothesis that immune activation deprives M. tuberculosis of magnesium.

  13. Acute and fractionated irradiation differentially modulate glioma stem cell division kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xuefeng; McDonald, J. Tyson; Hlatky, Lynn; Enderling, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies with a poor patient prognosis. Ionizing radiation (IR) either alone or adjuvant after surgery is part of standard treatment for GBM but remains primarily non-curative. The mechanisms underlying tumor radioresistance are manifold and, in part, accredited to a special subpopulation of tumorigenic cells. The so-called glioma stem cells (GSCs) are bestowed with the exclusive ability to self-renew and repopulate the tum...

  14. An automated image analysis framework for segmentation and division plane detection of single live Staphylococcus aureus cells which can operate at millisecond sampling time scales using bespoke Slimfield microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wollman, Adam J M; Foster, Simon; Leake, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen, giving rise to antimicrobial resistance in cell strains such as Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Here we report an image analysis framework for automated detection and image segmentation of cells in S. aureus cell clusters, and explicit identification of their cell division planes. We use a new combination of several existing analytical tools of image analysis to detect cellular and subcellular morphological features relevant to cell division from millisecond time scale sampled images of live pathogens at a detection precision of single molecules. We demonstrate this approach using a fluorescent reporter GFP fused to the protein EzrA that localises to a mid-cell plane during division and is involved in regulation of cell size and division. This image analysis framework presents a valuable platform from which to study candidate new antimicrobials which target the cell division machinery, but may also have more general application in detecting morphological...

  15. Mathematical models of tissue stem and transit target cell divisions and the risk of radiation- or smoking-associated cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling biological data to suggest that cancer arises from a series of mutations in single target cells, resulting in defects in cell renewal and differentiation processes which lead to malignancy. Because much mutagenic damage is expressed following cell division, more-rapidly renewing tissues could be at higher risk because of the larger number of cell replications. Cairns suggested that renewing tissues may reduce cancer risk by partitioning the dividing cell populations into lineages comprising infrequently-dividing long-lived stem cells and frequently-dividing short-lived daughter transit cells. We develop generalizations of three recent cancer-induction models that account for the joint maintenance and renewal of stem and transit cells, also competing processes of partially transformed cell proliferation and differentiation/apoptosis. We are particularly interested in using these models to separately assess the probabilities of mutation and development of cancer associated with "spontaneous" processes and with those linked to a specific environmental mutagen, specifically ionizing radiation or cigarette smoking. All three models demonstrate substantial variation in cancer risks, by at least 20 orders of magnitude, depending on the assumed number of critical mutations required for cancer, and the stem-cell and transition-cell mutation rates. However, in most cases the conditional probabilities of cancer being mutagen-induced range between 7-96%. The relative risks associated with mutagen exposure compared to background rates are also stable, ranging from 1.0-16.0. Very few cancers, generally 0.3 between lifetime cancer-site specific radiation risk and the probability of that cancer being mutagen-induced. These results do not depend on the assumed critical number of mutations leading to cancer, or on the assumed mutagen-associated mutation rate, within the generally-accepted ranges tested. However, there are borderline

  16. Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1) enhances death receptor-mediated apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingnan; Hansen, Karyn; Edwards, Robert; Van Houten, Bennett; Qian, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based strategy is a promising targeted therapeutic approach for the treatment of a variety of cancers including ovarian cancer. However, the inherent or acquired resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL limits the potential application of TRAIL-mediated therapy. In this study, we identified that mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (mdivi-1) is able to enhance the sensitivity of human ovarian cancer cells to death receptor ligands including TRAIL, FAS ligands, and TNF-α. Importantly, the combination of TRAIL and mdivi-1 has no apparent cytotoxic effect on non-transformed human cells, indicating a significant therapeutic window. We identified that caspase-8 and not the modulation of TRAIL receptors is required for the combination effect of TRAIL and mdivi-1. We further demonstrated that the enhanced efficacy of combination of mdivi-1 and death ligands is not dependent on the originally reported target of mdivi-1, Drp1, and is also not dependent on the two important pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak. Thus, our study presents a novel strategy in enhancing the apoptotic effect of death receptor ligands and provides a new effective TRAIL-based combination approach for treating human ovarian cancer. PMID:25446129

  17. Shroom3 and a Pitx2-N-cadherin pathway function cooperatively to generate asymmetric cell shape changes during gut morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plageman, Timothy F; Zacharias, Amanda L; Gage, Phillip J; Lang, Richard A

    2011-09-01

    The cytoskeletal protein Shroom3 is a potent inducer of epithelial cell shape change and is required for lens and neural plate morphogenesis. Analysis of gut morphogenesis in Shroom3 deficient mouse embryos revealed that the direction of gut rotation is also disrupted. It was recently established that Pitx2-dependent, asymmetrical cellular behaviors in the dorsal mesentery (DM) of the early mid-gut, a structure connecting the gut-tube to the rest of the embryo, contribute to the direction of gut rotation in chicken embryos by influencing the direction of the dorsal mesenteric tilt. Asymmetric cell shapes in the DM epithelium are hypothesized to contribute to the tilt, however, it is unclear what lies downstream of Pitx2 to alter epithelial cell shape. The cells of the left DM epithelium in either Pitx2 or Shroom3 deficient embryos are shorter and wider than those in control embryos and resemble the shape of those on the right, demonstrating that like Pitx2, Shroom3 is required for cell shape asymmetry and the leftward DM tilt. Because N-cadherin expression is specific to the left side and is Pitx2 dependent, we determined whether Shroom3 and N-cadherin function together to regulate cell shape in the left DM epithelium. Analysis of mouse embryos lacking one allele of both Shroom3 and N-cadherin revealed that they possess shorter and wider left epithelial DM cells when compared with Shroom3 or N-cadherin heterozygous embryos. This indicates a genetic interaction. Together these data provide evidence that Shroom3 and N-cadherin function cooperatively downstream of Pitx2 to directly regulate cell shape changes necessary for early gut tube morphogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy

  19. In vivo robustness analysis of cell division cycle genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Moriya

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular biochemical parameters, such as the expression level of gene products, are considered to be optimized so that a biological system, including the parameters, works effectively. Those parameters should have some permissible range so that the systems have robustness against perturbations, such as noise in gene expression. However, little is known about the permissible range in real cells because there has been no experimental technique to test it. In this study, we developed a genetic screening method, named "genetic tug-of-war" (gTOW that evaluates upper limit copy numbers of genes in a model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we applied it for 30 cell-cycle related genes (CDC genes. The experiment provided unique quantitative data that could be used to argue the system-level properties of the cell cycle such as robustness and fragility. The data were used to evaluate the current computational model, and refinements to the model were suggested.

  20. You are what you talk: quorum sensing induces individual morphologies and cell division modes in Dinoroseobacter shibae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Diana; Wang, Hui; Buchholz, Ina; Rohde, Manfred; Gröbe, Lothar; Pradella, Silke; Neumann, Alexander; Schulz, Stefan; Heyber, Steffi; Münch, Karin; Münch, Richard; Jahn, Dieter; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Tomasch, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Dinoroseobacter shibae, a member of the Roseobacter clade abundant in marine environments, is characterized by a pronounced pleomorphism. Cell shapes range from variable-sized ovoid rods to long filaments with a high copy number of chromosomes. Time-lapse microscopy shows cells dividing either by binary fission or by budding from the cell poles. Here we demonstrate that this morphological heterogeneity is induced by quorum sensing (QS). D. shibae utilizes three acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) synthases (luxI1-3) to produce AHLs with unsaturated C18 side chains. A ΔluxI1-knockout strain completely lacking AHL biosynthesis was uniform in morphology and divided by binary fission only. Transcriptome analysis revealed that expression of genes responsible for control of cell division was reduced in this strain, providing the link between QS and the observed phenotype. In addition, flagellar biosynthesis and type IV secretion system (T4SS) were downregulated. The wild-type phenotype and gene expression could be restored through addition of synthetic C18-AHLs. Their effectiveness was dependent on the number of double bonds in the acyl side chain and the regulated trait. The wild-type expression level of T4SS genes was fully restored even by an AHL with a saturated C18 side chain that has not been detected in D. shibae. QS induces phenotypic individualization of D. shibae cells rather than coordinating the population. This strategy might be beneficial in unpredictably changing environments, for example, during algal blooms when resource competition and grazing exert fluctuating selective pressures. A specific response towards non-native AHLs might provide D. shibae with the capacity for complex interspecies communication.

  1. Amoebiasis and its effect on cell division in the midgut of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of epithelia in the mammalian alimentary canal, (Leblond &. Walker 1956; Cleaver 1967; .... mature epithelial cells. Results. Controls. The controls, which were parasite-free and which were given neither colchicine nor 3H thymidine, were used for comparative purposes to evaluate the quality of processing of the tissues.

  2. How-to-Do-It: Cytokinin Induced Cell Division & Differentiation Using Intact Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a procedure by which cytokinins are used to induce a population of dividing and differentiating cells on the cut surface of the roots of an intact plant. Includes the method used, results, and suggestions for a variety of variables that may be tested. (RT)

  3. Digging out Roots: Pattern Formation, Cell Division, and Morphogenesis in Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.; Heidstra, R.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of plant development by genetic, molecular, and surgical approaches has accumulated a large body of data, and yet it remains a challenge to uncover the basic mechanisms that are operating. Early steps of development, when the zygote and its daughter cells organize the embryonic

  4. Aurora Kinase A deficiency during skin development impairs cell division and stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchia, Enrique C.; Zhang, Lei; Huebner, Aaron J.; Sen, Subrata; Roop, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aurora Kinase-A (Aurora-A) promotes timely entry into mitosis, centrosome maturation, and formation of bipolar spindles. To address the role of Aurora-A in skin development and homeostasis, we interbred a floxed Aurora-A (Aurora-Afl) mouse with the Cre-deleter strain, K14.Cre. Aurora-Afl/fl;Krt14.Cre (Aurora-A−/−) mice died shortly after birth. These mice had translucent skin, and histological evaluation showed that the dorsal skin was very thin and fragile with frank erosions. Although the expression of the basal layer marker Krt14 and the differentiation marker Krt1 was evident in Aurora-A−/− epidermis, there was a marked reduction in the number of suprabasal layers and basal keratinocytes. Dye exclusion assays also showed defects in barrier function. Unlike WT cells, Aurora-A−/− basal progenitors were delayed in forming two layers at E13.5 when embryonic skin begins to stratify. Increased numbers of mitotic cells, apoptotic bodies, and polyploid keratinocytes were evident in Aurora-A−/− epidermis, indicating that a deficiency in Aurora-A promotes aberrant mitosis, mitotic slippage and cell death. Lastly, Aurora-A−/− keratinocytes displayed centrosomal abnormalities that included centrosomes located at non-apical sites in basal cells. Thus, the deletion of Aurora-A in the developing epidermis alters centrosome function of basal keratinocytes and markedly impairs their ability to divide and stratify. PMID:22832491

  5. Aurora kinase-A deficiency during skin development impairs cell division and stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchia, Enrique C; Zhang, Lei; Huebner, Aaron J; Sen, Subrata; Roop, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Aurora kinase-A (Aurora-A) promotes timely entry into mitosis, centrosome maturation, and formation of bipolar spindles. To address the role of Aurora-A in skin development and homeostasis, we interbred a floxed Aurora-A (Aurora-A(fl)) mouse with the Cre-deleter strain, K14.Cre. Aurora-A(fl/fl);Krt14.Cre (Aurora-A(-/-)) mice died shortly after birth. These mice had translucent skin, and histological evaluation showed that the dorsal skin was very thin and fragile with frank erosions. Although the expression of the basal layer marker keratin 14 and the differentiation marker keratin 1 was evident in Aurora-A(-/-) epidermis, there was a marked reduction in the number of suprabasal layers and basal keratinocytes. Dye exclusion assays also showed defects in barrier function. Unlike wild-type cells, Aurora-A(-/-) basal progenitors were delayed in forming two layers at embryonic day (E)13.5 when embryonic skin begins to stratify. Increased numbers of mitotic cells, apoptotic bodies, and polyploid keratinocytes were evident in Aurora-A(-/-) epidermis, indicating that a deficiency in Aurora-A promotes aberrant mitosis, mitotic slippage, and cell death. Finally, Aurora-A(-/-) keratinocytes displayed centrosomal abnormalities that included centrosomes located at nonapical sites in basal cells. Thus, the deletion of Aurora-A in the developing epidermis alters centrosome function of basal keratinocytes and markedly impairs their ability to divide and stratify.

  6. Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Students Enrolled in a Lower Division Cell Biology Core Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Julio G.; Anand, Sulekha

    2009-01-01

    Students' performance in two semesters of our Cell Biology course was examined for this study. Teaching strategies, behaviors, and pre-course variables were analyzed with respect to students' performance. Pre-semester and post-semester surveys were administered to ascertain students' perceptions about class difficulty, amount of study and effort…

  7. Moderate-Grade Germinal Matrix Haemorrhage Activates Cell Division in the Neonatal Mouse Subventricular Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, William J; Zhang, Xinyu; Fancy, Stephen P J; Rowitch, David; Marino, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). Because neural stem/progenitor cells are sensitive to microenvironmental cues from the ventricular, intermediate, and basal domains within the germinal matrix, haemorrhage has been postulated to impact neurological outcomes through aberration of normal neural stem/progenitor cell behaviour. We developed an animal model of neonatal germinal matrix haemorrhage using stereotactic injection of autologous blood into the mouse neonatal germinal matrix. Pathological analysis at 4 days postinjury showed high rates of intraventricular extension and ventricular dilatation but low rates of parenchymal disruption outside the germinal zone, recapitulating key features of human "Papile grade III" IVH. At 4 days postinjury we observed proliferation in the wall of the lateral ventricle with significantly increased numbers of transient amplifying cells within the SVZ and the corpus callosum. Analysis at 21 days postinjury revealed that cortical development was also affected, with increased neuronal and concomitant reduced oligodendroglial differentiation. At the molecular level, we showed downregulation of the expression of the transmembrane receptor Notch2 in CD133+ve cells of the SVZ, raising the possibility that the burst of precocious proliferation seen in our experimental mouse model and the skewed differentiation could be mediated by downregulation of the Notch pathway within the proximal

  8. Ashwagandha supplementation enhances ovarian tumoricidal activity of NK cells | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is a fatal malignancy of women with highest case to death ratio among gynecological cancers. OVCA differs from other malignancies that it mainly disseminates locally in the peritoneal and abdominal cavity. Thus, factors in tumor microenvironment play critical roles in tumor progression as well as prevention of OVCA metastasis. Innate immune cells are members of tumor microenvironment and first responders to a developing tumor. |

  9. Parenchymatous cell division characterizes the fungal cortex of some common foliose lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, William B; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2017-02-01

    Lichen-forming fungi produce diverse vegetative tissues, some closely resembling those of plants. Yet it has been repeatedly affirmed that none is a true parenchyma, in which cellular compartments are subdivided from all adjacent neighbors by cross walls adjoining older cross walls. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we tested this assumption by examining patterns of septum formation in the parenchyma-like cortex of three lichens of different phylogenetic affinities: Sticta canariensis, Leptogium cyanescens, and Endocarpon pusillum. In the cortex of all three lichens, new septa adjoined perpendicularly or obliquely to previous septa. Septal walls possessed an electron-transparent core (median) layer covered on both sides by layers of intermediate electron density. At septal junctures, the core layer of the newer septum was not continuous with that of the older septum. Amorphous, electron-dense material often became deposited in the core region of older septal walls, and the septum gradually delaminated along its median into what could then be recognized as the distinct walls of neighboring cells. However, cells maintained continuity at pores, where adjacent remnants of the electron-transparent core layer suggested septal partition rather than secondary establishment of a lateral wall connection via anastomosis. Although fungal tissues first arise by the coalescence of filaments early in lichen ontogeny, the mature cortical tissues of some lichens are comparable to true parenchyma in the unrestricted orientation of their septal cross walls and the resulting ontogenetic relationship among neighboring cell compartments. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Insights into nucleotide recognition by cell division protein FtsZ from a mant-GTP competition assay and molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffner-Barbero, C.; Gil-Redondo, R.; Ruiz-Avila, L.B.; Huecas, S.; Läppchen, T.; den Blaauwen, T.; Diaz, J.F.; Morreale, A.; Andreu, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Essential cell division protein FtsZ forms the bacterial cytokinetic ring and is a target for new antibiotics. FtsZ monomers bind GTP and assemble into filaments. Hydrolysis to GDP at the association interface between monomers leads to filament disassembly. We have developed a homogeneous

  11. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  12. Culturally relevant inquiry-based laboratory module implementations in upper-division genetics and cell biology teaching laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Montero-Rojas, María; Carrero, Katherine; Toro, Gladys; Vélez, Ana; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

    2011-01-01

    Today, more minority students are entering undergraduate programs than ever before, but they earn only 6% of all science or engineering PhDs awarded in the United States. Many studies suggest that hands-on research activities enhance students' interest in pursuing a research career. In this paper, we present a model for the implementation of laboratory research in the undergraduate teaching laboratory using a culturally relevant approach to engage students. Laboratory modules were implemented in upper-division genetics and cell biology courses using cassava as the central theme. Students were asked to bring cassava samples from their respective towns, which allowed them to compare their field-collected samples against known lineages from agricultural stations at the end of the implementation. Assessment of content and learning perceptions revealed that our novel approach allowed students to learn while engaged in characterizing Puerto Rican cassava. In two semesters, based on the percentage of students who answered correctly in the premodule assessment for content knowledge, there was an overall improvement of 66% and 55% at the end in the genetics course and 24% and 15% in the cell biology course. Our proposed pedagogical model enhances students' professional competitiveness by providing students with valuable research skills as they work on a problem to which they can relate.

  13. On the embryonic cell division beyond the contractile ring mechanism: experimental and computational investigation of effects of vitelline confinement, temperature and egg size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Gladilin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic cell division is a mechanical process which is predominantly driven by contraction of the cleavage furrow and response of the remaining cellular matter. While most previous studies focused on contractile ring mechanisms of cytokinesis, effects of environmental factors such as pericellular vitelline membrane and temperature on the mechanics of dividing cells were rarely studied. Here, we apply a model-based analysis to the time-lapse imaging data of two species (Saccoglossus kowalevskii and Xenopus laevis with relatively large eggs, with the goal of revealing the effects of temperature and vitelline envelope on the mechanics of the first embryonic cell division. We constructed a numerical model of cytokinesis to estimate the effects of vitelline confinement on cellular deformation and to predict deformation of cellular contours. We used the deviations of our computational predictions from experimentally observed cell elongation to adjust variable parameters of the contractile ring model and to quantify the contribution of other factors (constitutive cell properties, spindle polarization that may influence the mechanics and shape of dividing cells. We find that temperature affects the size and rate of dilatation of the vitelline membrane surrounding fertilized eggs and show that in native (not artificially devitellinized egg cells the effects of temperature and vitelline envelope on mechanics of cell division are tightly interlinked. In particular, our results support the view that vitelline membrane fulfills an important role of micromechanical environment around the early embryo the absence or improper function of which under moderately elevated temperature impairs normal development. Furthermore, our findings suggest the existence of scale-dependent mechanisms that contribute to cytokinesis in species with different egg size, and challenge the view of mechanics of embryonic cell division as a scale-independent phenomenon.

  14. Bacteriocin protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis targets cell division loci and specifically recognizes L-Ala2-cross-bridged peptidoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jun; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced from clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and consists of two extracellular proteins, BacL1 and BacA. We previously reported that BacL1 protein (595 amino acids, 64.5 kDa) is a bacteriolytic peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase that induces cell lysis of E. faecalis when an accessory factor, BacA, is copresent. However, the target of BacL1 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the targeting specificity of BacL1. Fluorescence microscopy analysis using fluorescent dye-conjugated recombinant protein demonstrated that BacL1 specifically localized at the cell division-associated site, including the equatorial ring, division septum, and nascent cell wall, on the cell surface of target E. faecalis cells. This specific targeting was dependent on the triple repeat of the SH3 domain located in the region from amino acid 329 to 590 of BacL1. Repression of cell growth due to the stationary state of the growth phase or to treatment with bacteriostatic antibiotics rescued bacteria from the bacteriolytic activity of BacL1 and BacA. The static growth state also abolished the binding and targeting of BacL1 to the cell division-associated site. Furthermore, the targeting of BacL1 was detectable among Gram-positive bacteria with an L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridging peptidoglycan, including E. faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus pneumoniae, but not among bacteria with alternate peptidoglycan structures, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Listeria monocytogenes. These data suggest that BacL1 specifically targets the L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridged peptidoglycan and potentially lyses the E. faecalis cells during cell division. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Bacteriocin Protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis Targets Cell Division Loci and Specifically Recognizes l-Ala2-Cross-Bridged Peptidoglycan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jun; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced from clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and consists of two extracellular proteins, BacL1 and BacA. We previously reported that BacL1 protein (595 amino acids, 64.5 kDa) is a bacteriolytic peptidoglycan d-isoglutamyl-l-lysine endopeptidase that induces cell lysis of E. faecalis when an accessory factor, BacA, is copresent. However, the target of BacL1 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the targeting specificity of BacL1. Fluorescence microscopy analysis using fluorescent dye-conjugated recombinant protein demonstrated that BacL1 specifically localized at the cell division-associated site, including the equatorial ring, division septum, and nascent cell wall, on the cell surface of target E. faecalis cells. This specific targeting was dependent on the triple repeat of the SH3 domain located in the region from amino acid 329 to 590 of BacL1. Repression of cell growth due to the stationary state of the growth phase or to treatment with bacteriostatic antibiotics rescued bacteria from the bacteriolytic activity of BacL1 and BacA. The static growth state also abolished the binding and targeting of BacL1 to the cell division-associated site. Furthermore, the targeting of BacL1 was detectable among Gram-positive bacteria with an l-Ala-l-Ala-cross-bridging peptidoglycan, including E. faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus pneumoniae, but not among bacteria with alternate peptidoglycan structures, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Listeria monocytogenes. These data suggest that BacL1 specifically targets the l-Ala-l-Ala-cross-bridged peptidoglycan and potentially lyses the E. faecalis cells during cell division. PMID:25368300

  16. Revealing the micromechanics driving cellular division: optical manipulation of force-bearing substructure in mitotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Matthew; Preece, Daryl; Duquette, Michelle; Forer, Arthur; Berns, Michael

    2017-08-01

    During the anaphase stage of mitosis, a motility force transports genetic material in the form of chromosomes to the poles of the cell. Chromosome deformations during anaphase transport have largely been attributed to viscous drag force, however LaFountain et. al. found that a physical tether connects separating chromosome ends in crane-fly spermatocytes such that a backwards tethering force elongates the separating chromosomes. In the presented study laser microsurgery was used to deduce the mechanistic basis of chromosome elongation in rat-kangaroo cells. In half of tested chromosome pairs, laser microsurgery between separating chromosome ends reduced elongation by 7+/-3% suggesting a source of chromosome strain independent of viscous drag. When microsurgery was used to sever chromosomes during transport, kinetochore attached fragments continued poleward travel while half of end fragments traveled towards the opposite pole and the remaining fragments either did not move or segregated to the proper pole. Microsurgery directed between chromosome ends always ceased cross-polar fragment travel suggesting the laser severed a physical tether transferring force to the fragment. Optical trapping of fragments moving towards the opposite pole estimates an upper boundary on the tethering force of 1.5 pN.

  17. Cell division and density of symbiotic Chlorella variabilis of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria is controlled by the host's nutritional conditions during early infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yuuki; Fujishima, Masahiro

    2012-10-01

    The association of ciliate Paramecium bursaria with symbiotic Chlorella sp. is a mutualistic symbiosis. However, both the alga-free paramecia and symbiotic algae can still grow independently and can be reinfected experimentally by mixing them. Effects of the host's nutritional conditions against the symbiotic algal cell division and density were examined during early reinfection. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that algal cell division starts 24 h after mixing with alga-free P. bursaria, and that the algal mother cell wall is discarded from the perialgal vacuole membrane, which encloses symbiotic alga. Labelling of the mother cell wall with Calcofluor White Stain, a cell-wall-specific fluorochrome, was used to show whether alga had divided or not. Pulse labelling of alga-free P. bursaria cells with Calcofluor White Stain-stained algae with or without food bacteria for P. bursaria revealed that the fluorescence of Calcofluor White Stain in P. bursaria with bacteria disappeared within 3 days after mixing, significantly faster than without bacteria. Similar results were obtained both under constant light and dark conditions. This report is the first describing that the cell division and density of symbiotic algae of P. bursaria are controlled by the host's nutritional conditions during early infection. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. A trisubstituted benzimidazole cell division inhibitor with efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Knudson

    Full Text Available Trisubstituted benzimidazoles have demonstrated potency against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Previously, a library of novel trisubstituted benzimidazoles was constructed for high throughput screening, and compounds were identified that exhibited potency against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical isolates, and were not toxic to Vero cells. A new series of 2-cyclohexyl-5-acylamino-6-N, N-dimethylaminobenzimidazoles derivatives has been developed based on SAR studies. Screening identified compounds with potency against M. tuberculosis. A lead compound from this series, SB-P17G-A20, was discovered to have an MIC of 0.16 µg/mL and demonstrated efficacy in the TB murine acute model of infection based on the reduction of bacterial load in the lungs and spleen by 1.73 ± 0.24 Log10 CFU and 2.68 ± Log10 CFU, respectively, when delivered at 50 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection (IP twice daily (bid. The activity of SB-P17G-A20 was determined to be concentration dependent and to have excellent stability in mouse and human plasma, and liver microsomes. Together, these studies demonstrate that SB-P17G-A20 has potency against M. tuberculosis clinical strains with varying susceptibility and efficacy in animal models of infection, and that trisubstituted benzimidazoles continue to be a platform for the development of novel inhibitors with efficacy.

  19. Nuclear and cell division in Bacillus subtilis: dormant nucleoids in stationary-phase cells and their activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iterson, W.; Michels, P. A.; Vyth-Dreese, F.; Aten, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The morphology of nucleoids and mesosomes of Bacillus subtilis in stationary-and lag-phase cultures was studied by making three-dimensional cell reconstructions in plastic of electron micrographs of serial sections. In cells from stationary cultures, the dormant nucleoids are frequently, but not

  20. Learning Cell Biology as a Team: A Project-Based Approach to Upper-Division Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular…

  1. TGN38 is required for the metaphase I/anaphase I transition and asymmetric cell division during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lei; Ge, Zhao-Jia; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Tianyi; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2014-01-01

    The cellular functions of the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38 remain unknown. In this research, we studied the expression, localization and functions of TGN38 in the meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. TGN38 was expressed at every stage of oocyte meiotic maturation and colocalized with γ-tubulin at metaphase I and metaphase II. The spindle microtubule disturbing agents nocodazole and taxol did not affect the colocalization of TGN38 and γ-tubulin. Depletion of TGN38 with specific siRNAs res...

  2. Cell division inhibitors with efficacy equivalent to isoniazid in the acute murine Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Susan E; Awasthi, Divya; Kumar, Kunal; Carreau, Alexandra; Goullieux, Laurent; Lagrange, Sophie; Vermet, Hélène; Ojima, Iwao; Slayden, Richard A

    2015-11-01

    The increasing number of clinical strains resistant to one or more of the front-line TB drugs complicates the management of this disease. To develop next-generation benzimidazole-based FtsZ inhibitors with improved efficacy, we employed iterative optimization strategies based on whole bacteria potency, bactericidal activity, plasma and metabolic stability and in vivo efficacy studies. Candidate benzimidazoles were evaluated for potency against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and select clinical strains, toxicity against Vero cells and compound stability in plasma and liver microsomes. The efficacy of lead compounds was assessed in the acute murine M. tuberculosis infection model via intraperitoneal and oral routes. MICs of SB-P17G-A33, SB-P17G-A38 and SB-P17G-A42 for M. tuberculosis H37Rv and select clinical strains were 0.18-0.39 mg/L. SB-P17G-A38 and SB-P17G-A42 delivered at 50 mg/kg twice daily intraperitoneally or orally demonstrated efficacy in reducing the bacterial load by 5.7-6.3 log10 cfu in the lungs and 3.9-5.0 log10 cfu in the spleen. SB-P17G-A33 delivered at 50 mg/kg twice daily intraperitoneally or orally also reduced the bacterial load by 1.7-2.1 log10 cfu in the lungs and 2.5-3.4 log10 cfu in the spleen. Next-generation benzimidazoles with excellent potency and efficacy against M. tuberculosis have been developed. This is the first report on benzimidazole-based FtsZ inhibitors showing an equivalent level of efficacy to isoniazid in an acute murine M. tuberculosis infection model. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A spatial analysis of the localization of cell division and cell death in relationship with the morphogenesis of the chick optic cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schook, P

    1980-08-01

    In an attempt to analyze the possible mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of the optic cup and the optic fissure, two features of generally accepted morphogenetic importance, mitosis and cell death, were studied in their spatial distribution in the chick. The mitotic figures and necrotic remnants visible in serial sections as stained with Feulgen/naphthol yellow-S, were marked on photomicrographs and traced on glass-plates. By piling up the plates, glass reconstructions of five successive developmental phases in the course of the third day of incubation were obtained. Mitotic figures in the walls of the optic vesicle and cup appeared to be distributed at random in all phases. Four areas of cell death, in the lateral wall of the optic vesicle, in the ventral part of the proximal optic stalk, in the uppermost part of the optic cup rim and in the outer layer of the optic cup, were found lying in a frontal plane somewhat rostral from the center of invagination. Evidence for the role of local differences in cell division and localized cell death during the morphogenesis of the optic cup, was not found. Current theories in literature and our observations were discussed. We concluded that for the present, current or conceivable theories can only be teleological explanations of circumstantial evidence. A topographical relationship between cell death and the outgrowth of the optic nerve fibers probably does exist, however. This relationship is born out by studies of congenital anomalies. Possible avenues for further investigation are suggested.

  4. High irradiance responses involving photoreversible multiple photoreceptors as related to photoperiodic induction of cell division in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolige, Aoen; Goto, Ken

    2007-02-01

    Little is known about the photoreceptors involved in the photoperiodism of unicellular organisms, which we elucidated by deriving their action spectra. The flagellated alga Euglena gracilis exhibits photoperiodism, with a long-day response in cell reproduction. The underlying clock is a circadian rhythm with photoinductive capability, peaking at subjective dusk and occurring at the 26th hour in continuous darkness (DD) when transferred from continuous light (LL); it regulates photoinduction, a high-irradiance response (HIR), of a dark-capability of progressing through cell division. We derived the action spectra by irradiating E. gracilis with monochromatic light for 3h at around the 26th hour; the action maxima occurred at 380, 450-460, 480, 610, 640, 660, 680, and 740nm. Except for the maximum at 450-460nm, which was always a major maximum, the maxima greatly depended on the red (R)/far-red (FR) ratio of the prior LL. The high R/FR ratio resulted in a dominant major peak at 640nm and minor peaks at 480 and 680nm, whereas the low ratio resulted in dominant major peaks at 610 and 740nm and minor peaks at 380 and 660nm; the critical fluence was minimally about 60mmolm(-2). These HIRs resulted from the accumulation of corresponding low-fluence responses (LFRs) because we found that repetition of a 3-min light/dark cycle, with critical fluences of 1mmolm(-2), lasting for 3h resulted in the same photoinduction as the continuous 3-h irradiation. Moreover, these LFRs expressed photoreversibility. Thus, photoperiodic photoinduction involves Euglena-phytochrome (640 and 740nm) and blue photoreceptor (460nm). Although 380, 480, 610, 660, and 680nm may also represent Euglena-phytochrome, a definite conclusion awaits further study.

  5. Comparison of tumor biology of two distinct cell sub-populations in lung cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Sun, Zhiwei; Liu, Yongli; Kong, Liangsheng; Zhou, Shixia; Tang, Junlin; Xing, Hongmei Rosie

    2017-11-14

    Characterization of the stem-like properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remain indirect and qualitative, especially the ability of CSCs to undergo asymmetric cell division for self renewal and differentiation, a unique property of cells of stem origin. It is partly due to the lack of stable cellular models of CSCs. In this study, we developed a new approach for CSC isolation and purification to derive a CSC-enriched cell line (LLC-SE). By conducting five consecutive rounds of single cell cloning using the LLC-SE cell line, we obtained two distinct sub-population of cells within the Lewis lung cancer CSCs that employed largely symmetric division for self-renewal (LLC-SD) or underwent asymmetric division for differentiation (LLC-ASD). LLC-SD and LLC-ASD cell lines could be stably passaged in culture and be distinguished by cell morphology, stem cell marker, spheroid formation and subcutaneous tumor initiation efficiency, as well as orthotopic lung tumor growth, progression and survival. The ability LLC-ASD cells to undergo asymmetric division was visualized and quantified by the asymmetric segregation of labeled BrdU and NUMB to one of the two daughter cells in anaphase cell division. The more stem-like LLC-SD cells exhibited higher capacity for tumorigenesis and progression and shorter survival. As few as 10 LLC-SD could initiate subcutaneous tumor growth when transplanted to the athymic mice. Collectively, these observations suggest that the SD-type of cells appear to be on the top of the hierarchical order of the CSCs. Furthermore, they have lead to generated cellular models of CSC self-renewal for future mechanistic investigations.

  6. PSICIC: noise and asymmetry in bacterial division revealed by computational image analysis at sub-pixel resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Guberman

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Live-cell imaging by light microscopy has demonstrated that all cells are spatially and temporally organized. Quantitative, computational image analysis is an important part of cellular imaging, providing both enriched information about individual cell properties and the ability to analyze large datasets. However, such studies are often limited by the small size and variable shape of objects of interest. Here, we address two outstanding problems in bacterial cell division by developing a generally applicable, standardized, and modular software suite termed Projected System of Internal Coordinates from Interpolated Contours (PSICIC that solves common problems in image quantitation. PSICIC implements interpolated-contour analysis for accurate and precise determination of cell borders and automatically generates internal coordinate systems that are superimposable regardless of cell geometry. We have used PSICIC to establish that the cell-fate determinant, SpoIIE, is asymmetrically localized during Bacillus subtilis sporulation, thereby demonstrating the ability of PSICIC to discern protein localization features at sub-pixel scales. We also used PSICIC to examine the accuracy of cell division in Esherichia coli and found a new role for the Min system in regulating division-site placement throughout the cell length, but only prior to the initiation of cell constriction. These results extend our understanding of the regulation of both asymmetry and accuracy in bacterial division while demonstrating the general applicability of PSICIC as a computational approach for quantitative, high-throughput analysis of cellular images.

  7. Using a water-immiscible ionic liquid to improve asymmetric reduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl)-3-butyn-2-one catalyzed by immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Whole cells are usually employed for biocatalytic reduction reactions to ensure efficient coenzyme regeneration and to avoid problems with enzyme purification and stability. The efficiency of whole cell-catalyzed bioreduction is frequently restricted by pronounced toxicity of substrate and/or product to the microbial cells and in many instances the use of two-phase reaction systems can solve such problems. Therefore, we developed new, biphasic reaction systems with biocompatible water-immiscible ionic liquids (ILs) as alternatives to conventional organic solvents, in order to improve the asymmetric reduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl)-3-butyn-2-one (TMSB) to (S)-4-(trimethylsilyl)-3-butyn-2-ol {(S)-TMSBOL}, a key intermediate for synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, using immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells as the biocatalyst. Results Various ILs exerted significant but different effects on the bioreduction. Of all the tested water-immiscible ILs, the best results were observed with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (C4MIM·PF6), which exhibited not only good biocompatibility with the cells but also excellent solvent properties for the toxic substrate and product, thus markedly improving the efficiency of the bioreduction and the operational stability of the cells as compared to the IL-free aqueous system. 2-Propanol was shown to be the most suitable co-substrate for coenzyme regeneration, and it was found that the optimum volume ratio of buffer to C4MIM·PF6, substrate concentration, buffer pH, 2-propanol concentration and reaction temperature were 4/1 (v/v), 24 mM, 5.5, 130 mM and 30°C, respectively. Under these optimized conditions, the maximum yield and the product e.e. wer 97.7% and >99%, respectively, which are much higher than the corresponding values previously reported. The efficient whole-cell biocatalytic process was shown to be feasible on a 250-mL scale. Conclusion The whole cell-catalyzed asymmetric reduction

  8. Using a water-immiscible ionic liquid to improve asymmetric reduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-one catalyzed by immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole cells are usually employed for biocatalytic reduction reactions to ensure efficient coenzyme regeneration and to avoid problems with enzyme purification and stability. The efficiency of whole cell-catalyzed bioreduction is frequently restricted by pronounced toxicity of substrate and/or product to the microbial cells and in many instances the use of two-phase reaction systems can solve such problems. Therefore, we developed new, biphasic reaction systems with biocompatible water-immiscible ionic liquids (ILs as alternatives to conventional organic solvents, in order to improve the asymmetric reduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-one (TMSB to (S-4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-ol {(S-TMSBOL}, a key intermediate for synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, using immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells as the biocatalyst. Results Various ILs exerted significant but different effects on the bioreduction. Of all the tested water-immiscible ILs, the best results were observed with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (C4MIM·PF6, which exhibited not only good biocompatibility with the cells but also excellent solvent properties for the toxic substrate and product, thus markedly improving the efficiency of the bioreduction and the operational stability of the cells as compared to the IL-free aqueous system. 2-Propanol was shown to be the most suitable co-substrate for coenzyme regeneration, and it was found that the optimum volume ratio of buffer to C4MIM·PF6, substrate concentration, buffer pH, 2-propanol concentration and reaction temperature were 4/1 (v/v, 24 mM, 5.5, 130 mM and 30°C, respectively. Under these optimized conditions, the maximum yield and the product e.e. wer 97.7% and >99%, respectively, which are much higher than the corresponding values previously reported. The efficient whole-cell biocatalytic process was shown to be feasible on a 250-mL scale. Conclusion The whole cell

  9. Interplay of the serine/threonine-kinase StkP and the paralogs DivIVA and GpsB in pneumococcal cell elongation and division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Fleurie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite years of intensive research, much remains to be discovered to understand the regulatory networks coordinating bacterial cell growth and division. The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae achieves its characteristic ellipsoid-cell shape remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the interplay of the cell division paralogs DivIVA and GpsB with the ser/thr kinase StkP. We observed that the deletion of divIVA hindered cell elongation and resulted in cell shortening and rounding. By contrast, the absence of GpsB resulted in hampered cell division and triggered cell elongation. Remarkably, ΔgpsB elongated cells exhibited a helical FtsZ pattern instead of a Z-ring, accompanied by helical patterns for DivIVA and peptidoglycan synthesis. Strikingly, divIVA deletion suppressed the elongated phenotype of ΔgpsB cells. These data suggest that DivIVA promotes cell elongation and that GpsB counteracts it. Analysis of protein-protein interactions revealed that GpsB and DivIVA do not interact with FtsZ but with the cell division protein EzrA, which itself interacts with FtsZ. In addition, GpsB interacts directly with DivIVA. These results are consistent with DivIVA and GpsB acting as a molecular switch to orchestrate peripheral and septal PG synthesis and connecting them with the Z-ring via EzrA. The cellular co-localization of the transpeptidases PBP2x and PBP2b as well as the lipid-flippases FtsW and RodA in ΔgpsB cells further suggest the existence of a single large PG assembly complex. Finally, we show that GpsB is required for septal localization and kinase activity of StkP, and therefore for StkP-dependent phosphorylation of DivIVA. Altogether, we propose that the StkP/DivIVA/GpsB triad finely tunes the two modes of peptidoglycan (peripheral and septal synthesis responsible for the pneumococcal ellipsoid cell shape.

  10. Temperature Dependence of Cell Division Timing Accounts for a Shift in the Thermal Limits of C. elegans and C. briggsae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Begasse

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold-blooded animals, which cannot directly control their body temperatures, have adapted to function within specific temperature ranges that vary between species. However, little is known about what sets the limits of the viable temperature range. Here we show that the speed of the first cell division in C. elegans N2 varies with temperature according to the Arrhenius equation. However, it does so only within certain limits. Outside these limits we observe alterations in the cell cycle. Interestingly, these temperature limits also correspond to the animal’s fertile range. In C. briggsae AF16, isolated from a warmer climatic region, both the fertile range and the temperature range over which the speed of cell division follows the Arrhenius equation, are shifted toward higher temperatures. Our findings suggest that the viable range of an organism can be adapted in part to a different thermal range by adjusting the temperature tolerance of cell division.

  11. The ROOT MERISTEMLESS1/CADMIUM SENSITIVE2 Gene Defines a Glutathione-Dependent Pathway Involved in Initiation and Maintenance of Cell Division during Postembryonic Root Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernoux, Teva; Wilson, Robert C.; Seeley, Kevin A.; Reichheld, Jean-Philippe; Muroy, Sandra; Brown, Spencer; Maughan, Spencer C.; Cobbett, Christopher S.; Van Montagu, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; May, Mike J.; Sung, Zinmay R.

    2000-01-01

    Activation of cell division in the root apical meristem after germination is essential for postembryonic root development. Arabidopsis plants homozygous for a mutation in the ROOT MERISTEMLESS1 (RML1) gene are unable to establish an active postembryonic meristem in the root apex. This mutation abolishes cell division in the root but not in the shoot. We report the molecular cloning of the RML1 gene, which encodes the first enzyme of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and which is allelic to CADMIUM SENSITIVE2. The phenotype of the rml1 mutant, which was also evident in the roots of wild-type Arabidopsis and tobacco treated with an inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis, could be relieved by applying GSH to rml1 seedlings. By using a synchronized tobacco cell suspension culture, we showed that the G1-to-S phase transition requires an adequate level of GSH. These observations suggest the existence of a GSH-dependent developmental pathway essential for initiation and maintenance of cell division during postembryonic root development. PMID:10634910

  12. Asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenones by Baker's yeast and its cell-free extract encapsulated in sol–gel silica materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsuya, E-mail: katsuya-kato@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, 463-8560 (Japan); Nakamura, Hitomi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, 463-8560 (Japan); Nakanishi, Kazuma [Department of Chemistry for Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8570 (Japan)

    2014-02-28

    Baker's yeast (BY) encapsulated in silica materials was synthesized using a yeast cell suspension and its cell-free extract during a sol–gel reaction of tetramethoxysilane with nitric acid as a catalyst. The synthesized samples were fully characterized using various methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The BY cells were easily encapsulated inside silica-gel networks, and the ratio of the cells in the silica gel was approximately 75 wt%, which indicated that a large volume of BY was trapped with a small amount of silica. The enzyme activity (asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones) of BY and its cell-free extract encapsulated in silica gel was investigated in detail. The activities and enantioselectivities of free and encapsulated BY were similar to those of acetophenone and its fluorine derivatives, which indicated that the conformation structure of BY enzymes inside silica-gel networks did not change. In addition, the encapsulated BY exhibited considerably better solvent (methanol) stability and recyclability compared to free BY solution. We expect that the development of BY encapsulated in sol–gel silica materials will significantly impact the industrial-scale advancement of high-efficiency and low-cost biocatalysts for the synthesis of valuable chiral alcohols.

  13. Assessment of three Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division drug efflux transporters of Burkholderia cenocepacia in intrinsic antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturi Vittorio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cenocepacia are opportunistic Gram-negative bacteria that can cause chronic pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. These bacteria demonstrate a high-level of intrinsic antibiotic resistance to most clinically useful antibiotics complicating treatment. We previously identified 14 genes encoding putative Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND efflux pumps in the genome of B. cenocepacia J2315, but the contribution of these pumps to the intrinsic drug resistance of this bacterium remains unclear. Results To investigate the contribution of efflux pumps to intrinsic drug resistance of B. cenocepacia J2315, we deleted 3 operons encoding the putative RND transporters RND-1, RND-3, and RND-4 containing the genes BCAS0591-BCAS0593, BCAL1674-BCAL1676, and BCAL2822-BCAL2820. Each deletion included the genes encoding the RND transporter itself and those encoding predicted periplasmic proteins and outer membrane pores. In addition, the deletion of rnd-3 also included BCAL1672, encoding a putative TetR regulator. The B. cenocepacia rnd-3 and rnd-4 mutants demonstrated increased sensitivity to inhibitory compounds, suggesting an involvement of these proteins in drug resistance. Moreover, the rnd-3 and rnd-4 mutants demonstrated reduced accumulation of N-acyl homoserine lactones in the growth medium. In contrast, deletion of the rnd-1 operon had no detectable phenotypes under the conditions assayed. Conclusion Two of the three inactivated RND efflux pumps in B. cenocepacia J2315 contribute to the high level of intrinsic resistance of this strain to some antibiotics and other inhibitory compounds. Furthermore, these efflux systems also mediate accumulation in the growth medium of quorum sensing molecules that have been shown to contribute to infection. A systematic study of RND efflux systems in B. cenocepacia is required to provide a full picture of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in this opportunistic

  14. Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL proteins, play opposing roles in cell adhesion and coordination of cell and nuclear division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevorovsky, Martin; Grousl, Tomas; Stanurova, Jana; Rynes, Jan [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 7, 128 43, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Nellen, Wolfgang [Department of Genetics, Kassel University, Heinrich Plett Strasse 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Puta, Frantisek [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 7, 128 43, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Folk, Petr, E-mail: folk@natur.cuni.cz [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 7, 128 43, Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2009-05-01

    The CSL (CBF1/RBP-J{kappa}/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family is comprised of transcription factors essential for metazoan development, mostly due to their involvement in the Notch receptor signaling pathway. Recently, we identified two novel classes of CSL genes in the genomes of several fungal species, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. In this study, we characterized experimentally cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +}, the two CSL genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in order to elucidate the CSL function in fungi. We provide evidence supporting their identity as genuine CSL genes. Both cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +} are non-essential; they have distinct expression profiles and code for nuclear proteins with transcription activation potential. Significantly, we demonstrated that Cbf11 recognizes specifically the canonical CSL response element GTG{sup A}/{sub G}GAA in vitro. The deletion of cbf11{sup +} is associated with growth phenotypes and altered colony morphology. Furthermore, we found that Cbf11 and Cbf12 play opposite roles in cell adhesion, nuclear and cell division and their coordination. Disturbed balance of the two CSL proteins leads to cell separation defects (sep phenotype), cut phenotype, and high-frequency diploidization in heterothallic strains. Our data show that CSL proteins operate in an organism predating the Notch pathway, which should be of relevance to the understanding of (Notch-independent) CSL functions in metazoans.

  15. Effects of asymmetric dimethylarginine on bovine retinal capillary endothelial cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species production, permeability, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and occludin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hui; Xu, Xun; Sheng, Min-Jie; Zheng, Zhi; Gu, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is associated with impaired endothelial dysfunction, such as chronic heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, and pulmonary hypertension. The effects of ADMA on cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell permeability, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and tight-junction protein occludin levels in bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRCECs) were investigated. A cell proliferation assay was performed using the novel tetrazolium compound 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and an electron coupling reagent. Intracellular ROS levels were determined using the fluorescent probe CM-H(2)DCFDA. Horseradish peroxidase was used for a permeability assay. ICAM-1 and tight-junction protein occludin were assessed by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by ADMA. ADMA increased intracellular ROS generation in BRCECs. The increased ROS production induced by ADMA was markedly inhibited by the angiotensin II receptor-blocker telmisartan, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril, the reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium (DPI), or the antioxidant and free-radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). ADMA significantly increased horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability in BRCECs. Benazepril, telmisartan, DPI, and NAC downregulated cell permeability. ADMA markedly upregulated ICAM-1 expression in BRCECs, which were downregulated by telmisartan, DPI, and NAC. ADMA significantly downregulated occludin expression in BRCECs. Benazepril and telmisartan upregulated occludin expression in BRCECs exposed to ADMA. Our results provide the first reported evidence that ADMA has potent adverse effects on cell proliferation, intracellular ROS generation, cell permeability

  16. Aerobically respiring prokaryotic strains exhibit a broader temperature-pH-salinity space for cell division than anaerobically respiring and fermentative strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jesse P; Dobinson, Luke; Freeman, Kenneth; McKenzie, Ross; Wyllie, Dale; Nixon, Sophie L; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-09-06

    Biological processes on the Earth operate within a parameter space that is constrained by physical and chemical extremes. Aerobic respiration can result in adenosine triphosphate yields up to over an order of magnitude higher than those attained anaerobically and, under certain conditions, may enable microbial multiplication over a broader range of extremes than other modes of catabolism. We employed growth data published for 241 prokaryotic strains to compare temperature, pH and salinity values for cell division between aerobically and anaerobically metabolizing taxa. Isolates employing oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor exhibited a considerably more extensive three-dimensional phase space for cell division (90% of the total volume) than taxa using other inorganic substrates or organic compounds as the electron acceptor (15% and 28% of the total volume, respectively), with all groups differing in their growth characteristics. Understanding the mechanistic basis of these differences will require integration of research into microbial ecology, physiology and energetics, with a focus on global-scale processes. Critical knowledge gaps include the combined impacts of diverse stress parameters on Gibbs energy yields and rates of microbial activity, interactions between cellular energetics and adaptations to extremes, and relating laboratory-based data to in situ limits for cell division. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Efficient asymmetric reduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-one by Candida parapsilosis cells in an ionic liquid-containing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs were employed as green solvents to construct an IL-containing co-solvent system for improving the asymmetric reduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-one by immobilized Candida parapsilosis cells. Among 14 hydrophilic ILs examined, 1-(2'-hydroxylethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate (C(2OHMIM·NO(3 was considered as the most suitable IL for the bioreduction with the fastest initial reaction rate, the highest yield and the highest product e.e., which may be due to the good biocompatibility with the cells. For a better understanding of the bioreduction performed in the C(2OHMIM·NO(3-containing co-solvent system, the effects of several crucial variables were systematically investigated. The optimal C(2OHMIM·NO(3 content, substrate concentration, buffer pH, co-substrate concentration and temperature were 10% (v/v, 3.0 mmol/L, 5.0, 98.1 mmol/L and 30°C, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the initial reaction rate, the maximum yield and the product e.e. were 17.3 µmol/h g(cell, 95.2% and >99.9%, respectively, which are much better than the corresponding results previously reported. Moreover, the immobilized cells remained more than 83% of their initial activity even after being used repeatedly for 10 batches in the C(2OHMIM·NO(3-containing system, exhibiting excellent operational stability.

  18. Contribution of the Ade Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-Type Efflux Pumps to Fitness and Pathogenesis of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Balloy, Viviane; Fiette, Laurence; Chignard, Michel; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2016-05-31

    Overexpression of chromosomal resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux systems with broad substrate specificity contributes to multidrug resistance (MDR) in Acinetobacter baumannii We have shown that modulation of expression of the structural genes for the efflux systems AdeABC and AdeIJK confers MDR and results in numerous alterations of membrane-associated cellular functions, in particular biofilm formation. However, the contribution of these RND pumps to cell fitness and virulence has not yet been studied. The biological cost of an antibiotic resistance mechanism is a key parameter in determining its stability and dissemination. From an entirely sequenced susceptible clinical isolate, we have generated a set of isogenic derivatives having single point mutations resulting in overexpression of each efflux system or with every pump deleted by allelic replacement. We found that overproduction of the pumps results in a significant decrease in fitness of the bacterial host when measured by competition experiments in vitro Fitness and virulence were also evaluated in vivo both in systemic and pulmonary infection models in immunocompetent mice. A diminished competitiveness of the AdeABC-overexpressing mutant was observed only after intraperitoneal inoculation, but not after intranasal inoculation, the latter mimicking the most frequent type of human A. baumannii infection. However, in mice infected intranasally, this mutant was more virulent and stimulated an enhanced neutrophil activation in the lungs. Altogether, these data account for the observation that adeABC overexpression is common in MDR A. baumannii frequently found in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Overproduction of the RND AdeABC efflux system is observed with a high incidence in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and results in increased resistance to several antibiotics of choice for the treatment of infections caused by this nosocomial pathogen. It was therefore important to

  19. Patterning of the MinD cell division protein in cells of arbitrary shape can be predicted using a heuristic dispersion relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Walsh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many important cellular processes require the accurate positioning of subcellular structures. Underpinning many of these are protein systems that spontaneously generate spatiotemporal patterns. In some cases, these systems can be described by non-linear reaction-diffusion equations, however, a full description of such equations is rarely available. A well-studied patterning system is the Min protein system that underpins the positioning of the FtsZ contractile ring during cell division in Escherichia coli. Using a coordinate-free linear stability analysis, the reaction terms can be separated from the geometry of a cell. The reaction terms produce a dispersion relation that can be used to predict patterning on any cell shape and size. Applying linear stability analysis to an accurate mathematical model of the Min system shows that while it correctly predicts the onset of patterning, the dispersion relation fails to predict oscillations and quantitative mode transitions. However, we show that data from full solutions of the Min model can be used to generate a heuristic dispersion relation. We show that this heuristic dispersion relation can be used to approximate the Min protein patterning obtained by full simulations of the non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. Moreover, it also predicts Min patterning obtained from experiments where the shapes of E. coli cells have been deformed into rectangles or arbitrary shapes. Using this procedure, it should be possible to generate heuristic dispersion relations from protein patterning data or simulations for any patterning process and subsequently use these to predict patterning for arbitrary cell shapes.

  20. Dissecting the role of conformational change and membrane binding by the bacterial cell division regulator MinE in the stimulation of MinD ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Saud H; Cloutier, Adam D; McLeod, Laura J; Foo, Alexander C Y; Damry, Adam M; Goto, Natalie K

    2017-12-15

    The bacterial cell division regulators MinD and MinE together with the division inhibitor MinC localize to the membrane in concentrated zones undergoing coordinated pole-to-pole oscillation to help ensure that the cytokinetic division septum forms only at the mid-cell position. This dynamic localization is driven by MinD-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, stimulated by interactions with MinE's anti-MinCD domain. This domain is buried in the 6-β-stranded MinE "closed" structure, but is liberated for interactions with MinD, giving rise to a 4-β-stranded "open" structure through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that MinE-membrane interactions induce a structural change into a state resembling the open conformation. However, MinE mutants lacking the MinE membrane-targeting sequence stimulated higher ATP hydrolysis rates than the full-length protein, indicating that binding to MinD is sufficient to trigger this conformational transition in MinE. In contrast, conformational change between the open and closed states did not affect stimulation of ATP hydrolysis rates in the absence of membrane binding, although the MinD-binding residue Ile-25 is critical for this conformational transition. We therefore propose an updated model where MinE is brought to the membrane through interactions with MinD. After stimulation of ATP hydrolysis, MinE remains bound to the membrane in a state that does not catalyze additional rounds of ATP hydrolysis. Although the molecular basis for this inhibited state is unknown, previous observations of higher-order MinE self-association may explain this inhibition. Overall, our findings have general implications for Min protein oscillation cycles, including those that regulate cell division in bacterial pathogens. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. A mechanism for ParB-dependent waves of ParA, a protein related to DNA segregation during cell division in prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunding, Axel; Gerdes, Kenn; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2003-01-01

    Prokaryotic plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci involved in segregation of DNA to daughter cells at cell division. A functional fusion protein consisting of Walker-type ParA ATPase and green fluorescent protein (Gfp) oscillates back and forth within nucleoid regions with a wave period of about...... in an autocatalytic process. We discuss this mechanism in relation to recent models for MinDE oscillations in E.coli and to microtubule degradation in mitosis. The study points to an ancestral role for the presented pattern types in generating bipolarity in prokaryotes and eukaryotes....

  2. Contribution of resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux systems to antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Chabane, Yassine Nait; Goussard, Sylvie; Snesrud, Erik; Courvalin, Patrice; Dé, Emmanuelle; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2015-03-24

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance due to its multiple resistance to antibiotics and ability to survive in the hospital environment linked to its capacity to form biofilms. To fully characterize the contribution of AdeABC, AdeFGH, and AdeIJK resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux systems to acquired and intrinsic resistance, we constructed, from an entirely sequenced susceptible A. baumannii strain, a set of isogenic mutants overexpressing each system following introduction of a point mutation in their cognate regulator or a deletion for the pump by allelic replacement. Pairwise comparison of every derivative with the parental strain indicated that AdeABC and AdeFGH are tightly regulated and contribute to acquisition of antibiotic resistance when overproduced. AdeABC had a broad substrate range, including β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines-tigecycline, macrolides-lincosamides, and chloramphenicol, and conferred clinical resistance to aminoglycosides. Importantly, when combined with enzymatic resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides, this pump contributed in a synergistic fashion to the level of resistance of the host. In contrast, AdeIJK was expressed constitutively and was responsible for intrinsic resistance to the same major drug classes as AdeABC as well as antifolates and fusidic acid. Surprisingly, overproduction of AdeABC and AdeIJK altered bacterial membrane composition, resulting in decreased biofilm formation but not motility. Natural transformation and plasmid transfer were diminished in recipients overproducing AdeABC. It thus appears that alteration in the expression of efflux systems leads to multiple changes in the relationship between the host and its environment, in addition to antibiotic resistance. Increased expression of chromosomal genes for RND-type efflux systems plays a major role in bacterial multidrug resistance. Acinetobacter baumannii has recently emerged as an important

  3. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse

    2014-09-12

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  4. PERSONNEL DIVISION BECOMES HUMAN RESOURCES DIVISION

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    In the years to come, CERN faces big challenges in the planning and use of human resources. At this moment, Personnel (PE) Division is being reorganised to prepare for new tasks and priorities. In order to accentuate the purposes of the operation, the name of the division has been changed into Human Resources (HR) Division, with effect from 1st January 2000. Human Resources DivisionTel.73222

  5. The Soluble Periplasmic Domains of Escherichia coli Cell Division Proteins FtsQ/FtsB/FtsL Form a Trimeric Complex with Submicromolar Affinity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Marjolein; van den Berg van Saparoea, H. Bart; McLaughlin, Stephen H.; Roseboom, Winfried; Liu, Fan; Koningstein, Gregory M.; Fish, Alexander; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Heck, Albert J. R.; de Jong, Luitzen; Bitter, Wilbert; de Esch, Iwan J. P.; Luirink, Joen

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in Escherichia coli involves a set of essential proteins that assembles at midcell to form the so-called divisome. The divisome regulates the invagination of the inner membrane, cell wall synthesis, and inward growth of the outer membrane. One of the divisome proteins, FtsQ, plays a central but enigmatic role in cell division. This protein associates with FtsB and FtsL, which, like FtsQ, are bitopic inner membrane proteins with a large periplasmic domain (denoted FtsQp, FtsBp, and FtsLp) that is indispensable for the function of each protein. Considering the vital nature and accessible location of the FtsQBL complex, it is an attractive target for protein-protein interaction inhibitors intended to block bacterial cell division. In this study, we expressed FtsQp, FtsBp, and FtsLp individually and in combination. Upon co-expression, FtsQp was co-purified with FtsBp and FtsLp from E. coli extracts as a stable trimeric complex. FtsBp was also shown to interact with FtsQp in the absence of FtsLp albeit with lower affinity. Interactions were mapped at the C terminus of the respective domains by site-specific cross-linking. The binding affinity and 1:1:1 stoichiometry of the FtsQpBpLp complex and the FtsQpBp subcomplex were determined in complementary surface plasmon resonance, analytical ultracentrifugation, and native mass spectrometry experiments. PMID:26160297

  6. Kinematic Analysis of Cell Division and Expansion: Quantifying the Cellular Basis of Growth and Sampling Developmental Zones in Zea mays Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, Katrien; Avramova, Viktoriya; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2016-12-02

    Growth analyses are often used in plant science to investigate contrasting genotypes and the effect of environmental conditions. The cellular aspect of these analyses is of crucial importance, because growth is driven by cell division and cell elongation. Kinematic analysis represents a methodology to quantify these two processes. Moreover, this technique is easy to use in non-specialized laboratories. Here, we present a protocol for performing a kinematic analysis in monocotyledonous maize (Zea mays) leaves. Two aspects are presented: (1) the quantification of cell division and expansion parameters, and (2) the determination of the location of the developmental zones. This could serve as a basis for sampling design and/or could be useful for data interpretation of biochemical and molecular measurements with high spatial resolution in the leaf growth zone. The growth zone of maize leaves is harvested during steady-state growth. Individual leaves are used for meristem length determination using a DAPI stain and cell-length profiles using DIC microscopy. The protocol is suited for emerged monocotyledonous leaves harvested during steady-state growth, with growth zones spanning at least several centimeters. To improve the understanding of plant growth regulation, data on growth and molecular studies must be combined. Therefore, an important advantage of kinematic analysis is the possibility to correlate changes at the molecular level to well-defined stages of cellular development. Furthermore, it allows for a more focused sampling of specified developmental stages, which is useful in case of limited budget or time.

  7. Casein kinase II is required for proper cell division and acts as a negative regulator of centrosome duplication in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Medley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes are the primary microtubule-organizing centers that orchestrate microtubule dynamics during the cell cycle. The correct number of centrosomes is pivotal for establishing bipolar mitotic spindles that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. Thus, centrioles must duplicate once per cell cycle, one daughter per mother centriole, the process of which requires highly coordinated actions among core factors and modulators. Protein phosphorylation is shown to regulate the stability, localization and activity of centrosome proteins. Here, we report the function of Casein kinase II (CK2 in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The catalytic subunit (KIN-3/CK2α of CK2 localizes to nuclei, centrosomes and midbodies. Inactivating CK2 leads to cell division defects, including chromosome missegregation, cytokinesis failure and aberrant centrosome behavior. Furthermore, depletion or inhibiting kinase activity of CK2 results in elevated ZYG-1 levels at centrosomes, restoring centrosome duplication and embryonic viability to zyg-1 mutants. Our data suggest that CK2 functions in cell division and negatively regulates centrosome duplication in a kinase-dependent manner.

  8. Cell division and endoreduplication play important roles in stem swelling of tuber mustard (Brassica juncea Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H; Wang, L L; Sun, L T; Dong, L L; Liu, B; Chen, L P

    2012-11-01

    We investigated spatio-temporal variations in cell division and the occurrence of endoreduplication in cells of tuber mustard stems during development. Cells in the stem had 8C nuclei (C represents DNA content of a two haploid genome), since it is an allotetraploid species derived from diploid Brassica rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), thus indicating the occurrence of endoreduplication. Additionally, we observed a dynamic change of cell ploidy in different regions of the swollen stems, with a decrease in 4C proportion in P4-1 and a sharp increase in 8C cells that became the dominant cell type (86.33% at most) in the inner pith cells. Furthermore, cDNAs of 14 cell cycle genes and four cell expansion genes were cloned and their spatial transcripts analysed in order to understand their roles in stem development. The expression of most cell cycle genes peaked in regions of the outer pith (P2 or P3), some genes regulating S/G2 and G2/M (BjCDKB1;2, BjCYCB1;1 and BjCYCB1;2) significantly decrease in P5 and P6, while G1/S regulators (BjE2Fa, BjE2Fb and BjE2Fc) showed a relative high expression level in the inner pith (P5) where cells were undergoing endoreduplication. Coincidentally, BjXTH1and BjXTH2 were exclusively expressed in the endoreduplicated cells. Our results suggest that cells of outer pith regions (P2 and P3) mainly divide for cell proliferation, while cells of the inner pith expand through endoreduplication. Endoreduplication could trigger expression of BjXTH1 and BjXTH2 and thus function in cell expansion of the pith tissue. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Modulation of single-cell IgG secretion frequency and rates in human memory B cells by CpG DNA, CD40L, IL-21, and cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Alicia D; Rebhahn, Jonathan; Brown, Miguel A; Murphy, Alison J; Coca, Mircea N; Hyrien, Ollivier; Pellegrin, Tina; Mosmann, Tim; Zand, Martin S

    2009-09-01

    During the recall response by CD27(+) IgG class-switched human memory B cells, total IgG secreted is a function of the following: 1) the number of IgG-secreting cells (IgG-SC), and 2) the secretion rate of each cell. In this study, we report the quantitative ELISPOT method for simultaneous estimation of single-cell IgG secretion rates and secreting cell frequencies in human B cell populations. We found that CD27(+) IgM(-) memory B cells activated with CpG and cytokines had considerable heterogeneity in the IgG secretion rates, with two major secretion rate subpopulations. BCR cross-linking reduced the frequency of cells with high per-cell IgG secretion rates, with a parallel decrease in CD27(high) B cell blasts. Increased cell death may account for the BCR-stimulated reduction in high-rate IgG-SC CD27(high) B cell blasts. In contrast, the addition of IL-21 to CD40L plus IL-4-activated human memory B cells induced a high-rate IgG-SC population in B cells with otherwise low per-cell IgG secretion rates. The profiles of human B cell IgG secretion rates followed the same biphasic distribution and range irrespective of division class. This, along with the presence of non-IgG-producing, dividing B cells in CpG plus cytokine-activated B memory B cell populations, is suggestive of an on/off switch regulating IgG secretion. Finally, these data support a mixture model of IgG secretion in which IgG secreted over time is modulated by the frequency of IgG-SC and the distribution of their IgG secretion rates.

  10. STUDIES ON THE MATURATION OF MYELOBLASTS INTO MYELOCYTES AND ON AMITOTIC CELL DIVISION IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN SUBACUTE MYELOBLASTIC LEUCEMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, F R; Austrian, C R; Cunningham, R S; Doan, C A

    1924-11-30

    1. Myeloblasts can be discriminated in the supravital technique by the great numbers of tiny mitochondria in the cytoplasm and the absence of any other vitally stainable substance. 2. There are three stages in the maturation of myelocytes. 3. These three phases can be correlated with three types of the oxidase reaction. 4. One case of myeloblastic leucemia showed such an amount of an abnormal type of amitosis as to suggest the disordered cell division of neoplasms. 5. In this case transfusions were correlated with a maturation of myeloblasts into myelocytes, with an increase of the oxidase reaction, and with an increase in amitosis.

  11. Molecular evolution in bacteria: cell division Evolução molecular em bactérias: divisão celular

    OpenAIRE

    J.T. Trevors

    1998-01-01

    Molecular evolution in bacteria is examined with an emphasis on the self-assembly of cells capable of primitive division and growth during early molecular evolution. Also, the possibility that some type of encapsulation structure preceeded biochemical pathways and the assembly of genetic material is examined. These aspects will be considered from an evolutionary perspective.A evolução molecular em bactérias é examinada com ênfase na auto-organização de uma célula capaz de divisão primitiva e ...

  12. Induction of centrosome injury, multipolar spindles and multipolar division in cultured V79 cells exposed to dimethylarsinic acid: role for microtubules in centrosome dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, T

    2000-11-06

    Role for microtubules in the induction of multiple microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) and multipolar spindles by dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), a methylated derivative of inorganic arsenics, was investigated with respect to the effects of microtubule disruption and reorganization. DMAA induced multiple signals of gamma-tubulin, a well-characterized component of MTOCs in the centrosome, in a manner specific to mitotic cells. The multiple signals of gamma-tubulin were co-localized with multipolar spindles caused by DMAA. Disruption of microtubules by nocodazole (NOZ) suppressed the appearance of centrosome injury caused by DMAA while disorganization of actin microfilaments by cytochalasin D did not. Post-treatment incubation of cells in which multiple signals of gamma-tubulin caused by DMAA had been coalesced to one or two dots by NOZ caused the reappearance of mitotic cells with multiple signals of gamma-tubulin, in conjunction with reorganization of the microtubules. These results suggest a role for microtubules in the dynamic behavior of the mitotic centrosome. DMAA induced aberrant cytokinesis, such as tripolar and quadripolar division, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results, together with the findings of earlier studies, suggest that the centrosome is the primary target for the induction of multipolar spindles by DMAA and the resultant induction of multinucleation and multipolar division.

  13. Study on the section-division of superconducting proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang Hua Fu

    2002-01-01

    Study on the section-division of superconducting proton linac is carried out in detail, which includes the discussion on the principles of the division, the discussion on the symmetric division and non-symmetric division, the determination of the cell number of the superconducting cavity and the value of the geometric beta sub G

  14. Increased availability of NADH in metabolically engineered baker's yeast improves transaminase-oxidoreductase coupled asymmetric whole-cell bioconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Hägglöf, Cecilia; Weber, Nora

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to perform a multitude of different chemical reactions that are not programmed in its original genetic code. It has a large potential to function as whole-cell biocatalyst for one-pot multistep synthesis of various organic molecules, and it m...

  15. Meiotic maturation induces animal-vegetal asymmetric distribution of aPKC and ASIP/PAR-3 in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, M; Fukui, A; Izumi, Y; Akimoto, K; Asashima, M; Ohno, S

    2000-12-01

    The asymmetric distribution of cellular components is an important clue for understanding cell fate decision during embryonic patterning and cell functioning after differentiation. In C. elegans embryos, PAR-3 and aPKC form a complex that colocalizes to the anterior periphery of the one-cell embryo, and are indispensable for anterior-posterior polarity that is formed prior to asymmetric cell division. In mammals, ASIP (PAR-3 homologue) and aPKCgamma form a complex and colocalize to the epithelial tight junctions, which play critical roles in epithelial cell polarity. Although the mechanism by which PAR-3/ASIP and aPKC regulate cell polarization remains to be clarified, evolutionary conservation of the PAR-3/ASIP-aPKC complex suggests their general role in cell polarity organization. Here, we show the presence of the protein complex in Xenopus laevis. In epithelial cells, XASIP and XaPKC colocalize to the cell-cell contact region. To our surprise, they also colocalize to the animal hemisphere of mature oocytes, whereas they localize uniformly in immature oocytes. Moreover, hormonal stimulation of immature oocytes results in a change in the distribution of XaPKC 2-3 hours after the completion of germinal vesicle breakdown, which requires the kinase activity of aPKC. These results suggest that meiotic maturation induces the animal-vegetal asymmetry of aPKC.

  16. Regulation of Growth of the Mother Cell and Chromosome Replication during Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xenopoulos, Panagiotis; Piggot, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    During spore formation, Bacillus subtilis divides asymmetrically, resulting in two cells with different fates. Immediately after division, the transcription factor σF becomes active in the smaller prespore, followed by activation of σE in the larger mother cell. We recently showed that a delay in σE activation resulted in the novel phenotype of two spores (twins) forming within the same mother cell. Mother cells bearing twins are substantially longer than mother cells with single spores. Here...

  17. The progression of the intra-erythrocytic cell cycle of Plasmodium falciparum and the role of the centriolar plaques in asynchronous mitotic division during schizogony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnot, David E; Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2011-01-01

    The cell division cycle and mitosis of intra-erythrocytic (IE) Plasmodium falciparum are poorly understood aspects of parasite development which affect malaria molecular pathogenesis. Specifically, the timing of the multiple gap (G), DNA synthesis (S) and chromosome separation (M) phases of paras......The cell division cycle and mitosis of intra-erythrocytic (IE) Plasmodium falciparum are poorly understood aspects of parasite development which affect malaria molecular pathogenesis. Specifically, the timing of the multiple gap (G), DNA synthesis (S) and chromosome separation (M) phases...... of parasite mitosis are not well defined, nor whether genome divisions are immediately followed by cleavage of the nuclear envelope. Curiously, daughter merozoite numbers do not follow the geometric expansion expected from equal numbers of binary divisions, an outcome difficult to explain using the standard...

  18. A comparative proteomic analysis reveals a new bi-lobe protein required for bi-lobe duplication and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhou

    Full Text Available A Golgi-associated bi-lobed structure was previously found to be important for Golgi duplication and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei. To further understand its functions, comparative proteomics was performed on extracted flagellar complexes (including the flagellum and flagellum-associated structures such as the basal bodies and the bi-lobe and purified flagella to identify new bi-lobe proteins. A leucine-rich repeats containing protein, TbLRRP1, was characterized as a new bi-lobe component. The anterior part of the TbLRRP1-labeled bi-lobe is adjacent to the single Golgi apparatus, and the posterior side is tightly associated with the flagellar pocket collar marked by TbBILBO1. Inducible depletion of TbLRRP1 by RNA interference inhibited duplication of the bi-lobe as well as the adjacent Golgi apparatus and flagellar pocket collar. Formation of a new flagellum attachment zone and subsequent cell division were also inhibited, suggesting a central role of bi-lobe in Golgi, flagellar pocket collar and flagellum attachment zone biogenesis.

  19. Asymmetrical field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  20. Asymmetric synthesis with immobilized yeast in organic solvents: equilibrium conversion and effect of reactant partitioning on whole cell biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Thomas R; Carta, Giorgio; Gainer, John L

    2003-01-01

    A newly isolated strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is investigated for the biocatalytic reduction of ketones and the oxidation of alcohols in organic solvents. The yeast cells are immobilized by entrapment within calcium alginate beads and are found to possess the ability to stereoselectively reduce prochiral ketones and oxidize chiral alcohols to equilibrium conversions. The effect of reactant partitioning on the initial rate of the reactions is also investigated. The observed initial rates are found to vary inversely with reactant partitioning between the organic solvent and the biocatalyst beads. A kinetic model is developed to describe the initial reaction rate of hexanone reduction as a function of substrate concentration within the alginate beads.

  1. Asymmetric Assembly of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Large T-Antigen Origin Binding Domains at the Viral Origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Harrison; G Meinke; H Kwun; H Rogalin; P Phelan; P Bullock; Y Chang; P Moore; A Bohm

    2011-12-31

    The double-stranded DNA polyomavirus Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes Merkel cell carcinoma, an aggressive but rare human skin cancer that most often affects immunosuppressed and elderly persons. As in other polyomaviruses, the large T-antigen of MCV recognizes the viral origin of replication by binding repeating G(A/G)GGC pentamers. The spacing, number, orientation, and necessity of repeats for viral replication differ, however, from other family members such as SV40 and murine polyomavirus. We report here the 2.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of the MCV large T-antigen origin binding domain (OBD) in complex with a DNA fragment from the MCV origin of replication. Consistent with replication data showing that three of the G(A/G)GGC-like binding sites near the center of the origin are required for replication, the crystal structure contains three copies of the OBD. This stoichiometry was verified using isothermal titration calorimetry. The affinity for G(A/G)GGC-containing double-stranded DNA was found to be {approx} 740 nM, approximately 8-fold weaker than the equivalent domain in SV40 for the analogous region of the SV40 origin. The difference in affinity is partially attributable to DNA-binding residue Lys331 (Arg154 in SV40). In contrast to SV40, a small protein-protein interface is observed between MCV OBDs when bound to the central region of the origin. This protein-protein interface is reminiscent of that seen in bovine papilloma virus E1 protein. Mutational analysis indicates, however, that this interface contributes little to DNA binding energy.

  2. Par1b induces asymmetric inheritance of plasma membrane domains via LGN-dependent mitotic spindle orientation in proliferating hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan L Slim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and maintenance of polarized epithelial tissue requires a tightly controlled orientation of mitotic cell division relative to the apical polarity axis. Hepatocytes display a unique polarized architecture. We demonstrate that mitotic hepatocytes asymmetrically segregate their apical plasma membrane domain to the nascent daughter cells. The non-polarized nascent daughter cell can form a de novo apical domain with its new neighbor. This asymmetric segregation of apical domains is facilitated by a geometrically distinct "apicolateral" subdomain of the lateral surface present in hepatocytes. The polarity protein partitioning-defective 1/microtubule-affinity regulating kinase 2 (Par1b/MARK2 translates this positional landmark to cortical polarity by promoting the apicolateral accumulation of Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein (LGN and the capture of nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA-positive astral microtubules to orientate the mitotic spindle. Proliferating hepatocytes thus display an asymmetric inheritance of their apical domains via a mechanism that involves Par1b and LGN, which we postulate serves the unique tissue architecture of the developing liver parenchyma.

  3. Spindle orientation bias in gut epithelial stem cell compartments is lost in precancerous tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quyn, A.J.; Appleton, P.L.; Carey, F.A.; Steele, R.J.; Barker, N.; Clevers, H.; Ridgway, R.A.; Sansom, O.J.; Nathke, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of asymmetric divisions for stem cell function and maintenance is well established in the developing nervous system and the skin; however, its role in gut epithelium and its importance for tumorigenesis is still debated. We demonstrate alignment of mitotic spindles perpendicular to

  4. Differential associations of circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine and cell adhesion molecules with metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszelnicka, Olga; Chyrchel, Bernadeta; Golay, Alain; Surdacki, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Metformin, the drug of first choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reduces cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in part independently of improved glycemic control and changes in traditional risk factors. However, there are discordant reports on the effects of metformin on endothelial function in T2DM. Our aim was to compare biochemical endothelial markers in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and T2DM stratified by metformin use. We studied 70 patients (29 women, age 68 ± 9 years) with established T2DM referred for elective coronary angiography owing to stable angina who were receiving a standard CV medication and metformin or other oral antidiabetic drugs. Exclusion criteria included heart failure and other relevant coexistent disorders. Biochemical indices of endothelial dysfunction and activation at admission were compared according to metformin use for at least 1 year prior to index hospitalization. Clinical characteristics were similar in patients receiving metformin (n = 40) vs. those on other oral antidiabetic agents (n = 30). Plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) was lower (553 ± 148 vs. 668 ± 170 µg/L, P = 0.004) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) higher (0.53 ± 0.09 vs. 0.48 ± 0.08 µM, P = 0.01) in subjects on metformin, which was maintained in multivariate analysis. Symmetric dimethylarginine, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and E-selectin did not differ across the groups. The results were substantially unchanged after exclusion of insulin users. Thus, metformin use appears differentially associated with sVCAM-1 and ADMA in patients with T2DM and stable CAD. Whether this observation may reflect different prognostic effects of these endothelial markers in diabetes remains to be studied.

  5. Optical Absorption Spectra and Electronic Properties of Symmetric and Asymmetric Squaraine Dyes for Use in DSSC Solar Cells: DFT and TD-DFT Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The electronic absorption spectra, ground-state geometries and electronic structures of symmetric and asymmetric squaraine dyes (SQD1–SQD4 were investigated using density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent (TD-DFT density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. The calculated ground-state geometries reveal pronounced conjugation in these dyes. Long-range corrected time dependent density functionals Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE, PBE1PBE (PBE0, and the exchange functional of Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria (TPSSh with 6-311++G** basis set were employed to examine optical absorption properties. In an extensive comparison between the optical data and DFT benchmark calculations, the BEP functional with 6-311++G** basis set was found to be the most appropriate in describing the electronic absorption spectra. The calculated energy values of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO were 3.41, 3.19, 3.38 and 3.23 eV for SQD1, SQD2, SQD3, and SQD4, respectively. These values lie above the LUMO energy (−4.26 eV of the conduction band of TiO2 nanoparticles indicating possible electron injection from the excited dyes to the conduction band of the TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Also, aromaticity computation for these dyes are in good agreement with the data obtained optically and geometrically with SQD4 as the highest aromatic structure. Based on the optimized molecular geometries, relative positions of the frontier orbitals, and the absorption maxima, we propose that these dyes are suitable components of photovoltaic DSSC devices.

  6. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B

    2002-01-01

    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain

  7. How Is Nature Asymmetric?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. How Is Nature Asymmetric? - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation ... Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  8. Highly asymmetric rice genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian-Qun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals in the same species are assumed to share the same genomic set. However, it is not unusual to find an orthologous gene only in small subset of the species, and recent genomic studies suggest that structural rearrangements are very frequent between genomes in the same species. Two recently sequenced rice genomes Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare and O. sativa L. var. 93-11 provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the extent of the gene repertoire polymorphism, even though the genomic data of 93-11 derived from whole-short-gun sequencing is not yet as complete as that of Nipponbare. Results We compared gene contents and the genomic locations between two rice genomes. Our conservative estimates suggest that at least 10% of the genes in the genomes were either under presence/absence polymorphism (5.2% or asymmetrically located between genomes (4.7%. The proportion of these "asymmetric genes" varied largely among gene groups, in which disease resistance (R genes and the RLK kinase gene group had 11.6 and 7.8 times higher proportion of asymmetric genes than housekeeping genes (Myb and MADS. The significant difference in the proportion of asymmetric genes among gene groups suggests that natural selection is responsible for maintaining genomic asymmetry. On the other hand, the nucleotide diversity in 17 R genes under presence/absence polymorphism was generally low (average nucleotide diversity = 0.0051. Conclusion The genomic symmetry was disrupted by 10% of asymmetric genes, which could cause genetic variation through more unequal crossing over, because these genes had no allelic counterparts to pair and then they were free to pair with homologues at non-allelic loci, during meiosis in heterozygotes. It might be a consequence of diversifying selection that increased the structural divergence among genomes, and of purifying selection that decreased nucleotide divergence in each R gene locus.

  9. Effect of carboxyl anchoring groups in asymmetric zinc phthalocyanine with large steric hindrance on the dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wenye; Peng, Bosi; Lin, Li; Li, Renjie; Zhang, Jing, E-mail: jzhang03@whu.edu.cn; Peng, Tianyou, E-mail: typeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-08-01

    Asymmetric zinc phthalocyanines containing tribenzonaphtho-condensed porphyrazine with six bulky diphenylphenoxy and one or two carboxyl groups are used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that Zn-tri-PcNc-4 having two carboxyl groups shows a slight redshift in the Q-band absorption but a significantly decreased absorbance as compared with Zn-tri-PcNc-8 having one carboxyl group, and Zn-tri-PcNc-4 can be more stably and perpendicularly grafted onto the TiO{sub 2} surface than Zn-tri-PcNc-8, which further leads to the differences in the interfacial charge transfer dynamics and dye-loaded amount. Zn-tri-PcNc-4 with two carboxyl groups grafted onto the TiO{sub 2} electrode surface of DSSC results in a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.22%, higher than that (3.01%) of the analog with one carboxyl group (Zn-tri-PcNc-8), which exhibits a lower short-circuit current but much higher open-circuit voltage. The additional carboxyl group in Zn-tri-PcNc-4 leads to the enhanced dye-loaded amount and the molecular orbital energy level shift toward positive direction, causing more efficient electron injection and higher short-circuit current than Zn-tri-PcNc-8; while the two carboxyl groups of Zn-tri-PcNc-4 would cause more protonation of TiO{sub 2} surface, which possibly leads to the downward shift of TiO{sub 2} conduction band edge, and then to the decreased open-circuit voltage. The present results demonstrate the molecular engineering aspect of ZnPc dyes in which the fine tuning of the energy levels and molecular structures is crucial for high conversion efficiency of DSSCs. - Highlights: • ZnPcs with six diphenylphenoxy and one/two carboxyl groups are used as dyes for DSSCs. • Effect of carboxyl group number on the ZnPc-sensitized cell property are scrutinized. • Grafting two carboxyl groups on ZnPc leads to the enhanced photocurrent and efficiency. • ZnPc with one COOH has a higher open-circuit voltage than its analog with two

  10. Overexpression of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) TAPETUM DEVELOPMENT1-like Eg707 in rice affects cell division and differentiation and reduces fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuc, Le Vinh; Geelen, Danny; Ky, Huynh; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Napis, Suhaimi B; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2013-02-01

    The functional analysis of the TAPETUM DEVELOPMENT1-like analog Eg707 of oil palm was carried out in rice by over-expressing Eg707 under the control of a double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Ectopic expression of Eg707 in rice induced dark green and matured compact brownish calli compared to pale wild type and negative control calli. Regenerated transgenic rice plants exhibited a reduction in organ size and plant height, rolled, erect leaves, less tillers, increased chlorophyll content, and reduced fertility with smaller green seeds. At the molecular level Eg707 overexpression caused an increase in the transcription of SAPK9, a SnRK2 protein kinase family member that is activated by ABA and hyperosmotic stress. Together, the results show that ectopic Eg707 expression influences cell division and differentiation, presumably via altered hormone homeostasis.

  11. Molecular evolution in bacteria: cell division Evolução molecular em bactérias: divisão celular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Trevors

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular evolution in bacteria is examined with an emphasis on the self-assembly of cells capable of primitive division and growth during early molecular evolution. Also, the possibility that some type of encapsulation structure preceeded biochemical pathways and the assembly of genetic material is examined. These aspects will be considered from an evolutionary perspective.A evolução molecular em bactérias é examinada com ênfase na auto-organização de uma célula capaz de divisão primitiva e multiplicação durante o princípio da evolução molecular. Também se discute a possibilidade de que algum tipo de estrutura de encapsulação tenha antecedido as vias bioquímicas e o agrupamento de material genético. Esses aspectos são considerados sob uma perspectiva evolutiva.

  12. Plasma membrane events associated with the meiotic divisions in the amphibian oocyte: insights into the evolution of insulin transduction systems and cell signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrill Gene A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin and its plasma membrane receptor constitute an ancient response system critical to cell growth and differentiation. Studies using intact Rana pipiens oocytes have shown that insulin can act at receptors on the oocyte surface to initiate resumption of the first meiotic division. We have reexamined the insulin-induced cascade of electrical and ion transport-related plasma membrane events using both oocytes and intact plasma membranes in order to characterize the insulin receptor-steroid response system associated with the meiotic divisions. Results [125I]Insulin binding (Kd = 54 ± 6 nM at the oocyte plasma membrane activates membrane serine protease(s, followed by the loss of low affinity ouabain binding sites, with a concomitant 3–4 fold increase in high affinity ouabain binding sites. The changes in protease activity and ouabain binding are associated with increased Na+/Ca2+ exchange, increased endocytosis, decreased Na+ conductance resulting in membrane hyperpolarization, increased 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake and a sustained elevation of intracellular pH (pHi. Hyperpolarization is largely due to Na+-channel inactivation and is the main driving force for glucose uptake by the oocyte via Na+/glucose cotransport. The Na+ sym- and antiporter systems are driven by the Na+ free energy gradient generated by Na+/K+-ATPase. Shifts in α and/or β Na+-pump subunits to caveolar (lipid raft membrane regions may activate Na/K-ATPase and contribute to the Na+ free energy gradient and the increase in both Na+/glucose co-transport and pHi. Conclusions Under physiological conditions, resumption of meiosis results from the concerted action of insulin and progesterone at the cell membrane. Insulin inactivates Na+ channels and mobilizes fully functional Na+-pumps, generating a Na+ free energy gradient which serves as the energy source for several membrane anti- and symporter systems.

  13. A DNA damage checkpoint pathway coordinates the division of dikaryotic cells in the ink cap mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sena-Tomás, Carmen; Navarro-González, Mónica; Kües, Ursula; Pérez-Martín, José

    2013-09-01

    The fungal fruiting body or mushroom is a multicellular structure essential for sexual reproduction. It is composed of dikaryotic cells that contain one haploid nucleus from each mating partner sharing the same cytoplasm without undergoing nuclear fusion. In the mushroom, the pileus bears the hymenium, a layer of cells that includes the specialized basidia in which nuclear fusion, meiosis, and sporulation occur. Coprinopsis cinerea is a well-known model fungus used to study developmental processes associated with the formation of the fruiting body. Here we describe that knocking down the expression of Atr1 and Chk1, two kinases shown to be involved in the response to DNA damage in a number of eukaryotic organisms, dramatically impairs the ability to develop fruiting bodies in C. cinerea, as well as other developmental decisions such as sclerotia formation. These developmental defects correlated with the impairment in silenced strains to sustain an appropriated dikaryotic cell cycle. Dikaryotic cells in which chk1 or atr1 genes were silenced displayed a higher level of asynchronous mitosis and as a consequence aberrant cells carrying an unbalanced dose of nuclei. Since fruiting body initiation is dependent on the balanced mating-type regulator doses present in the dikaryon, we believe that the observed developmental defects were a consequence of the impaired cell cycle in the dikaryon. Our results suggest a connection between the DNA damage response cascade, cell cycle regulation, and developmental processes in this fungus.

  14. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  15. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  16. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  17. On infinitely divisible semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas; Rosiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    to non Gaussian infinitely divisible processes. First we show that the class of infinitely divisible semimartingales is so large that the natural analog of Stricker's theorem fails to hold. Then, as the main result, we prove that an infinitely divisible semimartingale relative to the filtration generated...... by a random measure admits a unique decomposition into an independent increment process and an infinitely divisible process of finite variation. Consequently, the natural analog of Stricker's theorem holds for all strictly representable processes (as defined in this paper). Since Gaussian processes...... are strictly representable due to Hida's multiplicity theorem, the classical Stricker's theorem follows from our result. Another consequence is that the question when an infinitely divisible process is a semimartingale can often be reduced to a path property, when a certain associated infinitely divisible...

  18. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siddique, S.; Radakovic, Z.S.; De La Torre, C.M.; Chronis, D.; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, E.; Holbein, J.; Matera, C.; Hutten, M.; Gutbrod, P.; Anjam, M.S.; Rozanska, E.; Habash, S.; Elashry, A.; Sobczak, M.; Kakimoto, T.; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, T.; Mitchum, M.G.; Grundler, F.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 41 (2015), s. 12669-12674 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * cell cycle * cytokinin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  19. Ultrastructure of cells after reversible dark-induced blocking of mitotic divisions in antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As compared with the control plants cultured under photoperiodic L : D = =14 : 10 conditions (K w i a t k o w s k a, M a s z e w s k i, 1978, the ultrastructure of nuclei -in cells blocked by a 5 day exposure to continuous darkness is characterized by homogenous arrangement. This homogeneity is maintained in all generations of antheridial filaments irrespective of cell length, which in the controls, being directly correlated with particular type of nuclear structure, may serve as a precise indicator of a given stage of interphase. From similarities in both the spatial distribution and content of condensed chromatin in is concluded that the block of the cell cycle is imposed at the beginning of the G2 phase. On comparing these cells with the early G2 period (stage VII in the control plants, marked changes in the structure of nucleoli were found. They decrease in size by half owing to the complete decline of granular component. The area occupied by endoplasmic reticulum undergoes a 50% reduction. The decrease in the activity of Golgi apparatus expressed by a drop in number of smooth vesicles surrounding a single dictyosome is found to parallel the limited rate of cell growth. The number of coated vesicles and cisterns of dictyosome slightly increases. Mitochondria show typical condensed configuration with dense matrices and swollen cristae, while in the control orthodox forms are prevailing. The mean size of mitochondria is smaller, but their number exceeds that of the control plants. The surface area of mitochondrial profiles is found to remain constant proportion of the cytoplasm section, e.g., about 3%. Dark-cultured antheridial filaments show absolute decline of lipid droplets. No differences were found in structure of plastids and vacuols, as well as in number of ribosomes in cytoplasm surface unit.

  20. Light differentially regulates cell division and the mRNA abundance of pea nucleolin during de-etiolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, S. A.; Balk, J.; Brown, M. E.; Woodruff, K.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    The abundance of plant nucleolin mRNA is regulated during de-etiolation by phytochrome. A close correlation between the mRNA abundance of nucleolin and mitosis has also been previously reported. These results raised the question of whether the effects of light on nucleolin mRNA expression were a consequence of light effects on mitosis. To test this we compared the kinetics of light-mediated increases in cell proliferation with that of light-mediated changes in the abundance of nucleolin mRNA using plumules of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings. These experiments show that S-phase increases 9 h after a red light pulse, followed by M-phase increases in the plumule leaves at 12 h post-irradiation, a time course consistent with separately measured kinetics of red light-induced increases in the expression of cell cycle-regulated genes. These increases in cell cycle-regulated genes are photoreversible, implying that the light-induced increases in cell proliferation are, like nucleolin mRNA expression, regulated via phytochrome. Red light stimulates increases in the mRNA for nucleolin at 6 h post-irradiation, prior to any cell proliferation changes and concurrent with the reported timing of phytochrome-mediated increases of rRNA abundance. After a green light pulse, nucleolin mRNA levels increase without increasing S-phase or M-phase. Studies in animals and yeast indicate that nucleolin plays a significant role in ribosome biosynthesis. Consistent with this function, pea nucleolin can rescue nucleolin deletion mutants of yeast that are defective in rRNA synthesis. Our data show that during de-etiolation, the increased expression of nucleolin mRNA is more directly regulated by light than by mitosis.

  1. Identification of a new stem cell population that generates Drosophila flight muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunage, Rajesh D; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2014-08-18

    How myoblast populations are regulated for the formation of muscles of different sizes is an essentially unanswered question. The large flight muscles of Drosophila develop from adult muscle progenitor (AMP) cells set-aside embryonically. The thoracic segments are all allotted the same small AMP number, while those associated with the wing-disc proliferate extensively to give rise to over 2500 myoblasts. An initial amplification occurs through symmetric divisions and is followed by a switch to asymmetric divisions in which the AMPs self-renew and generate post-mitotic myoblasts. Notch signaling controls the initial amplification of AMPs, while the switch to asymmetric division additionally requires Wingless, which regulates Numb expression in the AMP lineage. In both cases, the epidermal tissue of the wing imaginal disc acts as a niche expressing the ligands Serrate and Wingless. The disc-associated AMPs are a novel muscle stem cell population that orchestrates the early phases of adult flight muscle development.

  2. Single-cell genomics reveals pyrrolysine-encoding potential in members of uncultivated archaeal candidate division MSBL1

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Yue

    2017-05-11

    Pyrrolysine (Pyl), the 22nd canonical amino acid, is only decoded and synthesized by a limited number of organisms in the domains Archaea and Bacteria. Pyl is encoded by the amber codon UAG, typically a stop codon. To date, all known Pyl-decoding archaea are able to carry out methylotrophic methanogenesis. The functionality of methylamine methyltransferases, an important component of corrinoid-dependent methyltransfer reactions, depends on the presence of Pyl. Here, we present a putative pyl gene cluster obtained from single-cell genomes of the archaeal Mediterranean Sea Brine Lakes group 1 (MSBL1) from the Red Sea. Functional annotation of the MSBL1 single cell amplified genomes (SAGs) also revealed a complete corrinoid-dependent methyl-transfer pathway suggesting that members of MSBL1 may possibly be capable of synthesizing Pyl and metabolizing methylated amines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Clock controls timing of mouse pancreatic differentiation through regulation of Wnt- and Notch-based and cell division components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixing; Ruan, Lingjuan; Lin, Shuibin; Gittes, George K

    2007-08-03

    The oscillations of circadian genes control the daily circadian clock, regulating a diverse array of physiologies with the 24-hour light/dark cue across a wide variety of organisms. Here we first show that before embryonic circadian rhythms occur, the oscillation (nucleocytoplasmic shuttling) of core circadian gene Clock is tissue-specific and correlated with the state of differentiation during both early development and later pancreas organogenesis. Disruption of Clock as well as Timeless in the embryonic pancreas does not block pancreatic differentiation but alters the balance and maturity of endocrine and exocrine cells. Molecular analysis indicates that inhibition of Clock or Timeless expression disturbs not only cell cycle regulators, but also Wnt- and Notch-signaling components, whose oscillations establish the timing mechanism in somitogenesis. Thus, our results provide new insights about circadian genes' function in control of the timing of differentiation during embryonic development.

  4. Asymmetric fluorocyclizations of alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenhulme, Jamie R; Gouverneur, Véronique

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: The vicinal fluorofunctionalization of alkenes is an attractive transformation that converts feedstock olefins into valuable cyclic fluorinated molecules for application in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, medical, and material sectors. The challenges associated with asymmetric fluorocyclizations induced by F(+) reagents are distinct from other types of halocyclizations. Processes initiated by the addition of an F(+) reagent onto an alkene do not involve the reversible formation of bridged fluoronium ions but generate acyclic β-fluorocationic intermediates. This mechanistic feature implies that fluorocyclizations are not stereospecific. A discontinuity exists between the importance of this class of fluorocyclization and the activation modes currently available to implement successful catalysis. Progress toward fluorocyclization has been achieved by investing in neutral and cationic [NF] reagent development. The body of work on asymmetric fluorination using chiral cationic [NF](+) reagents prepared by fluorine transfer from the dicationic [NF](2+) reagent Selectfluor to quinuclidines, inspired the development of asymmetric F(+)-induced fluorocyclizations catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids; for catalysis, the use of N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide, which is less reactive than Selectfluor, ensures that the achiral F(+) source remains unreactive toward the alkene. These organocatalyzed enantioselective fluorocyclizations can be applied to indoles to install the fluorine on a quaternary benzylic stereogenic carbon center and to afford fluorinated analogues of natural products featuring the hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole or the tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-b]indole skeleton. In an alternative approach, the poor solubility of dicationic Selectfluor bis(tetrafluoroborate) in nonpolar solvent was exploited with anionic phase transfer catalysis as the operating activation mode. Exchange of the tetrafluoroborate ions of Selectfluor with bulky lipophilic chiral anions (e

  5. Long-term live cell imaging and automated 4D analysis of drosophila neuroblast lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Catarina C F; Reichardt, Ilka; Berger, Christian; Lendl, Thomas; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2013-01-01

    The developing Drosophila brain is a well-studied model system for neurogenesis and stem cell biology. In the Drosophila central brain, around 200 neural stem cells called neuroblasts undergo repeated rounds of asymmetric cell division. These divisions typically generate a larger self-renewing neuroblast and a smaller ganglion mother cell that undergoes one terminal division to create two differentiating neurons. Although single mitotic divisions of neuroblasts can easily be imaged in real time, the lack of long term imaging procedures has limited the use of neuroblast live imaging for lineage analysis. Here we describe a method that allows live imaging of cultured Drosophila neuroblasts over multiple cell cycles for up to 24 hours. We describe a 4D image analysis protocol that can be used to extract cell cycle times and growth rates from the resulting movies in an automated manner. We use it to perform lineage analysis in type II neuroblasts where clonal analysis has indicated the presence of a transit-amplifying population that potentiates the number of neurons. Indeed, our experiments verify type II lineages and provide quantitative parameters for all cell types in those lineages. As defects in type II neuroblast lineages can result in brain tumor formation, our lineage analysis method will allow more detailed and quantitative analysis of tumorigenesis and asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila brain.

  6. Long-term live cell imaging and automated 4D analysis of drosophila neuroblast lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina C F Homem

    Full Text Available The developing Drosophila brain is a well-studied model system for neurogenesis and stem cell biology. In the Drosophila central brain, around 200 neural stem cells called neuroblasts undergo repeated rounds of asymmetric cell division. These divisions typically generate a larger self-renewing neuroblast and a smaller ganglion mother cell that undergoes one terminal division to create two differentiating neurons. Although single mitotic divisions of neuroblasts can easily be imaged in real time, the lack of long term imaging procedures has limited the use of neuroblast live imaging for lineage analysis. Here we describe a method that allows live imaging of cultured Drosophila neuroblasts over multiple cell cycles for up to 24 hours. We describe a 4D image analysis protocol that can be used to extract cell cycle times and growth rates from the resulting movies in an automated manner. We use it to perform lineage analysis in type II neuroblasts where clonal analysis has indicated the presence of a transit-amplifying population that potentiates the number of neurons. Indeed, our experiments verify type II lineages and provide quantitative parameters for all cell types in those lineages. As defects in type II neuroblast lineages can result in brain tumor formation, our lineage analysis method will allow more detailed and quantitative analysis of tumorigenesis and asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila brain.

  7. A mechanism for ParB-dependent waves of ParA, a protein related to DNA segregation during cell division in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunding, Axel; Ebersbach, Gitte; Gerdes, Kenn

    2003-05-23

    Prokaryotic plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci involved in segregation of DNA to daughter cells at cell division. A functional fusion protein consisting of Walker-type ParA ATPase and green fluorescent protein (Gfp) oscillates back and forth within nucleoid regions with a wave period of about 20 minutes. A model is discussed which is based on cooperative non-specific binding of ParA to the nucleoid, and local ParB initiated generation of ParA oligomer degradation products, which act autocatalytically on the degradation reaction. The model yields self-initiated spontaneous pattern formation, based on Turing's mechanism, and these patterns are destroyed by the degradation products, only to initiate a new pattern at the opposite nucleoid region. A recurrent wave thus emerges. This may be a particular example of a more general class of pattern forming mechanisms, based on protein oligomerization upon a template (membranes, DNA a.o.) with resulting enhanced NTPase function in the oligomer state, which may bring the oligomer into an unstable internal state. An effector initializes destabilization of the oligomer to yield degradation products, which act as seeds for further degradation in an autocatalytic process. We discuss this mechanism in relation to recent models for MinDE oscillations in E.coli and to microtubule degradation in mitosis. The study points to an ancestral role for the presented pattern types in generating bipolarity in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  8. Evolution and tinkering: what do a protein kinase, a transcriptional regulator and chromosome segregation/cell division proteins have in common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Abderahmane; Shi, Lei; Kalantari, Aida; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we focus on functional interactions among multi-domain proteins which share a common evolutionary origin. The examples we develop are four Bacillus subtilis proteins, which all possess an ATP-binding Walker motif: the bacterial tyrosine kinase (BY-kinase) PtkA, the chromosome segregation protein Soj (ParA), the cell division protein MinD and a transcription regulator SalA. These proteins have arisen via duplication of the ancestral ATP-binding domain, which has undergone fusions with other functional domains in the process of divergent evolution. We point out that these four proteins, despite having very different physiological roles, engage in an unusually high number of binary functional interactions. Namely, MinD attracts Soj and PtkA to the cell pole, and in addition, activates the kinase function of PtkA. SalA also activates the kinase function of PtkA, and it gets phosphorylated by PtkA as well. The consequence of this phosphorylation is the activation of SalA as a transcriptional repressor. We hypothesize that these functional interactions remain preserved during divergent evolution and represent a constraint on the process of evolutionary "tinkering", brought about by fusions of different functional domains.

  9. Catalytic asymmetric fluorinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Carla; Gouverneur, Véronique

    2006-06-07

    The appearance of structurally diverse fluorinating reagents displaying a large spectrum of reactivity has been critical to the development of the catalytic asymmetric fluorination processes known to date. In this article, we discuss how this area of research emerged and which strategies have allowed for the successful development of both nucleophilic and electrophilic catalytic enantioselective fluorinations. We also present the fundamental understanding of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity for the most efficient processes and highlight the first synthetic application with the preparation of a complex fluorinated target.

  10. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  11. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    were pioneered by Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder who discovered what later became known as the Diels Alder reaction. The Diels Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition in which a π4 component reacts with a π2 component via a cyclic transition state to generate a 6 membered ring. This reaction...... undergo cascade reactions with different electron deficient dienophiles in Diels Alder – nucleophilic ring closing reactions. This methodology opens up for the direct asymmetric formation of hydroisochromenes and hydroisoquinolines which may possess interesting biological activities. It is also...

  12. Electron energization and structure of the diffusion region during asymmetric reconnection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Li‐Jen; Hesse, Michael; Wang, Shan; Bessho, Naoki; Daughton, William

    2016-01-01

    Results from particle‐in‐cell simulations of reconnection with asymmetric upstream conditions are reported to elucidate electron energization and structure of the electron diffusion region (EDR...

  13. Comparative genomics of the FtsK-HerA superfamily of pumping ATPases: implications for the origins of chromosome segregation, cell division and viral capsid packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V; Aravind, L

    2004-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that a predicted P-loop ATPase (the HerA or MlaA protein), which is highly conserved in archaea and also present in many bacteria but absent in eukaryotes, has a bidirectional helicase activity and forms hexameric rings similar to those described for the TrwB ATPase. In this study, the FtsK-HerA superfamily of P-loop ATPases, in which the HerA clade comprises one of the major branches, is analyzed in detail. We show that, in addition to the FtsK and HerA clades, this superfamily includes several families of characterized or predicted ATPases which are predominantly involved in extrusion of DNA and peptides through membrane pores. The DNA-packaging ATPases of various bacteriophages and eukaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses also belong to the FtsK-HerA superfamily. The FtsK protein is the essential bacterial ATPase that is responsible for the correct segregation of daughter chromosomes during cell division. The structural and evolutionary relationship between HerA and FtsK and the nearly perfect complementarity of their phyletic distributions suggest that HerA similarly mediates DNA pumping into the progeny cells during archaeal cell division. It appears likely that the HerA and FtsK families diverged concomitantly with the archaeal-bacterial division and that the last universal common ancestor of modern life forms had an ancestral DNA-pumping ATPase that gave rise to these families. Furthermore, the relationship of these cellular proteins with the packaging ATPases of diverse DNA viruses suggests that a common DNA pumping mechanism might be operational in both cellular and viral genome segregation. The herA gene forms a highly conserved operon with the gene for the NurA nuclease and, in many archaea, also with the orthologs of eukaryotic double-strand break repair proteins MRE11 and Rad50. HerA is predicted to function in a complex with these proteins in DNA pumping and repair of double-stranded breaks introduced during this process and

  14. PBP1a-deficiency causes major defects in cell division, growth and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezhang T Wen

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of human dental caries, lives almost exclusively on the tooth surface in plaque biofilms and is known for its ability to survive and respond to various environmental insults, including low pH, and antimicrobial agents from other microbes and oral care products. In this study, a penicillin-binding protein (PBP1a-deficient mutant, strain JB467, was generated by allelic replacement mutagenesis and analyzed for the effects of such a deficiency on S. mutans' stress tolerance response and biofilm formation. Our results so far have shown that PBP1a-deficiency in S. mutans affects growth of the deficient mutant, especially at acidic and alkaline pHs. As compared to the wild-type, UA159, the PBP1a-deficient mutant, JB467, had a reduced growth rate at pH 6.2 and did not grow at all at pH 8.2. Unlike the wild-type, the inclusion of paraquat in growth medium, especially at 2 mM or above, significantly reduced the growth rate of the mutant. Acid killing assays showed that the mutant was 15-fold more sensitive to pH 2.8 than the wild-type after 30 minutes. In a hydrogen peroxide killing assay, the mutant was 16-fold more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide (0.2%, w/v after 90 minutes than the wild-type. Relative to the wild-type, the mutant also had an aberrant autolysis rate, indicative of compromises in cell envelope integrity. As analyzed using on 96-well plate model and spectrophotometry, biofilm formation by the mutant was decreased significantly, as compared to the wild-type. Consistently, Field Emission-SEM analysis also showed that the PBP1a-deficient mutant had limited capacity to form biofilms. TEM analysis showed that PBP1a mutant existed primarily in long rod-like cells and cells with multiple septa, as compared to the coccal wild-type. The results presented here highlight the importance of pbp1a in cell morphology, stress tolerance, and biofilm formation in S. mutans.

  15. Asymmetrical Integration: Lessons from a Railway Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This article reexamines railway imperialism in Manchuria from the perspective of global network building. Through a case study of the Japanese-owned South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR), I trace how one railway empire used through traffic agreements to integrate Northeast Asian railways into a global network while at the same time installing itself as the necessary intermediary between European and Asian overland traffic. I argue that the SMR's pursuit of global reach and local dominance compels us to reconsider the traditional division of border-crossing railways into international and imperialist types, and instead to examine how border-crossing railways contributed to the uneven or "asymmetrical" integration of the global transportation infrastructure.

  16. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  17. Asymmetric inclusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites' occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  18. AtPPR2, an Arabidopsis pentatricopeptide repeat protein, binds to plastid 23S rRNA and plays an important role in the first mitotic division during gametogenesis and in cell proliferation during embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuqing; Li, Cong; Wang, Hai; Chen, Hao; Berg, Howard; Xia, Yiji

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are mainly involved in regulating post-transcriptional processes in mitochondria and plastids, including chloroplasts. Mutations in the Arabidopsis PPR2 gene have previously been found to cause defects in seed development and reduced transmission through male and female gametophytes. However, the exact function of AtPPR2 has not been defined. We found that a loss-of-function mutation of AtPPR2 leads to arrest of the first mitotic division during both male and female gametogenesis. In addition, the Atppr2 mutation causes delayed embryogenesis, leading to embryonic lethality. Mutation in emb2750, which appears to be a weak mutant allele of the AtPPR2 locus, also results in defective seeds. However, a majority of emb2750 seeds were able to germinate, but their cotyledons were albino and often deformed, and growth of the emb2750 seedlings were arrested after germination. AtPPR2 is mainly expressed in plant parts that undergo cell division, and AtPPR2 protein was localized to chloroplasts. RNA immunoprecipitation and protein gel mobility shift assays showed that AtPPR2 binds to plastid 23S rRNA. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence that plastids and/or chloroplasts play a key role in cell division. AtPPR2 may modulate the translational process to fine-tune plastid function, thereby regulating cell division. PMID:21435048

  19. The cell division control protein 42-Src family kinase-neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein pathway regulates human proplatelet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, A; Bluteau, O; Messaoudi, K; Marangoni, F; Chang, Y; Souquere, S; Pierron, G; Lapierre, V; Zheng, Y; Vainchenker, W; Raslova, H; Debili, N

    2016-12-01

    Essentials The role of the cytoskeleton during megakaryocyte differentiation was examined. Human megakaryocytes are derived from in vitro cultured CD34(+) cells. Cell division control protein 42 (CDC42) positively regulates proplatelet formation (PPF). Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, the main effector of CDC42 with Src positively regulates PPF. Background Cytoskeletal rearrangements are essential for platelet release. The RHO small GTPase family, as regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, play an important role in proplatelet formation (PPF). In the neuronal system, CDC42 is involved in axon formation, a process that combines elongation and branching as for PPF. Objective To analyze the role of CDC42 and its effectors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family in PPF. Methods Human megakaryocytes (MKs) were obtained from CD34(+) cells. Inhibition of CDC42 in MKs was performed with the chemical inhibitor CASIN or with an active or a dominant-negative form of CDC42. The knock-down of N-WASP was obtained with a small hairpin RNA strategy Results Herein, we show that CDC42 activity increased during MK differentiation. The use of the chemical inhibitor CASIN or of an active or a dominant-negative form of CDC42 demonstrated that CDC42 positively regulated PPF in vitro. We determined that N-WASP, but not WASP, regulated PPF. We found that N-WASP knockdown led to a marked decrease in PPF, owing to a defect in the demarcation membrane system (DMS). This was associated with RHOA activation, and a concomitant augmentation in the phosphorylation of mysosin light chain 2. Phosphorylation of N-WASP, creating a primed form of N-WASP, increased during MK differentiation. Phosphorylation inhibition by two Src family kinase inhibitors decreased PPF. Conclusions We conclude that N-WASP positively regulates DMS development and PPF, and that the Src family kinases in association with CDC42 regulate PPF through N-WASP. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and

  20. Kat3 coactivators in somatic stem cells and cancer stem cells: biological roles, evolution, and pharmacologic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul D; Kahn, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Long-lived somatic stem cells regenerate adult tissues throughout our lifetime. However, with aging, there is a significant deterioration in the function of stem and progenitor cells, which contribute to diseases of aging. The decision for a long-lived somatic stem cell to become activated and subsequently to undergo either a symmetric or an asymmetric division is a critical cellular decision process. The decision to preferentially divide symmetrically or asymmetrically may be the major fundamental intrinsic difference between normal somatic stem cells and cancer stem cells. Based upon work done primarily in our laboratory over the past 15 years, this article provides a perspective on the critical role of somatic stem cells in aging. In particular, we discuss the importance of symmetric versus asymmetric divisions in somatic stem cells and the role of the differential usage of the highly similar Kat3 coactivators, CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300, in stem cells. We describe and propose a more complete model for the biological mechanism and roles of these two coactivators, their evolution, and unique roles and importance in stem cell biology. Finally, we discuss the potential to pharmacologically manipulate Kat3 coactivator interactions in endogenous stem cells (both normal and cancer stem cells) to potentially ameliorate the aging process and common diseases of aging.

  1. Effect of estrone on somatic and female gametophyte cell division and differentiation in Arabidospis thaliana cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Żabicki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the mammalian female sex hormone estrone on differentiation of somatic tissues and on induction of autonomous endosperm in culture of female gametophyte cells of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0. In culture, estrone-stimulated development of autonomous endosperm (AE occurred in 14.7% of unpollinated pistils. The AE represented development stages similar to those of young endosperm after fertilization and AE of fis mutants in vivo. In the majority of ovules the AE was in a few-nucleate young stage. Some ovules showed more advanced stages of AE development, with nuclei and cytoplasm forming characteristic nuclear cytoplasmic domains (NCDs. Sporadically, AE was divided into regions characteristic for Arabidopsis endosperm formed after fertilization. Direct organogenesis (caulogenesis, rhizogenesis, callus proliferation and formation of trichome-like structures were observed during in vitro culture of hypocotyls and cotyledons of 3-day-old seedlings cultured on medium supplemented with estrone for 28 days. Histological analysis showed adventitious root formation and changes in explant anatomy caused by estrone.

  2. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: lj94172350@hotmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: ejhwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  3. Decreased levels of cell-division cycle 42 (Cdc42) protein in peripheral lymphocytes from ischaemic stroke patients are associated with Golgi apparatus function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiao-Ye; Li, Ting; Hu, Zhi-Ping

    2013-06-01

    To investigate levels of cell-division cycle 42 (Cdc42) protein, and their relationship with Golgi apparatus function in peripheral lymphocytes, in patients following ischaemic stroke. Patients with acute cerebral ischaemic stroke (within 24-72 h of the onset of focal neurological symptoms) and healthy control subjects were enrolled in this prospective case-control study. The cellular location of Cdc42 in peripheral lymphocytes was demonstrated using immunofluorescence. Protein levels of Cdc42 and trans-golgi network protein 2 (TGN46) in peripheral lymphocytes were determined by immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting. A total of 38 patients with stroke and 38 control subjects were studied. The mean ± SD percentage of Cdc42-positive lymphocytes from patients with stroke was significantly lower than that in control subjects (39.53 ± 13.55% versus 66.61 ± 23.30%, respectively). Similar findings were demonstrated for TGN46. Cdc42 levels were positively correlated with TGN46 levels (r = 0.92). Acute ischaemic stroke was associated with reduced levels of Cdc42 protein. These findings might lead to the development of drugs that could have therapeutic benefits in patients with acute ischaemic stroke.

  4. Circular motion of asymmetric self-propelling particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Felix; ten Hagen, Borge; Wittkowski, Raphael; Buttinoni, Ivo; Eichhorn, Ralf; Volpe, Giovanni; Löwen, Hartmut; Bechinger, Clemens

    2013-05-10

    Micron-sized self-propelled (active) particles can be considered as model systems for characterizing more complex biological organisms like swimming bacteria or motile cells. We produce asymmetric microswimmers by soft lithography and study their circular motion on a substrate and near channel boundaries. Our experimental observations are in full agreement with a theory of Brownian dynamics for asymmetric self-propelled particles, which couples their translational and orientational motion.

  5. Symmetric Decomposition of Asymmetric Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyls, Karl; Pérolat, Julien; Lanctot, Marc; Ostrovski, Georg; Savani, Rahul; Leibo, Joel Z; Ord, Toby; Graepel, Thore; Legg, Shane

    2018-01-17

    We introduce new theoretical insights into two-population asymmetric games allowing for an elegant symmetric decomposition into two single population symmetric games. Specifically, we show how an asymmetric bimatrix game (A,B) can be decomposed into its symmetric counterparts by envisioning and investigating the payoff tables (A and B) that constitute the asymmetric game, as two independent, single population, symmetric games. We reveal several surprising formal relationships between an asymmetric two-population game and its symmetric single population counterparts, which facilitate a convenient analysis of the original asymmetric game due to the dimensionality reduction of the decomposition. The main finding reveals that if (x,y) is a Nash equilibrium of an asymmetric game (A,B), this implies that y is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table A, and x is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table B. Also the reverse holds and combinations of Nash equilibria of the counterpart games form Nash equilibria of the asymmetric game. We illustrate how these formal relationships aid in identifying and analysing the Nash structure of asymmetric games, by examining the evolutionary dynamics of the simpler counterpart games in several canonical examples.

  6. Self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into all blood lineage cells. The fate decisions of HSCs (self-renewal versus differentiation) are made through the process of cell division and are often compared to "birth" and "death". Stem cells give rise to undifferentiated stem cells (birth) or differentiate into progenitor cells (death). This process is regulated by asymmetric/symmetric divisions of HSCs. It has been proposed that fate determination occurs as a stochastic process and that individual stem cell dynamics are randomly regulated. The behavior of HSCs is known to be regulated by the cell intrinsic factor and extrinsic (microenvironmental) stimuli. Therefore, it is possible that the signals from a specific microenvironment (niche) have the potential to control or modulate stem cell dynamics. This review focuses on the functions of the HSC niche and the application of single cell analysis for understanding the mechanisms underlying the HSC decision-making process.

  7. Control of nuclear division by the Chromosomal Passenger Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Most cells within an organism function while they are in a non-dividing state. Cells enter the division cycle to initiate tissue growth or to repair damaged tissue. In the last phase of this cycle, M-phase, cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis) is accomplished after, in case of dividing human cells, 23

  8. Minimal asymmetric dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M. Boucenna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the early Universe, any particle carrying a conserved quantum number and in chemical equilibrium with the thermal bath will unavoidably inherit a particle–antiparticle asymmetry. A new particle of this type, if stable, would represent a candidate for asymmetric dark matter (DM with an asymmetry directly related to the baryon asymmetry. We study this possibility for a minimal DM sector constituted by just one (generic SU(2L multiplet χ carrying hypercharge, assuming that at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition an effective operator enforces chemical equilibrium between χ and the Higgs boson. We argue that limits from DM direct detection searches severely constrain this scenario, leaving as the only possibilities scalar or fermion multiplets with hypercharge y=1, preferentially quintuplets or larger SU(2 representations, and with a mass in the few TeV range.

  9. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  10. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  11. Divisible ℤ-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize the definition of divisible ℤ-module and its properties in the Mizar system [3]. We formally prove that any non-trivial divisible ℤ-modules are not finitely-generated.We introduce a divisible ℤ-module, equivalent to a vector space of a torsion-free ℤ-module with a coefficient ring ℚ. ℤ-modules are important for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász base reduction algorithm [15], cryptographic systems with lattices [16] and coding theory [8].

  12. Characterization of a putative spindle assembly checkpoint kinase Mps1, suggests its involvement in cell division, morphogenesis and oxidative stress tolerance in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kamthan

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPS1 is one of the major protein kinase that governs the spindle checkpoint pathway. The S. cerevisiae structural homolog of opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans CaMPS1, is indispensable for the cell viability. The essentiality of Mps1 was confirmed by Homozygote Trisome test. To determine its biological function in this pathogen conditional mutant was generated through regulatable MET3 promoter. Examination of heterozygous and conditional (+Met/Cys mps1 mutants revealed a mitosis specific arrest phenotype, where mutants showed large buds with undivided nuclei. Flowcytometry analysis revealed abnormal ploidy levels in mps1 mutant. In presence of anti-microtubule drug Nocodazole, mps1 mutant showed a dramatic loss of viability suggesting a role of Mps1 in Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC activation. These mutants were also defective in microtubule organization. Moreover, heterozygous mutant showed defective in-vitro yeast to hyphae morphological transition. Growth defect in heterozygous mutant suggest haploinsufficiency of this gene. qRT PCR analysis showed around 3 fold upregulation of MPS1 in presence of serum. This expression of MPS1 is dependent on Efg1 and is independent of other hyphal regulators like Ras1 and Tpk2. Furthermore, mps1 mutants were also sensitive to oxidative stress. Heterozygous mps1 mutant did not undergo morphological transition and showed 5-Fold reduction in colony forming units in response to macrophage. Thus, the vital checkpoint kinase, Mps1 besides cell division also has a role in morphogenesis and oxidative stress tolerance, in this pathogenic fungus.

  13. Asymmetric wave transmission in a diatomic acoustic/elastic metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bing; Tan, K. T., E-mail: ktan@uakron.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3903 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Asymmetric acoustic/elastic wave transmission has recently been realized using nonlinearity, wave diffraction, or bias effects, but always at the cost of frequency distortion, direction shift, large volumes, or external energy. Based on the self-coupling of dual resonators, we propose a linear diatomic metamaterial, consisting of several small-sized unit cells, to realize large asymmetric wave transmission in low frequency domain (below 1 kHz). The asymmetric transmission mechanism is theoretically investigated, and numerically verified by both mass-spring and continuum models. This passive system does not require any frequency conversion or external energy, and the asymmetric transmission band can be theoretically predicted and mathematically controlled, which extends the design concept of unidirectional transmission devices.

  14. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  15. Conversion of neurons and glia to external-cell fates in the external sensory organs of Drosophila hamlet mutants by a cousin-cousin cell-type respecification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adrian W; Roegiers, Fabrice; Jan, Lily Y; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2004-03-15

    The Drosophila external sensory organ forms in a lineage elaborating from a single precursor cell via a stereotypical series of asymmetric divisions. HAMLET transcription factor expression demarcates the lineage branch that generates two internal cell types, the external sensory neuron and thecogen. In HAMLET mutant organs, these internal cells are converted to external cells via an unprecedented cousin-cousin cell-fate respecification event. Conversely, ectopic HAMLET expression in the external cell branch leads to internal cell production. The fate-determining signals NOTCH and PAX2 act at multiple stages of lineage elaboration and HAMLET acts to modulate their activity in a branch-specific manner.

  16. Design of NIR-absorbing simple asymmetric squaraine dyes carrying indoline moieties for use in dye-sensitized solar cells with Pt-free electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, Kazumasa; Mase, Hiroyoshi; Saito, Yasuteru; Otsuka, Atsuhiro; Hibino, Atsuhiko; Tanaka, Nagisa; Miura, Hidetoshi; Himori, Yosuke; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Kubota, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Masaki

    2012-03-02

    Novel near-infrared (NIR)-sensitizing (up to 800 nm) simple asymmetric squaraine dyes (Sq 31 and Sq 33) carrying indoline moieties that did not require the introduction of any linker groups were developed. DSSCs fabricated with Sq 33 exhibited remarkable characteristics in the long-wavelength visible and NIR region (up to 800 nm), such as a conversion efficiency of 3.75% (AM 1.5G) with an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 63% (650 nm), a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.64 mA, an open-circuit photovoltage of 0.48, and a fill factor of 0.57. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  17. Mice deleted for cell division cycle 73 gene develop parathyroid and uterine tumours: model for the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, G V; Stevenson, M; Lines, K E; Newey, P J; Reed, A A C; Bowl, M R; Jeyabalan, J; Harding, B; Bradley, K J; Manek, S; Chen, J; Wang, P; Williams, B O; Teh, B T; Thakker, R V

    2017-07-13

    The hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by occurrence of parathyroid tumours, often atypical adenomas and carcinomas, ossifying jaw fibromas, renal tumours and uterine benign and malignant neoplasms. HPT-JT is caused by mutations of the cell division cycle 73 (CDC73) gene, located on chromosome 1q31.2 and encodes a 531 amino acid protein, parafibromin. To facilitate in vivo studies of Cdc73 in tumourigenesis we generated conventional (Cdc73 +/- ) and conditional parathyroid-specific (Cdc73 +/L /PTH-Cre and Cdc73 L/L /PTH-Cre) mouse models. Mice were aged to 18-21 months and studied for survival, tumour development and proliferation, and serum biochemistry, and compared to age-matched wild-type (Cdc73 +/+ and Cdc73 +/+ /PTH-Cre) littermates. Survival of Cdc73 +/- mice, when compared to Cdc73 +/+ mice was reduced (Cdc73 +/- =80%; Cdc73 +/+ =90% at 18 months of age, Pfourfold higher than that in parathyroid glands of wild-type littermates (P<0.0001). Cdc73 +/- , Cdc73 +/L /PTH-Cre and Cdc73 L/L /PTH-Cre mice had higher mean serum calcium concentrations than wild-type littermates, and Cdc73 +/- mice also had increased mean serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. Parathyroid tumour development, and elevations in serum calcium and PTH, were similar in males and females. Cdc73 +/- mice did not develop bone or renal tumours but female Cdc73 +/- mice, at 18 months of age, had uterine neoplasms comprising squamous metaplasia, adenofibroma and adenomyoma. Uterine neoplasms, myometria and jaw bones of Cdc73 +/- mice had increased proliferation rates that were 2-fold higher than in Cdc73 +/+ mice (P<0.05). Thus, our studies, which have established mouse models for parathyroid tumours and uterine neoplasms that develop in the HPT-JT syndrome, provide in vivo models for future studies of these tumours.

  18. A mutant of Chlamydomonas without LHCSR maintains high rates of photosynthesis, but has reduced cell division rates in sinusoidal light conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cantrell

    Full Text Available The LHCSR protein belongs to the light harvesting complex family of pigment-binding proteins found in oxygenic photoautotrophs. Previous studies have shown that this complex is required for the rapid induction and relaxation of excess light energy dissipation in a wide range of eukaryotic algae and moss. The ability of cells to rapidly regulate light harvesting between this dissipation state and one favoring photochemistry is believed to be important for reducing oxidative stress and maintaining high photosynthetic efficiency in a rapidly changing light environment. We found that a mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lacking LHCSR, npq4lhcsr1, displays minimal photoinhibition of photosystem II and minimal inhibition of short term oxygen evolution when grown in constant excess light compared to a wild type strain. We also investigated the impact of no LHCSR during growth in a sinusoidal light regime, which mimics daily changes in photosynthetically active radiation. The absence of LHCSR correlated with a slight reduction in the quantum efficiency of photosystem II and a stimulation of the maximal rates of photosynthesis compared to wild type. However, there was no reduction in carbon accumulation during the day. Another novel finding was that npq4lhcsr1 cultures underwent fewer divisions at night, reducing the overall growth rate compared to the wild type. Our results show that the rapid regulation of light harvesting mediated by LHCSR is required for high growth rates, but it is not required for efficient carbon accumulation during the day in a sinusoidal light environment. This finding has direct implications for engineering strategies directed at increasing photosynthetic productivity in mass cultures.

  19. MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-02-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops.

  20. Asymmetric bifurcated halogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Marek, Radek

    2015-03-07

    Halogen bonding (XB) is being extensively explored for its potential use in advanced materials and drug design. Despite significant progress in describing this interaction by theoretical and experimental methods, the chemical nature remains somewhat elusive, and it seems to vary with the selected system. In this work we present a detailed DFT analysis of three-center asymmetric halogen bond (XB) formed between dihalogen molecules and variously 4-substituted 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. The energy decomposition, orbital, and electron density analyses suggest that the contribution of electrostatic stabilization is comparable with that of non-electrostatic factors. Both terms increase parallel with increasing negative charge of the electron donor molecule in our model systems. Depending on the orientation of the dihalogen molecules, this bifurcated interaction may be classified as 'σ-hole - lone pair' or 'σ-hole - π' halogen bonds. Arrangement of the XB investigated here deviates significantly from a recent IUPAC definition of XB and, in analogy to the hydrogen bonding, the term bifurcated halogen bond (BXB) seems to be appropriate for this type of interaction.

  1. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle life....

  2. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  3. Asymmetric Ion-Pairing Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brak, Katrien

    2014-01-01

    Charged intermediates and reagents are ubiquitous in organic transformations. The interaction of these ionic species with chiral neutral, anionic, or cationic small molecules has emerged as a powerful strategy for catalytic, enantioselective synthesis. This review describes developments in the burgeoning field of asymmetric ion-pairing catalysis with an emphasis on the insights that have been gleaned into the structural and mechanistic features that contribute to high asymmetric induction. PMID:23192886

  4. Spatial Organization of the Cell Cytoplasm by Position-Dependent Phase Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiu Fan; Brangwynne, Clifford P.; Gharakhani, Jöbin; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2013-08-01

    During asymmetric cell division, cytoplasmic components are segregated to opposite sides of the cell. We discuss how the observed segregation can be achieved by a position-dependent phase separation mechanism controlled by a protein concentration gradient. We show that effects of even a weak gradient can be amplified by the phase transition to achieve strong segregation. We compare our theory to the segregation of germ granules observed during the divisions in the C. elegans embryo. Our study demonstrates how liquid-liquid phase separation can play a key role in the organization of the cytoplasm.

  5. Hedgehog signaling acts with the temporal cascade to promote neuroblast cell cycle exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing Chian Chai

    Full Text Available In Drosophila postembryonic neuroblasts, transition in gene expression programs of a cascade of transcription factors (also known as the temporal series acts together with the asymmetric division machinery to generate diverse neurons with distinct identities and regulate the end of neuroblast proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism of how this "temporal series" acts during development remains unclear. Here, we show that Hh signaling in the postembryonic brain is temporally regulated; excess (earlier onset of Hh signaling causes premature neuroblast cell cycle exit and under-proliferation, whereas loss of Hh signaling causes delayed cell cycle exit and excess proliferation. Moreover, the Hh pathway functions downstream of Castor but upstream of Grainyhead, two components of the temporal series, to schedule neuroblast cell cycle exit. Interestingly, hh is likely a target of Castor. Hence, Hh signaling provides a link between the temporal series and the asymmetric division machinery in scheduling the end of neurogenesis.

  6. Construction of synthetic nucleoli in human cells reveals how a major functional nuclear domain is formed and propagated through cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Alice; Colleran, Christine; McStay, Brian

    2014-02-01

    Human cell nuclei are functionally organized into structurally stable yet dynamic bodies whose cell cycle inheritance is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the biogenesis and propagation of nucleoli, sites of ribosome biogenesis and key regulators of cellular growth. Nucleolar and cell cycles are intimately connected. Nucleoli disappear during mitosis, reforming around prominent uncharacterized chromosomal features, nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). By examining the effects of UBF depletion on both endogenous NORs and synthetic pseudo-NORs, we reveal its essential role in maintaining competency and establishing a bookmark on mitotic NORs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that neo-NORs, UBF-binding site arrays coupled with rDNA transcription units, direct the de novo biogenesis of functional compartmentalized neonucleoli irrespective of their site of chromosomal integration. For the first time, we establish the sequence requirements for nucleolar biogenesis and provide proof that this is a staged process where UBF-dependent mitotic bookmarking precedes function-dependent nucleolar assembly.

  7. Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schlueter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The proepicardium (PE is a cluster of cells that forms on the cardiac inflow tract and gives rise to the epicardium and connective tissue and largely contributes to the coronary vasculature. In many vertebrates, the PE undergoes left-right asymmetrical development. While PE cells and marker genes can be initially found on both sides, only the right-sided PE will fully develop and ultimately deliver cells to the heart. Several signalling inputs, like FGF and BMP signals, are involved in PE induction in the lateral plate mesoderm, as well as during inflow tract formation and, also, control asymmetric PE development. These signalling events will be put into the context of embryonic left-right asymmetry determination. Finally, it will be discussed whether PE development may serve as a readout for asymmetric inflow tract morphogenesis.

  8. Digital Arithmetic: Division Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montuschi, Paolo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    .g., Newton–Raphson) algorithms. The first class of algorithms, the digit-recurrence type, is particularly suitable for hardware implementation as it requires modest resources and provides good performance on contemporary technology. The second class of algorithms, the multiplicative type, requires...... implement it in hardware to not compromise the overall computation performances. This entry explains the basic algorithms, suitable for hardware and software, to implement division in computer systems. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e...

  9. Power Dissipation in Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    A few classes of algorithms to implement division in hardware have been used over the years: division by digit-recurrence, by reciprocal approximation by iterative methods and by polynomial approximation. Due to the differences in the algorithms, a comparison among their implementation in terms o...... of performance and precision is sometimes hard to make. In this work, we use power dissipation and energy consumption as metrics to compare among those different classes of algorithms. There are no previous works in the literature presenting such a comparison....

  10. Effect of low-dose-rate irradiation on the division potential of cells in vitro. V. Human skin fibroblasts from donors with a high risk of cancer. [/sup 60/Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diatloff, C.; Macieira-Coelho, A.

    1979-07-01

    Skin fibroblasts from normal donors, donors with ataxia-telanglectasia or Fanconi's anemia, and from 1 cancer patient were treated with repeated ..gamma.. radiation at about 16 rads per hour. The remaining division potential of all fibroblasts, except for the Fanconi's anemia cells, was reduced to different extents by radiation. The growth potential of Fanconl's anemia cells was increased in all the irradiated cultures. The increase was 54% in the group that survived the longest. These results were identical to those obtained with fibroblasts from certain species that have a high probability of transformation.

  11. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  12. Division Level Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    06-2015 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2014 – JUNE 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Division Level Social Media...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Social media has become an accepted form of communication in society including the U.S. Army. Currently

  13. Optimization and control of electron beams from laser wakefield accelerations using asymmetric laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, K.; Gupta, D. N.

    2017-10-01

    Optimization and control of electron beam quality in laser wakefield acceleration are explored by using a temporally asymmetric laser pulse of the sharp rising front portion. The temporally asymmetric laser pulse imparts stronger ponderomotive force on the ambient plasma electrons. The stronger ponderomotive force associated with the asymmetric pulse significantly affects the injection of electrons into the wakefield and consequently the quality of the injected bunch in terms of injected charge, mean energy, and emittance. Based on particle-in-cell simulations, we report to generate a monoenergetic electron beam with reduced emittance and enhanced charge in laser wakefield acceleration using an asymmetric pulse of duration 30 fs.

  14. Computational Discovery of Niclosamide Ethanolamine, a Repurposed Drug Candidate That Reduces Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells In Vitro and in Mice by Inhibiting Cell Division Cycle 37 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wei, Wei; Ma, Li; Yang, Bin; Gill, Ryan M; Chua, Mei-Sze; Butte, Atul J; So, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    hepatocytes. Oral administration of NEN to mice significantly slowed growth of genetically induced liver tumors and patient-derived xenografts, whereas niclosamide did not, coinciding with the observed greater bioavailability of NEN compared with niclosamide. The combination of NEN and sorafenib was more effective at slowing growth of patient-derived xenografts than either agent alone. In HepG2 cells and in patient-derived xenografts, administration of niclosamide or NEN increased expression of 20 genes down-regulated in HCC and reduced expression of 29 genes up-regulated in the 274-gene HCC signature. Administration of NEN to mice with patient-derived xenografts reduced expression of proteins in the Wnt-β-catenin, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, AKT-mechanistic target of rapamycin, epidermal growth factor receptor-Ras-Raf signaling pathways. Using immunoprecipitation assays, we found NEN to bind cell division cycle 37 protein and disrupt its interaction with heat shock protein 90. In a bioinformatics search for agents that alter the HCC-specific gene expression pattern, we identified the anthelmintic niclosamide as a potential anti-tumor agent. Its ethanolamine salt, with greater bioavailability, was more effective than niclosamide at slowing the growth of genetically induced liver tumors and patient-derived xenografts in mice. Both agents disrupted interaction between cell division cycle 37 and heat shock protein 90 in HCC cells, with concomitant inhibition of their downstream signaling pathways. NEN might be effective for treatment of patients with HCC. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  16. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong

    2017-01-01

    The employment of metal salts is quite limited in asymmetric catalysis, although it would provide an additional arsenal of safe and inexpensive reagents to create molecular functions with high optical purity. Cation chelation by polyethers increases the salts' solubility in conventional organic...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...

  17. Does asymmetric correlation affect portfolio optimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Lukas

    2017-07-01

    The classical portfolio optimization problem does not assume asymmetric behavior of relationship among asset returns. The existence of asymmetric response in correlation on the bad news could be important information in portfolio optimization. The paper applies Dynamic conditional correlation model (DCC) and his asymmetric version (ADCC) to propose asymmetric behavior of conditional correlation. We analyse asymmetric correlation among S&P index, bonds index and spot gold price before mortgage crisis in 2008. We evaluate forecast ability of the models during and after mortgage crisis and demonstrate the impact of asymmetric correlation on the reduction of portfolio variance.