WorldWideScience

Sample records for asymmetric cell divisions

  1. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Conradt, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well. PMID:18399720

  2. Asymmetric cell division: a persistent issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Aakre, Christopher D.; Laub, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity within a clonal population of cells can increase survival in the face of environmental stress. In a recent issue of Science, Aldridge et al. (2012) demonstrate that cell division in mycobacteria is asymmetric, producing daughter cells that differ in size, growth rate, and susceptibility to antibiotics.

  3. Cell adhesion in regulation of asymmetric stem cell division

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2010-01-01

    Adult stem cells inevitably communicate with their cellular neighbors within the tissues they sustain. Indeed, such communication, particularly with components of the stem cell niche, is essential for many aspects of stem cell behavior, including the maintenance of stem cell identity and asymmetric cell division. Cell adhesion mediates this communication by placing stem cells in close proximity to the signaling source and by providing a polarity cue that orients stem cells. Here, I review the...

  4. Polarity in Stem Cell Division: Asymmetric Stem Cell Division in Tissue Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Yukiko M; Yuan, Hebao; Cheng, Jun; Hunt, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Many adult stem cells divide asymmetrically to balance self-renewal and differentiation, thereby maintaining tissue homeostasis. Asymmetric stem cell divisions depend on asymmetric cell architecture (i.e., cell polarity) within the cell and/or the cellular environment. In particular, as residents of the tissues they sustain, stem cells are inevitably placed in the context of the tissue architecture. Indeed, many stem cells are polarized within their microenvironment, or the stem cell niche, a...

  5. Smurfs have "fused" into the asymmetric division of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven Y. Cheng; Ying E. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The asymmetric cell division is the way in which a stem cell divides into one daughter stem cell and one differentiated daughter cell.This process is one of the key principles of developmental biology that ensures the perpetual supply of stem cells while allowing a particular cell lineage to be populated.During Drosophila oogenesis, the fate of the daughter stem cell produced from the asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by Decapentaplegic (Dpp), but the other daughter cell has almost equal access to the Dpp signal.

  6. Concise Review: Asymmetric Cell Divisions in Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Murke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic stem cells are rare cells with unique properties residing in many organs and tissues. They are undifferentiated cells responsible for tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and contain both the capacity to self-renew in order to maintain their stem cell potential and to differentiate towards tissue-specific, specialized cells. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms controlling somatic stem cell fate decisions remains sparse. One mechanism which has been described to control daughter cell fates in selected somatic stem cell systems is the process of asymmetric cell division (ACD. ACD is a tightly regulated and evolutionary conserved process allowing a single stem or progenitor cell to produce two differently specified daughter cells. In this concise review, we will summarize and discuss current concepts about the process of ACD as well as different ACD modes. Finally, we will recapitulate the current knowledge and our recent findings about ACD in human hematopoiesis.

  7. Lessons from development: A role for asymmetric stem cell division in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Anne E.; Shung, Chia-Yi; Saylor, Katherine W.; Müllendorf, Karin A.; Weiss, Joseph B.; Wong, Melissa H.

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric stem cell division has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism for physiologic control of stem cell numbers. Reinvigoration of the cancer stem cell theory suggests that tumorigenesis may be regulated by maintaining the balance between asymmetric and symmetric cell division. Therefore, mutations affecting this balance could result in aberrant expansion of stem cells. Although a number of molecules have been implicated in regulation of asymmetric stem cell division, here, we highligh...

  8. Asymmetric Inheritance of Mother Versus Daughter Centrosome in Stem Cell Division

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Yukiko M.; Anthony P Mahowald; Perlin, Julie R.; Fuller, Margaret T.

    2007-01-01

    Adult stem cells often divide asymmetrically to produce one self-renewed stem cell and one differentiating cell, thus maintaining both populations. The asymmetric outcome of stem cell divisions can be specified by an oriented spindle and local self-renewal signals from the stem cell niche. Here we show that developmentally programmed asymmetric behavior and inheritance of mother and daughter centrosomes underlies the stereotyped spindle orientation and asymmetric outcome of stem cell division...

  9. Asymmetric cell division of stem cells in the lung and other systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AhmedH. K.El-Hashash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New insights have been added to identification, behavior and cellular properties of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells over the last few years. The modes of stem cell division, asymmetric versus symmetric, are tightly regulated during development and regeneration. The proper choice of a stem cell to divide asymmetrically or symmetrically has great consequences for development and disease because inappropriate asymmetric division disrupts organ morphogenesis, whereas uncontrolled symmetric division induces tumorigenesis. Therefore, understanding the behavior of lung stem cells could identify innovative solutions for restoring normal morphogenesis and/or regeneration of different organs. In this concise review, we describe recent studies in our laboratory about the mode of division of lung epithelial stem cells. We also compare asymmetric cell division in the lung stem cells with other tissues in different organisms.

  10. Stochastic modeling of cell growth with symmetric or asymmetric division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Amir, Ariel

    2016-07-01

    We consider a class of biologically motivated stochastic processes in which a unicellular organism divides its resources (volume or damaged proteins, in particular) symmetrically or asymmetrically between its progeny. Assuming the final amount of the resource is controlled by a growth policy and subject to additive and multiplicative noise, we derive the recursive integral equation describing the evolution of the resource distribution over subsequent generations and use it to study the properties of stable resource distributions. We find conditions under which a unique stable resource distribution exists and calculate its moments for the class of affine linear growth policies. Moreover, we apply an asymptotic analysis to elucidate the conditions under which the stable distribution (when it exists) has a power-law tail. Finally, we use the results of this asymptotic analysis along with the moment equations to draw a stability phase diagram for the system that reveals the counterintuitive result that asymmetry serves to increase stability while at the same time widening the stable distribution. We also briefly discuss how cells can divide damaged proteins asymmetrically between their progeny as a form of damage control. In the appendixes, motivated by the asymmetric division of cell volume in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we extend our results to the case wherein mother and daughter cells follow different growth policies. PMID:27575162

  11. Stochastic modeling of cell growth with symmetric or asymmetric division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Amir, Ariel

    2016-07-01

    We consider a class of biologically motivated stochastic processes in which a unicellular organism divides its resources (volume or damaged proteins, in particular) symmetrically or asymmetrically between its progeny. Assuming the final amount of the resource is controlled by a growth policy and subject to additive and multiplicative noise, we derive the recursive integral equation describing the evolution of the resource distribution over subsequent generations and use it to study the properties of stable resource distributions. We find conditions under which a unique stable resource distribution exists and calculate its moments for the class of affine linear growth policies. Moreover, we apply an asymptotic analysis to elucidate the conditions under which the stable distribution (when it exists) has a power-law tail. Finally, we use the results of this asymptotic analysis along with the moment equations to draw a stability phase diagram for the system that reveals the counterintuitive result that asymmetry serves to increase stability while at the same time widening the stable distribution. We also briefly discuss how cells can divide damaged proteins asymmetrically between their progeny as a form of damage control. In the appendixes, motivated by the asymmetric division of cell volume in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we extend our results to the case wherein mother and daughter cells follow different growth policies.

  12. Asymmetric Cell Division in T Lymphocyte Fate Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenio, Janilyn; Metz, Patrick J; Chang, John T

    2015-11-01

    Immunological protection against microbial pathogens is dependent on robust generation of functionally diverse T lymphocyte subsets. Upon microbial infection, naïve CD4(+) or CD8(+) T lymphocytes can give rise to effector- and memory-fated progeny that together mediate a potent immune response. Recent advances in single-cell immunological and genomic profiling technologies have helped elucidate early and late diversification mechanisms that enable the generation of heterogeneity from single T lymphocytes. We discuss these findings here and argue that one such mechanism, asymmetric cell division, creates an early divergence in T lymphocyte fates by giving rise to daughter cells with a propensity towards the terminally differentiated effector or self-renewing memory lineages, with cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic cues from the microenvironment driving the final maturation steps. PMID:26474675

  13. Uncovering the link between malfunctions in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric cell division and tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsom Corey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asymmetric cell division is a developmental process utilized by several organisms. On the most basic level, an asymmetric division produces two daughter cells, each possessing a different identity or fate. Drosophila melanogaster progenitor cells, referred to as neuroblasts, undergo asymmetric division to produce a daughter neuroblast and another cell known as a ganglion mother cell (GMC. There are several features of asymmetric division in Drosophila that make it a very complex process, and these aspects will be discussed at length. The cell fate determinants that play a role in specifying daughter cell fate, as well as the mechanisms behind setting up cortical polarity within neuroblasts, have proved to be essential to ensuring that neurogenesis occurs properly. The role that mitotic spindle orientation plays in coordinating asymmetric division, as well as how cell cycle regulators influence asymmetric division machinery, will also be addressed. Most significantly, malfunctions during asymmetric cell division have shown to be causally linked with neoplastic growth and tumor formation. Therefore, it is imperative that the developmental repercussions as a result of asymmetric cell division gone awry be understood.

  14. Role of SCHIZORIZA in asymmetric cell division, cell fate segregation and specification in Arabidopsis root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansweijer, V.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Multicellular organisms develop their large variety of cell types from just one single cell, the zygote. Both plants and animals use asymmetric cell division to establish a multicellular body plan How different cell and tissue types are determined, how patterns are created and maintained, and which

  15. Omics and modeling approaches approaches for understanding regulation of asymmetric cell divisions in Arabidopsis and other angiosperm plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajala, K.; Ramakrishna, A.; Fisher, A.; Bergmann, D.C.; Smet, De I.; Sozzani, R.; Weijers, D.; Brady, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Asymmetric cell divisions are formative divisions that generate daughter cells of distinct identity. These divisions are coordinated by either extrinsic (‘niche-controlled’) or intrinsic regulatory mechanisms and are fundamentally important in plant development. Scope This review describe

  16. Tumor-initiating label-retaining cancer cells in human gastrointestinal cancers undergo asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M; Mullinax, John E; Ambe, Chenwi M; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J; Wiegand, Gordon W; Garfield, Susan H; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, the stem cell nature and whether LRC undergo ACD remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate label-retaining cancer cells (LRCCs) in several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including fresh surgical specimens. Using a novel method for isolation of live LRCC, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of LRCC is actively dividing and exhibits stem cells and pluripotency gene expression profiles. Using real-time confocal microscopic cinematography, we show live LRCC undergoing asymmetric nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation LRC division. Importantly, LRCCs have greater tumor-initiating capacity than non-LRCCs. Based on our data and that cancers develop in tissues that harbor normal-LRC, we propose that LRCC might represent a novel population of GI stem-like cancer cells. LRCC may provide novel mechanistic insights into the biology of cancer and regenerative medicine and present novel targets for cancer treatment. PMID:22331764

  17. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mani Arora; Arga Chandrashekar Anil; Karl Burgess; Jane Delany; Ehsan Mesbahi

    2015-12-01

    The prasinophytes (early diverging Chlorophyta), consisting of simple unicellular green algae, occupy a critical position at the base of the green algal tree of life, with some of its representatives viewed as the cell form most similar to the first green alga, the `ancestral green flagellate'. Relatively large-celled unicellular eukaryotic phytoflagellates (such as Tetraselmis and Scherffelia), traditionally placed in Prasinophyceae but now considered as members of Chlorodendrophyceae (core Chlorophyta), have retained some primitive characteristics of prasinophytes. These organisms share several ultrastructural features with the other core chlorophytes (Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae). However, the role of Chlorodendrophycean algae as the evolutionary link between cellular individuality and cellular cooperation has been largely unstudied. Here, we show that clonal populations of a unicellular chlorophyte, Tetraselmis indica, consist of morphologically and ultrastructurally variant cells which arise through asymmetric cell division. These cells also differ in their physiological properties. The structural and physiological differences in the clonal cell population correlate to a certain extent with the longevity and function of cells.

  18. Nek11 regulates asymmetric cell division during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Teng; Qi, Shu-Tao; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Hou, Yi; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-06-10

    Nek11, a member of the never in mitosis gene A (NIMA) family, is activated in somatic cells associated with G1/S or G2/M arrest. However, its function in meiosis is unknown. In this research, the expression, localization and functions of NEK11 in the mouse oocyte meiotic maturation were examined. Western blotting indicated that NEK11S was the major NEK11 protein in mouse oocyte. MYC-tagged Nek11 mRNA microinjection and immunofluorescent staining showed that NEK11 was localized to the meiotic spindles at MI and MII stage. Knockdown of Nek11 by microinjection of siRNA did not affect germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body extrusion, but caused formation of 2-cell-like eggs. These results demonstrate that Nek11 regulates asymmetric cell division during oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:27150633

  19. Positioning of polarity formation by extracellular signaling during asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seirin Lee, Sungrim

    2016-07-01

    Anterior-posterior (AP) polarity formation of cell membrane proteins plays a crucial role in determining cell asymmetry, which ultimately generates cell diversity. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a single fertilized egg cell (P0), its daughter cell (P1), and the germline precursors (P2 and P3 cells) form two exclusive domains of different PAR proteins on the membrane along the anterior-posterior axis. However, the phenomenon of polarity reversal has been observed in which the axis of asymmetric cell division of the P2 and P3 cells is formed in an opposite manner to that of the P0 and P1 cells. The extracellular signal MES-1/SRC-1 has been shown to induce polarity reversal, but the detailed mechanism remains elusive. Here, using a mathematical model, I explore the mechanism by which MES-1/SRC-1 signaling can induce polarity reversal and ultimately affect the process of polarity formation. I show that a positive correlation between SRC-1 and the on-rate of PAR-2 is the essential mechanism underlying polarity reversal, providing a mathematical basis for the orientation of cell polarity patterns. PMID:27086039

  20. The role of GlsA in the evolution of asymmetric cell division in the green alga Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Fowler, Rachel; Tam, Lai-wa; Edwards, Lisseth; Miller, Stephen M

    2003-07-01

    Volvox carteri, a green alga in the order Volvocales, contains two completely differentiated cell types, small motile somatic cells and large reproductive cells called gonidia, that are set apart from each other during embryogenesis by a series of visibly asymmetric cell divisions. Mutational analysis has revealed a class of genes (gonidialess, gls) that are required specifically for asymmetric divisions in V. carteri, but that are dispensable for symmetric divisions. Previously we cloned one of these genes, glsA, and showed that it encodes a chaperone-like protein (GlsA) that has close orthologs in a diverse set of eukaryotes, ranging from fungi to vertebrates and higher plants. In the present study we set out to explore the role of glsA in the evolution of asymmetric division in the volvocine algae by cloning and characterizing a glsA ortholog from one of the simplest members of the group, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which does not undergo asymmetric divisions. This ortholog (which we have named gar1, for glsA related) is predicted to encode a protein that is 70% identical to GlsA overall, and that is most closely related to GlsA in the same domains that are most highly conserved between GlsA and its other known orthologs. We report that a gar1 transgene fully complements the glsA mutation in V. carteri, a result that suggests that asymmetric division probably arose through the modification of a gene whose product interacts with GlsA, but not through a modification of glsA itself. PMID:12743823

  1. Asymmetric division of cyst stem cells in Drosophila testis is ensured by anaphase spindle repositioning

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jun; Tiyaboonchai, Amita; Yamashita, Yukiko M.; Hunt, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Many stem cells divide asymmetrically to balance self-renewal and differentiation. In Drosophila testes, two stem cell populations, germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs), cohere and regulate one another. Here, we report that CySCs divide asymmetrically through repositioning the mitotic spindle around anaphase. CySC spindle repositioning requires functional centrosomes, Dynein and the actin-membrane linker Moesin. Anaphase spindle repositioning is required to achieve h...

  2. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated. PMID:26250135

  3. Asymmetric Wnt Pathway Signaling Facilitates Stem Cell-Like Divisions via the Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase FRK-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila, Danielle; Calderon, Adriana; Baldwin, Austin T; Moore, Kelsey M; Watson, McLane; Phillips, Bryan T; Putzke, Aaron P

    2015-11-01

    Asymmetric cell division is critical during development, as it influences processes such as cell fate specification and cell migration. We have characterized FRK-1, a homolog of the mammalian Fer nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, and found it to be required for differentiation and maintenance of epithelial cell types, including the stem cell-like seam cells of the hypodermis. A genomic knockout of frk-1, allele ok760, results in severely uncoordinated larvae that arrest at the L1 stage and have an excess number of lateral hypodermal cells that appear to have lost asymmetry in the stem cell-like divisions of the seam cell lineage. frk-1(ok760) mutants show that there are excess lateral hypodermal cells that are abnormally shaped and smaller in size compared to wild type, a defect that could be rescued only in a manner dependent on the kinase activity of FRK-1. Additionally, we observed a significant change in the expression of heterochronic regulators in frk-1(ok760) mutants. However, frk-1(ok760) mutants do not express late, nonseam hypodermal GFP markers, suggesting the seam cells do not precociously differentiate as adult-hyp7 cells. Finally, our data also demonstrate a clear role for FRK-1 in seam cell proliferation, as eliminating FRK-1 during the L3-L4 transition results in supernumerary seam cell nuclei that are dependent on asymmetric Wnt signaling. Specifically, we observe aberrant POP-1 and WRM-1 localization that is dependent on the presence of FRK-1 and APR-1. Overall, our data suggest a requirement for FRK-1 in maintaining the identity and proliferation of seam cells primarily through an interaction with the asymmetric Wnt pathway. PMID:26358719

  4. Asymmetric division triggers cell-specific gene expression through coupled capture and stabilization of a phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Niels; Losick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Formation of a division septum near a randomly chosen pole during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis creates unequal sized daughter cells with dissimilar programs of gene expression. An unanswered question is how polar septation activates a transcription factor (σF) selectively in the small cell. We present evidence that the upstream regulator of σF, the phosphatase SpoIIE, is compartmentalized in the small cell by transfer from the polar septum to the adjacent cell pole where SpoIIE is protect...

  5. A new loss-of-function allele 28y reveals a role of ARGONAUTE1 in limiting asymmetric division of stomatal lineage ground cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kezhen Yangy; Min Jiangy; Jie Le

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana L., stomata are produced through a series of divisions including asymmetric and symmetric divisions. Asymmetric entry division of meristemoid mother cellproduces two daughter cells, the smal er meristemoid and the larger sister cell, a stomatal lineage ground cell(SLGC). Stomatal lineage ground cells can differentiate into epidermal pavement cells but have the potential to divide asymmetrical y, spacing divisions, to create satel ite meristemoids. Peptide ligands and TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) and ERECTA family receptors regulate the initiation of stomatal lineages, activity, and orientation of spacing divisions. Here, we reported that a natural mutant 28y displayed an increased stomatal density and index. Using map-based cloning, we identified mutation in ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) as the cause of 28y phenotypes. Time-lapse tracing of stomatal lineage cells reveals that stomatal overproduction in 28y is caused by the excessive asymmetric spacing division of SLGCs.Further genetic results demonstrated that AGO1 acts down-stream of TMM and negatively regulates the SPCH transcripts, but in a brassinosteroid-independent manner. Upregulation of AGAMOUS-LIKE16 (AGL16) in 28y mutants suggests that AGO1 is required to restrict AGL16-mediated stomatal spacing divisions, an miRNA pathway in addition to ligand-receptor signaling modules.

  6. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Arora, M.; Anil, A.C.; Burgess, K.; Delany, J.E.; Mesbahi, E.

    The prasinophytes (early diverging Chlorophyta), consisting of simple unicellular green algae, occupy a critical position at the base of the green algal tree of life, with some of its representatives viewed as the cell form most similar to the first...

  7. Structural determinants underlying the temperature-sensitive nature of a Galpha mutant in asymmetric cell division of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher A; Afshar, Katayoun; Snyder, Jason T; Tall, Gregory G; Gönczy, Pierre; Siderovski, David P; Willard, Francis S

    2008-08-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are integral to a conserved regulatory module that influences metazoan asymmetric cell division (ACD). In the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote, GOA-1 (Galpha(o)) and GPA-16 (Galpha(i)) are involved in generating forces that pull on astral microtubules and position the spindle asymmetrically. GPA-16 function has been analyzed in vivo owing notably to a temperature-sensitive allele gpa-16(it143), which, at the restrictive temperature, results in spindle orientation defects in early embryos. Here we identify the structural basis of gpa-16(it143), which encodes a point mutation (G202D) in the switch II region of GPA-16. Using Galpha(i1)(G202D) as a model in biochemical analyses, we demonstrate that high temperature induces instability of the mutant Galpha. At the permissive temperature, the mutant Galpha was stable upon GTP binding, but switch II rearrangement was compromised, as were activation state-selective interactions with regulators involved in ACD, including GoLoco motifs, RGS proteins, and RIC-8. We solved the crystal structure of the mutant Galpha bound to GDP, which indicates a unique switch II conformation as well as steric constraints that suggest activated GPA-16(it143) is destabilized relative to wild type. Spindle severing in gpa-16(it143) embryos revealed that pulling forces are symmetric and markedly diminished at the restrictive temperature. Interestingly, pulling forces are asymmetric and generally similar in magnitude to wild type at the permissive temperature despite defects in the structure of GPA-16(it143). These normal pulling forces in gpa-16(it143) embryos at the permissive temperature were attributable to GOA-1 function, underscoring a complex interplay of Galpha subunit function in ACD. PMID:18519563

  8. CEH-20/Pbx and UNC-62/Meis function upstream of rnt-1/Runx to regulate asymmetric divisions of the C. elegans stem-like seam cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Hughes

    2013-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans seam cells divide in the stem-like mode throughout larval development, with the ability to both self-renew and produce daughters that differentiate. Seam cells typically divide asymmetrically, giving rise to an anterior daughter that fuses with the hypodermis and a posterior daughter that proliferates further. Previously we have identified rnt-1 (a homologue of the mammalian cancer-associated stem cell regulator Runx as being an important regulator of seam development, acting to promote proliferation; rnt-1 mutants have fewer seam cells whereas overexpressing rnt-1 causes seam cell hyperplasia. We isolated the interacting CEH-20/Pbx and UNC-62/Meis TALE-class transcription factors during a genome-wide RNAi screen for novel regulators of seam cell number. Animals lacking wild type CEH-20 or UNC-62 display seam cell hyperplasia, largely restricted to the anterior of the worm, whereas double mutants have many additional seam cells along the length of the animal. The cellular basis of the hyperplasia involves the symmetrisation of normally asymmetric seam cell divisions towards the proliferative stem-like fate. The hyperplasia is completely suppressed in rnt-1 mutants, and rnt-1 is upregulated in ceh-20 and unc-62 mutants, suggesting that CEH-20 and UNC-62 function upstream of rnt-1 to limit proliferative potential to the appropriate daughter cell. In further support of this we find that CEH-20 is asymmetrically localised in seam daughters following an asymmetric division, being predominantly restricted to anterior nuclei whose fate is to differentiate. Thus, ceh-20 and unc-62 encode crucial regulators of seam cell division asymmetry, acting via rnt-1 to regulate the balance between proliferation and differentiation.

  9. 3′ UTR-Dependent, miR-92-Mediated Restriction of Tis21 Expression Maintains Asymmetric Neural Stem Cell Division to Ensure Proper Neocortex Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Feng Fei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian neocortex size primarily reflects the number and mode of divisions of neural stem and progenitor cells. Cortical stem cells (apical progenitors switching from symmetric divisions, which expand their population, to asymmetric divisions, which generate downstream neuronal progenitors (basal progenitors, start expressing Tis21, a so-called antiproliferative/prodifferentiative gene. Tis21 encodes a small (17.5 kDa, functionally poorly characterized protein and a relatively large (2 kb, highly conserved 3′ UTR. Here, we show that mice lacking the Tis21 3′ UTR develop a microcephalic neocortex with fewer neurons, notably in the upper layers. This reflects a progressive decrease in basal progenitors, which in turn is due to a fraction of apical progenitors prematurely switching from asymmetric self-renewing to symmetric self-consuming divisions. This switch is caused by the markedly increased Tis21 protein level resulting from lack of microRNA-, notably miR-92-, dependent restriction of Tis21 expression. Our data show that a premature onset of consumptive neural stem cell divisions can lead to microcephaly.

  10. Osteogenic differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes involves asymmetric cell divisions and apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the early cellular events that take place during the change in lineage commitment from hypertrophic chondrocytes to osteoblast-like cells. We have induced this osteogenic differentiation by cutting through the hypertrophic cartilage of embryonic chick femurs and culturing the explants. Immunocytochemical characterization, [3H]thymidine pulse-chase labeling, in situ nick translation or end labeling of DNA breaks were combined with ultrastructural studies to characterize th...

  11. The tumor suppressor APC differentially regulates multiple β-catenins through the function of axin and CKIα during C. elegans asymmetric stem cell divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin T; Phillips, Bryan T

    2014-06-15

    The APC tumor suppressor regulates diverse stem cell processes including gene regulation through Wnt-β-catenin signaling and chromosome stability through microtubule interactions, but how the disparate functions of APC are controlled is not well understood. Acting as part of a Wnt-β-catenin pathway that controls asymmetric cell division, Caenorhabditis elegans APC, APR-1, promotes asymmetric nuclear export of the β-catenin WRM-1 by asymmetrically stabilizing microtubules. Wnt function also depends on a second β-catenin, SYS-1, which binds to the C. elegans TCF POP-1 to activate gene expression. Here, we show that APR-1 regulates SYS-1 levels in asymmetric stem cell division, in addition to its known role in lowering nuclear levels of WRM-1. We demonstrate that SYS-1 is also negatively regulated by the C. elegans homolog of casein kinase 1α (CKIα), KIN-19. We show that KIN-19 restricts APR-1 localization, thereby regulating nuclear WRM-1. Finally, the polarity of APR-1 cortical localization is controlled by PRY-1 (C. elegans Axin), such that PRY-1 controls the polarity of both SYS-1 and WRM-1 asymmetries. We propose a model whereby Wnt signaling, through CKIα, regulates the function of two distinct pools of APC - one APC pool negatively regulates SYS-1, whereas the second pool stabilizes microtubules and promotes WRM-1 nuclear export. PMID:24762815

  12. BASL and EPF2 act independently to regulate asymmetric divisions during stomatal development

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Lee; Gray, Julie E

    2010-01-01

    The initiation of stomatal development in the developing Arabidopsis epidermis is characterized by an asymmetric ‘entry’ division in which a small cell, known as a meristemoid, and a larger daughter cell is formed. The meristemoid may undergo further asymmetric divisions, regenerating a meristemoid each time, before differentiating into a guard mother cell which divides symmetrically to form a pair of guard cells surrounding a stomatal pore. Recently EPF2 and BASL have emerged as regulators o...

  13. A long non-coding RNA targets microRNA miR-34a to regulate colon cancer stem cell asymmetric division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Bu, Pengcheng; Ai, Yiwei; Srinivasan, Tara; Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Xiang, Kun; Lipkin, Steven M; Shen, Xiling

    2016-01-01

    The roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulating cancer and stem cells are being increasingly appreciated. Its diverse mechanisms provide the regulatory network with a bigger repertoire to increase complexity. Here we report a novel LncRNA, Lnc34a, that is enriched in colon cancer stem cells (CCSCs) and initiates asymmetric division by directly targeting the microRNA miR-34a to cause its spatial imbalance. Lnc34a recruits Dnmt3a via PHB2 and HDAC1 to methylate and deacetylate the miR-34a promoter simultaneously, hence epigenetically silencing miR-34a expression independent of its upstream regulator, p53. Lnc34a levels affect CCSC self-renewal and colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in xenograft models. Lnc34a is upregulated in late-stage CRCs, contributing to epigenetic miR-34a silencing and CRC proliferation. The fact that lncRNA targets microRNA highlights the regulatory complexity of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which occupy the bulk of the genome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14620.001 PMID:27077950

  14. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160

  15. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive wh

  16. Polarity establishment, asymmetric division and segregation of fate determinants in early C. elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lesilee; Gönczy, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Polarity establishment, asymmetric division, and acquisition of cell fates are critical steps during early development. In this review, we discuss processes that set up the embryonic axes, with an emphasis on polarity establishment and asymmetric division. We begin with the first asymmetric division in the C. elegans embryo, where symmetry is broken by the local inactivation of actomyosin cortical contractility. This contributes to establishing a polarized distribution of PAR proteins and associated components on the cell cortex along the longitudinal embryonic axis, which becomes the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Thereafter, AP polarity is maintained through reciprocal negative interactions between the anterior and posterior cortical domains. We then review the mechanisms that ensure proper positioning of the centrosomes and the mitotic spindle in the one-cell embryo by exerting pulling forces on astral microtubules. We explain how a ternary complex comprised of Gα (GOA-1/GPA-16), GPR-1/GPR-2, and LIN-5 is essential for anchoring the motor protein dynein to the cell cortex, where it is thought to exert pulling forces on depolymerizing astral microtubules. We proceed by providing an overview of cell cycle asynchrony in two-cell embryos, as well as the cell signaling and spindle positioning events that underly the subsequent asymmetric divisions, which establish the dorsal-ventral and left-right axes. We then discuss how AP polarity ensures the unequal segregation of cell fate regulators via the cytoplasmic proteins MEX-5/MEX-6 and other polarity mediators, before ending with an overview of how the fates of the early blastomeres are specified by these processes. PMID:25548889

  17. Placental expression of estrogen receptor beta and its hormone binding variant – comparison with estrogen receptor alpha and a role for estrogen receptors in asymmetric division and differentiation of estrogen-dependent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henley Donald C

    2003-04-01

    differentiation, the ER-alpha is associated with a less, and ER-beta with the more differentiated state. Enhanced expression of ~64 kDa ER-beta variant in trophoblast cultures suggests a unique role of ER-beta hormone binding domain in the regulation of trophoblast differentiation. Our data also indicate that asymmetric segregation of ER-alpha may play a role in asymmetric division of estrogen-dependent cells.

  18. Asymmetric division and differential gene expression during a bacterial developmental program requires DivIVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahathees Eswaramoorthy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporulation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a developmental program in which a progenitor cell differentiates into two different cell types, the smaller of which eventually becomes a dormant cell called a spore. The process begins with an asymmetric cell division event, followed by the activation of a transcription factor, σF, specifically in the smaller cell. Here, we show that the structural protein DivIVA localizes to the polar septum during sporulation and is required for asymmetric division and the compartment-specific activation of σF. Both events are known to require a protein called SpoIIE, which also localizes to the polar septum. We show that DivIVA copurifies with SpoIIE and that DivIVA may anchor SpoIIE briefly to the assembling polar septum before SpoIIE is subsequently released into the forespore membrane and recaptured at the polar septum. Finally, using super-resolution microscopy, we demonstrate that DivIVA and SpoIIE ultimately display a biased localization on the side of the polar septum that faces the smaller compartment in which σF is activated.

  19. Mitotic Spindle Asymmetry: A Wnt/PCP-Regulated Mechanism Generating Asymmetrical Division in Cortical Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Delaunay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of asymmetric cell division (ACD during corticogenesis is incompletely understood. We document that spindle-size asymmetry (SSA between the two poles occurs during corticogenesis and parallels ACD. SSA appears at metaphase and is maintained throughout division, and we show it is necessary for proper neurogenesis. Imaging of spindle behavior and division outcome reveals that neurons preferentially arise from the larger-spindle pole. Mechanistically, SSA magnitude is controlled by Wnt7a and Vangl2, both members of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP-signaling pathway, and relayed to the cell cortex by P-ERM proteins. In vivo, Vangl2 and P-ERM downregulation promotes early cell-cycle exit and prevents the proper generation of late-born neurons. Thus, SSA is a core component of ACD that is conserved in invertebrates and vertebrates and plays a key role in the tight spatiotemporal control of self-renewal and differentiation during mammalian corticogenesis.

  20. Translational control in Drosophila female germline stem cell asymmetric division%mRNA翻译水平调控参与果蝇生殖干细胞不对称分裂的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏来新; 陈大华

    2013-01-01

    Germline stem cells have the sole character of transmitting their genetic information to the next generation. Drosophila female germline stem cells are a very powerful and sophisticated system to study stem cell asymmetric division behavior, which is controlled by the niche signal. These stem cells are regulated at many different levels including transcriptional level, post-transcriptional level, translational level and protein level. The study from the last two decades shows that many RNA binding proteins mutants in Drosophila have either germline stem cell loss or over-proliferation phenotypes. Here, this review tried to summarize the relationship between translational control and germline stem cell fate determination, especially focused on recent progresses in the field. And we also discuss the probable molecular detailed mechanisms involved in the process.%生殖干细胞是唯一能够将遗传物质传给下一代的成体干细胞.果蝇的雌性生殖干细胞是一个非常成熟的用来研究干细胞自身不对称分裂的系统,来自微环境的信号控制其增殖和分化.果蝇的生殖干细胞受到转录水平、转录后水平、mRNA翻译水平和蛋白质水平的精确调控,多年来的研究表明很多翻译相关的RNA结合蛋白的突变都会导致果蝇的生殖干细胞提前分化或者不分化.综述了mRNA翻译水平调控与果蝇生殖干细胞命运决定的关系,特别是该领域近年来的一些重大进展,并讨论了翻译水平调控参与果蝇生殖干细胞命运决定的可能具体分子机制.

  1. The asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins is stem cell-type dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Mary Rose; DeVeale, Brian; van der Kooy, Derek

    2013-05-13

    Asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins (DPs) during mitosis has been linked in yeast and bacteria to the protection of one cell from aging. Recent evidence suggests that stem cells may use a similar mechanism; however, to date there is no in vivo evidence demonstrating this effect in healthy adult stem cells. We report that stem cells in larval (neuroblast) and adult (female germline and intestinal stem cell) Drosophila melanogaster asymmetrically segregate DPs, such as proteins with the difficult-to-degrade and age-associated 2,4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) modification. Surprisingly, of the cells analyzed only the intestinal stem cell protects itself by segregating HNE to differentiating progeny, whereas the neuroblast and germline stem cells retain HNE during division. This led us to suggest that chronological life span, and not cell type, determines the amount of DPs a cell receives during division. Furthermore, we reveal a role for both niche-dependent and -independent mechanisms of asymmetric DP division. PMID:23649805

  2. Specific polar subpopulations of astral microtubules control spindle orientation and symmetric neural stem cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Bermúdez, Felipe; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Huttner, Wieland B

    2014-01-01

    Mitotic spindle orientation is crucial for symmetric vs asymmetric cell division and depends on astral microtubules. Here, we show that distinct subpopulations of astral microtubules exist, which have differential functions in regulating spindle orientation and division symmetry. Specifically, in polarized stem cells of developing mouse neocortex, astral microtubules reaching the apical and basal cell cortex, but not those reaching the central cell cortex, are more abundant in symmetrically than asymmetrically dividing cells and reduce spindle orientation variability. This promotes symmetric divisions by maintaining an apico-basal cleavage plane. The greater abundance of apical/basal astrals depends on a higher concentration, at the basal cell cortex, of LGN, a known spindle-cell cortex linker. Furthermore, newly developed specific microtubule perturbations that selectively decrease apical/basal astrals recapitulate the symmetric-to-asymmetric division switch and suffice to increase neurogenesis in vivo. Thus, our study identifies a novel link between cell polarity, astral microtubules, and spindle orientation in morphogenesis. PMID:24996848

  3. A cell cycle timer for asymmetric spindle positioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K McCarthy Campbell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The displacement of the mitotic spindle to one side of a cell is important for many cells to divide unequally. While recent progress has begun to unveil some of the molecular mechanisms of mitotic spindle displacement, far less is known about how spindle displacement is precisely timed. A conserved mitotic progression mechanism is known to time events in dividing cells, although this has never been linked to spindle displacement. This mechanism involves the anaphase-promoting complex (APC, its activator Cdc20/Fizzy, its degradation target cyclin, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK. Here we show that these components comprise a previously unrecognized timer for spindle displacement. In the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote, mitotic spindle displacement begins at a precise time, soon after chromosomes congress to the metaphase plate. We found that reducing the function of the proteasome, the APC, or Cdc20/Fizzy delayed spindle displacement. Conversely, inactivating CDK in prometaphase caused the spindle to displace early. The consequence of experimentally unlinking spindle displacement from this timing mechanism was the premature displacement of incompletely assembled components of the mitotic spindle. We conclude that in this system, asymmetric positioning of the mitotic spindle is normally delayed for a short time until the APC inactivates CDK, and that this delay ensures that the spindle does not begin to move until it is fully assembled. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that mitotic progression times spindle displacement in the asymmetric division of an animal cell. We speculate that this link between the cell cycle and asymmetric cell division might be evolutionarily conserved, because the mitotic spindle is displaced at a similar stage of mitosis during asymmetric cell divisions in diverse systems.

  4. The equatorial position of the metaphase plate ensures symmetric cell divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chia Huei; Gasic, Ivana; Huber-Reggi, Sabina P; Dudka, Damian; Barisic, Marin; Maiato, Helder; Meraldi, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome alignment in the middle of the bipolar spindle is a hallmark of metazoan cell divisions. When we offset the metaphase plate position by creating an asymmetric centriole distribution on each pole, we find that metaphase plates relocate to the middle of the spindle before anaphase. The spindle assembly checkpoint enables this centering mechanism by providing cells enough time to correct metaphase plate position. The checkpoint responds to unstable kinetochore-microtubule attachments resulting from an imbalance in microtubule stability between the two half-spindles in cells with an asymmetric centriole distribution. Inactivation of the checkpoint prior to metaphase plate centering leads to asymmetric cell divisions and daughter cells of unequal size; in contrast, if the checkpoint is inactivated after the metaphase plate has centered its position, symmetric cell divisions ensue. This indicates that the equatorial position of the metaphase plate is essential for symmetric cell divisions. PMID:26188083

  5. The Protective Role of Symmetric Stem Cell Division on the Accumulation of Heritable Damage

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, PT; Lander, AD

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell divisions are either asymmetric-in which one daughter cell remains a stem cell and one does not-or symmetric, in which both daughter cells adopt the same fate, either stem or non-stem. Recent studies show that in many tissues operating under homeostatic conditions stem cell division patterns are strongly biased toward the symmetric outcome, raising the question of whether symmetry confers some benefit. Here, we show that symmetry, via extinction of damaged stem-cell clones, reduces ...

  6. Enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui; Huang, Nuo; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Houyu; Chen, Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (EHACO-OFDM) scheme, which benefits from the simultaneous transmission of ACO-OFDM, pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation, and direct-current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM). Since the entire available bandwidth is utilized for data modulation, this scheme can achieve higher spectral efficiency than HACO-OFDM and ACO-OFDM. Moreover, as a smaller DC bias is introduced in our scheme, it is more power efficient than asymmetrically clipped DC-biased optical OFDM (ADO-OFDM) and DCO-OFDM. A modified receiver is also designed for this system, taking advantage of an iterative algorithm and a pairwise averaging. It has been shown by simulation that our three-path simultaneous transmission scheme can surpass the existing mixed OFDM-based schemes at high data rates. In addition, compared with the noniterative receiver, the modified receiver exhibits significant gains.

  7. Small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains (SMIFH2 reveals the roles of the formin family of proteins in spindle assembly and asymmetric division in mouse oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available Dynamic actin reorganization is the main driving force for spindle migration and asymmetric cell division in mammalian oocytes. It has been reported that various actin nucleators including Formin-2 are involved in the polarization of the spindle and in asymmetric cell division. In mammals, the formin family is comprised of 15 proteins. However, their individual roles in spindle migration and/or asymmetric division have not been elucidated yet. In this study, we employed a newly developed inhibitor for formin family proteins, small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains (SMIFH2, to assess the functions of the formin family in mouse oocyte maturation. Treatment with SMIFH2 during in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes inhibited maturation by decreasing cytoplasmic and cortical actin levels. In addition, treatment with SMIFH2, especially at higher concentrations (500 μM, impaired the proper formation of meiotic spindles, indicating that formins play a role in meiotic spindle formation. Knockdown of the mDia2 formins caused a similar decrease in oocyte maturation and abnormal spindle morphology, mimicking the phenotype of SMIFH2-treated cells. Collectively, these results suggested that besides Formin-2, the other proteins of the formin, including mDia family play a role in asymmetric division and meiotic spindle formation in mammalian oocytes.

  8. Nanoengineering: Super symmetry in cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial cells can be sculpted into different shapes using nanofabricated chambers and then used to explore the spatial adaptation of protein oscillations that play an important role in cell division.

  9. Biased DNA Segregation during Stem Cell Division

    OpenAIRE

    Anversa, Piero; Leri, Annarosa; Kajstura, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle stem cells are a heterogeneous cell population characterized by a small subset of undifferentiated cells that express at high level the paired/homeodomain gene Pax7. This category of satellite cells divides predominantly by asymmetric chromatid segregation generating a daughter cell that carries the mother DNA and retains stem cell property, and a daughter cell that inherits the newly-synthesized DNA and acquires the myocyte lineage.1

  10. Expression of the wild-type p53 antioncogene induces guanine nucleotide-dependent stem cell division kinetics.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherley, J L; Stadler, P B; Johnson, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    The predominant type of cell division in adult mammals is renewal growth. Renewing stem cells in somatic tissues undergo continuous asymmetric divisions. One new daughter cell retains the division potential of the original stem cell, while the other differentiates into a functional constituent of the tissue. Disruptions of this process lead to the development of human cancers. We show that through a guanine nucleotide-dependent mechanism, the p53 antioncogene can induce exponentially dividing...

  11. Asymmetric growth and division in Mycobacterium spp.: compensatory mechanisms for non-medial septa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupender; Nitharwal, Ram Gopal; Ramesh, Malavika; Pettersson, B M Fredrik; Kirsebom, Leif A; Dasgupta, Santanu

    2013-04-01

    Mycobacterium spp., rod-shaped cells belonging to the phylum Actinomycetes, lack the Min- and Noc/Slm systems responsible for preventing the placement of division sites at the poles or over the nucleoids to ensure septal assembly at mid-cell. We show that the position for establishment of the FtsZ-ring in exponentially growing Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium smegmatis cells is nearly random, and that the cells often divide non-medially, producing two unequal but viable daughters. Septal sites and cellular growth disclosed by staining with the membrane-specific dye FM4-64 and fluorescent antibiotic vancomycin (FL-Vanco), respectively, showed that many division sites were off-centre, often over the nucleoids, and that apical cell growth was frequently unequal at the two poles. DNA transfer through the division septum was detected, and translocation activity was supported by the presence of a putative mycobacterial DNA translocase (MSMEG2690) at the majority of the division sites. Time-lapse imaging of single live cells through several generations confirmed both acentric division site placement and unequal polar growth in mycobacteria. Our evidence suggests that post-septal DNA transport and unequal polar growth may compensate for the non-medial division site placement in Mycobacterium spp. PMID:23387305

  12. Cell Adhesion Geometry Regulates Non-Random DNA Segregation and Asymmetric Cell Fates in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Siham Yennek; Mithila Burute; Manuel Théry; Shahragim Tajbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-rand...

  13. Cell Adhesion Geometry Regulates Non-Random DNA Segregation and Asymmetric Cell Fates in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Théry, Manuel; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole posi...

  14. Cell adhesion geometry regulates non-random DNA segregation and asymmetric cell fates in mouse skeletal muscle stem cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Théry, Manuel; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole posi...

  15. Cell adhesion geometry regulates non-random DNA segregation and asymmetric cell fates in mouse skeletal muscle stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Thery, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-rand...

  16. Cell division activity during apical hook development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, V.; Koornneef, M.

    2001-01-01

    Growth during plant development is predominantly governed by the combined activities of cell division and cell elongation. The relative contribution of both activities controls the growth of a tissue. A fast change in growth is exhibited at the apical hypocotyl of etiolated seedlings where cells gro

  17. Molecular mechanisms controlling asymmetric and symmetric self-renewal of cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Young Dong; Kwon, Yong Tae

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), or alternatively called tumor initiating cells (TICs), are a subpopulation of tumor cells, which possesses the ability to self-renew and differentiate into bulk tumor mass. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that CSCs contribute to the growth and recurrence of tumors and the resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. CSCs achieve self-renewal through asymmetric division, in which one daughter cell retains the self-renewal ability, and the other is destined to diff...

  18. Bacterial cell division proteins as antibiotic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. den Blaauwen; J.M. Andreu; O. Monasterio

    2014-01-01

    Proteins involved in bacterial cell division often do not have a counterpart in eukaryotic cells and they are essential for the survival of the bacteria. The genetic accessibility of many bacterial species in combination with the Green Fluorescence Protein revolution to study localization of protein

  19. An electrostatic model for biological cell division

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, Eshel

    2010-01-01

    Probably the most fundamental processes for biological systems is their ability to create themselves through the use of cell division and cell differentiation. In this work a simple physical model is proposed for biological cell division. The model consists of a positive ionic gradient across the cell membrane, and concentration of charge at the nodes of the spindle and on the chromosomes. A simple calculation, based on Coulomb's Law, shows that under such circumstances a chromosome will tend to break up to its constituent chromatids and that the chromatids will be separated by a distance that is an order of thirty percent of the distance between the spindle nodes. Further repulsion between the nodes will tend to stretch the cell and eventually break the cell membrane between the separated chromatids, leading to cell division. The importance of this work is in continuing the understanding of the electromagnetic basis of cell division and providing it with an analytical model. A central implication of this and...

  20. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium

  1. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M., E-mail: carien.niessen@uni-koeln.de

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  2. Genes involved in cell division in mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Alarcón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria presenting a reduced genome. Thus, it was important to compare their genomes to analyze putative genes involved in cell division processes. The division and cell wall (dcw cluster, which in E. coli and B. subtilis is composed of 16 and 17 genes, respectively, is represented by only three to four genes in mycoplasmas. Even the most conserved protein, FtsZ, is not present in all mycoplasma genomes analyzed so far. A model for the FtsZ protein from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae has been constructed. The conserved residues, essential for GTP/GDP binding, are present in FtsZ from both species. A strong conservation of hydrophobic amino acid patterns is observed, and is probably necessary for the structural stability of the protein when active. M. synoviae FtsZ presents an extended amino acid sequence at the C-terminal portion of the protein, which may participate in interactions with other still unknown proteins crucial for the cell division process.

  3. Molecular evolution in bacteria: cell division

    OpenAIRE

    Trevors J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular evolution in bacteria is examined with an emphasis on the self-assembly of cells capable of primitive division and growth during early molecular evolution. Also, the possibility that some type of encapsulation structure preceeded biochemical pathways and the assembly of genetic material is examined. These aspects will be considered from an evolutionary perspective.

  4. Cell division patterns and chromosomal segregation defects in oral cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseb, Hatem O; Lewis, Dale W; Saunders, William S; Gollin, Susanne M

    2016-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a serious public health problem caused primarily by smoking and alcohol consumption or human papillomavirus. The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory posits that CSCs show unique characteristics, including self-renewal and therapeutic resistance. Examining biomarkers and other features of CSCs is critical to better understanding their biology. To this end, the results show that cellular SOX2 immunostaining correlates with other CSC biomarkers in OSCC cell lines and marks the rare CSC population. To assess whether CSC division patterns are symmetrical, resulting in two CSC, or asymmetrical, leading to one CSC and one cancer cell, cell size and fluorescence intensity of mitotic cells stained with SOX2 were analyzed. Asymmetrical SOX2 distribution in ≈25% of the mitoses analyzed was detected. Chromosomal instability, some of which is caused by chromosome segregation defects (CSDs), is a feature of cancer cells that leads to altered gene copy numbers. We compare chromosomal instability (as measured by CSDs) between CSCs (SOX2+) and non-CSCs (SOX2-) from the same OSCC cell lines. CSDs were more common in non-CSCs (SOX2-) than CSCs (SOX2+) and in symmetrical CSC (SOX2+) mitotic pairs than asymmetrical CSC (SOX2+/SOX2-) mitotic pairs. CSCs showed fewer and different types of CSDs after ionizing radiation treatment than non-CSCs. Overall, these data are the first to demonstrate both symmetrical and asymmetrical cell divisions with CSDs in OSCC CSC. Further, the results suggest that CSCs may undergo altered behavior, including therapeutic resistance as a result of chromosomal instability due to chromosome segregation defects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27123539

  5. Cell division in Corynebacterineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CatrionaDonovan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cells must coordinate a number of events during the cell cycle. Spatio-temporal regulation of bacterial cytokinesis is indispensable for the production of viable, genetically identical offspring. In many rod-shaped bacteria, precise midcell assembly of the division machinery relies on inhibitory systems such as Min and Noc. In rod-shaped Actinobacteria, for example Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the divisome assembles in the proximity of the midcell region, however more spatial flexibility is observed compared to Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Actinobacteria represent a group of bacteria that spatially regulate cytokinesis in the absence of recognizable Min and Noc homologs. The key cell division steps in E. coli and B. subtilis have been subject to intensive study and are well understood. In comparison, only a minimal set of positive and negative regulators of cytokinesis are known in Actinobacteria. Nonetheless, the timing of cytokinesis and the placement of the division septum is coordinated with growth as well as initiation of chromosome replication and segregation. We summarize here the current knowledge on cytokinesis and division site selection in the Actinobacteria suborder Corynebacterineae.

  6. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations. (paper)

  7. The protective role of symmetric stem cell division on the accumulation of heritable damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T McHale

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell divisions are either asymmetric-in which one daughter cell remains a stem cell and one does not-or symmetric, in which both daughter cells adopt the same fate, either stem or non-stem. Recent studies show that in many tissues operating under homeostatic conditions stem cell division patterns are strongly biased toward the symmetric outcome, raising the question of whether symmetry confers some benefit. Here, we show that symmetry, via extinction of damaged stem-cell clones, reduces the lifetime risk of accumulating phenotypically silent heritable damage (mutations or aberrant epigenetic changes in individual stem cells. This effect is greatest in rapidly cycling tissues subject to accelerating rates of damage accumulation over time, a scenario that describes the progression of many cancers. A decrease in the rate of cellular damage accumulation may be an important factor favoring symmetric patterns of stem cell division.

  8. Cell adhesion geometry regulates non-random DNA segregation and asymmetric cell fates in mouse skeletal muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennek, Siham; Burute, Mithila; Théry, Manuel; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2014-05-22

    Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-random DNA segregation. To mimic the asymmetric divisions seen in the mouse skeletal stem cell niche, we used micropatterns coated with extracellular matrix in asymmetric and symmetric motifs. We show that the frequency of non-random DNA segregation and transcription factor asymmetry correlates with the shape of the motif and that these events can be uncoupled. Furthermore, regulation of DNA segregation by cell adhesion occurs within a defined time interval. Thus, cell adhesion cues have a major impact on determining both DNA segregation patterns and cell fates. PMID:24836002

  9. Cell Adhesion Geometry Regulates Non-Random DNA Segregation and Asymmetric Cell Fates in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham Yennek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells of several metazoan species have been shown to non-randomly segregate their DNA such that older template DNA strands segregate to one daughter cell. The mechanisms that regulate this asymmetry remain undefined. Determinants of cell fate are polarized during mitosis and partitioned asymmetrically as the spindle pole orients during cell division. Chromatids align along the pole axis; therefore, it is unclear whether extrinsic cues that determine spindle pole position also promote non-random DNA segregation. To mimic the asymmetric divisions seen in the mouse skeletal stem cell niche, we used micropatterns coated with extracellular matrix in asymmetric and symmetric motifs. We show that the frequency of non-random DNA segregation and transcription factor asymmetry correlates with the shape of the motif and that these events can be uncoupled. Furthermore, regulation of DNA segregation by cell adhesion occurs within a defined time interval. Thus, cell adhesion cues have a major impact on determining both DNA segregation patterns and cell fates.

  10. Regulation of cell division in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    Cell division is arguably the most fundamental of all developmental processes. In higher plants, mitotic activity is largely confined to foci of patterned cell divisions called meristems. From these perpetually embryonic tissues arise the plant's essential organs of light capture, support, protection and reproduction. Once an adequate understanding of plant cell mitotic regulation is attained, unprecedented opportunities will ensue for analyzing and genetically controlling diverse aspects of development, including plant architecture, leaf shape, plant height, and root depth. The mitotic cycle in a variety of model eukaryotic systems in under the control of a regulatory network of striking evolutionary conservation. Homologues of the yeast cdc2 gene, its catalytic product, p34, and the cyclin regulatory subunits of the MPF complex have emerged as ubiquitous mitotic regulators. We have cloned cdc2-like and cyclin genes from pea. As in other eukaryotic model systems, p34 of Pisum sativum is a subunit of a high molecular weight complex which binds the fission yeast p13 protein and displays histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. Our primary objective in this study is to gain baseline information about the regulation of this higher plant cell division control complex in non-dividing, differentiated cells as well as in synchronous and asynchronous mitotic cells. We are investigating cdc2 and cyclin expression at the levels of protein abundance, protein phosphorylation and quaternary associations.

  11. Kinetics of cell division in epidermal maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Allon M; Jones, Philip H; Simons, Benjamin D

    2007-01-01

    The rules governing cell division and differentiation are central to understanding the mechanisms of development, aging and cancer. By utilising inducible genetic labelling, recent studies have shown that the clonal population in transgenic mouse epidermis can be tracked in vivo. Drawing on these results, we explain how clonal fate data may be used to infer the rules of cell division and differentiation underlying the maintenance of adult murine tail-skin. We show that the rates of cell division and differentiation may be evaluated by considering the long-time and short-time clone fate data, and that the data is consistent with cells dividing independently rather than synchronously. Motivated by these findings, we consider a mechanism for cancer onset based closely on the model for normal adult skin. By analysing the expected changes to clonal fate in cancer emerging from a simple two-stage mutation, we propose that clonal fate data may provide a novel method for studying the earliest stages of the disease.

  12. Cell Division, Differentiation and Dynamic Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Yomo, Tetsuya

    1993-01-01

    A novel mechanism for cell differentiation is proposed, based on the dynamic clustering in a globally coupled chaotic system. A simple model with metabolic reaction, active transport of chemicals from media, and cell division is found to show three successive stages with the growth of the number of cells; coherent growth, dynamic clustering, and fixed cell differentiation. At the last stage, disparity in activities, germ line segregation, somatic cell differentiation, and homeochaotic stability against external perturbation are found. Our results, in consistency with the experiments of the preceding paper, imply that cell differentiation can occur without a spatial pattern. From dynamical systems viewpoint, the new concept of ``open chaos" is proposed, as a novel and general scenario for systems with growing numbers of elements, also seen in economics and sociology.A

  13. Asymmetric Localization of Cdx2 mRNA during the First Cell-Fate Decision in Early Mouse Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skamagki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding question in mammalian development is whether the divisions that segregate pluripotent progenitor cells for the future embryo from cells that differentiate into extraembryonic structures are asymmetric in cell-fate instructions. The transcription factor Cdx2 plays a key role in the first cell-fate decision. Here, using live-embryo imaging, we show that localization of Cdx2 transcripts becomes asymmetric during development, preceding cell lineage segregation. Cdx2 transcripts preferentially localize apically at the late eight-cell stage and become inherited asymmetrically during divisions that set apart pluripotent and differentiating cells. Asymmetric localization depends on a cis element within the coding region of Cdx2 and requires cell polarization as well as intact microtubule and actin cytoskeletons. Failure to enrich Cdx2 transcripts apically results in a significant decrease in the number of pluripotent cells. We discuss how the asymmetric localization and segregation of Cdx2 transcripts could contribute to multiple mechanisms that establish different cell fates in the mouse embryo.

  14. Onset of cell division in maize germination: action of auxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed germination implies metabolic reactivation, synthesis of macromolecules and onset of cell division. During maize germination, meristematic tissues of embryos re-initiate cell division asynchronically. Since auxins are known to stimulate cell division, they asked how auxins might regulate cell cycle re-initiation. Embryonic tissues were incubated with and without auxins. A pulse of either 3H-thymidine or 32P-ortophosphate was given to the tissues. Mitotic indexes were determined and % of labeled mitotic cells recorded. Results indicated that meristematic cells re-initiate cell division either from G1 or G2 phases. Auxin stimulated differentially the cell division process of these cells. 32P incorporation into cytoplasmic or nucleic histones was measured. Auxins stimulated this incorporation. Active turnover of histone phosphorylation occurred simultaneously to the cell division process. It is suggested that auxins might regulate the cell cycle by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of histones

  15. Cell Shape and Cell Division in Fission Yeast Minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

    2009-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has served as an important model organism for investigating cellular morphogenesis. This unicellular rod-shaped fission yeast grows by tip extension and divides by medial fission. In particular, microtubules appear to define sites of polarized cell growth by delivering cell polarity factors to the cell tips. Microtubules also position the cell nucleus at the cell middle, marking sites of cell division. Here, we review the microtubule-dependent mecha...

  16. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    organogenesis. Coordination of these two interdependent processes results in formation of nodules - bacterial accommodating structures where fixation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place. Plant hormones such as auxin and cytokinin play important roles in nodulation. In some legumes the infection process...... was shown to require auxin signalling. Cytokinin, in contrast, exert a negative regulation of bacterial entry into the root. During organogenesis, auxin and cytokinin maxima are known to accompany nodule primordia development and together regulate progression through the cell cycle. Moreover, application...... of auxin transport inhibitors or cytokinin alone was shown to induce cortical cell divisions in the absence of rhizobia in certain legume species. While the roles of auxin and cytokinin in nodulation have been studied extensively, the precise timing, location and means of molecular crosstalk between...

  17. The division of labor in close relationships : An asymmetrical conflict issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S.; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2000-01-01

    This research addresses couples' reports of their (hypothetical) attempts to maintain or change a gendered division of labor through conflict interactions. Two experiments in which spouses responded to scenarios showed that spouses reported more conflict over the division of housework than conflict

  18. Galpha/LGN-mediated asymmetric spindle positioning does not lead to unequal cleavage of the mother cell in 3-D cultured MDCK cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Zhuoni; Wan, Qingwen; Du, Quansheng; Zheng, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The position of the mitotic spindle plays a key role in spatial control of cell division. It is generally believed that when a spindle is positioned asymmetrically in a dividing cell, the resulting daughter cells are usually unequal in size due to eccentric cleavage of the mother cell. Molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of unequal sized daughter cells have been extensively studied in Drosophila neuroblast and C elegans zygote where the Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G proteins a...

  19. Genetic Dissection of the Sporulation Protein SpoIIE and Its Role in Asymmetric Division in Bacillus subtilis†

    OpenAIRE

    Carniol, Karen; Ben-Yehuda, Sigal; King, Nicole; Losick, Richard

    2005-01-01

    SpoIIE is a dual-function protein in Bacillus subtilis that contributes to the switch from medial to polar cell division during sporulation and is responsible for activating the cell-specific transcription factor σF. SpoIIE consists of an N-terminal domain with 10 membrane-spanning segments (region I), a C-terminal phosphatase domain (region III), and a central domain (region II) of uncertain function. To investigate the role of SpoIIE in polar division, we took advantage of a system for effi...

  20. Mechanisms of daughter cell-size control during cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyomitsu, Tomomi

    2015-05-01

    Daughter cell size is tightly regulated during cell division. In animal cells, the position of the anaphase spindle specifies the cell cleavage site to dictate the relative size of the daughter cells. Although spindle orientation is regulated by dynein-dependent cortical pulling forces exerted on astral microtubules in many cell types, it was unclear how these forces are precisely regulated to center or displace the spindle. Recently, intrinsic signals derived from chromosomes or spindle poles have been demonstrated to regulate dynein-dependent pulling forces in symmetrically dividing cells. Unexpectedly, myosin-dependent contractile forces have also been shown to control spindle position by altering the cellular boundaries during anaphase. In this review, I discuss how dynein- and myosin-dependent forces are coordinately regulated to control daughter cell size. PMID:25548067

  1. Mechanism of murine epidermal maintenance: Cell division and the Voter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Allon M; Jones, Philip H; Simons, Benjamin D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an interesting experimental example of voter-model statistics in biology. In recent work on mouse tail-skin, where proliferating cells are confined to a two-dimensional layer, we showed that cells proliferate and differentiate according to a simple stochastic model of cell division involving just one type of proliferating cell that may divide both symmetrically and asymmetrically. Curiously, these simple rules provide excellent predictions of the cell population dynamics without having to address their spatial distribution. Yet, if the spatial behaviour of cells is addressed by allowing cells to diffuse at random, one deduces that density fluctuations destroy tissue confluence, implying some hidden degree of spatial regulation in the physical system. To infer the mechanism of spatial regulation, we consider a two-dimensional model of cell fate that preserves the overall population dynamics. By identifying the resulting behaviour with a three-species variation of the "Voter" model, we predi...

  2. Streptomyces: A Screening Tool for Bacterial Cell Division Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Charul; Tocheva, Elitza I.; McAuley, Scott; Craney, Arryn; Jensen, Grant J.; Nodwell, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Cell division is essential for spore formation but not for viability in the filamentous streptomycetes bacteria. Failure to complete cell division instead blocks spore formation, a phenotype that can be visualized by the absence of gray (in Streptomyces coelicolor) and green (in Streptomyces venezuelae) spore-associated pigmentation. Despite the lack of essentiality, the streptomycetes divisome is similar to that of other prokaryotes. Therefore, the chemical inhibitors of sporulation in model streptomycetes may interfere with the cell division in rod-shaped bacteria as well. To test this, we investigated 196 compounds that inhibit sporulation in S. coelicolor. We show that 19 of these compounds cause filamentous growth in Bacillus subtilis, consistent with impaired cell division. One of the compounds is a DNA-damaging agent and inhibits cell division by activating the SOS response. The remaining 18 act independently of known stress responses and may therefore act on the divisome or on divisome positioning and stability. Three of the compounds (Fil-1, Fil-2, and Fil-3) confer distinct cell division defects on B. subtilis. They also block B. subtilis sporulation, which is mechanistically unrelated to the sporulation pathway of streptomycetes but is also dependent on the divisome. We discuss ways in which these differing phenotypes can be used in screens for cell division inhibitors. PMID:25256667

  3. Ploidy-Dependent Unreductional Meiotic Cell Division in Polyploid Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis includes one round of DNA replication and two successive nuclear divisions, i.e. meiosis I (reductional) and meiosis II (equational). This specialized cell division reduces chromosomes in half and generates haploid gametes in sexual reproduction of eukaryotes. It ensures faithful transmiss...

  4. Impact of the cell division cycle on gene circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Veronika; Klumpp, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    In growing cells, protein synthesis and cell growth are typically not synchronous, and, thus, protein concentrations vary over the cell division cycle. We have developed a theoretical description of genetic regulatory systems in bacteria that explicitly considers the cell division cycle to investigate its impact on gene expression. We calculate the cell-to-cell variations arising from cells being at different stages in the division cycle for unregulated genes and for basic regulatory mechanisms. These variations contribute to the extrinsic noise observed in single-cell experiments, and are most significant for proteins with short lifetimes. Negative autoregulation buffers against variation of protein concentration over the division cycle, but the effect is found to be relatively weak. Stronger buffering is achieved by an increased protein lifetime. Positive autoregulation can strongly amplify such variation if the parameters are set to values that lead to resonance-like behaviour. For cooperative positive autoregulation, the concentration variation over the division cycle diminishes the parameter region of bistability and modulates the switching times between the two stable states. The same effects are seen for a two-gene mutual-repression toggle switch. By contrast, an oscillatory circuit, the repressilator, is only weakly affected by the division cycle.

  5. The Snail protein family regulates neuroblast expression of inscuteable and string, genes involved in asymmetry and cell division in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, S I; Ip, Y T

    2001-12-01

    Delaminated neuroblasts in Drosophila function as stem cells during embryonic central nervous system development. They go through repeated asymmetric divisions to generate multiple ganglion mother cells, which divide only once more to produce postmitotic neurons. Snail, a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor, is a pan-neural protein, based on its extensive expression in neuroblasts. Previous results have demonstrated that Snail and related proteins, Worniu and Escargot, have redundant and essential functions in the nervous system. We show that the Snail family of proteins control central nervous system development by regulating genes involved in asymmetry and cell division of neuroblasts. In mutant embryos that have the three genes deleted, the expression of inscuteable is significantly lowered, while the expression of other genes that participate in asymmetric division, including miranda, staufen and prospero, appears normal. The deletion mutants also have much reduced expression of string, suggesting that a key component that drives neuroblast cell division is abnormal. Consistent with the gene expression defects, the mutant embryos lose the asymmetric localization of prospero RNA in neuroblasts and lose the staining of Prospero protein that is normally present in ganglion mother cells. Simultaneous expression of inscuteable and string in the snail family deletion mutant efficiently restores Prospero expression in ganglion mother cells, demonstrating that the two genes are key targets of Snail in neuroblasts. Mutation of the dCtBP co-repressor interaction motifs in the Snail protein leads to reduction of the Snail function in central nervous system. These results suggest that the Snail family of proteins control both asymmetry and cell division of neuroblasts by activating, probably indirectly, the expression of inscuteable and string. PMID:11731456

  6. Asymmetric protein localization in planar cell polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The polarization of epithelial cells along an axis orthogonal to their apical-basal axis is increasingly recognized for roles in a variety of developmental events and physiological functions. While now studied in many model organisms, mechanistic understanding is rooted in intensive investigations of Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) in Drosophila. Consensus has emerged that two molecular modules, referred to here as the global and core modules, operate upstream of effector proteins to produce morphological PCP. Proteins of the core module develop subcellular asymmetry, accumulating in two groups on opposite sides of cells, consistent with proposed functions in producing cell polarity and in communicating that polarity between neighboring cells. Less clear are the molecular and cell biological mechanisms underlying core module function in the generation and communication of subcellular asymmetry, and the relationship between the global and core modules. In this review, we discuss these two unresolved questions, highlighting important studies and potentially enlightening avenues for further investigation. It is likely that results from Drosophila will continue to inform our views of the growing list of examples of PCP in vertebrate systems. PMID:23140624

  7. Stationary Size Distributions of Growing Cells with Binary and Multiple Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rading, M. M.; Engel, T. A.; Lipowsky, R.; Valleriani, A.

    2011-10-01

    Populations of unicellular organisms that grow under constant environmental conditions are considered theoretically. The size distribution of these cells is calculated analytically, both for the usual process of binary division, in which one mother cell produces always two daughter cells, and for the more complex process of multiple division, in which one mother cell can produce 2 n daughter cells with n=1,2,3,… . The latter mode of division is inspired by the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The uniform response of the whole population to different environmental conditions is encoded in the individual rates of growth and division of the cells. The analytical treatment of the problem is based on size-dependent rules for cell growth and stochastic transition processes for cell division. The comparison between binary and multiple division shows that these different division processes lead to qualitatively different results for the size distribution and the population growth rates.

  8. Fast-Decodable Asymmetric Space-Time Codes from Division Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Vehkalahti, Roope; Oggier, Frédérique

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-input double-output (MIDO) codes are important in the near-future wireless communications, where the portable end-user device is physically small and will typically contain at most two receive antennas. Especially tempting is the 4 x 2 channel due to its immediate applicability in the digital video broadcasting (DVB). Such channels optimally employ rate-two space-time (ST) codes consisting of (4 x 4) matrices. Unfortunately, such codes are in general very complex to decode, hence setting forth a call for constructions with reduced complexity. Recently, some reduced complexity constructions have been proposed, but they have mainly been based on different ad hoc methods and have resulted in isolated examples rather than in a more general class of codes. In this paper, it will be shown that a family of division algebra based MIDO codes will always result in at least 37.5% worst-case complexity reduction, while maintaining full diversity and, for the first time, the non-vanishing determinant (NVD) proper...

  9. A family of snail-related zinc finger proteins regulates two distinct and parallel mechanisms that mediate Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y; Chia, W; Yang, X

    2001-04-01

    Three snail family genes snail, escargot and worniu, encode related zinc finger transcription factors that mediate Drosophila central nervous system (CNS) development. We show that simultaneous removal of all three genes causes defective neuroblast asymmetric divisions; inscuteable transcription/translation is delayed/suppressed in the segmented CNS. Further more, defects in localization of cell fate determinants and orientation of the mitotic spindle in dividing neuroblasts are much stronger than those associated with inscuteable loss of function. In inscuteable neuroblasts, cell fate determinants are mislocalized during prophase and metaphase, yet during anaphase and telophase the great majority of mutant neuroblasts localize these determinants as cortical crescents overlying one of the spindle poles. This phenomenon, known as 'telophase rescue', does not occur in the absence of the snail family genes; moreover, in contrast to inscuteable mutants, mitotic spindle orientation is completely randomized. Our data provide further evidence for the existence of two distinct asymmetry-controlling mechanisms in neuroblasts both of which require snail family gene function: an inscuteable-dependent mechanism that functions throughout mitosis and an inscuteable-independent mechanism that acts during anaphase/telophase. PMID:11285234

  10. Microtubule networks for plant cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de Jeroen; Mulder, B.M.; Janson, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    During cytokinesis the cytoplasm of a cell is divided to form two daughter cells. In animal cells, the existing plasma membrane is first constricted and then abscised to generate two individual plasma membranes. Plant cells on the other hand divide by forming an interior dividing wall, the so-called

  11. Symmetric cell division in pseudohyphae of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kron, S J; Styles, C. A.; Fink, G R

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are dimorphic; in response to nitrogen starvation they switch from a yeast form (YF) to a filamentous pseudohyphal (PH) form. Time-lapse video microscopy of dividing cells reveals that YF and PH cells differ in their cell cycles and budding polarity. The YF cell cycle is controlled at the G1/S transition by the cell-size checkpoint Start. YF cells divide asymmetrically, producing small daughters from full-sized mothers. As a result, mothers and d...

  12. Size-independent symmetric division in extraordinarily long cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Pende; N. Leisch; H.R. Gruber-Vodicka; N.R. Heindl; J. Ott; T. den Blaauwen; S. Bulgheresi

    2014-01-01

    Two long-standing paradigms in biology are that cells belonging to the same population exhibit little deviation from their average size and that symmetric cell division is size limited. Here, ultrastructural, morphometric and immunocytochemical analyses reveal that two Gammaproteobacteria attached t

  13. Relevant parameters in models of cell division control

    CERN Document Server

    Grilli, Jacopo; Kennard, Andrew S; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino

    2016-01-01

    A recent burst of dynamic single-cell growth-division data makes it possible to characterize the stochastic dynamics of cell division control in bacteria. Different modeling frameworks were used to infer specific mechanisms from such data, but the links between frameworks are poorly explored, with relevant consequences for how well any particular mechanism can be supported by the data. Here, we describe a simple and generic framework in which two common formalisms can be used interchangeably: (i) a continuous-time division process described by a hazard function and (ii) a discrete-time equation describing cell size across generations (where the unit of time is a cell cycle). In our framework, this second process is a discrete-time Langevin equation with a simple physical analogue. By perturbative expansion around the mean initial size (or inter-division time), we show explicitly how this framework describes a wide range of division control mechanisms, including combinations of time and size control, as well a...

  14. Microtubule networks for plant cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; Mulder, Bela M; Janson, Marcel E

    2014-09-01

    During cytokinesis the cytoplasm of a cell is divided to form two daughter cells. In animal cells, the existing plasma membrane is first constricted and then abscised to generate two individual plasma membranes. Plant cells on the other hand divide by forming an interior dividing wall, the so-called cell plate, which is constructed by localized deposition of membrane and cell wall material. Construction starts in the centre of the cell at the locus of the mitotic spindle and continues radially towards the existing plasma membrane. Finally the membrane of the cell plate and plasma membrane fuse to form two individual plasma membranes. Two microtubule-based cytoskeletal networks, the phragmoplast and the pre-prophase band (PPB), jointly control cytokinesis in plants. The bipolar microtubule array of the phragmoplast regulates cell plate deposition towards a cortical position that is templated by the ring-shaped microtubule array of the PPB. In contrast to most animal cells, plants do not use centrosomes as foci of microtubule growth initiation. Instead, plant microtubule networks are striking examples of self-organizing systems that emerge from physically constrained interactions of dispersed microtubules. Here we will discuss how microtubule-based activities including growth, shrinkage, severing, sliding, nucleation and bundling interrelate to jointly generate the required ordered structures. Evidence mounts that adapter proteins sense the local geometry of microtubules to locally modulate the activity of proteins involved in microtubule growth regulation and severing. Many of the proteins and mechanisms involved have roles in other microtubule assemblies as well, bestowing broader relevance to insights gained from plants. PMID:25136380

  15. Polyalkoxyflavonoids as inhibitors of cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. V.; Semenova, M. N.

    2015-02-01

    Being structural analogues of natural microtubule-destabilizing cytostatics, polyalkoxyflavonoids represent a promising class of compounds for anticancer drug design. The review covers synthetic routes to various polyalkoxyflavonoids and the results of biological assays in vitro on human cancer cells and in vivo using sea urchin embryos as a model. Mechanisms of action and structure-relationship activity for polyalkoxyflavonoids are discussed. The bibliography includes 151 references.

  16. Asymmetric inheritance of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Lydia Hulme; Ji-Long Liu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A general view is that Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes symmetric cell division with two daughter cells inheriting equal shares of the content from the mother cell. Here we show that CTP synthase, a metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, can form filamentous cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus of S. pombe cells. Surprisingly, we observe that both cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoophidia are asymmetrically inherited during cell division. Our t...

  17. Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast

  18. Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Koji; Sekine, Katsuhisa

    2007-02-01

    The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast.

  19. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, T.W.

    1992-07-01

    Cell division is arguably the most fundamental of all developmental processes. In higher plants, mitotic activity is largely confined to foci of patterned cell divisions called meristems. From these perpetually embryonic tissues arise the plant`s essential organs of light capture, support, protection and reproduction. Once an adequate understanding of plant cell mitotic regulation is attained, unprecedented opportunities will ensue for analyzing and genetically controlling diverse aspects of development, including plant architecture, leaf shape, plant height, and root depth. The mitotic cycle in a variety of model eukaryotic systems in under the control of a regulatory network of striking evolutionary conservation. Homologues of the yeast cdc2 gene, its catalytic product, p34, and the cyclin regulatory subunits of the MPF complex have emerged as ubiquitous mitotic regulators. We have cloned cdc2-like and cyclin genes from pea. As in other eukaryotic model systems, p34 of Pisum sativum is a subunit of a high molecular weight complex which binds the fission yeast p13 protein and displays histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. Our primary objective in this study is to gain baseline information about the regulation of this higher plant cell division control complex in non-dividing, differentiated cells as well as in synchronous and asynchronous mitotic cells. We are investigating cdc2 and cyclin expression at the levels of protein abundance, protein phosphorylation and quaternary associations.

  20. Chromosome replication, cell growth, division and shape: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Arieh; Woldringh, Conrad L

    2015-01-01

    The origins of Molecular Biology and Bacterial Physiology are reviewed, from our personal standpoints, emphasizing the coupling between bacterial growth, chromosome replication and cell division, dimensions and shape. Current knowledge is discussed with historical perspective, summarizing past and present achievements and enlightening ideas for future studies. An interactive simulation program of the bacterial cell division cycle (BCD), described as "The Central Dogma in Bacteriology," is briefly represented. The coupled process of transcription/translation of genes encoding membrane proteins and insertion into the membrane (so-called transertion) is invoked as the functional relationship between the only two unique macromolecules in the cell, DNA and peptidoglycan embodying the nucleoid and the sacculus respectively. We envision that the total amount of DNA associated with the replication terminus, so called "nucleoid complexity," is directly related to cell size and shape through the transertion process. Accordingly, the primary signal for cell division transmitted by DNA dynamics (replication, transcription and segregation) to the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery is of a physico-chemical nature, e.g., stress in the plasma membrane, relieving nucleoid occlusion in the cell's center hence enabling the divisome to assemble and function between segregated daughter nucleoids. PMID:26284044

  1. Systematic analysis of asymmetric partitioning of yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells reveals “aging factors” and mechanism of lifespan asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; McCormick, Mark A.; Zheng, Jiashun; Xie, Zhengwei; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiyama, Scott; El-Samad, Hana; Ouyang, Qi; Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K.; Li, Hao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we took a proteome-centric view to analyze the cell division and lifespan asymmetry between mother and daughter cells in budding yeast. Using a flow cytometry-based, high-throughput approach, we quantified the partitioning of the proteome and identified 74 mother-enriched and 60 daughter-enriched proteins. Functional analysis of these proteins suggests mechanisms of asymmetric partitioning at an organelle/suborganelle level. We found that mother-enriched proteins are much more l...

  2. Stem cell regulation: Implications when differentiated cells regulate symmetric stem cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyem, Marte Rørvik; Måløy, Frode; Jakobsen, Per; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2015-09-01

    We use a mathematical model to show that if symmetric stem cell division is regulated by differentiated cells, then changes in the population dynamics of the differentiated cells can lead to changes in the population dynamics of the stem cells. More precisely, the relative fitness of the stem cells can be affected by modifying the death rate of the differentiated cells. This result is interesting because stem cells are less sensitive than differentiated cells to environmental factors, such as medical therapy. Our result implies that stem cells can be manipulated indirectly by medical treatments that target the differentiated cells. PMID:25997796

  3. Formation of a cylindrical bridge in cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Daniel; Schmidt, Laura E.; Reichl, Elizabeth; Ren, Yixin; Robinson, Douglas; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2007-11-01

    In nature, the shape transition associated with the division of a mother cell into two daughter cells proceeds via a variety of routes. In the cylinder-thinning route, which has been observed in Dictyostelium and most animal cells, the mother cell first forms a broad bridge-like region, also known as a furrow, between two daughter cells. The furrow then rapidly evolves into a cylindrical bridge, which thins and eventually severs the mother cell into two. The fundamental mechanism underlying this division route is not understood. Recent experiments on Dictyostelium found that, while the cylinder-thinning route persists even when key actin cross-linking proteins are missing, it is disrupted by the removal of force-generating myosin-II proteins. Other measurements revealed that mutant cells lacking myosin-II have a much more uniform tension over the cell surface than wild-type cells. This suggests that tension variation may be important. Here we use a fluid model, previously shown to reproduce the thinning dynamics [Zhang & Robinson, PNAS 102, 7186 (2005)], to test this idea. Consistent with the experiments, the model shows that the cylinder formation process occurs regardless of the exact viscoelastic properties of the cell. In contrast to the experiments, a tension variation in the model hinders, rather then expedites, the cylinder formation.

  4. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  5. Rab24 is required for normal cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Rodrigo D; Munafó, Daniela B; Berón, Walter; López, Luis A; Monier, Solange; Goud, Bruno; Colombo, María I

    2013-05-01

    Rab24 is an atypical member of the Rab GTPase family whose distribution in interphase cells has been characterized; however, its function remains largely unknown. In this study, we have analyzed the distribution of Rab24 throughout cell division. We have observed that Rab24 was located at the mitotic spindle in metaphase, at the midbody during telophase and in the furrow during cytokinesis. We have also observed partial co-localization of Rab24 and tubulin and demonstrated its association to microtubules. Interestingly, more than 90% of transiently transfected HeLa cells with Rab24 presented abnormal nuclear connections (i.e., chromatin bridges). Furthermore, in CHO cells stably transfected with GFP-Rab24wt, we observed a large percentage of binucleated and multinucleated cells. In addition, these cells presented an extremely large size and multiple failures in mitosis, as aberrant spindle formation (metaphase), delayed chromosomes (telophase) and multiple cytokinesis. A marked increase in binucleated, multinucleated and multilobulated nucleus formation was observed in HeLa cells depleted of Rab24. We also present evidence that a fraction of Rab24 associates with microtubules. In addition, Rab24 knock down resulted in misalignment of chromosomes and abnormal spindle formation in metaphase leading to the appearance of delayed chromosomes during late telophase and failures in cytokinesis. Our findings suggest that an adequate level of Rab24 is necessary for normal cell division. In summary, Rab24 modulates several mitotic events, including chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, perhaps through the interaction with microtubules. PMID:23387408

  6. Cell division control by the Chromosomal Passenger Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, Maike S. van der; Hengeveld, Rutger C.C.; Horst, Armando van der; Lens, Susanne M.A., E-mail: s.m.a.lens@umcutrecht.nl

    2012-07-15

    The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) consisting of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin, is essential for genomic stability by controlling multiple processes during both nuclear and cytoplasmic division. In mitosis it ensures accurate segregation of the duplicated chromosomes by regulating the mitotic checkpoint, destabilizing incorrectly attached spindle microtubules and by promoting the axial shortening of chromosomal arms in anaphase. During cytokinesis the CPC most likely prevents chromosome damage by imposing an abscission delay when a chromosome bridge connects the two daughter cells. Moreover, by controlling proper cytoplasmic division, the CPC averts tetraploidization. This review describes recent insights on how the CPC is capable of conducting its various functions in the dividing cell to ensure chromosomal stability.

  7. The Seckel syndrome and centrosomal protein Ninein localizes asymmetrically to stem cell centrosomes but is not required for normal development, behavior, or DNA damage response in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiming; Mennella, Vito; Marks, Steven; Wildonger, Jill; Elnagdi, Esraa; Agard, David; Megraw, Timothy L

    2016-06-01

    Ninein (Nin) is a centrosomal protein whose gene is mutated in Seckel syndrome (SCKL, MIM 210600), an inherited recessive disease that results in primordial dwarfism, cognitive deficiencies, and increased sensitivity to genotoxic stress. Nin regulates neural stem cell self-renewal, interkinetic nuclear migration, and microtubule assembly in mammals. Nin is evolutionarily conserved, yet its role in cell division and development has not been investigated in a model organism. Here we characterize the single Nin orthologue in Drosophila Drosophila Nin localizes to the periphery of the centrosome but not at centriolar structures as in mammals. However, Nin shares the property of its mammalian orthologue of promoting microtubule assembly. In neural and germline stem cells, Nin localizes asymmetrically to the younger (daughter) centrosome, yet it is not required for the asymmetric division of stem cells. In wing epithelia and muscle, Nin localizes to noncentrosomal microtubule-organizing centers. Surprisingly, loss of nin expression from a nin mutant does not significantly affect embryonic and brain development, fertility, or locomotor performance of mutant flies or their survival upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Although it is not essential, our data suggest that Nin plays a supportive role in centrosomal and extracentrosomal microtubule organization and asymmetric stem cell division. PMID:27053665

  8. Cell Division Behaviour in a Heterogeneous Swarm Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Erskine, Adam; Herrmann, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a system of virtual particles that interact using simple kinetic rules. It is known that heterogeneous mixtures of particles are producing particularly interesting behaviours. Here we present a two-species swarm in which a behaviour emerges that resembles cell division. We show that the dividing behaviour exists across a narrow but finite band of parameters and for a wide range of population sizes. In a two dimensional environment the swarm's characteristics and dynamism manifests ...

  9. Patterns of Stem Cell Divisions Contribute to Plant Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Agata; Barbier de Reuille, Pierre; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2016-06-01

    The lifespan of plants ranges from a few weeks in annuals to thousands of years in trees. It is hard to explain such extreme longevity considering that DNA replication errors inevitably cause mutations. Without purging through meiotic recombination, the accumulation of somatic mutations will eventually result in mutational meltdown, a phenomenon known as Muller's ratchet. Nevertheless, the lifespan of trees is limited more often by incidental disease or structural damage than by genetic aging. The key determinants of tree architecture are the axillary meristems, which form in the axils of leaves and grow out to form branches. The number of branches is low in annual plants, but in perennial plants iterative branching can result in thousands of terminal branches. Here, we use stem cell ablation and quantitative cell-lineage analysis to show that axillary meristems are set aside early, analogous to the metazoan germline. While neighboring cells divide vigorously, axillary meristem precursors maintain a quiescent state, with only 7-9 cell divisions occurring between the apical and axillary meristem. During iterative branching, the number of branches increases exponentially, while the number of cell divisions increases linearly. Moreover, computational modeling shows that stem cell arrangement and positioning of axillary meristems distribute somatic mutations around the main shoot, preventing their fixation and maximizing genetic heterogeneity. These features slow down Muller's ratchet and thereby extend lifespan. PMID:27161504

  10. Differential Management of the Replication Terminus Regions of the Two Vibrio cholerae Chromosomes during Cell Division

    OpenAIRE

    Gaëlle Demarre; Elisa Galli; Leila Muresan; Evelyne Paly; Ariane David; Christophe Possoz; François-Xavier Barre

    2014-01-01

    The replication terminus region (Ter) of the unique chromosome of most bacteria locates at mid-cell at the time of cell division. In several species, this localization participates in the necessary coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division, notably for the selection of the division site, the licensing of the division machinery assembly and the correct alignment of chromosome dimer resolution sites. The genome of Vibrio cholerae, the agent of the deadly human disease choler...

  11. Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Björn; Bauwens, Andreas; Vollmer, Angelika; Ketelhut, Steffi; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Müthing, Johannes; Karch, Helge; von Bally, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) enables quantitative multifocus phase contrast imaging for nondestructive technical inspection and live cell analysis. Time-lapse investigations on human brain microvascular endothelial cells demonstrate the use of DHM for label-free dynamic quantitative monitoring of cell division of mother cells into daughter cells. Cytokinetic DHM analysis provides future applications in toxicology and cancer research.

  12. Asymmetric Zinc Phthalocyanines as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Gulenay; Yavuz, Yunus; Gurek, Aysegul; Canimkurbey, Betul; Kosemen, Arif; San, Sait Eren; Ahsen, Vefa

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received increasing attention due to their high incident to photon efficiency, easy fabrication and low production cost . Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the development of new and efficient sensitizers suitable for practical use. In TiO2-based DSSCs, efficiencies of up to 11.4% under simulated sunlight have been obtained with rutheniumepolypyridyl complexes. However, the main drawback of ruthenium complexes is the lack of absorption in the red region of the visible light and the high cost. For this reason, dyes with large and stable p-conjugated systems such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient DSSCs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been widely used as sensitizers because of their improved light-harvesting properties in the far red- and near-IR spectral regions and their extraordinary robustness [1]. In this work, a series of asymmetric Zn(II) Pcs bearing a carboxylic acid group and six hexylthia groups either at the peripheral or non-peripheral positions have been designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of the COOH group and the positions of hexylthia groups on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance.

  13. The simulation model of growth and cell divisions for the root apex with an apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska-Stachowiak, Anna; Nakielski, Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to seed plants, the roots of most ferns have a single apical cell which is the ultimate source of all cells in the root. The apical cell has a tetrahedral shape and divides asymmetrically. The root cap derives from the distal division face, while merophytes derived from three proximal division faces contribute to the root proper. The merophytes are produced sequentially forming three sectors along a helix around the root axis. During development, they divide and differentiate in a predictable pattern. Such growth causes cell pattern of the root apex to be remarkably regular and self-perpetuating. The nature of this regularity remains unknown. This paper shows the 2D simulation model for growth of the root apex with the apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata. The field of growth rates of the organ, prescribed by the model, is of a tensor type (symplastic growth) and cells divide taking principal growth directions into account. The simulations show how the cell pattern in a longitudinal section of the apex develops in time. The virtual root apex grows realistically and its cell pattern is similar to that observed in anatomical sections. The simulations indicate that the cell pattern regularity results from cell divisions which are oriented with respect to principal growth directions. Such divisions are essential for maintenance of peri-anticlinal arrangement of cell walls and coordinated growth of merophytes during the development. The highly specific division program that takes place in merophytes prior to differentiation seems to be regulated at the cellular level. PMID:23989670

  14. Chromokinesin: Kinesin superfamily regulating cell division through chromosome and spindle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ai; Tan, Fu-Qing; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2016-09-01

    Material transportation is essential for appropriate cellular morphology and functions, especially during cell division. As a motor protein moving along microtubules, kinesin has several intracellular functions. Many kinesins play important roles in chromosome condensation and separation and spindle organization during the cell cycle. Some of them even can directly bind to chromosomes, as a result, these proteins are called chromokinesins. Kinesin-4 and kinesin-10 family are two major families of chromokinesin and many members can regulate some processes, both in mitosis and meiosis. Their functions have been widely studied. Here, we summarize current knowledge about known chromokinesins and introduce their intracellular features in accordance with different families. Furthermore, we have also introduced some new-found but unconfirmed kinesins which may have a relationship with chromosomes or the cell cycle. PMID:27196062

  15. Huntingtin Regulates Mammary Stem Cell Division and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Elias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation during mammary gland morphogenesis. Here, we report the presence of huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington’s disease, in mouse mammary basal and luminal cells throughout mammogenesis. Keratin 5-driven depletion of huntingtin results in a decreased pool and specification of basal and luminal progenitors, and altered mammary morphogenesis. Analysis of mitosis in huntingtin-depleted basal progenitors reveals mitotic spindle misorientation. In mammary cell culture, huntingtin regulates spindle orientation in a dynein-dependent manner. Huntingtin is targeted to spindle poles through its interaction with dynein and promotes the accumulation of NUMA and LGN. Huntingtin is also essential for the cortical localization of dynein, dynactin, NUMA, and LGN by regulating their kinesin 1-dependent trafficking along astral microtubules. We thus suggest that huntingtin is a component of the pathway regulating the orientation of mammary stem cell division, with potential implications for their self-renewal and differentiation properties.

  16. Huntingtin regulates mammary stem cell division and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Salah; Thion, Morgane S; Yu, Hua; Sousa, Cristovao Marques; Lasgi, Charlène; Morin, Xavier; Humbert, Sandrine

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation during mammary gland morphogenesis. Here, we report the presence of huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington's disease, in mouse mammary basal and luminal cells throughout mammogenesis. Keratin 5-driven depletion of huntingtin results in a decreased pool and specification of basal and luminal progenitors, and altered mammary morphogenesis. Analysis of mitosis in huntingtin-depleted basal progenitors reveals mitotic spindle misorientation. In mammary cell culture, huntingtin regulates spindle orientation in a dynein-dependent manner. Huntingtin is targeted to spindle poles through its interaction with dynein and promotes the accumulation of NUMA and LGN. Huntingtin is also essential for the cortical localization of dynein, dynactin, NUMA, and LGN by regulating their kinesin 1-dependent trafficking along astral microtubules. We thus suggest that huntingtin is a component of the pathway regulating the orientation of mammary stem cell division, with potential implications for their self-renewal and differentiation properties. PMID:24749073

  17. Cell cycle related /sup 125/IUDR-induced-division delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments were run to determine if /sup 125/I-decays, in /sup 125/IUdR labeled DNA, specifically accumulated at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 hours after plating labeled mitotic cells caused a change in the rate or time of cell entry into mitosis. To accomplish this, a pool of labeled mitotic cells was selected in mitosis and plated in replicate flasks. /sup 125/I decays were accumulated in groups of cells by cooling (40C) for 2 hours starting at the designated times. After rewarding, colcemid was added to arrest cells in mitosis. The rate of cell progression into mitosis for each cell cycle time of accumulation was determined by scoring the mitotic index of cells sampled as a function of time after addition of the colcemid. The results are summarized: (1) Decays from /sup 125/I in /sup 125/I(UdR) labeled DNA reduced the rate of cell progression into mitosis and delayed the time of initiation of mitosis. (2) The reduced rate of progression and the delayed time of initiation of mitosis were independent of the cell cycle time that /sup 125/I-decays were accumulated. (3) The reduced rate of progression after cell cycle accumulation of /sup 125/I decay was statistically indistinguishable from the corresponding controls. (4) The delayed initiation of mitosis after specific cell cycle accumulation of /sup 125/I- decays was greater than the corresponding control. The relationship of these data to DNA and non-DNA division delay target(s) is emphasized

  18. Patterns of cell division revealed by transcriptional regulation of genes during the cell cycle in plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Fobert, P R; Coen, E S; Murphy, G. J.; Doonan, J H

    1994-01-01

    Transcripts from five cell cycle related genes accumulate in isolated cells dispersed throughout the actively dividing regions of plant meristems. We propose that this pattern reflects gene expression during particular phases of the cell division cycle. The high proportion of isolated cells suggests that synchrony between daughter cells is rapidly lost following mitosis. This is the first time that such a cell specific expression pattern has been described in a higher organism. Counterstainin...

  19. Cell Division, a new open access online forum for and from the cell cycle community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaldis Philipp

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cell Division is a new, open access, peer-reviewed online journal that publishes cutting-edge articles, commentaries and reviews on all exciting aspects of cell cycle control in eukaryotes. A major goal of this new journal is to publish timely and significant studies on the aberrations of the cell cycle network that occur in cancer and other diseases.

  20. Intrinsic potential of cell membranes: opposite effects of lipid transmembrane asymmetry and asymmetric salt ion distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Using atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we consider the intrinsic cell membrane potential that is found to originate from a subtle interplay between lipid transmembrane asymmetry and the asymmetric distribution of monovalent salt ions on the two sides of the cell membrane. It turns out...... that both the asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids across a membrane and the asymmetric distribution of NaCl and KCl induce nonzero drops in the transmembrane potential. However, these potential drops are opposite in sign. As the PC leaflet faces...

  1. Performance Analysis of Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access Communications with Asymmetric Quadrature Phase-Shift-Keying Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.-W.; Stark, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers a quaternary direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication system with asymmetric quadrature phase-shift-keying (AQPSK) modulation for unequal error protection (UEP) capability. Both time synchronous and asynchronous cases are investigated. An expression for the probability distribution of the multiple-access interference is derived. The exact bit-error performance and the approximate performance using a Gaussian approximation and random signature sequences are evaluated by extending the techniques used for uniform quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) DS-CDMA systems. Finally, a general system model with unequal user power and the near-far problem is considered and analyzed. The results show that, for a system with UEP capability, the less protected data bits are more sensitive to the near-far effect that occurs in a multiple-access environment than are the more protected bits.

  2. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Thomas W.

    2000-02-29

    Research in the latter part of the grant period was divided into two parts: (1) expansion of the macromolecular tool kit for studying plant cell division; (2) experiments in which the roles played by plant cell cycle regulators were to be cast in the light of the emerging yeast and animal cell paradigm for molecular control of the mitotic cycle. The first objectives were accomplished to a very satisfactory degree. With regard to the second part of the project, we were driven to change our objectives for two reasons. First, the families of cell cycle control genes that we cloned encoded such closely related members that the prospects for success at raising distinguishing antisera against each were sufficiently dubious as to be impractical. Epitope tagging is not feasible in Pisum sativum, our experimental system, as this species is not realistically transformable. Therefore, differentiating the roles of diverse cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was problematic. Secondly, our procedure for generating mitotically synchronized pea root meristems for biochemical studies was far too labor intensive for the proposed experiments. We therefore shifted our objectives to identifying connections between the conserved proteins of the cell cycle engine and factors that interface it with plant physiology and development. In this, we have obtained some very exciting results.

  3. Dynamics of Tetrahymena macronuclear lamina during cell division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBIN; ZHONGHEZHAI

    1994-01-01

    During mitosis,the nuclear lamina in higher eukaryotic cells undergoes a distinctly morphological change.It breaks down into lamin polymers or monomers at prophase.At telophase,the lamins reassemble around the condensed chromatin to form the layer of lamina.Using antiserum to mammalian lamins,we studied the dynamics of lamina during cell division in the macronuleus of Tetrahymena shanghaiensis,which divided in the way of amitosis.In contrast to those in higher animal cells,the typical perinuclear lamin distribution in the macronucleus persisted throughout the whole cell cycle.It was further found that in some synchronized cells,the lamin distribution bisplayed an unusual pattern consisting of a series of spots within the macronucleus.Using South-western hybridization,we found that the purified 66 KD lamin in Tetrahymena showed specific affinity with the telomere DNA sequence in the same species.Therefore,we propose that pattern of immunofluorescence may be due to the interaction of lamin protein with the nucleoli and the condensed chromatins in the macronucleus.

  4. Cell division pattern influences gene expression in the shoot apical meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrzykowska, Joanna; Fleming, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem of angiosperms shows a highly conserved cellular architecture in which a change of cell division orientation correlates with early events of leaf initiation. However, the causal role of this altered cellular parameter in leaf formation is debatable. We have used the dynamin-like protein phragmoplastin as a tool to modify the pattern of cell division within the apical meristem. Taking a microinduction approach, we show that local alteration in cell division orientatio...

  5. The effectiveness and problems of utilizing diagrams for secondary school students' learning of cell divisions

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Man-lai; 張敏麗

    2014-01-01

    Cell division is a topic widely recognized by biology teachers for its importance in the curriculum. However, it is also regarded by teachers and students as a very difficult topic. Students at different school levels often hold many misconceptions in cell divisions. While diagrams have been so commonly employed in biology textbooks to enhance the textual representation of cell divisions, the researcher of this study questioned about the cognitive role of the diagrams in helping students cons...

  6. From HeLa cell division to infectious diarrhoea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, J.; Osborne, M.P.; Spencer, A.J.; Warley, A. (Univ. of Birmingham (England))

    1990-09-01

    Hela S3 cells were grown in suspension both randomly and, synchronously using hydroxyurea which blocks cells at the G1/S interface. Cryosections were prepared, freeze-dried and analyzed by X-ray microanalysis. As cells moved into S and through M phases (Na) and (Cl) increased; both returned to normal levels upon re-entering G1 phase. The Na/K ratio was 1:1 in G1 phase. Infection of HeLa S3 cells in G1 phase with vaccinia virus resulted in no change in intracellular (Na). Infection of neonatal mice with murine rotavirus was localized to villus tip enterocytes and gave rise to diarrhoea which was maximal at 72h post-infection (p.i.). Diarrhoea was preceded by ischemia of villi (18-42h p.i.) and villus shortening (maximal at 42h p.i.), and was also coincident with a dramatic regrowth of villi. At 48h p.i. a proliferative zone of electron lucent cells was observed in villus base regions. Cryosections of infected gut, taken before, during, and after infection, together with corresponding age-matched controls, were freeze-dried and analysed by X-ray microanalysis. At 48h p.i. electron lucent villus base cells were shown to be more hydrated, and, to contain higher levels of both Na and Cl and lower levels of P, S, K and Mg than corresponding control cells. These studies increase confidence in the use of X-ray microanalysis in studying biological systems, provide some insight into the process of cell division, and constitute the basis of a new concept of diarrhoeal secretion.27 references.

  7. Radiomimetic effect of cisplatin on cucumber root development: the relationship between cell division and cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisplatin [DDP, cis-dichlorodiammine platinum (II)], a strong cytostatic and antineoplastic agent, was tested on seedlings of cucumber Cucumis sativus L. for its general effect on root development and its particular effects on root cell division and cell growth. DDP was characterized as a radiomimetic compound since both DDP (1·3 × 10-5 M) and γ-irradiation (2·5-10 kGy) drastically and irreversibly stopped development of embryonic lateral root primordia (LRPs) in the radicle by inhibiting both mitotic activity and cell growth. In 20% of the LRPs of DDP-treated roots, cells did not divide at all. Dividing cells completed no more than two cell cycles. These effects were specific because when DDP was available to the roots only at the onset of cell division, cell proliferation and cell growth were similar to that produced by constant incubation. Neither DDP nor γ-irradiation affected non-meristematic cell elongation. It was concluded that cell growth of meristematic cells is closely related to cell division. However, non-meristematic cell growth is independent of DNA damage. This suggests DDP as a tool to reveal these autonomous processes in plants development and to detect tissue compartments in mature plant embryos which contain potentially non-meristematic cells. (author)

  8. A DNA damage-induced, SOS-independent checkpoint regulates cell division in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W Modell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cells must coordinate DNA replication with cell division, especially during episodes of DNA damage. The paradigm for cell division control following DNA damage in bacteria involves the SOS response where cleavage of the transcriptional repressor LexA induces a division inhibitor. However, in Caulobacter crescentus, cells lacking the primary SOS-regulated inhibitor, sidA, can often still delay division post-damage. Here we identify didA, a second cell division inhibitor that is induced by DNA damage, but in an SOS-independent manner. Together, DidA and SidA inhibit division, such that cells lacking both inhibitors divide prematurely following DNA damage, with lethal consequences. We show that DidA does not disrupt assembly of the division machinery and instead binds the essential division protein FtsN to block cytokinesis. Intriguingly, mutations in FtsW and FtsI, which drive the synthesis of septal cell wall material, can suppress the activity of both SidA and DidA, likely by causing the FtsW/I/N complex to hyperactively initiate cell division. Finally, we identify a transcription factor, DriD, that drives the SOS-independent transcription of didA following DNA damage.

  9. A DNA damage-induced, SOS-independent checkpoint regulates cell division in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Kambara, Tracy K; Perchuk, Barrett S; Laub, Michael T

    2014-10-01

    Cells must coordinate DNA replication with cell division, especially during episodes of DNA damage. The paradigm for cell division control following DNA damage in bacteria involves the SOS response where cleavage of the transcriptional repressor LexA induces a division inhibitor. However, in Caulobacter crescentus, cells lacking the primary SOS-regulated inhibitor, sidA, can often still delay division post-damage. Here we identify didA, a second cell division inhibitor that is induced by DNA damage, but in an SOS-independent manner. Together, DidA and SidA inhibit division, such that cells lacking both inhibitors divide prematurely following DNA damage, with lethal consequences. We show that DidA does not disrupt assembly of the division machinery and instead binds the essential division protein FtsN to block cytokinesis. Intriguingly, mutations in FtsW and FtsI, which drive the synthesis of septal cell wall material, can suppress the activity of both SidA and DidA, likely by causing the FtsW/I/N complex to hyperactively initiate cell division. Finally, we identify a transcription factor, DriD, that drives the SOS-independent transcription of didA following DNA damage. PMID:25350732

  10. The cytological changes of tobacco zygote and proembryo cells induced by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent suggest the involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell division and cell plate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Miao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dicotyledonous plant, the first asymmetric zygotic division and subsequent several cell divisions are crucial for proembryo pattern formation and later embryo development. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a family of extensively glycosylated cell surface proteins that are thought to have important roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, including embryogenesis. Previous results from our laboratory show that AGPs are concerned with tobacco egg cell fertilization and zygotic division. However, how AGPs interact with other factors involved in zygotic division and proembryo development remains unknown. Results In this study, we used the tobacco in vitro zygote culture system and series of meticulous cell biology techniques to investigate the roles of AGPs in zygote and proembryo cell division. For the first time, we examined tobacco proembryo division patterns detailed to every cell division. The bright-field images and statistical results both revealed that with the addition of an exogenous AGPs inhibitor, beta-glucosyl Yariv (beta-GlcY reagent, the frequency of aberrant division increased remarkably in cultured tobacco zygotes and proembryos, and the cell plate specific locations of AGPs were greatly reduced after beta-GlcY treatment. In addition, the accumulations of new cell wall materials were also significantly affected by treating with beta-GlcY. Detection of cellulose components by Calcofluor white stain showed that strong fluorescence was located in the newly formed wall of daughter cells after the zygotic division of in vivo samples and the control samples from in vitro culture without beta-GlcY treatment; while there was only weak fluorescence in the newly formed cell walls with beta-GlcY treatment. Immunocytochemistry examination with JIM5 and JIM7 respectively against the low- and high-esterified pectins displayed that these two pectins located in opposite positions of zygotes and proembryos in

  11. Both asymmetric mitotic segregation and cell-to-cell invasion are required for stable germline transmission of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Landmann

    2012-04-01

    Parasitic filarial nematodes that belong to the Onchocercidae family live in mutualism with Wolbachia endosymbionts. We developed whole-mount techniques to follow the segregation patterns of Wolbachia through the somatic and germline lineages of four filarial species. These studies reveal multiple evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that are required for Wolbachia localization to the germline. During the initial embryonic divisions, Wolbachia segregate asymmetrically such that they concentrate in the posteriorly localized P2 blastomere, a precursor to the adult germline and hypodermal lineages. Surprisingly, in the next division they are excluded from the germline precursor lineage. Rather, they preferentially segregate to the C blastomere, a source of posterior hypodermal cells. Localization to the germline is accomplished by a distinct mechanism in which Wolbachia invade first the somatic gonadal cells close to the ovarian distal tip cell, the nematode stem cell niche, from the hypodermis. This tropism is associated with a cortical F-actin disruption, suggesting an active engulfment. Significantly, germline invasion occurs only in females, explaining the lack of Wolbachia in the male germline. Once in the syncytial environment of the ovaries, Wolbachia rely on the rachis to multiply and disperse into the germ cells. The utilization of cell-to-cell invasion for germline colonization may indicate an ancestral mode of horizontal transfer that preceded the acquisition of the mutualism.

  12. Is the cell division cycle gated by a circadian clock? The case of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Circadian oscillators are known to regulate the timing of cell division in many organisms. In the case of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, however, this conclusion has been challenged by several investigators. We have reexamined this issue and find that the division behavior of Chlamydomonas meets all the criteria for circadian rhythmicity: persistence of a cell division rhythm (a) with a period of approximately 24 h under free-running conditions, (b) that is temperature compensated, and (c) which ...

  13. Light can rescue auxin-dependent synchrony of cell division in a tobacco cell line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qiao, F.; Petrášek, Jan; Nick, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2010), s. 503-510. ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin transport * cell division * NPA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.818, year: 2010 http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/2/503.abstract

  14. Functional Genomic Analysis of Systemic Cell Division Regulation in Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legumes develop root nodules from pluripotent stem cells in the root pericycle in response to mitogenic activation by a decorated chitin-like nodulation factor synthesized in Rhizobium bacteria. The soybean genes encoding the receptor for such signals were cloned using map-based cloning approaches. Pluripotent cells in the root pericycle and the outer or inner cortex undergo repeated cell divisions to initiate a composite nodule primordium that develops to a functional nitrogen-fixing nodule. The process itself is autoregulated, leading to the characteristic nodulation of the upper root system. Autoregulation of nodulation (AON) in all legumes is controlled in part by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase gene (GmNARK). Mutations of GmNARK, and its other legume orthologues, result in abundant nodulation caused by the loss of a yet-undefined negative nodulation repressor system. AON receptor kinases are involved in perception of a long distance, root-derived signal, to negatively control nodule proliferation. GmNARK and LjHAR1 are expressed in phloem parenchyma. GmNARK kinase domain interacts with Kinase Associated Protein Phosphatase (KAPP). NARK gene expression did not mirror biological NARK activity in nodulation control, as q-RT-PCR in soybean revealed high NARK expression in roots, root tips, leaves, petioles, stems and hypocotyls, while shoot and root apical meristems were devoid of NARK RNA. High through-put transcript analysis in soybean leaf and root indicated that major genes involved in JA synthesis or response are preferentially down-regulated in leaf but not root of wild type, but not NARK mutants, suggesting that AON signaling may in part be controlled by events relating to hormone metabolism. Ethylene and abscisic acid insensitive mutants of L. japonicus are described. Nodulation in legumes has significance to global economies and ecologies, as the nitrogen input into the biosphere allows food, feed and biofuel production without the inherent costs

  15. Micromorph n-i-p tandem cells with asymmetric intermediate reflectors

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Franz-Josef; Söderström, Thomas; Terrazzoni-Daudrix, Vanessa; Ballif, Christophe; Sai, Hitoshi; Kondo, Michio

    2010-01-01

    We present tandem thin film silicon solar cells in n-i-p configuration with 12% initial efficiency. The stabilized efficiency of these devices is 10%. The result has become possible by the combination of a microcrystalline bottom cell with high current density and an asymmetric intermediate reflector that establishes a well adapted surface texture for the amorphous top cell. After successfully integrating these two steps, we obtain micromorph tandems cells with size of typically 0.25 cm2. The...

  16. CyDiv, a conserved and novel filamentous Cyanobacteria cell division protein involved in septum localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka eMandakovic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division, encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

  17. CyDiv, a Conserved and Novel Filamentous Cyanobacterial Cell Division Protein Involved in Septum Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Trigo, Carla; Andrade, Derly; Riquelme, Brenda; Gómez-Lillo, Gabriela; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Díez, Beatriz; Vásquez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division), encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:26903973

  18. Cell division plane orientation based on tensile stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveaux, Marion; Julien, Jean-Daniel; Mirabet, Vincent; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Cell geometry has long been proposed to play a key role in the orientation of symmetric cell division planes. In particular, the recently proposed Besson–Dumais rule generalizes Errera’s rule and predicts that cells divide along one of the local minima of plane area. However, this rule has been tested only on tissues with rather local spherical shape and homogeneous growth. Here, we tested the application of the Besson–Dumais rule to the divisions occurring in the Arabidopsis shoot apex, which contains domains with anisotropic curvature and differential growth. We found that the Besson–Dumais rule works well in the central part of the apex, but fails to account for cell division planes in the saddle-shaped boundary region. Because curvature anisotropy and differential growth prescribe directional tensile stress in that region, we tested the putative contribution of anisotropic stress fields to cell division plane orientation at the shoot apex. To do so, we compared two division rules: geometrical (new plane along the shortest path) and mechanical (new plane along maximal tension). The mechanical division rule reproduced the enrichment of long planes observed in the boundary region. Experimental perturbation of mechanical stress pattern further supported a contribution of anisotropic tensile stress in division plane orientation. Importantly, simulations of tissues growing in an isotropic stress field, and dividing along maximal tension, provided division plane distributions comparable to those obtained with the geometrical rule. We thus propose that division plane orientation by tensile stress offers a general rule for symmetric cell division in plants. PMID:27436908

  19. Noise and Epigenetic Inheritance of Single-Cell Division Times Influence Population Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerulus, Bram; New, Aaron M; Pougach, Ksenia; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-05-01

    The fitness effect of biological noise remains unclear. For example, even within clonal microbial populations, individual cells grow at different speeds. Although it is known that the individuals' mean growth speed can affect population-level fitness, it is unclear how or whether growth speed heterogeneity itself is subject to natural selection. Here, we show that noisy single-cell division times can significantly affect population-level growth rate. Using time-lapse microscopy to measure the division times of thousands of individual S. cerevisiae cells across different genetic and environmental backgrounds, we find that the length of individual cells' division times can vary substantially between clonal individuals and that sublineages often show epigenetic inheritance of division times. By combining these experimental measurements with mathematical modeling, we find that, for a given mean division time, increasing heterogeneity and epigenetic inheritance of division times increases the population growth rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the heterogeneity and epigenetic inheritance of single-cell division times can be linked with variation in the expression of catabolic genes. Taken together, our results reveal how a change in noisy single-cell behaviors can directly influence fitness through dynamics that operate independently of effects caused by changes to the mean. These results not only allow a better understanding of microbial fitness but also help to more accurately predict fitness in other clonal populations, such as tumors. PMID:27068419

  20. Asymmetric intermediate reflector for tandem micromorph thin film silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, T; Haug, F.-J.; Niquille, X.; Terrazzoni, V; Ballif, C.

    2009-01-01

    The micromorph solar cell (stack of amorphous and microcrystalline cells) concept is the key for achieving high efficiency stabilized thin film silicon solar cells. We introduce a device structure that allows a better control of the light in-coupling into the two subcell components. It is based on an asymmetric intermediate reflector, which increases the effective thickness of the a-Si:H by a factor of more than three. Hence, the a- Si:H thickness reduction dimi...

  1. A genetic screen for asymmetrically localized RNAs in Drosophila tracheal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Jayan Nandanan

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetrical localization of mRNAs and localized protein synthesis have an important role in establishing and maintaining polarity in cells such as neurons or the Drosophila oocyte and in the regulation of developmental plasticity. In Drosophila a subset of highly branched cells of the respiratory system exhibits both a high degree of polarity and developmental plasticity. These tracheal cells respond to the need for oxygen in the surrounding tissue by outgrowth of branches, often at sites ve...

  2. SpoIIE Is Necessary for Asymmetric Division, Sporulation, and Expression of σF, σE, and σG but Does Not Control Solvent Production in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824▿‡

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Changhao; Jones, Shawn W.; Hess, Daniel R.; Tracy, Bryan P.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    2011-01-01

    In order to better characterize the initial stages of sporulation past Spo0A activation and the associated solventogenesis in the important industrial and model organism Clostridium acetobutylicum, the spoIIE gene was successfully disrupted and its expression was silenced. By silencing spoIIE, sporulation was blocked prior to asymmetric division, and no mature spores or any distinguishable morphogenetic changes developed. Upon plasmid-based complementation of spoIIE, sporulation was restored,...

  3. Durability of symmetrically and asymmetrically porous polybenzimidazole membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheng, Li-Cheng; Chang, Wesley Jen-Yang; Hsu, Steve Lien-Chung; Cheng, Po-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Two types of porous polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes with symmetric and asymmetric morphologies were fabricated by the template-leaching method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Their physicochemical properties were compared in terms of acid-doping level, proton conductivity, mechanical strength, and oxidative stability. The durability of fuel cell operation is one of the most challenging for the PBI based membrane electrode assembly (MEA) used in high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). In the present work, we carried out a long-term steady-state fuel cell test to compare the effect of membrane structure on the cell voltage degradation. It has also been demonstrated that the asymmetrically porous PBI could bring some notable improvements on the durability of fuel cell operation, the fuel crossover problem, and the phosphoric acid leakage.

  4. The Protective Role of Symmetric Stem Cell Division on the Accumulation of Heritable Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Peter T.; Lander, Arthur D.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell divisions are either asymmetric—in which one daughter cell remains a stem cell and one does not—or symmetric, in which both daughter cells adopt the same fate, either stem or non-stem. Recent studies show that in many tissues operating under homeostatic conditions stem cell division patterns are strongly biased toward the symmetric outcome, raising the question of whether symmetry confers some benefit. Here, we show that symmetry, via extinction of damaged stem-cell clones, reduces the lifetime risk of accumulating phenotypically silent heritable damage (mutations or aberrant epigenetic changes) in individual stem cells. This effect is greatest in rapidly cycling tissues subject to accelerating rates of damage accumulation over time, a scenario that describes the progression of many cancers. A decrease in the rate of cellular damage accumulation may be an important factor favoring symmetric patterns of stem cell division. PMID:25121484

  5. Cell division of cycle of Bacillus subtilis: evidence of variability in period D.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, M.; Rickert, M; Pierucci, O

    1980-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis the deoxyribonucleic acid content and the extent of cell division during inhibition of chromosome replication increased as a function of the average cell mass, independent of the growth rate. At each growth rate, mass, deoxyribonucleic acid, and residual division varied in different cultures. The variation is consistent with a large variability in the D period. At growth rates higher than 1.5 doublings per h at 37 degrees C, the change in D accounts for the growth rate de...

  6. Asymmetric Receptor Contact is Required for Tyrosine Autophosphorylation of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor in Living Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, J.; Boggon, T; Tomé, F; Mandiyan, V; Lax, I; Schlessinge, J

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinases plays a critical role in regulation of kinase activity and in recruitment and activation of intracellular signaling pathways. Autophosphorylation is mediated by a sequential and precisely ordered intermolecular (trans) reaction. In this report we present structural and biochemical experiments demonstrating that formation of an asymmetric dimer between activated FGFR1 kinase domains is required for transphosphorylation of FGFR1 in FGF-stimulated cells. Transphosphorylation is mediated by specific asymmetric contacts between the N-lobe of one kinase molecule, which serves as an active enzyme, and specific docking sites on the C-lobe of a second kinase molecule, which serves a substrate. Pathological loss-of-function mutations or oncogenic activating mutations in this interface may hinder or facilitate asymmetric dimer formation and transphosphorylation, respectively. The experiments presented in this report provide the molecular basis underlying the control of transphosphorylation of FGF receptors and other receptor tyrosine kinases.

  7. Par1b induces asymmetric inheritance of plasma membrane domains via LGN-dependent mitotic spindle orientation in proliferating hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slim, Christiaan L; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Bijlard, Marjolein; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; de Bruin, Alain; Du, Quansheng; Müsch, Anne; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D

    2013-01-01

    The development and maintenance of polarized epithelial tissue requires a tightly controlled orientation of mitotic cell division relative to the apical polarity axis. Hepatocytes display a unique polarized architecture. We demonstrate that mitotic hepatocytes asymmetrically segregate their apical p

  8. Asymmetric centrosome inheritance maintains neural progenitors in neocortex

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoqun; Tsai, Jin-Wu; Imai, Janice H.; Lian, Wei-Nan; Vallee, Richard B.; Shi, Song-Hai

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric divisions of radial glial progenitors produce self-renewing radial glia and differentiating cells simultaneously in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the developing neocortex. While differentiating cells leave the VZ to constitute the future neocortex, renewing radial glial progenitors stay in the VZ for subsequent divisions. The differential behaviour of progenitors and their differentiating progeny is essential for neocortical development; however, the mechanisms that ensure these beh...

  9. Periplasmic Acid Stress Increases Cell Division Asymmetry (Polar Aging of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle W Clark

    Full Text Available Under certain kinds of cytoplasmic stress, Escherichia coli selectively reproduce by distributing the newer cytoplasmic components to new-pole cells while sequestering older, damaged components in cells inheriting the old pole. This phenomenon is termed polar aging or cell division asymmetry. It is unknown whether cell division asymmetry can arise from a periplasmic stress, such as the stress of extracellular acid, which is mediated by the periplasm. We tested the effect of periplasmic acid stress on growth and division of adherent single cells. We tracked individual cell lineages over five or more generations, using fluorescence microscopy with ratiometric pHluorin to measure cytoplasmic pH. Adherent colonies were perfused continually with LBK medium buffered at pH 6.00 or at pH 7.50; the external pH determines periplasmic pH. In each experiment, cell lineages were mapped to correlate division time, pole age and cell generation number. In colonies perfused at pH 6.0, the cells inheriting the oldest pole divided significantly more slowly than the cells inheriting the newest pole. In colonies perfused at pH 7.50 (near or above cytoplasmic pH, no significant cell division asymmetry was observed. Under both conditions (periplasmic pH 6.0 or pH 7.5 the cells maintained cytoplasmic pH values at 7.2-7.3. No evidence of cytoplasmic protein aggregation was seen. Thus, periplasmic acid stress leads to cell division asymmetry with minimal cytoplasmic stress.

  10. Study of the mechanism of diatom cell division by means of 29Si isotope tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diatoms are delicate unicellular organisms enclosed in a silica frustule, that is made up of two valves. Multiplication of the diatoms occurs by ordinary mitotic cell division. During cell division each cell produces two daughter cells, each of them keeping one of the two valves of the mother cell and producing a new valve by absorbing the silicon present in the environment. The NanoSIMS 50 allows ion imaging to be performed on diatoms in order to determine the site of fixation of silicon. The aim of this study was to observe and compare the mechanism of the construction of the new valve after cell division. To this end, different types of diatoms have been transferred in a culture medium enriched with 29Si and after several days, the distribution of the different isotopes of silicon has been determined by NanoSIMS50 imaging. The construction of new valves has been observed and the isotopic ratio has been determined

  11. System X supercomputer provides super tool for simulation of cell division

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech researchers in computer science and biology have used the university's supercomputer, System X, to create models and algorithms that make it possible to simulate the cell cycle -- the processes leading to cell division. They have demonstrated that the new mathematical models and numerical algorithms provide powerful tools for studying the complex processes going on inside living cells.

  12. From cell differentiation to cell collectives: Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi van Gestel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The organization of cells, emerging from cell-cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called "van Gogh bundles" of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity.

  13. Real-Time Lineage Analysis to Study Cell Division Orientation in the Arabidopsis Shoot Meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Cory J; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-01-01

    Cells in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem are small and divide frequently throughout the life-time of the organism making them good candidates for studying the mechanisms of cell division in plants. But tracking these cell divisions requires multiple images to be taken of the same specimen over time which means the specimen must stay alive throughout the process. This chapter provides details on how to prepare plants for live imaging, keep them alive and growing through multiple time points, and how to process the data to extract cell boundary coordinates from three-dimensional images. PMID:26659961

  14. Interaction of hyperthermia and radiation on the induction of division delay in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis was used in the investigation of the interaction of hyperthermia and ionizing radiation on the induction and duration of division delay in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Hyperthermia (immersion in a 45 degrees C water bath) produced a blockade of cell cycle progression with a transition point in late G2-early M, approximately at the X-ray transition point (35 min prior to selection). The duration of division delay for heated cells depended on the time of immersion: 24 minutes/minute at 45 degrees C. Radiation-induced division delay occurred at a rate of 45 minutes/gray of X-irradiation. When hyperthermic exposure and X-irradiation were combined with less than 1 minute between treatments, a division delay resulted that was approximately the sum of the delays produced by the individual treatments. As the interval between treatments was increased, the overall division delay also increased beyond that which could be accounted for solely by the postponement of the second treatment. These results indicate that hyperthermia and radiation induce division delay by different mechanisms

  15. A novel asymmetric 3D in-vitro assay for the study of tumor cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of tumor cell invasion is an important step in tumor progression. Due to the cost and slowness of in-vivo invasion assays, there is need for quantitative in-vitro invasion assays that mimic as closely as possible the tumor environment and in which conditions can be rigorously controlled. We have established a novel asymmetric 3D in-vitro invasion assay by embedding a monolayer of tumor cells between two layers of collagen. The cells were then allowed to invade the upper and lower layers of collagen. To visualize invading cells the gels were sectioned perpendicular to the monolayer so that after seeding the monolayer appears as a thin line precisely defining the origin of invasion. The number of invading tumor cells, their proliferation rate, the distance they traverse and the direction of invasion could then be determined quantitatively. The assay was used to compare the invasive properties of several tumor cell types and the results compare well with those obtained by previously described assays. Lysyl-oxidase like protein-2 (Loxl2) is a potent inducer of invasiveness. Using our assay we show for the first time that inhibition of endogenous Loxl2 expression in several types of tumor cells strongly inhibits their invasiveness. We also took advantage of the asymmetric nature of the assay in order to show that fibronectin enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells more potently than laminin. The asymmetric properties of the assay were also used to demonstrate that soluble factors derived from fibroblasts can preferentially attract invading breast cancer cells. Our assay displays several advantages over previous invasion assays as it is allows the quantitative analysis of directional invasive behavior of tumor cells in a 3D environment mimicking the tumor microenvironment. It should be particularly useful for the study of the effects of components of the tumor microenvironment on tumor cell invasiveness

  16. Temperature gradient stimulation for cell division in C. Elegans Embryos on chip

    OpenAIRE

    Baranek, Sophie; Bezler, Alexandra; Adamczyk, Christian; Gönczy, Pierre; Renaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a new microfluidic device for temperature stimulation of cell in in-vitro culture. Micro-electrodes in a meander shape are embedded into the microfluidic channels to generate either a temperature gradient through the culture chamber or a local heat spot under specific cells. One promising application is the control of cell di- vision rate. Here we present first results of the synchronization of cell division in a two-cell stage embryos of C. Elegans.

  17. Phosphorus deficiency inhibits cell division but not growth in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen eLi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential nutrient element for the growth of phytoplankton. How P deficiency affects population growth and the cell division cycle in dinoflagellates has only been studied in some species, and how it affects photosynthesis and cell growth remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the impact of P deficiency on the cell division cycle, the abundance of the carbon-fixing enzyme Rubisco, and other cellular characteristics in the Gymnodiniales peridinin-plastid species Amphidinium carterae. We found that under P-replete condition, the cell cycle actively progressed in the culture in a 24-hour diel cycle with daily growth rates markedly higher than the P-deficient cultures, in which cells were arrested in the G1 phase and cell size significantly enlarged. The results suggest that, as in previously studied dinoflagellates, P deficiency likely disenables A. carterae to complete DNA duplication or check-point protein phosphorylation. We further found that under P-deficient condition, overall photosystem II quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm ratio and Rubisco abundance decreased but not significantly, while cellular contents of carbon, nitrogen, and proteins increased significantly. These observations indicated that under P-deficiency, this dinoflagellate was able to continue photosynthesis and carbon fixation, such that proteins and photosynthetically fixed carbon could accumulate resulting in continued cell growth in the absence of division. This is likely an adaptive strategy thereby P-limited cells can be ready to resume the cell division cycle upon resupply of phosphorus.

  18. A Numerical Simulation of Cell Separation by Simplified Asymmetric Pinched Flow Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing-Tao; Xu, Yuan-Qing; Tang, Xiao-Ying

    2016-01-01

    As a typical microfluidic cell sorting technique, the size-dependent cell sorting has attracted much interest in recent years. In this paper, a size-dependent cell sorting scheme is presented based on a controllable asymmetric pinched flow by employing an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM). The geometry of channels consists of 2 upstream branches, 1 transitional channel, and 4 downstream branches (D-branches). Simulations are conducted by varying inlet flow ratio, the cell size, and the ratio of flux of outlet 4 to the total flux. It is found that, after being randomly released in one upstream branch, the cells are aligned in a line close to one sidewall of the transitional channel due to the hydrodynamic forces of the asymmetric pinched flow. Cells with different sizes can be fed into different downstream D-branches just by regulating the flux of one D-branch. A principle governing D-branch choice of a cell is obtained, with which a series of numerical cases are performed to sort the cell mixture involving two, three, or four classes of diameters. Results show that, for each case, an adaptive regulating flux can be determined to sort the cell mixture effectively. PMID:27597877

  19. Cells as Active Particles in Asymmetric Potentials: Motility under External Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelles, Jordi; Caballero, David; Voituriez, Raphaël; Hortigüela, Verónica; Wollrab, Viktoria; Godeau, Amélie Luise; Samitier, Josep; Martínez, Elena; Riveline, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is a crucial event during development and in disease. Mechanical constraints and chemical gradients can contribute to the establishment of cell direction, but their respective roles remain poorly understood. Using a microfabricated topographical ratchet, we show that the nucleus dictates the direction of cell movement through mechanical guidance by its environment. We demonstrate that this direction can be tuned by combining the topographical ratchet with a biochemical gradient of fibronectin adhesion. We report competition and cooperation between the two external cues. We also quantitatively compare the measurements associated with the trajectory of a model that treats cells as fluctuating particles trapped in a periodic asymmetric potential. We show that the cell nucleus contributes to the strength of the trap, whereas cell protrusions guided by the adhesive gradients add a constant tunable bias to the direction of cell motion. PMID:25296303

  20. Direct interaction between the cell division protein FtsZ and the cell differentiation protein SpoIIE

    OpenAIRE

    Lucet, Isabelle; Feucht, Andrea; Yudkin, Michael D.; Errington, Jeffery

    2000-01-01

    SpoIIE is a bifunctional protein with two critical roles in the establishment of cell fate in Bacillus subtilis. First, SpoIIE is needed for the normal formation of the asymmetrically positioned septum that forms early in sporulation and separates the mother cell from the prespore compartment. Secondly, SpoIIE is essential for the activation of the first compartment-specific transcription factor σF in the prespore. After initiation of sporulation, SpoIIE localizes to the potential asymmetric ...

  1. Scaling laws governing stochastic growth and division of single bacterial cells

    CERN Document Server

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Henry, Jonathan T; Lo, Klevin; Burov, Stanislav; Lin, Yihan; Crooks, Gavin E; Crosson, Sean; Dinner, Aaron R; Scherer, Norbert F

    2014-01-01

    Uncovering the quantitative laws that govern the growth and division of single cells remains a major challenge. Using a unique combination of technologies that yields unprecedented statistical precision, we find that the sizes of individual Caulobacter crescentus cells increase exponentially in time. We also establish that they divide upon reaching a critical multiple ($\\approx$1.8) of their initial sizes, rather than an absolute size. We show that when the temperature is varied, the growth and division timescales scale proportionally with each other over the physiological temperature range. Strikingly, the cell-size and division-time distributions can both be rescaled by their mean values such that the condition-specific distributions collapse to universal curves. We account for these observations with a minimal stochastic model that is based on an autocatalytic cycle. It predicts the scalings, as well as specific functional forms for the universal curves. Our experimental and theoretical analysis reveals a ...

  2. Cell division licensing in the multi-chromosomal Vibrio cholerae bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Elisa; Poidevin, Mickaël; Le Bars, Romain; Desfontaines, Jean-Michel; Muresan, Leila; Paly, Evelyne; Yamaichi, Yoshiharu; Barre, François-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Cell division must be coordinated with chromosome replication and segregation to ensure the faithful transmission of genetic information during proliferation. In most bacteria, assembly of the division apparatus, the divisome, starts with the polymerization of a tubulin homologue, FtsZ, into a ring-like structure at mid-cell, the Z-ring(1). It typically occurs at half of the cell cycle when most of the replication and segregation cycle of the unique chromosome they generally harbour is achieved(2). The chromosome itself participates in the regulation of cell division, at least in part because it serves as a scaffold to position FtsZ polymerization antagonists(3). However, about 10% of bacteria have more than one chromosome(4), which raises questions about the way they license cell division(3). For instance, the genome of Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera, is divided between a 3 Mbp replicon that originates from the chromosome of its mono-chromosomal ancestor, Chr1, and a 1 Mbp plasmid-derived replicon, Chr2 (ref. 5). Here, we show that Chr2 harbours binding motifs for an inhibitor of Z-ring formation, which helps accurately position the V. cholerae divisome at mid-cell and postpones its assembly to the very end of the cell cycle. PMID:27562255

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Transmigrates at Epithelial Cell-Cell Junctions, Exploiting Sites of Cell Division and Senescent Cell Extrusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Golovkine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve systemic infection, bacterial pathogens must overcome the critical and challenging step of transmigration across epithelial barriers. This is particularly true for opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an agent which causes nosocomial infections. Despite extensive study, details on the mechanisms used by this bacterium to transmigrate across epithelial tissues, as well as the entry sites it uses, remain speculative. Here, using real-time microscopy and a model epithelial barrier, we show that P. aeruginosa employs a paracellular transmigration route, taking advantage of altered cell-cell junctions at sites of cell division or when senescent cells are expelled from the cell layer. Once a bacterium transmigrates, it is followed by a cohort of bacteria using the same entry point. The basal compartment is then invaded radially from the initial penetration site. Effective transmigration and propagation require type 4 pili, the type 3 secretion system (T3SS and a flagellum, although flagellum-deficient bacteria can occasionally invade the basal compartment from wounded areas. In the basal compartment, the bacteria inject the T3SS toxins into host cells, disrupting the cytoskeleton and focal contacts to allow their progression under the cells. Thus, P. aeruginosa exploits intrinsic host cell processes to breach the epithelium and invade the subcellular compartment.

  4. Particle-in-cell simulation study of the scaling of asymmetric magnetic reconnection with in-plane flow shear

    CERN Document Server

    Doss, C E; Swisdak, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate magnetic reconnection in systems simultaneously containing asymmetric (anti-parallel) magnetic fields, asymmetric plasma densities and temperatures, and arbitrary in-plane bulk flow of plasma in the upstream regions. Such configurations are common in the high-latitudes of Earth's magnetopause and in tokamaks. We investigate the convection speed of the X-line, the scaling of the reconnection rate, and the condition for which the flow suppresses reconnection as a function of upstream flow speeds. We use two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations to capture the mixing of plasma in the outflow regions better than is possible in fluid modeling. We perform simulations with asymmetric magnetic fields, simulations with asymmetric densities, and simulations with magnetopause-like parameters where both are asymmetric. For flow speeds below the predicted cutoff velocity, we find good scaling agreement with the theory presented in Doss et al., J.~Geophys.~Res., 120, 7748 (2015). Applications to planetary...

  5. Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsZ is a guanine nucleotide binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, A; Dai, K; Lutkenhaus, J

    1993-01-01

    FtsZ is an essential cell division protein in Escherichia coli that forms a ring structure at the division site under cell cycle control. The dynamic nature of the FtsZ ring suggests possible similarities to eukaryotic filament forming proteins such as tubulin. In this study we have determined that FtsZ is a GTP/GDP binding protein with GTPase activity. A short segment of FtsZ is homologous to a segment in tubulin believed to be involved in the interaction between tubulin and guanine nucleoti...

  6. Vegetative Cell Division and Nuclear Translocation in Three Algae Species of Netrium (Zygnematales, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAN HENDRAYANTI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Netrium oblongum, N. digitus v. latum, and N. interruptum were studied for their mode in the vegetative cell division and nuclear translocation during mitosis using light and fluorescence microscopy. The process of cell division in the three species began with the prominent constriction at the chloroplast in both semicells about half way from the apex. The constriction of chloroplast was mostly visible in N. digitus v. latum. Soon after nucleus divided, septum was formed across the cell and cytokinesis occurred. Observation with fluorescence microscope showed that the movement of nucleus moved back into the center of daughter cells was not always synchronous. Division of chloroplast in N. oblongum and N. digitus v. latum were different with that of N. interruptum. Chloroplast division in two former species occured following the movement of the nucleus down semicell. However, in N. interruptum, chloroplast divided later after nucleus occupied the position at the center of the daughter cells. Cell restoration started after the completion of mitosis and cytokinesis.

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis peptidoglycan hydrolase SleB171 involved in daughter cell separation during cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Hu, Penggao; Zhao, Xiuyun; Yu, Ziniu; Li, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Whole-genome analyses have revealed a putative cell wall hydrolase gene (sleB171) that constitutes an operon with two other genes (ypeBandyhcN) of unknown function inBacillus thuringiensisBMB171. The putative SleB171 protein consists of 259 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 28.3 kDa. Gene disruption ofsleB171in the BMB171 genome causes the formation of long cell chains during the vegetative growth phase and delays spore formation and spore release, although it has no significant effect on cell growth and the ultimate release of the spores. The inseparable vegetative cells were nearly restored through the complementation ofsleB171expression. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed thatsleB171is mainly active in the vegetative growth phase, with a maximum activity at the early stationary growth phase. Western blot analysis also confirmed thatsleB171is preferentially expressed during the vegetative growth phase. These results demonstrated that SleB171 plays an essential role in the daughter cell separation during cell division. PMID:26922318

  8. Injury-induced asymmetric cell death as a driving force for head regeneration in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliot, Brigitte

    2013-03-01

    The freshwater Hydra polyp provides a unique model system to decipher the mechanisms underlying adult regeneration. Indeed, a single cut initiates two distinct regenerative processes, foot regeneration on one side and head regeneration on the other side, the latter relying on the rapid formation of a local head organizer. Two aspects are discussed here: the asymmetric cellular remodeling induced by mid-gastric bisection and the signaling events that trigger head organizer formation. In head-regenerating tips (but not in foot ones), a wave of cell death takes place immediately, leading the apoptotic cells to transiently release Wnt3 and activate the β-catenin pathway in the neighboring cycling cells to push them through mitosis. This process, which mimics the apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation process deciphered in Drosophila larvae regenerating their discs, likely corresponds to an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, also at work in Xenopus tadpoles regenerating their tail or mice regenerating their skin or liver. How is this process generated in Hydra? Several studies pointed to the necessary activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways during early head regeneration. Indeed inhibition of ERK 1-2 or knockdown of RSK, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and CREB-binding protein (CBP) prevent injury-induced apoptosis and head regeneration. The current scenario involves an asymmetric activation of the MAPK/CREB pathway to trigger injury-induced apoptosis in the interstitial cells and in the epithelial cells a CREB/CBP-dependent transcriptional activation of early genes essential for head-organizing activity as wnt3, HyBra1, and prdl-a. The question now is how bisection in the rather uniform central region of the polyp can generate this immediately asymmetric signaling. PMID:22833103

  9. Electromagnetic field influences on cell surface potential and cell division in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electromagnetic field on cell surface potential and cell division were studied in s.cerevisiae. The strains used were, GM3 (a/gal 10,trp1, ura4, met 8, ade 5,7,les1, ilvl,arol D, suc-mal, cupr.)and ural (a/urap+w-c 321, R E 221, R) an electromagnetic field (h) .O.I.T, cell resistance (R) increased from 0.158 MΩ to 0.200 M Ω through 5 min. The magnetic field (MF) were switching off. The resistance spontaneously increased reaching 1.000 M Ω at the 9 Th min. However, slowly decrease occurred and reaching 0.560 M Omega at the 15 Th min. By using the MF after 15 min., the resistance value reaching 0.180 M OMEGA, through 15-25 min and cell potential (V) ranged between 130-240 mV. Cell culture, of two strains (same mating type) was used, the resistance, R., was 4000 M Ω and V; 600 mV with two cycles min, R; reached 3200 M Ω. On further cycle of (H) led to a huge sudden decrease of R; 0.176 M Ω the cell numbers were depended, upon the cell potential, due to the application of (H). For the first strain used, cell number decreased from 2x106 cells/ml to 1.5x106 cells/ml and from 2.1x108 cells/ml to 1.7x108 cells/ml after 5 min exposure to (H) for culture incubated at 30 degree on log and stationary phases respectively. While, the cell number in ural was decreased from 3.5x106 cells/ml and from 1.78x108 cells/ ml. to 1.71x108 cells/ml through 5 min exposure to (H) for culture incubated at 30 degree on log and stationary phases respectively

  10. Do Online Labs Work? An Assessment of an Online Lab on Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    Some studies show students successfully learning science through online courses. This study compared students doing an online and in-class lab exercise on cell division. Online students performed slightly but significantly better on a follow-up content quiz, however, about half those expressed a strong preference for in-class lab work.

  11. Asymmetric intermediate reflector for tandem micromorph thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, T.; Haug, F.-J.; Niquille, X.; Terrazzoni, V.; Ballif, C.

    2009-02-01

    The micromorph solar cell (stack of amorphous and microcrystalline cells) concept is the key for achieving high efficiency stabilized thin film silicon solar cells. We introduce a device structure that allows a better control of the light in-coupling into the two subcell components. It is based on an asymmetric intermediate reflector, which increases the effective thickness of the a-Si:H by a factor of more than three. Hence, the a-Si:H thickness reduction diminishes the light induced degradation, and micromorph tandem cells with 11.2% initial and 9.8% stabilized efficiencies (1000 h, 50 °C, and 100 mW/cm2) are made on plastic substrates with Tg<180 °C.

  12. Building the perfect parasite: cell division in apicomplexa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Striepen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexans are pathogens responsible for malaria, toxoplasmosis, and crytposporidiosis in humans, and a wide range of livestock diseases. These unicellular eukaryotes are stealthy invaders, sheltering from the immune response in the cells of their hosts, while at the same time tapping into these cells as source of nutrients. The complexity and beauty of the structures formed during their intracellular development have made apicomplexans the darling of electron microscopists. Dramatic technological progress over the last decade has transformed apicomplexans into respectable genetic model organisms. Extensive genomic resources are now available for many apicomplexan species. At the same time, parasite transfection has enabled researchers to test the function of specific genes through reverse and forward genetic approaches with increasing sophistication. Transfection also introduced the use of fluorescent reporters, opening the field to dynamic real time microscopic observation. Parasite cell biologists have used these tools to take a fresh look at a classic problem: how do apicomplexans build the perfect invasion machine, the zoite, and how is this process fine-tuned to fit the specific niche of each pathogen in this ancient and very diverse group? This work has unearthed a treasure trove of novel structures and mechanisms that are the focus of this review.

  13. Partitioning and Exocytosis of Secretory Granules during Division of PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Vassilev Bukoreshtliev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biogenesis, maturation, and exocytosis of secretory granules in interphase cells have been well documented, whereas the distribution and exocytosis of these hormone-storing organelles during cell division have received little attention. By combining ultrastructural analyses and time-lapse microscopy, we here show that, in dividing PC12 cells, the prominent peripheral localization of secretory granules is retained during prophase but clearly reduced during prometaphase, ending up with only few peripherally localized secretory granules in metaphase cells. During anaphase and telophase, secretory granules exhibited a pronounced movement towards the cell midzone and, evidently, their tracks colocalized with spindle microtubules. During cytokinesis, secretory granules were excluded from the midbody and accumulated at the bases of the intercellular bridge. Furthermore, by measuring exocytosis at the single granule level, we showed, that during all stages of cell division, secretory granules were competent for regulated exocytosis. In conclusion, our data shed new light on the complex molecular machinery of secretory granule redistribution during cell division, which facilitates their release from the F-actin-rich cortex and active transport along spindle microtubules.

  14. Scaling laws governing stochastic growth and division of single bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Wright, Charles S; Henry, Jonathan T; Lo, Klevin; Burov, Stanislav; Lin, Yihan; Crooks, Gavin E; Crosson, Sean; Dinner, Aaron R; Scherer, Norbert F

    2014-11-11

    Uncovering the quantitative laws that govern the growth and division of single cells remains a major challenge. Using a unique combination of technologies that yields unprecedented statistical precision, we find that the sizes of individual Caulobacter crescentus cells increase exponentially in time. We also establish that they divide upon reaching a critical multiple (≈ 1.8) of their initial sizes, rather than an absolute size. We show that when the temperature is varied, the growth and division timescales scale proportionally with each other over the physiological temperature range. Strikingly, the cell-size and division-time distributions can both be rescaled by their mean values such that the condition-specific distributions collapse to universal curves. We account for these observations with a minimal stochastic model that is based on an autocatalytic cycle. It predicts the scalings, as well as specific functional forms for the universal curves. Our experimental and theoretical analysis reveals a simple physical principle governing these complex biological processes: a single temperature-dependent scale of cellular time governs the stochastic dynamics of growth and division in balanced growth conditions. PMID:25349411

  15. Cell division in Escherichia coli BS-12 is hypersensitive to deoxyribonucleic acid damage by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escherichia coli BS-12 uvrA lon is hypersensitive to ultraviolet light. On minimal agar plates at densities in excess of about 10(7) bacteria per plate, as few as one or two photoreversible pyrimidine dimers in the entire genome are sufficient to cause inhibition of cell division. Most of the resulting filaments are unable to divide or form a viable colony. Inhibition of cell division appears to be a rapid consequence of replication of deoxyribonucleic acid containing a pyrimidine dimer. Photoreversibility of the inhibition of cell division persists indefinitely, indicating that the continued presence of the pyrimidine dimers (or the continued generation of daughter strand gaps) is necessary to maintain the division-inhibited state. In view of the kinetics for the production of filamentation by ultraviolet light and the extremely low average inducing fluence (0.03 J/m2), it is concluded that the initiating signal is not the same as that causing other inducible phenomena such as prophage induction or Weigle reactivation

  16. An archaebacterial homologue of the essential eubacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, P; Jackson, S P

    1996-01-01

    Life falls into three fundamental domains--Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya (formerly archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes,. respectively). Though Archaea lack nuclei and share many morphological features with Bacteria, molecular analyses, principally of the transcription and translation machineries, have suggested that Archaea are more related to Eucarya than to Bacteria. Currently, little is known about the archaeal cell division apparatus. In Bacteria, a crucial component of the cell d...

  17. Tension-oriented cell divisions limit anisotropic tissue tension in epithelial spreading during zebrafish epiboly

    OpenAIRE

    Campinho, Pedro; Behrndt, Martin; Ranft, Jonas; Risler, Thomas; Minc, Nicolas; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial spreading is a common and fundamental aspect of various developmental and disease-related processes such as epithelial closure and wound healing. A key challenge for epithelial tissues undergoing spreading is to increase their surface area without disrupting epithelial integrity. Here we show that orienting cell divisions by tension constitutes an efficient mechanism by which the enveloping cell layer (EVL) releases anisotropic tension while undergoing spreading during zebrafish ep...

  18. Correlation between Nitric oxide (NO & Asymmetric dimethylargininie (ADMA Hemoglobin Concentration in sickle cell patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadkhodaei ElyaderaniM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The importance of Nitric oxide (NO andAsymmetric dimethylargininie (ADMA in pathophysiology of Sickle celldisease (SCD is being increasingly clarified. Since very few of the studieshave been conducted in the word and no study has been carried out in Iran,especially in Khuzestan province where is the main center of Sickle Celldisorder (SCD in Iran, We decided to conduct the present study.Material and Methods: EDTA anticoagulated plasma samples were obtainedfrom 35 healthy controls (Hb AA, 35 heterozygous (HB AS and 35homozygous (HB SS sickle cell anemia patients. Plasma concentration of NOwas measured by Colorimetric and Griess reaction and the concentration ofADMA by employing ELISA method. Then the results were analyzed by tstudenttest and OneWay ANOVA.Results: There is a positive significance correlation between Hemoglobin(Hb and NO in SS (r=0.703 and AS (r=0.366 groups. Also, a negativecorrelation between Hb and ADMA in SS (r=-0.786 and AS (r=-0.478groups is seen. No correlation is found between these parameters in AAgroup.Conclusion: The prevention of Hb concentration decrease and prescription ofNO donors and (or ADMA disintegrators can be helpful for improvingclinical signs of sickle cell patients.Key words: Nitric oxide (NO, Asymmetric dimethylargininie (ADMA,Sickle cell disease (SCD.

  19. Fission yeast cells undergo nuclear division in the absence of spindle microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Castagnetti

    Full Text Available Mitosis in eukaryotic cells employs spindle microtubules to drive accurate chromosome segregation at cell division. Cells lacking spindle microtubules arrest in mitosis due to a spindle checkpoint that delays mitotic progression until all chromosomes have achieved stable bipolar attachment to spindle microtubules. In fission yeast, mitosis occurs within an intact nuclear membrane with the mitotic spindle elongating between the spindle pole bodies. We show here that in fission yeast interference with mitotic spindle formation delays mitosis only briefly and cells proceed to an unusual nuclear division process we term nuclear fission, during which cells perform some chromosome segregation and efficiently enter S-phase of the next cell cycle. Nuclear fission is blocked if spindle pole body maturation or sister chromatid separation cannot take place or if actin polymerization is inhibited. We suggest that this process exhibits vestiges of a primitive nuclear division process independent of spindle microtubules, possibly reflecting an evolutionary intermediate state between bacterial and Archeal chromosome segregation where the nucleoid divides without a spindle and a microtubule spindle-based eukaryotic mitosis.

  20. DNA synthesis and cell division in the adult primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that the adult human brain is incapable of producing new neuron. Even cursory examination of neurologic, neuropathologic, or neurobiological textbooks published during the past 50 years will testify that this belief is deeply entrenched. In his classification of cell populations on the basis of their proliferative behavior, Leblond regarded neurons of the central nervous system as belonging to a category of static, nonrenewing epithelial tissue incapable of expanding or replenishing itself. This belief, however needs to re reexamined for two major reasons: First, as reviewed below, a number of reports have provided evidence of neurogenesis in adult brain of several vertebrate species. Second, the capacity for neurogenesis in the adult primate central nervous system has never been examined by modern methods. In this article the author described recent results from an extensive autoradiographic analysis performed on twelve rhesus monkeys injected with the specific DNA precursor [3H] thymidine at ages ranging from 6 postnatal months to 17 years

  1. Cell segmentation for division rate estimation in computerized video time-lapse microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weijun; Wang, Xiaoxu; Metaxas, Dimitris; Mathew, Robin; White, Eileen

    2007-02-01

    The automated estimation of cell division rate plays an important role in the evaluation of a gene function in high throughput biomedical research. Using Computerized Video Time-Lapse (CVTL) microcopy , it is possible to follow a large number of cells in their physiological conditions for several generations. However analysis of this large volume data is complicated due to cell to cell contacts in a high density population. We approach this problem by segmenting out cells or cell clusters through a learning method. The feature of a pixel is represented by the intensity and gradient information in a small surrounding sub-window. Curve evolution techniques are used to accurately find the cell or cell cluster boundary. With the assumption that the average cell size is the same in each frame, we can use the cell area to estimate the cell division rate. Our segmentation results are compared to manually-defined ground truth. Both recall and precision measures for segmentation accuracy are above 95%.

  2. A polymerization–depolymerization model for generation of contractile force during bacterial cell division

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplab Ghosh; Anirban Sain

    2008-08-01

    During the last phase of cell division in bacteria, a polymeric ring forms at the division site. The ring, made of intracellular proteins, anchors to the cell wall and starts to contract. That initiates a dividing septum to close in, like the shutter of a camera, eventually guillotining the cell into two daughters. All through, the ring remains at the leading edge of the septum and seems to power its closure. It is not understood why does the ring contract. We propose a theoretical model to explain this. It is worth mentioning that a similar contraction phenomenon occurs for the actin ring in eukaryotes, but there it is due to motor proteins, which however, are absent in bacteria.

  3. Physical association between a novel plasma-membrane structure and centrosome orients cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Takefumi; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi; Ueno, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    In the last mitotic division of the epidermal lineage in the ascidian embryo, the cells divide stereotypically along the anterior-posterior axis. During interphase, we found that a unique membrane structure invaginates from the posterior to the centre of the cell, in a microtubule-dependent manner. The invagination projects toward centrioles on the apical side of the nucleus and associates with one of them. Further, a cilium forms on the posterior side of the cell and its basal body remains associated with the invagination. A laser ablation experiment suggests that the invagination is under tensile force and promotes the posterior positioning of the centrosome. Finally, we showed that the orientation of the invaginations is coupled with the polarized dynamics of centrosome movements and the orientation of cell division. Based on these findings, we propose a model whereby this novel membrane structure orchestrates centrosome positioning and thus the orientation of cell division axis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16550.001 PMID:27502556

  4. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB-FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved,coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces. PMID:27053678

  5. Both asymmetric mitotic segregation and cell-to-cell invasion are required for stable germline transmission of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric Landmann; Odile Bain; Coralie Martin; Shigehiko Uni; Taylor, Mark J.; William Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Parasitic filarial nematodes that belong to the Onchocercidae family live in mutualism with Wolbachia endosymbionts. We developed whole-mount techniques to follow the segregation patterns of Wolbachia through the somatic and germline lineages of four filarial species. These studies reveal multiple evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that are required for Wolbachia localization to the germline. During the initial embryonic divisions, Wolbachia segregate asymmetrically such that they...

  6. Localization of Cell Division Protein FtsQ by Immunofluorescence Microscopy in Dividing and Nondividing Cells of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddelmeijer, Nienke; Aarsman, Mirjam E. G.; Kolk, Arend H. J.; Vicente, Miguel; Nanninga, Nanne

    1998-01-01

    The localization of cell division protein FtsQ in Escherichia coli wild-type cells was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy with specific monoclonal antibodies. FtsQ could be localized to the division site in constricting cells. FtsQ could also localize to the division site in ftsQ1(Ts) cells grown at the permissive temperature. A hybrid protein in which the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane domain were derived from the γ form of penicillin-binding protein 1B and the periplasmic domain was derived from FtsQ was also able to localize to the division site. This result indicates that the periplasmic domain of FtsQ determines the localization of FtsQ, as has also been concluded by others for the periplasmic domain of FtsN. Noncentral FtsQ foci were found in the area of the cell where the nucleoid resides and were therefore assumed to represent sites where the FtsQ protein is synthesized and simultaneously inserted into the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:9829918

  7. Individuality and universality in the growth-division laws of single E. coli cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Andrew S.; Osella, Matteo; Javer, Avelino; Grilli, Jacopo; Nghe, Philippe; Tans, Sander J.; Cicuta, Pietro; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The mean size of exponentially dividing Escherichia coli cells in different nutrient conditions is known to depend on the mean growth rate only. However, the joint fluctuations relating cell size, doubling time, and individual growth rate are only starting to be characterized. Recent studies in bacteria reported a universal trend where the spread in both size and doubling times is a linear function of the population means of these variables. Here we combine experiments and theory and use scaling concepts to elucidate the constraints posed by the second observation on the division control mechanism and on the joint fluctuations of sizes and doubling times. We found that scaling relations based on the means collapse both size and doubling-time distributions across different conditions and explain how the shape of their joint fluctuations deviates from the means. Our data on these joint fluctuations highlight the importance of cell individuality: Single cells do not follow the dependence observed for the means between size and either growth rate or inverse doubling time. Our calculations show that these results emerge from a broad class of division control mechanisms requiring a certain scaling form of the "division hazard rate function," which defines the probability rate of dividing as a function of measurable parameters. This "model free" approach gives a rationale for the universal body-size distributions observed in microbial ecosystems across many microbial species, presumably dividing with multiple mechanisms. Additionally, our experiments show a crossover between fast and slow growth in the relation between individual-cell growth rate and division time, which can be understood in terms of different regimes of genome replication control.

  8. Flat leaf formation realized by cell-division control and mutual recessive gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Tachikawa, Masashi; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Most of the land plants generally have dorsoventrally flat leaves, maximizing the surface area of both upper (adaxial) side and lower (abaxial) side. The former is specialized for light capturing for photosynthesis and the latter is specialized for gas exchange. From findings of molecular genetics, it has been considered that the coupled dynamics between tissue morphogenesis and gene regulation for cell identity is responsible for making flat leaves. The hypothesis claims that a flat leaf is generated under two assumptions, (i) two mutually recessive groups of genes specify adaxial and abaxial sides of a leaf, (ii) cell divisions are induced at the limited region in the leaf margin where both of two groups are expressed. We examined the plausibility and possibility of this hypothesis from the dynamical point of view. We studied a mathematical model where two processes are coupled, tissue morphogenesis induced by cell division and deformation, and dynamics of gene regulations. From the analysis of the model we found that the classically believed hypothesis is not sufficient to generate flat leaves with high probability. We examined several different modifications and revision of the model. Then we found that a simple additional rule of polarized cell division facilitates flat leaf formation. The result of our analysis gives prediction of possible mechanism, which can be easily verified in experiments. PMID:27287339

  9. Cell division interference in newly fertilized ovules induces stenospermocarpy in cross-pollinated citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesejo, Carlos; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Agustí, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Seedlessness is a highly desirable characteristic in fresh fruits. However, post-fertilization seed abortion of cross-pollinated citrus fruit is uncommon. The factors regulating stenospermocarpy in citrus are unknown. In this research, we induced stenospermocarpy interfering in newly fertilized ovule cell division. The research also elucidates the most sensitive stage for ovule/seed abortion in citrus. Experiments were conducted with 'Afourer' mandarin that cross-pollinates with several cultivars and species. Cross-pollinated fruitlets were treated with maleic hydrazide (MH), a systemic growth regulator that specifically interferes in cell division. MH reduced ovule growth rate, the number of cell layers in nucella and inhibited embryo sac expansion; moreover, the treatment increased callose accumulation in nucella and surrounding the embryo sac. Fruits developed an early-aborted seed type with an immature, soft and edible seed coat. Seed number (-80%) and seed weight (-46%) were reduced in mature fruits. MH also hampered cell division in ovary walls, mesocarp and endocarp, thus reducing daily fruitlet growth and increasing fruit abscission. Stenospermocarpy could only be induced for a short period of time in the progamic phase of fertilization, specifically, when ovules are ready to be fertilized (7 days after anthesis) to early stages of embryo sac development (14 days after anthesis). PMID:25017163

  10. Stem cell therapy vs. ethics and religion

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Paula Melo Paulon; Sloth, Stine Hesselholt

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells are somatic cells that can go through two different kinds of divisions. Symmetric division allows them to divide into undifferentiated cells, whilst asymmetric division produces one undifferentiated cell and a sister cell that will differentiate later on. Human stem cell therapy (HSCT) is a controversial theme in the religious, political, legal, ethical and scientific worlds. Although it is believed by many scientists that stem cell therapy will be able to cure life-threatening dis...

  11. Role of the Number of Microtubules in Chromosome Segregation during Cell Division

    CERN Document Server

    Bertalan, Zsolt; La Porta, Caterina A M; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Faithful segregation of genetic material during cell division requires alignment of chromosomes between two spindle poles and attachment of their kinetochores to each of the poles. Failure of these complex dynamical processes leads to chromosomal instability (CIN), a characteristic feature of several diseases including cancer. While a multitude of biological factors regulating chromosome congression and bi-orientation have been identified, it is still unclear how they are integrated so that coherent chromosome motion emerges from a large collection of random and deterministic processes. Here we address this issue by a three dimensional computational model of motor-driven chromosome congression and bi-orientation during mitosis. Our model reveals that successful cell division requires control of the total number of microtubules: if this number is too small bi-orientation fails, while if it is too large not all the chromosomes are able to congress. The optimal number of microtubules predicted by our model compa...

  12. Automatic detection of cell divisions (mitosis) in live-imaging microscopy images using Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolyar, Anat; Gefen, Amit; Benayahu, Dafna; Greenspan, Hayit

    2015-08-01

    We propose a semi-automated pipeline for the detection of possible cell divisions in live-imaging microscopy and the classification of these mitosis candidates using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). We use time-lapse images of NIH3T3 scratch assay cultures, extract patches around bright candidate regions that then undergo segmentation and binarization, followed by a classification of the binary patches into either containing or not containing cell division. The classification is performed by training a Convolutional Neural Network on a specially constructed database. We show strong results of AUC = 0.91 and F-score = 0.89, competitive with state-of-the-art methods in this field. PMID:26736369

  13. Interplay of migratory and division forces as a generic mechanism for stem cell patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Coucke, Alice; Joanny, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    In many adult tissues, stem cells and differentiated cells are not homogeneously distributed: stem cells are arranged in periodic "niches," and differentiated cells are constantly produced and migrate out of these niches. In this article, we provide a general theoretical framework to study mixtures of dividing and actively migrating particles, which we apply to biological tissues. We show in particular that the interplay between the stresses arising from active cell migration and stem cell division give rise to robust stem cell patterns. The instability of the tissue leads to spatial patterns which are either steady or oscillating in time. The wavelength of the instability has an order of magnitude consistent with the biological observations. We also discuss the implications of these results for future in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  14. An interplay of migratory and division forces as a generic mechanism for stem cell patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Hannezo, Edouard; Joanny, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    In many adult tissues, stem cells and differentiated cells are not homogeneously distributed : stem cells are arranged in periodic "niches", and differentiated cells are constantly produced and migrate out of these niches. In this article, we provide a general theoretical framework to study mixtures of dividing and actively migrating particles, which we apply to biological tissues. We show in particular that the interplay between the stresses arising from active cell migration and stem cell division give rise to robust stem cell patterns. The instability of the tissue leads to spatial patterns which are either steady or oscillating in time. The wavelength of the instability has an order of magnitude consistent with the biological observations. We also discuss the implications of these results for future in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  15. Timing of Tissue-specific Cell Division Requires a Differential Onset of Zygotic Transcription during Metazoan Embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Kin; Guan, Daogang; Ng, Kaoru Hon Chun; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; An, Xiaomeng; Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zhongying

    2016-06-10

    Metazoan development demands not only precise cell fate differentiation but also accurate timing of cell division to ensure proper development. How cell divisions are temporally coordinated during development is poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis provides an excellent opportunity to study this coordination due to its invariant development and widespread division asynchronies. One of the most pronounced asynchronies is a significant delay of cell division in two endoderm progenitor cells, Ea and Ep, hereafter referred to as E2, relative to its cousins that mainly develop into mesoderm organs and tissues. To unravel the genetic control over the endoderm-specific E2 division timing, a total of 822 essential and conserved genes were knocked down using RNAi followed by quantification of cell cycle lengths using in toto imaging of C. elegans embryogenesis and automated lineage. Intriguingly, knockdown of numerous genes encoding the components of general transcription pathway or its regulatory factors leads to a significant reduction in the E2 cell cycle length but an increase in cell cycle length of the remaining cells, indicating a differential requirement of transcription for division timing between the two. Analysis of lineage-specific RNA-seq data demonstrates an earlier onset of transcription in endoderm than in other germ layers, the timing of which coincides with the birth of E2, supporting the notion that the endoderm-specific delay in E2 division timing demands robust zygotic transcription. The reduction in E2 cell cycle length is frequently associated with cell migration defect and gastrulation failure. The results suggest that a tissue-specific transcriptional activation is required to coordinate fate differentiation, division timing, and cell migration to ensure proper development. PMID:27056332

  16. Characterization of substances that restore impaired cell division of UV-irradiated E. coli B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substances which restore impaired cell division in UV-irradiated E. coli B were surveyed among various bacteria. The active substance was found only in several genera of Gram-negative bacteria, i.e., Escherichia, Enterobacter, Salmonella and some species of Pseudomonas. The activity in the dialyzed cell extract of E. coli B/r was observed in the presence of β-NAD and was enhanced by Mg2+ and Mn2+. The active substance was very labile, but the activity was protected by 1 mM dithiothreitol in the process of purification. The activity of a fraction recovered through DEAE-cellulose column chromatography was stimulated by the presence of membrane fraction. Upon treatment with lipid-degrading enzymes and proteases, the division-stimulating activity was lost or reduced. It appears that the inactivation by lipase and phospholipase A2 was due to the formation of lysophospholipids and that a proteinous substance participated in the recovery of impaired cell division of UV-irradiated E. coli B

  17. Structural and functional studies of MinD ATPase: implications for the molecular recognition of the bacterial cell division apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Ikuko; Oyama, Takuji; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2001-01-01

    Proper placement of the bacterial cell division site requires the site-specific inactivation of other potential division sites. In Escherichia coli, selection of the correct mid-cell site is mediated by the MinC, MinD and MinE proteins. To clarify the functional role of the bacterial cell division inhibitor MinD, which is a membrane-associated ATPase that works as an activator of MinC, we determined the crystal structure of a Pyrococcus furiosus MinD homologue complexed with a substrate analo...

  18. Identification of performance limiting electrode using asymmetric cell configuration in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Ertan; Dennison, C. R.; Knehr, K. W.; Kumbur, E. C.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the performance of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is investigated using asymmetric electrode configurations with raw and functionalized (i.e., acid-treated and heat-treated) electrodes. The use of heat-treated electrodes in both half-cells is chosen as the baseline case for comparison, as this configuration shows the best performance. When the positive electrode in the baseline case is replaced with a raw or acid-treated electrode, the voltage efficiency is found to be comparable to that of the baseline case. However, in the case where the negative electrode in the baseline case is replaced with a raw or acid-treated electrode, a significantly lower efficiency is observed, suggesting that the negative half-cell reactions limit the performance of a VRFB. To further investigate this observation, an additional analysis is performed using cyclic voltammetry. The reaction kinetics data suggests that the poor performance of the negative half-cell is not due to the slow kinetics, but rather stems from the fact that the reduction reaction in the negative half-cell occurs at a potential that is very close to the onset of hydrogen evolution. The formation of hydrogen gas bubbles blocks the reaction sites and suppresses the favorable effects of functionalization in the negative half-cell.

  19. Arv1 promotes cell division by recruiting IQGAP1 and myosin to the cleavage furrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvold, Hilde; Sundvold-Gjerstad, Vibeke; Malerød-Fjeld, Helle; Haglund, Kaisa; Stenmark, Harald; Malerød, Lene

    2016-03-01

    Cell division is strictly regulated by a diversity of proteins and lipids to ensure proper duplication and segregation of genetic material and organelles. Here we report a novel role of the putative lipid transporter ACAT-related protein required for viability 1 (Arv1) during telophase. We observed that the subcellular localization of Arv1 changes according to cell cycle progression and that Arv1 is recruited to the cleavage furrow in early telophase by epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN). At the cleavage furrow Arv1 recruits myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) and myosin light chain 9 (MYL9) by interacting with IQ-motif-containing GTPase-activating protein (IQGAP1). Consequently the lack of Arv1 delayed telophase-progression, and a strongly increased incidence of furrow regression and formation of multinuclear cells was observed both in human cells in culture and in follicle epithelial cells of egg chambers of Drosophila melanogaster in vivo. Interestingly, the cholesterol-status at the cleavage furrow did not affect the recruitment of either IQGAP1, MYH9 or MYL. These results identify a novel function for Arv1 in regulation of cell division through promotion of the contractile actomyosin ring, which is independent of its lipid transporter activity. PMID:27104745

  20. Polar flagellar biosynthesis and a regulator of flagellar number influence spatial parameters of cell division in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Balaban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and numerical regulation of flagellar biosynthesis results in different flagellation patterns specific for each bacterial species. Campylobacter jejuni produces amphitrichous (bipolar flagella to result in a single flagellum at both poles. These flagella confer swimming motility and a distinctive darting motility necessary for infection of humans to cause diarrheal disease and animals to promote commensalism. In addition to flagellation, symmetrical cell division is spatially regulated so that the divisome forms near the cellular midpoint. We have identified an unprecedented system for spatially regulating cell division in C. jejuni composed by FlhG, a regulator of flagellar number in polar flagellates, and components of amphitrichous flagella. Similar to its role in other polarly-flagellated bacteria, we found that FlhG regulates flagellar biosynthesis to limit poles of C. jejuni to one flagellum. Furthermore, we discovered that FlhG negatively influences the ability of FtsZ to initiate cell division. Through analysis of specific flagellar mutants, we discovered that components of the motor and switch complex of amphitrichous flagella are required with FlhG to specifically inhibit division at poles. Without FlhG or specific motor and switch complex proteins, cell division occurs more often at polar regions to form minicells. Our findings suggest a new understanding for the biological requirement of the amphitrichous flagellation pattern in bacteria that extend beyond motility, virulence, and colonization. We propose that amphitrichous bacteria such as Campylobacter species advantageously exploit placement of flagella at both poles to spatially regulate an FlhG-dependent mechanism to inhibit polar cell division, thereby encouraging symmetrical cell division to generate the greatest number of viable offspring. Furthermore, we found that other polarly-flagellated bacteria produce FlhG proteins that influence cell division, suggesting that

  1. Regulation of cell division and expansion by sugar and auxin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu eWang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth and development are modulated by concerted actions of a variety of signaling molecules. In recent years, evidence has emerged on the roles of sugar and auxin signals in diverse aspects of plant growth and development. Here, based on recent progress of genetic analyses and gene expression profiling studies, we summarize the functional similarities, diversities and their interactions of sugar and auxin signals in regulating two major processes of plant development: cell division and cell expansion. We focus on roles of sugar and auxin signaling in both vegetative and reproductive tissues including developing seed.

  2. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid biosynthetic mutant dwarf7-1 exhibits slower rates of cell division and shoot induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Burkhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on both cell division and cell expansion. Plant hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs, are central to the control of these two cellular processes. Despite clear evidence that BRs regulate cell elongation, their roles in cell division have remained elusive. Results Here, we report results emphasizing the importance of BRs in cell division. An Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic mutant, dwarf7-1, displayed various characteristics attributable to slower cell division rates. We found that the DWARF4 gene which encodes for an enzyme catalyzing a rate-determining step in the BR biosynthetic pathways, is highly expressed in the actively dividing callus, suggesting that BR biosynthesis is necessary for dividing cells. Furthermore, dwf7-1 showed noticeably slower rates of callus growth and shoot induction relative to wild-type control. Flow cytometric analyses of the nuclei derived from either calli or intact roots revealed that the cell division index, which was represented as the ratio of cells at the G2/M vs. G1 phases, was smaller in dwf7-1 plants. Finally, we found that the expression levels of the genes involved in cell division and shoot induction, such as PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN2 (PCNA2 and ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION2 (ESR2, were also lower in dwf7-1 as compared with wild type. Conclusions Taken together, results of callus induction, shoot regeneration, flow cytometry, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis suggest that BRs play important roles in both cell division and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.

  3. A millifluidic study of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth-rate and cell-division capability in populations of isogenic cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Shima P; Eberhard, Stephan; Boitard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Jairo Garnica; Wang, Yuxing; Bremond, Nicolas; Baudry, Jean; Bibette, Jérôme; Wollman, Francis-André

    2015-01-01

    To address possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth dynamics of isogenic cell populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed a millifluidic drop-based device that not only allows the analysis of populations grown from single cells over periods of a week, but is also able to sort and collect drops of interest, containing viable and healthy cells, which can be used for further experimentation. In this study, we used isogenic algal cells that were first synchronized in mixotrophic growth conditions. We show that these synchronized cells, when placed in droplets and kept in mixotrophic growth conditions, exhibit mostly homogeneous growth statistics, but with two distinct subpopulations: a major population with a short doubling-time (fast-growers) and a significant subpopulation of slowly dividing cells (slow-growers). These observations suggest that algal cells from an isogenic population may be present in either of two states, a state of restricted division and a state of active division. When isogenic cells were allowed to propagate for about 1000 generations on solid agar plates, they displayed an increased heterogeneity in their growth dynamics. Although we could still identify the original populations of slow- and fast-growers, drops inoculated with a single progenitor cell now displayed a wider diversity of doubling-times. Moreover, populations dividing with the same growth-rate often reached different cell numbers in stationary phase, suggesting that the progenitor cells differed in the number of cell divisions they could undertake. We discuss possible explanations for these cell-to-cell heterogeneities in growth dynamics, such as mutations, differential aging or stochastic variations in metabolites and macromolecules yielding molecular switches, in the light of single-cell heterogeneities that have been reported among isogenic populations of other eu- and prokaryotes. PMID:25760649

  4. A millifluidic study of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth-rate and cell-division capability in populations of isogenic cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima P Damodaran

    Full Text Available To address possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth dynamics of isogenic cell populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed a millifluidic drop-based device that not only allows the analysis of populations grown from single cells over periods of a week, but is also able to sort and collect drops of interest, containing viable and healthy cells, which can be used for further experimentation. In this study, we used isogenic algal cells that were first synchronized in mixotrophic growth conditions. We show that these synchronized cells, when placed in droplets and kept in mixotrophic growth conditions, exhibit mostly homogeneous growth statistics, but with two distinct subpopulations: a major population with a short doubling-time (fast-growers and a significant subpopulation of slowly dividing cells (slow-growers. These observations suggest that algal cells from an isogenic population may be present in either of two states, a state of restricted division and a state of active division. When isogenic cells were allowed to propagate for about 1000 generations on solid agar plates, they displayed an increased heterogeneity in their growth dynamics. Although we could still identify the original populations of slow- and fast-growers, drops inoculated with a single progenitor cell now displayed a wider diversity of doubling-times. Moreover, populations dividing with the same growth-rate often reached different cell numbers in stationary phase, suggesting that the progenitor cells differed in the number of cell divisions they could undertake. We discuss possible explanations for these cell-to-cell heterogeneities in growth dynamics, such as mutations, differential aging or stochastic variations in metabolites and macromolecules yielding molecular switches, in the light of single-cell heterogeneities that have been reported among isogenic populations of other eu- and prokaryotes.

  5. Particle-in-cell simulation study of the scaling of asymmetric magnetic reconnection with in-plane flow shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, C. E.; Cassak, P. A.; Swisdak, M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate magnetic reconnection in systems simultaneously containing asymmetric (anti-parallel) magnetic fields, asymmetric plasma densities and temperatures, and arbitrary in-plane bulk flow of plasma in the upstream regions. Such configurations are common in the high-latitudes of Earth's magnetopause and in tokamaks. We investigate the convection speed of the X-line, the scaling of the reconnection rate, and the condition for which the flow suppresses reconnection as a function of upstream flow speeds. We use two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations to capture the mixing of plasma in the outflow regions better than is possible in fluid modeling. We perform simulations with asymmetric magnetic fields, simulations with asymmetric densities, and simulations with magnetopause-like parameters where both are asymmetric. For flow speeds below the predicted cutoff velocity, we find good scaling agreement with the theory presented in Doss et al. [J. Geophys. Res. 120, 7748 (2015)]. Applications to planetary magnetospheres, tokamaks, and the solar wind are discussed.

  6. Asymmetric triplex metallohelices with high and selective activity against cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Alan D.; Kaner, Rebecca A.; Abdallah, Qasem M. A.; Clarkson, Guy; Fox, David J.; Gurnani, Pratik; Howson, Suzanne E.; Phillips, Roger M.; Roper, David I.; Simpson, Daniel H.; Scott, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Small cationic amphiphilic α-helical peptides are emerging as agents for the treatment of cancer and infection, but they are costly and display unfavourable pharmacokinetics. Helical coordination complexes may offer a three-dimensional scaffold for the synthesis of mimetic architectures. However, the high symmetry and modest functionality of current systems offer little scope to tailor the structure to interact with specific biomolecular targets, or to create libraries for phenotypic screens. Here, we report the highly stereoselective asymmetric self-assembly of very stable, functionalized metallohelices. Their anti-parallel head-to-head-to-tail ‘triplex’ strand arrangement creates an amphipathic functional topology akin to that of the active sub-units of, for example, host-defence peptides and p53. The metallohelices display high, structure-dependent toxicity to the human colon carcinoma cell-line HCT116 p53++, causing dramatic changes in the cell cycle without DNA damage. They have lower toxicity to human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-468) and, most remarkably, they show no significant toxicity to the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  7. EzrA: a spectrin-like scaffold in the bacterial cell division machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Cleverley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in identifying the components of the divisome, the assembly of proteins that undertakes the vital process of cell division in bacteria. However, how the highly interdependent processes on either side of the membrane are coordinated during division is a major unresolved question. How is the degradation and synthesis of the cell wall on the outside of the cell coordinated with cytokinesis and membrane fission, which are driven from the inside of the cell by the tubulin homologue FtsZ? A possible key mediator of such coordination is the membrane protein EzrA, as it interacts both with FtsZ and the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs that synthesize peptidoglycan. Cleverley et al. [Nature Communications (2014 5, 5421] have recently solved the crystal structure of the cytoplasmic domain of B. subtilis EzrA, which points to an important scaffolding role for EzrA in the divisome. The structure resembles the eukaryotic, cytoskeletal spectrin proteins, which link actin filaments in the cytoskeleton and also connect the actin cytoskeleton to membrane-bound integrin proteins.

  8. Effect of microgravity environment on cell wall regeneration, cell divisions, growth, and differentiation of plants from protoplasts (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to investigate if microgravity has any influence on growth and differentiation of protoplasts. Formation of new cell walls on rapeseed protoplasts takes place within the first 24 hours after isolation. Cell division can be observed after 2-4 days and formation of cell aggregates after 5-7 days. Therefore, it is possible during the 7 day IML-1 Mission to investigate if cell wall formation, cell division, and cell differentiation are influenced by microgravity. Protoplasts of rapeseeds and carrot will be prepared shortly before launch and injected into 0.6 ml polyethylene bags. Eight bags are placed in an aluminum block inside the ESA Type 1 container. The containers are placed at 4 C in PTCU's and transferred to orbiter mid-deck. At 4 C all cell processes are slowed down, including cell wall formation. Latest access to the shuttle will be 12 hours before launch. In orbit the containers will be transferred from the PTC box to the 22 C Biorack incubator. The installation of a 1 g centrifuge in Biorack will make it possible to distinguish between effects of near weightlessness and effects caused by cosmic radiation and other space flight factors including vibrations. Parallel control experiments will be carried out on the ground. Other aspects of the experiment are discussed.

  9. Mini-F plasmid genes that couple host cell division to plasmid proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, T; Hiraga, S

    1983-01-01

    A mechanism for stable maintenance of plasmids, besides the replication and partition mechanisms, has been found to be specified by genes of a mini-F plasmid. An oriC plasmid carrying both a mini-F segment necessary for partition [coordinates 46.4-49.4 kilobase pairs (kb) on the F map] and another segment (42.9-43.6 kb), designated ccd (coupled cell division), is more stably maintained than are oriC plasmids carrying only the partition segment; the stability is comparable to that of the paren...

  10. Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical for intestinal stem cell division, survival, and differentiation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamori, Ryotaro; Das, Soumyashree; Yu, Shiyan; Feng, Shanshan; Stypulkowski, Ewa; Guan, Yinzheng; Douard, Veronique; Tang, Waixing; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Harada, Akihiro; Brakebusch, Cord; Guo, Wei; Gao, Nan

    2012-01-01

    reminiscent of human microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), a devastating congenital intestinal disorder that results in severe nutrient deprivation. Further analysis revealed that Cdc42-deficient stem cells had cell division defects, reduced capacity for clonal expansion and differentiation into Paneth cells...

  11. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 → S transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. → TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 → S transition. → Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 → S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 → S arrest is discussed.

  12. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates mode of cell division of early cerebral cortex progenitors and increases astrogliogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geissy LL Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH plays a critical role in the development of different tissues. In the central nervous system, SHH is well known to contribute to the patterning of the spinal cord and separation of the brain hemispheres. In addition, it has recently been shown that SHH signaling also contributes to the patterning of the telencephalon and establishment of adult neurogenic niches. In this work, we investigated whether SHH signaling influences the behavior of neural progenitors isolated from the dorsal telencephalon, which generate excitatory neurons and macroglial cells in vitro. We observed that SHH increases proliferation of cortical progenitors and generation of astrocytes, whereas blocking SHH signaling with cyclopamine has opposite effects. In both cases, generation of neurons did not seem to be affected. However, cell survival was broadly affected by blockade of SHH signaling. SHH effects were related to three different cell phenomena: mode of cell division, cell cycle length and cell growth. Together, our data in vitro demonstrate that SHH signaling controls cell behaviors that are important for proliferation of cerebral cortex progenitors, as well as differentiation and survival of neurons and astroglial cells.

  13. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fei; Lu, Changfu; Zhang, Shuoping; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles, n = 799) were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42). Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7–8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively). In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas 10C). In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number. PMID:27077739

  14. Entropyomics as the Blueprint of the Logic of Normal Cell Division and Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Afrasiabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this article I propose a blueprint based on one of the most fundamental laws governing the known universe, namely the second law of thermodynamics and I present support for its central role in initiation of mitosis and relationship of the other sub cellular compartments and their organization. Approach: Life is considered to be the most sophisticated antientropy machinery ever born on the face of the universe as far as its power to minimize the speed of rise in entropy is concerned, however we all get old, sick and die because it is not possible to stop the rise in entropy based on the nature of the known universe. Results: Lack of understanding of the scientific foundation of logic of the normal cell division has surrounded us by darkness and has made analysis of an ever increasing and explosive amount of information originating from whole genome sequencing, genomics, exonomics, proteomics and metabolomics more problematic. Clearly this understanding is the prerequisite for understanding of pathological states of cell division including malignancy. Conclusion/Recommendations: The main approach to this problem is calculation of the free energy of the master regulator proteins of the intracellular communication network of the cancer stem cell and its normal counterpart which in turn could get identified by the available mathematical models that could identify master regulator proteins of the intracellular communication network and deciphering the difference by spectrophotometry at a given wavelength of light and identification of higher absorbance in the malignant counterpart and designing epigenetic or homologous recombination mediated methodology using nanotechology as a delivery mechanism targeting transcription of mRNAs which would lead to protein products with a normal free energy for that cell lineage / higher free energy compared with its malignant counterpart and by doing so we could convert the

  15. Enzymatically Inactive Procaspase 1 stabilizes the ASC Pyroptosome and Supports Pyroptosome Spreading during Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Robert; Kapplusch, Franz; Heymann, Michael Christian; Russ, Susanne; Staroske, Wolfgang; Hedrich, Christian Michael; Rösen-Wolff, Angela; Hofmann, Sigrun Ruth

    2016-08-26

    Caspase-1 is a key player during the initiation of pro-inflammatory innate immune responses, activating pro-IL-1β in so-called inflammasomes. A subset of patients with recurrent febrile episodes and systemic inflammation of unknown origin harbor mutations in CASP1 encoding caspase-1. CASP1 variants result in reduced enzymatic activity of caspase-1 and impaired IL-1β secretion. The apparent paradox of reduced IL-1β secretion but systemic inflammation led to the hypothesis that CASP1 mutations may result in variable protein interaction clusters, thus activating alternative signaling pathways. To test this hypothesis, we established and characterized an in vitro system of transduced immortalized murine macrophages expressing either WT or enzymatically inactive (p.C284A) procaspase-1 fusion reporter proteins. Macrophages with variant p.C284A caspase-1 did not secrete IL-1β and exhibited reduced inflammatory cell death, referred to as pyroptosis. Caspase-1 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) formed cytosolic macromolecular complexes (so-called pyroptosomes) that were significantly increased in number and size in cells carrying the p.C284A caspase-1 variant compared with WT caspase-1. Furthermore, enzymatically inactive caspase-1 interacted with ASC longer and with increased intensity compared with WT caspase-1. Applying live cell imaging, we documented for the first time that pyroptosomes containing enzymatically inactive variant p.C284A caspase-1 spread during cell division. In conclusion, variant p.C284A caspase-1 stabilizes pyroptosome formation, potentially enhancing inflammation by two IL-1β-independent mechanisms: pyroptosomes convey an enhanced inflammatory stimulus through the recruitment of additional proteins (such as RIP2, receptor interacting protein kinase 2), which is further amplified through pyroptosome and cell division. PMID:27402835

  16. Targeting the Wolbachia cell division protein FtsZ as a new approach for antifilarial therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiru Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics targeting the obligate bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia of filarial parasites has been validated as an approach for controlling filarial infection in animals and humans. Availability of genomic sequences for the Wolbachia (wBm present in the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi has enabled genome-wide searching for new potential drug targets. In the present study, we investigated the cell division machinery of wBm and determined that it possesses the essential cell division gene ftsZ which was expressed in all developmental stages of B. malayi examined. FtsZ is a GTPase thereby making the protein an attractive Wolbachia drug target. We described the molecular characterization and catalytic properties of Wolbachia FtsZ. We also demonstrated that the GTPase activity was inhibited by the natural product, berberine, and small molecule inhibitors identified from a high-throughput screen. Furthermore, berberine was also effective in reducing motility and reproduction in B. malayi parasites in vitro. Our results should facilitate the discovery of selective inhibitors of FtsZ as a novel anti-symbiotic approach for controlling filarial infection. NOTE: The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper are available in GenBank™ Data Bank under the accession number wAlB-FtsZ (JN616286.

  17. A pulse-chase strategy for EdU labelling assay is able to rapidly quantify cell division orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaofeng; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2016-09-01

    Measurement of the direction of cell division is an important, yet difficult, task to analyse how a plant organ acquires its final shape from an initially small group of cells. We introduce a method that rapidly and easily quantifies cell division direction and is applicable to all plant species. A pulse-chase strategy for 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labelling assay was established and was shown to be successful for leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Juncus prismatocarpus. By optimization of the pulse and chase periods, most of the signals obtained were sets of daughter nuclei. For Arabidopsis, the optimal time was a 45-min pulse and a 7-h chase. For J. prismatocarpus, the optimal time was a 2-h pulse and a 13.5-h chase. The positions of the daughter nuclei were used to quantify cell division direction in the Arabidopsis leaf primordia. Overall, cell division along the proximal-distal axis was more frequent than along the medial-lateral axis. In petiole, major vein, minor vein and margin areas, the major cell division direction seemed to be coincident with the direction of auxin flow. The advantages of our method over the few methods used previously are discussed. We anticipate that it will provide opportunities to study plant development in the near future. PMID:27121010

  18. ParA encoded on chromosome II of Deinococcus radiodurans binds to nucleoid and inhibits cell division in Escherichia coli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijaya Kumar Charaka; Kruti P Mehta; H S Misra

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial genome segregation and cell division has been studied mostly in bacteria harbouring single circular chromosome and low-copy plasmids. Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacterium, harbours multipartite genome system. Chromosome I encodes majority of the functions required for normal growth while other replicons encode mostly the proteins involved in secondary functions. Here, we report the characterization of putative P-loop ATPase (ParA2) encoded on chromosome II of D. radiodurans. Recombinant ParA2 was found to be a DNA-binding ATPase. E. coli cells expressing ParA2 showed cell division inhibition and mislocalization of FtsZ-YFP and those expressing ParA2-CFP showed multiple CFP foci formation on the nucleoid. Although, in trans expression of ParA2 failed to complement SlmA loss per se, it could induce unequal cell division in slmAminCDE double mutant. These results suggested that ParA2 is a nucleoid-binding protein, which could inhibits cell division in E. coli by affecting the correct localization of FtsZ and thereby cytokinesis. Helping slmAminCDE mutant to produce minicells, a phenotype associated with mutations in the `Min’ proteins, further indicated the possibility of ParA2 regulating cell division by bringing nucleoid compaction at the vicinity of septum growth.

  19. Influence of hydroxyurea on cell divisions and microtubular cytoskeleton in Allium cepa root meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Q. Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In onion roots, hydroxyurea (HU causes a gradual depression of mitotic activity which ceases after 24-36 hrs. The effect is reversible; divisions begin after several hours of recovery and after 12-14 hrs about 90% cells undergo mitosis. Mitotic activity commences in the distal region of the apical meristem, and as a wave it spreads towards the apex. In the roots treated with HU for a short time, the tubulin immunofluorescence method reveals normal arrays of microtubules (MTs. After 36 hrs of HU treatment there are only cortical and endocytoplasmatic MTs. In the recovering roots, preprophase bands (PB mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts appear. Some PBs are split into two parallel rings. These abnormal PBs mostly occur in elongated cells. Apart from this, HU does not appear to have any significant influence on microtubular organization.

  20. Effects of brevetoxins on murine myeloma SP2/O cells: aberrant cellular division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Thomas K; Derby, Melissa; Martin, Dean F; Wright, Scott D; Dao, My Lien

    2003-01-01

    Massive deaths of manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) during the red tide seasons have been attributed to brevetoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (formerly Ptychodiscus breve and Gymnodinium breve). Although these toxins have been found in macrophages and lymphocytes in the lung, liver, and secondary lymphoid tissues of these animals, the molecular mechanisms of brevetoxicosis have not yet been identified. To investigate the effects of brevetoxins on immune cells, a murine myeloma cell line (SP2/O) was used as a model for in vitro studies. By adding brevetoxins to cultures of the SP2/O cells at concentrations ranging from 20 to 600 ng/ml, an apparent increase in proliferation was observed at around 2 hours post challenge as compared to the unchallenged cell cultures. This was followed by a drop in cell number at around 3 hours, suggesting an aberrant effect of brevetoxins on cellular division, the cells generated at 2 hours being apparently short-lived. In situ immunochemical staining of the SP2/O cells at 1 and 2 hour post challenge showed an accumulation of the toxins in the nucleus. A 21-kDa protein was subsequently isolated from the SP2/O cells as having brevetoxin-binding properties, and immunologically identified as p21, a nuclear factor known to down-regulate cellular proliferation through inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases. These data are the first on a possible effect of brevetoxins on the cell cycle via binding to p21, a phenomenon that needs to be further investigated and validated in normal immune cells. PMID:12745987

  1. Downregulation of cell division cycle 25 homolog C reduces the radiosensitivity and proliferation activity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yachao; Dou, Xiaoyan; Duan, Shimiao; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Quanjing; Li, Hongwei; Li, Duojie

    2016-09-30

    Radiation therapy is one of the most important methods of contemporary cancer treatment. Cells in the G2 and M phases are more sensitive to radiation therapy, and cell division cycle 25 homolog C (CDC25C) is essential in shifting the cell cycle between these two phases. In this study, the knockdown of CDC25C in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC9706 cells was mediated by transfecting shRNA against human CDC25C-subcloning into pGV248. The levels of CDC25C mRNA and protein expression were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. Moreover, cell proliferation and radiosensitivity were measured. Stable CDC25C-knockdown EC9706 cell lines were successfully established. Furthermore, the proliferation of both control and CDC25C-shRNA-EC9706 cells was inhibited after the cells were treated with increasing X-ray doses, and the proliferation of the control cells was affected more significantly (p<0.05). Moreover, cell colony formation assays allowed us to reach the same conclusion. Taken together, our experiments demonstrated that the knockdown of CDC25C can reduce both the radiotherapy sensitivity and the proliferation activity of EC9706 cells. Thus, CDC25C might be a potential biomarker for radiotherapy treatment. PMID:27188256

  2. Par1b links lumen polarity with LGN-NuMA positioning for distinct epithelial cell division phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazaro-Dieguez, Francisco; Cohen, David; Fernandez, Dawn; Hodgson, Louis; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Muesch, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Columnar epithelia establish their luminal domains and their mitotic spindles parallel to the basal surface and undergo symmetric cell divisions in which the cleavage furrow bisects the apical domain. Hepatocyte lumina interrupt the lateral domain of neighboring cells perpendicular to two basal doma

  3. Vaspin increases nitric oxide bioavailability through the reduction of asymmetric dimethylarginine in vascular endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hee Jung

    Full Text Available Vaspin is an adipocytokine recently identified in the visceral adipose tissue of diabetic rats and having anti-diabetic effects. We have recently shown that vaspin has anti-atherogenic effect through Akt-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell apoptosis. Decreased activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a well-known endogenous competitive inhibitor of eNOS and risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether vaspin might protect against atherosclerosis through its beneficial effects on the ADMA-eNOS system. Treatment of vaspin significantly increased NO secretion from endothelial cells and isolated aorta from Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Furthermore, treatment of vaspin prevented fatty acid-induced decrease in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated aorta of SD rat. For the mechanism of vaspin-induced NO biosynthesis, vaspin activated the STAT3 signaling pathway and stimulated eNOS phosphorylation (Ser 1177, a marker of eNOS activation, through STAT3-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, vaspin treatment increased the expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH II, the responsible enzyme for the degradation of ADMA, leading to a reduction in ADMA levels. Vaspin-induced increase in DDAH II gene expression was through STAT3-mediated stimulation of DDAH II promoter activity. These results suggest that vaspin increases eNOS activity by reducing ADMA level through STAT3-mediated regulation of DDAH II expression. Our findings provide a novel molecular mechanism of antiatherogenic actions of vaspin.

  4. Vegfc Regulates Bipotential Precursor Division and Prox1 Expression to Promote Lymphatic Identity in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Koltowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic vessels arise chiefly from preexisting embryonic veins. Genetic regulators of lymphatic fate are known, but how dynamic cellular changes contribute during the acquisition of lymphatic identity is not understood. We report the visualization of zebrafish lymphatic precursor cell dynamics during fate restriction. In the cardinal vein, cellular commitment is linked with the division of bipotential Prox1-positive precursor cells, which occurs immediately prior to sprouting angiogenesis. Following precursor division, identities are established asymmetrically in daughter cells; one daughter cell becomes lymphatic and progressively upregulates Prox1, and the other downregulates Prox1 and remains in the vein. Vegfc drives cell division and Prox1 expression in lymphatic daughter cells, coupling signaling dynamics with daughter cell fate restriction and precursor division.

  5. Optimization of the Asymmetric Intermediate Reflector Morphology for High Stabilized Efficiency Thin n-i-p Micromorph Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Biron, Remi; Hanni, Simon; Boccard, Mathieu; Pahud, Celine; Bugnon, Gregory; Ding, Laura; NICOLAY, Sylvain; Parascandolo, Gaetano; Meillaud, Fanny; Despeisse, Matthieu; Haug, Franz-Josef; Ballif, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on our latest progress in n-i-p thinmicromorph solar-cell fabrication using textured back reflectors and asymmetric intermediate reflectors, both deposited by lowpressure chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide.We then present microcrystalline bottom cells with high crystallinity, which yield excellent long wavelength response for relatively thin absorber thickness. In a 1.5-μm-thick μc-Si:H single-junction n-i-p solar cell, we thus obtain a short-circuit current density of...

  6. Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1 in cell division: its role in bovine granulosa cells mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Terzaghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present studies were aimed to assess Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1 role in regulating bovine granulosa cells (bGC mitosis. First, we performed immunofluorescence studies on in vitro cultured bGC collected from antral follicles, which showed that PGRMC1 localizes to the spindle apparatus in mitotic cells. Then, to evaluate PGRMC1 effect on cell proliferation we silenced its expression with RNA interference technique (RNAi. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting confirmed down-regulation of PGRMC1 expression, when compared to CTRL-RNAi treated bGC (p<0.05. After 72h of culture, PGRMC1 silencing determined a lower growth rate (p<0.05 and a higher percentage of cells arrested at G2/M phase as assessed by flowcytometry (p<0.05. Accordingly, live imaging studies revealed more aberrant mitosis and a delayed M-phase in PGRMC1-RNAi treated cells compared to CTRL-RNAi group (p<0.05. These data confirmed that PGRMC1 is directly involved in bGC mitosis and ongoing preliminary studies are aimed to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Since PGRMC1 is a membrane protein, we hypothesize its possible involvement in vesicular trafficking and endocytosis, which is in turn an important process to assure proper cell division. To assess this hypothesis, we have preliminarily conducted immunofluorescence and in situ proximity ligation assay experiments that showed PGRMC1 co-localization and direct interaction with clathrin. This is important since clathrin is an essential protein for both endosomes formation, and cell division acting directly on the spindle apparatus. Thus our studies set the stage for analysis aimed to further characterize PGRMC1’s mechanism of action in mitotic cell.

  7. The secretory peptide gene EPF1 enforces the stomatal one-cell-spacing rule

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Kenta; Kajita, Ryoko; Torii, Keiko U.; Bergmann, Dominique C; Kakimoto, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Stomata are innovations of land plants that allow regulated gas exchange. Stomatal precursor cells are produced by asymmetric cell division, and once formed, signal their neighbors to inhibit the formation of stomatal precursors in direct contact. We report a gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 1 (EPF1) that encodes a small secretory peptide expressed in stomatal cells and precursors and that controls stomatal patterning through regulation of asymmetric cell division. EP...

  8. The cell birth marker BrdU does not affect recruitment of subsequent cell divisions in the adult avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattan, Anat; Ayali, Amir; Barnea, Anat

    2015-01-01

    BrdU is commonly used to quantify neurogenesis but also causes mutation and has mitogenic, transcriptional, and translational effects. In mammalian studies, attention had been given to its dosage, but in birds such examination was not conducted. Our previous study suggested that BrdU might affect subsequent cell divisions and neuronal recruitment in the brain. Furthermore, this effect seemed to increase with time from treatment. Accordingly, we examined whether BrdU might alter neurogenesis in the adult avian brain. We compared recruitment of [(3)H]-thymidine(+) neurons in brains of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) when no BrdU was involved and when BrdU was given 1 or 3 months prior to [(3)H]-thymidine. In nidopallium caudale, HVC, and hippocampus, no differences were found between groups in densities and percentages of [(3)H]-thymidine(+) neurons. The number of silver grains per [(3)H]-thymidine(+) neuronal nucleus and their distribution were similar across groups. Additionally, time did not affect the results. The results indicate that the commonly used dosage of BrdU in birds has no long-term effects on subsequent cell divisions and neuronal recruitment. This conclusion is also important in neuronal replacement experiments, where BrdU and another cell birth marker are given, with relatively long intervals between them. PMID:25759813

  9. ALIX and ESCRT-III Coordinately Control Cytokinetic Abscission during Germline Stem Cell Division In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenes, Åsmund H.; Malerød, Lene; Christensen, Anette Lie; Steen, Chloé B.; Mathieu, Juliette; Nezis, Ioannis P.; Liestøl, Knut; Huynh, Jean-René; Stenmark, Harald; Haglund, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Abscission is the final step of cytokinesis that involves the cleavage of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Recent studies have given novel insight into the spatiotemporal regulation and molecular mechanisms controlling abscission in cultured yeast and human cells. The mechanisms of abscission in living metazoan tissues are however not well understood. Here we show that ALIX and the ESCRT-III component Shrub are required for completion of abscission during Drosophila female germline stem cell (fGSC) division. Loss of ALIX or Shrub function in fGSCs leads to delayed abscission and the consequent formation of stem cysts in which chains of daughter cells remain interconnected to the fGSC via midbody rings and fusome. We demonstrate that ALIX and Shrub interact and that they co-localize at midbody rings and midbodies during cytokinetic abscission in fGSCs. Mechanistically, we show that the direct interaction between ALIX and Shrub is required to ensure cytokinesis completion with normal kinetics in fGSCs. We conclude that ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control abscission in Drosophila fGSCs and that their complex formation is required for accurate abscission timing in GSCs in vivo. PMID:25635693

  10. Single-cell analysis reveals a novel uncultivated magnetotactic bacterium within the candidate division OP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinko, Sebastian; Jogler, Christian; Katzmann, Emanuel; Wanner, Gerhard; Peplies, Jörg; Schüler, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a diverse group of prokaryotes that orient along magnetic fields using membrane-coated magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe(3) O(4) ) or greigite (Fe(3) S(4) ), the magnetosomes. Previous phylogenetic analysis of MTB has been limited to few cultivated species and most abundant members of natural populations, which were assigned to Proteobacteria and the Nitrospirae phyla. Here, we describe a single cell-based approach that allowed the targeted phylogenetic and ultrastructural analysis of the magnetotactic bacterium SKK-01, which was low abundant in sediments of Lake Chiemsee. Morphologically conspicuous single cells of SKK-01 were micromanipulated from magnetically collected multi-species MTB populations, which was followed by whole genome amplification and ultrastructural analysis of sorted cells. Besides intracellular sulphur inclusions, the large ovoid cells of SKK-01 harbour ∼175 bullet-shaped magnetosomes arranged in multiple chains that consist of magnetite as revealed by TEM and EDX analysis. Sequence analysis of 16 and 23S rRNA genes from amplified genomic DNA as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization assigned SKK-01 to the candidate division OP3, which so far lacks any cultivated representatives. SKK-01 represents the first morphotype that can be assigned to the OP3 group as well as the first magnetotactic member of the PVC superphylum. PMID:22003954

  11. Interaction of Mouse Pem Protein and Cell Division Cycle 37 Homolog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen GUO; Yue-Qin LI; Shi-Qian LI; Zhi-Wen LUO; Xin ZHANG; Dong-Sheng TANG; Tian-Hong ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Mouse Pem, a homeobox gene, encodes a protein consisting of 210 amino acid residues. To study the function of mouse Pem protein, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to screen the library of 7-day mouse embryo with full-length mouse Pem eDNA. Fifty-two colonies were obtained after 1.57×108 colonies were screened by nutrition limitation and β-galactosidase assay. Seven individual insert fragments were obtained from the library, and three of them were identified, one of which was confirmed to be the cell division cycle 37 (Cdc37) homolog gene by sequencing. The interaction between mouse Pem and Cdc37homolog was then confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay, and the possible interaction model was suggested.

  12. Adaptive drug resistance mediated by root-nodulation-cell division efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C; Ramos, J L

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a major therapeutic problem. Bacteria use the same mechanisms for developing resistance to antibiotics as they do for developing resistance to biocide compounds present in some cleaning and personal care products. Root-nodulation-cell division (RND) family efflux pumps are a common means of multidrug resistance, and induction of their expression can explain the observed cross-resistance found between antibiotics and biocides in laboratory strains. Hence, there is a relationship between the active chemicals used in household products, organic solvents and antibiotics. The widespread use of biocide-containing modern-day household products may promote the development of microbial resistance and, in particular, cross-resistance to antibiotics. PMID:19220351

  13. Human disc cells in monolayer vs 3D culture: cell shape, division and matrix formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Edward N

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between cell shape, proliferation, and extracellular matrix (ECM production, important aspects of cell behavior, is examined in a little-studied cell type, the human annulus cell from the intervertebral disc, during monolayer vs three-dimensional (3D culture. Results Three experimental studies showed that cells respond specifically to culture microenvironments by changes in cell shape, mitosis and ECM production: 1 Cell passages showed extensive immunohistochemical evidence of Type I and II collagens only in 3D culture. Chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate were abundant in both monolayer and 3D cultures. 2 Cells showed significantly greater proliferation in monolayer in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor compared to cells in 3D. 3 Cells on Matrigel™-coated monolayer substrates became rounded and formed nodular colonies, a finding absent during monolayer growth. Conclusions The cell's in vivo interactions with the ECM can regulate shape, gene expression and other cell functions. The shape of the annulus cell changes markedly during life: the young, healthy disc contains spindle shaped cells and abundant collagen. With aging and degeneration, many cells assume a strikingly different appearance, become rounded and are surrounded by unusual accumulations of ECM products. In vitro manipulation of disc cells provides an experimental window for testing how disc cells from given individuals respond when they are grown in environments which direct cells to have either spindle- or rounded-shapes. In vitro assessment of the response of such cells to platelet-derived growth factor and to Matrigel™ showed a continued influence of cell shape even in the presence of a growth factor stimulus. These findings contribute new information to the important issue of the influence of cell shape on cell behavior.

  14. From cell differentiation to cell collectives : Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell-cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In thi

  15. Proper symmetric and asymmetric endoplasmic reticulum partitioning requires astral microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Jeremy T; Schoborg, Todd A; Bergman, Zane J; Riggs, Blake; Rusan, Nasser M

    2015-08-01

    Mechanisms that regulate partitioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during cell division are largely unknown. Previous studies have mostly addressed ER partitioning in cultured cells, which may not recapitulate physiological processes that are critical in developing, intact tissues. We have addressed this by analysing ER partitioning in asymmetrically dividing stem cells, in which precise segregation of cellular components is essential for proper development and tissue architecture. We show that in Drosophila neural stem cells, called neuroblasts, the ER asymmetrically partitioned to centrosomes early in mitosis. This correlated closely with the asymmetric nucleation of astral microtubules (MTs) by centrosomes, suggesting that astral MT association may be required for ER partitioning by centrosomes. Consistent with this, the ER also associated with astral MTs in meiotic Drosophila spermatocytes and during syncytial embryonic divisions. Disruption of centrosomes in each of these cell types led to improper ER partitioning, demonstrating the critical role for centrosomes and associated astral MTs in this process. Importantly, we show that the ER also associated with astral MTs in cultured human cells, suggesting that this centrosome/astral MT-based partitioning mechanism is conserved across animal species. PMID:26289801

  16. CXCR6, a newly defined biomarker of tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal, identifies more aggressive human melanoma cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh Taghizadeh

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in cancer research is identifying the cell type that is capable of sustaining neoplastic growth and its origin from normal tissue cells. Recent investigations of a variety of tumor types have shown that phenotypically identifiable and isolable subfractions of cells possess the tumor-forming ability. In the present paper, using two lineage-related human melanoma cell lines, primary melanoma line IGR39 and its metastatic derivative line IGR37, two main observations are reported. The first one is the first phenotypic evidence to support the origin of melanoma cancer stem cells (CSCs from mutated tissue-specific stem cells; and the second one is the identification of a more aggressive subpopulation of CSCs in melanoma that are CXCR6+.We defined CXCR6 as a new biomarker for tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal. Thus, the relationship between melanoma formation and ABCG2 and CXCR6 expression was investigated. Consistent with their non-metastatic character, unsorted IGR39 cells formed significantly smaller tumors than unsorted IGR37 cells. In addition, ABCG2+ cells produced tumors that had a 2-fold greater mass than tumors produced by unsorted cells or ABCG2- cells. CXCR6+ cells produced more aggressive tumors. CXCR6 identifies a more discrete subpopulation of cultured human melanoma cells with a more aggressive MCSC phenotype than cells selected on the basis of the ABCG2+ phenotype alone.The association of a more aggressive tumor phenotype with asymmetric self-renewal phenotype reveals a previously unrecognized aspect of tumor cell physiology. Namely, the retention of some tissue-specific stem cell attributes, like the ability to asymmetrically self-renew, impacts the natural history of human tumor development. Knowledge of this new aspect of tumor development and progression may provide new targets for cancer prevention and treatment.

  17. Characterization of a null allelic mutant of the rice NAL1 gene reveals its role in regulating cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jiang

    Full Text Available Leaf morphology is closely associated with cell division. In rice, mutations in Narrow leaf 1 (NAL1 show narrow leaf phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that NAL1 plays a role in regulating vein patterning and increasing grain yield in indica cultivars, but its role in leaf growth and development remains unknown. In this report, we characterized two allelic mutants of NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1, nal1-2 and nal1-3, both of which showed a 50% reduction in leaf width and length, as well as a dwarf culm. Longitudinal and transverse histological analyses of leaves and internodes revealed that cell division was suppressed in the anticlinal orientation but enhanced in the periclinal orientation in the mutants, while cell size remained unaltered. In addition to defects in cell proliferation, the mutants showed abnormal midrib in leaves. Map-based cloning revealed that nal1-2 is a null allelic mutant of NAL1 since both the whole promoter and a 404-bp fragment in the first exon of NAL1 were deleted, and that a 6-bp fragment was deleted in the mutant nal1-3. We demonstrated that NAL1 functions in the regulation of cell division as early as during leaf primordia initiation. The altered transcript level of G1- and S-phase-specific genes suggested that NAL1 affects cell cycle regulation. Heterogeneous expression of NAL1 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe further supported that NAL1 affects cell division. These results suggest that NAL1 controls leaf width and plant height through its effects on cell division.

  18. Effect of gamma-irradiation and colchicine on cell division and differentiation of xylem elements in citrus limon juice vesicle cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of varying doses of gamma irradiation on cell division and cytodifferentiation of tracheary elements in cultured juice vesicles of Citrus limon (L) Burmann var. Assam lemon were investigated. Low radiation doses stimulated cell division and differentiation of xylem fibres, sclereids and tracheids in explants given up to 10 Gy of gamma rays. Although cell division and cytodifferentiation of fibers and sclereids occurred in explants exposed to 150 dose of Gy radiation, the intensity of differentiation was much less than that induced by 10 Gy radiation dose. Amongst the differential elements, tracheids were more sensitive to radiation than fibres and sclereids. The requirement of cell division for differentiation of xylem cells was also studied by using different concentrations of colchicine in Citrus limon juice vesicle cultures. It was found that the low concentrations of colchicine permitted normal cell division and also resulted in normal differentiation of xylem cells; higher colchicine concentration, however, inhibited cell division as well as differentiation and resulted in an abnormal differentiation of tracheary element. A positive correlation between intensity of nucleic acid staining and cell division in both the above-mentioned experiments was qualitatively confirmed by Azur B staining test of nucleic acid. Thus, it was concluded that juice vesicle parenchyma cells go through nucleic acid synthesis, followed by cell division before differentiation. (author)

  19. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  20. Intracellular microRNA profiles form in the Xenopus laevis oocyte that may contribute to asymmetric cell division

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šídová, Monika; Šindelka, Radek; Castoldi, M.; Benes, V.; Kubista, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 11157 (2015). ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : VG1 MESSENGER-RNA * VEGETAL CORTEX * FROG OOCYTE Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  1. Intracellular photoreceptive site for blue light-induced cell division in protonemata of the fern Adiantum [Pteridophyta]: Further analyses by polarized light irradiation and cell centrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracellular localization of the photoreceptive site for blue light-induced cell division in single-celled protonemata of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. was investigated using polarized light irradiation and protonemal cell centrifugation. The response to irradiation with polarized blue light showed no dependence on the direction of light polarization. However, centrifugation of the protonemata followed by microbeam irradiation showed that the site of blue light perception could be displaced together with the nucleus. Centrifugal treatment changed the distribution of intracellular organelles at the time of light exposure and basipetally displaced the nucleus about 90μm. This treatment had no effect on the induction of cell division with blue light if the protonemata were centrifuged again acropetally after the light treatment. Microbeam (30×30 μm2) irradiation with blue light of the apical 45–75 βm region, the receptive site of blue light in non-centrifuged cell, did not induce cell division. However, cell division was induced by irradiation of the nucleus-containing region, indicating that the photoreceptive site was displaced together with the nucleus by the centrifugation. These results suggest that the blue light receptor regulating cell division in Adiantum protonemata is not likely to be located on the plasma membrane. (author)

  2. The Effect of Olive Oil Mill Effluent on the Mitotic Cell Division and Total Protein Amount of the Root Tips of Triticum aestivumL.

    OpenAIRE

    Aybeke, Mehmet; OLGUN, Göksel

    2000-01-01

    In this work sitotoxic and mutagenic effects Olive Oil Mill Effluent (OOME) on the root tips of Triticum aestivumL. were investigated. In this purpose, germination rate of seeds, mitotic division abnormalities and total protein amounts were evaluated. The seeds kept in various OOME concentrastions, it was determinated that germination rate decreased, whilst mitotic abnormalities and mitotic cell division frequency increased. Especially, the increased cell division frequency was of signif...

  3. A systematic analysis of cell cycle regulators in yeast reveals that most factors act independently of cell size to control initiation of division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Hoose

    Full Text Available Upstream events that trigger initiation of cell division, at a point called START in yeast, determine the overall rates of cell proliferation. The identity and complete sequence of those events remain unknown. Previous studies relied mainly on cell size changes to identify systematically genes required for the timely completion of START. Here, we evaluated panels of non-essential single gene deletion strains for altered DNA content by flow cytometry. This analysis revealed that most gene deletions that altered cell cycle progression did not change cell size. Our results highlight a strong requirement for ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis for initiation of cell division. We also identified numerous factors that have not been previously implicated in cell cycle control mechanisms. We found that CBS, which catalyzes the synthesis of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine, advances START in two ways: by promoting cell growth, which requires CBS's catalytic activity, and by a separate function, which does not require CBS's catalytic activity. CBS defects cause disease in humans, and in animals CBS has vital, non-catalytic, unknown roles. Hence, our results may be relevant for human biology. Taken together, these findings significantly expand the range of factors required for the timely initiation of cell division. The systematic identification of non-essential regulators of cell division we describe will be a valuable resource for analysis of cell cycle progression in yeast and other organisms.

  4. The deletion of bacterial dynamin and flotillin genes results in pleiotrophic effects on cell division, cell growth and in cell shape maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dempwolff Felix

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotic cells, dynamin and flotillin are involved in processes such as endocytosis and lipid raft formation, respectively. Dynamin is a GTPase that exerts motor-like activity during the pinching off of vesicles, while flotillins are coiled coil rich membrane proteins with no known enzymatic activity. Bacteria also possess orthologs of both classes of proteins, but their function has been unclear. Results We show that deletion of the single dynA or floT genes lead to no phenotype or a mild defect in septum formation in the case of the dynA gene, while dynA floT double mutant cells were highly elongated and irregularly shaped, although the MreB cytoskeleton appeared to be normal. DynA colocalizes with FtsZ, and the dynA deletion strain shows aberrant FtsZ rings in a subpopulation of cells. The mild division defect of the dynA deletion is exacerbated by an additional deletion in ezrA, which affects FtsZ ring formation, and also by the deletion of a late division gene (divIB, indicating that DynA affects several steps in cell division. DynA and mreB deletions generated a synthetic defect in cell shape maintenance, showing that MreB and DynA play non-epistatic functions in cell shape maintenance. TIRF microscopy revealed that FloT forms many dynamic membrane assemblies that frequently colocalize with the division septum. The deletion of dynA did not change the pattern of localization of FloT, and vice versa, showing that the two proteins play non redundant roles in a variety of cellular processes. Expression of dynamin or flotillin T in eukaryotic S2 cells revealed that both proteins assemble at the cell membrane. While FloT formed patch structures, DynA built up tubulated structures extending away from the cells. Conclusions Bacillus subtilis dynamin ortholog DynA plays a role during cell division and in cell shape maintenance. It shows a genetic link with flotillin T, with both proteins playing non-redundant functions at

  5. LocZ is a new cell division protein involved in proper septum placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holečková, Nela; Doubravová, Linda; Massidda, Orietta; Molle, Virginie; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-13. ISSN 2150-7511 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/1568; GA ČR GAP302/12/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell division * septum placement * Streptococcus pneumoniae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.786, year: 2014

  6. LIN-39/Hox triggers cell division and represses EFF-1/fusogen-dependent vulval cell fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shemer, Gidi; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    General mechanisms by which Hox genes establish cell fates are known. However, a few Hox effectors mediating cell behaviors have been identified. Here we found the first effector of LIN-39/HoxD4/Dfd in Caenorhabditis elegans. In specific vulval precursor cells (VPCs), LIN-39 represses early and late expression of EFF-1, a membrane protein essential for cell fusion. Repression of eff-1 is also achieved by the activity of CEH-20/Exd/Pbx, a known cofactor of Hox proteins. Unfused VPCs in lin-39(...

  7. Temperature stress promotes cell division arrest in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumares, Júlia A P; Morão, Luana Galvão; Martins, Paula M M; Martins, Daniela A B; Gomes, Eleni; Belasque, José; Ferreira, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Citrus canker is an economically important disease that affects orange production in some of the most important producing areas around the world. It represents a great threat to the Brazilian and North American citriculture, particularly to the states of São Paulo and Florida, which together correspond to the biggest orange juice producers in the world. The etiological agent of this disease is the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), which grows optimally in laboratory cultures at ~30°C. To investigate how temperatures differing from 30°C influence the development of Xcc, we subjected the bacterium to thermal stresses, and afterward scored its recovery capability. In addition, we analyzed cell morphology and some markers of essential cellular processes that could indicate the extent of the heat-induced damage. We found that the exposure of Xcc to 37°C for a period of 6 h led to a cell cycle arrest at the division stage. Thermal stress might have also interfered with the DNA replication and/or the chromosome segregation apparatuses, since cells displayed an increased number of sister origins side-by-side within rods. Additionally, Xcc treated at 37°C was still able to induce citrus canker symptoms, showing that thermal stress did not affect the ability of Xcc to colonize the host citrus. At 40-42°C, Xcc lost viability and became unable to induce disease symptoms in citrus. Our results provide evidence about essential cellular mechanisms perturbed by temperature, and can be potentially explored as a new method for Xanthomonas citri synchronization in cell cycle studies, as well as for the sanitation of plant material. PMID:26663580

  8. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S Martins-Duarte

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite's DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13-25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment. Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition--with the appearance of 'tethered' parasites--malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results

  9. Radmis, a novel mitotic spindle protein that functions in cell division of neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahito Yumoto

    Full Text Available Developmental dynamics of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs are crucial for embryonic and adult neurogenesis, but its regulatory factors are not fully understood. By differential subtractive screening with NSPCs versus their differentiated progenies, we identified the radmis (radial fiber and mitotic spindle/ckap2l gene, a novel microtubule-associated protein (MAP enriched in NSPCs. Radmis is a putative substrate for the E3-ubiquitin ligase, anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C, and is degraded via the KEN box. Radmis was highly expressed in regions of active neurogenesis throughout life, and its distribution was dynamically regulated during NSPC division. In embryonic and perinatal brains, radmis localized to bipolar mitotic spindles and radial fibers (basal processes of dividing NSPCs. As central nervous system development proceeded, radmis expression was lost in most brain regions, except for several neurogenic regions. In adult brain, radmis expression persisted in the mitotic spindles of both slowly-dividing stem cells and rapid amplifying progenitors. Overexpression of radmis in vitro induced hyper-stabilization of microtubules, severe defects in mitotic spindle formation, and mitotic arrest. In vivo gain-of-function using in utero electroporation revealed that radmis directed a reduction in NSPC proliferation and a concomitant increase in cell cycle exit, causing a reduction in the Tbr2-positive basal progenitor population and shrinkage of the embryonic subventricular zone. Besides, radmis loss-of-function by shRNAs induced the multipolar mitotic spindle structure, accompanied with the catastrophe of chromosome segregation including the long chromosome bridge between two separating daughter nuclei. These findings uncover the indispensable role of radmis in mitotic spindle formation and cell-cycle progression of NSPCs.

  10. Investigating the Molecular Mechanism of TSO1 Function in Arabidopsis cell division and meristem development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongchi Liu

    2004-10-01

    Unlike animals, plants are constantly exposed to environmental mutagens including ultraviolet light and reactive oxygen species. Further, plant cells are totipotent with highly plastic developmental programs. An understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of plants to monitor and repair its DNA and to eliminate damaged cells are of great importance. Previously we have identified two genes, TSO1 and TSO2, from a flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in these two genes cause callus-like flowers, fasciated shoot apical meristems, and abnormal cell division, indicating that TSO1 and TSO2 may encode important cell cycle regulators. Previous funding from DOE led to the molecular cloning of TSO1, which was shown to encode a novel nuclear protein with two CXC domains suspected to bind DNA. This DOE grant has allowed us to characterize and isolate TSO2 that encodes the small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR comprises two large subunits (R1) an d two small subunits (R2), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the production of deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA replication and repair. Previous studies in yeast and mammals indicated that defective RNR often led to cell cycle arrest, growth retardation and p53-dependent apoptosis while abnormally elevated RNR activities led to higher mutation rates. Subsequently, we identified two additional R2 genes, R2A and R2B in the Arabidopsis genome. Using reverse genetics, mutations in R2A and R2B were isolated, and double and triple mutants among the three R2 genes (TSO2, R2A and R2B) were constructed and analyzed. We showed that Arabidopsis tso2 mutants, with reduced dNTP levels, were more sensitive to UV-C. While r2a or r2b single mutants did not exhibit any phenotypes, tso2 r2b double mutants were embryonic lethal and tso2 r2a double mutants were seedling lethal indicating redundant functions among the three R2 genes. Furthermore, tso2 r2a double mutants exhibited increased DNA dam age

  11. Structure of the bacterial cell division determinant GpsB and its interaction with penicillin-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismondo, Jeanine; Cleverley, Robert M; Lane, Harriet V; Großhennig, Stephanie; Steglich, Anne; Möller, Lars; Mannala, Gopala Krishna; Hain, Torsten; Lewis, Richard J; Halbedel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Each bacterium has to co-ordinate its growth with division to ensure genetic stability of the population. Consequently, cell division and growth are tightly regulated phenomena, albeit different bacteria utilise one of several alternative regulatory mechanisms to maintain control. Here we consider GpsB, which is linked to cell growth and division in Gram-positive bacteria. ΔgpsB mutants of the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes show severe lysis, division and growth defects due to distortions of cell wall biosynthesis. Consistent with this premise, GpsB interacts both in vitro and in vivo with the major bi-functional penicillin-binding protein. We solved the crystal structure of GpsB and the interaction interfaces in both proteins are identified and validated. The inactivation of gpsB results in strongly attenuated virulence in animal experiments, comparable in degree to classical listerial virulence factor mutants. Therefore, GpsB is essential for in vitro and in vivo growth of a highly virulent food-borne pathogen, suggesting that GpsB could be a target for the future design of novel antibacterials. PMID:26575090

  12. Different Degree in Proteasome Malfunction Has Various Effects on Root Growth Possibly through Preventing Cell Division and Promoting Autophagic Vacuolization

    OpenAIRE

    Xianyong Sheng; Qian Wei; Liping Jiang; Xue Li; Yuan Gao; Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin/proteasome pathway plays a vital role in plant development. But the effects of proteasome malfunction on root growth, and the mechanism underlying this involvement remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of proteasome inhibitors on Arabidopsis root growth were studied through the analysis of the root length, and meristem size and cell length in maturation zone using FM4-64, and cell-division potential using GFP fusion cyclin B, and accumulation of ubiquitinated protei...

  13. Brassinazole resistant 1 (BZR1)-dependent brassinosteroid signalling pathway leads to ectopic activation of quiescent cell division and suppresses columella stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hak-Soo; Kim, Yoon; Pham, Giang; Kim, Ju Won; Song, Ji-Hye; Lee, Yew; Hwang, Yong-Sic; Roux, Stanley J; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2015-08-01

    Previous publications have shown that BRI1 EMS suppressor 1 (BES1), a positive regulator of the brassinosteroid (BR) signalling pathway, enhances cell divisions in the quiescent centre (QC) and stimulates columella stem cell differentiation. Here, it is demonstrated that BZR1, a BES1 homologue, also promotes cell divisions in the QC, but it suppresses columella stem cell differentiation, opposite to the action of BES1. In addition, BR and its BZR1-mediated signalling pathway are shown to alter the expression/subcellular distribution of pin-formed (PINs), which may result in changes in auxin movement. BR promotes intense nuclear accumulation of BZR1 in the root tip area, and the binding of BZR1 to the promoters of several root development-regulating genes, modulating their expression in the root stem cell niche area. These BZR1-mediated signalling cascades may account for both the ectopic activation of QC cell divisions as well as the suppression of the columella stem cell differentiation. They could also inhibit auxin-dependent distal stem cell differentiation by antagonizing the auxin/WOX5-dependent pathway. In conclusion, BZR1-/BES1-mediated BR signalling pathways show differential effects on the maintenance of root apical meristem activities: they stimulate ectopic QC division while they show opposite effects on the differentiation of distal columella stem cells in a BR concentration- and BZR1-/BES1-dependent manner. PMID:26136267

  14. Assessment of contrast flow modification in aneurysms treated with closed-cell self-deploying asymmetric vascular stents (SAVS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ionita, Ciprian N; Wang, Weiyuan; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The Asymmetric Vascular Stent (AVS) for intracranial aneurysm (IA) treatment is an experimental device, specially designed for intra-aneurysmal blood flow diversion and thrombosis promotion. The stent has a low-porous patch to cover only the aneurysm neck while the rest of the stent is very porous to avoid blockage of adjacent branches. The latest AVS design is similar to state-of-art, closed-cell, self-expanding, neurovascular stent. The stents were used to treat sixteen rabbit-elastase aneu...

  15. Exine dehiscing induces rape microspore polarity, which results in different daughter cell fate and fixes the apical–basal axis of the embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xingchun; Liu, Yuan; He, Yuqing; Ma, Ligang; Sun, Meng-xiang

    2012-01-01

    The roles of cell polarity and the first asymmetric cell division during early embryogenesis in apical–basal cell fate determination remain unclear. Previously, a novel Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis system was established, by which rape exine-dehisced microspores were induced by physical stress. Unlike traditional microspore culture, cell polarity and subsequent asymmetric division appeared in the exine-dehisced microspore, which finally developed into a typical embryo with a suspen...

  16. Different degree in proteasome malfunction has various effects on root growth possibly through preventing cell division and promoting autophagic vacuolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyong Sheng

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin/proteasome pathway plays a vital role in plant development. But the effects of proteasome malfunction on root growth, and the mechanism underlying this involvement remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of proteasome inhibitors on Arabidopsis root growth were studied through the analysis of the root length, and meristem size and cell length in maturation zone using FM4-64, and cell-division potential using GFP fusion cyclin B, and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins using immunofluorescence labeling, and autophagy activity using LysoTracker and MDC. The results indicated that lower concentration of proteasome inhibitors promoted root growth, whereas higher concentration of inhibitors had the opposite effects. The accumulation of cyclin B was linked to MG132-induced decline in meristem size, indicating that proteasome malfunction prevented cell division. Besides, MG132-induced accumulation of the ubiquitinated proteins was associated with the increasing fluorescence signal of LysoTracker and MDC in the elongation zone, revealing a link between the activation of autophagy and proteasome malfunction. These results suggest that weak proteasome malfunction activates moderate autophagy and promotes cell elongation, which compensates the inhibitor-induced reduction of cell division, resulting in long roots. Whereas strong proteasome malfunction induces severe autophagy and disturbs cell elongation, resulting in short roots.

  17. Correlation between Nitric oxide (NO) & Asymmetric dimethylargininie (ADMA) Hemoglobin Concentration in sickle cell patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kadkhodaei ElyaderaniM; Rostami M; Keikhaie B; PedramM

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The importance of Nitric oxide (NO) andAsymmetric dimethylargininie (ADMA) in pathophysiology of Sickle celldisease (SCD) is being increasingly clarified. Since very few of the studieshave been conducted in the word and no study has been carried out in Iran,especially in Khuzestan province where is the main center of Sickle Celldisorder (SCD) in Iran, We decided to conduct the present study.Material and Methods: EDTA anticoagulated plasma samples were obtainedfrom 3...

  18. Emp is a component of the nuclear matrix of mammalian cells and undergoes dynamic rearrangements during cell division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emp, originally detected in erythroblastic islands, is expressed in numerous cell types and tissues suggesting a functionality not limited to hematopoiesis. To study the function of Emp in non-hematopoietic cells, an epitope-tagged recombinant human Emp was expressed in HEK cells. Preliminary studies revealed that Emp partitioned into both the nuclear and Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeletal fractions in approximately a 4:1 ratio. In this study, we report investigations of Emp in the nucleus. Sequential extractions of interphase nuclei showed that recombinant Emp was present predominantly in the nuclear matrix. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Emp was present in typical nuclear speckles enriched with the spliceosome assembly factor SC35 and partially co-localized with actin staining. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pull-down assays confirmed the apparent close association of Emp with nuclear actin. During mitosis, Emp was detected at the mitotic spindle/spindle poles, as well as in the contractile ring during cytokinesis. These results suggest that Emp undergoes dynamic rearrangements within the nuclear architecture that are correlated with cell division

  19. A dual-functional asymmetric squaraine-based low band gap hole transporting material for efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Sanghyun; Rub, Malik Abdul; Choi, Hyeju; Kosa, Samia A.; Alamry, Khalid A.; Cho, Jin Woo; Gao, Peng; Ko, Jaejung; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an asymmetric squaraine-based low band-gap hole transporting material, which acted as both light harvesting and hole transporting layers in methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite solar cells. Opto-electrochemical characterization revealed extremely high molar extinction coefficients of the absorption bands in the low energy region and prominent space charge delocalization due to its electronically asymmetric nature. A suitable band alignment of the squaraine HOMO level with the valence band edge of the perovskite, and the conduction band of the TiO2 with LUMO of the perovskite allowed a cascade of hole extraction and electron injection, respectively. Red-shifted absorption was observed for both HTMs in thin films coated on the perovskite, and the optimized devices exhibited an impressive PCE of 14.7% under full sunlight illumination (100 mW cm-2, AM1.5 G). The efficiency value is comparable to that of the devices using a state-of-the-art spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer under similar conditions. Ambient stability after 300 h revealed that 88% of the initial efficiency remained for JK-216D, and almost no change for JK-217D, indicating that the devices had good long-term stability thus suggesting that the asymmetric squaraines have great potential as a dual-functional HTM for high performance perovskite solar cells.We demonstrate for the first time an asymmetric squaraine-based low band-gap hole transporting material, which acted as both light harvesting and hole transporting layers in methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite solar cells. Opto-electrochemical characterization revealed extremely high molar extinction coefficients of the absorption bands in the low energy region and prominent space charge delocalization due to its electronically asymmetric nature. A suitable band alignment of the squaraine HOMO level with the valence band edge of the perovskite, and the conduction band of the TiO2 with LUMO of the perovskite allowed

  20. The RNA binding protein Larp1 regulates cell division, apoptosis and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Carla; Abd Latip, Normala; Lam, Sarah-Jane; Carpenter, Lee; Sawicka, Kirsty; Tzolovsky, George; Gabra, Hani; Bushell, Martin; Glover, David M; Willis, Anne E; Blagden, Sarah P

    2010-09-01

    The RNA binding protein Larp1 was originally shown to be involved in spermatogenesis, embryogenesis and cell-cycle progression in Drosophila. Our data show that mammalian Larp1 is found in a complex with poly A binding protein and eukaryote initiation factor 4E and is associated with 60S and 80S ribosomal subunits. A reduction in Larp1 expression by siRNA inhibits global protein synthesis rates and results in mitotic arrest and delayed cell migration. Consistent with these data we show that Larp1 protein is present at the leading edge of migrating cells and interacts directly with cytoskeletal components. Taken together, these data suggest a role for Larp1 in facilitating the synthesis of proteins required for cellular remodelling and migration. PMID:20430826

  1. Cell division factors from crown gall tumors: a strategy for structural elucidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitogenic compounds present in extracts of Vinca rosea crown gall tumor tissue were investigated. An isolation procedure, consisting of solvent partitions and reverse phase chromatography, has yielded a group of isomeric compounds which show activity in the tobacco pith bioassay. Initial characterizations revealed an unsaturated base, a sugar residue, a β-linked glucose, an allylic alcohol, and two methyl groups. A two part strategy of mass spectrometry (MS) in combination with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) was envisioned. The aglycone structure would be determined by MS and the regiochemical relationships among the structural units would be defined by 1H NMR data. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by the structure assignment of a specific inhibitor of β-D-glucuronidase, 2(S)-carboxy-3(R),4(R),5(S)-trihydroxypiperidine. The relative stereochemistry of the hydroxyls was revealed by 1H NMR and the absolute configuration was deduced by a comparison of Cotton effects with a model compound. The use of 1H NMR to establish regiochemical relationships was investigated. Terpenes containing quaternary carbons and methyl groups were excellent models for the regiochemical problems presented by the mitogenic factors. This 1H NMR spectroscopy has been applied to the cell division factor structure problem. These data, with information from two dimensional nOe experiments, have defined some of the regio-relationships among the structural units present in the isolated factors

  2. Nanoscale imaging of the growth and division of bacterial cells on planar substrates with the atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Hofstadt, M. [Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), C/ Baldiri i Reixac 11-15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Hüttener, M.; Juárez, A. [Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), C/ Baldiri i Reixac 11-15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Microbiologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomila, G., E-mail: ggomila@ibecbarcelona.eu [Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), C/ Baldiri i Reixac 11-15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Marti i Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    With the use of the atomic force microscope (AFM), the Nanomicrobiology field has advanced drastically. Due to the complexity of imaging living bacterial processes in their natural growing environments, improvements have come to a standstill. Here we show the in situ nanoscale imaging of the growth and division of single bacterial cells on planar substrates with the atomic force microscope. To achieve this, we minimized the lateral shear forces responsible for the detachment of weakly adsorbed bacteria on planar substrates with the use of the so called dynamic jumping mode with very soft cantilever probes. With this approach, gentle imaging conditions can be maintained for long periods of time, enabling the continuous imaging of the bacterial cell growth and division, even on planar substrates. Present results offer the possibility to observe living processes of untrapped bacteria weakly attached to planar substrates. - Highlights: • Gelatine coatings used to weakly attach bacterial cells onto planar substrates. • Use of the dynamic jumping mode as a non-perturbing bacterial imaging mode. • Nanoscale resolution imaging of unperturbed single living bacterial cells. • Growth and division of single bacteria cells on planar substrates observed.

  3. Asymmetric segregation of damaged cellular components in spatially structured multicellular organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Strandkvist

    Full Text Available The asymmetric distribution of damaged cellular components has been observed in species ranging from fission yeast to humans. To study the potential advantages of damage segregation, we have developed a mathematical model describing ageing mammalian tissue, that is, a multicellular system of somatic cells that do not rejuvenate at cell division. To illustrate the applicability of the model, we specifically consider damage incurred by mutations to mitochondrial DNA, which are thought to be implicated in the mammalian ageing process. We show analytically that the asymmetric distribution of damaged cellular components reduces the overall damage level and increases the longevity of the cell population. Motivated by the experimental reports of damage segregation in human embryonic stem cells, dividing symmetrically with respect to cell-fate, we extend the model to consider spatially structured systems of cells. Imposing spatial structure reduces, but does not eliminate, the advantage of asymmetric division over symmetric division. The results suggest that damage partitioning could be a common strategy for reducing the accumulation of damage in a wider range of cell types than previously thought.

  4. Robustness of the division symmetry in Escherichia coli and functional consequences of symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphological symmetry of the division process of Escherichia coli is well-known. Recent studies verified that, in optimal growth conditions, most divisions are symmetric, although there are exceptions. We investigate whether such morphological asymmetries in division introduce functional asymmetries between sister cells, and assess the robustness of the symmetry in division to mild chemical stresses and sub-optimal temperatures. First, we show that the difference in size between daughter cells at birth is positively correlated to the difference between the numbers of fluorescent protein complexes inherited from the parent cell. Next, we show that the degree of symmetry in division observed in optimal conditions is robust to mild acidic shift and to mild oxidative stress, but not to sub-optimal temperatures, in that the variance of the difference between the sizes of sister cells at birth is minimized at 37 °C. This increased variance affects the functionality of the cells in that, at sub-optimal temperatures, larger/smaller cells arising from asymmetric divisions exhibit faster/slower division times than the mean population division time, respectively. On the other hand, cells dividing faster do not do so at the cost of morphological symmetry in division. Finally we show that at suboptimal temperatures the mean distance between the nucleoids increases, explaining the increased variance in division. We conclude that the functionality of E. coli cells is not immune to morphological asymmetries at birth, and that the effectiveness of the mechanism responsible for ensuring the symmetry in division weakens at sub-optimal temperatures. (paper)

  5. Fat3 and Ena/VASP proteins influence the emergence of asymmetric cell morphology in the developing retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Alexandra; Henle, Steven J; Goodrich, Lisa V

    2016-06-15

    Neurons exhibit asymmetric morphologies throughout development - from migration to the elaboration of axons and dendrites - that are correctly oriented for the flow of information. For instance, retinal amacrine cells migrate towards the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and then retract their trailing processes, thereby acquiring a unipolar morphology with a single dendritic arbor restricted to the IPL. Here, we provide evidence that the Fat-like cadherin Fat3 acts during multiple stages of amacrine cell development in mice to orient overall changes in cell shape towards the IPL. Using a time-lapse imaging assay, we found that developing amacrine cells are less directed towards the IPL in the absence of Fat3, during both migration and retraction. Consistent with its predicted role as a cell-surface receptor, Fat3 functions cell-autonomously and is able to influence the cytoskeleton directly through its intracellular domain, which can bind and localize Ena/VASP family actin regulators. Indeed, a change in Ena/VASP protein distribution is sufficient to recapitulate the Fat3 mutant amacrine cell phenotype. Thus, Fat-like proteins might control the polarized development of tissues by sculpting the cytoskeleton of individual cells. PMID:27122175

  6. Actin related protein complex subunit 1b controls sperm release, barrier integrity and cell division during adult rat spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anita; Dumasia, Kushaan; Deshpande, Sharvari; Gaonkar, Reshma; Balasinor, N H

    2016-08-01

    Actin remodeling is a vital process for signaling, movement and survival in all cells. In the testes, extensive actin reorganization occurs at spermatid-Sertoli cell junctions during sperm release (spermiation) and at inter Sertoli cell junctions during restructuring of the blood testis barrier (BTB). During spermiation, tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs), rich in branched actin networks, ensure recycling of spermatid-Sertoli cell junctional molecules. Similar recycling occurs during BTB restructuring around the same time as spermiation occurs. Actin related protein 2/3 complex is an essential actin nucleation and branching protein. One of its subunits, Arpc1b, was earlier found to be down-regulated in an estrogen-induced rat model of spermiation failure. Also, Arpc1b was found to be estrogen responsive through estrogen receptor beta in seminiferous tubule culture. Here, knockdown of Arpc1b by siRNA in adult rat testis led to defects in spermiation caused by failure in TBC formation. Knockdown also compromised BTB integrity and caused polarity defects of mature spermatids. Apart from these effects pertaining to Sertoli cells, Arpc1b reduction perturbed ability of germ cells to enter G2/M phase thus hindering cell division. In summary, Arpc1b, an estrogen responsive gene, is a regulator of spermiation, mature spermatid polarity, BTB integrity and cell division during adult spermatogenesis. PMID:27113856

  7. Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-Type Efflux Pump Involved in Aminoglycoside Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Strain BM4454

    OpenAIRE

    Magnet, Sophie; Courvalin, Patrice; Lambert, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant strain Acinetobacter baumannii BM4454 was isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection. The adeB gene, which encodes a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) protein, was detected in this strain by PCR with two degenerate oligodeoxynucleotides. Insertional inactivation of adeB in BM4454, which generated BM4454-1, showed that the corresponding protein was responsible for aminoglycoside resistance and was involved in the level of susceptibility to other drugs in...

  8. Inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase: effects on nucleic acid synthesis and cell division in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Fairweather, N F; Orr, E; Holland, I B

    1980-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli resistant to the antibiotic clorobiocin are also coumermycin resistant, and the mutation to resistance in at least one mutant was mapped near gyrB. We conclude, therefore, that clorobiocin inhibits deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase, and the drug was used to probe the role of this enzyme in vivo. Deozyribonucleic acid synthesis was preferentially inhibited but not completely blocked by the antibiotic. Transcription and cell division were also markedly affected. However, ...

  9. Spatial and Temporal Quantitative Analysis of Cell Division and Elongation Rate in Growing Wheat Leaves under Saline Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Leaf growth in grasses is determined by the cell division and elongation rates, with the duration of cell elongation being one of the processes that is the most sensitive to salinity. Our objective was to investigate the distribution profiles of cell production, cell length and the duration of cell elongation in the growing zone of the wheat leaf during the steady growth phase. Plants were grown in loamy soil with or without 120 mmol/L NaCl in a growth chamber, and harvested at day 3 after leaf 4 emerged. Results show that the elongation rate of leaf 4 was reduced by 120 mmol/L NaCl during the steady growth phase. The distribution profile of the lengths of abaxial epidermal cells of leaf 4 during the steady growth stage shows a sigmoidal pattern along the leaf axis for both treatments. Although salinity did not affect or even increased the length of the epidermal cells in some locations in the growth zone compared to the control treatment, the final length of the epidermal cells was reduced by 14% at 120 mmol/L NaCl. Thus, we concluded that the observed reduction in the leaf elongation rate derived in part from the reduced cell division rate and either the shortened cell elongation zone or shortened duration of cell elongation. This suggests that more attention should be paid to the effects of salinity on those properties of cell production and the period of cell maturation that are related to the properties of cell wall.

  10. Combination of Asymmetric Supercapacitor Utilizing Activated Carbon and Nickel Oxide with Cobalt Polypyridyl-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dye Solar Cell and supercapacitor are integrated into a single device capable of generation and storage of energy. • The solar cell part of the device utilizes the Co-based electrolyte and nickel/PEDOT counter electrode. • A cobalt-doped nickel oxide together with activated carbon is used in the capacitor part of the device. • The integrated photocapacitor is characterized by the capacitance of 32 F g−1 and the total efficiency of 0.6%. - Abstract: A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) based on the metal-free organic sensitizer and the cobalt (II, III) polypyridyl electrolyte was integrated here within an asymmetric supercapacitor utilizing cobalt-doped nickel oxide and activated carbon as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. A low cost nickel foil served as intermediate (auxiliary) bifunctional electrode separating two parts of the device and permitting the DSC electrolyte regeneration at one side and charge storage within cobalt-doped nickel oxide at the other. The main purpose of the research was to develop an integrated photocapacitor system capable of both energy generation and its further storage. Following irradiation at the 100 mW cm−2 level, the solar cell generated an open-circuit voltage of 0.8 V and short-circuit current of 8 mA cm−2 which corresponds to energy conversion efficiency of 4.9%. It was further shown that upon integration with asymmetric supercapacitor, the photogenerated energy was directly injected into porous charge storage electrodes thus resulting in specific capacitance of 32 F g−1 and energy density of 2.3 Wh kg−1. The coulumbic and total (energy conversion and charge storage) efficiency of photocapacitor were equal to 54% and 0.6%, respectively

  11. A Systematic Analysis of Cell Cycle Regulators in Yeast Reveals That Most Factors Act Independently of Cell Size to Control Initiation of Division

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A Hoose; Jeremy A Rawlings; Kelly, Michelle M.; M Camille Leitch; Ababneh, Qotaiba O; Robles, Juan P.; David Taylor; Hoover, Evelyn M.; Bethel Hailu; McEnery, Kayla A.; S Sabina Downing; Deepika Kaushal; Yi Chen; Alex Rife; Kirtan A Brahmbhatt

    2012-01-01

    Upstream events that trigger initiation of cell division, at a point called START in yeast, determine the overall rates of cell proliferation. The identity and complete sequence of those events remain unknown. Previous studies relied mainly on cell size changes to identify systematically genes required for the timely completion of START. Here, we evaluated panels of non-essential single gene deletion strains for altered DNA content by flow cytometry. This analysis revealed that most gene dele...

  12. Key divisions in the early Arabidopsis embryo require POL and PLL1 phosphatases to establish the root stem organizer and vascular axis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Sang-Kee; Hofhuis, Hugo; Lee, Myeong Min; Clark, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    Arabidopsis development proceeds from three stem cell populations located at the shoot, flower and root meristems. The relationship between the highly related shoot and flower stem cells with the very divergent root stem cells has been unclear. We show that the related phosphatases POL and PLL1 are required for all three stem cell populations. pol pll1 mutant embryos lack key asymmetric divisions that give rise to the root stem cell organizer and the central vascular axis. Instead, these cell...

  13. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  14. Ex vivo Expansion of Human Adult Pancreatic Cells with Properties of Distributed Stem Cells by Suppression of Asymmetric Cell Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Paré, JF; Sherley, JL

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation therapy for type I diabetes (T1D) might be improved if pancreatic stem cells were readily available for investigation. Unlike macroscopic islets, pancreatic tissue stem cells could more easily access the retroperitoneal pancreatic environment and thereby might achieve more effective pancreatic regeneration. Unfortunately, whether the adult pancreas actually contains renewing stem cells continues as a controversial issue in diabetes research. We evaluated a new method developed...

  15. Sea urchin akt activity is Runx-dependent and required for post-cleavage stage cell division

    KAUST Repository

    Robertson, Anthony J.

    2013-03-25

    In animal development following the initial cleavage stage of embryogenesis, the cell cycle becomes dependent on intercellular signaling and controlled by the genomically encoded ontogenetic program. Runx transcription factors are critical regulators of metazoan developmental signaling, and we have shown that the sea urchin Runx gene runt-1, which is globally expressed during early embryogenesis, functions in support of blastula stage cell proliferation and expression of the mitogenic genes pkc1, cyclinD, and several wnts. To obtain a more comprehensive list of early runt-1 regulatory targets, we screened a Strongylocentrotus purpuratus microarray to identify genes mis-expressed in mid-blastula stage runt-1 morphants. This analysis showed that loss of Runx function perturbs the expression of multiple genes involved in cell division, including the pro-growth and survival kinase Akt (PKB), which is significantly underexpressed in runt-1 morphants. Further genomic analysis revealed that Akt is encoded by two genes in the S. purpuratus genome, akt-1 and akt-2, both of which contain numerous canonical Runx target sequences. The transcripts of both genes accumulate several fold during blastula stage, contingent on runt-1 expression. Inhibiting Akt expression or activity causes blastula stage cell cycle arrest, whereas overexpression of akt-1 mRNA rescues cell proliferation in runt-1 morphants. These results indicate that post-cleavage stage cell division requires Runx-dependent expression of akt.

  16. Universal Protein Distributions in a Model of Cell Growth and Division

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Naama; Osmanovic, Dino; Rabin, Yitzhak; Salman, Hanna; Stein, D L

    2015-01-01

    Protein distributions measured under a broad set of conditions in bacteria and yeast exhibit a universal skewed shape, with variances depending quadratically on means. For bacteria these properties are reproduced by protein accumulation and division dynamics across generations. We present a stochastic growth-and-division model with feedback which captures these observed properties. The limiting copy number distribution is calculated exactly, and a single parameter is found to determine the distribution shape and the variance-to-mean relation. Estimating this parameter from bacterial temporal data reproduces the measured universal distribution shape with high accuracy, and leads to predictions for future experiments.

  17. ftsZ gene and plastid division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Plastid is one of the most important cellular organelles, the normal division process of plastid is essential for the differentiation and development of plant cells. For a long time, morphological observations and genetic analyses to special mutants are the major research fields of plastid division, but the molecular mechanisms underlying plastid division are largely unknown. Because of the endosymbiotic origin, plastid division might have mechanisms in common with those involved in bacterial cell division. It has been proved that several prokaryotic cell division genes also participate in the plastid division. Recently, the mechanisms of prokaryotic cell division have been well documented, which provides a valuable paradigm for understanding the plastid division mechanisms. In plants, the functional analyses of ftsZ, a key gene involved both in bacteria and plastid division, have established the solid foundation for people to understand the plastid division in molecular level. In this paper we will make a review for the research history and progress of plastid division.

  18. Exine dehiscing induces rape microspore polarity, which results in different daughter cell fate and fixes the apical–basal axis of the embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingchun; Liu, Yuan; Sun, Meng-xiang

    2013-01-01

    The roles of cell polarity and the first asymmetric cell division during early embryogenesis in apical–basal cell fate determination remain unclear. Previously, a novel Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis system was established, by which rape exine-dehisced microspores were induced by physical stress. Unlike traditional microspore culture, cell polarity and subsequent asymmetric division appeared in the exine-dehisced microspore, which finally developed into a typical embryo with a suspensor. Further studies indicated that polarity is critical for apical–basal cell fate determination and suspensor formation. However, the pattern of the first division was not only determined by cell polarity but was also regulated by the position of the ruptured exine. The first division could be equal or unequal, with its orientation essentially perpendicular to the polar axis. In both types of cell division, the two daughter cells could have different cell fates and give rise to an embryo with a suspensor, similar to zygotic apical–basal cell differentiation. The alignment of the two daughter cells is consistent with the orientation of the apical–basal axis of future embryonic development. Thus, the results revealed that exine dehiscing induces rape microspore polarization, and this polarity results in a different cell fate and fixes the apical–basal axis of embryogenesis, but is uncoupled from cell asymmetric division. The present study demonstrated the relationships among cell polarity, asymmetric cell division, and cell fate determination in early embryogenesis. PMID:23162119

  19. Exine dehiscing induces rape microspore polarity, which results in different daughter cell fate and fixes the apical-basal axis of the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingchun; Liu, Yuan; He, Yuqing; Ma, Ligang; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The roles of cell polarity and the first asymmetric cell division during early embryogenesis in apical-basal cell fate determination remain unclear. Previously, a novel Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis system was established, by which rape exine-dehisced microspores were induced by physical stress. Unlike traditional microspore culture, cell polarity and subsequent asymmetric division appeared in the exine-dehisced microspore, which finally developed into a typical embryo with a suspensor. Further studies indicated that polarity is critical for apical-basal cell fate determination and suspensor formation. However, the pattern of the first division was not only determined by cell polarity but was also regulated by the position of the ruptured exine. The first division could be equal or unequal, with its orientation essentially perpendicular to the polar axis. In both types of cell division, the two daughter cells could have different cell fates and give rise to an embryo with a suspensor, similar to zygotic apical-basal cell differentiation. The alignment of the two daughter cells is consistent with the orientation of the apical-basal axis of future embryonic development. Thus, the results revealed that exine dehiscing induces rape microspore polarization, and this polarity results in a different cell fate and fixes the apical-basal axis of embryogenesis, but is uncoupled from cell asymmetric division. The present study demonstrated the relationships among cell polarity, asymmetric cell division, and cell fate determination in early embryogenesis. PMID:23162119

  20. Asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenones by Baker's yeast and its cell-free extract encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Katsuya; Nakamura, Hitomi; Nakanishi, Kazuma

    2014-02-01

    Baker's yeast (BY) encapsulated in silica materials was synthesized using a yeast cell suspension and its cell-free extract during a sol-gel reaction of tetramethoxysilane with nitric acid as a catalyst. The synthesized samples were fully characterized using various methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The BY cells were easily encapsulated inside silica-gel networks, and the ratio of the cells in the silica gel was approximately 75 wt%, which indicated that a large volume of BY was trapped with a small amount of silica. The enzyme activity (asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones) of BY and its cell-free extract encapsulated in silica gel was investigated in detail. The activities and enantioselectivities of free and encapsulated BY were similar to those of acetophenone and its fluorine derivatives, which indicated that the conformation structure of BY enzymes inside silica-gel networks did not change. In addition, the encapsulated BY exhibited considerably better solvent (methanol) stability and recyclability compared to free BY solution. We expect that the development of BY encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials will significantly impact the industrial-scale advancement of high-efficiency and low-cost biocatalysts for the synthesis of valuable chiral alcohols.

  1. Asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenones by Baker's yeast and its cell-free extract encapsulated in sol–gel silica materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker's yeast (BY) encapsulated in silica materials was synthesized using a yeast cell suspension and its cell-free extract during a sol–gel reaction of tetramethoxysilane with nitric acid as a catalyst. The synthesized samples were fully characterized using various methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The BY cells were easily encapsulated inside silica-gel networks, and the ratio of the cells in the silica gel was approximately 75 wt%, which indicated that a large volume of BY was trapped with a small amount of silica. The enzyme activity (asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones) of BY and its cell-free extract encapsulated in silica gel was investigated in detail. The activities and enantioselectivities of free and encapsulated BY were similar to those of acetophenone and its fluorine derivatives, which indicated that the conformation structure of BY enzymes inside silica-gel networks did not change. In addition, the encapsulated BY exhibited considerably better solvent (methanol) stability and recyclability compared to free BY solution. We expect that the development of BY encapsulated in sol–gel silica materials will significantly impact the industrial-scale advancement of high-efficiency and low-cost biocatalysts for the synthesis of valuable chiral alcohols.

  2. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I. [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaacob, W. A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  3. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  4. Cell death in the central division of the medial preoptic nucleus of male and female lamb fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Radhika C.; Scheldrup, Melissa; Meaker, Mary; Stormshak, Fred; Estill, Charles T.; Roselli, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    The medial preoptic area of the adult sheep contains an ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) that is larger and has more neurons in males than in females. In the lamb fetus, the nascent oSDN occupies the central division of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNc) and consists of a cluster of cells that is organized by the action of testosterone during gestational days 60 to 90 of a 147 day term pregnancy. The current study sought to determine whether programmed cell death cont...

  5. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division

  6. Isolation and Culture of Adult Epithelial Stem Cells from Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhiru; Draheim, Kyle; Lyle, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The homeostasis of all self-renewing tissues is dependent on adult stem cells. As undifferentiated stem cells undergo asymmetric divisions, they generate daughter cells that retain the stem cell phenotype and transit-amplifying cells (TA cells) that migrate from the stem cell niche, undergo rapid proliferation and terminally differentiate to repopulate the tissue.

  7. Phylogeography, Salinity Adaptations and Metabolic Potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria Based on a Partial Single Cell Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Lisa M; Hyde, Andrew S; MacGregor, Barbara J; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis - previously developed based on (14)C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines - that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source. PMID:27597842

  8. Dual-Doped Molybdenum Trioxide Nanowires: A Bifunctional Anode for Fiber-Shaped Asymmetric Supercapacitors and Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Cheng, Xinyu; Zeng, Yinxiang; Wang, Zilong; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong; Yang, Shihe

    2016-06-01

    A novel in situ N and low-valence-state Mo dual doping strategy was employed to significantly improve the conductivity, active-site accessibility, and electrochemical stability of MoO3 , drastically boosting its electrochemical properties. Consequently, our optimized N-MoO3-x nanowires exhibited exceptional performances as a bifunctional anode material for both fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) and microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The flexible fiber-shaped ASC and MFC device based on the N-MoO3-x anode could deliver an unprecedentedly high energy density of 2.29 mWh cm(-3) and a remarkable power density of 0.76 μW cm(-1) , respectively. Such a bifunctional fiber-shaped N-MoO3-x electrode opens the way to integrate the electricity generation and storage for self-powered sources. PMID:27097987

  9. Fission yeast Nod1 is a component of cortical nodes involved in cell size control and division site placement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jourdain

    Full Text Available Most cells enter mitosis once they have reached a defined size. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, mitotic entry is orchestrated by a geometry-sensing mechanism that involves the Cdk1/Cdc2-inhibiting Wee1 kinase. The factors upstream of Wee1 gather together in interphase to form a characteristic medial and cortical belt of nodes. Nodes are also considered to be precursors of the cytokinesis contractile actomyosin ring (CAR. Here we describe a new component of the interphase nodes and cytokinesis rings, which we named Nod1. Consistent with its role in cell size control at division, nod1Δ cells were elongated and epistatic with regulators of Wee1. Through biochemical and localisation studies, we placed Nod1 in a complex with the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Gef2. Nod1 and Gef2 mutually recruited each other in nodes and Nod1 also assembles Gef2 in rings. Like gef2Δ, nod1Δ cells showed a mild displacement of their division plane and this phenotype was severely exacerbated when the parallel Polo kinase pathway was also compromised. We conclude that Nod1 specifies the division site by localising Gef2 to the mitotic cell middle. Previous work showed that Gef2 in turn anchors factors that control the spatio-temporal recruitment of the actin nucleation machinery. It is believed that the actin filaments originated from the nodes pull nodes together into a single contractile ring. Surprisingly however, we found that node proteins could form pre-ring helical filaments in a cdc12-112 mutant in which nucleation of the actin ring is impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of either nod1 or gef2 created an un-expected situation where different ring components were recruited sequentially rather than simultaneously. At later stages of cytokinesis, these various rings appeared inter-fitted rather than merged. This study brings a new slant to the understanding of CAR assembly and function.

  10. RNA helicase Belle (DDX3) is essential for male germline stem cell maintenance and division in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Alexei A; Olenkina, Oxana M; Kibanov, Mikhail V; Olenina, Ludmila V

    2016-06-01

    The present study showed that RNA helicase Belle (DDX3) was required intrinsically for mitotic progression and survival of germline stem cells (GSCs) and spermatogonial cells in the Drosophila melanogaster testes. We found that deficiency of Belle in the male germline resulted in a strong germ cell loss phenotype. Early germ cells are lost through cell death, whereas somatic hub and cyst cell populations are maintained. The observed phenotype is related to that of the human Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome caused by the loss of DBY (DDX3) expression in the human testes and results in a complete lack of germ cells with preservation of somatic Sertoli cells. We found the hallmarks of mitotic G2 delay in early germ cells of the larval testes of bel mutants. Both mitotic cyclins, A and B, are markedly reduced in the gonads of bel mutants. Transcription levels of cycB and cycA decrease significantly in the testes of hypomorph bel mutants. Overexpression of Cyclin B in the germline partially rescues germ cell survival, mitotic progression and fertility in the bel-RNAi knockdown testes. Taken together, these results suggest that a role of Belle in GSC maintenance and regulation of early germ cell divisions is associated with the expression control of mitotic cyclins. PMID:26876306

  11. Daughter cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from old mothers display a reduced life span

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae typically divides asymmetrically to give a large mother cell and a smaller daughter cell. As mother cells become old, they enlarge and produce daughter cells that are larger than daughters derived from young mother cells. We found that occasional daughter cells were indistinguishable in size from their mothers, giving rise to a symmetric division. The frequency of symmetric divisions became greater as mother cells aged and reached a maximum occurrence of 30%...

  12. A P-Loop NTPase Regulates Quiescent Center Cell Division and Distal Stem Cell Identity through the Regulation of ROS Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianqian; Tian, Huiyu; Yue, Kun; Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Bing; Li, Xugang; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized as important regulators of cell division and differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana P-loop NTPase encoded by APP1 affects root stem cell niche identity through its control of local ROS homeostasis. The disruption of APP1 is accompanied by a reduction in ROS level, a rise in the rate of cell division in the quiescent center (QC) and the promotion of root distal stem cell (DSC) differentiation. Both the higher level of ROS induced in the app1 mutant by exposure to methyl viologen (MV), and treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) rescued the mutant phenotype, implying that both the increased rate of cell division in the QC and the enhancement in root DSC differentiation can be attributed to a low level of ROS. APP1 is expressed in the root apical meristem cell mitochondria, and its product is associated with ATP hydrolase activity. The key transcription factors, which are defining root distal stem niche, such as SCARECROW (SCR) and SHORT ROOT (SHR) are both significantly down-regulated at both the transcriptional and protein level in the app1 mutant, indicating that SHR and SCR are important downstream targets of APP1-regulated ROS signaling to control the identity of root QC and DSCs. PMID:27583367

  13. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  14. Asymmetric distribution of Spalt in Drosophila wing squamous and columnar epithelia ensures correct cell morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenqian; Wang, Dan; Shen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila wing imaginal disc is a sac-like structure that is composed of two opposing cell layers: peripodial epithelium (PE, also known as squamous epithelia) and disc proper (DP, also known as pseudostratified columnar epithelia). The molecular mechanism of cell morphogenesis has been well studied in the DP but not in the PE. Although proper Dpp signalling activity is required for proper PE formation, the detailed regulation mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we found that the Dpp target gene sal is only expressed in DP cells, not in PE cells, although pMad is present in the PE. Increasing Dpp signalling activity cannot activate Sal in PE cells. The absence of Sal in the PE is essential for PE formation. The ectopic expression of sal in PE cells is sufficient to increase the PE cell height. Down-regulation of sal in the DP reduced DP cell height. We further demonstrated that the known PE cell height regulator Lines, which can convert PE into a DP cell fate, is mediated by sal mis-activation in PE because sal-RNAi and lines co-expression largely restores PE cell morphology. By revealing the microtubule distribution, we demonstrated that Lines- and Sal-heightened PE cells are morphologically similar to the intermediate cell with cuboidal morphology. PMID:27452716

  15. SecA is required for membrane targeting of the cell division protein DivIVA in vivo

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    SvenHalbedel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conserved protein DivIVA is involved in different morphogenetic processes in Gram-positive bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, the protein localises to the cell division site and cell poles, and functions as a scaffold for proteins that regulate division site selection, and for proteins that are required for sporulation. To identify other proteins that bind to DivIVA, we performed an in vivo cross-linking experiment. A possible candidate that emerged was the secretion motor ATPase SecA. SecA mutants have been described that inhibit sporulation, and since DivIVA is necessary for sporulation, we examined the localisation of DivIVA in these mutants. Surprisingly, DivIVA was delocalised, suggesting that SecA is required for DivIVA targeting. To further corroborate this, we performed SecA depletion and inhibition experiments, which provided further indications that DivIVA localisation depends on SecA. Cell fractionation experiments showed that SecA is important for binding of DivIVA to the cell membrane. This was unexpected since DivIVA does not contain a signal sequence, and is able to bind to artificial lipid membranes in vitro without support of other proteins. SecA is required for protein secretion and membrane insertion, and therefore its role in DivIVA localisation is likely indirect. Possible alternative roles of SecA in DivIVA folding and/or targeting are discussed.

  16. The ClpP protease homologue is required for the transmission traits and cell division of the pathogen Legionella pneumophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qin-fen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila, the intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Legionnaires' disease, exhibit characteristic transmission traits such as elevated stress tolerance, shortened length and virulence during the transition from the replication phase to the transmission phase. ClpP, the catalytic core of the Clp proteolytic complex, is widely involved in many cellular processes via the regulation of intracellular protein quality. Results In this study, we showed that ClpP was required for optimal growth of L. pneumophila at high temperatures and under several other stress conditions. We also observed that cells devoid of clpP exhibited cell elongation, incomplete cell division and compromised colony formation. Furthermore, we found that the clpP-deleted mutant was more resistant to sodium stress and failed to proliferate in the amoebae host Acanthamoeba castellanii. Conclusions The data present in this study illustrate that the ClpP protease homologue plays an important role in the expression of transmission traits and cell division of L. pneumophila, and further suggest a putative role of ClpP in virulence regulation.

  17. An APC:WNT counter-current-like mechanism regulates cell division along the colonic crypt axis: a mechanism that explains how APC mutations induce proliferative abnormalities that drive colon cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M Boman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside. WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g. survivin are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric. APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly-proliferating cells during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes.

  18. Compartmentalization and Cell Division through Molecular Discreteness and Crowding in a Catalytic Reaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kamimura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Explanation of the emergence of primitive cellular structures from a set of chemical reactions is necessary to unveil the origin of life and to experimentally synthesize protocells. By simulating a cellular automaton model with a two-species hypercycle, we demonstrate the reproduction of a localized cluster; that is, a protocell with a growth-division process emerges when the replication and degradation speeds of one species are respectively slower than those of the other species, because of overcrowding of molecules as a natural outcome of the replication. The protocell exhibits synchrony between its division process and replication of the minority molecule. We discuss the effects of the crowding molecule on the formation of primitive structures. The generality of this result is demonstrated through the extension of our model to a hypercycle with three molecular species, where a localized layered structure of molecules continues to divide, triggered by the replication of a minority molecule at the center.

  19. A micro-scale simulation of red blood cell passage through symmetric and asymmetric bifurcated vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Blood exhibits a heterogeneous nature of hematocrit, velocity, and effective viscosity in microcapillaries. Microvascular bifurcations have a significant influence on the distribution of the blood cells and blood flow behavior. This paper presents a simulation study performed on the two-dimensionalmotions and deformation of multiple red blood cells in microvessels with diverging and converging bifurcations. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics were incorporated. Effects of cell shape, hematocrit, and deformability of the cell membrane on rheological behavior of the red blood cells and the hemodynamics have been investigated. It was shown that the blood entering the daughter branch with a higher flow rate tended to receive disproportionally more cells. The results also demonstrate that red blood cells in microvessels experienced lateral migration in the parent channel and blunted velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and this effect was influenced by the shape and the initial posit...

  20. Compartmentalization and Cell Division through Molecular Discreteness and Crowding in a Catalytic Reaction Network

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Kamimura; Kunihiko Kaneko

    2014-01-01

    Explanation of the emergence of primitive cellular structures from a set of chemical reactions is necessary to unveil the origin of life and to experimentally synthesize protocells. By simulating a cellular automaton model with a two-species hypercycle, we demonstrate the reproduction of a localized cluster; that is, a protocell with a growth-division process emerges when the replication and degradation speeds of one species are respectively slower than those of the other species, because of ...

  1. AHP6 inhibits cytokinin signaling to regulate the orientation of pericycle cell division during lateral root initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Moreira

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral roots (LRs initiate from anticlinal cell divisions of pericycle founder cells. The formation of LR primordia is regulated antagonistically by the phytohormones cytokinin and auxin. It has previously been shown that cytokinin has an inhibitory effect on the patterning events occurring during LR formation. However, the molecular players involved in cytokinin repression are still unknown. In a similar manner to protoxylem formation in Arabidopsis roots, in which AHP6 (ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 6 acts as a cytokinin inhibitor, we reveal that AHP6 also functions as a cytokinin repressor during early stages of LR development. We show that AHP6 is expressed at different developmental stages during LR formation and is required for the correct orientation of cell divisions at the onset of LR development. Moreover, we demonstrate that AHP6 influences the localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1, which is necessary for patterning the LR primordia. In summary, we show that the inhibition of cytokinin signaling through AHP6 is required to establish the correct pattern during LR initiation.

  2. Oriented Cell Division in the C. elegans Embryo Is Coordinated by G-Protein Signaling Dependent on the Adhesion GPCR LAT-1.

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    Antje Müller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of spindles and cell division planes during development of many species ensures that correct cell-cell contacts are established, which is vital for proper tissue formation. This is a tightly regulated process involving a complex interplay of various signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying several of these pathways are still incompletely understood. Here, we identify the signaling cascade of the C. elegans latrophilin homolog LAT-1, an essential player in the coordination of anterior-posterior spindle orientation during the fourth round of embryonic cell division. We show that the receptor mediates a G protein-signaling pathway revealing that G-protein signaling in oriented cell division is not solely GPCR-independent. Genetic analyses showed that through the interaction with a Gs protein LAT-1 elevates intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP levels in the C. elegans embryo. Stimulation of this G-protein cascade in lat-1 null mutant nematodes is sufficient to orient spindles and cell division planes in the embryo in the correct direction. Finally, we demonstrate that LAT-1 is activated by an intramolecular agonist to trigger this cascade. Our data support a model in which a novel, GPCR-dependent G protein-signaling cascade mediated by LAT-1 controls alignment of cell division planes in an anterior-posterior direction via a metabotropic Gs-protein/adenylyl cyclase pathway by regulating intracellular cAMP levels.

  3. Oriented Cell Division in the C. elegans Embryo Is Coordinated by G-Protein Signaling Dependent on the Adhesion GPCR LAT-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Franziska; Sastradihardja, Tania; Binder, Claudia; Schnabel, Ralf; Kungel, Jana; Rothemund, Sven; Hennig, Christian; Schöneberg, Torsten; Prömel, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Orientation of spindles and cell division planes during development of many species ensures that correct cell-cell contacts are established, which is vital for proper tissue formation. This is a tightly regulated process involving a complex interplay of various signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying several of these pathways are still incompletely understood. Here, we identify the signaling cascade of the C. elegans latrophilin homolog LAT-1, an essential player in the coordination of anterior-posterior spindle orientation during the fourth round of embryonic cell division. We show that the receptor mediates a G protein-signaling pathway revealing that G-protein signaling in oriented cell division is not solely GPCR-independent. Genetic analyses showed that through the interaction with a Gs protein LAT-1 elevates intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in the C. elegans embryo. Stimulation of this G-protein cascade in lat-1 null mutant nematodes is sufficient to orient spindles and cell division planes in the embryo in the correct direction. Finally, we demonstrate that LAT-1 is activated by an intramolecular agonist to trigger this cascade. Our data support a model in which a novel, GPCR-dependent G protein-signaling cascade mediated by LAT-1 controls alignment of cell division planes in an anterior-posterior direction via a metabotropic Gs-protein/adenylyl cyclase pathway by regulating intracellular cAMP levels. PMID:26505631

  4. Effect of chronic fractionated low-dose gamma irradiation on division potential of human embryonic cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami; Suzuki, Masao; Suzuki, Keiji; Watanabe, Kimiko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Nakano, Kazushiro

    1991-12-01

    We investigated the in vitro phenotypic transformation of human embryo (HE) cells that were repeatedly irradiated (7.5 cGy once a week) throughout their life-span. Irradiation was repeated until the cells had accumulated 195 cGy (equivalent to the 26th passage). Samples of cells were assayed for survival by colony formation, as well as for mutation at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus and for transformation by focus formation. The life-span (mean number of population doublings) of multiply irradiated cells with a total dose of 97.5 cGy was slightly but significantly prolonged over that of controls. After HE cells had accumulated 195 cGy, the maximum number of divisions increased to 130-160% of the number in non-irradiated control cells. Transformed foci were not observed until cells had accumulated 97.5 cGy, and then increased with the increasing accumulation of radiation. However, no cells showed immortality or expressed a malignant phenotype in vitro. (author).

  5. Asymmetrical Deterministic Lateral Displacement Gaps for Dual Functions of Enhanced Separation and Throughput of Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeming, Kerwin Kwek; Salafi, Thoriq; Chen, Chia-Hung; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) method for particle separation in microfluidic devices has been extensively used for particle separation in recent years due to its high resolution and robust separation. DLD has shown versatility for a wide spectrum of applications for sorting of micro particles such as parasites, blood cells to bacteria and DNA. DLD model is designed for spherical particles and efficient separation of blood cells is challenging due to non-uniform shape and size. Moreover, separation in sub-micron regime requires the gap size of DLD systems to be reduced which exponentially increases the device resistance, resulting in greatly reduced throughput. This paper shows how simple application of asymmetrical DLD gap-size by changing the ratio of lateral-gap (GL) to downstream-gap (GD) enables efficient separation of RBCs without greatly restricting throughput. This method reduces the need for challenging fabrication of DLD pillars and provides new insight to the current DLD model. The separation shows an increase in DLD critical diameter resolution (separate smaller particles) and increase selectivity for non-spherical RBCs. The RBCs separate better as compared to standard DLD model with symmetrical gap sizes. This method can be applied to separate non-spherical bacteria or sub-micron particles to enhance throughput and DLD resolution.

  6. SUN Regulates Vegetative and Reproductive Organ Shape by Changing Cell Division Patterns1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Xiao, Han; Cabrera, Antonio; Meulia, Tea; van der Knaap, Esther

    2011-01-01

    One of the major genes controlling the elongated fruit shape of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is SUN. In this study, we explored the roles of SUN in vegetative and reproductive development using near isogenic lines (NILs) that differ at the sun locus, and SUN overexpressors in both the wild species LA1589 (Solanum pimpinellifolium) and the cultivar Sun1642 background. Our results demonstrate that SUN controls tomato shape through redistribution of mass that is mediated by increased cell division in the longitudinal and decreased cell division in the transverse direction of the fruit. The expression of SUN is positively correlated with slender phenotypes in cotyledon, leaflet, and floral organs, an elongated ovary, and negatively correlated with seed weight. Overexpression of SUN leads to more extreme phenotypes than those shown in the NILs and include thinner leaf rachises and stems, twisted leaf rachises, increased serrations of the leaflets, and dramatically increased elongation at the proximal end of the ovary and fruit. In situ hybridizations of the NILs showed that SUN is expressed throughout the ovary and young fruit, particularly in the vascular tissues and placenta surface, and in the ovules and developing seed. The phenotypic effects resulting from high expression of SUN suggest that the gene is involved in several plant developmental processes. PMID:21921117

  7. Structural and Functional Characterizations of SsgB, a Conserved Activator of Developmental Cell Division in Morphologically Complex Actinomycetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A.; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A. Mieke; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; van Wezel, Gilles P.; (Leiden-MC); (SLAC); (Scripps); (UV); (UCSD); (Burnham)

    2010-01-20

    SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic 'whirly' single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners.

  8. Broadband Absorption Enhancement in Thin Film Solar Cells Using Asymmetric Double-Sided Pyramid Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshal, Mohamed A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2016-07-01

    A design for a highly efficient modified grating crystalline silicon (c-Si) thin film solar cell is demonstrated and analyzed using the two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method. The suggested grating has a double-sided pyramidal structure. The incorporation of the modified grating in a c-Si thin film solar cell offers a promising route to harvest light into the few micrometers active layer. Furthermore, a layer of silicon nitride is used as an antireflection coating (ARC). Additionally, the light trapping through the suggested design is significantly enhanced by the asymmetry of the top and bottom pyramids. The effects of the thickness of the active layer and facet angle of the pyramid on the spectral absorption, ultimate efficiency (η), and short-circuit current density (J sc) are investigated. The numerical results showed 87.9% efficiency improvement over the conventional thin film c-Si solar cell counterpart without gratings.

  9. The ABC's of Cell Division: Regulation of Peptidoglycan Amidase Activity during Cytokinesis in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Desiree Choy

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall, composed of peptidoglycan (PG), is an essential component of the cell envelope. This macromolecular structure fortifies the cell membrane, determines cell shape, and helps prevent osmotic lysis. The synthesis and remodeling/recycling of this polymer is mediated by PG synthases and hydrolases, respectively. Proper control of the PG hydrolases is particularly important since misregulation of these enzymes can lead to lethal breaches in the cell wall. Surprisingly, howev...

  10. Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia elongate through zones of peptidoglycan synthesis that mark division sites of daughter cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Brandon Lyon; Scott, Molly; Parry, Bradley; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-08-16

    Agents that cause Lyme disease, relapsing fever, leptospirosis, and syphilis belong to the phylum Spirochaetae-a unique lineage of bacteria most known for their long, spiral morphology. Despite the relevance to human health, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of spirochete growth. Here, using quantitative microscopy to track peptidoglycan cell-wall synthesis, we found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi displays a complex pattern of growth. B. burgdorferi elongates from discrete zones that are both spatially and temporally regulated. In addition, some peptidoglycan incorporation occurs along the cell body, with the notable exception of a large region at the poles. Newborn cells inherit a highly active zone of peptidoglycan synthesis at midcell that contributes to elongation for most of the cell cycle. Concomitant with the initiation of nucleoid separation and cell constriction, second and third zones of elongation are established at the 1/4 and 3/4 cellular positions, marking future sites of division for the subsequent generation. Positioning of elongation zones along the cell is robust to cell length variations and is relatively precise over long distances (>30 µm), suggesting that cells ‟sense" relative, as opposed to absolute, cell length to establish zones of peptidoglycan synthesis. The transition from one to three zones of peptidoglycan growth during the cell cycle is also observed in relapsing fever Borrelia. However, this mode of growth does not extend to representative species from other spirochetal genera, suggesting that this distinctive growth mode represents an evolutionary divide in the spirochete phylum. PMID:27506799

  11. Characterization of the minimum domain required for targeting budding yeast myosin II to the site of cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolliday Nicola J

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All eukaryotes with the exception of plants use an actomyosin ring to generate a constriction force at the site of cell division (cleavage furrow during mitosis and meiosis. The structure and filament forming abilities located in the C-terminal or tail region of one of the main components, myosin II, are important for localising the molecule to the contractile ring (CR during cytokinesis. However, it remains poorly understood how myosin II is recruited to the site of cell division and how this recruitment relates to myosin filament assembly. Significant conservation between species of the components involved in cytokinesis, including those of the CR, allows the use of easily genetically manipulated organisms, such as budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the study of cytokinesis. Budding yeast has a single myosin II protein, named Myo1. Unlike most other class II myosins, the tail of Myo1 has an irregular coiled coil. In this report we use molecular genetics, biochemistry and live cell imaging to characterize the minimum localisation domain (MLD of budding yeast Myo1. Results We show that the MLD is a small region in the centre of the tail of Myo1 and that it is both necessary and sufficient for localisation of Myo1 to the yeast bud neck, the pre-determined site of cell division. Hydrodynamic measurements of the MLD, purified from bacteria or yeast, show that it is likely to exist as a trimer. We also examine the importance of a small region of low coiled coil forming probability within the MLD, which we call the hinge region. Removal of the hinge region prevents contraction of the CR. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP, we show that GFP-tagged MLD is slightly more dynamic than the GFP-tagged full length molecule but less dynamic than the GFP-tagged Myo1 construct lacking the hinge region. Conclusion Our results define the intrinsic determinant for the localization of budding yeast myosin II and show

  12. Inductive interactions mediated by interplay of asymmetric signalling underlie development of adult haematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souilhol, Céline; Gonneau, Christèle; Lendinez, Javier G; Batsivari, Antoniana; Rybtsov, Stanislav; Wilson, Heather; Morgado-Palacin, Lucia; Hills, David; Taoudi, Samir; Antonchuk, Jennifer; Zhao, Suling; Medvinsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge preferentially in the ventral domain of the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. Several signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt, Shh and RA are implicated in this process, yet how these interact to regulate the emergence of HSCs has not previously been described in mammals. Using a combination of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we report here that stage-specific reciprocal dorso-ventral inductive interactions and lateral input from the urogenital ridges are required to drive HSC development in the aorta. Our study strongly suggests that these inductive interactions in the AGM region are mediated by the interplay between spatially polarized signalling pathways. Specifically, Shh produced in the dorsal region of the AGM, stem cell factor in the ventral and lateral regions, and BMP inhibitory signals in the ventral tissue are integral parts of the regulatory system involved in the development of HSCs. PMID:26952187

  13. Assessment of contrast flow modification in aneurysms treated with closed-cell self-deploying asymmetric vascular stents (SAVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Ciprian N; Wang, Weiyuan; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The Asymmetric Vascular Stent (AVS) for intracranial aneurysm (IA) treatment is an experimental device, specially designed for intra-aneurysmal blood flow diversion and thrombosis promotion. The stent has a low-porous patch to cover only the aneurysm neck while the rest of the stent is very porous to avoid blockage of adjacent branches. The latest AVS design is similar to state-of-art, closed-cell, self-expanding, neurovascular stent. The stents were used to treat sixteen rabbit-elastase aneurysm models. The treatment effect was analyzed using normalized-time-density-curves (NTDC) measured by pixel-value integration over a region-of-interest containing the aneurysm. Normalization constant was the total bolus injection determined angiographically. Based on NTDC measurement, five quantities were derived to describe the contrast flow. Two are related to the amount of contrast entering the aneurysm: NTDC peak and NTDC input slope. The other three are related to contrast presence in the aneurysmal dome: time-to-peak (TTP), wash-out-time (WOT) and mean-transit-time (MTT). Flow modification descriptions using the contrast related quantities were expressed as a pre-/post-stented NTDC parameter ratio, while the time related quantities were expressed as a post-/pre-stented ratio, so that ratios smaller than one indicate a desired effect. Thirteen aneurysms were treated successfully and achieved significant aneurysm occlusion. For these cases, the resulting average parameters were: peak-ratio=0.17±0.21; input-slope-ratio=0.19±0.24, TTP-ratio=0.17±0.21, WOT-ratio=0.58±0.73 and MTT-ratio=0.65±0.97). All the quantities revealed decreased aneurysmal flow due to blood flow diversion using the new self-expanding asymmetrical vascular stent (SAVS). Treatment outcome results and angiographic analysis indicate that the new self-deploying stent design has great potential for clinical implementation. PMID:21243093

  14. A mechanism for ParB-dependent waves of ParA, a protein related to DNA segregation during cell division in prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunding, Axel; Gerdes, Kenn; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2003-01-01

    Prokaryotic plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci involved in segregation of DNA to daughter cells at cell division. A functional fusion protein consisting of Walker-type ParA ATPase and green fluorescent protein (Gfp) oscillates back and forth within nucleoid regions with a wave period of about...

  15. Enteral peptide formulas inhibit radiation induced enteritis and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells and suppress the expression and function of Alzheimer's and cell division control gene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have shown that patients receiving enteral peptide formulas prior to irradiation have a significantly reduced incidence of enteritis and express a profound increase in intestinal cellularity. Two conceptual approaches were taken to describe this response. First was the evaluation in changes in programmed intestinal cell death and secondly the evaluation of a gene product controlling cell division cycling. This study provided a relationship between the ratio of cell death to cell formulations. The results indicate that in the canine and murine models, irradiation induces expression of the Alzheimer's gene in intestinal crypt cells, while the incidence of apoptosis in apical cells is significantly increased. The use of peptide enteral formulations suppresses the expression of the Alzheimer's gene in crypt cells, while apoptosis is eliminated in the apical cells of the intestine. Concomitantly, enteral peptide formulations suppress the function of the CK-II gene product in the basal and baso-lateral cells of the intestine. These data indicate that although the mitotic index is significantly reduced in enterocytes, this phenomenon alone is not sufficient to account for the peptide-induced radio-resistance of the intestine. The data also indicate a significant reduction of normal apoptosis in the upper lateral and apical cells of the intestinal villi. Thus, the ratio of cell death to cell replacement is significantly decreased resulting in an increase in villus height and hypertrophy of the apical villus cells. Thus, peptide solutions should be considered as an adjunct treatment both in radio- and chemotherapy

  16. Cell division in the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis depends on phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Cossío, Belén R; Rivard, Christopher J; Berl, Tomás; Capasso, Juan M

    2007-01-01

    In mammalian cells, MAPKs are involved in both stress response (JNK and p38 pathways) and cell proliferation and differentiation [extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)] through protein kinase cascades. Exposure of Dunaliella viridis cell cultures to PD98059, a very specific inhibitor of the ERK signalling pathway, resulted in a total arrest of cell proliferation and a complete dephosphorylation of ERK. As shown by flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells, PD98059 stopped mitosis at the G(2) phase after the S phase has been completed. Multiple physiological parameters such as cell motility and reducing power generation (NADPH) clearly indicate that the treated cells are wholly viable. Exposure of D. viridis to environmental stresses that impair cell division, such as hyperosmotic shock, nitrogen starvation, or sublethal UV irradiation, caused a marked decrease in the phospho-ERK levels as detected by western blot. Two 400 bp polynucleotides from D. viridis with high homologies to published sequences of ERK1 and ERK2 were cloned, sequenced, and submitted to GenBank. Northern blot analysis revealed two mRNA bands of approximately 1.9 kb, consistent with the expected size of ERK proteins ( approximately 40 kDa). Sequence analysis showed that they contained several mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) conserved domains, including II, III, VIb, VII, and the double phosphorylation motif. Interestingly, in D. viridis, this motif was T*DY* instead of the canonic T*EY*. Based on this finding, ERK plant sequences can be divided into two groups, one termed the T*DY* branch and the other termed the T*EY* branch. The molecular and functional data presented here suggest that ERK is a very ancient signalling pathway and that it was already present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotic cells. PMID:17220513

  17. AUREOCHROME1a-mediated induction of the diatom-specific cyclin dsCYC2 controls the onset of cell division in diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum)

    OpenAIRE

    Huysman, Marie; Fortunato, Antonio E; Matthijs, Michiel; Costa, Benjamin Schellenberger; Vanderhaeghen, Rudy; Van Den Daele, Hilde; Sachse, Matthias; Inzé, Dirk; Bowler, Chris; Kroth, Peter G.; Wilhelm, Christian; Falciatore, Angela; Vyverman, Wim; De Veylder, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Cell division in photosynthetic organisms is tightly regulated by light. Although the light dependency of the onset of the cell cycle has been well characterized in various phototrophs, little is known about the cellular signaling cascades connecting light perception to cell cycle activation and progression. Here, we demonstrate that diatom-specific cyclin 2 (dsCYC2) in Phaeodactylum tricornutum displays a transcriptional peak within 15 min after light exposure, long before the onset of cell ...

  18. Dynamic FtsA and FtsZ localization and outer membrane alterations during polar growth and cell division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan, John R.; Cameron, Todd A.; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and cell division in rod-shaped bacteria have been primarily studied in species that grow predominantly by peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis along the length of the cell. Rhizobiales species, however, predominantly grow by PG synthesis at a single pole. Here we characterize the dynamic localization of several Agrobacterium tumefaciens components during the cell cycle. First, the lipophilic dye FM 4-64 predominantly stains the outer membranes of old poles versus growing poles. In cells about...

  19. Algorithm development and simulation outcomes for hypoxic head and neck cancer radiotherapy using a Monte Carlo cell division model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A temporal Monte Carlo tumour model, 'Hyp-RT'. sim ulating hypoxic head and neck cancer has been updated and extended to model radiothcrapy. The aim is to providc a convenient radiobio logical tool for clinicians to evaluate radiotherapy treatment schedules based on many individual tumour properties including oxygenation. FORTRAN95 and JA YA havc been utilised to develop the efficient algorithm, which can propagate 108 cells. Epithelial cell kill is affected by dose, oxygenation and proliferativc status. Accelerated repopulation (AR) has been modelled by increasing the symmetrical stem cell division probability, and reoxygenation (ROx) has been modelled using random incremental boosts of oxygen to the cell po ulation throughout therapy. Results The stem cell percentage and the degree of hypoxia dominate tumour growth rate. For conventional radiotherapy. 15-25% more dose was required for a hypox ic versus oxic tumours, depending on the time of AR onset (0-3 weeks after thc start of treatment). ROx of hypoxic tumours resulted in tumoUJ: sensitisation and therefore a dose reduction, of up to 35%, varying with the time of onset. Fig. I shows results for all combinations of AR and ROx onset times for the moderate hypoxia case. Conclusions In hypoxic tumours, accelerated repopulation and reoxy genation affect ccll kill in the same manner as when the effects are modelled individually. however the degree of the effect is altered and therefore the combined result is difficult to predict. providing evidence for the usefulness of computer models. Simulations have quantitatively

  20. The WD40 repeat protein NEDD1 functions in microtubule organization during cell division in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C J Tracy; Lee, Y-R Julie; Liu, Bo

    2009-04-01

    Although cells of flowering plants lack a structurally defined microtubule-organizing center like the centrosome, organization of the spindles and phragmoplasts in mitosis is known to involve the evolutionarily conserved gamma-tubulin complex. We have investigated the function of Arabidopsis thaliana NEDD1, a WD40 repeat protein related to the animal NEDD1/GCP-WD protein, which interacts with the gamma-tubulin complex. The NEDD1 protein decorates spindle microtubules (MTs) preferentially toward spindle poles and phragmoplast MTs toward their minus ends. A T-DNA insertional allele of the single NEDD1 gene was isolated and maintained in heterozygous sporophytes, and NEDD1's function in cell division was analyzed in haploid microspores produced by the heterozygote. In approximately half of the dividing microspores exhibiting aberrant MT organization, spindles were no longer restricted to the cell periphery and became abnormally elongated. After mitosis, MTs aggregated between reforming nuclei but failed to appear in a bipolar configuration. Consequently, defective microspores did not form a continuous cell plate, and two identical nuclei were produced with no differentiation into generative and vegetative cells. Our results support the notion that the plant NEDD1 homolog plays a critical role in MT organization during mitosis, and its function is likely linked to that of the gamma-tubulin complex. PMID:19383896

  1. The cyanobacterial cell division factor Ftn6 contains an N-terminal DnaD-like domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saguez Cyril

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA replication and cell cycle as well as their relationship have been extensively studied in the two model organisms E. coli and B. subtilis. By contrast, little is known about these processes in cyanobacteria, even though they are crucial to the biosphere, in utilizing solar energy to renew the oxygenic atmosphere and in producing the biomass for the food chain. Recent studies have allowed the identification of several cell division factors that are specifics to cyanobacteria. Among them, Ftn6 has been proposed to function in the recruitment of the crucial FtsZ proteins to the septum or the subsequent Z-ring assembly and possibly in chromosome segregation. Results In this study, we identified an as yet undescribed domain located in the conserved N-terminal region of Ftn6. This 77 amino-acids-long domain, designated here as FND (Ftn6 N-Terminal Domain, exhibits striking sequence and structural similarities with the DNA-interacting module, listed in the PFAM database as the DnaD-like domain (pfam04271. We took advantage of the sequence similarities between FND and the DnaD-like domains to construct a homology 3D-model of the Ftn6 FND domain from the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. Mapping of the conserved residues exposed onto the FND surface allowed us to identify a highly conserved area that could be engaged in Ftn6-specific interactions. Conclusion Overall, similarities between FND and DnaD-like domains as well as previously reported observations on Ftn6 suggest that FND may function as a DNA-interacting module thereby providing an as yet missing link between DNA replication and cell division in cyanobacteria. Consistently, we also showed that Ftn6 is involved in tolerance to DNA damages generated by UV rays.

  2. Spindle formation and microtubule organization during first division in reconstructed rat embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Mizutani, Eiji; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Sugawara, Atsushi; Inai, Kentaro; Sasada, Hiroshi; Sato, Eimei

    2007-08-01

    The present study was conducted to demonstrate the spindle formation and behavior of chromosomes and microtubules during first division in reconstructed rat embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with cumulus cell nuclei. To demonstrate the effect of oocyte aging after ovulation on the cleavage of SCNT embryos, micromanipulation was carried out 11, 15 and 18 h after injection of hCG. SCNT oocytes were activated by incubation in culture medium supplemented with 5 microM ionomycin for 5 min followed by treatment with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) in mR1ECM for 2-3 h. For immunocytochemical observation, the SCNT embryos were incubated with monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin antibody and then fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. Cleavage rates were significantly higher for oocytes collected after 15 and 18 h rather than for those collected 11 h after injection of hCG (56 and 53%, respectively vs. 28%; P<0.05). Premature chromosome condensation occurred before activation of the SCNT oocytes, but adequate spindle formation was only rarely observed. The distribution of microtubules in SCNT embryos after activation was different from those of fertilized and parthenogenic oocytes, i.e., a dense microtubule organization shaped like a ring was observed. Eighteen to 20 h post-activation, most SCNT embryos were in the 2-cell stage, but no nucleoli were clearly visible, which was quite different from the fertilized oocytes. In addition, first division with and without small cellular bodies containing DNA was observed in the rat SCNT embryos in some cases. The present study suggests that reorganization of transferred nuclei in rat SCNT embryos may be inadequate in terms of formation of the mitotic assembly and nucleolar reorganization. PMID:17446658

  3. Asymmetric Gepner Models (Revisited)

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2010-01-01

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as th...

  4. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01–0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20–20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  5. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01-0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20-20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  6. Asymmetric collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of CP violation in beauty decay is one of the key challenges facing high energy physics. Much work has not yielded a definitive answer how this study might best be performed. However, one clear conclusion is that new accelerator facilities are needed. Proposals include experiments at asymmetric electron-positron colliders and in fixed-target and collider modes at LHC and SSC. Fixed-target and collider experiments at existing accelerators, while they might succeed in a first observation of the effect, will not be adequate to study it thoroughly. Giomataris has emphasized the potential of a new approach to the study of beauty CP violation: the asymmetric proton collider. Such a collider might be realized by the construction of a small storage ring intersecting an existing or soon-to-exist large synchrotron, or by arranging collisions between a large synchrotron and its injector. An experiment at such a collider can combine the advantages of fixed-target-like spectrometer geometry, facilitating triggering, particle identification and the instrumentation of a large acceptance, while the increased √s can provide a factor > 100 increase in beauty-production cross section compared to Tevatron or HERA fixed-target. Beams crossing at a non-zero angle can provide a small interaction region, permitting a first-level decay-vertex trigger to be implemented. To achieve large √s with a large Lorentz boost and high luminosity, the most favorable venue is the high-energy booster (HEB) at the SSC Laboratory, though the CERN SPS and Fermilab Tevatron are also worth considering

  7. Kinetics of Formation and Asymmetrical Distribution of Hsp104-Bound Protein Aggregates in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Camille; Quintin, Sophie; Matifas, Audrey; Charvin, Gilles

    2016-04-12

    Budding yeast cells have a finite replicative life span; that is, a mother cell produces only a limited number of daughter cells before it slows division and dies. Despite the gradual aging of the mother cell, all daughters are born rejuvenated and enjoy a full replicative lifespan. It has been proposed that entry of mother cells into senescence is driven by the progressive accumulation and retention of damaged material, including protein aggregates. This additionally allows the daughter cells to be born damage free. However, the mechanism underlying such asymmetrical segregation of protein aggregates by mother and daughter cells remains controversial, in part because of the difficulties inherent in tracking the dynamics and fate of protein aggregates in vivo. To overcome such limitations, we have developed single-cell real-time imaging methodology to track the formation of heat-induced protein aggregates in otherwise unperturbed dividing cells. By combining the imaging data with a simple computational model of protein aggregation, we show that the establishment of asymmetrical partitioning of protein aggregates upon division is driven by the large bud-specific dilution rate associated with polarized growth and the absence of significant mother/bud exchange of protein aggregates during the budded phase of the cell cycle. To our knowledge, this study sheds new light on the mechanism of establishment of a segregation bias, which can be accounted for by simple physical arguments. PMID:27074685

  8. The final cut: cell polarity meets cytokinesis at the bud neck in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanes, Maria Angeles; Piatti, Simonetta

    2016-08-01

    Cell division is a fundamental but complex process that gives rise to two daughter cells. It includes an ordered set of events, altogether called "the cell cycle", that culminate with cytokinesis, the final stage of mitosis leading to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Symmetric cell division equally partitions cellular components between the two daughter cells, which are therefore identical to one another and often share the same fate. In many cases, however, cell division is asymmetrical and generates two daughter cells that differ in specific protein inheritance, cell size, or developmental potential. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an excellent system to investigate the molecular mechanisms governing asymmetric cell division and cytokinesis. Budding yeast is highly polarized during the cell cycle and divides asymmetrically, producing two cells with distinct sizes and fates. Many components of the machinery establishing cell polarization during budding are relocalized to the division site (i.e., the bud neck) for cytokinesis. In this review we recapitulate how budding yeast cells undergo polarized processes at the bud neck for cell division. PMID:27085703

  9. Role of SufI (FtsP) in Cell Division of Escherichia coli: Evidence for Its Involvement in Stabilizing the Assembly of the Divisome▿

    OpenAIRE

    Samaluru, Harish; SaiSree, L.; Reddy, Manjula

    2007-01-01

    The function of SufI, a well-studied substrate of the TatABC translocase in Escherichia coli, is not known. It was earlier implicated in cell division, based on the finding that multiple copies of sufI suppressed the phenotypes of cells with mutations in ftsI (ftsI23), which encodes a divisomal transpeptidase. Recently, sufI was identified as both a multicopy suppressor gene and a synthetic lethal mutant of ftsEX, which codes for a division-specific putative ABC transporter. In this study, we...

  10. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S.; De La Torre, Carola M.; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Grundler, Florian M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction. PMID:26417108

  11. Disruption of an M. tuberculosis Membrane Protein Causes a Magnesium-dependent Cell Division Defect and Failure to Persist in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsmith, Nichole; Guo, Xinzheng V.; Vandal, Omar H.; Vaubourgeix, Julien; Wang, Ruojun; Botella, Hélène; Song, Shuang; Bhatt, Kamlesh; Liba, Amir; Salgame, Padmini; Schnappinger, Dirk; Ehrt, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes necessary for persistence in vivo provides insight into bacterial biology as well as host defense strategies. We show that disruption of M. tuberculosis membrane protein PerM (Rv0955) resulted in an IFN-γ-dependent persistence defect in chronic mouse infection despite the mutant’s near normal growth during acute infection. The perM mutant required increased magnesium for replication and survival; incubation in low magnesium media resulted in cell elongation and lysis. Transcriptome analysis of the perM mutant grown in reduced magnesium revealed upregulation of cell division and cell wall biosynthesis genes, and live cell imaging showed PerM accumulation at the division septa in M. smegmatis. The mutant was acutely sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics, including specific inhibitors of cell division-associated peptidoglycan transpeptidase FtsI. Together, these data implicate PerM as a novel player in mycobacterial cell division and pathogenesis, and are consistent with the hypothesis that immune activation deprives M. tuberculosis of magnesium. PMID:25658098

  12. Aging and death in an organism that reproduces by morphologically symmetric division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Stewart

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In macroscopic organisms, aging is often obvious; in single-celled organisms, where there is the greatest potential to identify the molecular mechanisms involved, identifying and quantifying aging is harder. The primary results in this area have come from organisms that share the traits of a visibly asymmetric division and an identifiable juvenile phase. As reproductive aging must require a differential distribution of aged and young components between parent and offspring, it has been postulated that organisms without these traits do not age, thus exhibiting functional immortality. Through automated time-lapse microscopy, we followed repeated cycles of reproduction by individual cells of the model organism Escherichia coli, which reproduces without a juvenile phase and with an apparently symmetric division. We show that the cell that inherits the old pole exhibits a diminished growth rate, decreased offspring production, and an increased incidence of death. We conclude that the two supposedly identical cells produced during cell division are functionally asymmetric; the old pole cell should be considered an aging parent repeatedly producing rejuvenated offspring. These results suggest that no life strategy is immune to the effects of aging, and therefore immortality may be either too costly or mechanistically impossible in natural organisms.

  13. Hsp70 protects mitotic cells against heat-induced centrosome damage and division abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, HMJ; Kampinga, HH; Sibon, OCM

    2005-01-01

    The effect of heat shock on centrosomes has been mainly studied in interphase cells. Centrosomes play a key role in proper segregation of DNA during mitosis. However, the direct effect and consequences of heat shock on mitotic cells and a possible cellular defense system against proteotoxic stress d

  14. ASPM regulates symmetric stem cell division by tuning Cyclin E ubiquitination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecchi, Mario R.; Pozner, Amir

    2016-01-01

    We generate a mouse model for the human microcephaly syndrome by mutating the ASPM locus, and demonstrate a premature exhaustion of the neuronal progenitor pool due to dysfunctional self-renewal processes. Earlier studies have linked ASPM mutant progenitor excessive cell cycle exit to a mitotic orientation defect. Here, we demonstrate a mitotic orientation-independent effect of ASPM on cell cycle duration. We pinpoint the cell fate-determining factor to the length of time spent in early G1 before traversing the restriction point. Characterization of the molecular mechanism reveals an interaction between ASPM and the Cdk2/Cyclin E complex, regulating the Cyclin activity by modulating its ubiquitination, phosphorylation and localization into the nucleus, before the cell is fated to transverse the restriction point. Thus, we reveal a novel function of ASPM in mediating the tightly coordinated Ubiquitin- Cyclin E- Retinoblastoma- E2F bistable-signalling pathway controlling restriction point progression and stem cell maintenance. PMID:26581405

  15. Sensory mother cell division is specifically affected in a Cyclin-A mutant of Drosophila melanogaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, R; Togashi, S; Takahisa, M; Tsurumura, S; Mikuni, M; Kondo, K.(Yamagata University, Yamagata, 992-8510, Japan); Miyake, T

    1992-01-01

    Cyclin proteins are one of the important components of the mechanism regulating mitosis in eukaryotic cells. We isolated a Drosophila Cyclin-A mutant in which the progenitor cells of the peripheral nervous system (the sensory mother cells) do not divide properly, causing the loss and other abnormalities of mechanosensory organs in the adult fly. Sequence analysis of the mutant genome reveals that a P element is inserted into the first intron of the Cyclin-A gene. A 13 kb wild-type genomic DNA...

  16. Oriented Cell Division in the C. elegans Embryo Is Coordinated by G-Protein Signaling Dependent on the Adhesion GPCR LAT-1

    OpenAIRE

    Antje Müller; Jana Winkler; Franziska Fiedler; Tania Sastradihardja; Claudia Binder; Ralf Schnabel; Jana Kungel; Sven Rothemund; Christian Hennig; Torsten Schöneberg; Simone Prömel

    2015-01-01

    Orientation of spindles and cell division planes during development of many species ensures that correct cell-cell contacts are established, which is vital for proper tissue formation. This is a tightly regulated process involving a complex interplay of various signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying several of these pathways are still incompletely understood. Here, we identify the signaling cascade of the C. elegans latrophilin homolog LAT-1, an essential player in the coordination of a...

  17. Function and regulation of Aurora/Ipl1p kinase family in cell division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    During mitosis, the parent cell distributes its genetic materials equally into two daughter cells through chromosome segregation, a complex movements orchestrated by mitotic kinases and its effector proteins.Faithful chromosome segregation and cytokinesis ensure that each daughter cell receives a full copy of genetic materials of parent cell. Defects in these processes can lead to aneuploidy or polyploidy. Aurora/Ipl1p fanily,a class of conserved serine/threonine kinases, plays key roles in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis.This article highlights the function and regulation of Aurora/Ipl1p family in mitosis and provides potential links between aberrant regulation of Aurora/Ipl1p kinases and pathogenesis of human cancer.

  18. Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying B | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying Biomarkers for Early Detection and Risk Assessment. This application addresses Program Announcement PA-09-197: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hematopoietic Malignancies (R01). The overall aim of this project is to identify novel biomarkers that may be used to diagnose and treat patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). LCH occurs with similar frequency as other rare malignancies including Hodgkin's lymphoma and AML. |

  19. Dynamics of pre-replication complex proteins during the cell division cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanth, Supriya G.; Méndez, Juan; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Stillman, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Replication of the human genome every time a cell divides is a highly coordinated process that ensures accurate and efficient inheritance of the genetic information. The molecular mechanism that guarantees that many origins of replication fire only once per cell-cycle has been the area of intense research. The origin recognition complex (ORC) marks the position of replication origins in the genome and serves as the landing pad for the assembly of a multiprotein, pre-replicative complex (pre-R...

  20. LGH00031, a novel ortho-quinonoid inhibitor of cell division cycle 25B, inhibits human cancer cells via ROS generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-bo ZHOU; Xu FENG; Li-na WANG; Jun-qing DU; Yue-yang ZHOU; Hai-ping YU; Yi ZANG; Jing-ya LI; Jia LI

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To discover novel cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) B inhibitors and elucidate the mechanisms of inhibition in cancer cells. Methods: Cell growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay, the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and protein expression and phosphorylation was examined by Western blot analysis. Results: LGH00031 inhibited CDC25B irreversibly in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, and impaired the proliferation of tumor cell lines. In synchronized HeLa cells, LGH00031 delayed the cell cycle progression at the G2/M phase. LGH00031 increased cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) tyrosine 15 phosphorylation and cyclin B1 protein level. The activity of LGH00031 against CDC25B in vitro relied on the existence of 1, 4-dithiothreitol (DTT) or dihydrolipoic acid and oxygen. The oxygen free radical scavenger catalase and superoxide dismutase reduced the inactivation of CDC25 by LGH00031, confirming that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the inactivation process in vitro. LGH00031 accelerated cellular ROS production in a dose-dependent manner, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) markedly decreased the ROS production induced by LGH00031.Correspondingly, the LGH00031-induced decrease in cell viability and cell cycle arrest, cyclin B1 protein level, and phosphorylation of CDK1 tyrosine 15 were also rescued by NAC that decreased ROS pro-duction. Conclusion: The activity of LGH00031 at the molecular and cellular level is mediated by ROS.

  1. A Hybrid Cascade Converter Topology With Series-Connected Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Diode-Clamped H-Bridge Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz; Ghosh, Arindam; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    A novel H-bridge multilevel pulsewidth modulation converter topology based on a series connection of a high-voltage diode-clamped inverter and a low-voltage conventional inverter is proposed in this paper. A dc link voltage arrangement for the new hybrid and asymmetric solution is presented to have...... configuration to approach a very low total harmonic distortion of voltage and current, which leads to the possible elimination of the output filter. Regarding the proposed configuration, a new cascade inverter is verified by cascading an asymmetrical diode-clamped inverter, in which 19 levels can be synthesized...... in output voltage with the same number of components. To balance the dc link capacitor voltages for the maximum output voltage resolution as well as synthesize asymmetrical dc link combination, a new multi-output boost converter is utilized at the dc link voltage of a seven-level H-bridge diode-clamped...

  2. Eukaryotic checkpoints are absent in the cell division cycle of Entamoeba histolytica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulagna Banerjee; Suchismita Das; Anuradha Lohia

    2002-11-01

    Fidelity in transmission of genetic characters is ensured by the faithful duplication of the genome, followed by equal segregation of the genetic material in the progeny. Thus, alternation of DNA duplication (S-phase) and chromosome segregation during the M-phase are hallmarks of most well studied eukaryotes. Several rounds of genome reduplication before chromosome segregation upsets this cycle and leads to polyploidy. Polyploidy is often witnessed in cells prior to differentiation, in embryonic cells or in diseases such as cancer. Studies on the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica suggest that in its proliferative phase, this organism may accumulate polyploid cells. It has also been shown that although this organism contains sequence homologs of genes which are known to control the cell cycle of most eukaryotes, these genes may be structurally altered and their equivalent function yet to be demonstrated in amoeba. The available information suggests that surveillance mechanisms or ‘checkpoints’ which are known to regulate the eukaryotic cell cycle may be absent or altered in E. histolytica.

  3. In vivo robustness analysis of cell division cycle genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Moriya

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular biochemical parameters, such as the expression level of gene products, are considered to be optimized so that a biological system, including the parameters, works effectively. Those parameters should have some permissible range so that the systems have robustness against perturbations, such as noise in gene expression. However, little is known about the permissible range in real cells because there has been no experimental technique to test it. In this study, we developed a genetic screening method, named "genetic tug-of-war" (gTOW that evaluates upper limit copy numbers of genes in a model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we applied it for 30 cell-cycle related genes (CDC genes. The experiment provided unique quantitative data that could be used to argue the system-level properties of the cell cycle such as robustness and fragility. The data were used to evaluate the current computational model, and refinements to the model were suggested.

  4. AUREOCHROME1a-Mediated Induction of the Diatom-Specific Cyclin dsCYC2 Controls the Onset of Cell Division in Diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum)[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysman, Marie J.J.; Fortunato, Antonio E.; Matthijs, Michiel; Costa, Benjamin Schellenberger; Vanderhaeghen, Rudy; Van den Daele, Hilde; Sachse, Matthias; Inzé, Dirk; Bowler, Chris; Kroth, Peter G.; Wilhelm, Christian; Falciatore, Angela; Vyverman, Wim; De Veylder, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Cell division in photosynthetic organisms is tightly regulated by light. Although the light dependency of the onset of the cell cycle has been well characterized in various phototrophs, little is known about the cellular signaling cascades connecting light perception to cell cycle activation and progression. Here, we demonstrate that diatom-specific cyclin 2 (dsCYC2) in Phaeodactylum tricornutum displays a transcriptional peak within 15 min after light exposure, long before the onset of cell division. The product of dsCYC2 binds to the cyclin-dependent kinase CDKA1 and can complement G1 cyclin-deficient yeast. Consistent with the role of dsCYC2 in controlling a G1-to-S light-dependent cell cycle checkpoint, dsCYC2 silencing decreases the rate of cell division in diatoms exposed to light-dark cycles but not to constant light. Transcriptional induction of dsCYC2 is triggered by blue light in a fluence rate-dependent manner. Consistent with this, dsCYC2 is a transcriptional target of the blue light sensor AUREOCHROME1a, which functions synergistically with the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor bZIP10 to induce dsCYC2 transcription. The functional characterization of a cyclin whose transcription is controlled by light and whose activity connects light signaling to cell cycle progression contributes significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying light-dependent cell cycle onset in diatoms. PMID:23292736

  5. Treatment with IL-2 and IL-12 inhibits tumour cell division in SL2 lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masztalerz, A; Van Luyn, M; Werner, N; Molema, G; Everse, LA; Den Otter, W

    2004-01-01

    We examined which mechanism plays a dominant role in the rejection of solid SL2 lymphoma treated with locally applied IL-2 and /or IL-12. This treatment resulted in about 80% cures. There was a moderate influx of leukocytes in the tissue surrounding tumours; yet these cells failed to invade the soli

  6. The special case of hepatocytes : unique tissue architecture calls for a distinct mode of cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slim, Christiaan L; van IJzendoorn, Sven C D; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Müsch, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Columnar epithelia (e.g., kidney, intestine) and hepatocytes embody the two major organizational phenotypes of non-stratified epithelial cells. Columnar epithelia establish their apical and basal domains at opposing poles and organize in monolayered cysts and tubules, in which their apical surfaces

  7. Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Students Enrolled in a Lower Division Cell Biology Core Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Julio G.; Anand, Sulekha

    2009-01-01

    Students' performance in two semesters of our Cell Biology course was examined for this study. Teaching strategies, behaviors, and pre-course variables were analyzed with respect to students' performance. Pre-semester and post-semester surveys were administered to ascertain students' perceptions about class difficulty, amount of study and effort…

  8. CYCP2;1 integrates genetic and nutritional information to promote meristem cell division in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peng, L.; Skylar, A.; Chang, P.L.; Bišová, Kateřina; Wu, X.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 393, č. 2 (2014), s. 160-170. ISSN 0012-1606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR M200201205 Grant ostatní: NSF(US) MCB-1122213 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell cycle * arabidopsis * meristem Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.547, year: 2014

  9. Effects of the Scientific Argumentation Based Learning Process on Teaching the Unit of Cell Division and Inheritance to Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Ceyda; Yenice, Nilgun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of scientific argumentation based learning process on the eighth grade students' achievement in the unit of "cell division and inheritance". It also deals with the effects of this process on their comprehension about the nature of scientific knowledge, their willingness to take part in…

  10. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  11. Involvement of YODA and mitogen activated protein kinase 6 in Arabidopsis post-embryogenic root development through auxin up-regulation and cell division plane orientation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smékalová, V.; Luptovčiak, I.; Komis, G.; Šamajová, O.; Ovečka, M.; Doskočilová, A.; Takáč, T.; Vadovič, P.; Novák, Ondřej; Pechan, T.; Ziemann, A.; Košútová, P.; Šamaj, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 4 (2014), s. 1175-1193. ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis * cell division plane * MAP65-1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.672, year: 2014

  12. DNA replication initiation, doubling of rate of phospholipid synthesis, and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Joseleau-Petit, D; Képès, F; Peutat, L; D'Ari, R; Képès, A

    1987-01-01

    In synchronized culture of Escherichia coli, the specific arrest of phospholipid synthesis (brought about by glycerol starvation in an appropriate mutant) did not affect the rate of ongoing DNA synthesis but prevented the initiation of new rounds. The initiation block did not depend on cell age at the time of glycerol removal, which could be before, during, or after the doubling in the rate of phospholipid synthesis (DROPS) and as little as 10 min before the expected initiation. We conclude t...

  13. Theoretical study of asymmetric A-{\\pi}-D-{\\pi}-D-{\\pi}-A' tribranched organic sensitizer for Dye-sensitized solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Geon Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    An asymmetric A-{\\pi}-D-{\\pi}-D-{\\pi}-A' tribranched organic dye (dye1) with a cyanoacrylic acid and an indolinum carboxyl acid as electron acceptors and a triphenylamine as an electron donor was designed and theoretically investigated for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Dye1 was compared to reference well-known dyes with single electron acceptors (D5 and JYL-SQ6). Density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory calculations were used to estimate the photovoltaic properties of the dyes. Due to the different lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels of each acceptor and the energy antenna of the dual electron donor (D-{\\pi}-D), the absorption spectrum of each branch displayed different shapes. Considering the overall properties, the asymmetric A-{\\pi}-D-{\\pi}-D-{\\pi}-A' tribranched organic dye exhibited high conversion efficiency performance for DSSCs. The findings of this work suggest that optimizing the branch of electron donors and acceptors in dye sensitizers based on asymmetric...

  14. Lymph Node Metastases and Prognosis in Left Upper Division Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: The Impact of Interlobar Lymph Node Metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kuroda

    Full Text Available Left upper division segmentectomy is one of the major pulmonary procedures; however, it is sometimes difficult to completely dissect interlobar lymph nodes. We attempted to clarify the prognostic importance of hilar and mediastinal nodes, especially of interlobar lymph nodes, in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC located in the left upper division.We retrospectively studied patients with primary left upper lobe NSCLC undergoing surgical pulmonary resection (at least lobectomy with radical lymphadenectomy. The representative evaluation of therapeutic value from the lymph node dissection was determined using Sasako's method. This analysis was calculated by multiplying the frequency of metastasis to the station and the 5-year survival rate of the patients with metastasis to the station.We enrolled 417 patients (237 men, 180 women. Tumors were located in the lingular lobe and at the upper division of left upper lobe in 69 and 348 patients, respectively. The pathological nodal statuses were pN0 in 263 patients, pN1 in 70 patients, and pN2 in 84 patients. Lymph nodes #11 and #7 were significantly correlated with differences in node involvement in patients with left upper lobe NSCLC. Among those with left upper division NSCLC, the 5-year overall survival in pN1 was 31.5% for #10, 39.3% for #11, and 50.4% for #12U. The involvement of node #11 was 1.89-fold higher in the anterior segment than that in the apicoposterior segment. The therapeutic index of estimated benefit from lymph node dissection for #11 was 3.38, #4L was 1.93, and the aortopulmonary window was 4.86 in primary left upper division NSCLC.Interlobar node involvement is not rare in left upper division NSCLC, occurring in >20% cases. Furthermore, dissection of interlobar nodes was found to be beneficial in patients with left upper division NSCLC.

  15. Modeling of the dynamic pole-to-pole oscillations of the min proteins in bacterial cell division: The effect of an external field

    CERN Document Server

    Modchang, C; Triampo, W; Ngamsaad, W; Nuttawut, N; Tang, I M; Lenbury, Y; Modchang, Charin; Kanthang, Paisan; Triampo, Wannapong; Ngamsaad, Waipot; Nuttawut, Narin; Lenbury, Yongwimol

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important steps in the developmental process of the bacteria cell at the cellular level is the determination of the middle of the cell and the proper placement of the septum, these being essential to the division of the cell. In E. coli, this step depends on the proteins MinC, MinD, and MinE. Exposure to a constant electric field may cause the bacteria cell division mechanism to change, resulting in an abnormal cytokinesis. To see the effects of an external field e.g., an electric or magnetic field on this process, we have solved a set of deterministic reaction diffusion equations, which incorporate the influence of an electric field. We have found some changes in the dynamics of the oscillations of the min proteins from pole to pole. The numerical results show some interesting effects, which are qualitatively in good agreement with some experimental results.

  16. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-11

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  17. Detection of DNA double-strand breaks in synchronous cultures of CHO cells by means of asymmetric field inversion gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed field gel electrophoresis technique, asymmetric field inversion gel electrophoresis (AFIGE), was used to evaluate induction by X-rays of DNA damage in CHO cells. The fraction of DNA activity released from the plug (FAR) was used as a measure for the amount of radiation-induced DNA damage, predominantly DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) (Stamato and Denko 1990), and was determined at various stages of growth and phases of the cell cycle in a range of doses between zero and 70 Gy. It is concluded that caution needs to be exercised before differences observed in the FAR between different cell lines or between various phases of the cell cycle after exposure to a given dose of radiation are interpreted as suggesting differences in the induction of DNA dsb. (author)

  18. Efficient Asymmetric Reduction of 4-(Trimethylsilyl)-3-Butyn-2-One by Candida parapsilosis Cells in an Ionic Liquid-Containing System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bo-Bo; Lou, Wen-Yong; Chen, Wen-Jing; Zong, Min-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs) were employed as green solvents to construct an IL-containing co-solvent system for improving the asymmetric reduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl)-3-butyn-2-one by immobilized Candida parapsilosis cells. Among 14 hydrophilic ILs examined, 1-(2′-hydroxyl)ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate (C2OHMIM·NO3) was considered as the most suitable IL for the bioreduction with the fastest initial reaction rate, the highest yield and the highest product e.e., which may be due to t...

  19. A trisubstituted benzimidazole cell division inhibitor with efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Knudson

    Full Text Available Trisubstituted benzimidazoles have demonstrated potency against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Previously, a library of novel trisubstituted benzimidazoles was constructed for high throughput screening, and compounds were identified that exhibited potency against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical isolates, and were not toxic to Vero cells. A new series of 2-cyclohexyl-5-acylamino-6-N, N-dimethylaminobenzimidazoles derivatives has been developed based on SAR studies. Screening identified compounds with potency against M. tuberculosis. A lead compound from this series, SB-P17G-A20, was discovered to have an MIC of 0.16 µg/mL and demonstrated efficacy in the TB murine acute model of infection based on the reduction of bacterial load in the lungs and spleen by 1.73 ± 0.24 Log10 CFU and 2.68 ± Log10 CFU, respectively, when delivered at 50 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection (IP twice daily (bid. The activity of SB-P17G-A20 was determined to be concentration dependent and to have excellent stability in mouse and human plasma, and liver microsomes. Together, these studies demonstrate that SB-P17G-A20 has potency against M. tuberculosis clinical strains with varying susceptibility and efficacy in animal models of infection, and that trisubstituted benzimidazoles continue to be a platform for the development of novel inhibitors with efficacy.

  20. Resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux pump involved in aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strain BM4454.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnet, S; Courvalin, P; Lambert, T

    2001-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant strain Acinetobacter baumannii BM4454 was isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection. The adeB gene, which encodes a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) protein, was detected in this strain by PCR with two degenerate oligodeoxynucleotides. Insertional inactivation of adeB in BM4454, which generated BM4454-1, showed that the corresponding protein was responsible for aminoglycoside resistance and was involved in the level of susceptibility to other drugs including fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, trimethoprim, and ethidium bromide. Study of ethidium bromide accumulation in BM4454 and BM4454-1, in the presence or in the absence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, demonstrated that AdeB was responsible for the decrease in intracellular ethidium bromide levels in a proton motive force-dependent manner. The adeB gene was part of a cluster that included adeA and adeC which encodes proteins homologous to membrane fusion and outer membrane proteins of RND-type three-component efflux systems, respectively. The products of two upstream open reading frames encoding a putative two-component regulatory system might be involved in the regulation of expression of the adeABC gene cluster. PMID:11709311

  1. Learning Cell Biology as a Team: A Project-Based Approach to Upper-Division Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular…

  2. Inhibition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root growth by cyanamide is due to altered cell division, phytohormone balance and expansin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Wiśniewska, Anita; Bogatek, Renata

    2012-11-01

    Cyanamide (CA) has been reported as a natural compound produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) and it was shown also to be an allelochemical, responsible for strong allelopathic potential in this species. CA phytotoxicity has been demonstrated on various plant species, but to date little is known about its mode of action at cellular level. Treatment of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots with CA (1.2 mM) resulted in inhibition of growth accompanied by alterations in cell division, and imbalance of plant hormone (ethylene and auxin) homeostasis. Moreover, the phytotoxic effect of CA was also manifested by modifications in expansin gene expression, especially in expansins responsible for cell wall remodeling after the cytokinesis (LeEXPA9, LeEXPA18). Based on these results the phytotoxic activity of CA on growth of roots of tomato seedlings is likely due to alterations associated with cell division. PMID:22847024

  3. Transfer of a eubacteria-type cell division site-determining factor CrMinD gene to the nucleus from the chloroplast genome in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU WeiZhong; HU Yong; ZHANG RunJie; ZHOU WeiWei; ZHU JiaYing; LIU XiangLin; HE YiKun

    2007-01-01

    MinD is a ubiquitous ATPase that plays a crucial role in selection of the division site in eubacteria, chloroplasts, and probably Archaea. In four green algae, Mesostigma viride, Nephroselmis olivacea, Chlorella vulgaris and Prototheca wickerhamii, MinD homologues are encoded in the plastid genome. However, in Arabidopsis, MinD is a nucleus-encoded, chloroplast-targeted protein involved in chloroplast division, which suggests that MinD has been transferred to the nucleus in higher land plants. Yet the lateral gene transfer (LGT) of MinD from plastid to nucleus during plastid evolution remains poorly understood. Here, we identified a nucleus-encoded MinD homologue from unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a basal species in the green plant lineage. Overexpression of CrMinD in wild type E. coli inhibited cell division and resulted in the filamentous cell formation, clearly demonstrated the conservation of the MinD protein during the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. The transient expression of CrMinD-egfp confirmed the role of CrMinD protein in the regulation of plastid division. Searching all the published plastid genomic sequences of land plants, no MinD homologues were found, which suggests that the transfer of MinD from plastid to nucleus might have occurred before the evolution of land plants.

  4. A Negative Feedback Loop Controlling bHLH Complexes Is Involved in Vascular Cell Division and Differentiation in the Root Apical Meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hirofumi; Iwamoto, Kuninori; Kariya, Yuka; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Kan, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Hiroo; Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko

    2015-12-01

    Controlling cell division and differentiation in meristems is essential for proper plant growth. Two bHLH heterodimers consisting of LONESOME HIGHWAY (LHW) and TARGET OF MONOPTEROS 5 (TMO5)/TMO5-LIKE1 (T5L1) regulate periclinal cell division in vascular cells in the root apical meristem (RAM). In this study, we further investigated the functions of LHW-T5L1, finding that in addition to controlling cell division, this complex regulates xylem differentiation in the RAM via a novel negative regulatory system. LHW-T5L1 upregulated the thermospermine synthase gene ACAULIS5 (ACL5), as well as SUPPRESSOR OF ACAULIS5 LIKE3 (SACL3), which encodes a bHLH protein, in the RAM. The SACL3 promoter sequence contains a conserved upstream open reading frame (uORF), which blocked translation of the main SACL3 ORF in the absence of thermospermine. Thermospermine eliminated the negative effect of uORF and enhanced SACL3 production. Further genetic and molecular biological analyses indicated that ACL5 and SACL3 suppress the function of LHW-T5L1 through a protein-protein interaction between LHW and SACL3. Finally, we showed that a negative feedback loop consisting of LHW-T5L1, ACL5, SACL3, and LHW-SACL3 contributes to maintain RAM size and proper root growth. These findings suggest that a negative feedback loop regulates the LHW-T5L1 output level to coordinate cell division and differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. PMID:26616019

  5. Contribution of the Ade Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-Type Efflux Pumps to Fitness and Pathogenesis of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Balloy, Viviane; Fiette, Laurence; Chignard, Michel; Courvalin, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Overexpression of chromosomal resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux systems with broad substrate specificity contributes to multidrug resistance (MDR) in Acinetobacter baumannii. We have shown that modulation of expression of the structural genes for the efflux systems AdeABC and AdeIJK confers MDR and results in numerous alterations of membrane-associated cellular functions, in particular biofilm formation. However, the contribution of these RND pumps to cell fitness and virulence has not yet been studied. The biological cost of an antibiotic resistance mechanism is a key parameter in determining its stability and dissemination. From an entirely sequenced susceptible clinical isolate, we have generated a set of isogenic derivatives having single point mutations resulting in overexpression of each efflux system or with every pump deleted by allelic replacement. We found that overproduction of the pumps results in a significant decrease in fitness of the bacterial host when measured by competition experiments in vitro. Fitness and virulence were also evaluated in vivo both in systemic and pulmonary infection models in immunocompetent mice. A diminished competitiveness of the AdeABC-overexpressing mutant was observed only after intraperitoneal inoculation, but not after intranasal inoculation, the latter mimicking the most frequent type of human A. baumannii infection. However, in mice infected intranasally, this mutant was more virulent and stimulated an enhanced neutrophil activation in the lungs. Altogether, these data account for the observation that adeABC overexpression is common in MDR A. baumannii frequently found in ventilator-associated pneumonia. PMID:27247231

  6. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy

  7. Asymmetric counterpropagating fronts without flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Silva, I; Clerc, M G; Odent, V

    2015-06-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems exhibit domain walls between different states. These walls, depending on the type of connected states, can display rich spatiotemporal dynamics. In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the asymmetrical counterpropagation of fronts in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the different front shapes and propagation speeds. These fronts present dissimilar elastic deformations that are responsible for their asymmetric speeds. Theoretically, using a phenomenological model, we describe the observed dynamics with fair agreement. PMID:26172647

  8. Role of SufI (FtsP) in cell division of Escherichia coli: evidence for its involvement in stabilizing the assembly of the divisome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaluru, Harish; SaiSree, L; Reddy, Manjula

    2007-11-01

    The function of SufI, a well-studied substrate of the TatABC translocase in Escherichia coli, is not known. It was earlier implicated in cell division, based on the finding that multiple copies of sufI suppressed the phenotypes of cells with mutations in ftsI (ftsI23), which encodes a divisomal transpeptidase. Recently, sufI was identified as both a multicopy suppressor gene and a synthetic lethal mutant of ftsEX, which codes for a division-specific putative ABC transporter. In this study, we show that sufI is essential for the viability of E. coli cells subjected to various forms of stress, including oxidative stress and DNA damage. The sufI mutant also exhibits sulA-independent filamentation, indicating a role in cell division. The phenotypes of the sufI mutant are suppressed by factors that stabilize FtsZ ring assembly, such as increased expression of cell division proteins FtsQAZ or FtsN or the presence of the gain-of-function ftsA* (FtsA R286W) mutation, suggesting that SufI is a divisomal protein required during stress conditions. In support of this, multicopy sufI suppressed the divisional defects of mutants carrying the ftsA12, ftsQ1, or ftsK44 allele but not those of mutants carrying ftsZ84. Most of the division-defective mutants, in particular those carrying a DeltaftsEX or ftsI23 allele, exhibited sensitivity to oxidative stress or DNA damage, and this sensitivity was also abolished by multiple copies of SufI. All of these data suggest that SufI is a division component involved in protecting or stabilizing the divisomal assembly under conditions of stress. Since sufI fulfils the requirements to be designated an fts gene, we propose that it be renamed ftsP. PMID:17766410

  9. Dominant-Negative Effects of Adult-Onset Huntingtin Mutations Alter the Division of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Neural Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla; Aubert, Sophie; Bourgois-Rocha, Fany; Barnat, Monia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Déglon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the huntingtin protein (HTT) gene underlie both adult-onset and juvenile forms of Huntington’s disease (HD). HTT modulates mitotic spindle orientation and cell fate in mouse cortical progenitors from the ventricular zone. Using human embryonic stem cells (hESC) characterized as carrying mutations associated with adult-onset disease during pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, we investigated the influence of human HTT and of an adult-onset HD mutation on mitotic spindle orientation in human neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hESCs. The RNAi-mediated silencing of both HTT alleles in neural stem cells derived from hESCs disrupted spindle orientation and led to the mislocalization of dynein, the p150Glued subunit of dynactin and the large nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein. We also investigated the effect of the adult-onset HD mutation on the role of HTT during spindle orientation in NSCs derived from HD-hESCs. By combining SNP-targeting allele-specific silencing and gain-of-function approaches, we showed that a 46-glutamine expansion in human HTT was sufficient for a dominant-negative effect on spindle orientation and changes in the distribution within the spindle pole and the cell cortex of dynein, p150Glued and NuMA in neural cells. Thus, neural derivatives of disease-specific human pluripotent stem cells constitute a relevant biological resource for exploring the impact of adult-onset HD mutations of the HTT gene on the division of neural progenitors, with potential applications in HD drug discovery targeting HTT-dynein-p150Glued complex interactions. PMID:26863614

  10. Replicator Dynamics of of Cancer Stem Cell; Selection in the Presence of Differentiation and Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveh, Kamran; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Siv

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential to produce lineages of non-stem cell populations (differentiated cells) via a ubiquitous hierarchal division scheme. Differentiation of a stem cell into (partially) differentiated cells can happen either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The selection dynamics of a mutant cancer stem cell should be investigated in the light of a stem cell proliferation hierarchy and presence of a non-stem cell population. By constructing a three-compartment Moran-type model compos...

  11. Regulation of spindle orientation and neural stem cell fate in the Drosophila optic lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Andrea H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of a stem cell to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically has profound consequences for development and disease. Unregulated symmetric division promotes tumor formation, whereas inappropriate asymmetric division affects organ morphogenesis. Despite its importance, little is known about how spindle positioning is regulated. In some tissues cell fate appears to dictate the type of cell division, whereas in other tissues it is thought that stochastic variation in spindle position dictates subsequent sibling cell fate. Results Here we investigate the relationship between neural progenitor identity and spindle positioning in the Drosophila optic lobe. We use molecular markers and live imaging to show that there are two populations of progenitors in the optic lobe: symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells and asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts. We use genetically marked single cell clones to show that neuroepithelial cells give rise to neuroblasts. To determine if a change in spindle orientation can trigger a neuroepithelial to neuroblast transition, we force neuroepithelial cells to divide along their apical/basal axis by misexpressing Inscuteable. We find that this does not induce neuroblasts, nor does it promote premature neuronal differentiation. Conclusion We show that symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells give rise to asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts in the optic lobe, and that regulation of spindle orientation and division symmetry is a consequence of cell type specification, rather than a mechanism for generating cell type diversity.

  12. The Monofunctional Glycosyltransferase of Escherichia coli Localizes to the Cell Division Site and Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 3, FtsW, and FtsN▿ ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Derouaux, Adeline; Wolf, Benoît; Fraipont, Claudine; Breukink, Eefjan; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine; Terrak, Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    The monofunctional peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (MtgA) catalyzes glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. Here we show that MtgA localizes at the division site of Escherichia coli cells that are deficient in PBP1b and produce a thermosensitive PBP1a and is able to interact with three constituents of the divisome, PBP3, FtsW, and FtsN, suggesting that MtgA may play a role in peptidoglycan assembly during the cell cycle in collaboration with other proteins.

  13. Cell division cycle 25 homolog c effects on low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity and induced radioresistance at elevated dosage in A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underlying mechanisms behind both low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) and induced radioresistance (IRR), generally occurring at elevated radiation levels, remain unclear; however, elucidation of the relationship between cell cycle division 25 homolog c (Cdc25c) phosphatase and HRS/IRR may provide important insights into this process. Two cell lines with disparate HRS status, A549 and SiHa cells, were selected as cell models for comparison of dose-dependent Cdc25c phosphatase expression subsequent to low-dose irradiation. Knockdown of Cdc25c in A549 cells was mediated by transfection with a pGCsi-RAN-U6neo vector containing hairpin siRNA sequences. S216-phosphorylated Cdc25c protein [p-Cdc25c (Ser216)], cell survival and mitotic ratio were measured by western blot, colony-forming assay and histone H3 phosphorylation analysis. Variant p-Cdc25c (Ser216) expression was observed in the two cell lines after irradiation. The p-Cdc25c (Ser216) expression noted in SiHa cells after administration of 0-1 Gy radiation was similar to the radioresistance model; however, in A549 cells, the dose response for the phosphorylation of the Cdc25c Ser216 residue overlapped the level required to overcome the HRS response. Furthermore, Cdc25c repression prior to low-dose radiation induced more distinct HRS and prevented the development of IRR. The dose required to overcome the HRS response coincided with the effect of early G2-phase checkpoint arrest in A549 cells (approximately 0.3 Gy), and Cdc25c knockdown in A549 cells (approximately 0.5 Gy) corresponded to the phosphorylation of the Cdc25c Ser216 residue. Resultant data confirmed that dose-dependent Cdc25c phosphatase does effectively act as an early G2-phase checkpoint, thus indicating mechanistic importance in the HRS to IRR transition in A549 cells. (author)

  14. Germline stem cells: stems of the next generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Hebao; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2010-01-01

    Germline stem cells (GSCs) sustain gametogenesis during the life of organisms. Recent progress has substantially extended our understanding of GSC behavior, including the mechanisms of stem cell self-renewal, asymmetric stem cell division, stem cell niches, dedifferentiation, and tissue aging. GSCs typically are highly proliferative, due to organismal requirement to produce large number of differentiated cells. While many somatic stem cells are multipotent, with potentially multiple different...

  15. Assessment of three Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division drug efflux transporters of Burkholderia cenocepacia in intrinsic antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturi Vittorio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cenocepacia are opportunistic Gram-negative bacteria that can cause chronic pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. These bacteria demonstrate a high-level of intrinsic antibiotic resistance to most clinically useful antibiotics complicating treatment. We previously identified 14 genes encoding putative Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND efflux pumps in the genome of B. cenocepacia J2315, but the contribution of these pumps to the intrinsic drug resistance of this bacterium remains unclear. Results To investigate the contribution of efflux pumps to intrinsic drug resistance of B. cenocepacia J2315, we deleted 3 operons encoding the putative RND transporters RND-1, RND-3, and RND-4 containing the genes BCAS0591-BCAS0593, BCAL1674-BCAL1676, and BCAL2822-BCAL2820. Each deletion included the genes encoding the RND transporter itself and those encoding predicted periplasmic proteins and outer membrane pores. In addition, the deletion of rnd-3 also included BCAL1672, encoding a putative TetR regulator. The B. cenocepacia rnd-3 and rnd-4 mutants demonstrated increased sensitivity to inhibitory compounds, suggesting an involvement of these proteins in drug resistance. Moreover, the rnd-3 and rnd-4 mutants demonstrated reduced accumulation of N-acyl homoserine lactones in the growth medium. In contrast, deletion of the rnd-1 operon had no detectable phenotypes under the conditions assayed. Conclusion Two of the three inactivated RND efflux pumps in B. cenocepacia J2315 contribute to the high level of intrinsic resistance of this strain to some antibiotics and other inhibitory compounds. Furthermore, these efflux systems also mediate accumulation in the growth medium of quorum sensing molecules that have been shown to contribute to infection. A systematic study of RND efflux systems in B. cenocepacia is required to provide a full picture of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in this opportunistic

  16. Effects of the Scientific Argumentation Based Learning Process on Teaching the Unit of Cell Division and Inheritance to Eighth Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Balci, Ceyda; Yenice, Nilgun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of scientific argumentation based learning process on the eighth grade students’ achievement in the unit of “cell division and inheritance”. It also deals with the effects of this process on their comprehension about the nature of scientific knowledge, their willingness to take part in discussions and their attitude towards the course of science and technology. The study employed the design of pretest-post test matched control group design which...

  17. Understanding stem cell differentiation through self-organization theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, K; Ortoleva, P

    2008-02-21

    The mechanism underling stem cells' key property, the ability to either divide into two replicate cells or a replicate and a differentiated daughter, still is not understood. We tested a hypothesis that stem cell asymmetric division/differentiation is spontaneously created by the coupling of processes within each daughter and the resulting biochemical feedbacks via the exchange of molecules between them during mitotic division. We developed a mathematical/biochemical model that accounts for dynamic processes accompanying division, including signaling initiation and transcriptional, translational and post-translational (TTP) reactions. Analysis of this model shows that it could explain how stem cells make the decision to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically under different microenvironmental conditions. The analysis also reveals that a stem cell can be induced externally to transition to an alternative state that does not have the potentiality to have the option to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically. With this model, we initiated a search of large databases of transcriptional regulatory network (TRN), protein-protein interaction, and cell signaling pathways. We found 12 subnetworks (motifs) that could support human stem cell asymmetric division. A prime example of the discoveries made possible by this tool, two groups of the genes in the genetic model are revealed to be strongly over-represented in a database of cancer-related genes. PMID:18076908

  18. Formation of multinuclear cells induced by dimethyl sulfoxide: inhibition of cytokinesis and occurrence of novel nuclear division in dictyostelium cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that 10 percent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) induces the formation of actin microfilament bundles in the cell nucleus together with the dislocation of cortical microfilaments from the plasma membrane. The present study investigated the effects of DMSO on diverse activities mediated by cellular microfilaments as the second step toward assessing potential differences between nuclear and cytoplasmic actins of dictyostelium mucoroides. DMSO was found to reversibly inhibit...

  19. DNA radiation damage and asymmetric somatic hybridization: Is UV a potential substitute or supplement to ionising radiation in fusion experiments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent reports have revealed that the asymmetric nature of the nuclear genome of somatic hybrids, produced following the irradiation of one of the parents with X- or gamma rays, is generally much less than had been anticipated. As a consequence, we have begun to investigate whether UV radiation might be used as an alternative or indeed a supplement to the presently-used ionising radiation techniques in such experiments. Cell culture studies have revealed that UV radiation induces the desired physiological effects in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) protoplasts, namely, a prevention of cell division without immediate cytotoxicity. Preliminary studies using denaturing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis have shown that UV can also induce substantial physical fragmentation of DNA. When using the same techniques, less breakdown was observed following gamma radiation. All results were highly reproducible. Such results augur well for the potential use of UV in asymmetric somatic cell fusion experiments. (author)

  20. Cell division arrest by gamma-irradiation in photoautotrophic suspension culture of Euphorbia characias: maintenance of photosynthetic capacity and overaccumulation of sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiation (250 Gy) applied to photoautotrophic cell suspensions of Euphorbia characias L. in the exponential growth phase led to the arrest of cell division and to a subsequent overaccumulation of sucrose and dry matter. From the fourth day of culture, the chlorophyll content and gross photosynthesis were not depressed by gamma-treatment nor by sugar accumulation. In both cultures, no difference was observed between oxygen uptake in the light at CO2 saturating concentration and in the dark, suggesting that no change in energy-dissipative reactions took place after irradiation. A slight increase in oxygen uptake in both light and dark was observed in irradiated cells during the first four days. However, in the absence of limiting factors, the photosynthetic capacities of the dividing and irradiated non-dividing photoautotrophic cells were identical but higher than that of the non-dividing cells in the stationary growth phase. This suggests that gamma-irradiation arrests cell division by a mechanism different to that occurring in stationary-phase cultures. This may be of value in investigating the metabolism of secondary products. (author)

  1. Yeast mother cell-specific ageing, genetic (in)stability, and the somatic mutation theory of ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Laun, Peter; Bruschi, Carlo V.; Dickinson, J. Richard; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Heeren, Gino; Schwimbersky, Richard; Rid, Raphaela; Breitenbach, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Yeast mother cell-specific ageing is characterized by a limited capacity to produce daughter cells. The replicative lifespan is determined by the number of cell cycles a mother cell has undergone, not by calendar time, and in a population of cells its distribution follows the Gompertz law. Daughter cells reset their clock to zero and enjoy the full lifespan characteristic for the strain. This kind of replicative ageing of a cell population based on asymmetric cell divisions is investigated as...

  2. Stem/Progenitor Cells Derived from the Cochlear Sensory Epithelium Give Rise to Spheres with Distinct Morphologies and Features

    OpenAIRE

    Diensthuber, Marc; Oshima, Kazuo; Heller, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Nonmammalian vertebrates regenerate lost sensory hair cells by means of asymmetric division of supporting cells. Inner ear or lateral line supporting cells in birds, amphibians, and fish consequently serve as bona fide stem cells resulting in high regenerative capacity of hair cell-bearing organs. Hair cell regeneration does not happen in the mammalian cochlea, but cells with proliferative capacity can be isolated from the neonatal cochlea. These cells have the ability to form clonal floating...

  3. Cyanamide mode of action during inhibition of onion (Allium cepa L.) root growth involves disturbances in cell division and cytoskeleton formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata

    2011-09-01

    Cyanamide is an allelochemical produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Its phyotoxic effect on plant growth was examined on roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Water solution of cyanamide (2-10 mM) restricted growth of onion roots in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of onion roots with cyanamide resulted in a decrease in root growth rate accompanied by a decrease in accumulation of fresh and dry weight. The inhibitory effect of cyanamide was reversed by its removal from the environment, but full recovery was observed only for tissue treated with this chemical at low concentration (2-6 mM). Cytological observations of root tip cells suggest that disturbances in cell division may explain the strong cyanamide allelopathic activity. Moreover, in cyanamide-treated onion the following changes were detected: reduction of mitotic cells, inhibition of proliferation of meristematic cells and cell cycle, and modifications of cytoskeleton arrangement. PMID:21573814

  4. Asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenones by Baker's yeast and its cell-free extract encapsulated in sol–gel silica materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsuya, E-mail: katsuya-kato@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, 463-8560 (Japan); Nakamura, Hitomi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, 463-8560 (Japan); Nakanishi, Kazuma [Department of Chemistry for Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8570 (Japan)

    2014-02-28

    Baker's yeast (BY) encapsulated in silica materials was synthesized using a yeast cell suspension and its cell-free extract during a sol–gel reaction of tetramethoxysilane with nitric acid as a catalyst. The synthesized samples were fully characterized using various methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The BY cells were easily encapsulated inside silica-gel networks, and the ratio of the cells in the silica gel was approximately 75 wt%, which indicated that a large volume of BY was trapped with a small amount of silica. The enzyme activity (asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones) of BY and its cell-free extract encapsulated in silica gel was investigated in detail. The activities and enantioselectivities of free and encapsulated BY were similar to those of acetophenone and its fluorine derivatives, which indicated that the conformation structure of BY enzymes inside silica-gel networks did not change. In addition, the encapsulated BY exhibited considerably better solvent (methanol) stability and recyclability compared to free BY solution. We expect that the development of BY encapsulated in sol–gel silica materials will significantly impact the industrial-scale advancement of high-efficiency and low-cost biocatalysts for the synthesis of valuable chiral alcohols.

  5. PERSONNEL DIVISION BECOMES HUMAN RESOURCES DIVISION

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    In the years to come, CERN faces big challenges in the planning and use of human resources. At this moment, Personnel (PE) Division is being reorganised to prepare for new tasks and priorities. In order to accentuate the purposes of the operation, the name of the division has been changed into Human Resources (HR) Division, with effect from 1st January 2000. Human Resources DivisionTel.73222

  6. Liver Label Retaining Cancer Cells Are Relatively Resistant to the Reported Anti-Cancer Stem Cell Drug Metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Ambe, Chenwi M.; Miller, Tyler C.; Chen, Jin-Qiu; Wiegand, Gordon W.; Anderson, Andrew J.; Ray, Satyajit; Mullinax, John E.; Hari, Danielle M; Koizumi, Tomotake; Godbout, Jessica D.; Goldsmith, Paul K.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Rudloff, Udo; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims: Recently, we reported that liver Label Retaining Cancer Cells (LRCC) can initiate tumors with only 10 cells and are relatively resistant to the targeted drug Sorafenib, a standard of practice in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LRCC are the only cancer stem cells (CSC) isolated alive according to a stem cell fundamental function, asymmetric cell division. Metformin has been reported to preferentially target many other types of CSC of different organs, including live...

  7. A sphingolipid-dependent diffusion barrier confines ER stress to the yeast mother cell

    OpenAIRE

    Lori Clay; Fabrice Caudron; Annina Denoth-Lippuner; Barbara Boettcher; St\\xfdphanie Buvelot Frei; Erik Lee Snapp; Yves Barral

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Cell division isn't always about splitting a cell into two identical parts. The diversity of many of our own cells relies on asymmetric cell divisions. The yeast used to make bread rely on a process called ‘budding’ that involves a small daughter cell emerging from the surface of the mother cell. Mother cells can only produce around 20–50 daughter cells before dying from old age. However, their daughters are always born rejuvenated, and not aged like their mothers. Budding involv...

  8. Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapov, Rebecca; Boreyko, Jonathan; Briggs, Dayrl; Srijanto, Bernadeta; Retterer, Scott; Collier, C. Patrick; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2014-03-01

    Exploration of Leidenfrost droplets on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems using boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant way to direct droplet motion in a variety of emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling. This suggests that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon droplet impact onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. Asymmetric wettability and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing this to be the mechanism for the droplet directionality. This work was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is sponsored at Oak Ridge National Lab by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, US Dept. of Energy.

  9. miRNAs regulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zuoren; Li, Yuan; Fan, Huimin; Liu, Zhongmin; Pestell, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells undergo symmetric and asymmetric divisions to generate differentiated cells and more stem cells. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells is controlled by transcription factors, epigenetic regulatory networks, and microRNAs (miRNAs). Herein the miRNA involvement in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is summarized. miRNA contribution to malignancy through regulating cancer stem cells is described. In addition, the reciprocal associ...

  10. Molecular evolution in bacteria: cell division Evolução molecular em bactérias: divisão celular

    OpenAIRE

    Trevors, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular evolution in bacteria is examined with an emphasis on the self-assembly of cells capable of primitive division and growth during early molecular evolution. Also, the possibility that some type of encapsulation structure preceeded biochemical pathways and the assembly of genetic material is examined. These aspects will be considered from an evolutionary perspective.A evolução molecular em bactérias é examinada com ênfase na auto-organização de uma célula capaz de divisão primitiva e ...

  11. The fate of Müller’s glia following experimental retinal detachment: nuclear migration, cell division, and subretinal glial scar formation

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Geoffrey P.; Chapin, Ethan A.; Luna, Gabriel; Linberg, Kenneth A.; Fisher, Steven K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To study the fate of Müller’s glia following experimental retinal detachment, using a “pulse/chase” paradigm of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling for the purpose of understanding the role of Müller cell division in subretinal scar formation. Methods Experimental retinal detachments were created in pigmented rabbit eyes, and 3 days later 10 µg of BrdU was injected intravitreally. The retinas were harvested 4 h after the BrdU was administered (i.e., day 3) or on days 4, 7, and 21 post d...

  12. Inhibition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root growth by cyanamide is due to altered cell division, phytohormone balance and expansin gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Wiśniewska, Anita; Bogatek, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Cyanamide (CA) has been reported as a natural compound produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) and it was shown also to be an allelochemical, responsible for strong allelopathic potential in this species. CA phytotoxicity has been demonstrated on various plant species, but to date little is known about its mode of action at cellular level. Treatment of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots with CA (1.2 mM) resulted in inhibition of growth accompanied by alterations in cell division, an...

  13. Altered mRNA cap recognition activity of initiation factor 4E in the yeast cell cycle division mutant cdc33.

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, M; Trachsel, H

    1989-01-01

    The mutation in the S. cerevisiae cell cycle division mutant cdc33 consists of a single G to A transition in the open reading frame encoding translation initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E). This leads to the substitution of glycine 113 by aspartic acid close to tryptophane 115 in the protein. This mutation reduces cap binding activity of eIF-4E as measured by binding of eIF-4E to m7GDP agarose columns and slows down overall protein synthesis at the non-permissive temperature. Comparison of the cdc3...

  14. Role of FtsEX in cell division of Escherichia coli: viability of ftsEX mutants is dependent on functional SufI or high osmotic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Manjula

    2007-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, at least 12 proteins, FtsZ, ZipA, FtsA, FtsE/X, FtsK, FtsQ, FtsL, FtsB, FtsW, FtsI, FtsN, and AmiC, are known to localize to the septal ring in an interdependent and sequential pathway to coordinate the septum formation at the midcell. The FtsEX complex is the latest recruit of this pathway, and unlike other division proteins, it is shown to be essential only on low-salt media. In this study, it is shown that ftsEX null mutations are not only salt remedial but also osmoremedial, which suggests that FtsEX may not be involved in salt transport as previously thought. Increased coexpression of cell division proteins FtsQ-FtsA-FtsZ or FtsN alone restored the growth defects of ftsEX mutants. ftsEX deletion exacerbated the defects of most of the mutants affected in Z ring localization and septal assembly; however, the ftsZ84 allele was a weak suppressor of ftsEX. The viability of ftsEX mutants in high-osmolarity conditions was shown to be dependent on the presence of a periplasmic protein, SufI, a substrate of twin-arginine translocase. In addition, SufI in multiple copies could substitute for the functions of FtsEX. Taken together, these results suggest that FtsE and FtsX are absolutely required for the process of cell division in conditions of low osmotic strength for the stability of the septal ring assembly and that, during high-osmolarity conditions, the FtsEX and SufI functions are redundant for this essential process. PMID:17071757

  15. The progression of the intra-erythrocytic cell cycle of Plasmodium falciparum and the role of the centriolar plaques in asynchronous mitotic division during schizogony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnot, David E; Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2011-01-01

    The cell division cycle and mitosis of intra-erythrocytic (IE) Plasmodium falciparum are poorly understood aspects of parasite development which affect malaria molecular pathogenesis. Specifically, the timing of the multiple gap (G), DNA synthesis (S) and chromosome separation (M) phases of...... parasite mitosis are not well defined, nor whether genome divisions are immediately followed by cleavage of the nuclear envelope. Curiously, daughter merozoite numbers do not follow the geometric expansion expected from equal numbers of binary divisions, an outcome difficult to explain using the standard...

  16. Regulation of Growth of the Mother Cell and Chromosome Replication during Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xenopoulos, Panagiotis; Piggot, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    During spore formation, Bacillus subtilis divides asymmetrically, resulting in two cells with different fates. Immediately after division, the transcription factor σF becomes active in the smaller prespore, followed by activation of σE in the larger mother cell. We recently showed that a delay in σE activation resulted in the novel phenotype of two spores (twins) forming within the same mother cell. Mother cells bearing twins are substantially longer than mother cells with single spores. Here...

  17. Sonic hedgehog and notch signaling can cooperate to regulate neurogenic divisions of neocortical progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa K Dave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hedgehog (Hh signaling is crucial for the generation and maintenance of both embryonic and adult stem cells, thereby regulating development and tissue homeostasis. In the developing neocortex, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. During neurogenesis, radial glial cells of the ventricular zone (VZ are the predominant neocortical progenitors that generate neurons through both symmetric and asymmetric divisions. Despite its importance, relatively little is known of the molecular pathways that control the switch from symmetric proliferative to differentiative/neurogenic divisions in neural progenitors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that conditional inactivation of Patched1, a negative regulator of the Shh pathway, in Nestin positive neural progenitors of the neocortex leads to lamination defects due to improper corticogenesis and an increase in the number of symmetric proliferative divisions of the radial glial cells. Hedgehog-activated VZ progenitor cells demonstrated a concomitant upregulation of Hes1 and Blbp, downstream targets of Notch signaling. The Notch signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of stem/progenitor cells and the regulation of glial versus neuronal identity. To study the effect of Notch signaling on Hh-activated neural progenitors, we inactivated both Patched1 and Rbpj, a transcriptional mediator of Notch signaling, in Nestin positive cells of the neocortex. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that by mid neurogenesis (embryonic day 14.5, attenuation of Notch signaling reverses the effect of Patched1 deletion on neurogenesis by restoring the balance between symmetric proliferative and neurogenic divisions. Hence, our results demonstrate that correct corticogenesis is an outcome of the interplay between the Hh and Notch signaling pathways.

  18. Generation, modulation and maintenance of the plasma membrane asymmetric phospholipid composition in yeast cells during growth: their relation to surface potential and membrane protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbón, J; Calderón, V

    1995-04-12

    During growth a cyclic exposure of anionic phospholipids to the external surface of the plasma membrane was found. The surface charge density (sigma) increased gradually reaching a maximum in the first 5 h of growth and returned gradually to their initial value at the end of the logarithmic phase of growth (10-12 h). Phosphatidylinositol, that determines to a large extent the magnitude of the sigma, increased 83% in the yeast cells during the first 4 h of growth and returned gradually to their initial level at 10-12 h. During the stationary phase (12-24 h), both sigma and the anionic/zwitterionic phospholipid ratio, remained without any significant variation. The high-affinity H-linked glutamate transport system that behaves as a sensor of the changes in the membrane surface potential (phi) increased its activity in the first 5 h and then decreased it, following with great accuracy the sigma variations and remained without changes during the stationary phase of growth. The phosphatidylserine (PS) relative concentration in the cells (9.0%) did not significantly change during the whole growth curve, but their asymmetric distribution varied, contributing to the changes in sigma. PS facing the outer membrane surface increased 2.45-times during the first 5 h of growth and then returned to their original value at the end of the log phase (12 h). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) remained constant during the whole growth curve (50%), while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) decreased 3-fold in the first 4 h and then increased to its original value at 10 h. Interestingly, PE at the outer membrane surface remained constant (3% of the total phospholipids) during the whole growth curve. During growth yeast cells change their phospholipid composition originating altered patterns of the plasma membrane phospholipid composition and IN-OUT distribution. This dynamic asymmetry is involved in the regulation of the surface potential and membrane protein activity. PMID:7718598

  19. The Inhibitory Effect of Quercetin on Asymmetric Dimethylarginine-Induced Apoptosis Is Mediated by the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in Glomerular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weikang Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is considered an independent mortality and cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, and contributes to the development of renal fibrosis. Quercetin (QC, a natural component of foods, protects against renal injury. Here, we explored the possible mechanisms that are responsible for ADMA-induced renal fibrosis and the protective effect of QC. We found that ADMA treatment activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress sensor proteins phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-activated-like ER kinase (PERK and inositol requiring-1α (IRE1, which correspondingly induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP expression and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK phosphorylation in glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs. Following this, ADMA promoted ER stress-induced apoptosis and resulted in transforming growth factor β (TGF-β expression in GEnCs. SP600125, an inhibitor of JNK, and CHOP siRNA protected against ADMA-induced cell apoptosis and TGF-β expression. QC prevented ADMA-induced PERK and IRE1 apoptotic ER stress pathway activation. Also, ADMA-induced GEnCs apoptosis and TGF-β expression was reduced by QC. Overexpression of CHOP blocked QC-mediated protection from apoptosis in ER stressed cells. Overall, these observations indicate that ADMA may induce GEnCs apoptosis and TGF-β expression by targeting the PERK-CHOP and IRE1-JNK pathway. In addition, drugs such as QC targeting ER stress may hold great promise for the development of novel therapies against ADMA-induced renal fibrosis.

  20. The Asymmetric Leximin Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Driesen, Bram W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define and characterize a class of asymmetric leximin solutions, that contains both the symmetric leximin solution of Imai[5] and the two-person asymmetric Kalai-Smorodinsky solution of Dubra [3] as special cases. Solutions in this class combine three attractive features: they are defined on the entire domain of convex n-person bargaining problems, they generally yield Pareto efficient solution outcomes, and asymmetries among bargainers are captured by a single parameter ve...

  1. Asymmetric WIMP dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Graesser, Michael L.; Shoemaker, Ian M.; Vecchi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    In existing dark matter models with global symmetries the relic abundance of dark matter is either equal to that of anti-dark matter (thermal WIMP), or vastly larger, with essentially no remaining anti-dark matter (asymmetric dark matter). By exploring the consequences of a primordial asymmetry on the coupled dark matter and anti-dark matter Boltzmann equations we find large regions of parameter space that interpolate between these two extremes. Interestingly, this new asymmetric WIMP framewo...

  2. Synthesis of the cell surface during the division cycle of rod-shaped, gram-negative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, S

    1991-01-01

    When the growth of the gram-negative bacterial cell wall is considered in relation to the synthesis of the other components of the cell, a new understanding of the pattern of wall synthesis emerges. Rather than a switch in synthesis between the side wall and pole, there is a partitioning of synthesis such that the volume of the cell increases exponentially and thus perfectly encloses the exponentially increasing cytoplasm. This allows the density of the cell to remain constant during the divi...

  3. Stem cell decisions: a twist of fate or a niche market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschke, Jens; Näthke, Inke

    2014-10-01

    Establishing and maintaining cell fate in the right place at the right time is a key requirement for normal tissue maintenance. Stem cells are at the core of this process. Understanding how stem cells balance self-renewal and production of differentiating cells is key for understanding the defects that underpin many diseases. Both, external cues from the environment and cell intrinsic mechanisms can control the outcome of stem cell division. The role of the orientation of stem cell division has emerged as an important mechanism for specifying cell fate decisions. Although, the alignment of cell divisions can dependent on spatial cues from the environment, maintaining stemness is not always linked to positioning of stem cells in a particular microenvironment or `niche'. Alternate mechanisms that could contribute to cellular memory include differential segregation of centrosomes in asymmetrically dividing cells. PMID:24613913

  4. Structure of the Phosphatase Domain of the Cell Fate Determinant SpoIIE from Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Levdikov, Vladimir M; Blagova, Elena V.; Rawlings, Andrea E.; Jameson, Katie; Tunaley, James; Hart, Darren J.; Barak, Imrich; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis begins with an asymmetric cell division producing two genetically identical cells with different fates. SpoIIE is a membrane protein that localizes to the polar cell division sites where it causes FtsZ to relocate from mid-cell to form polar Z-rings. Following polar septation, SpoIIE establishes compartment-specific gene expression in the smaller forespore cell by dephosphorylating the anti-sigma factor antagonist SpoIIAA, leading to the release of the RNA pol...

  5. Molecular evolution in bacteria: cell division Evolução molecular em bactérias: divisão celular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Trevors

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular evolution in bacteria is examined with an emphasis on the self-assembly of cells capable of primitive division and growth during early molecular evolution. Also, the possibility that some type of encapsulation structure preceeded biochemical pathways and the assembly of genetic material is examined. These aspects will be considered from an evolutionary perspective.A evolução molecular em bactérias é examinada com ênfase na auto-organização de uma célula capaz de divisão primitiva e multiplicação durante o princípio da evolução molecular. Também se discute a possibilidade de que algum tipo de estrutura de encapsulação tenha antecedido as vias bioquímicas e o agrupamento de material genético. Esses aspectos são considerados sob uma perspectiva evolutiva.

  6. Asymmetric Assembly of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Large T-Antigen Origin Binding Domains at the Viral Origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Harrison; G Meinke; H Kwun; H Rogalin; P Phelan; P Bullock; Y Chang; P Moore; A Bohm

    2011-12-31

    The double-stranded DNA polyomavirus Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes Merkel cell carcinoma, an aggressive but rare human skin cancer that most often affects immunosuppressed and elderly persons. As in other polyomaviruses, the large T-antigen of MCV recognizes the viral origin of replication by binding repeating G(A/G)GGC pentamers. The spacing, number, orientation, and necessity of repeats for viral replication differ, however, from other family members such as SV40 and murine polyomavirus. We report here the 2.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of the MCV large T-antigen origin binding domain (OBD) in complex with a DNA fragment from the MCV origin of replication. Consistent with replication data showing that three of the G(A/G)GGC-like binding sites near the center of the origin are required for replication, the crystal structure contains three copies of the OBD. This stoichiometry was verified using isothermal titration calorimetry. The affinity for G(A/G)GGC-containing double-stranded DNA was found to be {approx} 740 nM, approximately 8-fold weaker than the equivalent domain in SV40 for the analogous region of the SV40 origin. The difference in affinity is partially attributable to DNA-binding residue Lys331 (Arg154 in SV40). In contrast to SV40, a small protein-protein interface is observed between MCV OBDs when bound to the central region of the origin. This protein-protein interface is reminiscent of that seen in bovine papilloma virus E1 protein. Mutational analysis indicates, however, that this interface contributes little to DNA binding energy.

  7. Quantification of asymmetric microtubule nucleation at sub-cellular structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Kaverina, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Cell polarization is important for multiple physiological processes. In polarized cells, microtubules (MTs) are organized into a spatially polarized array. Generally, in non-differentiated cells, it is assumed that MTs are symmetrically nucleated exclusively from centrosome (microtubule organizing center, MTOC) and then reorganized into the asymmetric array. We have recently identified the Golgi complex as an additional MTOC that asymmetrically nucleates MTs toward one side of the cell. Metho...

  8. Sigma factors, asymmetry, and the determination of cell fate in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, P J; Partridge, S R; Errington, J

    1994-01-01

    Soon after the initiation of sporulation, Bacillus subtilis divides asymmetrically to produce sister cells that have very different developmental fates. Recently, it has been proposed that the differential gene expression which begins soon after this division is due to cell-specific activation of the transcription factors sigma F and sigma E in the prespore and the mother cell, respectively. We describe the use of a method for the localization of gene expression in individual sporulating cell...

  9. The tumor suppressor Apc controls planar cell polarities central to gut homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bellis, Julien; Duluc, Isabelle; Romagnolo, Béatrice; Perret, Christine; Faux, Maree C.; Dujardin, Denis; Formstone, Caroline; Lightowler, Sally; Ramsay, Robert G.; Freund, Jean-Noël; De Mey, Jan R.

    2012-01-01

    The stem cells (SCs) at the bottom of intestinal crypts tightly contact niche-supporting cells and fuel the extraordinary tissue renewal of intestinal epithelia. Their fate is regulated stochastically by populational asymmetry, yet whether asymmetrical fate as a mode of SC division is relevant and whether the SC niche contains committed progenitors of the specialized cell types are under debate. We demonstrate spindle alignments and planar cell polarities, which form a novel functional unit t...

  10. Par1b induces asymmetric inheritance of plasma membrane domains via LGN-dependent mitotic spindle orientation in proliferating hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan L Slim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and maintenance of polarized epithelial tissue requires a tightly controlled orientation of mitotic cell division relative to the apical polarity axis. Hepatocytes display a unique polarized architecture. We demonstrate that mitotic hepatocytes asymmetrically segregate their apical plasma membrane domain to the nascent daughter cells. The non-polarized nascent daughter cell can form a de novo apical domain with its new neighbor. This asymmetric segregation of apical domains is facilitated by a geometrically distinct "apicolateral" subdomain of the lateral surface present in hepatocytes. The polarity protein partitioning-defective 1/microtubule-affinity regulating kinase 2 (Par1b/MARK2 translates this positional landmark to cortical polarity by promoting the apicolateral accumulation of Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein (LGN and the capture of nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA-positive astral microtubules to orientate the mitotic spindle. Proliferating hepatocytes thus display an asymmetric inheritance of their apical domains via a mechanism that involves Par1b and LGN, which we postulate serves the unique tissue architecture of the developing liver parenchyma.

  11. Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Growth of Leptospire, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola: Immunoreactivity and Cell Division

    CERN Document Server

    Triampo, W; Triampo, D; Wong-Ekkabut, J; Tang, I M; Triampo, Wannapong; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Triampo, Darapond; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the exposure of the bacterium, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola to a constant magnetic field with magnetic flux density from a permanent ferrite magnet = 140 mT were studied. Changes in Leptospira cells after their exposure to the field were determined on the basis of changes in their growth behavior and agglutination immunoreactivity with a homologous antiserum using darkfield microscopy together with visual imaging. The data showed that the exposed Leptospira cells have lower densities and lower agglutination immunoreactivity than the unexposed control group. Interestingly, some of the exposed Leptospira cells showed abnormal morphologies such as large lengths. We discussed some of the possible reasons for these observations.

  12. Germ cells may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels in surgery for intra-abdominal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, J M; Cortes, Dina; Visfeldt, J

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopy is a well described modality that provides an accurate visual diagnosis upon which further management of intra-abdominal testes may be based. Laparoscopic ligation of spermatic vessels as stage 1 of the procedure is a natural extension of laparoscopy. A staged approach provides adequate...... viability of the intra-abdominal testis. However, it is uncertain whether the more sensitive germ cells survive this procedure in addition to the Sertoli and interstitial cells of the human testis. Survival of germ cells is a prerequisite of later fertility potential....

  13. Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Growth of Leptospire, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola: Immunoreactivity and Cell Division

    OpenAIRE

    Triampo, Wannapong; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Triampo, Darapond; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak; Tang, I-Ming

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the exposure of the bacterium, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola to a constant magnetic field with magnetic flux density from a permanent ferrite magnet = 140 mT were studied. Changes in Leptospira cells after their exposure to the field were determined on the basis of changes in their growth behavior and agglutination immunoreactivity with a homologous antiserum using darkfield microscopy together with visual imaging. The data showed that the exposed Leptospira cells hav...

  14. 31P NMR studies of intracellular pH and phosphate metabolism during cell division cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillies, R.J.; Ugurbil, K; den Hollander, J A; Shulman, R G

    1981-01-01

    We have analyzed changes in intracellular pH and phosphate metabolism during the cell cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NCYC 239) by using high-resolution 31P NMR spectroscopy. High-density yeast cultures (2 x 10(8) cells per ml) were arrested prior to "start" by sequential glucose deprivation, after which they synchronously replicated DNA and divided after a final glucose feeding. Oxygenation of arrested cultures in the absence of glucose led to increased levels of sugar phosphates and ATP ...

  15. Rice OsRAD21-2 is Expressed in Actively Dividing Tissues and its Ectopic Expression in Yeast Results in Aberrant Cell Division and Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyan Gong; Tang Li; Qi Li; Longfeng Yan; Tai Wang

    2011-01-01

    Rad21 and its meiotic counterpart Rec8,the key components of the cohesin complex,are essential for sister chromatid cohesion and chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis,respectively.In contrast to yeast and vertebrates,which have only two RAD21/REC8 genes,the rice genome encodes four Rad21/Rec8 proteins.Here,we report on the cloning and characterization of OsRAD21-2 from rice (Oryza sativa L.).Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length amino acids showed that OsRad21-2 was grouped into the plant-specific Rad21 subfamily.Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed OsRAD21-2 preferentially expressed in premeiotic flowers.Further RNA in situ hybridization analysis and promoter::β-glucuronidase staining indicated that OsRAD21-2 was mainly expressed in actively dividing tissues including premeiotic stamen,stem intercalary meristem,leaf meristem,and root pericycle.Ectopic expression of OsRAD21-2 in fission yeast resulted in cell growth delay and morphological abnormality.Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the OsRAD21-2-expressed cells were arrested in G2 phase.Our results suggest that OsRad21-2 functions in regulation of cell division and growth.

  16. Optical Absorption Spectra and Electronic Properties of Symmetric and Asymmetric Squaraine Dyes for Use in DSSC Solar Cells: DFT and TD-DFT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Elroby, Shaaban A; Asiri, Abdullah M; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The electronic absorption spectra, ground-state geometries and electronic structures of symmetric and asymmetric squaraine dyes (SQD1-SQD4) were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD-DFT) density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. The calculated ground-state geometries reveal pronounced conjugation in these dyes. Long-range corrected time dependent density functionals Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE, PBE1PBE (PBE0)), and the exchange functional of Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria (TPSSh) with 6-311++G** basis set were employed to examine optical absorption properties. In an extensive comparison between the optical data and DFT benchmark calculations, the BEP functional with 6-311++G** basis set was found to be the most appropriate in describing the electronic absorption spectra. The calculated energy values of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) were 3.41, 3.19, 3.38 and 3.23 eV for SQD1, SQD2, SQD3, and SQD4, respectively. These values lie above the LUMO energy (-4.26 eV) of the conduction band of TiO₂ nanoparticles indicating possible electron injection from the excited dyes to the conduction band of the TiO₂ in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Also, aromaticity computation for these dyes are in good agreement with the data obtained optically and geometrically with SQD4 as the highest aromatic structure. Based on the optimized molecular geometries, relative positions of the frontier orbitals, and the absorption maxima, we propose that these dyes are suitable components of photovoltaic DSSC devices. PMID:27043556

  17. Optical Absorption Spectra and Electronic Properties of Symmetric and Asymmetric Squaraine Dyes for Use in DSSC Solar Cells: DFT and TD-DFT Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The electronic absorption spectra, ground-state geometries and electronic structures of symmetric and asymmetric squaraine dyes (SQD1–SQD4 were investigated using density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent (TD-DFT density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. The calculated ground-state geometries reveal pronounced conjugation in these dyes. Long-range corrected time dependent density functionals Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE, PBE1PBE (PBE0, and the exchange functional of Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria (TPSSh with 6-311++G** basis set were employed to examine optical absorption properties. In an extensive comparison between the optical data and DFT benchmark calculations, the BEP functional with 6-311++G** basis set was found to be the most appropriate in describing the electronic absorption spectra. The calculated energy values of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO were 3.41, 3.19, 3.38 and 3.23 eV for SQD1, SQD2, SQD3, and SQD4, respectively. These values lie above the LUMO energy (−4.26 eV of the conduction band of TiO2 nanoparticles indicating possible electron injection from the excited dyes to the conduction band of the TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Also, aromaticity computation for these dyes are in good agreement with the data obtained optically and geometrically with SQD4 as the highest aromatic structure. Based on the optimized molecular geometries, relative positions of the frontier orbitals, and the absorption maxima, we propose that these dyes are suitable components of photovoltaic DSSC devices.

  18. Asymmetric ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs

  19. Computational Fair Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina

    Fair division is a fundamental problem in economic theory and one of the oldest questions faced through the history of human society. The high level scenario is that of several participants having to divide a collection of resources such that everyone is satisfied with their allocation -- e.g. two...... heirs dividing a car, house, and piece of land inherited. The literature on fair division was developed in the 20th century in mathematics and economics, but computational work on fair division is still sparse. This thesis can be seen as an excursion in computational fair division divided in two parts...... study alternative and richer models, such as externalities in cake cutting, simultaneous cake cutting, and envy-free cake cutting. The second part of the thesis tackles the fair allocation of multiple goods, divisible and indivisible. In the realm of divisible goods, we investigate the well known...

  20. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siddique, S.; Radakovic, Z.S.; De La Torre, C.M.; Chronis, D.; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, E.; Holbein, J.; Matera, C.; Hutten, M.; Gutbrod, P.; Anjam, M.S.; Rozanska, E.; Habash, S.; Elashry, A.; Sobczak, M.; Kakimoto, T.; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, T.; Mitchum, M.G.; Grundler, F.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 41 (2015), s. 12669-12674. ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * cell cycle * cytokinin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.674, year: 2014

  1. LocZ Is a New Cell Division Protein Involved in Proper Septum Placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holečková, Nela; Doubravová, Linda; Massida, O.; Molle, V.; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015). ISSN 2150-7511 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/0256; GA ČR GAP207/12/1568 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Z-RING FORMATION * ESCHERICHIA-COLI-CELLS * CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.786, year: 2014

  2. Ultrastructure of cells after reversible dark-induced blocking of mitotic divisions in antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As compared with the control plants cultured under photoperiodic L : D = =14 : 10 conditions (K w i a t k o w s k a, M a s z e w s k i, 1978, the ultrastructure of nuclei -in cells blocked by a 5 day exposure to continuous darkness is characterized by homogenous arrangement. This homogeneity is maintained in all generations of antheridial filaments irrespective of cell length, which in the controls, being directly correlated with particular type of nuclear structure, may serve as a precise indicator of a given stage of interphase. From similarities in both the spatial distribution and content of condensed chromatin in is concluded that the block of the cell cycle is imposed at the beginning of the G2 phase. On comparing these cells with the early G2 period (stage VII in the control plants, marked changes in the structure of nucleoli were found. They decrease in size by half owing to the complete decline of granular component. The area occupied by endoplasmic reticulum undergoes a 50% reduction. The decrease in the activity of Golgi apparatus expressed by a drop in number of smooth vesicles surrounding a single dictyosome is found to parallel the limited rate of cell growth. The number of coated vesicles and cisterns of dictyosome slightly increases. Mitochondria show typical condensed configuration with dense matrices and swollen cristae, while in the control orthodox forms are prevailing. The mean size of mitochondria is smaller, but their number exceeds that of the control plants. The surface area of mitochondrial profiles is found to remain constant proportion of the cytoplasm section, e.g., about 3%. Dark-cultured antheridial filaments show absolute decline of lipid droplets. No differences were found in structure of plastids and vacuols, as well as in number of ribosomes in cytoplasm surface unit.

  3. Effect of carboxyl anchoring groups in asymmetric zinc phthalocyanine with large steric hindrance on the dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymmetric zinc phthalocyanines containing tribenzonaphtho-condensed porphyrazine with six bulky diphenylphenoxy and one or two carboxyl groups are used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that Zn-tri-PcNc-4 having two carboxyl groups shows a slight redshift in the Q-band absorption but a significantly decreased absorbance as compared with Zn-tri-PcNc-8 having one carboxyl group, and Zn-tri-PcNc-4 can be more stably and perpendicularly grafted onto the TiO2 surface than Zn-tri-PcNc-8, which further leads to the differences in the interfacial charge transfer dynamics and dye-loaded amount. Zn-tri-PcNc-4 with two carboxyl groups grafted onto the TiO2 electrode surface of DSSC results in a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.22%, higher than that (3.01%) of the analog with one carboxyl group (Zn-tri-PcNc-8), which exhibits a lower short-circuit current but much higher open-circuit voltage. The additional carboxyl group in Zn-tri-PcNc-4 leads to the enhanced dye-loaded amount and the molecular orbital energy level shift toward positive direction, causing more efficient electron injection and higher short-circuit current than Zn-tri-PcNc-8; while the two carboxyl groups of Zn-tri-PcNc-4 would cause more protonation of TiO2 surface, which possibly leads to the downward shift of TiO2 conduction band edge, and then to the decreased open-circuit voltage. The present results demonstrate the molecular engineering aspect of ZnPc dyes in which the fine tuning of the energy levels and molecular structures is crucial for high conversion efficiency of DSSCs. - Highlights: • ZnPcs with six diphenylphenoxy and one/two carboxyl groups are used as dyes for DSSCs. • Effect of carboxyl group number on the ZnPc-sensitized cell property are scrutinized. • Grafting two carboxyl groups on ZnPc leads to the enhanced photocurrent and efficiency. • ZnPc with one COOH has a higher open-circuit voltage than its analog with two COOH

  4. Effect of carboxyl anchoring groups in asymmetric zinc phthalocyanine with large steric hindrance on the dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wenye; Peng, Bosi; Lin, Li; Li, Renjie; Zhang, Jing, E-mail: jzhang03@whu.edu.cn; Peng, Tianyou, E-mail: typeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-08-01

    Asymmetric zinc phthalocyanines containing tribenzonaphtho-condensed porphyrazine with six bulky diphenylphenoxy and one or two carboxyl groups are used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that Zn-tri-PcNc-4 having two carboxyl groups shows a slight redshift in the Q-band absorption but a significantly decreased absorbance as compared with Zn-tri-PcNc-8 having one carboxyl group, and Zn-tri-PcNc-4 can be more stably and perpendicularly grafted onto the TiO{sub 2} surface than Zn-tri-PcNc-8, which further leads to the differences in the interfacial charge transfer dynamics and dye-loaded amount. Zn-tri-PcNc-4 with two carboxyl groups grafted onto the TiO{sub 2} electrode surface of DSSC results in a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.22%, higher than that (3.01%) of the analog with one carboxyl group (Zn-tri-PcNc-8), which exhibits a lower short-circuit current but much higher open-circuit voltage. The additional carboxyl group in Zn-tri-PcNc-4 leads to the enhanced dye-loaded amount and the molecular orbital energy level shift toward positive direction, causing more efficient electron injection and higher short-circuit current than Zn-tri-PcNc-8; while the two carboxyl groups of Zn-tri-PcNc-4 would cause more protonation of TiO{sub 2} surface, which possibly leads to the downward shift of TiO{sub 2} conduction band edge, and then to the decreased open-circuit voltage. The present results demonstrate the molecular engineering aspect of ZnPc dyes in which the fine tuning of the energy levels and molecular structures is crucial for high conversion efficiency of DSSCs. - Highlights: • ZnPcs with six diphenylphenoxy and one/two carboxyl groups are used as dyes for DSSCs. • Effect of carboxyl group number on the ZnPc-sensitized cell property are scrutinized. • Grafting two carboxyl groups on ZnPc leads to the enhanced photocurrent and efficiency. • ZnPc with one COOH has a higher open-circuit voltage than its analog with two

  5. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yin Mak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed.

  6. Division of atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Atomic Physics, Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), is responsible for the basic physics teaching in all subjects at LTH and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy and Laser Physics. The Division has research activities in basic and applied optical spectroscopy, to a large extent based on lasers. It is also part of the Physics Department, Lund University, where it forms one of eight divisions. Since the beginning of 1980 the research activities of our division have been centred around the use of lasers. The activities during the period 1991-1992 is described in this progress reports

  7. Evolution and tinkering: what do a protein kinase, a transcriptional regulator and chromosome segregation/cell division proteins have in common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Abderahmane; Shi, Lei; Kalantari, Aida; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we focus on functional interactions among multi-domain proteins which share a common evolutionary origin. The examples we develop are four Bacillus subtilis proteins, which all possess an ATP-binding Walker motif: the bacterial tyrosine kinase (BY-kinase) PtkA, the chromosome segregation protein Soj (ParA), the cell division protein MinD and a transcription regulator SalA. These proteins have arisen via duplication of the ancestral ATP-binding domain, which has undergone fusions with other functional domains in the process of divergent evolution. We point out that these four proteins, despite having very different physiological roles, engage in an unusually high number of binary functional interactions. Namely, MinD attracts Soj and PtkA to the cell pole, and in addition, activates the kinase function of PtkA. SalA also activates the kinase function of PtkA, and it gets phosphorylated by PtkA as well. The consequence of this phosphorylation is the activation of SalA as a transcriptional repressor. We hypothesize that these functional interactions remain preserved during divergent evolution and represent a constraint on the process of evolutionary "tinkering", brought about by fusions of different functional domains. PMID:26286503

  8. Relation of cell division to the acquisition of responsiveness to cortisol in the neural retina of the chick embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Or, S.; Eshel, M. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Hadassah Medical School)

    1982-01-01

    Responsiveness of the neural retina to cortisol, as measured by cortisol-induced glutamine synthetase activity, is acquired in the chick embryo during the second week of embryogenesis. The magnitude of the response is inversely related to the growth rate of the neural retina. This developmental event is also acquired by the 8-d-old neural retina under organ culture conditions. The acquisition of competence to respond to the hormonal stimulation can be reversibly abolished by inhibition of DNA synthesis with 0.01 mM cytosine arabinoside; the magnitude of response that resumes after withdrawal of the drug, is characterized by the stage of growth of the neural retina. Responsiveness to cortisol in the embryonic neural retina is apparently coupled to the number of Muller cells (the targets for cortisol action) that have withdrawn from the cell cycle.

  9. Relation of cell division to the acquisition of responsiveness to cortisol in the neural retina of the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responsiveness of the neural retina to cortisol, as measured by cortisol-induced glutamine synthetase activity, is acquired in the chick embryo during the second week of embryogenesis. The magnitude of the response is inversely related to the growth rate of the neural retina. This developmental event is also acquired by the 8-d-old neural retina under organ culture conditions. The acquisition of competence to respond to the hormonal stimulation can be reversibly abolished by inhibition of DNA synthesis with 0.01 mM cytosine arabinoside; the magnitude of response that resumes after withdrawal of the drug, is characterized by the stage of growth of the neural retina. Responsiveness to cortisol in the embryonic neural retina is apparently coupled to the number of Muller cells (the targets for cortisol action) that have withdrawn from the cell cycle. (author)

  10. Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

  11. Long-term live cell imaging and automated 4D analysis of drosophila neuroblast lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina C F Homem

    Full Text Available The developing Drosophila brain is a well-studied model system for neurogenesis and stem cell biology. In the Drosophila central brain, around 200 neural stem cells called neuroblasts undergo repeated rounds of asymmetric cell division. These divisions typically generate a larger self-renewing neuroblast and a smaller ganglion mother cell that undergoes one terminal division to create two differentiating neurons. Although single mitotic divisions of neuroblasts can easily be imaged in real time, the lack of long term imaging procedures has limited the use of neuroblast live imaging for lineage analysis. Here we describe a method that allows live imaging of cultured Drosophila neuroblasts over multiple cell cycles for up to 24 hours. We describe a 4D image analysis protocol that can be used to extract cell cycle times and growth rates from the resulting movies in an automated manner. We use it to perform lineage analysis in type II neuroblasts where clonal analysis has indicated the presence of a transit-amplifying population that potentiates the number of neurons. Indeed, our experiments verify type II lineages and provide quantitative parameters for all cell types in those lineages. As defects in type II neuroblast lineages can result in brain tumor formation, our lineage analysis method will allow more detailed and quantitative analysis of tumorigenesis and asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila brain.

  12. PBP1a-deficiency causes major defects in cell division, growth and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezhang T Wen

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, a key etiological agent of human dental caries, lives almost exclusively on the tooth surface in plaque biofilms and is known for its ability to survive and respond to various environmental insults, including low pH, and antimicrobial agents from other microbes and oral care products. In this study, a penicillin-binding protein (PBP1a-deficient mutant, strain JB467, was generated by allelic replacement mutagenesis and analyzed for the effects of such a deficiency on S. mutans' stress tolerance response and biofilm formation. Our results so far have shown that PBP1a-deficiency in S. mutans affects growth of the deficient mutant, especially at acidic and alkaline pHs. As compared to the wild-type, UA159, the PBP1a-deficient mutant, JB467, had a reduced growth rate at pH 6.2 and did not grow at all at pH 8.2. Unlike the wild-type, the inclusion of paraquat in growth medium, especially at 2 mM or above, significantly reduced the growth rate of the mutant. Acid killing assays showed that the mutant was 15-fold more sensitive to pH 2.8 than the wild-type after 30 minutes. In a hydrogen peroxide killing assay, the mutant was 16-fold more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide (0.2%, w/v after 90 minutes than the wild-type. Relative to the wild-type, the mutant also had an aberrant autolysis rate, indicative of compromises in cell envelope integrity. As analyzed using on 96-well plate model and spectrophotometry, biofilm formation by the mutant was decreased significantly, as compared to the wild-type. Consistently, Field Emission-SEM analysis also showed that the PBP1a-deficient mutant had limited capacity to form biofilms. TEM analysis showed that PBP1a mutant existed primarily in long rod-like cells and cells with multiple septa, as compared to the coccal wild-type. The results presented here highlight the importance of pbp1a in cell morphology, stress tolerance, and biofilm formation in S. mutans.

  13. Active matter on asymmetric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Drocco, J.; Mai, T.; Wan, M. B.; Reichhardt, C.

    2011-10-01

    For collections of particles in a thermal bath interacting with an asymmetric substrate, it is possible for a ratchet effect to occur where the particles undergo a net dc motion in response to an ac forcing. Ratchet effects have been demonstrated in a variety of systems including colloids as well as magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors. Here we examine the case of active matter or self-driven particles interacting with asymmetric substrates. Active matter systems include self-motile colloidal particles undergoing catalysis, swimming bacteria, artificial swimmers, crawling cells, and motor proteins. We show that a ratchet effect can arise in this type of system even in the absence of ac forcing. The directed motion occurs for certain particle-substrate interaction rules and its magnitude depends on the amount of time the particles spend swimming in one direction before turning and swimming in a new direction. For strictly Brownian particles there is no ratchet effect. If the particles reflect off the barriers or scatter from the barriers according to Snell's law there is no ratchet effect; however, if the particles can align with the barriers or move along the barriers, directed motion arises. We also find that under certain motion rules, particles accumulate along the walls of the container in agreement with experiment. We also examine pattern formation for synchronized particle motion. We discuss possible applications of this system for self-assembly, extracting work, and sorting as well as future directions such as considering collective interactions and flocking models.

  14. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  15. Effect of estrone on somatic and female gametophyte cell division and differentiation in Arabidospis thaliana cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Żabicki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the mammalian female sex hormone estrone on differentiation of somatic tissues and on induction of autonomous endosperm in culture of female gametophyte cells of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0. In culture, estrone-stimulated development of autonomous endosperm (AE occurred in 14.7% of unpollinated pistils. The AE represented development stages similar to those of young endosperm after fertilization and AE of fis mutants in vivo. In the majority of ovules the AE was in a few-nucleate young stage. Some ovules showed more advanced stages of AE development, with nuclei and cytoplasm forming characteristic nuclear cytoplasmic domains (NCDs. Sporadically, AE was divided into regions characteristic for Arabidopsis endosperm formed after fertilization. Direct organogenesis (caulogenesis, rhizogenesis, callus proliferation and formation of trichome-like structures were observed during in vitro culture of hypocotyls and cotyledons of 3-day-old seedlings cultured on medium supplemented with estrone for 28 days. Histological analysis showed adventitious root formation and changes in explant anatomy caused by estrone.

  16. Effective formation of the segregation-competent complex determines successful partitioning of the bovine papillomavirus genome during cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Toomas; Männik, Andres; Ustav, Mart

    2010-11-01

    Effective segregation of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus type 8 (KSHV) genomes into daughter cells is mediated by a single viral protein that tethers viral genomes to host mitotic chromosomes. The linker proteins that mediate BPV1, EBV, and KSHV segregation are E2, LANA1, and EBNA1, respectively. The N-terminal transactivation domain of BPV1 E2 is responsible for chromatin attachment and subsequent viral genome segregation. Because E2 transcriptional activation and chromatin attachment functions are not mutually exclusive, we aimed to determine the requirement of these activities during segregation by analyzing chimeric E2 proteins. This approach allowed us to separate the two activities. Our data showed that attachment of the segregation protein to chromatin is not sufficient for proper segregation. Rather, formation of a segregation-competent complex which carries multiple copies of the segregation protein is required. Complementation studies of E2 functional domains indicated that chromatin attachment and transactivation functions must act in concert to ensure proper plasmid segregation. These data indicate that there are specific interactions between linker molecules and transcription factors/complexes that greatly increase segregation-competent complex formation. We also showed, using hybrid E2 molecules, that restored segregation function does not involve interactions with Brd4. PMID:20810736

  17. Asymmetric information and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an expression of the economic concept of asymmetric information with which it is possible to derive the dynamical laws of an economy. To illustrate the utility of this approach we show how the assumption of optimal information flow leads to a general class of investment strategies including the well-known Q theory of Tobin. Novel consequences of this formalism include a natural definition of market efficiency and an uncertainty principle relating capital stock and investment flow.

  18. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    were pioneered by Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder who discovered what later became known as the Diels Alder reaction. The Diels Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition in which a π4 component reacts with a π2 component via a cyclic transition state to generate a 6 membered ring. This reaction...... reactions constitute the first organocatalytic asymmetric higher order cycloadditions and a rational for the periselectivity and stereoselectivity is provided based on experimental and computational investigations....

  19. Influence of elevated CO2 concentrations on cell division and nitrogen fixation rates in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Riebesell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface ocean currently absorbs about one-fourth of the CO2 emitted to the atmosphere from human activities. As this CO2 dissolves in seawater, it reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid, increasing ocean acidity and shifting the partitioning of inorganic carbon species towards increased CO2 at the expense of CO32− concentrations. While the decrease in [CO32−] and/or increase in [H+] has been found to adversely affect many calcifying organisms, some photosynthetic organisms appear to benefit from increasing [CO2]. Among these is the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium, a predominant diazotroph (nitrogen-fixing in large parts of the oligotrophic oceans, which responded with increased carbon and nitrogen fixation at elevated pCO2. With the mechanism underlying this CO2 stimulation still unknown, the question arises whether this is a common response of diazotrophic cyanobacteria. In this study we therefore investigate the physiological response of Nodularia spumigena, a heterocystous bloom-forming diazotroph of the Baltic Sea, to CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. N. spumigena reacted to seawater acidification/carbonation with reduced cell division rates and nitrogen fixation rates, accompanied by significant changes in carbon and phosphorus quota and elemental composition of the formed biomass. Possible explanations for the contrasting physiological responses of Nodularia compared to Trichodesmium may be found in the different ecological strategies of non-heterocystous (Trichodesmium and heterocystous (Nodularia cyanobacteria.

  20. Analysis of the Tomato Fruit Growth Response to Temperature and Plant Fruit Load in Relation to Cell Division, Cell Expansion and DNA Endoreduplication

    OpenAIRE

    Bertin, N.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims To better understand the regulation of fruit growth in response to environmental factors, the effects of temperature and plant fruit load on cell number, cell size and DNA endoreduplication were analysed.

  1. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  2. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326

  3. Markedly improving asymmetric oxidation of 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethanol with Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 cells by adding deep eutectic solvent in a two-phase system

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ping; LIANG, JING; Cheng, Jing; Zong, Min-Hua; Lou, Wen-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Enantiopure (S)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethanol {(S)-MOPE} can be employed as an important synthon for the synthesis of cycloalkyl [b] indoles with the treatment function for general allergic response. To date, the biocatalytic resolution of racemic MOPE through asymmetric oxidation in the biphasic system has remained largely unexplored. Additionally, deep eutectic solvents (DESs), as a new class of promising green solvents, have recently gained increasing attention in biocatalysis for...

  4. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  5. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities of the theoretical physics division for 1979 are described. Short summaries are given of specific research work in the following fields: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, elementary particles

  6. Des divisions aux alternances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Clemens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available - From the divisions to the alternations - Society, action and common good give sense to democracy. Society is in fact a set of unmitigated divisions (horizontal and vertical, material and symbolic. Democratic action, since the discourse’s conflicts, doesn’t change the human beings, but things between they, in the alternation of power’s institutions for our only good in common: the body. With this aim, the Basic Income Earth Network is necessary.

  7. Facilitated Asymmetric Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Alan; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a class of facilitated asymmetric exclusion processes in which particles are pushed by neighbors from behind. For the simplest version in which a particle can hop to its vacant right neighbor only if its left neighbor is occupied, we determine the steady state current and the distribution of cluster sizes on a ring. We show that an initial density downstep develops into a rarefaction wave that can have a jump discontinuity at the leading edge, while an upstep results in a shock w...

  8. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  9. MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-02-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops. PMID:24351684

  10. Genome Sequence of a Clinical Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii Belonging to the ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 Clone Lacking the AdeABC (Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-Type) Efflux Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M; Álvarez-Fraga, L; Gato, E; Blasco, L; Poza, M; Fernández-García, L; Bou, G; Tomás, M

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of chromosomal genes for resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux systems plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii Little is known about the genetic characteristics of clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii lacking the AdeABC pump. In this study, we sequenced the genome of clinical strain Ab421 GEIH-2010 (belonging to clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 from the GEIH-REIPI Ab. 2010 project) which lacks this efflux pump. PMID:27609928

  11. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p')-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities px, py and pz. The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√px, √py, √pz) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  12. Asymmetric inclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  13. Delineation of breast cancer cell hierarchy identifies the subset responsible for dormancy

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Shyam A; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Bryan, Margarette; Pliner, Lillian F.; Dontu, Gabriela; Patel, Prem S; Amiri, Sohrab; Pine, Sharon R.; Rameshwar#, Pranela

    2012-01-01

    The bone marrow (BM) is a major organ of breast cancer (BC) dormancy and a common source of BC resurgence. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between BC cells (BCCs) and BM stroma facilitates dormancy. This study reports on a hierarchy of BCCs with the most immature subset (Oct4hi/CD44hi/med/CD24−/+) demonstrating chemoresistance, dormancy, and stem cell properties: self-renewal, serial passaging ability, cycling quiescence, long doubling time, asymmetric division, high metasta...

  14. Neuronal alignment on asymmetric textured surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Beighley, Ross; Spedden, Elise; Sekeroglu, Koray; Atherton, Timothy; Demirel, Melik C.; Staii, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the development of the nervous system. Here, we present experimental and theoretical results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on asymmetric surfaces and quantify...

  15. Circular Motion of Asymmetric Self-Propelling Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Felix; ten Hagen, Borge; Wittkowski, Raphael; Buttinoni, Ivo; Eichhorn, Ralf; Volpe, Giovanni; Löwen, Hartmut; Bechinger, Clemens

    2013-05-01

    Micron-sized self-propelled (active) particles can be considered as model systems for characterizing more complex biological organisms like swimming bacteria or motile cells. We produce asymmetric microswimmers by soft lithography and study their circular motion on a substrate and near channel boundaries. Our experimental observations are in full agreement with a theory of Brownian dynamics for asymmetric self-propelled particles, which couples their translational and orientational motion.

  16. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  17. Theoretical Division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents highlights of activities in the Theoretical (T) Division from October 1976-January 1979. The report is divided into three parts. Part I presents an overview of the Division: its unique function at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and within the scientific community as a whole; the organization of personnel; the main areas of research; and a survey of recent T-Division initiatives. This overview is followed by a survey of the 13 groups within the Division, their main responsibilities, interests, and expertise, consulting activities, and recent scientific accomplisments. The remainder of the report, Parts II and III, is devoted to articles on selected research activities. Recent efforts on topics of immediate interest to energy and weapons programs at LASL and elsewhere are described in Part II, Major National Programs. Separate articles present T-Divison contributions to weapons research, reactor safety and reactor physics research, fusion research, laser isotope separation, and other energy research. Each article is a compilation of independent projects within T Division, all related to but addressing different aspects of the major program. Part III is organized by subject discipline, and describes recent scientific advances of fundamental interest. An introduction, defining the scope and general nature of T-Division efforts within a given discipline, is followed by articles on the research topics selected. The reporting is done by the scientists involved in the research, and an attempt is made to communicate to a general audience. Some data are given incidentally; more technical presentations of the research accomplished may be found among the 47 pages of references. 110 figures, 5 tables

  18. Parkin suppresses Drp1-independent mitochondrial division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Madhuparna; Itoh, Kie; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    The cycle of mitochondrial division and fusion disconnect and reconnect individual mitochondria in cells to remodel this energy-producing organelle. Although dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays a major role in mitochondrial division in cells, a reduced level of mitochondrial division still persists even in the absence of Drp1. It is unknown how much Drp1-mediated mitochondrial division accounts for the connectivity of mitochondria. The role of a Parkinson's disease-associated protein-parkin, which biochemically and genetically interacts with Drp1-in mitochondrial connectivity also remains poorly understood. Here, we quantified the number and connectivity of mitochondria using mitochondria-targeted photoactivatable GFP in cells. We show that the loss of Drp1 increases the connectivity of mitochondria by 15-fold in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). While a single loss of parkin does not affect the connectivity of mitochondria, the connectivity of mitochondria significantly decreased compared with a single loss of Drp1 when parkin was lost in the absence of Drp1. Furthermore, the loss of parkin decreased the frequency of depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is caused by increased mitochondrial connectivity in Drp1-knockout MEFs. Therefore, our data suggest that parkin negatively regulates Drp1-indendent mitochondrial division. PMID:27181353

  19. Engineered Asymmetric Synthetic Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Chiarot, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic vesicles are small, fluid-filled spheres that are enclosed by a bilayer of lipid molecules. They can be used as models for investigating membrane biology and as delivery vehicles for pharmaceuticals. In practice, it is difficult to simultaneously control membrane asymmetry, unilamellarity, vesicle size, vesicle-to-vesicle uniformity, and luminal content. Membrane asymmetry, where each leaflet of the bilayer is composed of different lipids, is of particular importance as it is a feature of most natural membranes. In this study, we leverage microfluidic technology to build asymmetric vesicles at high-throughput. We use the precise flow control offered by microfluidic devices to make highly uniform emulsions, with controlled internal content, that serve as templates to build the synthetic vesicles. Flow focusing, dielectrophoretic steering, and interfacial lipid self-assembly are critical procedures performed on-chip to produce the vesicles. Fluorescent and confocal microscopy are used to evaluate the vesicle characteristics.

  20. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  1. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC

  2. Organizing for Asymmetric Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr; Sørensen, Henrik B.

    meet each other. On the contrary, we assume that asymmetry is both important and normal; moreover, asymmetry should be considered to be more complex than economists indicate with their concept of asymmetric information. Thus, the aim of the paper is to explore how asymmetries related to partners......  The vision of new organizational forms consists of less-organized networks and alliances between organizations, in which collaborative capabilities are assumed to be crucial (Miles et al., 2005). The path to such new forms may go through fragile cooperative efforts. Despite the good will of many......' different motives and different situational factors appear in an interorganizational setting. We classify interfaces according to the symmetry/asymmetry in the respective parent organizations' resources, commitment, and control of representatives and indicate how  classification schemes can be used to...

  3. Annihilating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Nicole F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    The relic abundance of particle and antiparticle dark matter (DM) need not be vastly different in thermal asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models. By considering the effect of a primordial asymmetry on the thermal Boltzmann evolution of coupled DM and anti-DM, we derive the requisite annihilation cross section. This is used in conjunction with CMB and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data to impose a limit on the number density of anti-DM particles surviving thermal freeze-out. When the extended gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center is reanalyzed in a thermal ADM framework, we find that annihilation into $\\tau$ leptons prefer anti-DM number densities 1-4$\\%$ that of DM while the $b$-quark channel prefers 50-100$\\%$.

  4. The Escherichia coli Cell Division Protein and Model Tat Substrate SufI (FtsP) Localizes to the Septal Ring and Has a Multicopper Oxidase-Like Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Tarry, Michael; Arends, S. J. Ryan; Roversi, Pietro; Piette, Evan; Sargent, Frank; Berks, Ben C.; Weiss, David S.; Lea, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The Escherichia coli protein SufI (FtsP) has recently been proposed to be a component of the cell division apparatus. The SufI protein is also in widespread experimental use as a model substrate in studies of the Tat (twin arginine translocation) protein transport system. We have used SufI-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusions to show that SufI localizes to the septal ring in the dividing cell. We have also determined the structure of SufI by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 Å. ...

  5. On infinitely divisible semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas; Rosiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    by a random measure admits a unique decomposition into an independent increment process and an infinitely divisible process of finite variation. Consequently, the natural analog of Stricker's theorem holds for all strictly representable processes (as defined in this paper). Since Gaussian processes...... are strictly representable due to Hida's multiplicity theorem, the classical Stricker's theorem follows from our result. Another consequence is that the question when an infinitely divisible process is a semimartingale can often be reduced to a path property, when a certain associated infinitely...

  6. Hedgehog signaling acts with the temporal cascade to promote neuroblast cell cycle exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing Chian Chai

    Full Text Available In Drosophila postembryonic neuroblasts, transition in gene expression programs of a cascade of transcription factors (also known as the temporal series acts together with the asymmetric division machinery to generate diverse neurons with distinct identities and regulate the end of neuroblast proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism of how this "temporal series" acts during development remains unclear. Here, we show that Hh signaling in the postembryonic brain is temporally regulated; excess (earlier onset of Hh signaling causes premature neuroblast cell cycle exit and under-proliferation, whereas loss of Hh signaling causes delayed cell cycle exit and excess proliferation. Moreover, the Hh pathway functions downstream of Castor but upstream of Grainyhead, two components of the temporal series, to schedule neuroblast cell cycle exit. Interestingly, hh is likely a target of Castor. Hence, Hh signaling provides a link between the temporal series and the asymmetric division machinery in scheduling the end of neurogenesis.

  7. Changes of telomere length cause reciprocal changes in the lifespan of mother cells in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Austriaco, Nicanor R.; Guarente, Leonard P.

    1997-01-01

    Budding yeast cells divide asymmetrically, giving rise to a mother and its daughter. Mother cells have a limited division potential, called their lifespan, which ends in proliferation-arrest and lysis. In this report we mutate telomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to shorten telomeres and show that, rather than shortening lifespan, this leads to a significant extension in lifespan. This extension requires the product of the SIR3 gene, an essential component of the silencing machinery which b...

  8. BMP signalling regulates the pre-implantation development of extra-embryonic cell lineages in the mouse embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Sarah J. L.; Wicher, Krzysztof B.; Jedrusik, Agnieszka; Guo, Guoji; Herath, Wishva; Robson, Paul; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Pre-implantation development requires the specification and organization of embryonic and extra-embryonic lineages. The separation of these lineages takes place when asymmetric divisions generate inside and outside cells that differ in polarity, position and fate. Here we assess the global transcriptional identities of these precursor cells to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating lineage segregation,. Unexpectedly, this reveals that complementary components of the BMP signall...

  9. Anticrossproducts and cross divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leva, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper defines, in the context of conventional vector algebra, the concept of anticrossproduct and a family of simple operations called cross or vector divisions. It is impossible to solve for a or b the equation axb=c, where a and b are three-dimensional space vectors, and axb is their cross product. However, the problem becomes solvable if some "knowledge about the unknown" (a or b) is available, consisting of one of its components, or the angle it forms with the other operand of the cross product. Independently of the selected reference frame orientation, the known component of a may be parallel to b, or vice versa. The cross divisions provide a compact and insightful symbolic representation of a family of algorithms specifically designed to solve problems of such kind. A generalized algorithm was also defined, incorporating the rules for selecting the appropriate kind of cross division, based on the type of input data. Four examples of practical application were provided, including the computation of the point of application of a force and the angular velocity of a rigid body. The definition and geometrical interpretation of the cross divisions stemmed from the concept of anticrossproduct. The "anticrossproducts of axb" were defined as the infinitely many vectors x(i) such that x(i)xb=axb. PMID:18423647

  10. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  11. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  12. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Photochemically driven redox chemistry induces protocell membrane pearling and division

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ting F.; Adamala, Katarzyna; Zhang, Na; SZOSTAK, JACK W.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the evolution of complex biochemical machinery, the growth and division of simple primitive cells (protocells) must have been driven by environmental factors. We have previously demonstrated two pathways for fatty acid vesicle growth in which initially spherical vesicles grow into long filamentous vesicles; division is then mediated by fluid shear forces. Here we describe a different pathway for division that is independent of external mechanical forces. We show that the illumination...

  14. Metal rolling - Asymmetrical rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S.; Kiss, I.

    2016-02-01

    The development of theory and practice related to the asymmetric longitudinal rolling process is based on the general theory of metalworking by pressure and symmetric rolling theory, to which a large number of scientists brought their contribution. The rolling of metal materials was a serious problem throughout history, either economically or technically, because the plating technologies enabled the consumption of raw materials (scarce and expensive) to be reduced, while improving the mechanical properties. Knowing the force parameters related to asymmetric rolling leads to the optimization of energy and raw material consumption. This paper presents data on symmetric rolling process, in order to comparatively highlight the particularities of the asymmetric process.

  15. Quality Prediction of Asymmetrically Distorted Stereoscopic 3D Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiheng; Rehman, Abdul; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Shiqi; Wang, Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Objective quality assessment of distorted stereoscopic images is a challenging problem, especially when the distortions in the left and right views are asymmetric. Existing studies suggest that simply averaging the quality of the left and right views well predicts the quality of symmetrically distorted stereoscopic images, but generates substantial prediction bias when applied to asymmetrically distorted stereoscopic images. In this paper, we first build a database that contains both single-view and symmetrically and asymmetrically distorted stereoscopic images. We then carry out a subjective test, where we find that the quality prediction bias of the asymmetrically distorted images could lean toward opposite directions (overestimate or underestimate), depending on the distortion types and levels. Our subjective test also suggests that eye dominance effect does not have strong impact on the visual quality decisions of stereoscopic images. Furthermore, we develop an information content and divisive normalization-based pooling scheme that improves upon structural similarity in estimating the quality of single-view images. Finally, we propose a binocular rivalry-inspired multi-scale model to predict the quality of stereoscopic images from that of the single-view images. Our results show that the proposed model, without explicitly identifying image distortion types, successfully eliminates the prediction bias, leading to significantly improved quality prediction of the stereoscopic images. PMID:26087491

  16. Chemical Biodynamics Division. Annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The Chemical Biodynamics Division of LBL continues to conduct basic research on the dynamics of living cells and on the interaction of radiant energy with organic matter. Many aspects of this basic research are related to problems of environmental and health effects of fossil fuel combustion, solar energy conversion and chemical/ viral carcinogenesis.

  17. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle...

  18. Mutations in the Borrelia burgdorferi Flagellar Type III Secretion System Genes fliH and fliI Profoundly Affect Spirochete Flagellar Assembly, Morphology, Motility, Structure, and Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lihui; Zhao, Xiaowei; Liu, Jun; Norris, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi migrates to distant sites in the tick vectors and mammalian hosts through robust motility and chemotaxis activities. FliH and FliI are two cytoplasmic proteins that play important roles in the type III secretion system (T3SS)-mediated export and assembly of flagellar structural proteins. However, detailed analyses of the roles of FliH and FliI in B. burgdorferi have not been reported. In this study, fliH and fliI transposon mutants were utilized to dissect the mechanism of the Borrelia type III secretion system. The fliH and fliI mutants exhibited rod-shaped or string-like morphology, greatly reduced motility, division defects (resulting in elongated organisms with incomplete division points), and noninfectivity in mice by needle inoculation. Mutants in fliH and fliI were incapable of translational motion in 1% methylcellulose or soft agar. Inactivation of either fliH or fliI resulted in the loss of the FliH-FliI complex from otherwise intact flagellar motors, as determined by cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). Flagellar assemblies were still present in the mutant cells, albeit in lower numbers than in wild-type cells and with truncated flagella. Genetic complementation of fliH and fliI mutants in trans restored their wild-type morphology, motility, and flagellar motor structure; however, full-length flagella and infectivity were not recovered in these complemented mutants. Based on these results, disruption of either fliH or fliI in B. burgdorferi results in a severe defect in flagellar structure and function and cell division but does not completely block the export and assembly of flagellar hook and filament proteins. PMID:25968649

  19. Divisibility of characteristic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Borghesi, Simone

    2009-01-01

    We use homotopy theory to define certain rational coefficients characteristic numbers with integral values, depending on a given prime number q and positive integer t. We prove the first nontrivial degree formula and use it to show that existence of morphisms between algebraic varieties for which these numbers are not divisible by q give information on the degree of such morphisms or on zero cycles of the target variety.

  20. 3. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the period September 1980 - Aug 1981, the studies in theoretical physics divisions have been compiled under the following headings: in nuclear physics, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and intermediate energies; in particle physics, NN and NantiN interactions, dual topological unitarization, quark model and quantum chromodynamics, classical and quantum field theories, non linear integrable equations and topological preons and Grand unified theories. A list of publications, lectures and meetings is included

  1. Active Matter on Asymmetric Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Drocco, J.; Mai, T.; Wan, M. B.; Reichhardt, C.

    2011-01-01

    For collections of particles in a thermal bath interacting with an asymmetric substrate, it is possible for a ratchet effect to occur where the particles undergo a net dc motion in response to an ac forcing. Ratchet effects have been demonstrated in a variety of systems including colloids as well as magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors. Here we examine the case of active matter or self-driven particles interacting with asymmetric substrates. Active matter systems include self-motile c...

  2. Mobile Termination with Asymmetric Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dewenter, Ralf; Haucap, Justus

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines mobile termination fees and their regulation when networks are asymmetric in size. It is demonstrated that with consumer ignorance about the exact termination rates (a) a mobile network?s termination rate is the higher the smaller the network?s size (as measured through its subscriber base) and (b) asymmetric regulation of only the larger operators in a market will, ce-teris paribus, induce the smaller operators to increase their termination rates. The results are supporte...

  3. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  4. Asymmetric Dark Matter from Leptogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Falkowski, Adam; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Volansky, Tomer

    2011-01-01

    We present a new realization of asymmetric dark matter in which the dark matter and lepton asymmetries are generated simultaneously through two-sector leptogenesis. The right-handed neutrinos couple both to the Standard Model and to a hidden sector where the dark matter resides. This framework explains the lepton asymmetry, dark matter abundance and neutrino masses all at once. In contrast to previous realizations of asymmetric dark matter, the model allows for a wide range of dark matter mas...

  5. Primary fragment mass-yield distributions for asymmetric fission path of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary fragment mass-yield distribution for the asymmetric fission path in heavy nuclei, 233Pa, 239Np, 245Am and 249Bk at the excitation energy of ∼20 MeV are experimentally constructed based on the intensities of total kinetic energies for individual mass splits. The results revealed an interesting phenomenon: in all the studied fissioning systems, the inner wings of the mass-yield distributions in the asymmetric fission path appear along the same mass-wall of A = 130 fragment mass. The asymmetric mass-yield distribution indicates the strong effect of structural shells in fragments on the final mass division process of the asymmetric fission path. (author)

  6. Division Quilts: A Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sarah S.; Lupton, Tina M.; Richardson, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    As teachers seek activities to assist students in understanding division as more than just the algorithm, they find many examples of division as fair sharing. However, teachers have few activities to engage students in a quotative (measurement) model of division. Efraim Fischbein and his colleagues (1985) defined two types of whole-number…

  7. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  8. Amplification of neural stem cell proliferation by intermediate progenitor cells in Drosophila brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Bruno C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mammalian brain, neural stem cells divide asymmetrically and often amplify the number of progeny they generate via symmetrically dividing intermediate progenitors. Here we investigate whether specific neural stem cell-like neuroblasts in the brain of Drosophila might also amplify neuronal proliferation by generating symmetrically dividing intermediate progenitors. Results Cell lineage-tracing and genetic marker analysis show that remarkably large neuroblast lineages exist in the dorsomedial larval brain of Drosophila. These lineages are generated by brain neuroblasts that divide asymmetrically to self renew but, unlike other brain neuroblasts, do not segregate the differentiating cell fate determinant Prospero to their smaller daughter cells. These daughter cells continue to express neuroblast-specific molecular markers and divide repeatedly to produce neural progeny, demonstrating that they are proliferating intermediate progenitors. The proliferative divisions of these intermediate progenitors have novel cellular and molecular features; they are morphologically symmetrical, but molecularly asymmetrical in that key differentiating cell fate determinants are segregated into only one of the two daughter cells. Conclusion Our findings provide cellular and molecular evidence for a new mode of neurogenesis in the larval brain of Drosophila that involves the amplification of neuroblast proliferation through intermediate progenitors. This type of neurogenesis bears remarkable similarities to neurogenesis in the mammalian brain, where neural stem cells as primary progenitors amplify the number of progeny they generate through generation of secondary progenitors. This suggests that key aspects of neural stem cell biology might be conserved in brain development of insects and mammals.

  9. A model with competition between the cell lines in leukemia under treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halanay, A.; Cândea, D.; Rădulescu, R. [POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest Department of Mathematics and Informatics Splaiul Independentei 313 RO-060042 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-12-10

    The evolution of leukemia is modeled with a delay differential equation model of four cell populations: two populations (healthy and leukemic) ) of stem-like cells involving a larger category consisting of proliferating stem and progenitor cells with self-renew capacity and two populations (healthy and leukemic) of mature cells, considering the competition of healthy vs. leukemic cell populations and three types of division that a stem-like cell can exhibit: self-renew, asymmetric division and differentiation. In the model it is assumed that the treatment acts on the proliferation rate of the leukemic stem cells and on the apoptosis of stem and mature cells. The emphasis in this model is on establishing relevant parameters for chronic and acute manifestations of leukemia. Stability of equilibria is investigated and sufficient conditions for local asymptotic stability will be given using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional.

  10. A model with competition between the cell lines in leukemia under treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of leukemia is modeled with a delay differential equation model of four cell populations: two populations (healthy and leukemic) ) of stem-like cells involving a larger category consisting of proliferating stem and progenitor cells with self-renew capacity and two populations (healthy and leukemic) of mature cells, considering the competition of healthy vs. leukemic cell populations and three types of division that a stem-like cell can exhibit: self-renew, asymmetric division and differentiation. In the model it is assumed that the treatment acts on the proliferation rate of the leukemic stem cells and on the apoptosis of stem and mature cells. The emphasis in this model is on establishing relevant parameters for chronic and acute manifestations of leukemia. Stability of equilibria is investigated and sufficient conditions for local asymptotic stability will be given using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional

  11. Evolution of the chloroplast division machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo GAO; Fuli GAO

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts are photosynthetic organelles derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria during evolution.Dramatic changes occurred during the process of the formation and evolution of chloroplasts,including the large-scale gene transfer from chloroplast to nucleus.However,there are still many essential characters remaining.For the chloroplast division machinery,FtsZ proteins,Ftn2,SulA and part of the division site positioning system- MinD and MinE are still conserved.New or at least partially new proteins,such as FtsZ family proteins FtsZl and ARC3,ARC6H,ARC5,PDV1,PDV2 and MCD1,were introduced for the division of chloroplasts during evolution.Some bacterial cell division proteins,such as FtsA,MreB,Ftn6,FtsW and Ftsl,probably lost their function or were gradually lost.Thus,the chloroplast division machinery is a dynamically evolving structure with both conservation and innovation.

  12. In vitro expansion of the mammary stem/progenitor cell population by xanthosine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary Ratan K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary stem cells are critical for growth and maintenance of the mammary gland and therefore are of considerable interest for improving productivity and efficiency of dairy animals. Xanthosine treatment has been demonstrated to promote expansion of putative mammary stem cells in vivo, and hepatic and hair follicle stem cells in vitro. In the latter, xanthosine promoted the symmetrical division of hepatic and hair follicle stem cells. The objective of this study was to determine if treating primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells (MEC with xanthosine increases the stem/progenitor cell population by promoting symmetrical division of mammary stem cells. Results In vitro treatment with xanthosine increased the population of MEC during the exponential phase of cell growth, reducing the doubling time from 86 h in control cultures to 60 h in xanthosine-treated cultures. The bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU labeling index and the proportion of MEC in S-phase both were increased by xanthosine treatment, indicating that increased cell accretion was due to increased cell proliferation. Analysis of daughter-pairs indicated that xanthosine promoted a shift from asymmetric to symmetric cell division. Moreover, the 30 % increase in symmetric cell division was concomitant with an increase in the proportion of MEC that were positive for a putative stem cell marker (FNDC3B and a trend toward increased telomerase activity. These results suggest that xanthosine treatment in vitro can increase cell proliferation, promote symmetric cell division and enhance stem/progenitor cell activity. Conclusions Xanthosine treatment increased the proliferation rate of bovine MEC in vitro. This was likely to be mediated by an increase in the proportion of stem/progenitor cells in the MEC population due to promotion of symmetrical stem cell division by xanthosine.

  13. Periodicity in cell dynamics in some mathematical models for the treatment of leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halanay, A.

    2012-11-01

    A model for the evolution of short-term hematopoietic stem cells and of leukocytes in leucemia under periodic treatment is introduced. It consists of a system of periodic delay differential equations and takes into consideration the asymmetric division. A guiding function is used, together with a theorem of Krasnoselskii, to prove the existence of a strictly positive periodic solution and its stability is investigated.

  14. Neuronal Alignment On Asymmetric Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Beighley, Ross; Sekeroglu, Koray; Atherton, Timothy; Demirel, Melik C; Staii, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Axonal growth and the formation of synaptic connections are key steps in the development of the nervous system. Here we present experimental and theoretical results on axonal growth and interconnectivity in order to elucidate some of the basic rules that neuronal cells use for functional connections with one another. We demonstrate that a unidirectional nanotextured surface can bias axonal growth. We perform a systematic investigation of neuronal processes on asymmetric surfaces and quantify the role that biomechanical surface cues play in neuronal growth. These results represent an important step towards engineering directed axonal growth for neuro-regeneration studies.

  15. THE SPRINGBOK SIXTH DIVISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertzog Biermann

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Springbok Sixth Division was a mighty armoured force Of men whose ancestors made war in ships, on foot and horse They wrote a stirring chapter in Springbok Martial lore When they went to sunny Italy in Nineteen-Forty-Four.   They were in the Springbok First Team and their modest claim to fame Was their response to the clarion call: "Pay up and play the game!" Their duty they did nobly as their fathers did of old They proudly wore the Sixth Div flash of Springbok green and gold.

  16. Identification of cancer stem cell markers in human malignant mesothelioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We performed serial transplantation of surgical samples and established new cell lines of malignant mesothelioma. → SP cell and expressions of CD9/CD24/CD26 were often observed in mesothelioma cell lines. → SP and CD24+ cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. CD9+ and CD24+ cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony. → The marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mice. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and therapy-resistant neoplasm arising from the pleural mesothelial cells and usually associated with long-term asbestos exposure. Recent studies suggest that tumors contain cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their stem cell characteristics are thought to confer therapy-resistance. However, whether MM cell has any stem cell characteristics is not known. To understand the molecular basis of MM, we first performed serial transplantation of surgical samples into NOD/SCID mice and established new cell lines. Next, we performed marker analysis of the MM cell lines and found that many of them contain SP cells and expressed several putative CSC markers such as CD9, CD24, and CD26. Interestingly, expression of CD26 closely correlated with that of CD24 in some cases. Sorting and culture assay revealed that SP and CD24+ cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. In addition, CD9+ and CD24+ cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony than negative cells in the stem cell medium. Moreover, these marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mouse transplantation assay. Taken together, our data suggest that SP, CD9, CD24, and CD26 are CSC markers of MM and could be used as novel therapeutic targets.

  17. Identification of cancer stem cell markers in human malignant mesothelioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Farhana Ishrat; Yamazaki, Hiroto; Iwata, Satoshi; Okamoto, Toshihiro [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Aoe, Keisuke; Okabe, Kazunori; Mimura, Yusuke [Departments of Medical Oncology, Yamaguchi-Ube Medical Center, Yamaguchi (Japan); Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kishimoto, Takumi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Okayama Rosai Hospital, Okayama (Japan); Yamada, Taketo [Department of Pathology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Xu, C. Wilson [Drug Development Program, Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Morimoto, Chikao, E-mail: morimoto@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Drug Development Program, Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} We performed serial transplantation of surgical samples and established new cell lines of malignant mesothelioma. {yields} SP cell and expressions of CD9/CD24/CD26 were often observed in mesothelioma cell lines. {yields} SP and CD24{sup +} cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. CD9{sup +} and CD24{sup +} cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony. {yields} The marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mice. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and therapy-resistant neoplasm arising from the pleural mesothelial cells and usually associated with long-term asbestos exposure. Recent studies suggest that tumors contain cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their stem cell characteristics are thought to confer therapy-resistance. However, whether MM cell has any stem cell characteristics is not known. To understand the molecular basis of MM, we first performed serial transplantation of surgical samples into NOD/SCID mice and established new cell lines. Next, we performed marker analysis of the MM cell lines and found that many of them contain SP cells and expressed several putative CSC markers such as CD9, CD24, and CD26. Interestingly, expression of CD26 closely correlated with that of CD24 in some cases. Sorting and culture assay revealed that SP and CD24{sup +} cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. In addition, CD9{sup +} and CD24{sup +} cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony than negative cells in the stem cell medium. Moreover, these marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mouse transplantation assay. Taken together, our data suggest that SP, CD9, CD24, and CD26 are CSC markers of MM and could be used as novel therapeutic targets.

  18. Gravity-induced asymmetric distribution of a plant growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Momonoki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Dolk (1936) demonstrated that gravistimulation induced an asymmetric distribution of auxin in a horizontally-placed shoot. An attempt is made to determine where and how that asymmetry arises, and to demonstrate that the endogenous auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, becomes asymmetrically distributed in the cortical cells of the Zea mays mesocotyl during 3 min of geostimulation. Further, indole-3-acetic acid derived by hydrolysis of an applied transport form of the hormone, indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, becomes asymmetrically distributed within 15 min of geostimulus time. From these and prior data is developed a working theory that the gravitational stimulus induces a selective leakage, or secretion, of the hormone from the vascular tissue to the cortical cells of the mesocotyl.

  19. The 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 regulates the asymmetric localization of the LET-99 spindle positioning protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Ching; Espiritu, Eugenel B; Rose, Lesilee S

    2016-04-15

    PAR proteins play important roles in establishing cytoplasmic polarity as well as regulating spindle positioning during asymmetric division. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the PAR proteins generate asymmetry in different cell types are still being elucidated. Previous studies in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that PAR-3 and PAR-1 regulate the asymmetric localization of LET-99, which in turn controls spindle positioning by affecting the distribution of the conserved force generating complex. In wild-type embryos, LET-99 is localized in a lateral cortical band pattern, via inhibition at the anterior by PAR-3 and at the posterior by PAR-1. In this report, we show that the 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 is also required for cortical LET-99 asymmetry. PAR-5 associated with LET-99 in pull-down assays, and two PAR-5 binding sites were identified in LET-99 using the yeast two-hybrid assay. Mutation of these sites abolished binding in yeast and altered LET-99 localization in vivo: LET-99 was present at the highest levels at the posterior pole of the embryo instead of a band in par-5 embryos. Together the results indicate that PAR-5 acts in a mechanism with PAR-1 to regulate LET-99 cortical localization. PMID:26921457

  20. Lineage-specific stem cells, signals and asymmetries during stomatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soon-Ki; Torii, Keiko U

    2016-04-15

    Stomata are dispersed pores found in the epidermis of land plants that facilitate gas exchange for photosynthesis while minimizing water loss. Stomata are formed from progenitor cells, which execute a series of differentiation events and stereotypical cell divisions. The sequential activation of master regulatory basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors controls the initiation, proliferation and differentiation of stomatal cells. Cell-cell communication mediated by secreted peptides, receptor kinases, and downstream mitogen-activated kinase cascades enforces proper stomatal patterning, and an intrinsic polarity mechanism ensures asymmetric cell divisions. As we review here, recent studies have provided insights into the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control stomatal development. These findings have also highlighted striking similarities between plants and animals with regards to their mechanisms of specialized cell differentiation. PMID:27095491