WorldWideScience

Sample records for asylum seekers

  1. Daily Occupations among asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    Asylum seekers often find themselves in a situation where the structure and content of daily occupations have been disrupted and they might have limited access to paid work and education. Studies have shown that asylum seekers experience occupational deprivation and a change in daily occupations...... which might even influence their identity. Such deprivation can eventually lead to dissatisfaction with everyday life and to occupational dysfunction, i.e. a decline in ADL ability. Asylum seekers are a group who are more likely to suffer from health problems than the background population. Especially...... torture survivors suffer from ill health. Pain and psychological symptoms are among the most frequent health issues for both asylum seekers and torture survivors and may cause occupation-related problems. The overarching aim of this thesis was to investigate how staying in an asylum centre influenced...

  2. Mental health of failed asylum seekers as compared with pending and temporarily accepted asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, J; Schmidt, M.; Staeheli, A; Maier, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asylum seekers (AS) and refugees often suffer from severe psychopathology in the form of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As PTSD impacts memory functions, and as asylum applications rely on personal accounts, AS with PTSD are at more risk of being rejected than refugees. METHODS: We studied the mental health of failed asylum seekers (FAS, N = 40) and a matched sample of AS (N = 40). Participants were administered structured interviews on sociodemographics, flight, exile and...

  3. Age assessment of young asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjern, Anders; Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    During 2009, 15,100 unaccompanied children sought asylum in Europe. Many of them came from 'failed states' like Somalia and Afghanistan where official documents with exact birth dates are rarely issued. This has led to requests to health care professionals in many countries to assist migration....... CONCLUSION: To improve care for young asylum seekers with undetermined age, we suggest better legal procedures for the determination of age and a more flexible approach to chronological age....

  4. Length of stay in asylum centres and mental health in asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Hansen, Anne R; Staehr, Mia A;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The length of stay in asylum centres is generally mentioned as a possible health risk to asylum seekers. Medical staff working with asylum seekers has claimed that long lengths of stay in asylum centres might cause or aggravate mental disorders. We used records from a large, multiethnic...

  5. Impact of asylum interviews on the mental health of traumatized asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Schock; Rita Rosner; Christine Knaevelsrud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asylum interviews within the asylum procedure are associated with psychological stress for traumatized asylum seekers. This study investigates the impact of asylum interviews on the mental health in a sample of 40 traumatized asylum seekers. The comparison group consisted of refugees (N=10) that had not been invited to an asylum interview. Additionally, the moderating effects of trial-related variables such as perceived justice of the trial, stress of giving testimony, and stress ...

  6. Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kiama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.

  7. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reko, Amra; Bech, Per; Wohlert, Cathrine;

    2015-01-01

    given at the initial evaluation was ICD-10 F43.9 "reaction to severe stress, unspecified" (50%). Evaluations were made primarily by non-psychiatrists. No standardized screening or diagnostic instrument was used. CONCLUSION: This first description of the use of an acute psychiatric emergency service by......BACKGROUND: Asylum seekers are found to be at high risk of mental health problems. Little is known about the use of acute psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers. AIM: To describe the usage of an inpatient/outpatient psychiatric emergency service in Denmark by adult asylum seekers, and...... predominantly male and married. The group consisted primarily (61%) of failed asylum seekers. Most patients (81%) presented with relevant mental health problems. The main reasons for presenting to the acute psychiatric emergency service were suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (60%). The most frequent diagnosis...

  8. Outcomes among Asylum Seekers in Atlanta, Georgia, 2003--2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dabney P; Donato, Caitlin E; Malewezi, Bridget A; Li, Anyie J; Corea, Mario J; Mitchell, Andrew B

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Asylum seekers face a wide array of challenges, including the need for a fair and just adjudication process. In the state of Georgia, the Atlanta Asylum Network addresses the needs of such individuals by providing them physical, psychological and gynecological assessments, the results of which are presented to the courts in the asylum appeal process. OBJECTIVE As a component of the Network's program evaluation, assess outcomes among asylum seekers using its services, as well as relation of outcomes to type of service provided, the individual's geographic origin and English language proficiency. METHODS A retrospective examination was conducted of program data gathered by the Network between 2003 and 2012. Subjects included asylum seekers who received assessments by the Network during this period. The primary variable of interest was the final case outcome, defined as determination of asylum status: granted, withholding of removal, administrative closure and prosecutorial discretion, denied or voluntary departure. Outcomes were subsequently collapsed into a single positive or negative outcome variable. Positive outcomes included asylum granted, removal withheld, administrative closure and prosecutorial discretion. Negative outcomes included asylum denied and voluntary departure. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses, relating final case outcomes to Network services, geographic origin and English language proficiency, among the key variables. RESULTS A total of 69 of 120 asylum seekers in the study had a known final case outcome, and of those, 63.8% (44) had a positive outcome; or 37% of the total number of asylum seekers (n = 120). Among the 20 who received 2 of the 3 types of assessment (physical, psychological, gynecological), 16 (80%) received a positive case outcome. Most persons with a known final outcome came from Africa (41), where 78% (32) of cases resulted positive. Asylum seekers not proficient in English were 2.4 times more likely

  9. Unaccompanied minor asylum seekers and participation in everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    Rajšter, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Unaccompanied minor asylum seekers receive little attention by the media and the general public, which is why I decided to look into and clarify their situation in Slovenia. In the theoretical part legal issues concerning refugee policy, the origin, numbers and vulnerability of asylum seekers in Slovenia and the rest of the world are explained. Furthermore the topic of participation is presented from different points of view. The second, empirical part of the thesis is aimed to find out ...

  10. [Public Health initiative for improved vaccination for asylum seekers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Stefan O; Wjst, Stephanie; Zelmer, Ursula; Carollo, Stefanie; Schmid, Mirjam; Roller, Gottfried; Eichner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The number of asylum seekers in Germany has increased dramatically in 2015. Their medical care includes the officially recommended vaccinations; yet, no detailed information on this is yet available in Germany. In light of the rising number of asylum seekers, we have developed a concept to facilitate their vaccination. This concept includes the coordination of different partners, the supply of vaccines and other materials through the local health office, and the cooperation with the local physicians' association. To evaluate and accelerate progress, we compared the number of vaccinations conducted by physicians independently of the vaccination concept with those conducted within the new concept. For the period of investigation, 2,256 new asylum seekers were temporarily accommodated in the facilities. The vaccination concept was applied in only some of the facilities. Twenty-eight percent of all asylum seekers (642) were vaccinated at least once; 89 % of the vaccinees (571) were vaccinated within the newly developed concept. In the facilities that were not included in this concept, only 6 % of the refugees were vaccinated, whereas in the facilities that were included up to 58 % were vaccinated. Even though the new concept has started successfully, further innovations are required to reach sufficient vaccination coverage among asylum seekers. In view of the large number of new asylum seekers expected, the adjustment and expansion of the new concept requires professional planning and coordination. Furthermore, additional resources are required. PMID:27072499

  11. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b. Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration court fell from 23 percent to nine percent (EOIR 2013, 2014b. This paper examines—from the perspective of an attorney who represented Mexican asylum seekers on the US-Mexico border in El Paso, Texas—the reasons for low asylum approval rates for Mexicans despite high levels of violence in and flight from Mexico from 2008 to 2013. It details the obstacles faced by Mexican asylum seekers along the US-Mexico border, including placement in removal proceedings, detention, evidentiary issues, narrow legal standards, and (effectively judicial notice of country conditions in Mexico. The paper recommends that asylum seekers at the border be placed in affirmative proceedings (before immigration officials, making them eligible for bond. It also proposes increased oversight of immigration judges.

  12. Impact of asylum interviews on the mental health of traumatized asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asylum interviews within the asylum procedure are associated with psychological stress for traumatized asylum seekers. This study investigates the impact of asylum interviews on the mental health in a sample of 40 traumatized asylum seekers. The comparison group consisted of refugees (N=10 that had not been invited to an asylum interview. Additionally, the moderating effects of trial-related variables such as perceived justice of the trial, stress of giving testimony, and stress of waiting for the asylum interview were examined. Method: Participants were assessed on average 10 days before (t1 and 16 days after (t2 the asylum interview. Chi-square tests for dichotomous and categorical variables were used to compare the descriptive statistics of the two groups. To investigate symptom changes from t1 to t2, paired t-tests were calculated. The magnitude of effects was measured by Cohen's effect size d within groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted for demographic and trial variables predicting posttraumatic intrusions, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Results: Data showed a significant increase in posttraumatic intrusions and a significant decrease in posttraumatic avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms from t1 to t2. No significant symptom changes in the posttraumatic stress disorder subscales were found in the comparison group. The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed perceived justice of the interview to predict the increase of intrusions and the number of experienced traumata and testimony stress to predict posttraumatic avoidance. Conclusions: The present findings underline the stressful impact of asylum interviews on traumatized refugees. They indicate that the asylum interview might decrease posttraumatic avoidance and trigger posttraumatic intrusions, thus highlight the importance of ensuring that the already vulnerable group of traumatized refugees needs to be treated with empathy during their asylum

  13. Australian health policy on access to medical care for refugees and asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Gifford, Sandra M; Bice, Sara J

    2005-01-01

    Since the tightening of Australian policy for protection visa applicants began in the 1990s, access to health care has been increasingly restricted to asylum seekers on a range of different visa types. This paper summarises those legislative changes and discusses their implications for health policy relating to refugees and asylum seekers in Australia. Of particular concern are asylum seekers on Bridging Visas with no work rights and no access to Medicare. The paper examines several key quest...

  14. Narratives of Service Provision: A Dialogical Perspective on the ‘Support’ of Asylum Seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses upon some of the narratives of housing and ‘support’ service provision set against the backdrop of the support of asylum seekers in the United Kingdom. Since 1999 specific asylum seeker support teams have been established within a number of local authorities throughout the UK contracted to the Home Office to provide housing and social support to destitute asylum seekers. Currently, the regions of the UK, operate within a national legislative arena led by...

  15. Asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia: Problems and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzafar Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Indonesian West Java town of Cisarua, asylum seekers and refugees face prolonged periods of waiting in limbo. Australian government policies have contributed to the lengthy waiting times, particularly Operation Sovereign Borders. Those in protracted situations have found ways to ensure that during their time in Cisarua their basic needs are met and they demonstrate creativity and resilience in difficult circumstances. Education for children is a priority for asylum seeker and refugee communities and a learning centre developed by the community has provided hope for children and their families. The paper draws on the experiences of Author One during his waiting time in Cisarua and research conducted by Authors Two and Three in late 2013.

  16. Asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia: Problems and potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muzafar; Briskman, Linda Ruth; Fiske, Lucy Imogen

    2016-01-01

     Asylum seekers and refugees in Indonesia increasingly experience protracted waiting times for permanent settlement in other countries. They have few, if any, legal rights, coupled with extremely limited financial resources and no access to government provided services. In response to the prospect of living for many years in this difficult and liminal space, a small community of refugees in the West Java town of Cisarua has built relationships, skills and confidence among themselves and with ...

  17. Child Poverty as Public Policy: Direct Provision and Asylum Seeker Children in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Bryan; Veale, Angela

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates responses to asylum seeker children in Ireland from a child poverty perspective and from that of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It draws upon research undertaken in early 2001 on behalf of the Irish Refugee Council among asylum seeker families with children in Cork, Limerick and Ennis on their…

  18. Asylum Seekers in Europe: The Warm Glow of a Hot Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Facchini; Oliver Lorz; Gerald Willmann

    2005-01-01

    The Common European Asylum System calls for increased coordination of the EU countries’ policies towards asylum seekers and refugees. In this paper, we provide a formal analysis of the effects of coordination, explicitly modelling the democratic process through which policy is determined. In a symmetric, two-country citizen-candidate setup, in which accepting asylum seekers in one country generates a cross-border externality in the other, we show that coordination is desirable. Internalizing ...

  19. Activity of daily living performance amongst Danish asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Christensen, Robin; Amris, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) ability impairment in newly arrived Danish asylum seekers. It was hypothesized that exposure to trauma and torture would negatively influence ADL performance and that measures of ADL ability would be...... and Process Skills (AMPS). Interviews were based on questionnaires about torture exposure, WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, Major Depression Inventory and Pain Detect Questionnaire. All participants were interviewed and tested using a linguistic interpreter. RESULTS: Thirty three (77%) participants reported...

  20. Ethical and professional considerations providing medical evaluation and care to refugee asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Smith, Clyde L

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of asylum seekers who largely survived torture live in the United States. Asylum seekers have complex social and medical problems with significant barriers to health care access. When evaluating and providing care for survivors, health providers face important challenges regarding medical ethics and professional codes. We review ethical concerns in regard to accountability, the patient-physician relationship, and moral responsibilities to offer health care irrespective of patient legal status; competing professional responsibility toward society and the judiciary system; concerns about the consistency of asylum seekers' claims; ethical concerns surrounding involving trainees and researching within the evaluation setting; and the implication of broader societal views towards rights and social justice. We discuss contributing factors, including inadequate and insufficient provider training, varying and inadequate institutional commitment, asylum seekers' significant medical and social problems, and the broader health and social system issues. We review existing resources to address these concerns and offer suggestions. PMID:23767428

  1. Prejudice against and discrimination of asylum seekers: Their antecedents and consequences in a longitudinal field study

    OpenAIRE

    Geschke, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Prejudice towards and discrimination of migrants are serious problems in our modern, globalised world. In the present doctoral thesis it was studied how negative attitudes of citizens towards asylum seekers relate to contact experiences, feelings of threat and acculturation orientations. A longitudinal field study with two measurement points was conducted with the German inhabitants (N = 70) of a neighbourhood where an asylum seekers refuge was soon to be opened. Directly before and six month...

  2. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, C and HIV/AIDS in Asylum Seekers in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Kart Yaşar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study aimed to determine prevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV/AIDS in asylum seekers in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The data about asylum seekers who applied in Istanbul between March 2008 and March 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Demographic features and markers of blood borne infections (HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV results of asylum seekers were reviewed. Results: In total 3043 asylum seekers were included into the study. The leading origin countries of the refugees were from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan and majority of them (2328 people, 77% were male. The young adults between 25 and 45 years constituted the most crowded group. Overall prevalence of HCV, HBsAg and HIV/AIDS were 12.2%, 5.9% and 0.7%, respectively. The highest seropositivity rate for anti-HCV, HBsAg and anti-HIV were found in Georgian males (47.1%; in Moldovan males (13.2% and in Somali males (3.1%, respectively. Conclusion:Mostly asylum seekers who have migrated to our country were young adult males from Asia. The highest prevalence rate of HCV was found in Georgian males. Therefore, the increased potential of migration to our country along the recent years necessitates development of an appropriate health approach concerning asylum seekers. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 20-25

  3. [Psychopathology of asylum seekers in Europe, trauma and defensive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, V M-L; Chahraoui, K; Bissler, L

    2015-06-01

    Refugees seeking asylum are a particularly vulnerable population. It has been observed that among the most commonly-occurring disorders exhibited in this population, there is a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. These disorders may be linked to the difficult paths that refugees are forced to undertake, as well as to different traumatic events which are particularly destructive psychologically (deliberate physical, sexual and/or psychological violence, traumatic bereavements in the context of war, or social and political instability, socio-economic, familial or administrative difficulties), which compromise their view of their short-term futures. In the face of the weight of these life events, the question of the psychological resources of the individual is at the forefront of our understanding of mental health and the capacity to adjust to trauma. Our study aims to apprehend in a dynamic way, the different strategies used by asylum seekers in our western countries to adjust psychologically to traumatic and stressful events. The aim of this research is to study the links between mental health and anxious and depressive psychopathologies as well as the defensive modalities of these subjects. One hundred and twenty adult asylum seekers, living in refugee centres in Slovakia, France and Norway have agreed to participate in this study. We tried to assess the psychopathological disorders manifesting in these populations, notably PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Using the DSQ-60 we also tried to establish the links between the psychopathologies observed in this population and the defence mechanisms employed. Our results reveal that 60% of subjects do indeed suffer from psychopathological disorders with an important comorbidity of PTSB and depression (64.2%). Furthermore, the seriousness of the symptoms is correlated with less adaptive defence mechanisms (a higher incidence of defence

  4. A Study of Asylum Seeker/Refugee Advocacy: Paradoxes of Helping in a Climate of Hostility.

    OpenAIRE

    Wroe, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the extent to which hostility towards asylum seekers/refugees frames advocacy talk. Using a dialogical approach, I analyse how the identities of asylum claimants are dealt with by refugee advocates, in order to counter this hostility. My analysis is based on the collection of publicity materials from four refugee organisations, and from Narrative Biographical Interviews conducted with their staff, volunteers and asylum-seeking clients. Using the notion of dialogi...

  5. Discursive Representations of Asylum Seekers and Illegal Immigrants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Burroughs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Migrants are often referred to as an all encompassing group of people and the “many faces of migration”, the variety of people, legalities and complexities involved, can be overlooked. The same can be said for non-EU migrants in the Irish context. Non-EU migrants (or those that are not Caucasian are generally viewed to be a distinct cohort of comparable migrants. Indeed, these migrants are often portrayed in a broadly negative way by key Irish institutions (such as the parliament or the media, and these representations impact upon how Irish society views non-EU migration and indeed migration in general. While Ireland is by no means the only European country in which this type of practice occurs, this paper aims to draw attention to generalized, inaccurate and misleading representations of non-EU migrants in Ireland, by specifically examining representations of asylum seekers and illegal immigrants. There can be an overlap in how these “types” of migrants are conceptualized and this paper therefore aims to develop an understanding of the implications involved for migrants categorized as an “asylum seeker” or an “illegal immigrant.” Furthermore, these topics are under-researched within the Irish context, yet they receive much political and public attention. At the same time however, this paper aims to challenge the labels assigned to non-EU migrants and the terminology that is used to define their identity so concretely. In the Irish context there is much confusion in relation to the multiple “faces” of non-EU migration, as a range of terminology is used to refer to them. This terminology is often used in an interchangeable manner, in an array of societal contexts. There is a consistent (whether this happens intentionally or unintentionally is debatable misuse of categories and migration terminology in Irish institutional discourses. Quite often those seeking asylum are referred to as illegal immigrants and vice versa

  6. After Wilberforce : an independent enquiry into the health and social needs of asylum seekers and refugees in Hull.

    OpenAIRE

    Campion, P; Brown, S. R.; Thornton-Jones, H.

    2010-01-01

    Commissioned by NHS Hull, this project has four aims: a. to gather the views of asylum seekers and refugees in Hull about their lives, and health; b. to consult with all relevant agencies in the city concerned with the health and social care of asylum seekers and refugees; c. to identify best practice in asylum seeker and refugee care in other parts of the country; d. to propose a strategy for the health and social care of asylum seekers and refugees in Hull. We car...

  7. [Taking Care of Asylum Seekers: Occupational Health Aspects with a Special Focus on Vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, S; Hörmansdorfer, S; Ackermann, N; Höller, C; Brenner, B; Herr, C

    2016-04-01

    Employees and volunteers often feel insecure about the potential transmission of infectious diseases when taking care of asylum seekers. It could be shown that overall only a minor risk of infection emanates from asylum seekers. However, aspects of occupational health and vaccination should be kept in mind.Besides the standard vaccination the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommends for occupational indication, which is given for employees and volunteers in asylum facilities, vaccination against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio (if the last vaccination was more than 10 years before) as well as influenza (seasonal).According to the German Occupational Safety and Health Act taking care of the employer has to determine which exposures might occur at the workplace (risk assessment) and define necessary protection measures. Depending on task and exposure when taking care of asylum seekers different acts (e. g. biological agents regulation) and technical guidelines for the handling biological agents (e. g. TRBA 250 or TRBA 500) have to be applied.The Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL) has published several information sheets regarding "asylum seekers and health management" for employees and volunteers from the non-medical as well as the medical area (www.lgl.bayern.de search term "Asylbewerber"). With theses publications insecurities in taking care of asylum seekers should be prevented. Furthermore the employer gets support in the implementation of legal obligations to ensure occupational safety for the employees. PMID:27078829

  8. [Asylum-seekers' mental and physical health problems: practices and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2016-01-01

    The Hungarian health care system faces new challenges with the unprecedented increased rate of migration. Asylum-seekers arriving are a heterogeneous group. Their health care needs vary depending on their country of origin and the quality of the health care they received prior to arrival, not to mention the impact of the migration process on their health. Described within this paper are the challenges an asylum seeker might face in obtaining care on arrival into the host country and the challenges clinicians face in providing that care. This review is designed to give health professionals the necessary knowledge to care for asylum-seekers in a culturally aware and clinically informed manner. PMID:26708683

  9. Will a Quota Plan for Asylum Seekers Plan Work —and Why Not?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    The article describes the recent situation in the Mediterranean, where the number of asylum seekers arriving from countries south and east of the Mediterranean Sea is increasing significantly. The European Commission has suggested a plan, “A European Agenda on Migration”, which will redistribute...... idea from the EU-Commission of a mandatory quota plan for asylum seekers will not work, because too many states will pretend, that the problem does not really belong to them. They fear that accepting a system according to which each state has to accept a fixed quota of asylum seekers in a recent...... context might later on lead to a common EU migra-tion policy, which are beyond national control and would make it difficult to avoid responsibilities for internal crisis situations emerging in other parts of the Middle East or North Africa in the future....

  10. Morbidity of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führer, Amand; Eichner, Friederike; Stang, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Asylum seekers constitute a particularly vulnerable group. Not only is their physical and mental health exposed to multiple stresses, but also their access to health care in Germany is legally restricted. Up to now, there is very limited scientific literature investigating the health-outcomes of asylum seekers in Germany. The aim of this study was to provide prevalence data on the morbidity and vaccination status of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city. We used a structured questionnaire in a cross-sectional study on 214 adult asylum seekers (182 males, 24 females, 8 unknown) in Halle, Germany, 2015. The questionnaire inquired about the respondent's self-reported physical health and vaccination status and assessed their mental health using the Hopkins-Symptom-Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Pain (37.9 %) and psychological illness (depression: 54.7 %, anxiety disorder: 40.2 %; post-traumatic stress disorder: 18.2 %) were the most prevalent complaints. Among asylum seekers with psychological complaints, co-morbidity was high (64.2 % had more than one psychological disease). 5.6 % of the respondents mentioned suicidal thoughts. The prevalence of chronic diseases was low. We suggest interventions to improve asylum seekers' health on two levels: first, the obligatory initial medical examination after the refugees' arrival at the reception centre should be complemented with questions related to the vaccination status and the most common complaints including pain and psychological diseases. Second, medical infrastructure should be expanded to better serve the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse patient populations, so that those screened positive can be referred for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27068422

  11. From commitment to compliance? Norway's international human rights obligations and practice towards asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansen, Tonje Falstad

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines what international human rights obligations Norway has towards asylum seekers through international treaties and conventions and its compliance with these obligations. The study applies case study methodology and through four cases it lays out some of the disputes between the Norwegian government and asylum authorities, and human rights advocates such as NGOs and lawyers. The theoretical framework for the dissertation is compliance theory which focuses on how states...

  12. Health services for asylum seekers and refugees in Europe: consequences for policymaking.

    OpenAIRE

    Devillé, W.; Goosen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Reception and integration of asylum seekers and refugees are high on the political agenda in most European countries. Reception conditions, including the provision of health care, differ considerably between countries. The European Commission tries to harmonise the reception standards in the European countries. This is done for example by launching the EU Reception Conditions Directive (Directive 2003/9/EC), which defines minimum standards on the reception of asylum applicants. This directive...

  13. Mental Health and asylum seekers/refugees – interview based research

    OpenAIRE

    MGuiness, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of asylum seekers, refugees and internally displaced people worldwide is continually growing. Alongside this, increasingly restrictive policies are being developed, limiting access to support and healthcare and also enforcing detention and destitution on those seeking asylum in the U.K. The adverse effects these policies have on a person’s emotional and psychological health can cause further distress to this population who have already experienced overwhe...

  14. The Grassroots Pro-Asylum Seeker Movement in the Republic of Ireland: A Social Movement Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Niall

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is an in-depth analysis of the Grassroots Pro-Asylum Seeker Movement in the Republic of Ireland between 1994 and 2004. It seeks to understand and analyse this development of the Grassroots Pro-Asylum Seeker Movement in Ireland from a social movement perspective. The movement itself contains three key phases of mobilisation: 1) Radical Anti-Racism; 2) The Multicultural Support Group and; 3) The Anti-Deportation Group. Each of these phases is described in detail in th...

  15. Safe in our hands?: a study of suicide and self-harm in asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliet

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the incidence of suicide and self-harm in asylum seekers in the UK, both those in detention and in the community. The investigation revealed that data recording is seriously flawed or sometimes non-existent. However, the scanty data those were available from Immigration Removal Centres, coroners' records and Prison Ombudsman's reports showed high levels of self-harm and suicide for detained asylum seekers as compared with the United Kingdom prison population. It is suggested that this could be attributed to routine failure to observe and mitigate risk factors. The author makes the following recommendations: coroners should record asylum seeker status and ethnicity of deceased, self-harm monitoring in the community should record asylum seeker status and ethnicity, health care in immigration removal centres should meet the same standards as UK prisons as a minimum, allegation of torture by immigration detainees should trigger a case management review and risk assessment for continued detention, and this process should be open to audit, and interpreters should be used for mental state examinations unless their English has been shown to the fluent. PMID:18423357

  16. Asylum Seekers and Resettled Refugees in Australia: Predicting Social Policy Attitude From Prejudice Versus Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Hartley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While most of the world's refugees reside in developing countries, their arrival to western countries is highly politicised, giving rise to questions about the types of entitlements and rights that should, or should not, be granted. In this study, using a mixed-methods community questionnaire (N = 185, we examined attitudes towards social policies aimed at providing assistance to two categories of new arrivals to Australia: resettled refugees (who arrive via its official refugee resettlement program and asylum seekers (who arrive via boat and then seek refugee status. Social policy attitude was examined as a consequence of feelings of anger, fear, and threat, as well as levels of prejudice. Participants felt significantly higher levels of anger, fear, threat, and prejudice towards asylum seekers compared to resettled refugees. For both resettled refugees and asylum seekers, prejudice was an independent predictor of more restrictive social policy attitudes. For resettled refugees, fear and perceived threat were independent predictors for more restrictive social policy whereas for asylum seekers anger was an independent predictor of restrictive social policy. The qualitative data reinforced the quantitative findings and extended understanding on the appraisals that underpin negative attitudes and emotional responses. Practical implications relating to challenging community attitudes are discussed.

  17. Transnational Migration, State Policy and Local Clinician Treatment of Asylum Seekers and Resettled Migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Koehn, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Based on interviews conducted at five Finnish reception centers and in two municipal communes during summer 2002 with 93 migrants, mainly from a variety of Southern and Eastern countries of origin, and their ethnoculturally discordant clinicians, the article compares asylum seekers and foreign-born residents in terms of health care treatment and outcome perspectives. Comparative analysis suggests t...

  18. Politicised Notions of Professional Identity and Psychosocial Practice among Practitioners Working with Asylum Seekers and Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolidou, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study undertaken in the UK that investigates the notion of professional identity among practitioners who work with asylum seekers and refugees. Drawing on a social constructionist epistemology and a Foucauldian theoretical and methodological framework of power and discourse, I analysed extracts from semi-structured interviews…

  19. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  20. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Tom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Methods Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60 and refugees (n = 28 from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36, presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Results Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9 and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4, while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1, high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4 or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3 were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found

  1. The Relationship Between Post-Migration Stress and Psychological Disorders in Refugees and Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan S Y; Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-09-01

    Refugees demonstrate high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological disorders. The recent increase in forcible displacement internationally necessitates the understanding of factors associated with refugee mental health. While pre-migration trauma is recognized as a key predictor of mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers, research has increasingly focused on the psychological effects of post-migration stressors in the settlement environment. This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy. PMID:27436307

  2. Dermatological problems of asylum seekers arriving on boats: a case report from Australia and a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui Mei; Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad

    2014-11-01

    Assessing the skin of asylum seekers, immigrants, migrant workers, tourists or even locals who return from abroad, can be a confronting task due to the possibility of such people having non-autochthonous diseases. Primary-care physicians and dermatologists need to have a systematic approach in the assessment of such dermatoses. This article describes an interesting case of possible kerosene-induced and diesel-induced skin injury in an asylum seeker arriving on a boat. Dermatological conditions in asylum seekers and a suggested template for skin assessment are discussed. PMID:25178452

  3. Health literacy and refugees' experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers : a Swedish cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wångdahl, Josefin; Lytsy, Per; Mårtensson, Lena; Westerling, Ragnar

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of the health examination for asylum seekers in most countries is to identify poor health in order to secure the well-being of seekers of asylum and to guarantee the safety of the population in the host country. Functional health literacy is an individual’s ability to read information and instructions about health and to function effectively as a patient in the health system, and comprehensive health literacy is an individual’s competence in accessing, understanding, ap...

  4. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Pfortmüller, Carmen; Schwetlick, Miriam; Müller, Thomas; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis

    2016-01-01

    Background Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria. Methods Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident sta...

  5. Stool screening of Syrian refugees and asylum seekers in Germany, 2013/2014: Identification of Sabin like polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Sindy; Neubauer, Katrin; Baillot, Armin; Rieder, Gabriele; Adam, Maja; Diedrich, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Germany is a partner of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Assurance of polio free status is based on enterovirus surveillance, which focuses on patients with signs of acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis/encephalitis, representing the key symptoms of poliovirus infection. In response to the wild poliovirus outbreak in Syria 2013 and high number of refugees coming from Syria to Germany, stool samples from 629 Syrian refugees/asylum seekers aged refugees and asylum seekers at that time. PMID:26321005

  6. Female genital mutilation, asylum seekers and refugees: the need for an integrated European Union agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard A; Leye, Els; Jayakody, Amanda; Mwangi-Powell, Faith N; Morison, Linda

    2004-11-01

    Asylum seekers and refugees (ASRs) are a heterogeneous population with distinct physical and psychological needs. ASRs with additional health needs are girls and women who have undergone, or are at risk of undergoing, female genital mutilation (FGM). Across the European Union (EU), variation exists in Member States' anti-FGM and asylum legislation, the rigour of existing research programmes, and the operational coherence of the multiple agencies combating the practice. ASRs' needs are, consequently, not being addressed satisfactorily. This paper proposes an integrated future agenda, applicable in all EU countries, capable of meeting these girls' and women's needs. PMID:15364145

  7. Psychological evaluation of asylum seekers as a therapeutic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangsei, David; Deutsch, Anna C

    2007-01-01

    Torture survivors are often reluctant to tell their stories. They typically make every effort to forget this painful, traumatic experience. Often they do not share with family, friends or healthcare professionals the fact that they have been beaten, raped or subjected to electrical shocks and other terrors. Talking means retrieving memories, triggering the feelings and emotions that accompanied the torture itself. Furthermore, refugee torture survivors feel that people won't understand or believe their experiences. However, survivors who escape their country may need to reveal their torture experience as they apply for asylum in the host country. When they prepare for the asylum process, it may well be the first time that they talk about the torture. Mental health professionals are often called upon to evaluate survivors and prepare affidavits for the asylum process, documenting the effects of torture. This creates a unique and priviliged opportunity to help survivors to address the devastating consequences of torture. Winning asylum is essential to recovery for a torture survivor in a country of refuge. Psychological evaluations of the consequences of torture can present information and evidence to asylum adjudicators which significantly increases understanding of the survivors' background and experiences as well as their manner of self-presentation in the courtroom or interview. They can empower the torture survivor to present his/her experiences more fully and confidently. Even apart from winning asylum, the process of the evaluation has many potential benefits for the survivor's emotional well-being. This includes helping the survivor understand the necessity of telling the story, illuminating the often poorly perceived link between current emotional suffering and past torture, facilitating the development of cognitive and emotional control, and healing the wounds of mistrust, humiliation, marginalization and fear. PMID:17728485

  8. A longitudinal study of change in asylum seekers Activities of Daily Living ability while in asylum centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona;

    2014-01-01

    questionnaire about exposure to torture and trauma. Ten months later, 17 participants were accessible for re-assessment, based on the same instruments as above. The participants took part in the usual activities in a centre during the time between baseline and follow-up. Results: At entrance, the asylum seekers...... impairment that increased during time spent in a centre, and that the increase may be associated with exposure to number of applied torture methods. Contribution to practice/evidence base of occupational therapy: The knowledge contributes to the planning and execution of preventive and rehabilitation...

  9. HIV positive asylum seekers receiving the order to leave the Belgian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Demeester

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In a human rights based approach, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has recently released a resolution about migrants and refugees and the fight against HIV (1. It states that “an HIV positive migrant should never be expelled when it is clear that he will not receive adequate health care and assistance in the country to which he is being sent back. To do otherwise would amount to a death sentence for that person.” Nevertheless, in Belgium, for the last 2 years, none of the HIV-infected migrants in care in the AIDS Reference Centers (ARC received the right to stay in Belgium for medical reasons. Methods: We identified all HIV-infected asylum seekers in care between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2014 in the ARC of Charleroi, Belgium, and we analyzed their medical and social files. Results: Among the 302 patients in active follow up in our ARC, 45 HIV positive asylum seekers were in care during the last 2 years. Male/female ratio was 0/96. Mean age was 35 years. Countries of origin and reasons for migration are detailed in the Table 1. 18% (8/45 knew their seropositivity before arriving in Europe. All the patients introduced an asylum request, 29 (64% have received a negative answer and an order to leave the territory, 4 (9% were regularized for non-medical reasons (see Table 1, 4 (9% are waiting for an answer and for 8 (18% outcome is unknown due to lost follow up (LFU. 31 (69% patients have also introduced a request to stay for medical reasons: 18 (58% have received a refusal, 7 (23% are still waiting for an answer, and 6 (19% are LFU. Only 23 (51% patients are still in care in our ARC on 1 July 2014 (see Table 1. The immigration office bases its decisions on availability of the treatment in the country even if accessible only to a limited number of patients. Conclusions: Decisions taken by the Belgian authorities for the last two years concerning HIV-infected asylum seekers do not guarantee the continuity of care of

  10. EMDR versus Stabilization in traumatized Asylum Seekers and Refugees: Results of a pilot-study

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, ter, H.; Mooren, T.M.; Kleyn, W.; de, Jongh, Petra; Kleber, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees are clinically considered a complex population. Discussion exists on whether with this population treatment guidelines for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be followed and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT) or Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) should be applied, or whether a phased model starting with stabilisation is preferable. Some clinicians fear that trauma-focused interventions may lead...

  11. EMDR versus stabilisation in traumatised asylum seekers and refugees: results of a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M.; Kleijn, Wim; de Jongh, Ad; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees are clinically considered a complex population. Discussion exists on whether with this population treatment guidelines for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be followed and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT) or Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) should be applied, or whether a phased model starting with stabilisation is preferable. Some clinicians fear that trauma-focused interventions may lead...

  12. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder in traumatised asylum seekers: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Kissane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (cPTSD, a construct associated with early onset and repeated interpersonal trauma, has not previously been assessed in asylum seekers who have experienced major human rights violations. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the cPTSD symptom profile in asylum seekers, and to compare this profile between three groups of people who have experienced: human trafficking, domestic violence and/or torture. Methods: Over a period of eight weeks, clinicians working at the Helen Bamber Foundation charity invited 48 patients currently receiving psychotherapy to take part in the study, of whom 30 (62.5% agreed. The structured interview for disorders of extreme stress (SIDES was used to assess cPTSD in 29 asylum seekers, as one patient withdrew during the interview. Results: Participants originated from 18 countries, 72.4% were female, the median age at trauma onset was 17 years and the duration of trauma was ten years. Eight (27.6% participants were found to have cPTSD, defined as having all six symptom clusters, and 15 (51.7% had five or more cPTSD symptom clusters. Age at trauma onset, duration of trauma, last trauma experience, gender and trauma type were not found to be associated with cPTSD presence. Conclusions: Extensive cPTSD symptoms were common in all participants, regardless of the nature of the trauma experienced. Future research is needed to enable generalisability of cPTSD symptom profile in asylum seekers.

  13. Representations of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the Irish Print Media

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Maria

    2001-01-01

    This study examines media representation of asylum seekers and refugees in Ireland. The research is based on a detailed content analysis and discourse analysis of media coverage of the issues involved in immigration in five national newspapers over selected periods. The contention of this work is that much of new public opinion has originated from, and gradually gained strength through, the ideology of the Irish print media.

  14. Transcultural Spirituality: The coping mechanisms of Refugees and Asylum Seekers: A Grounded Theory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Murgatroyd, Tamaryn

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence in the literature to suggest that Spirituality and Culture are neglected in nursing care (Greenstreet, 1999, Fernando, 2004). This has been attributed to lack of understanding and knowledge of how to deliver appropriate spiritual and cultural care, possibly due to the ambiguity of the two concepts. Refugees and Asylum Seekers appear to be vulnerable to mental health problems due to the experiences that they have had, and the lack of social support that they receive in the...

  15. Health and Social Needs of Traumatized Refugees and Asylum Seekers: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Strijk, Patricia; van Meijel, Berno; Gamel, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the care needs of adult traumatized refugees and asylum seekers. DESIGN AND METHODS.  A mixed-methods design was used. A survey was conducted using the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN) among 30 patients. Semistructured in-depth interviews were subsequently conducted with eight of these patients. FINDINGS.  Key themes among refugees are loneliness and grief. Refugees are in severe psychological distress. They also encounter all kinds of practical pr...

  16. Law, dignity & socio-economic rights: the case of asylum seekers in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay of dignity, law and rights as regards the socio-economic rights of asylum seekers. It does so by posing some questions as regards the extent to which this concept of 'reception' is preferable to the issue of socio-economic rights. This paper is not going to discuss the (rather depressing) situation in different EU member states; rather, this paper considers whether systems and processes of international and European human rights law offer heighted ...

  17. Tuberculosis screening and follow-up of asylum seekers in Norway: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garåsen Helge

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 80% of new tuberculosis cases in Norway occur among immigrants from high incidence countries. On arrival to the country all asylum seekers are screened with Mantoux test and chest x-ray aimed to identify cases of active tuberculosis and, in the case of latent tuberculosis, to offer follow-up or prophylactic treatment. We assessed a national programme for screening, treatment and follow-up of tuberculosis infection and disease in a cohort of asylum seekers. Methods Asylum seekers ≥ 18 years who arrived at the National Reception Centre from January 2005 to June 2006, were included as the total cohort. Those with a Mantoux test ≥ 6 mm or positive x-ray findings were included in a study group for follow-up. Data were collected from public health authorities in the municipality to where the asylum seekers had moved, and from hospital based internists in case they had been referred to specialist care. Individual subjects included in the study group were matched with the Norwegian National Tuberculosis Register which receive reports of everybody diagnosed with active tuberculosis, or who had started treatment for latent tuberculosis. Results The total cohort included 4643 adult asylum seekers and 97.5% had a valid Mantoux test. At least one inclusion criterion was fulfilled by 2237 persons. By end 2007 municipal public health authorities had assessed 758 (34% of them. Altogether 328 persons had been seen by an internist. Of 314 individuals with positive x-rays, 194 (62% had seen an internist, while 86 of 568 with Mantoux ≥ 15, but negative x-rays (16% were also seen by an internist. By December 31st 2006, 23 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis (prevalence 1028/100 000 and another 11 were treated for latent infection. Conclusion The coverage of screening was satisfactory, but fewer subjects than could have been expected from the national guidelines were followed up in the community and referred to an internist. To

  18. Mental health of asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren Martina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asylum procedures are known to be protracted, stretching to over ten years in many host countries. International research shows high levels of distress for asylum seekers. Little is known about actual psychiatric morbidity in this population, especially during the first few years postmigration. Methods The mental health status of two groups of asylum seekers was assessed: Group 1 (n = 43 had arrived in Switzerland 2.9 (SD 1.1 months prior to assessment, while Group 2 (n = 43 had arrived 15.5 (SD 3.2 months prior to assessment. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Symptom severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and pain (Verbal Rating Scale were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Postmigratory factors such as German language proficiency and social contacts were also assessed. Interviews were conducted with the assistance of trained interpreters. Results Four out of ten participants met diagnostic criteria for at least one DSM-IV disorder. Groups did not differ with respect to psychiatric morbidity or symptom levels. Major depression (31.4% and PTSD (23.3% were diagnosed most frequently. The number of experienced traumatic event types was highly correlated with psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions Psychiatric morbidity in asylum seekers in the first two years after arrival is high, with no indication of a decrease in mental distress over time. Traumatic experiences seem to play a major role in morbidity during this time. Considering the magnitude of clinically relevant distress, a short psychological screening upon arrival with a focus on traumatic experiences may be warranted.

  19. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oostrum Irene EA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. Methods We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+. The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. Results The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83. No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. Conclusions In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour

  20. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Measles, Rubella and Varicella among Asylum Seekers Arriving in Lower Saxony, Germany, November 2014-October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toikkanen, Salla E; Baillot, Armin; Dreesman, Johannes; Mertens, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The number of asylum seekers arriving in Germany has increased rapidly since 2014 and cases of vaccine-preventable diseases at reception centres were reported. Asylum seekers 12 years and older arriving in Lower Saxony were serologically screened for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella between November 2014 and October 2015. We calculated the seroprevalence from the screening data by disease, country of origin and age group and compared them to literature-based herd immunity thresholds in order to identify immunisation gaps. In total, 23,647 specimens were included in our study. Although the vast majority of asylum seekers tested positive for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella, the seroprevalences were not sufficient to ensure herd immunity. The seroprevalences varied substantially between countries of origin and increased with age. Immunisation of asylum seekers against measles, rubella and varicella is needed and the detailed information on seroprevalences among subgroups of asylum seekers can be used for targeted immunisations at reception centres. PMID:27376309

  1. High Prevalence of Infectious Diseases and Drug-Resistant Microorganisms in Asylum Seekers Admitted to Hospital; No Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae until September 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravensbergen, Sofanne J.; Lokate, Mariette; Cornish, Darren; Kloeze, Eveline; Ott, Alewijn; Friedrich, Alex W.; van Hest, Rob; Akkerman, Onno W.; Lange, de Wiel C.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Bathoorn, Erik; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The current refugee crisis emphasizes the need for information on infectious diseases and resistant microorganisms in asylum seekers with possible consequences for public health and infection control. Methods We collected data from asylum seekers admitted to our university hospital or w

  2. "What if No One Had Spoken out Against this Policy?" The Rise of Asylum Seeker and Refugeee Advocacy in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Gosden

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the rise of an asylum seeker and refugee advocacy movement in Australia in recent years. It situates this phenomenon within Alberto Melucci's understanding of social movements as variable and diffuse forms of social action involved in challenging the logic of a system. Following this theoretical framework, it explores the empirical features of this particular collective action, as well as the struggle to redefine the nature of the relationship between citizens of a sovereign state and 'the other' in the personage of asylum seekers and refugees.

  3. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Pfortmueller, Carmen Andrea; Schwetlick, Miriam; Mueller, Thomas; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria. Methods Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an “a...

  4. Gender and offender status predicting treatment success in refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Stenmark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current knowledge is limited regarding patient characteristics related to treatment outcome of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD in refugees and asylum seekers. Objective: Gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression were investigated for possible effects on the treatment outcome. Method: Patient characteristics were explored in 54 refugees and asylum seekers who had completed a treatment program for PTSD. Non-responders (10, those who had the same or higher levels of symptom severity after treatment, were compared with responders, those who had lower symptom severity after treatment (44. Symptom severity was measured by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The non-responders and responders constituted the dichotomous, dependent variable. The independent variables were gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression. T-tests and Exact Unconditional Homogeneity/Independence Tests for 2X2 Tables were used to study the relationship to treatment outcome. Results: Being male and reporting to have been a violent offender were significantly more frequent characteristics among the non-responders compared to the responders. The levels of pretreatment anger, depression and torture status did not affect the treatment outcome. Conclusions: The study adds support to findings that females benefit more from treatment of PTSD than males and that violent offenders are difficult to treat within the standard treatment programs.

  5. Social factors ameliorate psychiatric disorders in community-based asylum seekers independent of visa status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Debbie C; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sundram, Suresh

    2015-12-15

    The impact of industrialised host nations' deterrent immigration policies on the mental health of forced migrants has not been well characterised. The present study investigated the impact of Australia's refugee determination process (RDP) on psychiatric morbidity in community-based asylum-seekers (AS) and refugees. Psychiatric morbidity was predicted to be greater in AS than refugees, and to persist or increase as a function of time in the RDP. The effect on mental health of demographic and socio-political factors such as health cover and work rights were also investigated. Psychiatric morbidity was measured prospectively on five mental health indices at baseline (T1, n=131) and an average of 15.7 months later (T2, n=56). Psychiatric morbidity in AS significantly decreased between time points such that it was no longer greater than that of refugees at T2. Caseness of PTSD and demoralisation reduced in AS who gained protection; however, those who maintained asylum-seeker status at T2 also had a significant reduction in PTS and depression symptom severity. Reduced PTS and demoralisation symptoms were associated with securing work rights and health cover. Living in the community with work rights and access to health cover significantly improves psychiatric symptoms in forced migrants irrespective of their protection status. PMID:26518226

  6. The association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Lurie, Ido

    2015-07-01

    Past research has documented the role acculturation plays in the process of adjustment to new cultures among migrants. Yet little attention has been paid thus far to the role of acculturation in the context of forced migration. In this study we examined the association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among a convenience sample of Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers (n = 118) who accessed health services at the Physicians for Human Rights Open-Clinic in Israel. Participants completed measures on sociodemographic information as well as detention history, mental health symptoms, exposure to traumatic events, and acculturation pattern, in their native language upon accessing services. Consistent with our predictions, findings showed that acculturation predicted depressive symptoms among asylum seekers beyond the effect of history of detention and reports of experiences of traumatic events. Assimilated compared with integrated asylum seekers reported higher depressive symptoms. Findings draw attention to the paradox of assimilation, and the mental health risks it poses among those wishing to integrate into the new culture at the expanse of their original culture. Asylum seekers may be particularly vulnerable to the risks of assimilation in the restrictive policies that characterize many industrial countries in recent years. PMID:25090150

  7. Monitoring for Equality? Asylum Seekers and Refugees' Retention and Achievement in English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillimore, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the integration of refugees has grown with the increase in numbers of asylum seekers dispersed across the UK. The ability to communicate effectively in English is seen as the key priority in facilitating integration, while a lack of English language is seen as one of the major barriers to refugee employment. Some 267 million British…

  8. Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK: The Challenges of Accessing Education and Employment. NIACE Briefing Sheet 91

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This briefing paper endeavours to highlight the challenges facing refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom in accessing education, training and employment. It does not claim to cover all the issues but is intended as a starting point for providers of adult learning and/or advice. It initially sets out the facts about definitions and…

  9. Unaccompanied & Denied: Regional Legal Framework for Unaccompanied Minors Asylum Seekers (UMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaida Nordin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unaccompanied minor asylum seekers are vulnerable and thus, provided special international law protections. However, in reality, they are being mistreated as illegal immigrants and on thereceiving end of ethnic violence, discrimination, restrictions in enjoyment of their rights duly recognised by international human rights law. This article identifies legislative, policy and supportmechanisms which encompass the minimum UMAS guardianship standards at international law and which are evidence-based from best practice models for the provision of guardians for UMASinternationally. It presents situation of UMAS in relation to human rights violations with emphasis on the legal framework and practices in Australia and five ASEAN State Members. This article also highlights the various stands taken by various countries providing better legal framework and practices regarding the terms for protection and enforcement of human rights for UMAS. Finally, this article provides recommendations for Australia and ASEAN Member States to adopt in order to realise the international human rights of UMAS with respect to guardianship.

  10. Representation of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers and Refugee Affairs In Hungarian Dailies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla VICSEK

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available How does the press in Hungary write about refugees, asylum-seekers and refugee affairs? We sought to answer this question. Articles appearing in 2005 and 2006 in two leading national Hungarian dailies were examined with quantitative content analysis. The results show that the articles analyzed often treat refugee affairs as an “official” political matter. The high proportion of legislation and political positions conveys the image that refugee affairs are a state or intergovernmental matter, an “official”, legal, political issue rather than for example a humanitarian question. Most of the articles published in both papers write about problems and conflicts in connection with refugee affairs. The negative media image has different significance for different topics. We argue that the question of refugee affairs is a topic where the image shown by the media is of great relevance: the media can be a more important source of information on this subject than personal contacts.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Asylum Seekers Ability Regarding Activities of Daily Living During Their Stay in the Asylum Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess change in activities of daily living (ADL) ability amongst asylum seekers and if there were any difference between tortured and non-torture following a 10 months post-arrival period, and if self-reported health and exposure to torture were factors related to change in ADL......-ability. The study was a combined baseline, follow-up correlational study amongst individuals from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria, living in Danish asylum centers. Forty-three persons aged 20-50, were invited and participated in the baseline study. Twenty-two were still in asylum center at the follow-up and 17 of...... depression increased. Exposure to physical torture and change in ADL motor (r = 0.525) measures were associated, as well as change in current pain and change in ADL process (r = 0.525) measures. Due to preponderance of torture survivors analysis of group difference was not applicable. Health care workers...

  12. Protecting and assisting refugees and asylum-seekers in Malaysia : the role of the UNHCR, informal mechanisms, and the 'Humanitarian exception'

    OpenAIRE

    Lego, Jera Beah H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper problematizes Malaysia's apparently contradictory policies – harsh immigration rules applied to refugees and asylum seekers on the one hand, and the continued presence and functioning of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) on the other hand. It asks how it has been possible to protect and assist refugees and asylum seekers in light of such policies and how such protection and assistance is implemented, justified, and maintained. Giorgio Agamben's concept of th...

  13. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  14. Turning Asylum Seekers into ‘Dangerous Criminals’: Experiences of the Criminal Justice System of those Seeking Sanctuary

    OpenAIRE

    Monish Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Since the events of 9/11 in the US in 2001 and, four years later, the 7/7 London bombings in the UK, warnings of terrorist attacks are high on the public agenda in many western countries. Politicians and tabloid press in the UK have continued to make direct and indirect connections between asylum seekers, terrorism and crime. This has increasingly resulted in harsh policy responses to restrict the movement of ‘third-world’ nationals, criminalisation of immigration and asylum policy, and makin...

  15. Responses to language barriers in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers: a telephone survey of Irish general practitioners.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacFarlane, Anne

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refugees and asylum seekers experience language barriers in general practice. Qualitative studies have found that responses to language barriers in general practice are ad hoc with use of both professional interpreters and informal interpreters (patients\\' relatives or friends). However, the scale of the issues involved is unknown. This study quantifies the need for language assistance in general practice consultations and examines the experience of, and satisfaction with, methods of language assistance utilized. METHODS: Data were collected by telephone survey with general practitioners in a regional health authority in Ireland between July-August 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions about consulting with refugees and asylum seekers, the need for language assistance and the kind of language assistance used. RESULTS: There was a 70% (n = 56\\/80) response rate to the telephone survey. The majority of respondents (77%) said that they had experienced consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in which language assistance was required. Despite this, general practitioners in the majority of cases managed without an interpreter or used informal methods of interpretation. In fact, when given a choice general practitioners would more often choose informal over professional methods of interpretation despite the fact that confidentiality was a significant concern. CONCLUSION: The need for language assistance in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in Irish general practice is high. General practitioners rely on informal responses. It is necessary to improve knowledge about the organisational contexts that shape general practitioners responses. We also recommend dialogue between general practitioners, patients and interpreters about the relative merits of informal and professional methods of interpretation so that general practitioners\\' choices are responsive to the needs of patients with limited English.

  16. A mixed-method study of expert psychological evidence submitted for a cohort of asylum seekers undergoing refugee status determination in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Kuowei; Frommer, Naomi; Hunter, Jill; Silove, Derrick; Pearson, Linda; San Roque, Mehera; Redman, Ronnit; Bryant, Richard A; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Steel, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    The levels of exposure to conflict-related trauma and the high rates of mental health impairment amongst asylum seekers pose specific challenges for refugee decision makers who lack mental health training. We examined the use of psychological evidence amongst asylum decision makers in New South Wales, Australia, drawing on the archives of a representative cohort of 52 asylum seekers. A mixed-method approach was used to examine key mental health issues presented in psychological reports accompanying each asylum application, including key documents submitted for consideration of asylum at the primary and review levels. The findings indicated that the majority of decision makers at both levels did not refer to psychological evidence in their decision records. Those who did, particularly in the context of negative decisions, challenged the expert findings and rejected the value of such evidence. Asylum seekers exhibiting traumatic stress symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and avoidance, as well as memory impairment, experienced a lower acceptance rate than those who did not across the primary and review levels. The findings raise concern that trauma-affected asylum seekers may be consistently disadvantaged in the refugee decision-making process and underscore the need to improve the understanding and use of mental health evidence in the refugee decision-making setting. The study findings have been used to develop a set of guidelines to assist refugee decision makers, mental health professionals and legal advisers in improving the quality and use of psychological evidence within the refugee decision-making context. PMID:24331888

  17. The role of social support in the acculturation and mental health of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppedal, Brit; Idsoe, Thormod

    2015-04-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about psychosocial resources that may sustain post-resettlement psychological adjustment among unaccompanied minor asylum-seekers. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of social support from family abroad and friends on acculturation, discrimination, and mental health among these vulnerable children and youth. Questionnaire data were collected from a population-based multi-ethnic sample involving 895 unaccompanied minors resettled in municipalities in all regions of the country. They met in groups in their local communities. The informants were on average 18.6 years, and had an average length of stay in Norway of 3.5 years. The findings showed that the participants suffered from high levels of ongoing war related intrusive symptoms and depression. Still, at the same time they engaged in adaptation processes that are normative to youth with immigrant backgrounds, in terms of constructing supportive networks and developing culture competence. In accordance with the main effect hypothesis, social support had direct effects on depression and indirect effects by increasing culture competence that may aid the young refugees in dealing with discrimination. However, there were no effects of social support on symptoms of PTSD. The findings give direction to areas of interventions, beyond dealing with the sequel of the traumas the unaccompanied minors have been exposed to, not only for clinicians, but also social workers and school personnel. PMID:25614276

  18. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives. PMID:25795221

  19. Turning Asylum Seekers into ‘Dangerous Criminals’: Experiences of the Criminal Justice System of those Seeking Sanctuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish Bhatia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the events of 9/11 in the US in 2001 and, four years later, the 7/7 London bombings in the UK, warnings of terrorist attacks are high on the public agenda in many western countries. Politicians and tabloid press in the UK have continued to make direct and indirect connections between asylum seekers, terrorism and crime. This has increasingly resulted in harsh policy responses to restrict the movement of ‘third-world’ nationals, criminalisation of immigration and asylum policy, and making the violation of immigration laws punishable through criminal courts. This paper largely highlights the narratives of five asylum seekers who committed ‘crime’ by breaching immigration laws and were consequently treated as ‘dangerous criminals’ by the state authorities. More importantly it shows how these individuals experienced this treatment. The aim of this paper is to give voice to the victims of state abuse, claim space for victim agency, gather victim testimonies, challenge official explanations and in the process confront criminal and racist state practices.

  20. Protection of human rights of asylum seekers and illegal migrants: Practice of European court of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Anđela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Court of Human Rights plays an important role in protecting the rights of asylum seekers and illegal migrants through a set of different human rights. Requests for interim measures under Rule 39 of the Rules of Court have also great importance. In cases involving illegal migrants and asylum-seekers, the Court was often in a difficult position, given the contradictions that could arise from the protection of human rights and the legitimate aim of the Contracting States to control the entry, residence and expulsion of aliens. The recent Courts judgments in the case of M. S. S. against Belgium and in the case of Jama Hirsi and others v. Italy are particularly important because of their remarkable influence on the perception of the common asylum system in the EU. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179029: Srbija u savremenim međunarodnim odnosima: Strateški pravci razvoja i učvršćivanja položaja Srbije u međunarodnim integrativnim procesima - spoljnopolitički, međunarodni ekonomski, pravni i bezbednosni aspekti

  1. Factors associated with latent tuberculosis among asylum seekers in Switzerland: a cross-sectional study in Vaud County

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    Sarivalasis Apostolos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in asylum seekers (AS may prevent future cases of tuberculosis. As the screening with Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA is costly, the objective of this study was to assess which factors were associated with LTBI and to define a score allowing the selection of AS with the highest risk of LTBI. Methods In across-sectional study, AS seekers recently arrived in Vaud County, after screening for tuberculosis at the border were offered screening for LTBI with T-SPOT.TB and questionnaire on potentially risk factors. The factors associated with LTBI were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression. Results Among 393 adult AS, 98 (24.93% had a positive IGRA response, five of them with active tuberculosis previously undetected. Six factors associated with LTBI were identified in multivariate analysis: origin, travel conditions, marital status, cough, age and prior TB exposure. Their combination leads to a robust LTBI predictive score. Conclusions The prevalence of LTBI and active tuberculosis in AS is high. A predictive score integrating six factors could identify the asylum seekers with the highest risk for LTBI.

  2. Consultations by Asylum Seekers: Recent Trends in the Emergency Department of a Swiss University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, David; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Large-scale war-related migration to Switzerland and other European countries is currently challenging European health systems. Little is known about recent patterns and trends in Emergency Department (ED) consultations by Asylum Seekers (AS). Methods A retrospective single-centre analysis was performed of the data from all adult patients with the official status of “Asylum Seeker” or “Refugee” who consulted the ED of Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, between June 2012 and June 2015. Patient characteristics and clinical information, such as triage category, type of referral and discharge, violence-related injury and diagnostic group on discharge, were extracted from the computerised database or determined from the medical reports. Changes in categorical variables between the three studied years were described. Results A total of 1,653 eligible adult patients were identified in the 3-year period. Between the first (06/12–06/13) and third periods (06/14–06/15), the number of presentations per year increased by about 45%. The AS came from 62 different nations, the most common countries being Eritrea (13%), Somalia (13%) and Syria (11%). The mean age was 33.3 years (SD 12.3) and two thirds (65.7%) were male. The proportion of women increased over time. Moreover the relative proportions shifted from patients between 20 and 50 years to patients of under 20 or over 60 years. Nearly two thirds of the patients were walk-in emergencies and this proportion increased over time. The mean triage score was 2.9 (SD 0.7), with more than 90% presenting as “urgent consultation”. About half of the patients were treated for trauma (17.2%), infections (16.8%) or psychiatric problems (14.2%). Trauma was seen in a higher proportion of male than female patients. About 25% of the patients were admitted for in-hospital treatment. Conclusions The recent rise in AS in the population has lead to an increase in AS presenting to EDs. This changes the composition of

  3. Medical care of asylum seekers: a descriptive study of the appropriateness of nurse practitioners' care compared to traditional physician-based care in a gatekeeping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pécoud Alain

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical care for asylum seekers is a complex and critical issue worldwide. It is influenced by social, political, and economic pressures, as well as premigration conditions, the process of migration, and postmigration conditions in the host country. Increasing needs and healthcare costs have led public health authorities to put nurse practitioners in charge of the management of a gatekeeping system for asylum seekers. The quality of this system has never been evaluated. We assessed the competencies of nurses and physicians in identifying the medical needs of asylum seekers and providing them with appropriate treatment that reflects good clinical practice. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated the appropriateness of care provided to asylum seekers by trained nurse practitioners in nursing healthcare centers and by physicians in private practices, an academic medical outpatient clinic, and the emergency unit of the university hospital in Lausanne, Switzerland. From 1687 asylum seeking patients who had consulted each setting between June and December 2003, 450 were randomly selected to participate. A panel of experts reviewed their medical records and assessed the appropriateness of medical care received according to three parameters: 1 use of appropriate procedures to identify medical needs (medical history, clinical examination, complementary investigations, and referral, 2 provision of access to treatment meeting medical needs, and 3 absence of unnecessary medical procedures. Results In the nurse practitioner group, the procedures used to identify medical needs were less often appropriate (79% of reports vs. 92.4% of reports; p Conclusion Although the nursing gatekeeping system provides appropriate treatment to asylum seekers, it might be improved with further training in recording medical history and performing targeted clinical examination.

  4. Non-clinicians’ judgments about asylum seekers’ mental health: how do legal representatives of asylum seekers decide when to request medico-legal reports?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Wilson-Shaw

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : Procedures for determining refugee status across Europe are being speeded up, despite the high prevalence of mental health difficulties among asylum seekers. An assurance given is that ‘‘vulnerable applicants’’ will be identified and excluded from accelerated procedures. Although experts have recommended assessments to be undertaken by experienced clinicians, this is unlikely to happen for political and financial reasons. Understanding how non-clinically qualified personnel perform assessments of mental health issues is timely and crucial. Misrecognition of refugees due to the inappropriate use of accelerated procedures involves the risk of returning the very people who have the right to protection from further persecution. Objective : To examine the decision making of immigration lawyers, who are an example of a group of nonclinicians who decide when and whether to refer asylum-seekers for psychiatric assessment. Method : Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 legal representatives working with people seeking refugee or human rights protection in the United Kingdom. The resultant material was analysed using Framework Analysis. Results : Themes clustered around the legal case, the client, the representative and the systems, all with sub-themes. A mapping exercise integrated these themes to show how representatives brought together questions of (1 evidential reasons for a report, influenced by their legal, psychological and case law knowledge, and (2 perceived evidence of mental distress, influenced by professional and personal experiences and expectations. Conclusions : The legal representatives interviewed were well-informed and trained in psychological issues as well as clearly dedicated to their clients. This helped them to attempt quasi-diagnoses of common mental health problems. They nonetheless demonstrated stereotypical understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder and other possible diagnoses and the

  5. EMDR versus stabilisation in traumatised asylum seekers and refugees: results of a pilot study

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    Rolf J. Kleber

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees are clinically considered a complex population. Discussion exists on whether with this population treatment guidelines for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD should be followed and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT or Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR should be applied, or whether a phased model starting with stabilisation is preferable. Some clinicians fear that trauma-focused interventions may lead to unmanageable distress or may be ineffective. While cognitive-behavioural interventions have been found to be effective with traumatised refugees, no studies concerning the efficacy of EMDR with this population have been conducted as yet.In preparation for a randomised trial comparing EMDR and stabilisation with traumatised refugees, a pilot study with 20 participants was conducted. The objective was to examine feasibility of participation in a randomised trial for this complex population and to examine acceptability and preliminary efficacy of EMDR.Participants were randomly allocated to 11 sessions of either EMDR or stabilisation. Symptoms of PTSD (SCID-I, HTQ, depression and anxiety (HSCL-25, and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF were assessed at pre- and post-treatment and 3-month follow-up.Participation of traumatised refugees in the study was found feasible, although issues associated with complex traumatisation led to a high pre-treatment attrition and challenges in assessments. Acceptability of EMDR was found equal to that of stabilisation with a high drop-out for both conditions. No participants dropped out of the EMDR condition because of unmanageable distress. While improvement for EMDR participants was small, EMDR was found to be no less efficacious than stabilisation. Different symptom courses between the two conditions, with EMDR showing some improvement and stabilisation showing some deterioration between pre-treatment and post-treatment, justify the conduct

  6. Punished for Persecution: An Analysis of the Criminalization of the Asylum Seeker in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Haglund, Molly Grace

    2012-01-01

    Far from a welcoming and humane reception, those seeking asylum within the United Kingdom are confronted with obstacles at all levels of their search for protection. Rather than fulfill their responsibilities to refugees, the UK has sought to avoid its international legal obligations through the implementation of deterrence policies—practices that seek to evade and deny the offering of protection at various levels of the asylum process. These policies not only actively oppose the best inter...

  7. The Association Between Postnatal Depression, Acculturation and Mother-Infant Bond Among Eritrean Asylum Seekers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Lurie, Ido

    2016-10-01

    We examined the association between postnatal depression (PND), acculturation and mother-infant bond among 38 Eritrean asylum seekers in Israel, who were within 6 months of delivery. Participants completed a survey in their native language. A high rate of women (81.6 %) met the clinical threshold for PND on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Higher severity of PND (partial r = -.64, p < .001), higher identification with Israeli culture (partial r = -.45, p = .02), and lower quality of romantic relationship were associated with impaired mother-infant bond (partial r = .58, p = .002). Findings highlight the need to establish services to screen and treat PND among this vulnerable population in the receiving countries. PMID:26864379

  8. Fleeing the Drug War Next Door: Drug-related Violence as a Basis for Refugee Protection for Mexican Asylum-Seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Buchanan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The death toll in Mexico due to drug-related violence has continued to rise since President Felipe Calderón initiated the Mexican Government's crackdown on drug trafficking organizations in 2006. Pervasive corruption among state and local government officials and alleged human rights violations by the Mexican military have added to the gravity of the endemic drug-related violence in Mexico. In response to the continuous violence in Mexico perpetrated by drug trafficking organiza- tions, a substantial number of Mexican citizens have fled to the United States seeking asylum. Due to the strict requirements for refugee status under international law and asylum protection under U.S. law, individuals seeking protection based on drug-related violence face several legal obstacles. This Article addresses the extent to which drug-related violence may con- stitute a basis for refugee status protection under international refugee law and U.S. asylum law. It seeks to provide insight into the potential viability of claims for refugee status brought by Mexican asylum-seekers fleeing drug-related violence. This Article concludes with a discussion on complementary protection under the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment for Mexican asylum-seekers.

  9. Fleeing the Drug War Next Door: Drug-related Violence as a Basis for Refugee Protection for Mexican Asylum-Seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Buchanan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The death toll in Mexico due to drug-related violence has continued to rise since President Felipe Calderón initiated the Mexican Government's crackdown on drug trafficking organizations in 2006. Pervasive corruption among state and local government officials and alleged human rights violations by the Mexican military have added to the gravity of the endemic drug-related violence in Mexico. In response to the continuous violence in Mexico perpetrated by drug trafficking organiza- tions, a substantial number of Mexican citizens have fled to the United States seeking asylum. Due to the strict requirements for refugee status under international law and asylum protection under U.S. law, individuals seeking protection based on drug-related violence face several legal obstacles. This Article addresses the extent to which drug-related violence may con- stitute a basis for refugee status protection under international refugee law and U.S. asylum law. It seeks to provide insight into the potential viability of claims for refugee status brought by Mexican asylum-seekers fleeing drug-related violence. This Article concludes with a discussion on complementary protection under the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment for Mexican asylum-seekers.  

  10. Experiences of Young (Minor) Asylum Seekers in Further Education in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Damian

    2015-01-01

    This study appraises the particular challenges that minor asylum-seeking migrants who are in the 16-18 age category confront when pursuing their studies in a vocational college in Malta, a central Mediterranean island which is the smallest EU member state. The study explores how they exercise resilience in their desire to forge a future for…

  11. Sexual health is dead in my body: participatory assessment of sexual health determinants in refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Keygnaert, Ines; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although migrants constitute an important proportion of the European population, little is known about migrant sexual health. Existing research mainly focuses on migrants' sexual health risks and accessibility issues while recommendations on adequate sexual health promotion are rarely provided. Hence, this paper explores how refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands define sexual health, search for sexual health information and perceive sexu...

  12. Paraprofessional counselling within asylum seekers' groups in the Netherlands: transferring an approach for a non-western context to a European setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Barbara; Jordans, Mark J D; de Jong, Joop T V M; Kamperman, Astrid M

    2008-03-01

    This article presents the application of a psychosocial care approach, which has been developed for and in a non-western context, within an asylum seekers' setting in the Netherlands. The project aimed to increase access to basic psychosocial care to a target population that experiences difficulties in entering mental healthcare services, by a group of trained peer asylum seekers and refugees. The development of an informal paraprofessional support system makes better use of existing resources, provides secondary benefits for the participants and helps to overcome the treatment gap between perceived needs and the formal mental healthcare system. The article describes the key components of such an approach, the Dutch context, the project implementation and finishes with a discussion on outcomes, strengths and weaknesses, risks and recommendations. In summary, we found this community approach to be applicable and relevant within an asylum seekers' centre, as it incorporates an additional easy-access level of psychosocial care and social agency, which seemed to empower participants and help prevent psychosocial problems from becoming more severe. PMID:18344254

  13. High Prevalence of Infectious Diseases and Drug-Resistant Microorganisms in Asylum Seekers Admitted to Hospital; No Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae until September 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, Sofanne J.; Lokate, Mariëtte; Cornish, Darren; Kloeze, Eveline; Ott, Alewijn; Friedrich, Alex W.; van Hest, Rob; Akkerman, Onno W.; de Lange, Wiel C.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Bathoorn, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The current refugee crisis emphasizes the need for information on infectious diseases and resistant microorganisms in asylum seekers with possible consequences for public health and infection control. Methods We collected data from asylum seekers admitted to our university hospital or who presented at the Emergency Department (n = 273). We collected general and demographic characteristics including country of origin, the reason of presentation, and the screening results of multi-drug resistant organisms. Results 67% of the patients were male with a median age of the study group of 24 years (IQR 15–33); 48% of the patients had an infectious disease—predominantly malaria with P. vivax or tuberculosis. Patients also reported with diseases which are less common—e.g. leishmaniasis, or even conditions rarely diagnosed in Europe—e.g. louse borne relapsing fever. A carriage rate of 31% for multi-drug resistant microorganisms (MDRO) was observed, with ESBL-expressing E.coli (n = 20) being the most common MDRO. No carriage of Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae was found. Conclusion The current refugee crisis in Europe challenges hospitals to quickly identify and respond to communicable diseases and the carriage of MDRO. A rapid response is necessary to optimize the treatment of infectious diseases amongst asylum seekers to maximize infection control. PMID:27144599

  14. High Prevalence of Infectious Diseases and Drug-Resistant Microorganisms in Asylum Seekers Admitted to Hospital; No Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae until September 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofanne J Ravensbergen

    Full Text Available The current refugee crisis emphasizes the need for information on infectious diseases and resistant microorganisms in asylum seekers with possible consequences for public health and infection control.We collected data from asylum seekers admitted to our university hospital or who presented at the Emergency Department (n = 273. We collected general and demographic characteristics including country of origin, the reason of presentation, and the screening results of multi-drug resistant organisms.67% of the patients were male with a median age of the study group of 24 years (IQR 15-33; 48% of the patients had an infectious disease-predominantly malaria with P. vivax or tuberculosis. Patients also reported with diseases which are less common-e.g. leishmaniasis, or even conditions rarely diagnosed in Europe-e.g. louse borne relapsing fever. A carriage rate of 31% for multi-drug resistant microorganisms (MDRO was observed, with ESBL-expressing E.coli (n = 20 being the most common MDRO. No carriage of Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae was found.The current refugee crisis in Europe challenges hospitals to quickly identify and respond to communicable diseases and the carriage of MDRO. A rapid response is necessary to optimize the treatment of infectious diseases amongst asylum seekers to maximize infection control.

  15. A group-based approach to stabilisation and symptom management in a phased treatment model for refugees and asylum seekers

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    Mary E. A. Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees may present with significant and complex mental health problems as a result of prolonged, extreme, and multiple traumatic events. This is further complicated by ongoing complex social circumstances. Concepts: In our work at the Traumatic Stress Clinic (TSC, the understanding afforded by the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD together with the related notion of a phased treatment model, provides a useful framework for organising our work with this population. Clinical Applications: An explication of complex PTSD as it applies to our client group is presented, followed by a description of our phased treatment model and an outline of the core principles, which guide our clinical approach. Our symptom management and stabilisation groups have been developed and refined over time and draw on techniques from a variety of cognitive behavioural therapies. These are described in some detail with illustrative clinical case vignettes. Conclusion: This paper concludes with some reflections on the challenges inherent to working with this complex client group.

  16. When the foundations of life have been upset... An integrated clinical and experimental study with refugees an asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiltz, Lony

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim Recent research results in clinical psychology, health psychology and neurobiology underline the relationship between dissociative states, complex posttraumatic syndromes and borderline functioning [11]. Our study is meant to investigate the traumatic hypothesis of borderline functioning and to develop appropriate psychotherapeutic measures based on artistic mediations.Material and Methods.To estimate the effect of traumatic events, from the beginning of life up to recent stressors, linked to natural catastrophes, war, political persecution and migration, we undertook an integrated clinical and experimental study with a sample of 73 refugees and asylum seekers. In a second stage, those who suffered from PTSD or complex post-traumatic states were offered to attend arts psychotherapeutic sessions.To investigate the personality functioning at the structural level, we used a mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology, combining a semi-structured biographical interview, a projective test, i.e. the Sentences Completion Test, for which we developed a new manner of interpretation, and psychometric scales, i.e. the HADS and the Index of Wellbeing . Furthermore, we analysed the artistic production (pictures, stories written under musical induction with the help of rating scales constructed in the phenomenological and structural tradition.Results. With the help of non parametric multidimensional statistics, we extracted two profiles of personality functioning, linked either to repeated breaks, negligence and maltreatment from the beginningof life, or either to a recent external catastrophe, interrupting a continuous life course. Through the evaluation of the arts therapeutic sessions, we could note the first signs of resumption of the blocked process of subjectivation.Discussion.The results of the study support the traumatogenic hypothesis of borderline functioning, as well as current clinical considerations concerning the defensive role of

  17. Life in dispersal : narratives of asylum, identity and community

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how the immigration status of the 'asylum seeker' impacts upon notions of 'identity', 'community' and 'belonging' whilst claiming asylum in the UK. By taking a narrativedialogical approach this research explores the stories that have been constructed around 'asylum' by policy, those working with 'asylum seekers' and 'asylum seekers' themselves. This research looks at how the 'official' narratives of asylum are operationalised and delivered by workers contrac...

  18. ‚Getting Asylum Seekers into Employment‘? – Ein Allheilmittel für die Europäische Einwanderungspolitik?

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2012-01-01

    The cross-national empirics of the international asylum system are in their infancy. While Hatton, 2009, and Neumayer, 2005, 2006a and 2006b provided important and valuable cross-national insights on the drivers of the asylum seeking process, as yet little is known in terms of hard-core evidence about the effects of asylum-driven migration processes on the recipient countries. But such analyses are necessary, since asylum plays such an important role in the overall South-North migration proce...

  19. The Impact of Direct Provision Accommodation for Asylum Seekers on Organisation and Delivery of Local Primary Care and Social Care Services: A Case Study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pieper, Hans-Olaf

    2011-05-15

    Abstract Background Many western countries have policies of dispersal and direct provision accommodation (state-funded accommodation in an institutional centre) for asylum seekers. Most research focuses on its effect on the asylum seeking population. Little is known about the impact of direct provision accommodation on organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services in the community. The aim of this research is to explore this issue. Methods In 2005 a direct provision accommodation centre was opened in a rural area in Ireland. A retrospective qualitative case study was designed comprising in-depth interviews with 37 relevant stakeholders. Thematic analysis following the principles of framework analysis was applied. Results There was lack of advance notification to primary care and social care professionals and the community about the new accommodation centre. This caused anxiety and stress among relevant stakeholders. There was insufficient time to plan and prepare appropriate primary care and social care for the residents, causing a significant strain on service delivery. There was lack of clarity about how primary care and social care needs of the incoming residents were to be addressed. Interdisciplinary support systems developed informally between healthcare professionals. This ensured that residents of the accommodation centre were appropriately cared for. Conclusions Direct provision accommodation impacts on the organisation and delivery of local primary care and social care services. There needs to be sufficient advance notification and inter-agency, inter-professional dialogue to manage this. Primary care and social care professionals working with asylum seekers should have access to training to enhance their skills for working in cross-cultural consultations.

  20. If You Want to Go Fast Go Alone, If You Want to Go Far Go Together: On Context-Sensitive Group Treatment of Asylum Seekers and Refugees Traumatized by War and Terror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drozdek, B.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a model for understanding psychological consequences of exposure to war, torture and political violence in asylum seekers and refugees. This contextual, developmental, and culture-sensitive model is based on theoretical and empirical findings and implies framing and interpreting

  1. "They think we're OK and we know we're not". A qualitative study of asylum seekers' access, knowledge and views to health care in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Kenneth

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of healthcare for asylum seekers is a global issue. Providing appropriate and culturally sensitive services requires us to understand the barriers facing asylum seekers and the facilitators that help them access health care. Here, we report on two linked studies exploring these issues, along with the health care needs and beliefs of asylum seekers living in the UK. Methods Two qualitative methods were employed: focus groups facilitated by members of the asylum seeking community and interviews, either one-to-one or in a group, conducted through an interpreter. Analysis was facilitated using the Framework method. Results Most asylum seekers were registered with a GP, facilitated for some by an Asylum Support nurse. Many experienced difficulty getting timely appointments with their doctor, especially for self-limiting symptoms that they felt could become more serious, especially in children. Most were positive about the health care they received, although some commented on the lack of continuity. However, there was surprise and disappointment at the length of waiting times both for hospital appointments and when attending accident and emergency departments. Most had attended a dentist, but usually only when there was a clinical need. The provision of interpreters in primary care was generally good, although there was a tension between interpreters translating verbatim and acting as patient advocates. Access to interpreters in other settings, e.g. in-patient hospital stays, was problematic. Barriers included the cost of over-the-counter medication, e.g. children's paracetamol; knowledge of out-of-hours medical care; and access to specialists in secondary care. Most respondents came from countries with no system of primary medical care, which impacted on their expectations of the UK system. Conclusion Most asylum seekers were positive about their experiences of health care. However, we have identified issues

  2. If You Want to Go Fast Go Alone, If You Want to Go Far Go Together: On Context-Sensitive Group Treatment of Asylum Seekers and Refugees Traumatized by War and Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdek, B.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a model for understanding psychological consequences of exposure to war, torture and political violence in asylum seekers and refugees. This contextual, developmental, and culture-sensitive model is based on theoretical and empirical findings and implies framing and interpreting of life events in “the ecological environment” and throughout the life-span of a survivor. The model investigates into both sources of damage and resilience in traumatized individuals in order to ...

  3. [Sequential traumatization, trauma-related disorders and psychotherapeutic approaches in war-traumatized adult refugees and asylum seekers in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, Maria; Heeke, Carina; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-05-01

    The impact of war and violence on the mental and physical health of the civilian population is immense. Traumatization is often experienced sequentially, which leads to a higher risk for developing trauma-related disorders (PTSD, depression, chronic pain).Refugees traumatized by war experience specific stressors related to their status of residence (e. g., application hearing, length of the asylum procedure). Together with limited access to health care, these constitute additional risk factors for developing somatic and psychological illnesses.Adequate treatment for this highly vulnerable group requires a multimodal approach facilitated by translators. According to the S3 guidelines (S3-Richtlinien), trauma-adapted psychotherapeutic treatment has to be complemented by the activities of social workers, by medical treatment, and by legal advice. PMID:27072498

  4. Political representation for social justice in nursing: lessons learned from participant research with destitute asylum seekers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthill, Fiona

    2016-09-01

    The concept of social justice is making a revival in nursing scholarship, in part in response to widening health inequalities and inequities in high-income countries. In particular, critical nurse scholars have sought to develop participatory research methods using peer researchers to represent the 'voice' of people who are living in marginalized spaces in society. The aim of this paper is to report on the experiences of nurse and peer researchers as part of a project to explore the experiences of people who find themselves destitute following the asylum process in the UK. In seeking to explore social injustice, three challenges are identified: lack of a robust political theory, institutional/professional constraints and an absence of skills to engage with the politics of social (in)justice. Each challenge is presented, opposing voices outlined and some possible solutions are suggested. The work of political theorist Nancy Fraser is used as a conceptual framework, in particular her focus on mis/framing and political representation for social justice. In addition, it is suggested that social justice needs to be further embedded in nursing policy and curriculum. Finally, nurses are encouraged to develop practical political skills to engage with both politics and the media in a neoliberal globalizing world. PMID:27562573

  5. Effect of Restricting Access to Health Care on Health Expenditures among Asylum-Seekers and Refugees: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Germany, 1994-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayvan Bozorgmehr

    Full Text Available Access to health care for asylum-seekers and refugees (AS&R in Germany is initially restricted before regular access is granted, allegedly leading to delayed care and increasing costs of care. We analyse the effects of (a restricted access; and (b two major policy reforms (1997, 2007 on incident health expenditures for AS&R in 1994-2013.We used annual, nation-wide, aggregate data of the German Federal Statistics Office (1994-2013 to compare incident health expenditures among AS&R with restricted access (exposed to AS&R with regular access (unexposed. We calculated incidence rate differences (∆IRt and rate ratios (IRRt, as well as attributable fractions among the exposed (AFe and the total population (AFp. The effects of between-group differences in need, and of policy reforms, on differences in per capita expenditures were assessed in (segmented linear regression models. The exposed and unexposed groups comprised 4.16 and 1.53 million person-years. Per capita expenditures (1994-2013 were higher in the group with restricted access in absolute (∆IRt = 375.80 Euros [375.77; 375.89] and relative terms (IRR = 1.39. The AFe was 28.07% and the AFp 22.21%. Between-group differences in mean age and in the type of accommodation were the main independent predictors of between-group expenditure differences. Need variables explained 50-75% of the variation in between-group differences over time. The 1997 policy reform significantly increased ∆IRt adjusted for secular trends and between-group differences in age (by 600.0 Euros [212.6; 986.2] and sex (by 867.0 Euros [390.9; 1342.5]. The 2007 policy reform had no such effect.The cost of excluding AS&R from health care appears ultimately higher than granting regular access to care. Excess expenditures attributable to the restriction were substantial and could not be completely explained by differences in need. An evidence-informed discourse on access to health care for AS&R in Germany is needed; it

  6. Bogus refugees? The determinants of asylum migration to Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the determinants of asylum migration to Western Europe. Potential asylum seekers balance the costs of staying versus the costs of migrating. Estimation results confirm that economic hardship and economic discrimination against ethnic minorities lead to higher flows of asylum seekers. However, political oppression, human rights abuse, violent conflict and state failure are also important determinants. Migration networks and geographical proximity are important facilitator...

  7. Gender Variation in Asylum Experiences in the UK: The Role of Patriarchy and Coping Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth L Healey

    2010-01-01

    Previous work suggests that female asylum seekers and refugees have more constraints on their actions than their male counterparts, as structural forces from the country of origin are reproduced in the host country. This paper explores the use of structuration theory in interpreting the impact of gender upon asylum seeker and refugee experiences in the UK. The experiences of, and coping strategies used by 8 male and 10 female asylum seekers and refugees from two different cities are analysed....

  8. Refugee families during asylum seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourander, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The mental health of refugee families with children during the asylum period is a neglected research area in psychiatry. The present paper describes the situation of 10 refugee families residing at an asylum centre in Finland. Case vignettes are presented to illustrate the situations of these families. The study shows a high rate of depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder-related symptoms among adult refugees. The case vignettes suggest that during the asylum period, many children and adult members of the family are not in a post-traumatic situation, but they live constantly in a distressing situation. The foremost distress amongst the asylum seekers appeared to be fear of deportation and separation from family members. Most of the adults and all children had not received any psychiatric or psychotherapeutic assessment or treatment. It is likely that current procedures for dealing with the asylum seekers contributes to the level of stress, family confusion and psychiatric problems in already traumatized refugee families. PMID:12775295

  9. Suffering and the struggle for recognition : lived experiences of the U.S. political asylum process

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Bridget Marie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study of seeking political asylum in the United States. With the implementation of restrictive immigration measures, particularly following September 11, 2001, seeking asylum in the U.S. has become increasingly onerous and protracted. From an institutional standpoint, the goal of the asylum process is to discern 'deserving' migrants ('authentic' refugees) from 'undeserving' migrants ('bogus' asylum seekers, economic migrants), and the process is undergirde...

  10. ASYLUM SEEKERS IN JAPAN: A HARD ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Japan has ratified the 1951 Convention regarding the status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees since 1981 and 1982, yet Japan only accepted an exceptionally low number of refugees in the course 30 years since it ratified the Convention. Japan needs to closely revise and align its national policies with international agreements that it is signatory to. The main framework with which Japan’s government still tackles the issue of refugees is tightly restrained by its overall controlling immigration policies in an attempt to remain a homogenous nation. Japan has a long way to go in order to fully comply with the spirit of the Convention, the Protocol, and international instruments relating to the Status of Refugees. Jepang telah meratifikasi Konvensi Mengenai Status Pengungsi 1951 dan Protokol tentang Kedudukan Pengungsi 1967 sejak tahun 1981 dan 1982, namun Jepang hanya menerima sejumlah kecil pengungsi dalam kurun waktu 30 tahun sejak diratifikasinya konvensi tersebut. Jepang harus meninjau kembali dan memastikan bahwa kebijakan-kebijakan nasional negaranya telah sesuai dengan perjanjian internasional yang telah ditandatangani Jepang. Kerangka kerja pemerintah Jepang dalam menangani isu pengungsi sangat dibatasi oleh berbagai pengetatan kebijakan imigrasi yang dikeluarkan dalam semangat mempertahankan homogenitas bangsa. Jepang memiliki banyak pekerjaan rumah yang harus dilakukan agar dapat memenuhi semangat konvensi, protokol, dan berbagai instrumen internasional terkait status pengungsi.

  11. Urban asylum seekers and refugees in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vera den Otter

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties faced by urban refugees are often different from those faced by refugees in camps but are no less serious. The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS ) in Bangkok is struggling to support growing numbers of urban refugees in Thailand.

  12. Setting policy on asylum: Has the EU got it right?

    OpenAIRE

    Hatton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Policy toward asylum-seekers has been controversial. Since the late 1990s, the EU has been developing a Common European Asylum System, but without clearly identifying the basis for cooperation. Providing a safe haven for refugees can be seen as a public good and this provides the rationale for policy coordination between governments. But where the volume of applications differs widely across countries, policy harmonization is not sufficient. Burden-sharing measures are needed as well, in orde...

  13. Tradable Refugee-admission Quotas: a Policy Proposal to Reform the EU Asylum Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hillel Rapoport; Jesús Fernández-Huertas Moraga

    2014-01-01

    he current EU Asylum policy is widely seen as ineffective and unfair. We propose an EU-wide market for tradable quotas on both refugees and asylum-seekers coupled with a matching mechanism linking countries' and migrants' preferences. We show that the proposed system can go a long way towards addressing the shortcomings of the existing system. We illustrate this claim using the recent problems regarding relocation faced by the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) in Malta.

  14. Light seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Mestres Sierra, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Light Seekers represents a light and colour allegory, becoming a tribute to the French Impressionism. This audiovisual piece is a travel through the artist’s creative process from a magic point of view: the alchemy. A conceptual tour starting from the usual mundane things until the achievement of the mind’s spiritual ascension. A collection of emotions and sensations interlaced through music and landscapes, rhythm and colour

  15. An Overview of Pending Asylum and Refugee Legislation in the US Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Nezer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no significant legislation related to the asylum process enacted in Congress in nearly a decade.  In 1996, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act (IIRIRA became law, rolling back protections for asylum seekers by including a one-year deadline for filing asylum applications, subjecting asylum seekers to “expedited removal” procedures, and expanding the detention of asylum seekers. In 2005, Congress enacted the REAL ID Act, which created additional legal barriers to asylum, including new requirements for proving an asylum claim. During the past several sessions of Congress, bills have been introduced that would make significant changes to the country’s asylum laws and refugee admissions program. This paper provides an overview of the pending legislation and the changes proposed.  This overview is instructive in understanding (1 which members of Congress have demonstrated interest and leadership in refugee and asylum issues; (2 which refugee and asylum reform issues have been of most interest to members of Congress in recent years; (3 the different approaches to refugee and asylum issues by members of Congress who have shown leadership on these issues; and (4 which provisions have been enacted, which have gained traction, and which remain pending without significant movement through the legislative process.While it is difficult to imagine in the current partisan climate how any asylum or refugee legislation could be enacted into law, some legislative provisions have been reintroduced over a number of sessions of Congress and some have a history of bipartisan support.  Legislation focused on a group of particular interest or concern to members of Congress could gain traction.  A more comprehensive legislative approach framed by the need generally to improve the system could be less effective, particularly in the context of the years-long stalemate on comprehensive immigration reform

  16. EU common policy on illegal immigration and asylum: adding to the copenhagen school

    OpenAIRE

    Karadağ, Sibel; Karadag, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study is on the common policy of the European Union on illegal immigration and asylum. It particularly explores the adaptability of the Copenhagen School's securitization theory in the context of European immigration policy. The study examines a central puzzle: although the representation of illegal immigrants and asylum seekers as an existential threat has been securitized at the discursive level, this has not contributed to extraordinary measures in the course of the European integrati...

  17. Measuring common standards and equal responsibility-sharing in EU asylum outcome data

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Bovens; Chlump Chatkupt; Laura Smead

    2012-01-01

    We construct novel measures to assess (i) the extent to which European Union member states are using common standards in recognizing asylum seekers and (ii) the extent to which the responsibilities for asylum applications, acceptances and refugee populations are equally shared among the member states, taking into account population size, gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP expressed in purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP). We track the progression of these measures since the implementation of t...

  18. United States refugee and asylum policy: history and current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, B N

    1986-01-01

    For most of the 4 decades since World War II, US refugee and asylum policy has been generous but ad hoc, discretionary, and highly variable favoring some refugee groups and discriminating against or ignoring others. This paper: 1) tries to clarify some of the terminology of the refugee field and explains the distinctions between asylum and resettlement, 2) provides some of the historical background that has brought the US to its present condition and chronicles the US overseas refugee admission policy, and 3) examines some asylum issues and other refugee issues. Asylum is far more difficult to control than refugee resettlement. As a result of what is perceived to be abuse of the asylum system, the US has joined the growing tendency of states to treat asylum-seekers as illegal migrants. The greatest problem with American asylum policy is its lack of fairness of application; many critics believe that foreign policy factors dominate asylum hearings rather than the individual merits of the case. The 3 classic solutions to this problem are resettlement, voluntary repatriation, and settlement in a country of 1st asylum. Only in the Indochinese refugee crisis has resettlement been widely used as a solution for 3rd World refugees. Nationalism and nation-building conflicts are at the root of many refugee movements; hosts are often no less nationalistic than source countries, thus many non-integrated refugees live in peril. Developed country political will and statesmanship are needed to revive resettlement as a durable solution. Resettlement may be difficult and costly, but the pluralistic western societies do offer an integrated new life. PMID:12178938

  19. [Asylum in Switzerland. Some aspects of refugee migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzman, C; Musillo, I

    1987-06-01

    "Switzerland is the European country which, after Sweden, has received the highest number of refugees (30,000) in proportion to its population. Asylum seekers have increased considerably since 1979. They are coming mostly from Third World, politically unsettled countries. The essay presents the results of a survey conducted in Geneva on a sample of 549 asylum seekers assisted by public welfare agencies from 1974 to 1983. These refugees belong to the younger age bracket of the active population. About half of them have completed their secondary or tertiary education. But their professional, social and cultural adjustment poses some problems. The vast majority of them, in fact, are employed in unqualified occupations in the tertiary sectors." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12315256

  20. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and discuss

  1. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Keygnaert; S.F. Dias; O. Degomme; W. Devillé; P. Kennedy; A. Kováts; S. De Meyer; N. Vettenburg; K. Roelens; M. Temmerman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and discuss

  2. Unaccompanied adolescents seeking asylum : poorer mental health under a restrictive reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%], res

  3. Policies of exclusion and practices of inclusion: how municipal governments negotiate asylum policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kos; M. Maussen; J. Doomernik

    2015-01-01

    There is a major gap in Dutch refugee and immigration control policies between its ambitions and outcomes. It results in considerable numbers of rejected asylum seekers who, while they cannot be expelled from the country, are excluded from government support and from opportunities to work in the bel

  4. Gender Variation in Asylum Experiences in the UK: The Role of Patriarchy and Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. HEALEY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous work suggests that female asylum seekers and refugees have more constraints on their actions than their male counterparts, as structural forces from the country of origin are reproduced in the host country. This paper explores the use of structuration theory in interpreting the impact of gender upon asylum seeker and refugee experiences in the UK. The experiences of, and coping strategies used by 8 male and 10 female asylum seekers and refugees from two different cities are analysed. Their experiences are examined in relation to different patriarchal forces. In comparison to the males, differences are apparent in the level and types of agency of the female asylum seekers and refugees. Within this study certain types of patriarchy are reproduced in British society particularly at the household level, whilst individuals are also influenced by institutional patriarchy within the wider society. The variation in experiences found here suggests the need for policy to recognise the heterogeneity of these groups, so as to provide the most appropriate support for individuals.

  5. Access to Personal Data and the Right to Good Governance during Asylum Procedures after the CJEU’s YS and M. and S. judgment (C-141/12 and C-372/12)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Brouwer; F. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2015-01-01

    In the YS. and M. and S. judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled on three procedures in which Dutch judges asked for clarification on the right of asylum seekers to have access to the documents regarding the decision on asylum applications. The judgment is relevant for interpretin

  6. How do NGO's influence asylum policies in Norway? : a case study on the White paper, "Children on the run"

    OpenAIRE

    Koschnick, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    To which extent are NGO’s able to influence immigration and asylum policies in Norway? As important actors in Norway’s immigration and asylum politics, NGO’s had huge interests in a new white paper (white paper 27, “Children on the run”) that aimed to improve living situations of child asylum seekers in Norway, and thus used their resources intensively for lobbying politicians. This research paper employed a case study that analyzed NGO’s potential to influence governmental policies versus NG...

  7. Asylum applications in the European Union: patterns and trends and the effects of policy measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocker, A; Havinga, T

    1998-09-01

    "Statistics on asylum applications have been used in a highly selective way in the debates on refugees and asylum policies in Western Europe, to justify restrictive measures. This paper provides a more systematic analysis of these statistics. It focuses on the pattern of origins and destinations for asylum seekers in the European Union in the period 1985-1994.... When the patterns of origin and destinations are compared for separate years, it becomes clear that the destinations of asylum movements have been constantly changing. Though some of the more remarkable shifts were clearly related to policy measures in the relevant countries, many measures produced only limited effects or failed to have any effect at all." PMID:12295700

  8. Satisfaction with daily occupations amongst asylum seekers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2015-01-01

    social information were used as well as Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. RESULTS: The results showed a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations at both baseline and follow-up. There was no statistically significant change in satisfaction or activity level between baseline and the follow......-up. Associations between AMPS process skills--education, worst pain and activity level--were present at baseline, as was a relationship between AMPS process skills and satisfaction. At follow-up, associations between WHO-5 and satisfaction and activity level and between MDI scores and activity level were found...

  9. Impact of September 11 on refugees and those seeking asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Linda A; Keane, Terence M

    2007-12-01

    September 11, 2001 profoundly affected the American public. We share the views of a cohort of refugees and those seeking asylum from the Boston Center for Refugee Health and Human Rights. Of the 63 individuals from 18 countries interviewed, many had concerns about their personal safety following September 11, as well as fears related to deportation, arrest, detention, imprisonment, discrimination, physical violence and the destruction of property, and war. Asylum seekers were more likely than refugees to have concerns about their safety before their departure and during flight, as well as fear deportation and arrest after September 11. In the wake of September 11, most common coping strategies utilized included prayer (77.8%), speaking with friends from their own social group (47.6%), family (44.4%), and belief in fate (42.9%). PMID:18089639

  10. Refugee and asylum law in a time of crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, Hannah Ruth

    2016-01-01

    2015 saw the arrival of over one million asylum seekers in the EU, sparking what is now known as the European refugee crisis. The majority of those coming into the EU were doing so by boat from Turkey to Greece and then heading North, mainly to EU States such as Germany and Sweden. In order to deal with this so-called crisis, from September 2015 to March 2016 a number of EU and non-EU States along the Western Balkans route began to implement deterrence and prevention measures in order to redu...

  11. Safer UK: preventing sexual maltreatment of unaccompanied asylum seeking minors and improving services for them.

    OpenAIRE

    Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena; Gebrehiwot, Alem

    2007-01-01

    This report looks at the experiences of sexual abuse of young unaccompanied Ethiopian, Somalian and Eritrean asylum seekers. Based on interviews with these young people and with key professionals it considers the risks of child sexual abuse occurring, the effectiveness of preventive approaches and therapeutic interventions, and issues surrounding cultural competence. It covers the relevant legislation, the culture in the countries of origin, how sexual abuse can happen, disclosure, preventio...

  12. Asylum migration and the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy: evidence from the Greek case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucía Forero Castañeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the recent evolution of asylum migration has affected the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy (EU-CFSP, taking the Greek case during the 2001-2012 period as a starting point. With this in mind, the normative progress of the EU-CFSP facing the reception of asylum seekers in Greece is analyzed, under the scope of what Barry Buzan and Ole Waever would call Securitization Process. Both legal and political frameworks on asylum migration in Greece and in the European Union are approached, in the context of the evolution of the EU-CFSP in three main areas: Neighborhood Policy, Development and Cooperation Policy, and Human Rights Protection. The conclusión points toward the partial influence of asylum migration in the configuration of the UE-CFSP during the studied period.

  13. "Their Stories Have Changed My Life": Clinicians' Reflections on Their Experience with and Their Motivation to Conduct Asylum Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishori, Ranit; Hannaford, Alisse; Mujawar, Imran; Ferdowsian, Hope; Kureshi, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Many clinicians perform asylum evaluations yet no studies describe the motivation to perform them or their perceived rewards. The number of asylum seekers in the US is increasing and more clinicians are needed as evaluators. A survey to an asylum evaluators' network asked participants to qualitatively reflect on their experience and motivation. Answers were analyzed for themes and sentiment. Respondents cited commitment to humanistic and moral values, noted personal and family experiences, having skills, expertise, and career interests as drivers. They found the experience very rewarding personally and professionally, and in their perceived benefit to asylees. Negative sentiment was less frequent and centered on emotions related to client narratives. Process-oriented frustrations were also noted. This is the first published study describing clinicians' motivation and experience with asylum evaluations. It may illuminate clinicians' drive to volunteer, and serve as a resource for organizations for recruitment and education. PMID:25527443

  14. 'Hearing the Right Gaps':Enabling and Responding to Disclosures of Sexual Violence within the UK Asylum Process

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Sharon; Baillot, Helen; Munro, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The barriers that prevent or delay female victims of sexual assault from disclosing to criminal justice authorities, and the obstacles that often disincline professional and lay decision-makers from finding such narratives credible have been well documented. This article explores the extent to which such difficulties may be replicated, and compounded, in the case of female asylum-seekers; it will examine the complex ways in which the structure and processes, as well as the heavily politicized...

  15. ‘Hearing the Right Gaps’:Enabling and Responding to Disclosures of Sexual Violence within the UK Asylum Process

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Sharon; Baillot, Helen; Munro, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The barriers that prevent or delay female victims of sexual assault from disclosing to criminal justice authorities, and the obstacles that often disincline professional and lay decision-makers from finding such narratives credible, have been well documented. This article explores the extent to which such difficulties may be replicated, and compounded, in the case of female asylum-seekers; it will examine the complex ways in which the structure and processes, as well as the heavily politicise...

  16. Radio Frequency Seeker Modelling and Seeker Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Vora

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency seeker model, including receiver angle error noise modelling and filtering of noise from seeker measurement, is presented in this paper. The effects of eclipsing, radar cross section fluctuation, etc on seeker sight-line rate measurement are highlighted. The formulation for colour noise modelling of sight-line rate noise is derived based on the knowledge of seeker receiver angle error noise model. Two Kalman filter configurations for filtering of noise from seeker output have been considered in this paper, based on sight-line rate kinematics and noise characteristic. It has been  observed from the simulation studies that sight-line rate signal varies slowly at higher interceptor-target ranges; with severe colour noise in sight line rate measurement, and therefore higher weightage for noise attenuation is beneficial in Kalman filter configuration. So, kinematic plus state augmentation for colour noise are considered for adequate filtering for higher interceptor-target ranges. Whereas for lower interceptor-target ranges, sight-line rate changes appreciably, which have been tracked by a simplified/modified spherical coordinate model, which uses knowledge of interceptor-target  engagement dynamics. For both the filters, benefits of colour noise modelling and process model augmentation through coloured noise states, for filtering severe colour noise of seeker, has been demonstrated.

  17. Advances in Active Radar Seeker Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajatendu Das

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Active radar seekers have gained wide applications in the terminal phase of missile guidance to provide hit-to-kill capability. Till recently, coherent monopulse tracker configurations were being used extensively for air-to-air missile seekers as well as surface-to-air missile seekers, while special real-beam technique-based seekers have been employed in antiship and land-attack systems. In this paper, features of active radar seekers have been described against different targets and background conditions to bring out the fact that the seeker design is highly applicationspecific in nature. The emerging trends in radar seeker technology have been identified wrt ever-changing threat scenario coupled with newer electronic countermeasure techniques, including the latest developments in components, subsystems, as well as implementation aspects.

  18. The psychiatric profession and the Australian government: the debate over collective depression syndrome among asylum-seeking detainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Bostock

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available William W BostockSchool of Government, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, AustraliaAbstract: Psychiatrists have long had involvement with the political process, both individually and as a profession. They have made valuable contributions to debate over such issues as war, conflict, terrorism, torture, human rights abuse, drug abuse, suicide and other public health issues. However, they have also been complicit in some gross atrocities. Over several years there has been debate over the Australian Government’s treatment of asylum seekers, and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists took the unusual step of publicly criticizing the Australian Government’s policy on grounds of its toxicity leading to a diagnosis of collective depression syndrome, particularly among child detainees, but also adult detainees. The official Ministerial response was to deny that collective depression exists and to assert that the concept is meaningless. Can this intervention by psychiatrists be interpreted as a product of earlier political behaviors by psychiatrists? The willingness of psychiatrists to cooperate with other professions, notably psychologists, pediatricians, physicians and lawyers, is noted, as is presence of minority voices within the Australian psychiatric profession. The significance of the debate over the mental condition of asylum-seeking detainees is that its outcome has implications for how Australia sees itself and is seen by the rest of the world, that is, its national identity.Keywords: collective depression syndrome, psychiatric profession, political intervention, asylum seeker, Australian national identity

  19. Right to asylum and its protection

    OpenAIRE

    Kuosmanen, Jaakko Niilo

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is justice and asylum. The central argument in the thesis is that citizens of all states have a moral right that entitles them to asylum in certain circumstances of deprivation. The right to asylum can be understood as a general derivative right, and it is grounded in the more fundamental entitlement to basic needs. More specifically, I argue that all persons whose basic needs are insufficiently protected in their home states have the right to asylum when they cannot ...

  20. A longitudinal study of change in asylum seekers Activities of Daily Living ability while in asylum centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona;

    2015-01-01

    them participated. ADL-ability was measured using Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and questionnaires about exposure to torture, self-reported mental health and pain. ADL motor and process measures, well-being and self-rated health declined from baseline to follow-up. Measures of pain and...... depression increased. Exposure to physical torture and change in ADL motor (r=0.525) measures were associated, as well as change in current pain and change in ADL process (r=0.525) measures. Due to preponderance of torture survivors analysis of group difference was not applicable. Health care workers should...

  1. Travel opinion leaders and seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Gretzel, Ulrike; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    While opinion leadership has been recognized as important in tourism, there has been very little empirical research investigating the phenomenon. Given new developments in social media technologies, it is especially important to understand whether travel opinion leadership and seeking are drivers...... of specific social media perceptions and behaviours. Based on an online survey of US online travellers, this paper seeks to identify travel opinion leaders and seekers and their characteristics. Further, the research conducted investigated linkages between travel opinion leadership/seeking and travel...... social media use. The findings suggest that travel opinion leadership and seeking are distinct but connected. Both opinion leaders and seekers are technology savvy, young, educated, involved in travel planning and engaged in social media use for travel. What distinguishes opinion leaders is their greater...

  2. Between remembrance technology and the production of truth: memory and narrative in asylum politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Mencacci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the institutional pathway for recognition of asylum right, the narrative becomes, according to current regulations, the element to be sieved in order to ascertain title to international protection. The aim of this essay is analyzing the various declensions assumed by the narrative in this institutional process. Weaving together clinical and ethnographic data, drawn from the main phases that foreigners have to pass through in this event, I would like to highlight how, in the asylum system, the narrative takes the value of a tool directed, first of all at checking the applicant’s past, and second at co-producing a subject fitting to the media and legal dominant imaginary features. In this specific context, the treatment of traumatic injuries, recognized as basis of interrupted narratives, emerges as issue played in its turn on a double register: as adherence to specific schemes of "therapeutic governance" and as further control of specific events, experienced by asylum seekers in the past.

  3. Limited Resettlement and Ongoing Uncertainty: responses to and experiences of people seeking asylum in Australia and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fleay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the Coalition Government’s narrow victory in the first Australian election since the adoption of policies known as Operation Sovereign Borders, this special edition of Cosmopolitan Civil Societies focuses its attention on the treatment of refugees and asylum seekers1 . It explores some of the experiences of people both in Australia and Indonesia who are seeking a life of safety, as well as the responses of civil society groups and governments, following the commencement of policies that have vastly reduced the opportunities for refugee resettlement in Australia.

  4. Unaccompanied minors - the right to express their views : a study of inter-personal and communicative aspects of the asylum interview with unaccompanied minors as experienced by their guardians

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This study explored inter-personal and communicative aspects of the interviews with unaccompanied minor asylum seekers. The aim was to explore how child-specific aspects are being taken care of through the interview form and guardian’s support. Six persons voluntarily engaged as guardians of unaccompanied minors were individually interviewed with the purpose to address the research question. Data material was collected using qualitative, semi-structured interviews. The researc...

  5. Is Australia engaged in torturing asylum seekers? A cautionary tale for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaran, John-Paul; Zion, Deborah

    2016-07-01

    Australian immigration detention has been identified as perpetuating ongoing human rights violations. Concern has been heightened by the assessment of clinicians involved and by the United Nations that this treatment may in fact constitute torture. We discuss the allegations of torture within immigration detention, and the reasons why healthcare providers have an ethical duty to report them. Finally, we will discuss the protective power of ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment as a means of providing transparency and ethical guidance. PMID:27334705

  6. [Low seroprevalence of syphilis and HIV in refugees and asylum seekers in Germany in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, A; Solbach, P; Nothdorft, S; Hampel, A; Schmidt, R E; Behrens, G M N

    2016-07-01

    Background | Currently only estimates exist of seroprevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in refugees arriving in Germany during the current refugee crisis. Objectives | To assess the prevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in refugees arriving in northern Germany in 2015. Materials and methods | In a cross-sectional study in 790 patients from all age groups tests for serological markers of treponema pallidum and in 789 patients for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were performed in August 2015 in reception centers in northern Germany. Results | The overall prevalence of treponema pallidum antibodies was 0.13 % (1/790; [95 % CI: 0 - 0.4]). HIV antibodies were positive in two refugees from sub-Saharan Africa (2/789; 0.25 %, [95 % CI: 0 - 0.6]). Conclusions | This study showed a low prevalence of treponema pallidum antibodies and human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in a German refugee cohort, not significantly different from German controls. PMID:27404938

  7. Brief Psychoeducational Group Treatment with Re-Traumatized Refugees and Asylum Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a psychoeducational group treatment with students with a history of refugee trauma, war, and human rights abuses who were further traumatized by the 9/11 attacks in New York City. The rationale for group intervention and specific techniques utilized to promote emotional and behavioral stabilization and…

  8. Asylum seekers and refugees in Turkey: A continuous state of exception

    OpenAIRE

    Bedir, M.

    2014-01-01

    As the borders of Europe slowly expand to include Turkey, the country finds itself in the position of having to strengthen its own walls. With the continuing conflict in Syria, this issue has become urgent. Merve Bedir traces the last 100 years of migration in Turkey, and how it has dealt with varying flows of refugees and immigrants. Away from the refugee camp with its clear borders and rations, Bedir questions the condition of the urban refugee, a precarious existence within a state of exce...

  9. Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides complete open-loop test capability for semi-active laser (SAL) seekers/sensors operating at 1.064 microns. ALSPES provides characterizations...

  10. Reasons for Attrition Among Public Adoption Seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Weissinger, Erika

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the main reasons public adoption seekers do not complete the adoption process. I conduct interviews with public adoption seekers from two California counties who dropped out of the process. I find that the most common reasons given for dropping out of the process are -changes in personal circumstance (for reasons such as losing a job or becoming ill); -dissatisfaction with agencies (for reasons such as poor customer service, the process being too len...

  11. Asylum for persecuted homosexuals in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wolman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two recent successful claims for asylum suggest that the Republic of Korea may be prepared to serve in the future as an important country of asylum for those suffering persecution due to their sexual orientation.

  12. EU asylum procedures and the right to an effective remedy

    OpenAIRE

    Reneman, Anne Marcelle

    2013-01-01

    Adequate and fair asylum procedures are a precondition for the effective exercise of rights granted to asylum applicants, in particular the right not be expelled to a country where they face the risk of being subjected to human rights violations. In 1999 the EU Member States decided to work towards a Common European Asylum System. In this context the Procedures Directive was adopted in 2005. This directive provides for important procedural guarantees for asylum applicants, but also leaves muc...

  13. European Asylum Law : and its Relation to International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, H.

    2006-01-01

    In Chapter 1 I introduce the question of enquiry, the relation between Community and international law on asylum. Further, I sketch the content of the Refugee Convention, other relevant international law, the historical background of current Community asylum law (i.e. the asylum acquis from before 2

  14. IN WHICH DIRECTION DO THE EFFORTS PROCEED? THE EUROPEAN UNION’S ATTEMPTS TO DEVELOP A COMMON IMMIGRATION AND ASYLUM POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Şirin Öner, N. Aslı

    2015-01-01

    In the period which began in the mid-1980s and continued until today, there has been an increase in the number of refugees, asylum-seekers and irregular migrants. The Central and Eastern Europeans, who had the opportunity to participate in the migration movements with the removal of the political barriers and the persons displaced as a result of bloody conflicts in the Balkans played an important role in the increase in the number of people migrating to the Western Europe. The increase in the...

  15. Occupational deprivation in an asylum centre:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of three asylum-seeking men from Iran and Afghanistan. It aimed to explore how and if they experienced occupations as occupations in a Danish asylum centre and how their life experience shaped their choice and value of current occupations. In-depth narrative interviews...... explored the participants’ occupational history and its influence on their occupations in the asylum centre. A thematic analysis showed that the participants had been subjected to occupational disruption and deprivation by politically oppressive systems even before their flight. Their occupations in...... Denmark were to a certain extent influenced by their earlier occupations and the current occupational deprivation they all experienced was due to limited possibilities in the centre. Although they tried their best to fill their days and create structure, there was a loss of valued occupations and a...

  16. Occupational change and mobility among employed and unemployed job seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Taylor, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the Labour Force Survey to show that employed and unemployed job seekers in Great Britain originate from different occupations and find jobs in different occupations. We find substantial differences in occupational mobility between job seekers: employed job seekers are most likely to move to occupations paying higher average wages relative to their previous occupation, while unemployed job seekers are most likely to move to lower paying occupations. Employed and unemployed jo...

  17. Haitian Refugees Need Asylum: A Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of the Churches of Christ of the United States of America, New York, NY. Church World Service.

    Haitian refugees who are seeking political asylum in the United States are finding themselves unwelcome. Although various reports attest to continuing persecution in Haiti under the repressive Duvalier regime, the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service claims that the Haitians seek only greater economic opportunity and are not genuine…

  18. The externalisation of the asylum function in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Morgades Gil, S??lvia

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to identify and assess the main items in the strategy followed by the EU and its member states on the externalisation of their asylum function. First, it analyses the European harmonisation of the return to safe third countries and to countries of first asylum, which is carried out by means of readmission agreements. Second, it refers to the strategies defined by the Hague and the Stockholm programs concerning the External Aspects of the European Union Asylum Policy, on the de...

  19. Target for optically activated seekers and trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, C. T.; Willett, N. F.

    1984-05-01

    This abstract discloses a target for optically activated seekers and trackers (TOAST) which provides for calibrated and variable target characteristics such as size, intensity, spatial position, color and interfering background. The TOAST has a first ilumination system providing a target light beam through an adjustable iris which controls image size. The target beam passes through a collimator lens which focuses the light at infinity. With the target beam focused at infinity, the motion of an elevation plate lengthens or shortens the distance from the collimator lens to a one motion mirror. The target beam is attenuated by a variable filter driven by a servo-motor, and a color selection process is provided by passing the beam through spectral filters. A background light beam with background imagery is provided to the beamsplitter mirror and mixed with the target image so as to simulate the target environment encountered by an operating optically activated seeker and tracker.

  20. Risk Seekers May Be Antisocial After All

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduates were given a battery of psychological tests to gauge their degree of antisocial personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism and nihilism). The students also responded to questionnaires to assess their attitudes toward risk and intertemporal choice. Biological attributes of the respondents were also collected. We found a correlation between psychopathic, Machiavellian and nihilistic traits in the sample, and also that risk seekers were antisocial. Additionally, we found, o...

  1. LGBTI asylum claims: the Central and Eastern European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Śmiszek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that CEE countries still lag far behind therest of Europe in their asylum practices in relation to LGBTI asylumclaims. Low levels of awareness, lack of guidance and cultural hostility are jeopardising asylum seekers’ prospects for fair treatment.

  2. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine jo

  3. Identification of Workplace Dress by Low-Income Job Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The author examined how low-income job seekers participating in a workplace dress program identified traditional business and business casual dress. Seventy low-income job seekers identified clothing items as traditional business (e.g., suits, ties), similar to identifications made by professionals and image consultants in previous literature.…

  4. The politics of death in Mexico: dislocating human rights and asylum law through hybrid agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Estévez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 Mexico’s then-president Felipe Calderón declared war on drug trafficking. The human toll was devastating with the loss of over 95,000 lives and the forced disappearance of more than 27,000 people. In addition, two percent of the Mexican population was displaced with families forced to flee their homes in the face of criminal violence. This article offers an explanation of how death, forced disappearances, persecution and exile are in essence the specific effects of governmentalization of the Mexican state. This govern­mentalization includes the shared use, by criminals and authorities, of techniques for dominating the population and controlling the conduct of citizens through the practices of death, that is, by employing the politics of death (necropolitics. The article goes on to discuss how the objectives, rationality and governmentalization of the State serve to dislocate human rights discourse in such a way that its truth politics excludes people suffering serious human rights violations, such as Mexican asylum seekers. This is accompanied by a new mode of subjectivity produced by Mexico's politics of death – the Endriago subject – which operates as a hybrid perpetrator of human rights violations.

  5. The leprosy asylum in India: 1886-1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jo

    2009-10-01

    Writing against a historical practice that situates the leprosy asylum exclusively within prison-like institutions, this article seeks to show the variation in leprosy asylums, the contingencies of their evolution, and the complexity of their designs, by devoting attention to the characteristics of the leprosy asylum in India from 1886 to 1947, in particular to the model agricultural colony. Drawing upon the travel narratives of Wellesley Bailey, the founder of the Mission to Lepers in India, for three separate periods in 1886, 1890-91, and 1895-96, it argues that leprosy asylums were formed in response to a complex conjunction of impulses: missionary, medical, and political. At the center of these endeavors was the provision of shelter for persons with leprosy that accorded with principles of good stewardship and took the form of judicious use of donations provided by benefactors. As the Mission to Lepers began to bring about improvements and restructuring to asylums, pleasant surroundings, shady trees, sound accommodation, and good ventilation became desirable conditions that would confer physical and psychological benefits on those living there. At the same time, the architecture of the asylum responded to economic imperatives, in addition to religious and medical aspirations, and asylums moved towards the regeneration of a labor force. Leprosy-affected people were increasingly employed in occupations that contributed to their sustenance and self-sufficiency, symbolically reincorporating the body damaged by leprosy into the economic world of productive relations. PMID:19531547

  6. A Lie More Disastrous than the Truth: Asylum and the identification of trafficked women in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Stepnitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact that nationality can have on a person’s experience of being identified as a victim of trafficking in the UK. Responses to individuals and disparities in rates of recognition depending on nationality are cause for great concern. The rhetoric and the response to women who have experienced trafficking varies considerably depending upon the citizenship, residency and documentation status of the individual, particularly highlighting the differential treatment of trafficking cases of British women, European Union nationals, and third-country (non UK, non EU nationals, the majority of whom are also asylum seekers. This differential treatment is played out in multiple ways, many of which result in women’s inability to realise procedural and substantive rights. The article examines the use of official “identification” mechanisms that place women into the administrative category of “victim”, and the central role of the asylum system in all areas of UK anti-trafficking responses. This above all, to refuse to be a victim. Unless I can do that I can do nothing. I have to recant, give up the old belief that I am powerless... A lie which was always more disastrous than the truth would have been. The word games, the winning and losing games are finished; at the moment there are no others but they will have to be invented, withdrawing is no longer possible. — Margaret Atwood, Surfacing1 The response to human trafficking into and within the United Kingdom is a complicated and yet incomplete combination of strategies, interventions and rhetoric, focused predominantly on immigration control and crime reduction, with support to individuals and prevention of exploitation as convenient outputs but not drivers of policy or practice. The introduction of human rights-based approaches has only emerged over the last decade, with discussions about the rights and entitlements of the trafficked beginning in earnest only in the

  7. Strategic asylum law making in Europe: institutional locus

    OpenAIRE

    Monheim, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Given the background of changing institutional competencies in the European Union, we analyze the choice of asylum law standards of national and European parliaments, the Council of the European Union and codecision between the Council and the European Parliament. In a two country model we nd that the European arrangements maximize neither the welfare of the Member Countries nor the welfare of refugees. For the latter, there has been an improvement in the institutional location of asylum law ...

  8. Mad Kings, Proper Houses, and an Asylum in Rural Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Saris, A. Jamie

    1996-01-01

    WHAT IF THEY built an asylum and nobody showed up? By asking this question, I mean to forefront the problem of what sort of a structure it is to which people are committed or present themselves. In the extensive literature on asylums that has developed over the course of the last three decades, most authors assume a needy or dominated population to exist around such buildings who eventually give over their unfortunates to fill them up. Few theorists, moreover, look ser...

  9. Toward a Common Asylum Policy for the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Toni Lluch

    2001-01-01

    In the process of harmonizing EU members states’ asylum policies, as a result of the lack of a common asylum policy, save for the limited Dublin Agreement, we are witnessing a wide variety of non-binding political declarations, at times more the product of fear than of considerations of human rights, that are setting the trend for countries’ actions. This article focuses on an analysis of the Dublin Agreement in terms of its achievements and failures over the years of its implementation.

  10. A Human Rights and Ethical Lens on Security and Human Dignity: The Case Study of Syrian Asylum Seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Vietti, Francesca; Franzini Tibaldeo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The article tackles the plural and evolving concepts of security by ana-lysing their relation to human rights and ethics. Although the general impression is that seldom the security discourse is associated with the respect of human rights and ethics, at least from a theoretical point of view security is indeed intertwined with those normative features (first thesis). Moreover, ethics and human rights can be valuably and usefully employed to clarify issues related to security and eventually to...

  11. Asylum Seekers Involvement in Self Employment : Study of the influencing factors on business start-up in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Dipankar

    2011-01-01

    Self employment has become one of the essential issues for countries which receive significant flow of migration from different countries. Earlier studies examined the economic activities of the migrated people in a developed Nation and analyzed the economic impact in relation to this subject. A number of extensive research and different statistical data documented that, in recent years, Sweden received a significant flow of political migration compared to other European countries. Due to the...

  12. NGO input on the “Draft strategy document : strategy for the reception of asylum-seekers and irregular migrants”

    OpenAIRE

    aditus foundation

    2015-01-01

    Submitted by: aditus foundation, Foundation for Shelter and Support to Migrants, Integra Foundation, International Association for Refugees, Jesuit Refugee Service (Malta), Kopin, Migrant Women Association Malta, Organisation for Friendship in Diversity, People for Change Foundation, SOS Malta.

  13. In a space of everyday exception : day-to-day life and illegality among rejected asylum-seekers in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers have been concerned with unauthorized migration as a field of study in both Europe and the USA. In the south of Europe this research expanded during the 1990s, but in the Scandinavian countries there have been only sporadic inquiries. This thesis is part of a changing trend whereby unauthorized migration has begun to enter the Scandinavian research agenda. Previously it had been assumed that unauthorized migrants would not remain in Norway, since they were left wi...

  14. Noncommunicable diseases among urban refugees and asylum-seekers in developing countries: a neglected health care need

    OpenAIRE

    Amara, Ahmed Hassan; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing trend in refugee urbanisation, growing numbers of refugees are diagnosed with chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). However, with few exceptions, the local and international communities prioritise communicable diseases. The aim of this study is to review the literature to determine the prevalence and distribution of chronic NCDs among urban refugees living in developing countries, to report refugee access to health care for NCDs and to compare the prevalence of NCDs amo...

  15. Haiti, insecurity, and the politics of asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica Caple

    2011-09-01

    In this article, I seek to show how states of insecurity provoked by ongoing social, economic, and political ruptures in Haiti can disorder individual subjectivity and generate the flight of individuals seeking asylum within and across borders. Nongovernmental actors working in Haiti and with Haitians in the diaspora frequently managed the long-term psychosocial effects of insecurity. Their interventions can range from repressive to compassionate and influence the formation of identity and the embodied experiences of trauma for vulnerable Haitians. The case of a young Haitian refugee who was repatriated to Haiti from the United States in the 1990s demonstrates how insecurity is both an existential state reflecting the disordering of embodied experience, as well as a collective sociopolitical condition the effects of which cannot be managed or contained within national borders. The case is emblematic of the plight of thousands of Haitians affected by the January 12, 2010, earthquake. PMID:22007562

  16. “The way the Irish asylum system turns people into un-human is my problem”: An Interview with Ifedinma Dimbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martín-Ruiz

    2015-03-01

    Ifedinma Dimbo currently lives in Dublin, where she works and researches for her PhD in Medical Sociology. The Nigerian-born, Irish-based writer was kind enough to answer my questions via e-mail between the months of August and October 2014, with some final elaboration in January 2015. Ifedinma Dimbo’s writing, as well as her answers in this interview, are an invaluable testimony to a reality that is currently taking place in Ireland and has often been silenced. Now that Irish society is beginning to be aware of the unfair treatment that refugees and asylum seekers receive at the hands of the Irish system, it is high time to let people who, like Ifedinma Dimbo, have made Ireland their home, have their voices heard in the field of Irish Studies. In this interview, Ifedinma Dimbo very sharply shares her views on writing, immigration, religion and Irish society.

  17. Employed and unemployed job seekers and the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Taylor, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The job search literature suggests that on-the-job search reduces the probability of unemployed people finding a job. However, there is little evidence that employed and unemployed job seekers are similar or apply for the same jobs. We compare employed and unemployed job seekers in terms of their individual characteristics, preferences over working hours, job-search strategies and employment histories, and identify how any differences vary over the business cycle. We find systematic differenc...

  18. Refugeeship - A project of justification : Claiming asylum in England and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the asylum process from an experiential perspective, starting in the country of origin, fleeing, claiming asylum and being granted refugee status. The theoretical interest is to contribute with an understanding of how this asylum process impacts on personal meaning-making, focusing on identification and positioning work of the person forced to flee and make an asylum claim. With this purpose in mind, I have remained close to the experiences of the particip...

  19. 32 CFR 700.939 - Granting of asylum and temporary refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Granting of asylum and temporary refuge. 700.939... Officer Present Contents § 700.939 Granting of asylum and temporary refuge. (a) If an official of the Department of the Navy is requested to provide asylum or temporary refuge, the following procedures...

  20. Neomodern insecurity in Haiti and the politics of asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica Caple

    2009-03-01

    The term 'asylum' has a dual connotation that generates opposing but related forms of intervention: providing sanctuary and protection vs. imposing confinement and quarantine. The proliferation of "neomodern insecurity"--intrastate violence and the specter of transnational terrorism, arising within many postcolonial, postauthoritarian and postsocialist states--generates intervention practices that reflect the dual connotations of asylum. In fragile states like Haiti, national insecurity (ensekirite) often results in the flight of traumatized populations across and within national borders. For these individuals, 'asylum' connotes the attainment of political recognition and inclusion outside Haiti's space of ensekirite. Ironically, these vulnerable persons may be viewed as threats to the nations they seek to enter. In so-called secure states like the United States, the threat of insecurity often engenders interventions to contain, manage and rehabilitate states of disorder, as well as their disordered subjects. By chronicling the case of a young Haitian refugee who sought asylum in the United States, was detained and then repatriated after manifesting the disordered signs of insecurity, I argue that the Haitian trope of ensekirite captures and prefigures the subjective experience of neomodernity, one for which there is no asylum. PMID:19116780

  1. THE ASYLUM, BETWEEN HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE AND POLITICAL INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrinel BRUMAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At 9 November 2010, the European Court of Justice, in a preliminary ruling, decided to depart from the interpretation promoted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in the matter of the application of the exclusion clauses. The European Court considered that no proportionality test between human rights protection and gravity of a crime is to be applied in the case of a person suspected of having committed an act contrary to the principles and purposes of the United Nations. By eliminating this test, the Court is sending a signal on rethinking the asylum institution, from a humanitarian tool that it became, to a political instrument. This decision could not be read alone; corroborated to the concerns already raised on the suitable use of the asylum instrument to address massive humanitarian needs, it would indicate a reorientation in the interpretation of international norms governing the refugee law. Still, the human rights organs and the European Court of Human Rights continue to refer to the asylum as a situation where a humanitarian perspective, reflected in the proportionality test, or for those mechanisms the risk of human rights violation probability test, is still valid. The two apparently divergent directions will need to converge in the implementation of the European Union regulations on asylum. This paper is exploring the possible reinterpretation of the European norms, trying to identify the new trends in the political perspective of asylum and the limitations to these trends that the respect for human rights is establishing.

  2. [Asylum for curing or securing? The confinement of forensic patients as a challenge of asylum psychiatry in Imperial Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Asylum for curing or securing? The confinement of forensic patients as a challenge of asylum psychiatry in Imperial Germany. In Imperial Germany psychiatrists sought to give their asylums the character of modern medical hospitals. Due to the increase of insanity defence these efforts were obstructed by the high number of inmates with a criminal background. Special departments for mentally ill criminals were founded both in asylums and in prisons. But the clientele was not welcome in any of these institutions. Thus, there was a high fluctuation between prisons and asylums. A new definition of criminal responsibility was needed. In order to keep criminals out of their hospitals psychiatrists developed the medical concept of psychopathy referring to a mental defect without lack of responsibility. On the other hand penal law reformers plead to introduce preventive measures, such as security confinement, into the criminal law book. Since the resolution of the 'law against habitual criminals' in November 1933 judges are allowed to sentence mentally ill offenders to indefinite confinement in psychiatric institutions. PMID:17144371

  3. Church Asylum - new strategies, alliances and modes of resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities for democratic transformation in a landscape of political closure. Taking the case of Church Asylum [Kirkeasyl] as an example of new ways of resistance and participation in contemporary Denmark the articles argues that although the established political...... channels are characterised by closure alternatives may be formulated outside the parliamentarian system. Using contemporary perspectives on social critique and mobilization the article looks back at Church Asylum in 2009 and discuss the alliances, strategies and modes of resistance used during the event....... The article draws on a framework derived from political sociology and critical theory....

  4. Experiences of asylum seeking women on housing and health care services in Bradford

    OpenAIRE

    Fuseini, Sulemana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at housing and health care services provided for asylum seeking women in Bradford, and whether service delivery meets their needs and expectations. This study used a qualitative research approach; the method of data collection was focused group interviews. The participants were selected from the Bradford Ecumenical Asylum Concern (BEACON) project. 10 women seeking asylum were interviewed and the interview data was analysed through the method of conten...

  5. Credibility assessments as "normative leakage": asylum applications, gender and class

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Wikström; Thomas Johansson

    2013-01-01

    Based on the assumption that credibility assessments function as 'normative leak­age' within the asylum process, we analyse how narratives of gender and class are articulated, rendered meaningful, or silenced in credibility assessments. Two cases concerning male applic­ants are selected in order to illustrate these processes. In relation to the existing concepts of internal/external credibility, we wish to introduce the concept of social credibility, which focuses on how the assessors read ...

  6. Gender-Based Persecution and the (inadequate) use of the Concept of Gender - A textual analysis of the construction of women's gender-based asylum claims in the Swedish asylum determination system

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Lovisa Viktoria Maria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Asylum determination has, historically, not been sensitive to women's gender-based claims. Rather, male experiences and governmental persecution have been held as preferences in asylum determination. There have been international calls to assess gender-based claims in relation to a social constructivist approach towards gender, in order to eradicate the misinterpretations of women's asylum claims. This dissertation analyses the constructions of women's gender-based asylum claims...

  7. Asylum Doctor Extraordinaire: Dr. Thomas Drapes (1847-1919).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2015-09-01

    Dr. Thomas Drapes (1847-1919) was resident medical superintendent of Enniscorthy District Asylum in County Wexford, Ireland from 1883 to 1919, and one of the leading figures in Irish asylum medicine for several decades. Drapes' career was as complex as it was remarkable. Drapes was elected president of the Medico-Psychological Association for the term 1911-12 but had to decline on health grounds. In 1912, however, he was unanimously elected as co-editor of the Journal of Mental Science, to which he devoted his considerable energies and intellect. Drapes published widely, opposing Emil Kraepelin's proposed division of "functional" psychosis into manic-depressive illness and dementia praecox; openly examining the use of "punitive measures" in asylums (Enniscorthy had notably low rates of restraint and seclusion); and publicly bemoaning the folly of "psychophysical parallelism", or the spurious division between mental and physical symptoms in medicine. Although not immune to passing trends in medical thought (e.g. regarding sterilisation of the mentally ill to prevent further mental disorder), Drapes was generally independent-minded, insightful and incisive, and his legacy was to help shape Irish mental health care for many decades. PMID:25833354

  8. High School Students: Information Seekers and Technology Users

    OpenAIRE

    Pope Gotschall, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    This research paper examines the community of young people, specifically high school students who use various strategies and methods of seeking information. In this examination, the notion of information seeking behavior of student and librarian will resonate thematically and the focus will be on students as a whole community, inclusive of race, gender, and socio-economic status. The hope is to define and identify the major characteristics of this community as seekers of information as well a...

  9. Redistribution to Rent Seekers, Foreign Aid and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Hodler

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of redistribution of public funds to rent seekers. Therefore, it introduces redistribution to rent seeking agents into Barro's (1990) endogenous growth model with a productive public sector. It shows that the growth rate decreases in the share of the public funds that is redistributed. The public sector's relative sizes that maximize growth and welfare become also smaller in presence of redistribution. Further, if foreign aid is added to the model, the rel...

  10. IMPROVISATION OF SEEKER SATISFACTION IN YAHOO! COMMUNITY QUESTION ANSWERING PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Latha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One popular Community question answering (CQA site, Yahoo! Answers, had attracted 120 million users worldwide, and had 400 million answers to questions available. A typical characteristic of such sites is that they allow anyone to post or answer any questions on any subject. Question Answering Community has emerged as popular, and often effective, means of information seeking on the web. By posting questions, for other participants to answer, information seekers can obtain specific answers to their questions. However, CQA is not always effective: in some cases, a user may obtain a perfect answer within minutes, and in others it may require hours and sometimes days until a satisfactory answer is contributed. We investigate the problem of predicting information seeker satisfaction in yahoo collaborative question answering communities, where we attempt to predict whether a question author will be satisfied with the answers submitted by the community participants. Our experimental results, obtained from a large scale evaluation over thousands of real questions and user ratings, demonstrate the feasibility of modeling and predicting asker satisfaction. We complement our results with a thorough investigation of the interactions and information seeking patterns in question answering communities that correlate with information seeker satisfaction. We also explore automatic ranking, creating abstract from retrieved answers, and history updation, which aims to provide users with what they want or need without explicitly ask them for user satisfaction. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications, such as answer selection, user feedback analysis, and ranking.

  11. Quality in Dutch asylum law : from ‘strict but fair’, to ‘fast but good’?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Heinrich; Bolt, Korine

    2007-01-01

    The Aliens Act 2000 aimed to speed up and improve decision-making in asylum cases. To what extent were these objectives attained and what can be said on the basis of the available data about the factors which determine the quality of asylum decisions? Acceleration of the asylum procedure has certain

  12. 8 CFR 209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum. 209.2 Section 209.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 209.2 Adjustment of status of...

  13. 8 CFR 1209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum. 1209.2 Section 1209.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM §...

  14. Occult Genres and the Certification of Madness in a 19th-Century Lunatic Asylum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkenkotter, Carol; Hanganu-Bresch, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Using archival admissions records and case histories of patients at a British asylum from the 1860s to the 1870s, the authors examine the medical certification process leading to the asylum confinement of individuals judged to be "of unsound mind." These institutional texts are, the authors suggest, "occult genres" that function as complex acts of…

  15. Disciplinary power and the role of the subject at a nineteenth-century Danish asylum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the ways in which psychiatric practice and power were constituted in a Danish asylum at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The point of departure will be a complaint by a former patient questioning the practice at the asylum in 1829. In an analysis of this narrative...

  16. 77 FR 76352 - Adjustment of Status of Refugees and Aliens Granted Asylum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... SECURITY 8 CFR Part 209 Adjustment of Status of Refugees and Aliens Granted Asylum CFR Correction In Title..., reinstate paragraphs (b) through (f) to read as follows: Sec. 209.2 Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum. * * * * * ] (b) Inadmissible alien. An applicant who is not admissible to the United States...

  17. Family Support through Childcare Services: Meeting the Needs of Asylum-Seeking and Refugee Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Nicola; Sherlock, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This article is a summary of the research carried out in relation to the experiences of asylum-seeking and refugee families regarding access and participation in local childcare services. Focus groups and interviews were carried out with 16 refugee and asylum-seeking parents, five childcare practitioners, and two support and development staff in a…

  18. Gender stereotyping in the Dutch asylum procedure: ‘independent’ men versus ‘dependent’ women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mascini; M. van Bochove

    2009-01-01

    Attention for discrimination against women in asylum law has grown considerably during the last few decades. Yet it is male claimants who have had smaller success Rates in the asylum procedures of different countries. Using administrative data from the Dutch INS, we show this difference is caused by

  19. Science Seeker: A New Model for Teaching Information Literacy to Entry-Level Biology Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Jacquelyn; Winterman, Brian; Montooth, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    In order to integrate library instruction seamlessly into an introductory biology course, two librarians collaborated with a biology faculty member to create a three-part series of instruction sessions known as the Science Seeker. The Science Seeker taught students about the structure of scientific information by tracing the path that discoveries…

  20. Millimetric Wave Seeker for Third Generation Antitank Guided Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpan Pal

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available For the third generation antitank guided missiles (ATGMs with fire-and-forget and top attack capabilities, a noncoherent millimetric wave (MMW active radar seeker has been configured with all weather capabilities. To meet the stringent dimensional and weight constraints and beamwidth requirements of ATGM, a W-band system has been designed with trans-twist antenna with a compact comparator. The paper covers the system description and critical design issues, and presents the performance results achieved so far. Areas for improvements, especially for achieving a higher range, have also been pointed out.

  1. The long road to employment: Incivility experienced by job seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdifatah A; Ryan, Ann Marie; Lyons, Brent J; Ehrhart, Mark G; Wessel, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    This study addresses how job seekers' experiences of rude and discourteous treatment--incivility--can adversely affect self-regulatory processes underlying job searching. Using the social-cognitive model (Zimmerman, 2000), we integrate social-cognitive theory with the goal orientation literature to examine how job search self-efficacy mediates the relationship between incivility and job search behaviors and how individual differences in learning goal orientation and avoid-performance goal orientation moderate that process. We conducted 3 studies with diverse methods and samples. Study 1 employed a mixed-method design to understand the nature of incivility within the job search context and highlight the role of attributions in linking incivility to subsequent job search motivation and behavior. We tested our hypotheses in Study 2 and 3 employing time-lagged research designs with unemployed job seekers and new labor market entrants. Across both Study 2 and 3 we found evidence that the negative effect of incivility on job search self-efficacy and subsequent job search behaviors are stronger for individuals low, rather than high, in avoid-performance goal orientation. Theoretical implications of our findings and practical recommendations for how to address the influence of incivility on job seeking are discussed. PMID:26436441

  2. European Asylum Law and Policy: The EU and Slovak Perspectives The EU and Slovak Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson Sidorenko, O.

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe right of asylum is rooted in the history of mankind (religious right of asylum (sanctuary)) and since the beginning of the modern State it has been rooted in the sovereignty of the State itself (the right of territorial asylum). The State retains the right to grant its protection to certain non-nationals or stateless persons, as a consequence of its territorial sovereignty, once the conditions laid down by the State have been complied with. In principle, it is the sovereign St...

  3. Asylum support for children and young people living in Kirklees: Stories of mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kate; Lockwood, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The report is based on a one-year pilot study by academic practitioners at WomenCentre, Kirklees, funded by the Nationwide Children’s Research Centre. This study has taken a localised approach to the Parliamentary Inquiry (2013) into asylum support for children and young people. We have placed the views of mothers of children who live or have lived in receipt of asylum support in Kirklees at the heart of the study. All of the mothers interviewed said that asylum support (accommodation and/or ...

  4. Moral architecture: the influence of the York Retreat on asylum design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edginton, B

    1997-06-01

    Institutional and architectural history places the asylum alongside the prison and other institutional types whose architectural characteristics emphasized confinement and control. This history obfuscates important differences in how ideas about treatment were represented in the particular design of these institutions; in other words, how the structure of a place became part of its discourse. What becomes obvious in nineteenth-century, asylum architecture is the influence of a small Yorkshire private asylum built by a Quaker, William Tuke, in 1796. The York Retreat, in form, solidified the ideas of 'moral treatment' in design and in turn assumed an exalted character in the design of late nineteenth-century asylums. Every researcher working in the field of the history of insanity acknowledges the importance of this event and its impact on the discourse of insanity for the century to follow. Few however talk about how its unique design was incorporated as part of this discourse. PMID:10671006

  5. [Beyond the asylum -An other view on the history of psychiatry in the modern age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Aude

    2015-07-01

    If one thinks medicine, madness and the past, one image immediately pops into mind: that of the mental asylum. Following the famous work by Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, many historians have thus considered that the medicalization of insanity in the modern age had mostly led to a "great confinement" and a greater segregation of all individuals deemed mentally unfit during the "asylum era': However, new research demonstrates that this classic narrative of the psychiatric past needs to be revised. It discloses that, ever since the 191h century, a whole other medical culture existed as a challenge to asylums, a culture that advocated the integration of the mad and fought to disassociate psychiatry from the dominant model of confinement all throughout the occidental world. This article aims at presenting the results of these historical works that depict another aspect of the psychiatric history, exploring "boarding out" practices, instead of asylum ones. PMID:26111838

  6. Asylum recognition rates in Western Europe : their determinants, variation, and lack of convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Substantial variation in recognition rates for asylum claims from the same countries of origin and therefore prima facie equal merit subjects refugees to unfair and discriminatory treatment. This article demonstrates the extent of variation and lack of convergence over the period 1980 to 1999 across Western European destination countries. Refugee interest groups also suspect that political and economic conditions in destination countries as well as the number of past asylum claims unduly impa...

  7. Why and how there should be more Europe in asylum policies

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Melissa; Heinemann, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    The experiences of the ongoing refugee crisis in Europe highlight the failures of the current model of having the EU and its members states share responsibility for asylum policies. Based on standard criteria of fiscal federalism, this paper analyses the shortcomings of the status quo. We show that European asylum policies stand in sharp contradiction to the optimal assignment of tasks within a federal system. For example, the current system creates substantial incentives for free-riding and ...

  8. School and Community-Based Interventions for Refugee and Asylum Seeking Children: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrer, Rebecca A.; Mina Fazel

    2014-01-01

    Background Research for effective psychological interventions for refugee and asylum-seeking children has intensified. The need for interventions in environments more easily accessed by children and families is especially relevant for newly arrived populations. This paper reviews the literature on school and community-based interventions aimed at reducing psychological disorders in refugee and asylum-seeking children. Methods and Findings Comprehensive searches were conducted in seven databas...

  9. Expert Seeker: A People-Finder Knowledge Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Fernandez, Irma

    2000-01-01

    The first objective for this report was to perform a comprehensive research of industry models currently being used for similar purposes, in order to provide the Center with ideas of what is being done in area by private companies and government agencies. The second objective was to evaluate the use of taxonomies or ontologies to describe and catalog the areas of expertise at GSFC. The creation of a knowledge taxonomy is necessary for information extraction in order for The Expert Seeker to adequately search and find experts in a particular area of expertise. The requirements to develop a taxonomy are: provide minimal descriptive text; have the appropriate level of abstration; facilitate browsing; ease of use and speed of data entry are critical for success; customized to the organization and its culture; extent of knowledge areas; expandable, so new skills could be develop; could be complemented with free text fields to allow users the option to describe their knowledge in detail.

  10. Fleeing the Drug War Next Door: Drug-related Violence as a Basis for Refugee Protection for Mexican Asylum-Seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Holly Buchanan

    2011-01-01

    The death toll in Mexico due to drug-related violence has continued to rise since President Felipe Calderón initiated the Mexican Government's crackdown on drug trafficking organizations in 2006. Pervasive corruption among state and local government officials and alleged human rights violations by the Mexican military have added to the gravity of the endemic drug-related violence in Mexico. In response to the continuous violence in Mexico perpetrated by drug trafficking organiza- tions, a sub...

  11. Fleeing the Drug War Next Door: Drug-related Violence as a Basis for Refugee Protection for Mexican Asylum-Seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The death toll in Mexico due to drug-related violence has continued to rise since President Felipe Calderón initiated the Mexican Government's crackdown on drug trafficking organizations in 2006. Pervasive corruption among state and local government officials and alleged human rights violations by t

  12. Book review: who is worthy of protection? Gender-based asylum and US immigration politics by Meghana Nayak

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, M. Bob

    2016-01-01

    In Who is Worthy of Protection? Gender-Based Asylum and US Immigration Politics, Meghana Nayak examines gender-based asylum in the United States, focusing on the narratives through which certain asylees are framed as being more ‘worthy’ than others. While M. Bob Kao welcomes Nayak’s recommendations regarding how feminist scholars can productively intervene in the asylum process, he nonetheless questions whether all of these arguments can be equally put into practice by lawyers navigating the ...

  13. Meeting the information seekers in trade fair exhibitions: An experience of NICMAS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sainekar, G.H.

    Public relations in any information centre are of vital importance. Information professionals require establishing good rapport with the public. Such a rapport with the inhouse clientele as well as other potential information-seeker community...

  14. LIFE IN A BACKPACK: THE EU’S ASYLUM POLICIES AND ITS IMPACT ON THE MACEDONIAN ASYLUM LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Stanojoska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting the Arab spring in 2010 and going through the latest and ongoing Syrian conflict and crises, Balkans and Macedonian railways have been and are a place where many human destinies cross their paths walking to the Member States of the European Union. On the other side, Macedonia is struggling with an influx of refugees, finding itself in a status quo position, even looking as it does not know how to solve the situation. Migrants were killed on railways every day not being able to use any kind of public transportation; their smuggling became a normal business for organized crime groups; Macedonian citizens started to earn money on refugees’ misfortune. The paper using the comparative method and document analysis, gives an overview of the EU’s legislation in the area, its improvement and current impact on things, all of it concluded with the Macedonian legal solutions regarding asylum and authors’ recommendations.

  15. Adaptive Estimation of Line-of-sight Rate Measurement from a Radio Frequency Seeker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand M. Tapas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The line-of-sight (LOS rate output from a radio frequency (RF seeker is widely used during the homing phase guidance of a tactical missile: The LOS rate is noisy and needs to be filtered.The application of an adaptive Kalman filter for the L.OS rate state estimation has been studied. This filter requires minimal a priori knowledge about technical parameters of the seeker. It isalso capable of estimating the variable noise statistics.

  16. Narrative survival: personal and institutional accounts of asylum confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanganu-Bresch, Cristina; Berkenkotter, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This essay has been conceptually eclectic in that we have integrated concepts from genre theory and discourse analysis. In our interpretation of Merivale and Marshall's narratives, we have also drawn upon Frye's Anatomy of criticism, a canonical text in literary genre theory. Such an eclectic approach seems warranted by both the contextual and textual features of Merivale's and Marshall's narratives, and in particular by Merivale's use of Mennipean satire with its encyclopedic detail. In our discussion of Merivale and Marshall's Admissions Records we have drawn on speech act theory to suggest that the Order (to admit a patient), the two medical certificates that follow, and finally, the notice to admit a patient constitute a constellation of texts, a genre suite, with a powerful illocutionary force. These texts are the prelude to and the means of confinement; they are both act and process. At the heart of our comparison of the asylum records of Merivale and Marshall with their "survivor narratives" is our analytic conclusion that the Ticehurst case histories can be said to constitute a linear "chronicle" of what Hayes Newington, the writer of the two case histories observed and inferred about his two patients. As chronicles, the Ticehurst Asylum case histories are linear representations or realistic accounts. As such, these archival documents provide a genuine insight into the "ways that that reality offers itself to perception". The institutional accounts exist in--and mark a--"flat time," equalized by each dated entry depicting the writer's mechanical act of observing/noting in brief, stereotypical sentences, e.g., "Patient is better [or, conversely, no] better today." We dubbed this metronomic time: beating regularly and evenly, flattening out the individual trajectories of each patient's illness. Metronomic time is normative. Each beat is calculated precisely to be the same as next. The dispassionate nature of clinical observations and the metronymic rhythms of

  17. No Time for Nostalgia!: Asylum-Making, Medicalized Colonialism in British Columbia (1859-97) and Artistic Praxis for Social Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Leslie G.; Brown, Sheena; Noble, Steven; Wainer, Rafael; Young, Alannah Earl

    2009-01-01

    This article asks: How have disability, indigenous arts and cultural praxis transformed and challenged the historical sociological archival research into relationships among asylum-making, medicalized colonialism and eugenics in the Woodlands School, formerly the Victoria Lunatic Asylum, the Provincial Asylum for the Insane in Victoria, BC 1859-72…

  18. The common European asylum system and the rights of the child : an exploration of meaning and compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smyth, Ciara Mary

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses the question of whether the EU Common European Asylum System (CEAS) complies with the rights of the child. A significant proportion of people seeking asylum in EU countries are children. These children may be totally alone, with people who are not their customary caregivers o

  19. Credibility Assessments as 'Normative Leakage': Asylum Applications, Gender and Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Wikström

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that credibility assessments function as 'normative leakage' within the asylum process, we analyse how narratives of gender and class are articulated, rendered meaningful, or silenced in credibility assessments. Two cases concerning male applicants are selected in order to illustrate these processes. In relation to the existing concepts of internal/external credibility, we wish to introduce the concept of social credibility, which focuses on how the assessors read different socio-cultural narratives. While previous research has shown that the postcolonial will to protect women favours women as victims of patriarchal cultures, we wish to point out the continuity of this line of argumentation in relation to male and female applicants by adopting a theoretical generalization: male applicants instead become situated at the other end of the spectrum of postcolonial notions of modernity as non-victims, victims of other circumstances or perpetrators. We argue that these processes are accentuated in relation to credibility assessments. In order to prevent processes of social exclusion and to enhance inclusive practice, authorities need to acknowledge the 'normative leakage' associated with the assessment process.

  20. Rapid trade-space realization of IR missile seeker design with a dynamic performance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, John D.

    1996-06-01

    Tactical air-to-air or ground-to-air IR missile seeker design involves a vast number of interrelated design criteria spread over a very large parameter space. To further exacerbate matters, many of these critical parameters are dynamic in nature. A common approach to seeker design is to model the behavior of each critical component, or set of components, with a mathematical simulation of its predicted behavior. While this approach is generally very high in fidelity, it tends to be very computationally (and man-hour) intensive, requiring a large number of iterations for each component. Furthermore, many of these modeled components, for example, signal processing, are both space- and time-dependent in nature, and hence are dynamically related to the missile flyout (dynamics) model; consequently, they cannot be fully modeled by a purely static model. An end-to-end (launch to closest approach) dynamic seeker performance model is briefly described herein, which allows for rapid trade space realization over all relevant seeker parameters, and an example seeker design flowdown using the dynamic performance model is presented.

  1. The European Union and refugees: towards more restrictive asylum policies in the European Union?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaunert, Christian; L??onard, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Several scholars have argued that European countries have decided to cooperate on asylum and migration matters at the EU level in order to develop more restrictive policies. In particular, it has been argued that European states have ???venue-shopped??? to a new policy-venue in order to escape national constraints. This paper puts this argument to the test by assessing the extent to which the development of EU cooperation on asylum matters has indeed led to the adoption of more restrictive as...

  2. A Research of the Employment Problem on Common Job-seekers and Graduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Da Qu

    2009-01-01

    A problem on the employment market swarming with both multitudinous common job-seekers and graduates was studied. The employment situation in the market was analyzed firstly. Based on the analysis, the situation was dynamically modeled. The model was properly processed and simplified. A control model corresponding to the method was deduced. As a result, a control solution for the model is obtained, and an example with Simulink demonstrates the control effect. By means of the proposed method, an optimal control for the dynamic balance between multitudinous common job-seekers and graduates can be obtained.

  3. When Children Seek Asylum from Their Parents: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossin, Michael; Demirdache, Laila

    2012-01-01

    When children seek asylum from alleged abuse by a custodial parent, the notion that family reunification is always in the best interests of independent child migrants is undermined. In this chapter, the authors discuss the legal tensions between the Refugee Convention, the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (the…

  4. Waiting Time: The De-Subjectification of Children in Danish Asylum Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between time and subjectification, focusing on the temporal structures created within Danish asylum centres and politics, and on children's experiences of and reactions to open-ended waiting. Such waiting leads to existential boredom which manifests in the children as restlessness, fatigue and despair. The…

  5. Recording the many face of death at the Denbigh Asylum, 1848-1938.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Pamela; Hirst, David

    2012-03-01

    The funeral was a symbolic event in Welsh society, and members of staff and relatives of patients at the Denbigh Asylum shared cultural assumptions about the importance of a final resting place for the body. Formal procedures following the death of a patient were governed by asylum rules and regulations. A Denbigh the asylum chaplain played an important role, both in terms of ministering to the dying and I performing the funeral ceremony. During the late nineteenth century the burial ground became a conteste space as nonconformists and Roman Catholics fought against the ascendancy of the Anglican Church in Wale and demanded that patients be buried according to their religious affiliation. The lunatic asylum became a sit for advancing the case for Welsh disestablishment. By the twentieth century, infectious diseases had become a serious concern, and the need to carry out screening and conduct post-mortem examinations resulted in the appointment of a pathologist, whose main role was to conduct biological and histological examinations to identify cases of tuberculosis, syphilis, dysentery, typhoid, influenza and other bodily diseases. PMID:22701926

  6. Perception, Evaluation, and Performance in a Neat and Messy Room by High and Low Sensation Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, David J.; Lindauer, Martin S.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes two studies that investigated the relationship between the effects of room environment (neat versus messy) and high and low sensation seeker's perception, evaluation, and performance. Elapsed time estimation did not vary as a function of room condition and personality. Sex differences were not found to be critical. (BT)

  7. Benefits of Job Clubs for Executive Job Seekers: A Tale of Hares and Tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Christopher T.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative research study compares the experiences of 2 groups of executive job seekers--job club members and nonmembers--through thematic analysis of open-ended interviews. The findings indicated that job club members benefited from group learning, increased accountability, networking opportunities, emotional support, helping other members,…

  8. Asylum, immigration restrictions and exploitation: hyper-precarity as a lens for understanding and tackling forced labour

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, H; Waite, L

    2015-01-01

    The topic of forced labour is receiving a growing amount of political and policy attention across the globe. This paper makes two clear contributions to emerging debates. First, we focus on a group who are seldom explicitly considered in forced labour debates; forced migrants who interact with the asylum system. We build an argument of the production of susceptibility to forced labour through the UK’s asylum system, discussing the roles of compromised socio-legal status resulting from restric...

  9. The common European asylum system and the rights of the child: an exploration of meaning and compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Ciara Mary

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses the question of whether the EU Common European Asylum System (CEAS) complies with the rights of the child. A significant proportion of people seeking asylum in EU countries are children. These children may be totally alone, with people who are not their customary caregivers or with members of their immediate family. In recognition of this phenomenon, the instruments that make up the CEAS often make specific provision for children, demonstrating an awareness on the part o...

  10. National encounters and institutional states of exception : the US insane asylum and the first-person reform writing of mad women, 1844-1897

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Trina

    2012-01-01

    Following the mid-nineteenth century, every state in the expanding US founded at least one public insane asylum. Responding to the needs of those with severe cognitive and mental impairments who were poorly housed in prisons and private homes, the asylum promised enlightened management of a seemingly growing social problem. Professional discourse centered both on patients' needs for isolated and restful care and on the threat they posed to the larger community. While asylum superintendents de...

  11. Illuminating the Signals Job Seekers Receive from an Employer's Community Involvement and Environmental Sustainability Practices: Insights into Why Most Job Seekers Are Attracted, Others Are Indifferent, and a Few Are Repelled

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, David A.; Willness, Chelsea R.; Heller, Kristin W.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer's CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study whil...

  12. [Psychiatric family care in the Tapiau/East Prussia Asylum (1907-1940)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Michel, P O

    1992-03-01

    At the end of the so-called "Weimar Republic" in German between the two world wars, and during the time of the Nazi regime, the psychiatric hospital and asylum in Tapiau near Königsberg/Kaliningrad had the highest incidence of psychiatric patients being looked after on an out-patient basis by host families. Data on this type of psychiatric care by external families were repeatedly published in detail between 1930 and 1937 by Karl Knapp, a psychiatrist who was actively engaged there for many years. After sterilisation of mentally diseased patients had been legally enforced and finances were restricted, family care stagnated, promoting instead a type of family care that was independent of psychiatric hospitals and was carried out on a "district" basis. After 1940, when in the course of enforcement of euthanasia almost all the inmates of psychiatric hospitals and asylums in East Prussia were murdered, the traces of patients entrusted to host family care faded out. PMID:1603867

  13. Making Sense of Pain: Delusions, Syphilis, and Somatic Pain in London County Council Asylums, c. 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Hide

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the late nineteenth century, a high percentage of male deaths in asylums was attributed to various forms of tertiary syphilis, most notably General Paralysis of the Insane (GPI and tabes dorsalis. It was not unusual for patients to present symptoms of both conditions, the latter of which could be agonizingly painful. Some patients also suffered from persecutory delusions, believing that electricity was running through them or that their limbs were gnawed by lions and wolves at night. Drawing on a theory advanced by a number of key alienists and pathologists of the period, I suggest that these delusions were misinterpretations of felt sensations and, as such, illusions rather than delusions. Despite the well-known problems around using these historical sources, I contend that recorded delusions in asylum case notes can be treated as narratives of pain that provide invaluable insights into patients' subjective experiences.

  14. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-08-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population. PMID:27493995

  15. When lives are put on hold: Lengthy asylum processes decrease employment among refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Lawrence, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    European governments are struggling with the biggest refugee crisis since World War II, but there exists little evidence regarding how the management of the asylum process affects the subsequent integration of refugees in the host country. We provide new causal evidence about how one central policy parameter, the length of time that refugees wait in limbo for a decision on their asylum claim, affects their subsequent economic integration. Exploiting exogenous variation in wait times and registry panel data covering refugees who applied in Switzerland between 1994 and 2004, we find that one additional year of waiting reduces the subsequent employment rate by 4 to 5 percentage points, a 16 to 23% drop compared to the average rate. This deleterious effect is remarkably stable across different subgroups of refugees stratified by gender, origin, age at arrival, and assigned language region, a pattern consistent with the idea that waiting in limbo dampens refugee employment through psychological discouragement, rather than a skill atrophy mechanism. Overall, our results suggest that marginally reducing the asylum waiting period can help reduce public expenditures and unlock the economic potential of refugees by increasing employment among this vulnerable population. PMID:27493995

  16. Brain responses to repeated visual experience among low and high sensation seekers: role of boredom susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Lianekhammy, Joann; Lawson, Adam; Guo, Chunyan; ynam, Donald; Joseph, Jane E.; Gold, Brian T.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand individual differences in sensation seeking and its components, including boredom susceptibility and experience seeking, we examined brain responses of high and low sensation seekers during repeated visual experience. Individuals scoring in the top and bottom quartiles from a college-aged population on the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) participated in an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment. Line drawings of common objects were randomly intermixed and present...

  17. IMPACT OF E-RECRUITMENT AND JOB-SEEKERS PERCEPTION ON INTENTION TO PURSUE THE JOBS

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed R. KHAN; Marinah AWANG; Arsalan Mujahid GHOURI

    2013-01-01

    The study highlighted the significance of e-recruitment in the firms. In current epoch technology integrated the information in a sophisticated manner and has influenced on every setting of daily affaires. Hence job seekers are also get benefited with the internet era and start searching the jobs on internet. This study examined the relationship between the recruitment sources, job seekers’ perception and intention to pursue the job. Data was collected from 257 respondents and analysed in rel...

  18. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Modeling Based on Seeker Optimization Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; DAI Chao-hua; Chen Wei-rong; JIA Jun-bo; HAN Ming

    2008-01-01

    Seeker optimization algorithm (SOA) has applications in continuous space of swarm intelligence. In the fields of proton ex-change membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) modeling, SOA was proposed to research a set of optimized parameters in PEMFC polariza-tion curve model. Experimental result showed that the mean square error of the optimization modeling strategy was only 6.9 × 10-23. Hence, the optimization model could fit the experiment data with high precision.

  19. Case notes, case histories, and the patient's experience of insanity at Gartnavel Royal Asylum, Glasgow, in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J

    1998-08-01

    This article is concerned primarily with questions as to how and why case notes were produced and utilized, and how they may (or may not) be used by historians. More specifically, it discusses how the Glasgow Royal Asylum's case notes may be deployed to access patients' experiences of madness and confinement. The deficiencies and biases of the case record are also explored. So too is the relationship of case notes with other asylum based records, including reception order questionnaires, with a separate section on patient writings as part of the case history corpus. This leads into an analysis of how the Asylum's case notes became case histories and for what purposes. These subjects are related to changes and continuities in medical ideologies about insanity, social attitudes to the insane and the nature of medical practice in asylums. Some fundamental shifts in emphasis in the use of the case note and case history occurred in this period. These shifts were associated with an increased emphasis on organic interpretations of mental disease and on clinical approaches to insanity; with the medicalization of asylum records and the wider discourse on insanity, and with declining deference to the public at large in the presentation of cases. The survey concludes by analysing the changing place of patient testimony within the case record. PMID:11620430

  20. The developmental consequences for asylum-seeking children living with the prospect for five years or more of enforced return to their home country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalverboer, M.E.; Zijlstra, A.E.; Knorth, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the European legal framework and policy on children's rights and on the development and developmental risks of children from asylum-seeking families who have lived in asylum centres for over five years with the prospect of being forced to return to their home country. The legal p

  1. The Quality of the Childrearing Environment of Refugee or Asylum-Seeking Children and the Best Interests of the Child : Reliability and Validity of the BIC-Q

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, A. Elianne; Kalverboer, Margrite E.; Post, Wendy J.; Knorth, Erik J.; Ten Brummelaar, Mijntje D. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Best Interest of the Child Questionnaire (BIC-Q) has been designed as an instrument for screening the quality of the rearing situation of asylum-seeking or refugee children. It is intended to aid legal decisions in asylum procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and the

  2. [Communication and mental health: a discursive analysis of posters of the National Anti-Asylum Campaign Movement in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espirito Santo, Wanda; Araujo, Inesita Soares de; Amarante, Paulo

    2016-01-26

    The article analyzes two posters that with the same slogan - "Asylums nevermore" - promote National Anti-Asylum Day. The analysis was based on principles of the symptomatology of social discourse, articulating analytical concepts and practices arising from the French School and the pragmatic dimension of discourse analysis. The results revealed affirmation strategies of the movement for the qualification and exacerbation of the issues of the enunciation and other enunciators, namely political actors of the anti-asylum movement and their allies. It also reveals the attempt to disqualify competitive discourse, especially that which discloses the serious problems of its institutional models, but also by juxtaposing the positive presence of the issuers and enunciators of the posters. PMID:27276046

  3. School and community-based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Tyrer

    Full Text Available Research for effective psychological interventions for refugee and asylum-seeking children has intensified. The need for interventions in environments more easily accessed by children and families is especially relevant for newly arrived populations. This paper reviews the literature on school and community-based interventions aimed at reducing psychological disorders in refugee and asylum-seeking children.Comprehensive searches were conducted in seven databases and further information was obtained through searching reference lists, grey literature, and contacting experts in the field. Studies were included if they reported on the efficacy of a school or community-based mental health intervention for refugee or asylum-seeking children. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively. The marked heterogeneity of studies excluded conducting a meta-analysis but study effect-sizes were calculated where possible. Twenty one studies met inclusion criteria for the review reporting on interventions for approximately 1800 refugee children. Fourteen studies were carried out in high-income countries in either a school (n = 11 or community (n = 3 setting and seven studies were carried out in refugee camps. Interventions were either primarily focused on the verbal processing of past experiences (n = 9, or on an array of creative art techniques (n = 7 and others used a combination of these interventions (n = 5. While both intervention types reported significant changes in symptomatology, effect sizes ranged from 0.31 to 0.93 and could mainly be calculated for interventions focusing on the verbal processing of past experiences.Only a small number of studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and the majority of these were in the school setting. The findings suggest that interventions delivered within the school setting can be successful in

  4. Pro-asylum Advocacy in the EU: Challenging the State of Exception

    OpenAIRE

    Hintjens, Helen; Kumar, Rajiv; Pouri, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. This chapter explores examples of how pro-asylum advocates challenge the harsh measures used to punish those who try to enter or reside in the EU illegally, taking examples from The Netherlands and the UK. We explore organized resistance to the ‘3-Ds’, which are so typical of EU-wide migration policies: destitution, detention and deportation. Together these are the backbone of policies of deterrence. Sections 2 and 3 explore how ‘global apartheid’ and the ‘state of e...

  5. Asylum, Refuge and Public Policy: Current Trends and Future Dilemmas in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, L; Solomos, J.

    2001-01-01

    Britain is a signatory of the 1950 European Convention on Human Rightsand Fundamental Freedoms and the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. It is only in the last decade, however, with the passage of the 1993 Asylum and Immigration Appeal Act and the 1998 Human Rights Act, that these two Conventions have became part of British law. This paper begins by exploring the impact of the incorporation of the 1951 Convention and then moves on to look at the hopes that are now pinned on ...

  6. The Intersection of Statelessness and Refugee Protection in US Asylum Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryellen Fullerton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than ten million people are stateless today. In a world of nation states, they live on the margins without membership in any state, and, as a consequence, have few enforceable legal rights. Stateless individuals face gaps in protection and in many cases experience persecution that falls within the refugee paradigm. However, US asylum policy does not adequately address the myriad legal problems that confront the stateless, who have been largely invisible in the jurisprudence and academic literature. Two federal appellate court opinions shed new light on the intersection of statelessness and refugee law in the United States. In 2010, Haile v. Holder examined the asylum claim of a young man rendered stateless when the Ethiopian government issued a decree denationalizing ethnic Eritreans.  In a 2011 case, Stserba v. Holder, the court reviewed an asylum claim by a woman who became stateless when the Soviet Union collapsed, and the successor state of Estonia enacted citizenship legislation that included a language requirement. This article analyzes the opinions which suggest that state action depriving residents of citizenship on ethnic and other protected grounds warrants a presumption of persecution.  This article also identifies additional circumstances in which stateless individuals may have a well-founded fear of persecution that qualifies them for asylum in the United States.In addition, this article notes that although far too many stateless individuals face persecution, not all of them do. Stateless persons who do not fear persecution, however, are also vulnerable. The absence of state protection condemns them to a precarious existence and their inability to obtain passports or other travel documents often prevents their return to states where they formerly resided. The refusal of most states to admit noncitizens frequently keeps stateless persons in limbo. Stateless individuals stranded in the United States live under a supervisory

  7. Angular super-resolution with array antennas: Application to seeker-heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, U.

    1986-07-01

    Monopulse seeker-heads can give large errors due to closely spaced targets or even completely wrong directions in the case of cross-eye deception. The effective countermeasure against these errors is resolution enhancement. Super-resolution methods offer the possibility to resolve targets closer than the antenna beamwidth. Such methods are favorable for seeker-head applications, because the target separation as well as the signal-to-noise ratio increases as the missile approaches the target. All effective super-resolution methods require an antenna array with access to the single element outputs. Thus mechanical scanning is replaced by electronic scanning. Depending on the type of missile, sometimes antenna pattern restrictions have to be tolerated. Among all super-resolution methods the parametric target model fitting (PTMF) method seems to be most appropriate for this application. This method tries to fit a completely parameterized target model directly to the measured data. It can be rather easily computed, and it is the only method which can resolve completely correlated targets, which arise in the case of multipath and cross-eye deception. For seeker-heads with few antenna elements an implementation with digital signal processor chips is most suited. Computer simulations and experiments with measured data using the DESAS test equipment show that two targets separated at 0.3 beamwidth can be resolved in azimuth and elevation and that the switch from conventional monopulse to two-target estimation (super-resolution), which is crucial for the approaching missile, can be done by a reliable automatic test procedure.

  8. Harm minimization in tan seekers: an exploration of tanning behaviour and the potential for substitutional use of sunless tanning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine L; Paras, Lorraine; Harper, Ainsley; Coppa, Kay

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun or solaria is a major contributor to high rates of skin cancer. The study aimed to explore the intentions of active tan seekers in relation to the substitutional use of sunless tanning products. Participants were reluctant to reduce UV exposure in favour of using sunless tanning products, which were considered to be another tanning method rather than an avenue for reducing skin cancer risk. The 'sunless tan' approach is unlikely to reduce UV exposure in the majority of tan seekers, but may be valuable in targeting women with fairer skin. PMID:21441364

  9. Sleeping patterns of Afghan unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents: a large observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) have experienced multiple traumas and are a high-risk group for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The effects of trauma are known to be associated with sleep problems; indeed sleeping problems are core features of PTSD. However, there has been no systematic research examining the sleep of this high risk group of children. This study presents the first evidence on the sleeping patterns of Afghan UASC living in the UK. A total of 222 male Afghan children, aged 13-18, were interviewed using validated self-report questionnaires measuring sleeping patterns and PTSD. Overall, UASC patterns for bed time and rise time appear acculturated to the country of asylum. Mean UASC sleep onset latency scores were approximately 20 minutes greater compared with normative scores, which may be a reflection of UASC pre-migration and post-migration experiences. As expected, UASC who screened above the clinical cut-off for PTSD reported significantly greater sleep onset latency, increased nightmares, and less total sleep time compared to the non-PTSD group. The results may be of particular interest to clinicians given that, compared to screening for PTSD, screening for sleep problems may be a less culturally disputed form of initial assessment indicating distress in UASC. Similarly, the field of UASC and refugee child interventions is largely focused on trauma, yet sleep may provide a novel avenue for equally or more effective treatment. PMID:23457517

  10. Seeking asylum in Denmark: Refugee children's mental health and exposure to violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to compare profiles of present mental health and previous exposure to violence among refugee children from the Middle East, whose asylum seeking families either did or did not obtain permission to stay in Denmark. Methods: Shortly after arrival in Denmark, the pare...... exposure to violence and their present mental health. There seems to be good reason to systematically integrate evidence on the children of refugee families in the treatment of applications for permission to stay.......Aims: The aim of this study was to compare profiles of present mental health and previous exposure to violence among refugee children from the Middle East, whose asylum seeking families either did or did not obtain permission to stay in Denmark. Methods: Shortly after arrival in Denmark......, the parents of 311 Middle-Eastern children answered a structured interview on their children’s exposure to organized violence and their mental health. The families were followed-up as concerns receipt of a residence permit. Results: At arrival in Denmark, the children’s patterns of previous exposure...

  11. Local Conceptualisations of the Education of Asylum-Seeking and Refugee Students: From Hostile to Holistic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Halleli; Arnot, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Sociological research on the presence and yet invisibility of asylum-seeking and refugee pupils in the educational system in the UK is noticeably absent. This article offers insights into the ways in which the presence and the needs of such pupils are conceptualised by local authorities and schools. It draws on the results of a survey of 58…

  12. Could the BIC-Q be a decision-support tool to predict the development of asylum-seeking children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, A. Elianne; Kalverboer, Margrite E.; Post, Wendy J.; Ten Brummelaar, Mijntje D. C.; Knorth, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    The Best Interest of the Child Questionnaire (BIC-Q) is an instrument to measure the quality of the childrearing environment. We used a sample of asylum-seeking children (N = 79) in the Netherlands to determine the relationship between the quality of the childrearing environment and the child's inte

  13. Efficiency improvement and torque ripple minimization of Switched Reluctance Motor using FEM and Seeker Optimization Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper proposes a new method to optimize a Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM). • A combination of SOA and GA with Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis is employed to solve the SRM design optimization. • The results show that optimized SRM obtains higher average torque and higher efficiency. - Abstract: In this paper, performance optimization of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) was determined using Seeker Optimization Algorithm (SOA). The most efficient aim of the algorithm was found for maximum torque value at a minimum mass of the entire construction, following changing the geometric parameters. The optimization process was carried out using a combination of Seeker Optimization Algorithm and Finite Element Method (FEM). Fitness value was calculated by FEM analysis using COMSOL3.4, and the SOA was realized by MATLAB. The proposed method has been applied for a case study and it has been also compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA). The results show that the optimized motor using SOA had higher torque value and efficiency with lower mass and torque ripple, exhibiting the validity of this methodology for SRM design

  14. IMPACT OF E-RECRUITMENT AND JOB-SEEKERS PERCEPTION ON INTENTION TO PURSUE THE JOBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed R. KHAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study highlighted the significance of e-recruitment in the firms. In current epoch technology integrated the information in a sophisticated manner and has influenced on every setting of daily affaires. Hence job seekers are also get benefited with the internet era and start searching the jobs on internet. This study examined the relationship between the recruitment sources, job seekers’ perception and intention to pursue the job. Data was collected from 257 respondents and analysed in relation with the research objectives. The findings of the study showed that internet is the most preferred source to search the job among other recruitment sources. Furthermore, it is also suggested that the effectiveness of e-recruitment depends upon the placement of advertisement and salary is the most influential motivator to find interest in the job applied. Lastly, statistics of the study found that the recruitment sources and applicant’s perceptions of job significantly influence the intention to pursue the position applied by the job seeker.

  15. Optical system design of a new type infrared dual-band seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongli, Ma; Liu, Wenzhe; Wang, Wensheng

    2010-08-01

    Based on the appearance of infrared dual-band device and the technical parameters of infrared seeker, a new-type Cassegrain optical system is designed. The main advantages of the system are large field-of-view, infrared dual-band common path and compact structure. In the Cassegrain optical system, the working wavelengths are 3.7μm~4.8μm and 8μm~12μm, the field-of-view 4° and the aperture 240mm. The paraboloidal primary mirror and hyperboloidal secondary mirror are all replaced by spherical surfaces. So the problems of high machining accuracy and alignment become much easier. In order to balance the aberrations, two compensating lenses are used in the system. The amounts of compensating lenses are much less than other optical systems. So the new optical system becomes much more economy, light and compact. The total length of system is 170mm. The ratio of total length to focal length is 0.62. So it can meet the operating requirement of seeker in limited space. Moreover, the system has a good performance of athermalization between negative 40°c and positive 50°c. The design results of the system show that the MTF value of each field is greater than 0.7 when the cut-off frequency is 11 lp / mm. Wavefront aberration is less than 0.038λ.

  16. A User Programmable Electro-optic Device for Testing Laser Seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakul Maini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-guided munitions are weapons of great importance in the present day warfare scenario because of their precision and efficacy. Both weapon specific and generic test systems are commercially available to perform functionality checks on laser guided munitions. None of the designs reported in literature addresses the issues of universality of test systems and their ability to evaluate the device-under-test in actual battlefield scenario. This paper presents the design of an electro-optic device that offers significant improvement over the features of both commercial test systems as well as the designs reported in recent literature. The proposed design enables generation of user programmable laser signatures in terms of pulse repetition frequency (PRF code, PRF code resolution and laser power density that allows testing in dynamic conditions not possible with the test systems in the state-of-the-art. The concept is hardware implemented and used to evaluate performance of a typical laser seeker. The seeker is tested for PRF code compatibility, immunity to false PRF codes, sensitivity, field-of-view and performance in dynamic conditions. The test results are also presented.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, January 2014, DOI:10.14429/dsj.64.4857

  17. Research for the jamming mechanism of high-frequency laser to the laser seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xingyuan; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Yunping; Feng, Shuang; Zhao, Changming

    2013-08-01

    High-frequency laser will be able to enter the enemy laser signal processing systems without encoded identification and a copy. That makes it one of the research directions of new interference sources. In order to study the interference mechanism of high-frequency laser to laser guided weapons. According to the principle of high-frequency laser interference, a series of related theoretical models such as a semi-active laser seeker coded identification model, a time door model, multi-signal processing model and a interference signal modulation processing model are established. Then seeker interfere with effective 3σ criterion is proposed. Based on this, the study of the effect of multi-source interference and signal characteristics of the effect of high repetition frequency laser interference are key research. According to the simulation system testing, the results show that the multi-source interference and interference signal frequency modulation can effectively enhance the interference effect. While the interference effect of the interference signal amplitude modulation is not obvious. The research results will provide the evaluation of high-frequency laser interference effect and provide theoretical references for high-frequency laser interference system application.

  18. Radar seeker based autonomous navigation update system using topography feature matching techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, H. D.; Tumbreagel, F.

    1992-11-01

    The discussed navigation update system was designed for an unmanned platform with fire and forget capability. It meets the requirement due to fully autonomous operation. The system concept will be characterized by complementary use of the radar seeker for target identification as well as for navigation function. The system works in the navigation mode during preprogrammable phases where the primary target identification function is not active or in parallel processing. The dual function radar seeker system navigates the drone during the midcourse and terminal phases of the mission. Its high resolution due to range measurement and doppler beam sharpening in context with its radar reflectivity sensing capability are the basis for topography referenced navigation computation. The detected height jumps (coming from terrain elevation and cultural objects) and radar reflectivity features will be matched together with topography referenced features. The database comprises elevation data and selected radar reflectivity features that are robust against seasonal influences. The operational benefits of the discussed system are as follows: (1) the improved navigation performance with high probability of position fixing, even over flat terrain; (2) the operation within higher altitudes; and (3) bad weather capability. The developed software modules were verified with captive flight test data running in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation.

  19. Collective decision making with a mix of majority and minority seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    We study a model of a population making a binary decision based on information spreading within the population, which is fully connected or covering a square grid. We assume that a fraction of the population wants to make the choice of the minority, whereas the rest want to make the majority choice. This resembles opinion spreading with "contrarian" agents but has the game theoretic aspect that agents try to optimize their own situation in ways that are incompatible with the common good. When this fraction is less than 1/2, the population can efficiently self-organize to a state where agents get what they want—the majority (i.e., the majority seekers) have one opinion, the minority seekers have the other. If the fraction is larger than 1/2, there is a frustration in the population that dramatically changes the dynamics. In this region, the population converges, through some distinct phases, to a state of approximately equal-sized opinions. Just over the threshold the state of the population is furthest from the collectively optimal solution.

  20. Collective decision making with a mix of majority and minority seekers

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2016-01-01

    We study a model of a population making a binary decision based on information spreading within the population, which is fully connected or covering a square grid. We assume that a fraction of the population wants to make the choice of the majority, while the rest want to make the minority choice. This resembles opinion spreading with "contrarian" agents, but has the game theoretic aspect that agents try to optimize their own situation in ways that are incompatible with the common good. When this fraction is less than 1/2, the population can efficiently self-organize to a state where agents get what they want -- the majority (i.e. the majority seekers) have one opinion, the minority seekers have the other. If the fraction is larger than 1/2, there is a frustration in the population that dramatically changes the dynamics. In this region, the population converges, through some distinct phases, to a state of approximately equal-sized opinions. Just over the threshold the state of the population is furthest from ...

  1. Multi-dimensional migration challenges in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes van der Klaauw

    2007-01-01

    Facing tighter European border controls, increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers from sub-Saharan countries find themselves stranded in North Africa. In the absence of functioning state asylum structures and with a growing caseload of asylum seekers, UNHCR is working to strengthen regional protection capacity, particularly in Morocco.

  2. Multi-dimensional migration challenges in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes van der Klaauw

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Facing tighter European border controls, increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers from sub-Saharan countries find themselves stranded in North Africa. In the absence of functioning state asylum structures and with a growing caseload of asylum seekers, UNHCR is working to strengthen regional protection capacity, particularly in Morocco.

  3. Analyzing the effectiveness of flare dispensing programs against pulse width modulation seekers using self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahingil, Mehmet C.; Aslan, Murat Š.

    2013-10-01

    Infrared guided missile seekers utilizing pulse width modulation in target tracking is one of the threats against air platforms. To be able to achieve a "soft-kill" protection of own platform against these type of threats, one needs to examine carefully the seeker operating principle with its special electronic counter-counter measure (ECCM) capability. One of the cost-effective ways of soft kill protection is to use flare decoys in accordance with an optimized dispensing program. Such an optimization requires a good understanding of the threat seeker, capabilities of the air platform and engagement scenario information between them. Modeling and simulation is very powerful tool to achieve a valuable insight and understand the underlying phenomenology. A careful interpretation of simulation results is crucial to infer valuable conclusions from the data. In such an interpretation there are lots of factors (features) which affect the results. Therefore, powerful statistical tools and pattern recognition algorithms are of special interest in the analysis. In this paper, we show how self-organizing maps (SOMs), which is one of those powerful tools, can be used in analyzing the effectiveness of various flare dispensing programs against a PWM seeker. We perform several Monte Carlo runs for a typical engagement scenario in a MATLAB-based simulation environment. In each run, we randomly change the flare dispending program and obtain corresponding class: "successful" or "unsuccessful", depending on whether the corresponding flare dispensing program deceives the seeker or not, respectively. Then, in the analysis phase, we use SOMs to interpret and visualize the results.

  4. Seen But Not Heard?:Parallels and Dissonances in the Treatment of Rape Narratives across the Asylum and Criminal Justice Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Sharon; Baillot, Helen; Munro, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of women seeking refugee status in the United Kingdom will claim to have been raped in their country of origin. Even where this is not the sole basis of an asylum claim, it may be relevant to its determination. While criminal justice responses to rape have been the subject of extensive academic criticism and legislative reform, the processes of disclosure and credibility assessment in the asylum context have received little attention. This article explores possible pa...

  5. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories

  6. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Nathan W; McCants, Sarah A; Custodio, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael E; Getty, Stephen R; Hoffman, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories. PMID:17126382

  7. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  8. The City of Others: Photographs from the City of London Asylum Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bressey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This photographic essay presents images from the City of London Asylum archive as a example of how the visual can be used to expand our investigations of social histories of Victorian London, particularly the multi-cultural nature of the city. The essay argues that images are an essential part of the research process, but also discusses some of the disadvantages and ethical tensions encountered through the use of such portraits for historical recovery. Despite these caveats, the paper concludes that we have much to learn from the images that present images of the city that would otherwise be difficult, if not impossible, for twenty-first-century researchers to access.

  9. Are physicians profit or rent seekers? Some evidence from state economic growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Mary; Santerre, Rexford E

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has debated whether physicians act as profit- or rent-seekers. We argue that these two models of physician behavior can be tested by observing empirically the relationship between physician density and economic growth rates. A direct (inverse) relationship provides evidence for the profit-seeking (rent-seeking) theory of physician behavior. We empirically examine the impact of physician density on the economic growth of all US states over the period from 1973 to 2009. The empirical analysis generally finds a statistically significant and direct relationship between physician density and the growth of gross state product. The results are robust with respect to state- and time-fixed effects, individual state time trends, and 2SLS (two-stage least squares) estimation. Thus, in support of the profit-seeking theory of physician behavior, the findings reveal that physicians generally have a positive impact on the growth of the US economy. PMID:24199520

  10. Diversity cues on recruitment websites: investigating the effects on job seekers' information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H Jack; Feild, Hubert S; Bernerth, Jeremy B; Becton, J Bret

    2012-01-01

    Although job seekers' motivation to process the information encountered during recruitment partially influences recruitment success, little is known about what motivates more thorough information processing. To address this issue, we integrated recruitment and social information processing theories to examine the possibility that diversity cues on recruitment websites influence website viewers' processing of presented information. Utilizing a controlled experiment and a hypothetical organization, Study 1 revealed that both Blacks and Whites spent more time viewing recruitment websites and better recalled website information when the sites included racial diversity cues. These relationships were stronger for Blacks, and organizational attractiveness perceptions mediated these effects for Blacks but not for Whites. Study 2 found similar relationships for Black and White participants viewing real organizational recruitment websites after taking into account perceived organizational attributes and website design effects. Implications of these findings for recruiting organizations are discussed. PMID:22004220

  11. Image restoration in multisensor missile seeker environments for design of intelligent integrated processing architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareshan, Malur K.; Pang, Ho-Yuen; Amphay, Sengvieng A.; Sundstrom, Bryce M.

    1997-10-01

    Two major factors that could limit successful implementations of image restoration and superresolution algorithms in missile seeker applications are, (i) lack of accurate knowledge of sensor point spread function (PSF) parameters, and (ii) noise-induced artifacts in the restoration process. The robustness properties of a recently developed blind iterative Maximum Likelihood (ML) restoration algorithm to inaccuracies in sensor PSF are established in this paper. Two modifications to this algorithm that successfully equip it to suppress artifacts resulting from the presence of high frequency noise components are outlined. Performance evaluation studies with 1D and 2D signals are included to demonstrate that these algorithms have superresolution capabilities while possessing also attractive robustness and artifact suppression properties. The algorithms developed here hence contribute to efficient designs of intelligent integrated processing architectures for smart weapon applications.

  12. Performance evaluation of imaging seeker tracking algorithm based on multi-features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujue; Yan, Jinglong

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents a new efficient method for performance evaluation of imaging seeker tracking algorithm. The method utilizes multi features which associate with tracking point of each video frame, gets local score(LS) for every feature, and achieves global score(GS) for given tracking algorithm according to the combined strategy. The method can be divided into three steps. In a first step, it extracts evaluation feature from neighbor zone of each tracking point. The feature may include tracking error, shape of target, area of target, tracking path, and so on. Then, as to each feature, a local score can be got rely on the number of target which tracked successfully. It uses similarity measurement and experiential threshold between neighbor zone of tracking point and target template to define tracking successful or not. Of course, the number should be 0 or 1 for single target tracking. Finally, it assigns weight for each feature according to the validity grade for the performance. The weights multiply by local scores and normalized between 0 and 1, this gets global score of certain tracking algorithm. By compare the global score of each tracking algorithm as to certain type of scene, it can evaluate the performance of tracking algorithm quantificational. The proposed method nearly covers all tracking error factors which can be introduced into the process of target tracking, so the evaluation result has a higher reliability. Experimental results, obtained with flying video of infrared imaging seeker, and also included several target tracking algorithms, illustrate the performance of target tracking, demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  13. Violence Against Women and Asylum Seeking: Global Problems and Local Practices Applied to Guatemalan Women Immigrating for Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Roselyn Costantino; Karen Smith Rotabi; Debra H. Rodman

    2012-01-01

    This paper, based on broader discussions surrounding gender violence and immigration in the U.S., provides critical information on the historical context of extreme violence against women and femicide plaguing Central American societies today. Drawing on experiences of precedent setting cases of Guatemalan women, the authors offer suggestions for culturally specific treatment of and support for women who seek asylum in the U.S. out of justified fear for their and their family members’ lives s...

  14. Acts of Citizenship as a Politics of Resistance? Reflections on realizing concrete rights within the Israeli asylum regime

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, T.R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how Eritrean refugees in Israel and civil society organisations who engage with refugee issues contest the exclusionary politics of asylum in Israel. It presents various acts of claims-making initiated by Eritrean refugees themselves or in response to hostility by others, as well as acts inaugurated by Israeli civil society organisations on behalf of or with refugee populations. Drawing on the concept of activist acts of citizenship developed by Engin Isin, the paper s...

  15. [Social history of open care of the mentally ill--from the municipal asylum to social psychiatric care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbeck, H

    1985-09-01

    Outpatient psychiatric care linked to a hospital or institution is as old as psychiatry defining itself as a science. During the time of the Liberal Movement in Germany and the various revolutions that took place in several European countries (including Austria and various German states) in 1848, people were full of ideas and sociorevolutionary projects. It was then that they became conscious of the need to meet mentally ill persons in their own environment in order to help them in an adequate manner. Griesinger described in great detail such work as envisaged by him for his projected "municipal asylum" or "city asylum". However, all efforts in this direction were quashed in 1868 by a majority decision on the part of psychiatrics in favour of large-scale lunatic asyluma located far away from the densely populated areas. At the turn of the century, social awareness again began to grow; the asylums were overcrowded; and costs had risen tremendously. This resulted in building up a non-institutionalised "open service and care" for the insane. On the one hand, it was an outpatient care system in close co-operation with the asylum, i.e. the patients were looked up in their homes (Erlangen Model), whereas in several big cities the community Public Health Office was responsible for such psychiatric care (Gelsenkirchen Model). In the German Republic that existed from 1919 to 1933, "open" psychiatric care was extended, and the psychiatrist who advocated it were gradually drawn into a maelstrom of a sociodarwinistic type of racialism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3903811

  16. Refugee education in countries of first asylum: Breaking open the black box of pre-resettlement experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The number of refugees who have fled across international borders due to conflict and persecution is at the highest level in recorded history. The vast majority of these refugees find exile in low-income countries neighboring their countries of origin. The refugee children who are resettled to North America, Europe, and Australia arrive with previous educational experiences in these countries of first asylum. This article examines these pre-resettlement educational experiences of refugee chil...

  17. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children’s Forced Repatriation: Social Workers’ and Police Officers’ Health and Job Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working wi...

  18. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: A mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulholland Kim; Allotey Pascale; Johnston Vanessa; Markovic Milica

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. Methods We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sect...

  19. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children's Forced Repatriation: Social Workers' and Police Officers' Health and Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden. PMID:26153185

  20. Illuminating the Signals Job Seekers Receive from an Employer's Community Involvement and Environmental Sustainability Practices: Insights into Why Most Job Seekers Are Attracted, Others Are Indifferent, and a Few Are Repelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A.; Willness, Chelsea R.; Heller, Kristin W.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer's CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer's CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108) reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer's webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer's community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the “perceived value fit” and “expected employee treatment” mechanisms, and provided some, but relatively limited, support for the “anticipated pride” mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers' attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer's positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees). Results also showed that a few people were less

  1. Illuminating the Signals Job Seekers Receive from an Employer's Community Involvement and Environmental Sustainability Practices: Insights into Why Most Job Seekers Are Attracted, Others Are Indifferent, and a Few Are Repelled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A; Willness, Chelsea R; Heller, Kristin W

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer's CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer's CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108) reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer's webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer's community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the "perceived value fit" and "expected employee treatment" mechanisms, and provided some, but relatively limited, support for the "anticipated pride" mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers' attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer's positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees). Results also showed that a few people were less attracted

  2. Spirituality, hope, and self-sufficiency among low-income job seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Self-sufficiency (SS) is an important social welfare policy goal in the United States, yet little is known about the process that leads to SS. To address this gap in the literature, this study examined the relationship between spirituality, hope, and SS among a sample of low-income job seekers (N = 116). It was hypothesized that spirituality would be related to hope, and that hope, in turn, would be related to SS. Using survey data from two workforce development agencies, this hypothesis was confirmed-hope fully mediated the relationship between spirituality and SS. Of the two factors through which hope is commonly operationalized-agency and pathways-supplemental analysis suggested that spirituality only affects SS through the agency channel. To help foster hope in direct practice settings, it is suggested that social workers might employ spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocols. Macrostructural interventions that block the pathway component of hope are also suggested to help reverse exclusion from labor market entry. As such, hope needs to be addressed comprehensively-intrapsychically and macrostructurally-to effect bottom-up change for SS. Engendering hope may assist clients overcome some of the many challenges they encounter on the journey to SS. PMID:25929013

  3. An Efficient ΣΔ-STAP Detector for Radar Seeker using RPCA Post-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive detection of moving targets in sea clutter environment is considered as one of the crucial tasks for radar seekers. Due to the severe spreading of the sea clutter spectrum, the ability of space-time adaptive processing with sum and difference beams (ΣΔ-STAP algorithms to suppress the sea clutter is very limited. This paper, investigated the low-rank property of the range-Doppler data matrix according to the eigenvalue distribution from the eigen spectrum, and proposed an efficient ΣΔ-STAP detector based on the robust principle component analysis (RPCA algorithm to detect moving targets, which meets the low-rank matrix recovery conditions. The proposed algorithm first adopts ΣΔ-STAP algorithm to preprocess the sea clutter, then separates the sparse matrix of target component from the range-Doppler data matrix through the RPCA algorithm, and finally, effectively detects moving targets in the range-Doppler plane. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm in the low signal-to-noise ratio scenarios.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 4, July 2014, pp. 344-349, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.4862

  4. Toward a European Immigration Policy and a Common Sets of Rules on Asylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Bontempi

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two Reports on immigration and asylum presented by the Commission in late November of 2000, which represented an important step in the evolution of the functions of the Government of the European Union in relation to issues previously dealt with within the context of the rules of national sovereignty.The Commission here proposes a “comprehensive” policy dealing with all (economic, social, political and humanitarian aspects related to the phenomenon of migration and, as a result, brings to the fore the need for effective coordination between the work of governments on the one hand, and that of social agents, associations, local andregional authorities on the other. According to the Commission, the principal elements of this new comprehensive approach are the following five policies: new channels for legal immigration; combatting illegal immigration; long-term immigration policies;cooperation with countries of origin; admission for humanitarian reasons. Of course, all this is but the beginning of a political process that is complex, difficult and sure to bring out the contradictions between the universalist callings of our democracies and the pressure from some sectors for simple control. Still, the course that has been set is the right one and merits a commitment to follow.

  5. [The emergence of the Québec asylum in the 19th century.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, A

    1977-01-01

    This team of five philosophers analyses the 18th and 19th century Quebec discourse on the subject of insanity. The 18th century saw the insane excluded from social contact with the state recognizing only their indigence. They were relegated either to the "Loges", designed to expiate their sins since insanity was linked to an abuse of mind and body, or to prison for appropriate punishment, since madness was considered to lead to crime. But economic pressures produced by the growing number in indigents, including the mentally ill, led to the creation of the Beauport asylum in 1845. The authors then describe how the urban insane, marginal to both the French Canadian and English Canadian communities* were placed in private institutions and subjected to a system of profit maximization controlled by bourgeois physicians. This situation increased the distance between proprietors and occupants, and accounts for the lack of original discourse on the subject of insanity. In addition, the reasoning of the alienist physicians was without scientific foundation, taking root rather in the dominant industrial capitalist ideology. As for the content of the discourse, the Beauport physicians borrowed from moral treatment and restraint system notions, giving them a certain Quebec character. PMID:17093651

  6. Software-only IR image generation and reticle simulation for the HWIL testing of a single detector frequency modulated reticle seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delport, Jan Peet; le Roux, Francois P. J.; du Plooy, Matthys J. U.; Theron, Hendrik J.; Annamalai, Leeandran

    2004-08-01

    Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) testing of seeker systems usually requires a 5-axis flight motion simulator (FMS) coupled to expensive hardware for infrared (IR) scene generation and projection. Similar tests can be conducted by using a 3-axis flight motion simulator, bypassing the seeker optics and injecting a synthetically calculated detector signal directly into the seeker. The constantly increasing speed and memory bandwidth of high-end personal computers make them attractive software rendering platforms. A software OpenGL pipeline provides flexibility in terms of access to the rendered output, colour channel dynamic range and lighting equations. This paper describes how a system was constructed using personal computer hardware to perform closed tracking loop HWIL testing of a single detector frequency modulated reticle seeker. The main parts of the system that are described include: * The software-only implementation of OpenGL used to render the IR image with floating point accuracy directly to system memory. * The software used to inject the detector signal and extract the seeker look position. * The architecture used to control the flight motion simulator.

  7. IR window design for hypersonic missile seekers: thermal shock and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingst, Uwe; Koerber, Stefan

    2001-10-01

    Infra-red (IR) seekers on missiles at high Mach-numbers in the lower tier air defence often suffer from degradation in performance due to aerothermodynamic effects. The kind and rate of degradation depends on the geometric design (shape) and location of the IR-window. Optimal design may reduce those effects but still misses to totally withstand the imposed thermal stresses (thermal shock). Proper thermal protection systems and/or window cooling systems will be needed. The first part of this paper deals particularly with passive IR- window design features to reduce the thermal stresses. A series of wind-tunnel testings focused on the thermal shock behavior of different IR-window shapes under critical flight conditions. The variation of typical design parameters demonstrates the available features to reduce thermal shock by passive ways. The second part presents active thermal stress reduction devices, e.g. an active cooling system. Among others the most efficient reduction of thermal heating is based on three components: A partial coverage of the IR-dome to protect most parts against heating effects, a rotating system bearing the IR-dome and a liquid spray-cooling system in the gap between the cover and the IR-dome. The hemispherical or pyramidal dome can be located either midways in the missile nose section or sideways on the structure. The liquid spray cooling system combines both, a heat exchange by fluid evaporation and a heat transfer by fluid and gas cross flow (convection), causing a low fluid consumption. Such a cooling system along with their driving parameters and the resulting analytical performance will be presented.

  8. Acute effects of alcohol on inhibitory control and information processing in high and low sensation-seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Ostling, Erik W.; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Sensation-seeking is a personality characteristic that has been associated with drug abuse. Some evidence suggests that sensation-seekers might experience increased rewarding effects from drugs of abuse, possibly contributing to the association between sensation-seeking and risk for drug abuse. The present study examined the effects of three doses of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg) on inhibitory control, information processing, and subjective ratings in a group of high sensation-...

  9. The institutional response to mental disorder in Ireland: censuses of Irish asylums, psychiatric hospitals and units 1844-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D; Daly, A; Moran, R

    2016-08-01

    Before the eighteenth century, there was limited response to the problem of psychiatric illness in Ireland as in many other countries. The asylums of the 1820s and 1830s were no sooner opened than they were overcrowded. A second wave of asylum building commenced in the second half of the nineteenth century continuing up to the early twentieth century. In 1966, the Report of the Commission on Mental Illness noted that the rate of psychiatric beds in Ireland per 1,000 was one of the highest in the world. The report called for a change in the policy of caring for the mentally ill in psychiatric hospitals to more community-based settings and in psychiatric units located in general hospital settings, along with a call for more research into mental illness. The result of the latter was the establishment of the first census of psychiatric patients resident in psychiatric hospitals. Thus began fifty years of census reporting and the subsequent establishment of the National Psychiatric Inpatient Reporting System (NPIRS). PMID:26667467

  10. Sexual Maltreatment of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors from the Horn of Africa: A Mixed Method Study Focusing on Vulnerability and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A mixed…

  11. El GreenSeeker TM y el diagnóstico del estado de salud de los cultivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es proveer los conocimientos básicos y los principios técnicos necesarios para el uso correcto del GreenSeeker' en aplicaciones agrícolas como la fertilización nitrogenada, la dosifi cación del riego, el mapeo de los campos agrícolas y la agricultura de precisión. Se describe el instrumento y las bases físicas y fi siológicas que respaldan su uso en la agricultura, además de las propiedades radiativas de las superfi cies vegetales, y la refl exión de la luz en cultivos sanos y vigorosos comparados con plantas estresadas. Se discuten las posibles aplicaciones del GreenSeeker en el diagnóstico y la corrección de diversos tipos de estrés y otros "desórdenes" experimentados por los cultivos en el campo, en tiempo real, y acorde con la heterogeneidad espacial siempre presente de los agroecosistemas tropicales. Se incluyen las limitaciones de la tecnología disponible actualmente y las perspectivas para su uso en otros cultivos tropicales, además del arroz y el maíz.

  12. Violence Against Women and Asylum Seeking: Global Problems and Local Practices Applied to Guatemalan Women Immigrating for Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Costantino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on broader discussions surrounding gender violence and immigration in the U.S., provides critical information on the historical context of extreme violence against women and femicide plaguing Central American societies today. Drawing on experiences of precedent setting cases of Guatemalan women, the authors offer suggestions for culturally specific treatment of and support for women who seek asylum in the U.S. out of justified fear for their and their family members’ lives should they return to their country of origin. The arguments presented are predicated on the belief that women worldwide share experiences of myriad forms of male domination and gender inequality which, however, play out differently on their bodies and lives in ways that must be accounted for in our attempt to offer them appropriate care and assist them in creating the tools they need to change their circumstances.

  13. 'Boat People' and the battle for labels

    OpenAIRE

    Thulin, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the relationship between the public perception of asylum seekers arriving by boat in Australia and the exclusion of certain rights. The asylum seekers arriving by boat have been central in the political debate for over a decade and are an issue that divides the public. The asylum seekers arriving by boat are generally referred to as ‘boat people’ but also labelled in more hostile terms as ‘illegal asylum seekers’, ‘queue jumpers’, and ‘illegal maritime arrivals’. F...

  14. Using principal component analysis and general path seeker regression for investigation of air pollution and CO modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Kulina, H.; Iliev, I.

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring and control of air quality in urban areas is important problem in many European countries. The main air pollutants are observed and a huge amount of data is collected during the last years. In Bulgaria, the air quality is surveyed by the official environmental agency and in many towns exceedances of harmful pollutants are detected. The aim of this study is to investigate the pollution from 9 air pollutants in the town of Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria in the period of 5 years based on hourly data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to discover the patterns in the overall pollution and the contribution of the 9 pollutants. In addition the Generalized Path Seeker (GPS) regularized regression method is applied to find dependence of CO (carbon monoxide) with respect to other pollutants and 8 meteorological parameters. It is reported that the CO concentrations are in continuously repeated low level quantities very harmful for human health.

  15. ANALYSIS OF DECISION MAKING STYLES OF SOCIAL MEDIA OPINION LEADERS AND SEEKERS (SOSYAL MEDYADA YER ALAN FİKİR LİDERLERİNİN VE FİKİR ARAYANLARIN KARAR VERME TARZLARININ İNCELENMESİ)

    OpenAIRE

    Özge ÖZGEN; Sumeyra DUMAN KURT

    2013-01-01

    Theory and practice both recognize the importance of opinion leadership and seeking constructs within informational interpersonal interaction. However, researches in this area do not concentrate on profiling social media opinion leaders and seekers. The purpose of this study is to describe the decision-making styles of social media opinion leaders and seekers via Consumer Styles Inventory. The empirical application is carried out on a sample of 257 undergraduate students. As a result, ten d...

  16. Asylansøgeres muligheder for at komme i arbejde

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Adhami, Adnan Ibrahim; Thøgersen, Dicte Bjarup; Mikkelsen, Laura Barfoed; Robrahn, Pernille Viola

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the challenges that asylum seekers meet in the asylum system, when they want to enter the labour market. Furthermore, this paper wants to examine the issues that are connected to these challenges, and whether it has an impact on the integration, when asylum seekers are left outside of the labor market. To investigate our research question we have primarily used interviews, including a qualitative research interview with an asylu...

  17. Community detention in Australia: a more humane way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Suma Pillai; Catherine Marshall; Louise Stack

    2013-01-01

    Moved by the plight of vulnerable asylum-seeking minors being held in detention centres, a group of Australian advocates lobbied successfully for the implementation of community detention as a viable, humane alternative, giving asylum seekers an opportunity to engage in a more meaningful existence while awaiting the outcome of their asylum application.

  18. Community detention in Australia: a more humane way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Pillai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moved by the plight of vulnerable asylum-seeking minors being held in detention centres, a group of Australian advocates lobbied successfully for the implementation of community detention as a viable, humane alternative, giving asylum seekers an opportunity to engage in a more meaningful existence while awaiting the outcome of their asylum application.

  19. AntEpiSeeker: detecting epistatic interactions for case-control studies using a two-stage ant colony optimization algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Xinyu; Wang Yupeng; Robbins Kelly; Rekaya Romdhane

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Epistatic interactions of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now believed to affect individual susceptibility to common diseases. The detection of such interactions, however, is a challenging task in large scale association studies. Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms have been shown to be useful in detecting epistatic interactions. Findings AntEpiSeeker, a new two-stage ant colony optimization algorithm, has been developed for detecting epistasis in ...

  20. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulholland Kim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. Methods We designed a mixed methods study to address the study aim. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 71 Iraqi Temporary Protection Visa (TPV refugees and 60 Iraqi Permanent Humanitarian Visa (PHV refugees, residing in Melbourne, Australia. Prior to a recent policy amendment, TPV refugees were only given temporary residency status and had restricted access to a range of government funded benefits and services that permanent refugees are automatically entitled to. The quantitative results were triangulated with semi-structured interviews with TPV refugees and service providers. The main outcome measures were self-reported physical and psychological health. Standardised self-report instruments, validated in an Arabic population, were used to measure health and wellbeing outcomes. Results Forty-six percent of TPV refugees compared with 25% of PHV refugees reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of clinical depression (p = 0.003. After controlling for the effects of age, gender and marital status, TPV status made a statistically significant contribution to psychological distress (B = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.71, p ≤ 0.001 amongst Iraqi refugees. Qualitative data revealed that TPV refugees generally felt socially isolated and lacking in control over their life circumstances, because of their experiences in detention and on a temporary visa. This sense of powerlessness and, for some, an implicit awareness they were being denied basic human rights, culminated in a strong sense of injustice. Conclusion Government asylum policies

  1. The Importance of Resources and Security in the Socio-Economic Integration of Refugees. A Study on the Impact of Length of Stay in Asylum Accommodation and Residence Status on Socio-Economic Integration for the Four Largest Refugee Groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bakker (Linda); J.M. Dagevos (Jaco); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn many European countries, including the Netherlands, refugees stay in asylum accommodation pending a decision on their asylum request. While it seems evident that the lack of resources and insecurity about the future experienced during this stay will impact refugees' subsequent ability

  2. Právní postavení žadatelů o azyl v EU

    OpenAIRE

    Potluková, Pavlína

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the bachelor thesis is to describe circumstances relating to completion of Common European Asylum System, furthemore the work is focused on asylum procedures in developed countries. The work is divided into four chapters, the first of which explains the basic concepts of an asylum area. In the second chapter, there is depicted the development of legal status of refugees and asylum seekers, in connection with legal acts and international treaties governing the status of these pe...

  3. Modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada por meio do sensor GreenSeeker Model for yield potential estimation in wheat and barley using the GreenSeeker sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Grohs

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Áreas com diferentes potenciais de rendimento dentro de uma lavoura necessitam ser manejadas separadamente, para fins de aplicação da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. O equipamento baseado em sensoriamento remoto terrestre (GreenSeeker é um dos instrumentos utilizados para separar diferentes zonas de manejo. Para fazer isso, o sensor permite a definição de classes para estimar o potencial produtivo de forma ágil, precisa e em tempo real. Com o instrumento, foi desenvolvido um modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada, correlacionando o Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada (NDVI com a biomassa seca acumulada na parte aérea, por ocasião da emissão da sexta folha do colmo principal. A base do modelo foi a formação de classes de potencial produtivo correspondentes a zonas específicas de manejo da lavoura. Essas classes não necessitam ser específicas para diferentes cultivares e/ou espécies, visto que não se detectaram diferenças que justificassem a formação de grupos para elas. As superfícies de fundo (resíduos de restevas de soja e milho tiveram efeitos significativos nas leituras do sensor. O modelo continua válido mesmo se as leituras de NDVI forem feitas antes ou após o período recomendado para tal, podendo ser ajustado com sub ou superestimação. As análises de variabilidade espacial, futuramente, podem avaliar se, as zonas de potencial produtivo estimadas pelas classes de NDVI propostas pelo modelo, correspondem à flutuação espacial da biomassa, doses de N aplicadas e rendimento de grãos.Areas with different yield potential within a field need to be managed separately as for nitrogen application in small grain cereals. Terrestrial remote sensing-based equipment such as the GreenSeeker sensor is one of the tools available to handle different management zones. To do this, the sensor allows the definition of classes to estimate yield potential. A model which correlated the

  4. Third Class Medicine: Health Care for Refugees in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross

    1998-01-01

    The fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides an opportunity to scrutinize the policies of wealthier countries towards refugees and asylum seekers. Although Germany is host to two-thirds of all individuals seeking asylum in European countries, it is now taking a hard line with respect to asylum policies. This article examines the forces behind these policies which, contrary to their rationalization, do not save "tax money," but actually make life for the recipients as difficult as possible. Studies of asylum hearings show that clues indicating past trauma or torture of asylum seekers are often ignored. In addition, the administrative procedures required for the provision of health care to refugees and asylum seekers have resulted in inflated bureaucracy and excessive costs, all the while providing only third class medicine. International NGOs and human rights organizations must put pressure on governments to live up to the promises of the UDHR. PMID:10343292

  5. A instituição asilar como fator potencializador da disfagia The asylum as worsening factor for dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Furkim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar se as condições referentes à estrutura geral dos asilos, recursos humanos e rotinas diárias de alimentação em instituições asilares, podem potencializar alterações da dinâmica da deglutição em idosos. MÉTODOS: foi aplicado questionário aos dirigentes de cinco instituições asilares do município do Rio de Janeiro, no qual constavam perguntas em relação aos recursos materiais, humanos e rotina alimentar. RESULTADOS: o asilo do sistema privado foi o único a aproximar-se das condições ideais da estrutura geral para o atendimento do idoso. Em relação aos recursos humanos existentes, nenhum dos asilos possuía todos os profissionais exigidos pela portaria nº810/89. Em relação às rotinas diárias de alimentação, em uma das instituições pesquisadas, cuja maioria dos residentes não faziam uso de próteses dentárias, não havia restrição na consistência alimentar oferecida. Outro fator significativo diz respeito à negligência referente à higiene bucal, favorecendo a colonização de bactérias na cavidade oral, podendo agravar infecções pulmonares no caso de microaspirações. O fato dos idosos deitarem para dormir logo após o término das refeições, como ocorrido em três das instituições pesquisadas, tem grande importância na medida em que favorece a ocorrência de episódios de refluxo gastroesofágico. CONCLUSÃO: foram observados que em todas as instituições pesquisadas há fatores que podem potencializar um distúrbio de deglutição, como problemas em relação à estrutura geral e ou aos recursos humanos e ou relativos à rotina alimentar estabelecida.PURPOSE: to check if the conditions related to general structure, human resources and daily routine of feeding in asylums can increase the chances for an alteration in the deglutition process of the elderlies. METHODS: a questionnaire was elaborated to be applied to the directors of five institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro

  6. Effectiveness of Hope Therapy on Reducing Depressive Symptoms and Preventing of Relapse in Cure-Seeker Women with Dependency to Narcotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram S Raesian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present research was the investigation of the effectiveness of hope therapy on reduction of the degree of depression symptoms and prevention of relapse in cure-seeker women with dependency to narcotic drugs. Method: In semi-experimental research method 20 clients who diagnosed as substance abuse disorder that completed detoxification period successfully, and they were scored more than 14 in depression symptoms (Beck depression questionnaire, second edition selected by available sampling and assigned to two experimental (n=10 and witness (n=10 groups randomly. Experimental group was trained for 8 sessions under training of hope therapy and witness group was not under any training. The experimental peple were evaluated by Snyder Hope scale and Beck depression questionnaire and morphine test before beginning of therapy. After it and after the completition of the two months follow-up period. For analyzing of data chi square test, Z test, and ANCOVA were applied. Results: The results showed that hope therapy education could create considerable reduction in degree of depression symptoms of women suffering from addiction. In addition, results of chi square test indicated significant difference between the number of relapsed women in experimental and witness groups. Conclusion: in general, results of this survey show that hope therapy education is effective in reduction of degree of depression symptoms and prediction of relapse in cure-seeker women suffering from addiction.

  7. Exploring the measurement structure of the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS) in treatment-seekers: A Bayesian structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Woodman, Richard; Drummond, Aaron; Battersby, Malcolm

    2016-03-30

    Knowledge of a problem gambler's underlying gambling related cognitions plays an important role in treatment planning. The Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS) is therefore frequently used in clinical settings for screening and evaluation of treatment outcomes. However, GRCS validation studies have generated conflicting results regarding its latent structure using traditional confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). This may partly be due to the rigid constraints imposed on cross-factor loadings with traditional CFA. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether a Bayesian structural equation modelling (BSEM) approach to examination of the GRCS factor structure would better replicate substantive theory and also inform model re-specifications. Participants were 454 treatment-seekers at first presentation to a gambling treatment centre between January 2012 and December 2014. Model fit indices were well below acceptable standards for CFA. In contrast, the BSEM model which included small informative priors for the residual covariance matrix in addition to cross-loadings produced excellent model fit for the original hypothesised factor structure. The results also informed re-specification of the CFA model which provided more reasonable model fit. These conclusions have implications that should be useful to both clinicians and researchers evaluating measurement models relating to gambling related cognitions in treatment-seekers. PMID:26921058

  8. The Importance of Resources and Security in the Socio-Economic Integration of Refugees. A Study on the Impact of Length of Stay in Asylum Accommodation and Residence Status on Socio-Economic Integration for the Four Largest Refugee Groups in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Linda; Dagevos, Jaco; Engbersen, Godfried

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn many European countries, including the Netherlands, refugees stay in asylum accommodation pending a decision on their asylum request. While it seems evident that the lack of resources and insecurity about the future experienced during this stay will impact refugees' subsequent ability to integrate with the host society, so far this has hardly been studied in an extensive way. Also, the type of residence status granted can be a source of insecurity that impacts their integration...

  9. Geographical distribution of torture: An epidemiological study of torture reported by asylum applicants examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Johannes Rødbro; Hansen, Steen Holger; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2015-01-01

    Using reports from 154 examinations of alleged torture victims among asylum applicants to Denmark conducted by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Univer- sity of Copenhagen, between 2001 and 2013, we have categorized the victims into four geographical regions, as well as according to the conflict...... that caused them to flee. The torture incidents described by the victims were divided into 12 different categories defined by the Istanbul Protocol. These data were cross referenced in order to identify any differences in the prevalence of the 12 forms of torture. The study showed that crush injuries...... were only reported by refugees from Asia, including Afghanistan and Pakistan, and that incidents of electrical torture were reported twice as frequently by torture victims from Middle Eastern and North African countries, though it was lower  among Iraqis, Iranians and ethnic Kurds. Sexual torture was...

  10. Geographical distribution of torture: An epidemiological study of torture reported by asylum applicants examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, J; Hansen, S H; Hougen, H P

    2015-01-01

    Using reports from 154 examinations of alleged torture victims among asylum applicants to Denmark conducted by the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, between 2001 and 2013, we have categorized the victims into four geographical regions, as well as according to the conflict that caused them to flee. The torture incidents described by the victims were divided into 12 different categories defined by the Istanbul Protocol. These data were cross referenced in order to identify any differences in the prevalence of the 12 forms of torture. The study showed that crush injuries were only reported by refugees from Asia, including Afghanistan and Pakistan, and that incidents of electrical torture were reported twice as frequently by torture victims from Middle Eastern and North African countries, though it was lower among Iraqis, Iranians and ethnic Kurds. Sexual torture was reported by 78% of females and 25% of males. PMID:26932127

  11. [Power and everyday life in a lunatic asylum environment - a case example from Glasgow at the beginning of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründler, Jens

    In this article the focus of analysis lies on power relations in everyday life in one of Glasgow's Pauper Lunatic Asylums at the turn of the twentieth century. Taking a sample of patient case files I examine the daily processes of negotiation between inmates and their relatives, physicians, attendants and nurses as well as the poor law administration. Some cases especially exemplify the complex relationships between the actors. They show which opportunities and boundaries existed for "power brokering" for the more powerless. At the same time these cases illustrate the formal and practical limits of enforcement by doctors and nursing staff. Without turning a blind eve to hierarchies and power imbalances the analysis shows that even in settings like "total institutions" power remains volatile. Even there the more powerful actors have to actualize, seize and prevail on a regular basis. PMID:27501547

  12. Refugee status determination: three challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jones

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Refugee status determination (RSD, which is vital to the protection of so many asylum seekers worldwide, is at best an imperfect, haphazard and challenging process. It merits greater attention and appropriate reform.

  13. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  14. Integration and dispersal in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    David Griffiths; Nando Sigona; Roger Zetter

    2005-01-01

    It is often suggested that Refugee Community-based Organisations (RCOs) play a key role in assisting refugee adaptation and integration in the UK. But what happens when the reception policy for asylum seekers and refugees is fundamentally changed?

  15. Marketing refugee skills: an Oxford success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Wiggans

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001 Access First, a project of the Oxford based charity Refugee Resource, has been working in partnership with other organisations to support refugees and asylum seekers into work and training that match their abilities and aspirations.

  16. Marketing refugee skills: an Oxford success story

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Wiggans

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001 Access First, a project of the Oxford based charity Refugee Resource, has been working in partnership with other organisations to support refugees and asylum seekers into work and training that match their abilities and aspirations.

  17. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and HIV in Overseas Job Seekers of Bangladesh with the Possible Routes of Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobayer, M; Chowdhury, S S; Shamsuzzaman, S M; Islam, M S

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis and AIDS are major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B, C virus and HIV infection among Bangladeshi overseas job seekers. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from February 2013 to August 2013. A total of 2254 adult (18-45 years) male job seekers to Malaysia attending for health check up were enrolled. HBsAg, Anti-HCV, Anti-HIV were detected from venous blood by ELISA method using commercial kits. From the positive people, further history and information were collected by predesigned questionnaire. Prevalence of HBV was 2.35%, HCV was 0.13% and none was found positive for HIV. Prevalence of hepatitis was higher in the age group of 21-30 year and infection was more prevalent in married group. No significant relationship was found between hepatitis infection and religion, localities, profession. Only a few cases had history of possible major known route of transmission of virus. But most of them had history of taking injection or sharing blades in barber shop and history of circumcision. About 96% population had no history of hepatitis B vaccination. None was co-infected with HBV and HCV. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in adult population appears to be on decline and hepatitis C and HIV infection is still low in Bangladesh. In majority of the positive person, routes of transmission of viruses were not well established. PMID:27612902

  18. MIGRATION AND POLITICAL ASYLUM

    OpenAIRE

    LUPSA FLORENTINA

    2014-01-01

    Migration is an important topic on the public agenda, as well as in the area of effervescent political debate and public policies, and has been so especially in this past decade, in the national and European plane. The recorded evolutions may easily exemplify the way in which liberal democracies function and the process of European construction, implicitly the process of change in the immigration policy, degree of adaptability and opening to change, the controversial character and the difficu...

  19. Flüchtlinge sind sehr ungleich auf die EU-Länder verteilt - auch bezogen auf die Wirtschaftskraft und Einwohnerzahl

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Brenke

    2015-01-01

    The European Union is currently experiencing its largest influx of asylum seekers in years. Yet the distribution of these refugees across the member states is highly uneven: Large countries such as the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain, as well as the Eastern European countries (apart from Hungary), have received relatively few asylum seekers. Far more refugees are headed to Central Europe, Sweden, and the small countries on the outskirts of the EU (Malta, Cyprus, and Bulgaria). German...

  20. AT THE CROSSROAD OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL MIGRATION: CONFLICT OF INTERESTS IN KUMKAPI

    OpenAIRE

    Gür Geden, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the conflict of interests in Istanbul’s Kumkapi district between the Kurdish migrants from Eastern/South Eastern Anatolia and the African asylum seekers. While the survey with the Kurdish citizens reveal the assumptions and attitudes about the African asylum seekers in the area, in-depth interviews conducted with the Africans reveal their ideas about the locals and specific difficulties faced as black people in Turkey. The analysis of Kumkapi research shows frequent exampl...

  1. Should Indonesia Accede to The 1951 Refugee Convention and Its 1967 Protocol?

    OpenAIRE

    Dita Liliansa; Anbar Jayadi

    2015-01-01

    Being a non-party to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (“1951 Refugee Convention”) and 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (“1967 Protocol”), Indonesia does not have legal obligations to provide permanent resettlement for asylum seeker and/or refugee. However, as a transit country for those seeking shelter in Australia, Indonesia undergoes a myriad of issues resulting from illegal entrance by asylum seeker and/or refugee. Besides having neither legal framewor...

  2. Distribution of Refugees Very Uneven among EU Member States - Even When Accounting for Economic Strength and Total Population

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Brenke

    2015-01-01

    The European Union is currently experiencing its largest influx of asylum seekers in years. Yet the distribution of these refugees across the member states is highly uneven: Large countries such as the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain, as well as the Eastern European countries (apart from Hungary), have received relatively few asylum seekers. Far more refugees are headed to Central Europe, Sweden, and the small countries on the outskirts of the EU (Malta, Cyprus, and Bulgaria). German...

  3. Distribution of refugees very uneven among EU member states - even when accounting for economic strength and total population

    OpenAIRE

    Brenke, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The European Union is currently experiencing its largest influx of asylum seekers in years. Yet the distribution of these refugees across the member states is highly uneven: Large countries such as the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain, as well as the Eastern European countries (apart from Hungary), have received relatively few asylum seekers. Far more refugees are headed to Central Europe, Sweden, and the small countries on the outskirts of the EU (Malta, Cyprus, and Bulgaria). German...

  4. Problematika integrace v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Šárka

    2007-01-01

    In these days the problems of integration are highly actual themes. In the theoretical part of this thesis there are possibilities of legal staying in the Czech Republic, legal form of this problem and all spheres of the integration processed in. There is also non-profit organization work and social work with the immigrants and asylum seekers described there. The practical part is targeted to detect the obstacles to integration of asylum seekers and immigrants.

  5. Health visiting and refugee families: issues in professional practice

    OpenAIRE

    Drennan, Vari M; Joseph, Judy

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This paper reports on the perceptions of experienced health visitors working with refugee families in Inner London. BACKGROUND: Women who are refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom are more likely to experience depression than either non-refugee women or male asylum seekers. Health visitors provide a universal public health service to all women on the birth of a child, or with children aged under five, and as such are well placed to identify emotional and mental health problem...

  6. PROTECTION OF REFUGEES: A HUMANITARIAN CRISIS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Prafulla Kumar Nayak

    2013-01-01

    India has seen large influx of refugee population throughout history but does not have specific domestic law governing the treatment of refugees and asylum-seekers. Despite being a non-signatory to refugee convention, India has an obligation under international law to protect asylum-seekers which it has traditionally honored. Though India does not have a national framework in refugee law, yet in 2006 the Supreme Court ruled that the right to life and personal liberty as enshrined in Indian co...

  7. Should Indonesia Accede to The 1951 Refugee Convention and Its 1967 Protocol?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Liliansa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being a non-party to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (“1951 Refugee Convention” and 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (“1967 Protocol”, Indonesia does not have legal obligations to provide permanent resettlement for asylum seeker and/or refugee. However, as a transit country for those seeking shelter in Australia, Indonesia undergoes a myriad of issues resulting from illegal entrance by asylum seeker and/or refugee. Besides having neither legal framework nor domestic mechanism to handle asylum seekers and/or refugee, Indonesia’s immigration law identifies every foreigner including asylum seeker and refugee who unlawfully enter Indonesia’s territory into the same box as illegal migrant. It then leads to the arrest of asylum seeker and/or refugee to be put in an over-capacity detention center or other places. This paper will analyze various issues related to asylum seeker and refugee in Indonesia and to weigh whether it is indispensable for Indonesia to accede to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol.

  8. Albania – Europe’s reluctant gatekeeper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Peshkopia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-communist Albania has become a transit point for refugees, asylum seekers and economic migrants. Asylum policies and procedures put in place under UNHCR and EU tutelage are fragile and serve the interests of Europe, not Albania.

  9. Detention under scrutiny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Edwards

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking asylum is not an unlawful act, yet asylum seekers and refugees are increasingly detained and interned around the world, suffering not only deprivation of liberty but also other abuses of their human rights. UNHCR’s new detention guidelines challenge governments to rethink their detention policies and to consider alternatives to detention in every case.

  10. Analysis of imaging features and tracking performance of seeker after decoys jamming%诱饵弹作用后导引头成像特征建模及跟踪性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冰涛; 王晓蕊; 王小兵; 袁宏学; 杨红坚

    2015-01-01

    基于红外成像导引头信号传递和转换机理,分析了影响导引头输出图像特征的主要因素,并在此基础上分析了红外诱饵弹作用导引头成像特征的机理;借助端到端成像建模思想,综合考虑诱饵弹对目标表面辐射特性及导引头增益特性的影响,建立了诱饵弹作用后导引头成像特征量化模型;以理论模型为基础,借助计算机三维场景仿真技术,实现了诱饵弹作用后导引头成像及跟踪特性实时仿真,并基于仿真结果分析了不同发射方向诱饵弹对导引头跟踪性能的影响。结果表明:诱饵弹发射方向不同,诱饵弹对导引头跟踪性能的影响程度不同;当诱饵弹相对目标运动方向的发射角为75º~95º、190º~215º和250º~280º时,诱饵弹对导引头跟踪性能的影响程度最大;当诱饵弹相对目标运动方向的发射角为10º~40º、150º~170º和315º~325º时,诱饵弹对导引头跟踪性能的影响程度最小。%The main factors that affect the imaging characteristic of infrared imaging seeker and the jamming principle of infrared decoys on the imaging characteristic of infrared imaging seeker were analyzed based on signal transfer and conversion mechanism of infrared imaging seeker. Then, with the end-to-end imaging modeling ideas, and considering the impact of infrared decoys on the radiative properties of target surface and the auto gain characteristics of infrared imaging seeker, the imaging characteristics quantitative model of infrared imaging seeker was established. Furthermore, on the basis of theoretical analysis mentioned above, the real-time simulation of the output images and tracking features of infrared imaging seeker after infrared decoys jamming was carried out by computer 3D scene simulation technology, and the tracking performance of the infrared imaging seeker was studied based on the simulation results. The results show that the jamming effect of

  11. Research on Drive and Control Circuits of Target Seeker Rotor%位标器转子驱动与控制电路研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉娟; 蔡萍

    2009-01-01

    位标器转子驱动与控制电路要求能快速启动转子和在扰动情况下保持转速稳定.从分析位标器转子-线圈模型出发,提出一种位标器转子的启动及速度控制方法.采用变结构控制方法实现转子快速启动和稳速控制;利用线圈组件自身敏感转子速度和位置,通过F/V转换和乘法器以自驱动方式实现转子的变压变频控制;并设置了相位校正环节.使用Matlab/Simulink进行建模与分析,并通过实验对分析结论进行了验证.结果表明,系统稳定性良好,抗干扰能力强,转子从启动到稳速的时间为3~4 s,稳速精度达0.5%.%A good drive and control circuit of target seeker rotor should be able to start the rotor quickly and keep the rotor speed stable.The model of a target seeker rotor-coil is established,a drive and speed-control method for the rotor is presented.A variable control structure is adopted to realize the fast starting and speed stabilization control.By way of F/V conversion and anplitude modulation,the Variable Voltage and Variable Frequency (VVVF) control is simply achieved by using feedback signals of the rotor's speed and position which are detected by the coil-structure itself.An error compensation unit is also designed to reduce the system error.Matlab/Simulink is applied for system modeling and analysis,and the conclusions are proved by experiment results.The system has a good performance in stability and anti-disturbance.Its starting-time from the initial to steady state is about 3 to 4 seconds and the stability of the speed at 100 r/s is better than 0.5%.

  12. O desvio do olhar: dos asilos aos museus de arte The deviation of the glance: from the asylums to the art museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. Frayze-Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre a arte e a loucura é considerada do ponto de vista da exposição em museus de arte de obras que foram produzidas nos asilos. Nessa transição, são analisadas a situação historicamente determinada da loucura no campo da visualidade e as implicações culturais, psicológicas e estéticas dessa situação, sobretudo após o advento da noção de art brut. Finalmente, é também considerado o impacto da art brut, como prática dos excluídos sociais, sobre o próprio criador marginal e sobre o olhar do espectador.The relation between art and madness is considered from the point of view of works of art produced in asylums and exhibited in art museums. In this transition, the historically situation of madness is analyzed concerning visual order and it’s cultural, psychological and aesthetic implications in art history, specially after the emergence of the notion of art brut. Finally, it’s also considered the impact of art brut on the outsider artist and on the spectator’s perception.

  13. Use of rare-earth radionuclides and other bone-seekers in the evaluation of bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma or solitary plasmacytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four patients with multiple myeloma and 4 with solitary plasmacytoma had total-body scans after intravenous injection of 67Ga-citrate alone (17 patients) or combined with other agents (11 patients). The latter included /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate (/sup 99m/Tc-DP), /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PP), or /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) given alone or combined with 171Er, 157Dy, or 167Tm as citrate. In some patients more than one agent was compared to 67Ga and radiographic bone surveys. In general, localization of the rare-earth ''bone-seekers'' was poor except for 157Dy, which compared well with /sup 99m/Tc-PP and /sup 99m/TC-DP; 157Dy was also helpful in studies of the abdomen and pelvis because of its failure to concentrate in the gastrointestinal tract. No toxic or nonspecific effects were noted

  14. PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES OF GERIATRIC HEALTH CARE SEEKERS TO THE BUILT ENVIRONMENTS OF HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN THE RURAL AND URBAN SECTORS OF TRIPURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghore

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : The aged patients seem to be confronted with barriers when using health services. Yet, care providers are often oblivious to these barriers, although they may share to some extent the burden of responsibility for them. OBJECTIVES: To study the perceptions and attitudes of geriatric health care seekers towards the health care system. To assess the potential barriers that may restrict the geriatric people from using health services. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was conducted among 200 participants’ ≥65 years who were attending health institutions in both rural and urban setting using pre-tested, semi- structured interview schedule. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel 2007 and Epi-info version 6.0 software. RESULT: Positive impact was found on regard to the family doctor, essential works being carried out, knowledge about the institute (P=0.000, 0.014, 0.001 respectively. Exercise played significant role among the males and females (P=0.017. Literacy had some positive impact on health status (P=0.025, essential works being carried out for themselves (P=0.033 and helpful attitude of family members (P=0.019. CONCLUSION: The significance were being observed in regards to the personal and family level both of which could be related to ignorance towards the health care for themselves or for a geriatric member of any given ignorant family in both urban and rural setting

  15. 国际难民法之殇:欧洲共同庇护制度中的“都柏林主义”%The Violation of International Refugee Law Dublin Doctrine in Common European Asylum System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云松

    2014-01-01

    The Common European asylum system CEAS,as a product of the efforts by the European Council in facilitating the member states to take coordinated action for refugee protection,is a comprehensive legal system consisting of an array of regulations and directives.As the most important part of the asylum system,the Dublin Regulation is deemed the only legal basis for the allocation of the responsibility to review the asylum application among the member states,undoubtedly reflecting the EU's stance on the refugee and asylum issues.The evolution of nearly three decades,with the transition from the Schengen system to the Dublin system,and incorporation of the latter into the EU legislation,eventually brought up with the Dublin Doctrine —the fundamental guiding ideology of CEAS.The paper is focused on the origin,principles and the essence of the Dublin Doctrine from the perspective of international refugee law,its consequential contradiction to and the detrimental impact on the international refugee regime.%欧洲共同庇护制度(CEAS,以下简称“庇护制度”),是一套涵盖多项措施和立法的综合法律体系,是欧洲理事会为促进成员国在难民保护问题上进行协作的产物。作为庇护制度最重要的组成部分,《都柏林条例》是划分欧洲国家庇护申请审查责任的唯一法律依据,同时也代表了欧洲在难民和庇护问题上的根本立场。从申根体系发展到都柏林体系,再由都柏林体系过渡到与欧盟立法的并轨,经过近三十年的演变历程最终形成了“都柏林主义”———欧洲庇护制度的基本指导思想。从国际难民法的角度探讨“都柏林主义”的渊源、原则及内涵,可以分析出“都柏林主义”与国际难民法发生的抵触及其负面影响。

  16. 激光武器对红外导引头的软破坏研究%Soft Damage to IR Seeker by Laser Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延武; 魏书田

    2011-01-01

    针对舰载激光武器破坏反舰导弹的问题,研究了激光对红外制导反舰导弹导引头的软破坏.以激光辐照红外探测器为例,建立了舰载激光武器对红外制导反舰导弹探测器的破坏模型,计算了1.06 μm激光海上大气传输的大气透过率,进行了0.632μm激光辐照CCD成像系统的实验,估算了对远距离红外制导反舰导弹探测器实现有效破坏所需发射的激光能量,得出了一些有价值的数据和结论.%Aiming at shipbome laser weapon damage to antiship missile, laser soft damage to IR seeker is researched. First, 1. 06 μm laser irradiating infrared detector is taken for example to build a model for shipbome laser weapon damage to IR guidance antiship missile detector. The atmospheric transmittance of 1. 06 μm laser atmospheric on the sea is calculated. The experiment on 0. 632 μm laser disturbing CCD imaging system is accomplished. The necessary laser energy effectively damaging the IR guidance antiship missile detector is calculated and some valuable data and conclusions are attained.

  17. Strapdown stabilization for imaging seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Russell T.

    1993-06-01

    A feasibility study of strapdown stabilization for high-resolution imaging systems was performed for the missile body motion inputs. A tactical high-resolution platform system was used to develop a linear state space model and a detailed nonlinear planar simulation. The latter took into account gimbal inertia, inertial sensors, position sensors, friction, mechanical alignment, compliances, and control loop compensation. Platform stabilization performance was predicted by analyzing a low-cost inertial quartz rate sensor and a higher-cost higher performance fiber optic gyro.

  18. The design of a single-pole magnetic encoder used in the frame platform of the seeker%位标器框架平台用单磁极磁电编码器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝双晖; 赵亚南; 郝明晖

    2012-01-01

    Angle position sensor is an important component in control close loop.The limitations of resolver and optical encoder restrict their uses in the fields of spaceflight and war indnstry.For making up the blemishes of the traditional angle position sensors, magnetic encoder is selected as the angle feedback component for the seeker's frame platfornuCalibration and look-up table subdivision arithmetic is used to design a single-pole magnetic encoder.And temperature offset correction arithmetic is designed to extend the application temperature range.According to the requirement calibration system and detection system are developed-Validated by the experiments for this magnetic encoder,it satisfies the demand of the seeker.%角位移传感器对于伺服控制闭环是一个重要的反馈元件,在军工和航天领域,旋转变压器和光电编码器本身的缺陷限制了其应用.为了弥补传统角位移传感器的不足,选择磁电编码器作为位标器框架平台的角位置反馈器件.依据校准查表信号细分算法研制出了一种单磁极磁电编码器,并设计了温漂补偿算法,以扩大工作温度适用范围,并为之设计制作了配套使用的校准和检测系统.经过实验验证,所研制的磁电编码器满足了位标器的应用要求.

  19. 激光导引头四象限探测器偏差信号特性研究%Study on error signal of quadrant detectors in laser seekers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁巍巍; 黄振宇; 张文攀; 殷瑞光; 刘艳芳

    2014-01-01

    In order to study effect of error signal of a quadrant detector on detection positioning accuracy of a laser seeker, based on the detection and position principles of a quadrant detector , the influence of size of light spot , width of division line and intensity of background light on error signal was studied by means of computer simulation .The results show that bigger size of the light spot will decrease the sensitivity of a quadrant detector and extend the dynamic range . Narrower width of division line is optimal under the condition of good crosstalk performance .The background light will decrease the performance of detector .The study is helpful to improve the detection positioning accuracy of quadrant detectors in laser seekers .%为了分析四象限探测器偏差信号对激光导引头探测定位精度的影响,在激光导引头四象限探测器探测定位原理的基础上,采用计算机建模仿真的方法,研究了入射光斑大小、分划线宽度和背景光强度对四象限探测器偏差信号的影响。结果表明,入射光斑变大,四象限探测器的灵敏度会变低,动态跟踪范围变大;分划线宽度在探测器串扰允许的范围内越窄越好;背景光降低了四象限探测器的灵敏度。该研究结果有助于提高激光导引头四象限探测器探测定位精度。

  20. Psychiatric ethics and a politics of compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion, Deborah; Briskman, Linda; Loff, Bebe

    2012-03-01

    Australia has one of the harshest regimes for the processing of asylum seekers, people who have applied for refugee status but are still awaiting an answer. It has received sharp rebuke for its policies from international human rights bodies but continues to exercise its resolve to protect its borders from those seeking protection. One means of doing so is the detention of asylum seekers who arrive in Australia by boat. Health care providers who care for asylum seekers in these conditions experience a conflict of "dual loyalty," whereby their role in preserving and maintaining the health of patients can run counter to their employment in detention facilities. Many psychiatrists who have worked in the detention setting engage in forms of political activism in order to change the process of seeking refuge. PMID:23180202

  1. Demokrati

    OpenAIRE

    Colak, Serwin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project report is to examine the asylum seeker’s view on democracy, and how their identity process has changed upon their arrival to Denmark as a democratic country. Recently there has been a wave of refugees towards European countries, which has resulted in many asylum seekers. Many refugees have risked their lives to travel across the Mediterranean Sea for a better life. They have sought towards democratic countries, because of their perception of democracy. There are ma...

  2. The childbearing health and related service needs of newcomers (CHARSNN) study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Saucier Jean-François; Dougherty Geoffrey; Wahoush Olive; Gagnon Anita J; Dennis Cindy-Lee; Merry Lisa; Stanger Elizabeth; Stewart Donna E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Refugee and asylum-seeking women in Canada may have significant harmful childbearing health outcomes and unmet health and social care needs. The most vulnerable of these women are: those who have left their countries by force (e.g., war, rape or abuse histories), are separated from their families, have limited knowledge of the host country languages, and are visible minorities. Asylum-seekers face additional stresses related to their unknown future status and are marginali...

  3. A Calculation Method of Burst Height of Ballistic Missile Based on Radar Seeker%一种基于雷达导引头的弹道导弹爆高解算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宗贵; 王继平; 林红斌; 解静

    2014-01-01

    目前弹道导弹主要通过无线电引信测高来进行战斗部爆高控制,但弹头的再入环境对无线电引信测高装置的要求非常高,且引信存在着易被干扰的问题。为此,该文针对采用雷达景象匹配末制导的弹道导弹,提出一种基于雷达导引头的弹道导弹爆高控制方法,通过雷达导引头测高数据与惯性导航数据的融合处理,实时计算弹头飞行高程,来实现爆高控制,既保证了精度,又增强了抗干扰能力。仿真算例证明了该方法的有效性和爆高解算精度。%At present the height of the warhead of ballistic missile is measured by the radio fuze for the burst height control of the warhead, but the reentry environment of the warhead has very high requirement for the measure set of the radio fuze, and there exists the issue of the radio fuze to be jammed. In the paper, for the ballistic missile adopting the radar scene matching terminal guidance, a calculation method of burst height of ballistic missile based on radar seeker is put forward, by fusing the height measure data of the scene matching radar seeker and the inertial navigation data, the height of the warhead is calculated in real time to realize the burst height control, which ensures the precision and improves anti-jamming capability. The validity of the method and the calculation precision of the burst height are proved by simulation and calculation.

  4. Os idosos e as instituições asilares do município de Campinas Los ancianos y las instituciones asilares del municipio de Campinas The elderly and asylums at the municipality of Campinas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Yamamoto

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo caracterizar as instituições asilares de Campinas quanto aos seus residentes, recursos humanos e rotinas realizadas. Foram investigadas seis instituições de caráter privado, com residentes, em sua maioria dependentes, e recursos humanos insuficientes qualitativa e quantitativamente. Foi possível verificar que a capacitação dos profissionais, na área de geriatria e gerontologia, em particular, da equipe de enfermagem, é imprescindível para a melhoria da assistência prestada aos idosos.Este estudio tiene como objetivo caracterizar las instituciones asilares de Campinas, en relación con los residentes, recursos humanos y rutinas realizadas. Fueron investigadas seis instituciones de carácter privado, que abrigan residentes cuya mayoría es dependiente y que tienen recursos humanos insuficientes cualitativa y cuantitativamente. Fue posible verificar que la capacitación de los profesionales del área de geriatría y gerontología y en particular del equipo de enfermería, es imprescindible para la mejoría de la atención a los ancianos.This study aimed at characterizing the asylums at the municipality of Campinas regarding their residents, human resources and routines. Authors investigated six private institutions with residents, whose majority were dependent and with quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient human resources. It was possible to verify the capacitation of the health professionals in the areas of geriatrics and gerontology, in particular, as well as of the nursing team that is really important to the improvement of the care provided to the elderly.

  5. Supporting Refugee Students in Schools: What Constitutes Inclusive Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandra; Sidhu, Ravinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide rise in numbers of refugees and asylum seekers suggests the need to examine the practices of those institutions charged with their resettlement in host countries. In this paper, we investigate the role of one important institution--schooling--and its contribution to the successful resettlement of refugee children. We begin with an…

  6. Supporting Schools to Create an Inclusive Environment for Refugee Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Karen; Cross, Suzanne; Riggs, Elisha; Gibbs, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In a context of increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers globally, recognition of the importance of the school environment for promoting successful settlement outcomes and inclusion for refugee-background young people is growing. Yet schools may be poorly equipped to recognise and respond to the multiple challenges faced by children and…

  7. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish version of Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Mona; Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers. METHODS: The participants were...

  8. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish version of Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Mona; Morville, Anne-Le

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations (SDO) scale assesses satisfaction within the domains of work, leisure, domestic tasks, and self-care. The aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the SDO when used with asylum seekers. Methods: The participants were...

  9. "Black Day to Freedom": Informal Multicultural Education Initiative--Supporting Expressions of Refugee Identity by Migrant Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: "Black Day to Freedom" project was the culmination of five years of performance ethnography research that continues today in various forms through BeyondLabels. The title "Black Day to Freedom" came from an asylum seeker participating in a "free verse" workshop where all participants expressed their views on globalisation, social movement…

  10. Tackling with Refugee Children's Problems in Turkish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogutas, Aysun

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to produce a solution to improve the refugee and asylum seeker students' adaptation to the Turkish schools and classrooms by using action research approach which is often preferred for solving the problems encountered by the educators. The sample of the study consists of selected students at a primary school in…

  11. Immigration - mismatches in labor, housing and space - the effects of immigration of several nationalities with regard to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Musterd; P. Muus

    1995-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the sharp recent increase of the number of refugee immigrants (asylum seekers) runs parallel to increased numbers of immigrants of other types, Therefore, at least five types of immigrants should still be distinguished (labour migrants, migrants from former colonies, from EU coun

  12. No more suffering in silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Louise

    2016-07-13

    I have been a humanitarian volunteer for more than ten years, in the UK and abroad. While working at a destitution centre in London - which provided the local population, including refugees and asylum seekers, with practical support and advice on accessing health, legal and other services - a client told me she had been a victim of human trafficking. PMID:27406513

  13. Integration and dispersal in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Griffiths

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available It is often suggested that Refugee Community-based Organisations (RCOs play a key role in assisting refugee adaptation and integration in the UK. But what happens when the reception policy for asylum seekers and refugees is fundamentally changed?

  14. Gypsy/Roma Community i Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep EREN

    2006-01-01

    # In this project, topic area is the Gypsy/Roma identity construction in terms of daily life practices with respect to work life. Gypsy/Roma groups are defined on the basis of two main groups: Helsingør Gypsy/Roma group and asylum-seekers group in the Sandholm refugee camp in Denmark.

  15. Sharing responsibility for refugee protection in Europe: Dublin reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. McDonough; M. Kmak; J. van Selm

    2008-01-01

    This report highlights the inherent limitations and injustices of the Dublin system, which transfers asylum seekers between EU Member States, and outlines alternative proposals for a fairer and more efficient system. ECRE strongly believes that the Dublin Regulation does not promote harmonisation of

  16. Pedagogy of Refuge: Education in a Time of Dispossession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Juliet Christine

    2013-01-01

    Despite its chequered history in relation to human rights issues, South Africa has been playing host to peoples displaced and dispossessed by geographies of anger and war, poverty, economic meltdown and other human rights atrocities. Perceiving South Africa as a sanctuary, there has been a steady wave of immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees…

  17. A Telling Symbiosis in the Discourse of Hatred: Multimodal News Texts About the "Children Overboard" Affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken-Horarik, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Discusses analytical challenges of multimodal texts as they contribute to production of racial anxiety about asylum seekers. Building on a recent article that discussed the lexical manifestations of increasing racial hatred towards refugees, focuses on the children overboard affair in Australian news. (Author/VWL)

  18. Visualizing Intercultural Literacy: Engaging Critically with Diversity and Migration in the Classroom through an Image-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizpe, Evelyn; Bagelman, Caroline; Devlin, Alison M.; Farrell, Maureen; McAdam, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Accessible forms of language, learning and literacy, as well as strategies that support intercultural communication are needed for the diverse population of refugee, asylum seeker and migrant children within schools. The research project "Journeys from Images to Words" explored the potential of visual texts to address these issues.…

  19. LADO as a Language Test: Issues of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim; Van Den Hazelkamp, Carolien; Verrips, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    This article brings together the theoretical field of language testing and the practical field of language analysis for the determination of the origin of asylum seekers. It considers what it would mean to think of language analysis as a form of language test, subject to the same validity constraints, and proposes a research agenda.

  20. Nyankomne asylansøgeres helbredsstatus og traumatiseringsgrad--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masmas, Tania Nicole; Møller, Eva; Buhmann, Caecilie;

    2010-01-01

    non-tortured asylum seekers. Among the torture survivors, 63% fulfilled the criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder, 58% had objective psychological findings, and 42% had torture-related scars. Identification of torture survivors is important in order to initiate the necessary medical treatment...

  1. Light Axis Stabilization of Semi-Strapdown Infrared Imaging Seeker%红外成像半捷联导引头光轴稳定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程冬; 栗金平; 陈韵; 严宪军; 任文真

    2012-01-01

    红外成像半捷联导引头去掉了稳定平台上的速率陀螺,满足了减小体积和降低成本的要求,但失去了直接测量平台惯性角速度的能力;为实现半捷联平台稳定,文章采用了角速度补偿法,使用惯导测量的弹体角速度与框架角速度合成得到光轴的惯性视线角速度,为减小伺服系统中非线性因素和模型不确定性带来的干扰影响,文章采用自抗扰控制技术设计了稳定回路的控制器;最后在设定的仿真条件下进行仿真,半捷联导引头稳定回路的隔离度始终小于4%,证明文章提出的光轴稳定方法可以较好地隔离弹体的姿态扰动.%The gyroscope wasn't used on the stability platform of infrared imaging seeker for reducing the bulk and the cost, but the platform inertial rate couldn't be measured. The way of angular velocity compensation that the platform inertial rate was composed by the body rate and the frame rate was used for keeping the platform steady. The controller was designed with the technology of auto disturbance rejection for reducing the influence of the disturbance. Finally, the excellent performance to eliminate the disturbance of the way was showed through the simulation, and the isolation degree is less than 4 percent all the time.

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Irish Society for Autism, Meath

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  3. The Construct and Measurement of Employer Brand : Evidence from Chinese New Generation Job Seekers%中国背景下雇主品牌的结构和测量——基于新生代求职者的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱飞; 王震

    2012-01-01

    Due to the current quantitative and qualitative shortages on talents, the attractiveness of organiza- tions has become increasingly important. Especially in the knowledge economy era, the competition for the talent is a critical challenge for Chinese organizations. Since the new generation (i. e. , 80s' and 90s' generations) has be- come the main part in the labor force market, competition on new generation job seekers becomes more intense. Employer brand, as a tool of attracting and retaining the talent, has been an important topic in organization and management research. Employer brand is defined as individual's perceptions of what is distinctive, central, and enduring about the organization as a place to work. Despite a large number of studies, there was still no agree- ment on its construct and the underlying measurement. Prior research addressing the construct issue had two main limitations. First, according to product/service brand construct, they took for granted that employer brand should be divided into functional and symbolic factors, paying no attention to the long-term dependency nature of employee in employment relations. Second, most studies did not consider the influence of social contexts on employer brand construct. Although some Chinese researchers have questioned the generalizability of Western model in China, there was little effort addressing this issue in a particular culture and population context. To address these issues, this study, by using Chinese new generation job seekers as research sample, investigated the construct of employer brand and developed a measurement scale to assess the construct. Study 1 was a qualitative study. Using 4 focus groups (29 job seekers) interviews and categorization analysis, the study revealed that employer brand was a five-dimensional concept which included compensation and benefits, value recognition, opportunity for development, work-life effectiveness and company label. Drawing on the finding, study 2

  4. Smart Ride Seeker (SRS) An Introductory Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Naby, Sameh; Giorgini, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A diverse range of architectures and concepts was proposed by scholars within the theme of Car Pooling Problem solving. Most of these scholars have attempted to put together two major elements: the need for people to move from a place to another, and the resources used to accomplish this action. Based on the use of location and available car seats, Car sharing systems allowed a substantial number of people to share car rides. These systems would, among other advantages, rationalize energy con...

  5. Cannabis withdrawal in adolescent treatment seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Vandrey, Ryan; Budney, Alan J.; Kamon, Jody L.; Stanger, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    A valid cannabis withdrawal syndrome has been demonstrated in controlled studies with adult marijuana abusers, yet few published reports have examined cannabis withdrawal among adolescents. Adolescents presenting for outpatient substance abuse treatment, whose primary substance of abuse was cannabis, completed a questionnaire reporting the presence and severity of withdrawal symptoms during past periods of cannabis abstinence. Nearly two-thirds of the sample indicated that they had experience...

  6. Securities Analysts as Information-Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Nancy Sadler; Rice, Ronald E.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 100 securities analysts at investment banking firms in the United States and United Kingdom showed that individual characteristics have little influence on the information sources and communication channels used by analysts, but institutional resources significantly influence the information and communication channels used, and also…

  7. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change. PMID:26514159

  8. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Turner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they managed to arrive in the UK, so as to prevent them from accessing the decision-making process on asylum. Policy changes concerning travel, benefits, and other pressures on asylum seekers are also considered in the context of deterrence. The problems facing asylum seekers do not end with their arrival in a safe country. The current methods of determining refugee status are alarmingly weak. Indeed there is evidence suggesting that those who are most traumatised before arrival face systematic disadvantage. The focus of this paper is on the United Kingdom but its conclusions apply to most Western European countries. The paper concludes with some tentative suggestions for change.

  9. European Perspectives Approach to Asylum and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a complex process, with a multinational character that can not be managed onlyunilaterally or bilaterally, but through effective management to take into account the benefit of all involvedand changing characteristics of the migration process. Regarding the European Union, framed in the generalcontext, it aims to promote a comprehensive migration policy, to provide a coherent and efficient manner tomeet the challenges and opportunities that migration presents. Multilateral approach under considerationcovers all phases of migration, aiming to seize them and present it at the same time, to implement effectivepolicies and measures concerning illegal migration and human trafficking. It is based on generally acceptedprinciples relating to subsidiary, proportionality, solidarity and respect for law and the economic and social.From this perspective, the present study examines the quantitative aspects of migration as well as qualitativeaspects, with emphasis on the challenges that they face Romania, from the status of EU member country.

  10. After the Asylum? The New Institutional Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, Alain; Andersson, Gunnel; Bülow, Per; Stefansson, Claes-Göran; Denhov, Anne

    2016-08-01

    During the last decades services to people with severe mental health problems have gone through important changes. Terms as de-, trans-, reinstitutionalisation and dehospitalisation has been used. The objective of the study was to collected data about the changes in a welfare society about the new institutional landscape after the mental hospital area. Data about interventions from social welfare agencies, psychiatric care, and prisons were collected from local and national register as well as data about cause of death and socio-economic status for 1355 persons treated with a diagnosis of psychosis in a Stockholm area 2004-2008. Psychiatric in-patient care and prisons are marginalized. Different interventions in open care touched a very large number of persons. Social welfare agencies play an increasing role in this context. The total institutions have been replaced by a network of micro-institutions sometimes offering help but also control. PMID:26319756

  11. Fællesskab og tilhørsforhold blandt asylansøgere i Trampolinhuset

    OpenAIRE

    Stegger, Sara; Munch, Kathrine; Madsen, Josefine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The point of departure for this project is to shed light on the individual asylum seekers’ sense of belonging to the culture and user-driven drop-in centre the Trampolinhouse, thus this is where the gathering of the empirical data has been collected. The empirical data in this project relies on a mixture of participant observations and qualitative interviews with four users of the house, one of the informants works at the house whereas the remaining three are asylum seekers. T...

  12. Britain and Algeria: Problems of Return

    OpenAIRE

    Joffé, George

    2007-01-01

    Collective Action to Support the Reintegration of Return Migrants in their Country of Origin (MIREM) Britain is not an obvious country to which Algerians migrate, although the crisis of the Algerian civil war in the 1990s was to make it an alternative to continental Europe, especially France. From 45 in 1991, asylum applications peaked in 1995 at 1,865 persons and then ran at a consistently high level up to 2002. They are now in steep decline. Return of Algerian asylum-seekers has not f...

  13. Closed detention in the Czech Republic: on what grounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Szakácsová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available People who arrive by air in the Czech Republic claiming asylum are transferred to a ‘reception centre’ at Prague’s Vaclav Havel Airport. Although they are deprived of their liberty, have limited access to fresh air and to the internet, and are only allowed to use a payphone, asylum seekers at the centre are not treated as criminals and detainees report that conditions in the reception centre are moderately good. However, there are some significant problems in the Czech Republic’s current practice of detaining applicants for international protection.

  14. Immigration measures, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Norway undertook the following immigration measures: 1) it merged the Office of Immigration, which deals with asylum matters, and the Government Refugee Agency, which handles reception and settlement, into a new Directorate for Immigration under the Ministry of Local Government and Labour; 2) it instituted visa requirements for Chileans; and 3) it established a new reception program, under which five regional reception centers are to be created accommodating 200 to 300 people each, where asylum seekers will be placed until they have completed their police interview and a municipality has agreed to accept them. PMID:12289341

  15. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2......) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of...... informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if...

  16. The New EURODAC Regulation: Fingerprints as a Source of Informal Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roots Lehte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The EURODAC Regulation establishes the database of the fingerprints of asylum seekers. In 2015, the new EURODAC Regulation came in force and some basic concepts that were not in the previous regulation have been changed. The article analyzes the responses to the new EURODAC Regulation from UNHCR and the Commission and the threats that this new regulation is creating. This article aims to find out whether the changes introduced in the new EURODAC will bring potential discrimination concerns and whether asylum seekers are treated as potential criminals and therefore causing stigmatization of those groups of people in society. The article gives an overview of the EURODAC database, fingerprinting and biometric systems, and comparison of old and new EURODAC regulation. The full assessment of the application of the regulation can be done after it has been in force for some time

  17. Unaustralia: Strangeness and Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Frow

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the flawed legal regime governing national security in Australia. It focuses on legislation related to anti-terrorism and discusses the negative effects of the bills, particularly in relation to the treatment of refugees and asylum seekers. The author reflects on the harsh political and social climate of Australia during the era of the Howard government and One Nation party, noting that democratic and the liberal values can be in conflict.

  18. Riksdagspartiers konstruktioner av flyktingfrågan : En kritisk diskursanalys med fokus på säkerhet i relation till flyktingmottagande

    OpenAIRE

    Markgren, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Sweden has traditionally been portrayed as a tolerant and generous country in terms of its migration policy. In conjunction with the increased flow of refugees in 2015 this image of Sweden has slowly but surely come to be questioned. Swedish political parties have raised concerns over the increased number of asylum seekers, and stressed the social, political and economic implications it may have for the Swedish society. This essay examines how Swedish political parties frame the refugee issue...

  19. Evolving concepts of security

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, Milos; Sweijs, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This volume looks into the challenges of formulating and implementing a comprehensive approach to security while taking into account the perceptions of variety of stakeholders. It includes studies on the Syrian asylum seekers in view of the concept of human security, CBRN crisis management frameworks, and national case studies on Bulgaria, Serbia, and Turkey. The volume reflects findings from the FP7 EvoCS project (link is external), as well as related contributions from researchers outside t...

  20. Through the Fear: A Study of Xenophobia in South Africa’s Refugee System

    OpenAIRE

    Janet McKnight

    2008-01-01

    In light of the May 2008 xenophobic attacks in Gauteng and Western Cape Provinces, this paper explains the process of refugee law in South Africa as stated in theory and as implemented in practice. Research was compiled through visits to refugee camps, townships, South African Parliament, regional prisons, judicial inspectorates, universities, and community events in and near Cape Town during June 2008. The South African Refugees Act guarantees protection to refugees and asylum seekers in con...

  1. Book review: race, racism and social work edited by Michael Lavalette and Laura Penketh

    OpenAIRE

    Deacon, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Structural and institutionalised racism is still present in Britain and Europe, a factor that social work education and training has been slow to acknowledge. In this recent book, Michael Lavalette and Laura Penketh aim to show that racism towards Britain’s ethnic minority groups has undergone a process of change. The authors examine contemporary anti-racism and racism towards Eastern European migrants, Roma people and asylum seekers and the realities of racism and their implications for curr...

  2. Educational and socio-cultural experiences of immigrant students in South African schools

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2010-01-01

    The advent of democracy and the easing of both legal and unauthorised entry to South Africa have made the country a new destination for Black asylum-seekers, long-distance traders, entrepreneurs, students and professionals. As this population continues to grow, its children have begun to experience South African schools in an array of uniquely challenging ways. In addition to opening their doors to all South African children irrespective of race, colour or creed, most public schools in South ...

  3. Flight plight: an examination of contemporary humanitarian immigration from Honduras, Cuba, and Syria to the United States with considerations for national security

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Catherine Schroeck

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines contemporary U.S. immigration for humanitarian populations from Honduras, Cuba, and Syria. Humanitarian immigration refers to refugees, asylum seekers, and those who are forcibly displaced from their homelands. The study explores how the United States can balance its identity as a nation of immigrants with its increasing security concerns within forced migrant populations. The research describes various philosophie...

  4. Mediterranean Passages: Abjection and Belonging in Contemporary Italian Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    O'Healy, Aine

    2010-01-01

    Due to the confluence of economic and geopolitical circumstances, in the early 1990s Italy became a destination or transit point for large numbers of asylum seekers, refugees, and other aspiring immigrants who found their way to Italian shores aboard fishing trawlers, rafts, speedboats, or rusty cargo ships. Reversing the country's status as an emigrant nation, this phenomenon rapidly changed the demographic face of Italy and drew attention to the porousness of its maritime boundary. Although...

  5. The system of direct provision & Ireland's obligations under the UN International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights (ICCPR)

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam

    2014-01-01

    The system of direct provision for asylum seekers will be 14 years in operation on 10 April 2014. I contend that the system of direct provision violates a number of rights specifically protected under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR): in particular, the prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment, protection of the right to private and family life, and the right to equal treatment under law.

  6. Management of breast cancer in an Asian man with post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Faaizah; Achuthan, Rajgopal; Hyklova, Lucie; Hanby, Andrew M.; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background Migration to the UK has increased considerably, which is reflected in the diverse multicultural population which includes asylum seekers and economic migrants. Differences in ethnic and cultural values between the host and newcomer populations could impact on effective health care provision, especially in gender-biased conditions such as breast cancer. Breast cancer is rare in men and the diagnosis is often met with disbelief. This case report describes an unusual case of breast ca...

  7. Refugee blues: a UK and European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the numbers of refugees travelling to the European Union are set in a global context. It is argued that the increasing restrictions placed on asylum seekers from the 1980s onwards in the UK and the associated culture of deterrence and prohibition have had the perverse effect of supporting the economic market for people smuggling. It appears that these restrictions were initially designed to deter people, most of whom would have been granted humanitarian assistance had they mana...

  8. A wave of change: Labor market and social security impacts of the EU refugee inflow

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The recent massive inflow of refugees to the European Union (EU) raises a number of unanswered questions on the economic impact of this phenomenon. To examine these questions, we constructed an overlapping-generations model that describes the evolution of the skill premium and of the welfare benefit level in relevant European countries, in the aftermath of an inflow of asylum-seekers. In our simulation, relative wages of skilled workers increase between 8% and 11% in the period of the inflow;...

  9. Forced Dependency and Legal Barriers: Implications of the UK’s Immigration and Social Security Policies for Minoritized Women Living in Abusive Intimate Relationships in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Monica McWilliams; Priyam Yarnell; Molly Churchill

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the complexities of the help-seeking process of minoritized women (primarily asylum-seekers and immigrants) experiencing domestic violence in Northern Ireland. The term ‘minoritized’ is used here to emphasize that “minority” status is not a static or innate trait of certain groups but instead is the outcome of a process of being positioned as a minority. The paper addresses the intersections of ethnicity, nationality, class and gender and shows how...

  10. Small is beautiful: How immigrants start their business in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Patrik; Narayan Pradhan, Bhim

    2005-01-01

    Background: The inflow of immigrants in Sweden is not a new phenomenon. Over the years this country has harbored hundreds and thousands of immigrants/refugees/asylum seekers on its soil. However, due to economical problems faced by Sweden during the last decade, the labor market is not unable to produce adequate jobs. Due to this amongst other consequences, immigrants in Sweden have started establishing their own small businesses which they are handling quite successfully till date. Problem d...

  11. The Right to Seek Refuge: The Implications of Bill C-31

    OpenAIRE

    Stalker, Lesley; Walia, Harsha; Csanyi, Elizabeth; Jordan, Sharalyn

    2012-01-01

    Lesley Stalker, senior solicitor/barrister and former Associate Legal Officer, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, provided an overview of the obligations Canada has regarding refugees under domestic and international law, with respect to the proposed amendments of Bill C-31. This was followed by a panel of people who work with the communities who are, and will continue to be, affected by the proposed changes  especially: LGBTQ asylum seekers, torture survivors, Romani refugee...

  12. Difficult to treat? A comparison of the effectiveness of treatment as usual in refugees and non-refugees

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Smid, Geert E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To examine treatment response in traumatised refugees, we compared routine outcome monitoring data (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) of two refugee populations with those of individuals experiencing profession-related trauma who were treated at a specialised psychotrauma institute. Results Asylum seekers/temporary refugees (n = 21) and resettled refugees (n = 169) showed significantly lower post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom reduction between intake and 1 year after in...

  13. Connection between refugee housing policy and belonging in Norway First Examiner:

    OpenAIRE

    Backas, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Since the 60’s, the number of refugees and asylum seekers in Norway has increased, resulting into more specific integration policies towards refugees by the Norwegian government. One part of the integration policy is housing of refugees. The housing of refugees in Norway is organised through so called dispersal, which means that refugees are settled evenly between the municipalities. The government of Norway is arguing that the spatial scattering of refugees is necessary for two reasons: 1) i...

  14. Utfordringer ved prima vista tolking i asylintervjuer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration (UDI conducts approximately 10,000 interpreter-mediated asylum interviews in Norway. Each asylum interview ends with the interpreter providing a sight translation of the draft interview report (an oral translation of the text to the asylum seeker. The UDI wished to find out why some interpreters took so much more time than others for sight translation. In response, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences initiated a pilot project. The project’s working hypothesis was that slow sight translation was due mainly to a combination of three factors: interpreters’ poor reading skills; interpreters’ poor interpreting techniques; and/or interpreters’ unfamiliarity with the appropriate genre/style. A more complex picture emerged, however, from an analysis of 13 asylum interviews; group work involving 108 UDI interpreters; and discussions with UDI specialists. An asylum report is the joint product of all the participants in an asylum interview, who are typically the asylum seeker, the interviewer and the interpreter. The pilot study showed that each participant could contribute in various ways to slowing the speed of sight translation. Contributing factors identified that were unrelated to the interpreter included the interviewer’s competence in interview techniques; the interviewer’s competence in creating a written record of speech; the asylum seeker’s narrative ability; and the asylum seeker’s ability to correct mistakes in the draft report. All these factors may have just as much impact on the speed of sight translation as the interpreter’s competence. In addition, the physical strain caused by the length of asylum interviews (six hours plus and the emotional stress potentially caused by such institutional interviews may affect the communicative abilities of all participants. As sight translation in the public sector is an under-researched area, the article starts

  15. Health care for immigrant women in Italy: are we really ready? A survey on knowledge about female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Caroppo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because of immigration, female genital mutilation (FGM is an issue of increasing concern in western countries. Nevertheless operators without a specific training may ignore the health condition of women subjected to this practice and fail to provide them adequate assistance. The purpose of the study was to estimate the current knowledge about FGM among social and health care assistants working with asylum seeker. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From October to December 2012, a questionnaire was used to interview 41 operators working in CARA (Shelter for Refugees and Asylum Seekers in central and southern Italy. RESULTS: Only 7.3% of respondents states to know well FGM, while 4.9% do not know it at all. 70.7% declare to have never met or assisted a woman with FGM, nevertheless all respondents work with asylum seeker from countries where FGM are performed. CONCLUSIONS: Migration fluxes to Italy over the past decade created a healthcare challenge: women with FGM have specific medical and psychological problems that doctors, nurses and social assistants without specific training are not usually able to manage.

  16. Suffering Has No Race or Nation: The Psychological Impact of the Refugee Crisis in Hungary and the Occurrence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Kéri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The “European migrant crisis” is one of the greatest social, political, and cultural challenges since World War II. Hundreds of thousands of people exposed to multiple psychological traumas are trying to find shelter in Europe. It would be indispensable to gain more information about the mental health of these individuals. The aim of the present study was to explore the occurrence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among refugees arriving in Hungary. Participants received the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Revised (HTQ, which was validated against the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview 6.0 (MINI. We interviewed 450 asylum seekers (332 male, 43% from Syria. There were 189 men (57% and 85 women (72% who received the diagnosis of PTSD. Altogether, 274 asylum seekers (61% met PTSD criteria. Individuals from Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq plus other countries displayed similar PTSD rates. The extremely high occurrence of PTSD in asylum seekers suffering from the global crisis calls for immediate attention and efforts to implement integrated solutions in Europe.

  17. A "infância desamparada" no asilo agrícola de Santa Isabel: instrução rural e infantil (1880 - 1886 The "abandoned childhood" in Santa Isabel’s agricultural asylum: rural instruction and child labor (1880-1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Frota Martinez de Schueler

    2000-01-01

    policies were present among the concerns and objectives of the Association’s founding partners and of the politicians of the Empire and they signaled to an asylum-based education project, in which the agricultural economy figures as the base of the national development. To understand those issues, the article focuses on the analysis of Santa Isabel’s Agricultural Asylum, created by the Association and inaugurated in 1886. The study attempts to characterize: the Asylum’s architecture, the buildings and external areas; the children sent there, their geographical origin, sex and social condition; and the teaching offered, the knowledge transmitted, disciplines of religious character, access to prizes as a source of stimulation and work in the field. The work concludes with the statement that the attempt of establishing a policy of moral and religious education, allied to the elementary education and the teaching focused on the rural work, with the intention of preserving a dependent workforce in the agricultural farms, was the foundation and main objective of the Association for the Protection of the Abandoned Childhood.

  18. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  19. Jeksternalizacija migracionnogo kontrolja v Evropejskom sojuze: pervye shagi po formirovaniju vneshnepoliticheskogo izmerenija prostranstva svobody, bezopasnosti i pravosudija [The externalisation of migration control in the European Union: first steps towards the external dimension of the space of freedom, security and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabov Yury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice is one of the most rapidly developing aspects of European integration. It this paper, we take a look at the foreign policies involved in this process — aside from the internal development of the European Union, they concern a significant number of third countries, including Russia. In our view, the efforts to manage the flow of migrants and asylum seekers constitute a viable part of the external dimension within the AFSJ policies. Much of this article is based on the theoretical postulates introduced by the scholars of the Paris School, a school within the discipline of security studies that conceptualized the connection between migration, terrorism, asylum, crime and ethnic clashes, and its role as a major threat facing the European Union. Externalization of this complex threat (that is, externalization in relation to the European Union is thus seen as one of the key prerequisites to advancement of migration management activities beyond the EU (i. e. externalization of migration management. In this article, we analyze the role the EU plays at the international scene and categorize the actions it took to manage the influx of migrants and asylum seekers from the 1980s until the time when supranational administrative bodies were granted mandates in the spheres of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA of the EU Member States. We conclude that it was as early as the 1990-s that th

  20. Seekers, Preachers and Warriors. The Eight in Prague and Budapest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lahoda, Vojtěch

    Pécs: Janus Pannonius Museum, 2010 - (Markója, C.; Bardoly, I.), s. 128-137 ISBN 978-963-9873-24-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : painting * expressionism * fauvism * Hungarian Modernism * Czech Modernism Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  1. Insurance Premium Optimization: Perspective of Insurance Seeker and Insurance Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Arora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a utilitarian and newfangled design of life insurance premium payment. Insurance companies provide insurance to the policy holders and in turn the policy holders have to pay insurance premium periodically. In this paper, we study the important factors to be considered at the time of selecting the term of premium payment of insurance. The intention is to extend this study to a method which can machinate and assist users in deciding the term and amount of premium payment. Our aim here is twin-fold; one, to evoke a novel way to policy holder to decide the least premiums to be paid and second, to devise a manner for insurance provider to collect maximum premiums. With this twofold aim, we propose a hybrid soft computing optimization model using Neuro-Fuzzy approach and Particle Swarm Optimization.

  2. Drug tourism or spiritual healing? Ayahuasca seekers in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2005-06-01

    This research addresses the question of whether Westerners who seek traditional spiritual medicine known as ayahuasca can be best characterized as "drug tourists" or as people pursuing spiritual and therapeutic opportunities. Participants in an ayahuasca retreat in Amazonia were interviewed regarding their motivations for participation and the benefits they felt that they received. These findings from the interviews were organized to reveal common motivations and benefits. Contrary to the characterization as "drug tourists", the principal motivations can be characterized as: seeking spiritual relations and personal spiritual development; emotional healing; and the development of personal self-awareness, including contact with a sacred nature, God, spirits and plant and natural energies produced by the ayahuasca. The motivation and perceived benefits both point to transpersonal concerns, with the principal perceived benefits involving increased self awareness, insights and access to deeper levels of the self that enhanced personal development and the higher self, providing personal direction in life. PMID:16149335

  3. The mismatch between job openings and job seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Canon, Maria E.; Mingyu Chen

    2011-01-01

    Today's high unemployment rate is often linked to a structural imbalance—a mismatch between the skills and location required to fill vacant jobs and the skills and geographical preferences of the unemployed. But the evidence downplays the role of this mismatch.

  4. Intention seekers: conspiracist ideation and biased attributions of intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Conspiracist beliefs are widespread and potentially hazardous. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive biases may play a role in endorsement of conspiracy theories. The current research examines the novel hypothesis that individuals who are biased towards inferring intentional explanations for ambiguous actions are more likely to endorse conspiracy theories, which portray events as the exclusive product of intentional agency. Study 1 replicated a previously observed relationship between conspiracist ideation and individual differences in anthropomorphisation. Studies 2 and 3 report a relationship between conspiracism and inferences of intentionality for imagined ambiguous events. Additionally, Study 3 again found conspiracist ideation to be predicted by individual differences in anthropomorphism. Contrary to expectations, however, the relationship was not mediated by the intentionality bias. The findings are discussed in terms of a domain-general intentionality bias making conspiracy theories appear particularly plausible. Alternative explanations are suggested for the association between conspiracism and anthropomorphism. PMID:25970175

  5. Intention seekers: conspiracist ideation and biased attributions of intentionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brotherton

    Full Text Available Conspiracist beliefs are widespread and potentially hazardous. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive biases may play a role in endorsement of conspiracy theories. The current research examines the novel hypothesis that individuals who are biased towards inferring intentional explanations for ambiguous actions are more likely to endorse conspiracy theories, which portray events as the exclusive product of intentional agency. Study 1 replicated a previously observed relationship between conspiracist ideation and individual differences in anthropomorphisation. Studies 2 and 3 report a relationship between conspiracism and inferences of intentionality for imagined ambiguous events. Additionally, Study 3 again found conspiracist ideation to be predicted by individual differences in anthropomorphism. Contrary to expectations, however, the relationship was not mediated by the intentionality bias. The findings are discussed in terms of a domain-general intentionality bias making conspiracy theories appear particularly plausible. Alternative explanations are suggested for the association between conspiracism and anthropomorphism.

  6. Job-seeker as a Product of the Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Chlumská, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis presents labour as a product of the labour market with the same marketing patterns like any other market. This thesis demonstrates that is possible to apply marketing tools, such as marketing mix on the labour market and labour force. It aims to describe and analyze factors which are affecting the exchange of the labour force. The work is divided into two main parts. First part deals with labour force as a product of the labour market in general. The second part is devoted...

  7. Risk Politicization Strategies in EU Migration and Asylum Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the growing articulation between migration and security in the European Union. Risk politicization strategies are developed as a way of questioning the consequences of framing migration as a security problem. My general research questions are: i) is migration being securitized at EU level? ii) what kind of securitization process is unfolding in the realm of EU migration policies? My purpose is to combine a sociological-institutional approach to EU migration policies wit...

  8. Risk Politicization Strategies in EU Migration and Asylum Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferreira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the growing articulation between migration and security in the European Union. Risk politicization strategies are developed as a way of questioning the consequences of framing migration as a security problem. My general research questions are: i is migration being securitized at EU level? ii what kind of securitization process is unfolding in the realm of EU migration policies? My purpose is to combine a sociological-institutional approach to EU migration policies with cultural symbolical theories of risk in an attempt to understand the interplay between institutional contexts and security framing in Europe. My research hypothesis is that, concerning EU migration policies, the intergovernmental nature of its policy-making process is promoting a fettered environment for policy-making, which combined with asymmetrical transactions, favours a hierarchical rationality. As a risk culture, the hierarchical rationality triggers a particular sensitivity regarding border maintenance which means that it articulates between otherness and danger.

  9. Theatre of testimony : an investigation in devising asylum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maedza, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of testimonies in performance is enjoying increased artistic and critical popularity on contemporary world stages and has a long and rich tradition on South African stages. Both internationally and locally, emerging and established playwrights working on migration and refugee issues are seek

  10. Response: So much for cosmopolitanism? Refugees, asylum and world politics

    OpenAIRE

    Biesta, G

    2015-01-01

    Rather than to think of crisis as a situation of chaos and disorder, it is better to stay closer to the root meaning of the Greek word ‘krinein,’ which highlights that a crisis is a decision point that calls for judgement. This is certainly the case with the current crisis, which by some is referred to as a migrant crisis and by others as a refugee crisis.

  11. Frontex, the Euro-Mediterranean border and the paradoxes of humanitarian rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Campesi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the ambiguous dialectic between the technocratic ideology of risk management and the recurrent call for emergency measures which characterizes Euro-Mediterranean border control policies, showing how Frontex has ultimately succeeded in capitalising on the recurring cry to humanitarian emergencies coming from some Member Countries. Far from seeing its legitimacy undermined as a risk management agency that should predict and prevent potential migratory crisis, it has incorporated the emergency rethoric into its official communication, making it a legitimating tool for a steady expansion of its role, prerogatives and resources to the detriment of alternative actors in migration policy. This reproduces the paradoxes of a humanitarian policy which is intended at protecting the bare life of migrants and asylum seekers, while violating their fundamental rights to escape and find asylum elsewhere.

  12. Syria: The analysis of representtion of the conflict by government and Syrian´s perspectives respectively.

    OpenAIRE

    khalili, alireza; Kyselova, Mariia

    2013-01-01

    In this project we, as cultural encounters students try to compare and examine the representation of the conflict in Syria through President Bashar al-Assad´s speech and Syrian Asylum seekers interviews. We use Benedict Anderson´s theory about nation as an Imagined Community and Richard Jenkins´s work on Social Identity as main theoretical texts for the analysis. Our project does not show a definite authentic view of the conflict, since we have limited ourselves to the analysis of five interv...

  13. Dermatologic challenges of health care for displaced people. lessons from a German emergency refugee camp

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Wollina; Beatrix Gaber; Rahaf Mansour; Dana Langner; Gesina Hansel; André Koch

    2016-01-01

    Background: The World faces the highest waves of displaced people since World War II. There is limited knowledge about need of dermatological care for refugees and asylum seekers. Methods: We report the experience with a temporary emergency refugee camp in Dresden form the viewpoint of a hospital department. This is a descriptive report covering the period of 10 weeks. Results: In this refugee camp up to 1 100 people were hosted. The male to female ratio was 5.3. The majority of inhab...

  14. The Creeping Blight of Islamophobia in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Briskman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the latter months of 2014, following events in faraway Iraq and Syria, Australia responded forcefully at home. The manufactured fear of a terrorist attack resulted in police raids, increased counter-terrorism legislation and scare campaigns to alert the public to 'threat'. Although Islamophobia rose in Australia after 2001 it has been latent in recent years. It is on the rise again with collateral damage from government measures including verbal and physical attacks on Australian Muslims. Vitriol is also directed at asylum seekers and refugees. Media, government and community discourses converge to promote Islam as dangerous and deviant.

  15. Integrace dětí imigrantů a azylantů

    OpenAIRE

    PETRŮ, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The subject of my thesis is {\\clqq}Integration of Children of Immigrants and of Asylum Seekers``. I have chosen this topic because migration problems have become one of the actual topics in public life in the present Europe and its importance increases because the number of migrants constantly increases. The Czech Republic encountered the problems of fugitives and immigration shortly after the fall of communism in 1989. To this time it had been isolated from the other world for a long time an...

  16. The Lampedusa Disaster: How to Prevent Further Loss of Life at Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Coppens

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lampedusa – an Italian island barely 70 miles from northern Africa and 100 miles from Malta – has become a gateway to Europe for migrants. In some seasons, boats filled with asylum seekers arrive almost daily. However, yearly, hundreds of people die trying to cross the Mediterranean Sea. This paper will deal with the obligations of States towards seaborne migrants, the question of why so many people die near Lampedusa and the possible solutions in order to prevent further loss of life at sea.

  17. Fleeing to Europe: Europeanization and the right to seek refugee status

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, Wies

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with a sensitive topic that one may call the borderline syndrome of Europe: the efforts to harmonize the national policies of the enlarged European Union with respect to the right to enter Europe as a refugee or as an asylum seeker. The right to seek refugee status, a convention that has its roots in Europe has now become a burden to the very people who created it. Consequently, the countries in Europe have developed various strategies of dealing with the syndrome...

  18. Fleeing to Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a sensitive topic that one may call the borderline syndrome of Europe: the efforts to harmonize the national policies of the enlarged European Union with respect to the right to enter Europe as a refugee or as an asylum seeker. The right to seek refugee status, a convention that has its roots in Europe has now become a burden to the very people who created it. Consequently, the countries in Europe have developed various strategies of dealing with the syndrome. While some...

  19. A Practical Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen,Aleksander Buchardt; Billow Khalid, Bashir; Ramsing, Bjarke; Pedersen, Brigitta Alexandra Major; Glenny, Nina Louise; Hagstrøm, Tommy Mickiewicz

    2012-01-01

    This project is a case study on the Trampoline House, a user-driven, non-profit organisation. This organisation has a specific focus on asylum seekers with the aim of empowering and integrating them into society. However they emphasise that this integration is a two-way process also highlighting the necessity of integrating the Danish users in the workings of the house with a foundation in a practical encounter. Our aim is to analyse this practical encounter and discern to which extent it...

  20. Eurodac: A Solution Looking for a Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Aus

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study accounts for the emergence of a supranational biometric control regime in Europe. The empirical focus lies on the institutionalization of Eurodac, an automated fingerprint identification system covering asylum seekers and 'illegal' immigrants. Who promoted the idea of setting up an automated biometric system in the European Community? Which behavioral logics were underlying the negotiation of the Eurodac Regulations in the Justice and Home Affairs Council? And how did the European Commission get involved in policing the so-called 'Area of Freedom, Security and Justice'?

  1. Crime and Immigration: Evidence from Large Immigrant Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, B.; Fasani, F.; Machin, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between immigration and crime in a setting where large migration flows offer an opportunity to carefully appraise whether the populist view that immigrants cause crime is borne out by rigorous evidence. We consider possible crime effects from two large waves of immigration that recently occurred in the UK. The first of these was the late 1990s/early 2000s wave of asylum seekers, and the second the large inflow of workers from EU accession countries that to...

  2. [Migration in Germany: 1945-1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, R; Ulrich, R

    1998-01-01

    "The authors examine how the immigrant population of Germany has risen despite the fact that the German government has sought to restrict it. They analyze six major streams of migration: refugees and expellees who came immediately after World War II, German resettlers from Eastern Europe (¿Aussiedler'), emigration of (West) Germans, migration between East- and West Germany, foreign labor migrants and asylum seekers. The dynamics of immigration, the chances on the labor market, and the opportunities for social integration were remarkably different for each of these groups. As far as absorption and integration are concerned the authors argue that different groups of immigrants should be treated more equally." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348943

  3. IOM: trespassing on others’ humanitarian space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morris

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available “IOM is playing an increasingly prominent role in the reception, assistance, and return not only of migrants, but also of asylum seekers, refugees and the forcibly displaced. Given that IOM does not have a protection mandate for its work with refugees and displaced persons, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch recommend that IOM should refrain from taking a lead role in situations which fall squarely under the protection mandate of other international organizations, such as UNHCR.”1

  4. ‘That's just what I do’: placing emotion in academic activism

    OpenAIRE

    Askins, Kye

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I wish to critically reflect on the role of emotion/s in how I position myself with regards to research, teaching and learning, drawing on experiences over the past three years as a human geography lecturer ‘doing’ research with refugees and asylum seekers in a local inner city area. While there has been increasing debate regarding what constitutes ‘the activist-academic’, in particular deconstructing any dualism or border between ‘academic’ and ‘activist’, the motivation for u...

  5. Dermatologic challenges of health care for displaced people. lessons from a German emergency refugee camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World faces the highest waves of displaced people since World War II. There is limited knowledge about need of dermatological care for refugees and asylum seekers. Methods: We report the experience with a temporary emergency refugee camp in Dresden form the viewpoint of a hospital department. This is a descriptive report covering the period of 10 weeks. Results: In this refugee camp up to 1 100 people were hosted. The male to female ratio was 5.3. The majority of inhabitants were young males (60%, 20% were children. While 40% of refuges came from Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan were also important countries of origin. Communication war a crucial issue while providing health care. Dermatologic service was granted as consultation, outpatient and inpatient clinic. Most contacts were noted in the outpatient clinic. The majority of patient attended the clinic with communicable diseases such as bacterial or viral infections and infestations. Wounds and chronic inflammatory diseases were rather uncommon. Only 4 patients had to be treated in the hospital (inpatient clinic. Conclusions: Displaced people (refugees, asylum seekers come in big waves to Europe. Dermatologic service is an important part of first aid health care in an emergency camp. Language barriers and cultural barriers have to overcome for optimal service. This is the first report from Germany.

  6. Screening for Infectious Diseases among Newly Arrived Migrants in EU/EEA Countries—Varying Practices but Consensus on the Utility of Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Kärki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Screening is one possible tool for monitoring infectious diseases among migrants. However, there is limited information on screening programmes targeted for newly arrived migrants in EU/EEA countries. Our aim was to investigate the implementation, practices and usefulness of these programmes. We conducted a survey among country experts from EU/EEA countries and Switzerland, asking whether their countries had implemented screening programmes. We also estimated the association between the implementation of these programmes and the rate of asylum-seekers in the population. Of the countries, 16 (59% had implemented screening programmes and 15 (56% had national guidelines. The rate of asylum-seekers was associated with implementation of screening programmes (p = 0.014. Screening was performed most often for tuberculosis; most commonly on holding level, and was targeted to specific migrant groups in over half of the countries performing screening. Twenty-five of all the country experts (96% considered screening among migrants useful, and 24 (92% would welcome EU level guidelines for screening. The implementation of screening programmes varied, and the practices were different among countries. Our survey suggests, that establishing EU level guidelines for screening would be useful, although they would have to take into account differences between individual countries.

  7. Comparative analysis regarding the procedure for granting the refugee statute in Romania and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina COCOŞATU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyday realities demonstrate more and more the fact that there are people who are constraint to leave their countries of origin, as a consequence of dangers of a nature to seriously harm their right to life, liberty or integrity and who are forced to remain for a period of time, or even for the rest of their lives, in the country offering them asylum. From the analysis of the current legal framework in Romania and France, we can state that at the level of the two states there is a tendency to give norms applicable both to the seekers of the refugee status, as well as to asylum-seekers. In spite of the fact that the two notions cannot be confused with one another, their common regulation is the result of the numerous resemblances between the two institutions, such as, most times, the state that recognized the statute of refugee as immediate protection form will also grant the right to asylum as final protection form. Thus, both at the level of Romania, and at the level of France, the two institutions represent humanitarian protection forms for aliens persecuted for their beliefs, opinions or the political belonging or their belonging to a social group, or as a consequence of their race, religion, nationality, which is granted by the state by virtue of its sovereignty. In addition, the Romanian state and the French state undertake to grant similar rights and liberties to the refugees and asylum-seekers, equal to those of their own citizens, out of which stands out the right not to be banished. Following the direction imposed by the U.N. Convention of year 1951, neither Romania, nor France grant the statute of refugee to the alien who committed a crime against peace or mankind, a serious common law offence, outside the state, before being admitted to its territory as a refugee, or facts contrary to the goals and principles stated by the U.N. Charter. By granting the statute of refugee, the alien receives the permission to stay of the territory of

  8. The externalisation of migration control in the European Union: first steps towards the external dimension of the space of freedom, security and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabov Yu. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice is one of the most rapidly developing aspects of European integration. It this paper, we take a look at the foreign policies involved in this process — aside from the internal development of the European Union, they concern a significant number of third countries, including Russia. In our view, the efforts to manage the flow of migrants and asylum seekers constitute a viable part of the external dimension within the AFSJ policies. Much of this article is based on the theoretical postulates introduced by the scholars of the Paris School, a school within the discipline of security studies that conceptualized the connection between migration, terrorism, asylum, crime and ethnic clashes, and its role as a major threat facing the European Union. Externalization of this complex threat (that is, externalization in relation to the European Union is thus seen as one of the key prerequisites to advancement of migration management activities beyond the EU (i. e. externalization of migration management. In this article, we analyze the role the EU plays at the international scene and categorize the actions it took to manage the influx of migrants and asylum seekers from the 1980s until the time when supranational administrative bodies were granted mandates in the spheres of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA of the EU Member States. We conclude that it was as early as the 1990-s that the EU launched the policy which later allowed to transfer part of its security concerns to third countries.

  9. Reconfiguring the Law of Non-Refoulement: Procedural and Substantive Barriers for Those Seeking to Access Surrogate International Human Rights Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. von Sternberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both geographic and normative constraints restrict access to surrogate international human rights protection for those seeking a haven from serious human rights abuses. Primary among territorial restrictions has been the fall-out from the US Supreme Court’s decision in Sale v. Haitian Council Centers in which the court explicitly ruled that nothing in US statutory law, or in the 1951 Convention on Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, precluded the interdiction of Haitian refugees in international waters and their return to the country of origin without an effective interview on their protection clams. This ruling is in transparent contradiction to the general international law norm of non-refoulement according to modern scholarship and emerging case law. This paper concludes that Sale should be overturned by statute as should related pre-screening practices. A new standard of “jurisdiction” should be adopted which does not depend on territorial access to a signatory state but on whether the state is exercising power in fact. Similar concerns exist with respect to safe third country agreements which often offend the international customary right of the asylum seeker to choose where his or her claim will be filed. This paper argues that the right of choice should be recognized and onward travel and admission to the country of destination allowed. This result is especially called for where return of the alien by the country of first contact raises serious concerns under the law of non-refoulement. Imbalances noted in this paper include those generated by the new terrorism related grounds of inadmissibility in theUnited States and the summary denial of children’s asylum claims flowing from gang violence.Other questions are raised in this paper concerning work authorization and detention of asylum seekers. Access to an employment authorization document for those filing colorable claims should be recognized by statute to render US practice

  10. Unfencing the Range: History, Identity, Property, and Apocalypse in "Lame Deer Seeker of Visions."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Geoff

    1990-01-01

    Seemingly chaotic to Western eyes, John Lame Deer's autobiography has a meaningful structure based on Lakota numerology and oral tradition. The book explores conflicts between White and Indian conceptions of identity and property, and sees itself as an instrument in the apocalyptic triumph of Indian spirituality over White greed. (SV)

  11. An Examination of Early Maladaptive Schemas among Substance Use Treatment Seekers and their Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas, which are cognitive and behavioral patterns of viewing oneself and the world that result in substantial distress, are gradually being documented as important vulnerabilities for substance abuse. Unfortunately, there is limited research on early maladaptive schemas among substance abusers and their family members. Research on this topic may carry important implications for family-focused substance use interventions. The current study examined similarities and differe...

  12. An Examination of Early Maladaptive Schemas among Substance Use Treatment Seekers and their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-09-01

    Early maladaptive schemas, which are cognitive and behavioral patterns of viewing oneself and the world that result in substantial distress, are gradually being documented as important vulnerabilities for substance abuse. Unfortunately, there is limited research on early maladaptive schemas among substance abusers and their family members. Research on this topic may carry important implications for family-focused substance use interventions. The current study examined similarities and differences in early maladaptive schemas among a sample of substance abuse treatment seeking adults (n = 47) and at least one parent (n = 58). Results demonstrated that the substance abusers scored higher than their parents on 17 of 18 early maladaptive schemas, with most differences falling into the large effect size range. There were some similarities in the specific early maladaptive schemas endorsed by both groups despite substance abusers scoring higher on all schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and family-focused substance use treatment programs are discussed. PMID:23162210

  13. Bone blood flow measured by 85 Sr microspheres and bone seeker clearances in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates further the relationship between the initial bone clearance of a bone-seeking radioisotope or labeled substance and the bone blood flow. The bone blood flow of rats was modified over the widest possible range of physiological values by heating and cooling their hindlimbs. Osseous blood flow was measured by the arteriolar trapping of labeled microspheres of 15 micrometer diameter injected into the left ventricle. The plasma clearances of 45Ca and 99m Tc by bone were measured 10 min after the intravenous injection of radiocalcium and of 99m technetium pyrophosphate. The extraction ratio for 45Ca over the 10-min interval (45Ca clearance/bone plasma flow) was 0.60 for low blood flows, 0.40 for blood flows at rest, and 0.25 for high values of flow. The data for 99m Tc were, respectively, 0.68, 0.34, and 0.22. Initial bone clearances of either substance should not be used to measure the increases in bone blood flow over the values at rest

  14. Death thoughts and images in treatment-seekers after violent loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Jenna L; Williams, Joah L; Rynearson, Ted; Correa, Fanny; Saindon, Connie; Rheingold, Alyssa A

    2015-01-01

    Violent loss survivors often describe experiencing recurrent imagery about their loved one's death. The Death Imagery Scale assesses 5 kinds of imagery: reenactment, rescue, revenge, reunion, and remorse. We explored the frequency of these forms of imagery and their associations with PTSD, depression, and/or complicated grief (CG) among 130 treatment-seeking survivors who were, on average, 3.5 years postloss. Reenactment, rescue, and remorse imagery were most frequently endorsed, and all forms of imagery were associated with PTSD, depression, and CG. Bereaved parents reported more remorse and reunion imagery than others. Homicide survivors reported more revenge imagery than suicide and accident survivors. PMID:25101789

  15. Death Thoughts and Images in Treatment-Seekers After Violent Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Jenna L.; Williams, Joah L.; RYNEARSON, TED; Correa, Fanny; Saindon, Connie; Rheingold, Alyssa A.

    2014-01-01

    Violent loss survivors often describe experiencing recurrent imagery about their loved one’s death. The Death Imagery Scale assesses five kinds of imagery: reenactment, rescue, revenge, reunion, and remorse. We explored the frequency of these forms of imagery and their associations with PTSD, depression, and/or complicated grief (CG) among 130 treatment-seeking survivors who were, on average, 3.5 years post-loss. Reenactment, rescue, and remorse imagery were most frequently endorsed, and all ...

  16. Cheerleader, Opportunity Seeker, and Master Strategist: ARL Directors as Entrepreneurial Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Maria Taesil Hudson

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how directors of libraries with membership in the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), who are engaged in entrepreneurial leadership, define and view it. Through structured interviews and analysis of supporting documents, it examines how entrepreneurial leadership can be used as a means for creating new organizational…

  17. THE SENSATION - SEEKER WHO IS ALSO ALIENATED: TOWARDS A NEW HYPOTHESIS FOR GENESIS OF OPIATE ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Debasish; Varma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil,

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess two psychological parameters, sensation-seeking (SS) and alienation (AL), in a sample of thirty DSM-III diagnosed opiate dependence cases, and to compare them on these two parameters with two non-drug-abusing control groups, one from the patients own peer groups and the other from the general population. The opiate dependent subjects were found to score higher both on SS and AL than those in the control groups. Further, there was a gradient of the degree of ...

  18. Performance and subjective effects of diazepam and d-amphetamine in high and low sensation seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Thomas H.; Delzer, Timothy A.; Martin, Catherine A.; Harrington, Nancy G.; Hays, Lon R.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Although sensation-seeking status is associated with age of initiation and amount of drug use among adolescents, and sensitivity to the behavioral and reinforcing effects of drugs among young adults, it is unclear whether sensation-seeking status among adolescents is predictive of sensitivity to the pharmacological effects of drugs (i.e. abuse potential) as adults. This study examined the acute behavioral effects of oral diazepam and d-amphetamine in young adults, ages 18–21 years, who had co...

  19. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Price

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10–18 years seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i explore what types and stage (pre, during, post of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence. Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%, self-harm (22.6% and suicide (9.9%. Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.

  20. 75 FR 27824 - Announcement of the Career Videos for America's Job Seekers Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ..., and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers/Testing Adjusting and Balancing (TAB) Technicians; 7... Technicians; 13. Solar Thermal Installers and Technicians; 14. Weatherization Installers and Technicians;...

  1. 75 FR 33641 - Announcement of the Career Videos for America's Job Seekers Challenge; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers/Testing Adjusting and Balancing (TAB) Technicians; 7. Licensed Practical.... Solar Thermal Installers and Technicians; 14. Weatherization Installers and Technicians; and 15....

  2. What Do Employers Want? Views of Chinese and Canadian Job Seekers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Sun; M.W. Luke Chan; James H. Tiessen

    2006-01-01

    Rapid globalization has led to many studies of cross-cultural issues and their implications for management. As China's importance in the international economy rises, the level of international business cooperation continues to increase. This paper first identifies differences in the cultural orientations of Chinese and Canadians entering the job market and then examines how these orientations are related to their perceptions of the criteria employers use when hiring. The analyses show that the cultural differences are not consistent with Hofstede's previous work. Further, there are significant differences in the qualities that are considered important when seeking a job. The results of this study increase mutual understanding and improve business relationships between the two countries.

  3. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149

  4. Searching for Sophia: Adult Educators and Adult Learners as Wisdom Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Wilma; Hyland-Russell, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This article invokes the spirit of "Sophia" as metaphorical guide for an ongoing reclamation of wisdom spaces and describes a path for educators and practitioners that can assist in the recovery of wisdom in the face of increasing pressures of measurable outcomes within the field of lifelong learning. The authors first examine wisdom within adult…

  5. Rent-seekers' lost El Dorado: Vietnam's financial turmoil, 2007-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Napier, Nancy K.; Tri Dung, Tran

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined 256 cases of financial failure and fraud in Vietnam’s chaotic years from 2007 to 2013. Categorical data analyses suggest that the rent-seeking approach, or resource-based orientation, alone does not help explain the outcome of a business intention while the association between Orientation and Approach is the best-fit predictor. Rampant financial collapse not only increases the cost of funds but also erodes trust in the economy. Entrepreneurship development a...

  6. Health Attitudes, Health Cognitions, and Health Behaviors among Internet Health Information Seekers: Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J

    2004-01-01

    Background Using a functional theory of media use, this paper examines the process of health-information seeking in different domains of Internet use. Objective Based on an analysis of the 1999 HealthStyles data, this study was designed to demonstrate that people who gather information on the Internet are more health-oriented than non-users of Internet health information. Methods The Porter Novelli HealthStyles database, collected annually since 1995, is based on the results of nationally rep...

  7. Questioning History, Nationality and Identity in Timberlake Wertenbaker’s Credible Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursen Gömceli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the Anglo-American playwright Timberlake Wertenbaker’s approach to the issues of history, nationality and identity in her play Credible Witness (2001, and to discuss the significance of these concepts in our modern world through a close analysis of the play. In Credible Witness, the playwright brings together people from diverse countries, such as Sri Lanka, Algeria, Eritrea, Somalia and Macedonia in a detention centre in London, and via the stories of these asylum seekers, and particularly through the dramatic encounter between Petra, a Macedonian woman with strong nationalistic pride, and her son Alexander, a history teacher forced to seek refuge in Britain for political reasons, Wertenbaker tries to demonstrate “what happens to people when they step outside, or are forced outside, their history, their identity” (Aston 2003, 13.

  8. [German pilot study of psychiatric inpatients with histories of migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E; Hartkamp, N; Siefen, R G; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-03-01

    The work group on psychiatry and migration of the Conference of Directors of Psychiatric Hospitals in Germany conducted a study on the use of inpatient psychiatric services by migrants in 12 psychiatric and psychotherapeutic hospitals and hospital departments. In contrast to previous studies the proportion of migrants in psychiatric hospitals (17.4%) equaled that of migrants in the general population. However there still was a high rate of diagnostic and treatment problems resulting from cultural differences and, to a lesser extent, from language problems. A high proportion of migrants suffered from delusional and schizophrenic disorders, while there were considerable differences in the distribution of diagnoses between different groups of migrants, e.g. those from Turkey and eastern Europe, respectively. Roughly half of all migrants studied had German citizenship. Among the migrants of Turkish background, a high proportion was born in Germany. The number of asylum seekers and refugees was disproportionately high. PMID:18210042

  9. Biometric citizenship and alienage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    positioned and managed technologically as risks through surveillance and storage of data, whereas citizens are managed as holders of access to privileges. The technique however of both circuits is using bodily coded information through fingerprints and emphasizes the general tendency of ‘securitization of......Biometric identifiers (finger prints, face scans, iris scans etc.) have increasingly become a key element in technology of EU border and migration management. SIS II, EURODAC and VIS are centralized systems that contain fingerprints of different groups of non-EU citizen, and the biometric...... identifier is stored in order to link a specific body to specific information related to status (asylum seeker, entry banned, convicted etc.). Finger prints are also integrated in passports in the EU, but this biometric information is restricted to establish only the link between the body and the passport...

  10. PERLINDUNGAN PENGUNGSI DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM INTERNASIONAL DAN HUKUM ISLAM (Studi Terhadap Kasus Manusia Perahu Rohingya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryuni Yuliantiningsih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of refugees is a difficult problem that againts up by international community. Commonly, the reason of refugee because of human rights violation in their State. In the end of 2011, based on report of United Nations, there are 47,5 million refugees from moslem majority, the one of them is called ‘The Boat People’ Rohingya. Islamic law had interferenced regulation in international law about protection for refugee . The refugees rights for protection by the host State regulated in Convention relating Status of Refugees 1951 and the protocol relating the Status of Refugee 1967. Islamic law regulated in QS Al Hasyr: 9. The principle of Non Refoulment is a principle that recognized under international law and Islamic law. Non refoulment is a concept in which state shall not return (refoule a refugee or asylum seeker in any manner. This principle is become international customary law so every State must be implementing it.

  11. [Migration without borders, but...barriers of meaning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, P; Madrid, C; Vannotti, M; Rossi, I; Ruiz, J

    2007-11-28

    Immigration, a political, economic, demographic, social and ethic, as well as a medical issue, continues. Among migrants, asylum seekers, refugees and undocumented immigrants are characterised by their vulnerability, particularly related to their health status. Western physicians are more and more frequently confronted to "colorful" and often vulnerable patients. They face diseases related to international migrations; and at the same time have to integrate the differences in representations and meanings given to illness by patients of diverse origins. A bio-psychosocial and spiritual approach coupled with an evaluation of pre-migration, migration and post-migration trajectories is therefore useful for the clinician; these complementary approaches have all been integrated in the learning of cultural competencies. PMID:18214224

  12. Tolerance by surprise: evidence for a generalized reduction in prejudice and increased egalitarianism through novel category combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Prejudices towards different groups are interrelated, but research has yet to find a way to promote tolerance towards multiple outgroups. We devise, develop and implement a new cognitive intervention for achieving generalized tolerance based on scientific studies of social categorization. In five laboratory experiments and one field study the intervention led to a reduction of prejudice towards multiple outgroups (elderly, disabled, asylum seekers, HIV patients, gay men), and fostered generalized tolerance and egalitarian beliefs. Importantly, these effects persisted outside the laboratory in a context marked by a history of violent ethnic conflict, increasing trust and reconciliatory tendencies towards multiple ethnic groups in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention strategies focused on reducing conflict and promoting peaceful intergroup relations. PMID:23483895

  13. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2015-01-01

    All generalist and specialist clinicians are likely to encounter torture survivors among refugees and asylum seekers. A minority of people survive torture and a smaller minority reach a developed country; those who do tend to be the more resilient and resourceful. They have many health, social and welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor. PMID:25537694

  14. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2015-01-01

    All generalist and specialist clinicians are likely to encounter torture survivors among refugees and asylum seekers. A minority of people survive torture and a smaller minority reach a developed country; those who do tend to be the more resilient and resourceful. They have many health, social and...... welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive...... focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor....

  15. Perinatal outcomes among migrant mothers in the United Kingdom: Is it a matter of biology, behaviour, policy, social determinants or access to health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthussery, Shuby

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines trends in perinatal outcomes among migrant mothers in the UK, and it explores potential contributors to disparities focusing on pregnancy, birth and the first year of life. Trends in perinatal outcomes indicate that ethnic minority grouping, regardless of migrant status, is a significant risk factor for unfavourable outcomes. It is unclear whether migrant status per se adds to this risk as within-group comparisons between UK-born and foreign-born women show variable findings. The role of biological and behavioural factors in producing excess unfavourable outcomes among ethnic minority mothers, although indicated, is yet to be fully understood. UK policies have salient aspects that address ethnic inequalities, but their wide focus obscures provisions for migrant mothers. Direct associations between socio-economic factors, ethnicity and adverse infant outcomes are evident. Evidence is consistent about differential access to and utilisation of health services among ethnic minority mothers, in particular recently arrived migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. PMID:26527304

  16. Trauma exposure and refugee status as predictors of mental health outcomes in treatment-seeking refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Sleijpen, Marieke; Mooren, Trudy; ter Heide, F. Jackie June; van der Aa, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method This study aimed to identify predictors of symptom severity for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in asylum seekers and refugees referred to a specialised mental health centre. Trauma exposure (number and domain of event), refugee status and severity of PTSD and depression were assessed in 688 refugees. Results Symptom severity of PTSD and depression was significantly associated with lack of refugee status and accumulation of traumatic events. Four domains of traumatic events (human rights abuse, lack of necessities, traumatic loss, and separation from others) were not uniquely associated with symptom severity. All factors taken together explained 11% of variance in PTSD and depression. Clinical implications To account for multiple predictors of symptom severity including multiple traumatic events, treatment for traumatised refugees may need to be multimodal and enable the processing of multiple traumatic memories within a reasonable time-frame. PMID:26755950

  17. Women on the Other Side of War and Poverty: Its Effect on the Health of Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Cevirme

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available War and poverty are ‘extraordinary conditions created by human intervention’ and ‘preventable public health problems.’ War and poverty have many negative effects on human health, especially women’s health. Health problems arising due to war and poverty are being observed as sexual abuse and rape, all kinds of violence and subsequent gynecologic and obstetrics problems with physiological and psychological courses, and pregnancies as the result of undesired but forced or obliged marriages and even rapes. Certainly, unjust treatment such as being unable to gain footing on the land it is lived (asylum seeker, refugee, etc. and being deprived of social security, citizenship rights and human rights brings about the deprivation of access to health services and of provision of service intended for gynecology and obstetrics. The purpose of this article is to address effects of war and poverty on the health of reproduction of women and to offer scientific contribution and solutions.

  18. Ethnographic Ecclesiology and the Challenges of Scholarly Situatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Gitte; Lorensen, Marlene Ringgaard; Felter, Kirsten Donskov

    2015-01-01

    carried out in a particular congregation in Copenhagen that has attracted many asylum seekers, primarily of Muslim background. The empirical work revealed that the scholars, as participant observers, experienced the situation in the congregation quite differently than did the refugees. Initially, the......This article reflects on the importance of being aware of one’s own situatedness when carrying out empirical research. The unforeseen outcome of a project in which we studied converting refugees’ encounter with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark provoked these reflections. The fieldwork was...... scholars did not recognise conflicts and problems related to ethnicity, gender and class among the various groups of refugees. However, interviews based on the refugees’ documentation of their experiences with and within the congregation allowed different perspectives to be articulated. On one hand...

  19. Parental PTSD, adverse parenting and child attachment in a refugee sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ee, Elisa; Kleber, Rolf J; Jongmans, Marian J; Mooren, Trudy T M; Out, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with traumatic experiences, there is a dearth of studies on the link between trauma symptoms, disconnected (frightened, threatening and dissociative) parenting behavior, extremely insensitive parenting behavior and child attachment. This study extends previous work on the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on families by studying the unique contribution of disconnected and extremely insensitive parenting behavior on child attachment in a highly traumatized sample of 68 asylum seekers and refugees and their children (18-42 months). The results show that parental symptoms of PTSD are directly related to children's insecure attachment and disorganized attachment. The greatest proportion of the risk could be attributed to factors related to the dyad and not the family. A mediation effect of adverse parenting behavior was not confirmed. On the one hand the results indicate the need for an effective treatment of PTSD symptomatology while on the other hand the results indicate the need for clinical attention to insecure attachment relationships. PMID:26982876

  20. Europe's New Technological Gatekeeper. Debating the Deployment of Technology in Migration Policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huub Dijstelbloem

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In the political debate on migration, the leading role is usually granted to the objectives, namely: the limits that should be applied to the influx of migrants and asylum seekers to the EU. However, to achieve these political objectives, technology is increasingly being deployed. The result is that the borders of Europe are slowly but surely changing into ‘technological borders’, creating a border system where migrants are registered as ‘passwords’. Dijstelbloem discusses the problematic concept of technological borders and reflects on possibilities to open up these new technological gatekeepers of Europe for more transnational public debate.

  1. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights. PMID:24002948

  2. 8 CFR 1208.9 - Procedure for interview before an asylum officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... competent interpreter fluent in both English and the applicant's native language or any other language in which the applicant is fluent. The interpreter must be at least 18 years of age. Neither the...

  3. 8 CFR 208.9 - Procedure for interview before an asylum officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interview in English must provide, at no expense to the Service, a competent interpreter fluent in both English and the applicant's native language or any other language in which the applicant is fluent....

  4. 8 CFR 1240.67 - Procedure for interview before an asylum officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after the applicant has complied with fingerprinting requirements pursuant to § 103.2(e) of 8 CFR... the Service, a competent interpreter fluent in both English and a language in which the applicant is fluent. The interpreter must be at least 18 years of age. The following individuals may not serve as...

  5. Precarious Lives:Refugees and Asylum Seekers’ Resistance within Unfree Labouring

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, Louise; Lewis, Hannah; Dwyer, Peter James; Hodkinson, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the interplay between vulnerability, resistance and agency for forced migrants. Such concepts are yoked together as soon as the vulnerability inherent in the life-worlds of many migrants is seen to align not solely with victimhood, but also potentially to act as a springboard for agentic resistance, mobilisation and activism. As such, this paper is oriented towards a critical theoretical, and empirically insightful, engagement with the concept of resistance. Most ...

  6. The politics of death in Mexico: dislocating human rights and asylum law through hybrid agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadna Estévez

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 Mexico’s then-president Felipe Calderón declared war on drug trafficking. The human toll was devastating with the loss of over 95,000 lives and the forced disappearance of more than 27,000 people. In addition, two percent of the Mexican population was displaced with families forced to flee their homes in the face of criminal violence. This article offers an explanation of how death, forced disappearances, persecution and exile are in essence the specific effects of governmentalization...

  7. STATE OBLIGATION TO PROTECT : Unaccompanied children seeking asylum and the risk of human trafficking in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the Norwegian State obligations to protect unaccompanied children against human trafficking under international human rights law. The purpose with this study is to show that trafficking of children happens in Norway and to discuss whether more measures must be taken to provide a better protection for these children. The conclusion of this study is that the Norwegian Government should implement additional measures to provide better protection. Only, this way can Norway ...

  8. Physical and psychological sequelae to torture. A controlled clinical study of exiled asylum applicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P

    1988-01-01

    The study comprised 24 male Lebanese refugees living in Denmark. Twelve of them alleged having been tortured in Lebanon during the period 1981-85. The remaining twelve had neither been imprisoned nor tortured and thus acted as control persons. All the testimonies were found to be valid according to...... a method previously used by the author. The most common forms of torture were blows against the head, body and foot soles, suspension and asphyxiation. Threats and solitary confinement were frequent, and sexual violations were also reported. At the time of examination (March-November 1986), the main...... complaints were headaches, various cardiopulmonary symptoms, sleep disturbances with nightmares, impaired concentration and memory, and emotional lability. Suicide attempts were reported. Prior to the torture all the probands had been healthy except for several cases of gunshot wounds. The clinical...

  9. Implications of the Debate on Irregular Migration in the European and Spanish Asylum Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Merino Sancho

    2013-01-01

    Las actuales corrientes de refugiados y los motivos de huida buscando protección en terceros Estados son distintos de los que justificaron el surgimiento del régimen ju­rídico del asilo. Sin embargo, este régimen apenas ha sufrido cambios, al menos en relación con el concepto establecido internacionalmente en la Convención de 1951. Por su parte, los caracteres actuales de las migraciones han tenido como respues­ ta primordial, por parte de los poderes públicos, políticas basadas en la lógica ...

  10. Comparing approaches to integrating refugee and asylum-seeking healthcare professionals in Canada and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Yvonne; Bourgeault, Ivy L; Neiterman, Elena

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we examine barriers to the integration of refugee doctors and nurses in Canada and the United Kingdom. Key obstacles impeding the integration of internationally trained health professionals are well documented, but less attention has been paid to the integration of refugee health professionals, particularly in Canada. Based on documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews with 46 Canadian and 34 UK stakeholders, our research shows that there are no simple solutions to mitigating the core obstacles that prohibit the professional integration of refugee doctors and nurses into host countries. The targeted approach adopted in parts of the UK does provide some promising practices for Canada, which has yet to develop policies and initiatives specific to health professional refugees. This study is intended to contribute to our understanding of how immigration and health human resources policies have shaped the economic integration of refugee healthcare professionals in the UK and Canada in distinct ways. PMID:24289945

  11. Voices of Asylum - Exploring the Narratives of Refugees as Agents of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Blaabjerg, Amanda Thorhauge; Thulin, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the relationship between first hand experiences of being labelled ‘refugee’ and the broader tendencies of framing refugees as a problem for development. We argue that the construction of a certain ‘kind of refugee’ has implications not only for the people behind the label, but also how hosting societies perceive refugees as an unwelcome burden. The theoretical framework of this thesis applies concepts of labelling, stigma, and human agency to explore constructions of prob...

  12. In the shadow of the asylum: the Stanley Royd Salmonella outbreak of 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    In August 1984, an outbreak of Salmonella at Stanley Royd Psychiatric Hospital in Yorkshire led to the deaths of 19 elderly residents. It was an incident that attracted a good deal of comment in both the local and national press, and one that had enduring relevance for ideas about psychiatric care, food handling and catering provisions, hospital management and the official inspection of medical institutions. This article examines the impact that the 1984 outbreak had on official and popular perceptions of these issues. As well as bringing to public attention the fact that large numbers of vulnerable elderly patients were long-term residents in psychiatric hospitals, the Salmonella outbreak highlighted the inadequacies of Victorian hospital buildings in modern healthcare. Throughout the press reports and official investigations examined here, the provenance of Stanley Royd was repeatedly emphasised; its Victorian fabric persistently interfered with cleaning regimes, cold storage facilities and the conveyance of food to patients. Within institutions like Stanley Royd, 'new' and 'old' risks came together-the microscopic bacterium and the crumbling nineteenth-century building-to create a strong critique of existing psychiatric care. The episode also highlighted broader problems within the NHS, such as systems of management and the status of psychogeriatrics as a specialism. PMID:26324457

  13. Turkey's new draft law on asylum: What to make of It?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirişçi, Kemal

    2012-01-01

    In the context of Turkey’s accession to the EU, the issue of potential migration from Turkey and its impact upon European labor markets became one of the concerns of the EU, considering Turkey’s growing population and young labor force. In 2011, half a century after the bi-lateral agreement between Turkey and Germany on labor recruitment in 1961, migration plays a key role in relations of Turkey with the EU and will even increase its significance – not necessarily for the next fifty years bu...

  14. Seasonal variations in pore water and sediment geochemistry of littoral lake sediments (Asylum Lake, MI, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Douglas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal changes in pore water and sediment redox geochemistry have been observed in many near-surface sediments. Such changes have the potential to strongly influence trace metal distribution and thus create seasonal fluctuations in metal mobility and bioavailability. Results Seasonal trends in pore water and sediment geochemistry are assessed in the upper 50 cm of littoral kettle lake sediments. Pore waters are always redox stratified, with the least compressed redox stratification observed during fall and the most compressed redox stratification observed during summer. A 2-step sequential sediment extraction yields much more Fe in the first step, targeted at amorphous Fe(III (hydroxides (AEF, then in the second step, which targets Fe(II monosulfides. Fe extracted in the second step is relatively invariant with depth or season. In contrast, AEF decreases with sediment depth, and is seasonally variable, in agreement with changes in redox stratification inferred from pore water profiles. A 5-step Tessier extraction scheme was used to assess metal association with operationally-defined exchangeable, carbonate, iron and manganese oxide (FMO, organic/sulfide and microwave-digestible residual fractions in cores collected during winter and spring. Distribution of metals in these two seasons is similar. Co, As, Cd, and U concentrations approach detection limits. Fe, Cu and Pb are mostly associated with the organics/sulfides fraction. Cr and Zn are mostly associated with FMO. Mn is primarily associated with carbonates, and Co is nearly equally distributed between the FMO and organics/sulfide fractions. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates that near-surface lake sediment pore water redox stratification and associated solid phase geochemistry vary significantly with season. This has important ramifications for seasonal changes in the bioavailability and mobility of trace elements. Without rate measurements, it is not possible to quantify the contribution of various processes to natural organic matter degradation. However, the pore water and solid phase data suggest that iron reduction and sulfate reduction are the dominant pathways in the upper 50 cm of these sediments.

  15. Migration, access to ART, and survivalist livelihood strategies in Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearey, Joanna

    2008-11-01

    Since the end of apartheid, patterns of migration into South Africa have shifted, and South Africa has become a destination for people from across the African continent and beyond - a small but important number of whom are refugees and asylum seekers. While South Africa has a protective, integrative, urban refugee policy, many of these individuals struggle to access the rights to which they are entitled, including healthcare. In addition, many lower-skilled international migrants are unable to legalise their stay in South Africa. As a result, international migrants often become part of the group of 'urban poor,' falling within the periphery of health and social welfare provision and relying on a survivalist livelihood within the informal economy. The health and wellbeing of an individual impact greatly on their ability to maintain a secure livelihood, and this becomes more difficult in the context of an HIV epidemic. This paper presents findings from a case study situated in the City of Johannesburg. The research made use of 1) 2006 survey data on migrant livelihood strategies in Johannesburg, 2) a study investigating non-citizens' access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the inner city, which included 3) a set of interviews conducted with migrant ART clients who were working in the city's informal economy. The findings indicate (a) the importance of the informal economy for migrants to Johannesburg; (b) the challenges that non-citizens face in accessing ART in the public sector in South Africa; and (c) the linkages between urban migrants' access to ART and their ability to maintain a survivalist livelihood. The paper argues that upholding people's right to ART for all who need it within South Africa will enable international migrants (including refugees and asylum seekers) to maintain an otherwise fragile survivalist livelihood, and this in turn will assist their self-reliance and integration into urban life. Recommendations are made to ensure that the right to

  16. Islamizarea generației a doua.De la Europa all-inclusive la jihad (The second-generation islamization. From all-inclusive Europe to jihad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CONDUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the summer of 2015, the massive arrival of asylum seekers in Europe opened a debate about the political, economical and security consequences of immigration in European Union. A hidden ideological conflict was transformed into a linguistic controversy: should the new-comers be named migrants or refugees? During time and development of the crisis, more and more journalists and political leaders switched from ‘refugees’ to ‘migrants’, as it became clear that many asylum seekers weren’t even from war zones. However, the main concern of the most people was related to potential security risks. An investigation into the November 13 attacks in Paris has already found that at least two of the terrorists used the Balkan route to arrive in France. But massive immigration could have further repercussions in not many years, if the hypothesis of a “second-generation islamization phenomenon”, somehow similar to Dole’s “second-generation indigenization”, is true. Having lower level needs in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs already satisfied, the children of the present Muslim migrants could seek to satisfy higher needs, as self-actualization, through religious identity of their parents and radicalization. Due to denial of the separation of religion and state in Islam, this could seriously threaten the Western secular state and cultural model. Being din wa dawla (religion and state, Islam is more than a religion; it is a hybrid we can call ‘relideology’, which seems to be quite attractive for young Muslims seeking self-actualization.

  17. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jackie June ter Heide

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD. Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1 that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2 that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. Methods: The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Results: Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT, have consistently been found to be high. Conclusions: Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers.

  18. Father-involvement in a refugee sample: relations between posttraumatic stress and caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ee, Elisa; Sleijpen, Marieke; Kleber, Rolf J; Jongmans, Marian J

    2013-12-01

    Despite increased attention to the role of fathers within families, there is still a dearth of studies on the impact of trauma on father-involvement. This study investigates the quantity of father-involvement and the influence of posttraumatic stress on the quality of involvement in a refugee and asylum seeker population. Eighty refugees and asylum seekers and their young children (aged 18-42 months) were recruited. Measures included assessment of parental trauma (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), quantity and quality of involvement (quantity of caregiving and Emotional Availability Scales), and perception of the father-child relationship (interview). The results show that fathers were less involved in caregiving tasks and play activities than mothers. No parental gender differences were found on each of the Emotional Availability Scales. Traumatic stress symptoms negatively affected the perception and the actual quality of parent-child interaction (sensitivity, structuring, nonhostility). Nevertheless, almost all fathers described their relationship with their child as good and their child as very important to them. As the quality of father-involvement is of importance to the development of the child, traumatized fathers are as much in need of clinical intervention as mothers. Despite the impact of posttraumatic stress, refugee fathers clearly are involved in the lives of their children. Mechanisms such as a deliberate withdrawal when stressed and compensation might enable affected fathers to step into the interaction when needed, raise the quality of involvement with their child, and diminish the negative impact of stress resulting from trauma and migration. PMID:24329413

  19. Remembering the SIEV X: who cares for the bodies of the stateless, lost at sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbings, Beth

    2010-02-01

    The SIEV X was a tiny fishing vessel traveling from Indonesia to Australia in 2001, carrying around four hundred people seeking asylum after fleeing from the warfare and persecution predominantly in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many were women and children trying to enter Australia to join fathers and husbands already granted refugee status but not allowed to bring in family members because of new Australian laws on "Temporary Protection Visas". Of these, 353 drowned when the boat sank in international waters. The conservative Australian government denied responsibility, using the event in an election campaign to play on fears about illegal entry and border defense in the Islamophobic climate in the aftermath of 9/11. Yet many everyday Australians eventually became involved in a collaborative design process to create a memorial to those asylum seekers. This article discusses the debates around memorials for those lost at sea, and particularly for those who might be portrayed as enemies or "illegal immigrants" whose coming threatens national borders. It identifies the conditions under which the campaign to commemorate those who died on the SIEV X moved from being a minority interest to become a cause so widely supported by Australians across the country that the memorial was eventually erected in the heart of the national capital. PMID:20503912

  20. What the eye does not see: a critical interpretive synthesis of European Union policies addressing sexual violence in vulnerable migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Guieu, Aurore

    2015-11-01

    In Europe, refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are more vulnerable to sexual victimisation than European citizens. They face more challenges when seeking care. This literature review examines how legal and policy frameworks at national, European and international levels condition the prevention of and response to sexual violence affecting these vulnerable migrant communities living in the European Union (EU). Applying the Critical Interpretive Synthesis method, we reviewed 187 legal and policy documents and 80 peer-reviewed articles on migrant sexual health for elements on sexual violence and further analysed the 37 legal and 12 peer-reviewed articles among them that specifically focused on sexual violence in vulnerable migrants in the EU-27 States. Legal and policy documents dealing with sexual violence, particularly but not exclusively in vulnerable migrants, apply 'tunnel vision'. They ignore: a) frequently occurring types of sexual violence, b) victimisation rates across genders and c) specific risk factors within the EU such as migrants' legal status, gender orientation and living conditions. The current EU policy-making paradigm relegates sexual violence in vulnerable migrants as an 'outsider' and 'female only' issue while EU migration and asylum policies reinforce its invisibility. Effective response must be guided by participatory rights- and evidence-based policies and a public health approach, acknowledging the occurrence and multiplicity of sexual victimisation of vulnerable migrants of all genders within EU borders. PMID:26718996

  1. Through the Fear: A Study of Xenophobia in South Africa’s Refugee System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McKnight

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of the May 2008 xenophobic attacks in Gauteng and Western Cape Provinces, this paper explains the process of refugee law in South Africa as stated in theory and as implemented in practice. Research was compiled through visits to refugee camps, townships, South African Parliament, regional prisons, judicial inspectorates, universities, and community events in and near Cape Town during June 2008. The South African Refugees Act guarantees protection to refugees and asylum seekers in conformity with international treaties and the South African Constitution. However, these rights are seldom realized due to a delay processing of asylum applications by the Department of Home Affairs, corruption in immigration enforcement, and a lack of education in civil society as to the difference between refugees and voluntary migrants. Refugees are left vulnerable to the violence of those South African citizens that believe all immigrants are illegally present to take advantage of employment and social opportunities. In an attempt to eliminate the fearfulness towards foreigners and bring the plight of refugees further to the forefront of international dialogue, general recommendations are made to the South African Government, its departments, and the citizens of South Africa.

  2. Asylstrømmen fra Russland til Norge i 2015: Bevisst russisk politikk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arild Moe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2015, 5500 migrants traveling through Russia along the “Arctic route” applied for political asylum in Norway. Some observers claimed that Russia deliberately channeled migrants towards the north with the purpose of destabilizing Norway and that Russia had changed procedures in their border zone to facilitate the wave of migrants. In this article we briefly discuss the hybrid warfare theory and assess alternative explanations that might account for the sudden increase in migrants. Detailing formal and informal practices in the Norwegian-Russian border regime we argue that Russian practices were not altered in any significant way in 2015, but that the Norwegian side had an incorrect impression of the Russian border regime being more restrictive than it really was. Finland was in a similar situation. The most convincing explanation for the wave of asylum-seekers is the self-interest of migrants who found a cheaper and less risky route. Both in Norway and Finland the border regimes were tightened as a consequence of the increased migration, however. As a result, their policies became more aligned with Russian priorities.

  3. 8 CFR 1208.19 - Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decisions. 1208.19 Section 1208.19 Aliens... PROCEDURES FOR ASYLUM AND WITHHOLDING OF REMOVAL Asylum and Withholding of Removal § 1208.19 Decisions. The decision of an asylum officer to grant or to deny asylum or to refer an asylum application, in...

  4. Gender-related mental health differences between refugees and non-refugee immigrants - a cross-sectional register-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burström Bo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being an immigrant in a high-income country is a risk factor for severe mental ill health. Studies on mental ill health among immigrants have found significant differences in mental health outcome between immigrants from high income countries and low-income countries. Being an asylum seeker or a refugee is also associated with mental ill health. This study aimed to assess if there is a difference in mental ill health problems between male and female refugee and non-refugee immigrants from six low-income countries in Sweden. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study design was used comparing refugees with non-refugees. The study size was determined by the number of persons in Sweden fulfilling the inclusion criteria at the time of the study during 2006. Outcome: Mental ill health, as measured with the proxy variable psychotropic drugs purchased. Refugee/Non-refugee: Sweden grants asylum to refugees according to the Geneva Convention and those with a well-grounded fear of death penalty, torture or who need protection due to an internal or external armed conflict or an environmental disaster. The non-refugees were all family members of those granted asylum in Sweden. Covariates: Gender and origin. Potential confounders: Age, marital status, education and duration of stay in Sweden. Background variables were analysed using chi square tests. The association between outcome, exposure and possible confounders was analysed using logistic regression analyses. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders. Results The study population comprised 43,168 refugees and non-refugees, of whom 20,940 (48.5% were women and 24,403 (56.5% were refugees. Gender, age, origin, marital status and education were all associated with the outcome. For female, but not male, refugees there was a significantly higher likelihood of purchasing psychotropic drugs than non-refugees (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.15 - 1

  5. Situational Discrimination in Repressor-type and Sensitizer-type Approval Seekers and the Birth Order by Subject Sex Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gilbert

    1970-01-01

    Five experiments are reported. One conclusion in that repressor-type high need-for-approval subjects made the discrimination and permitted less favorable self-description, but sensitizer-type high need-for-approval subjects did not. (DB)

  6. Professionals or adventure seekers? Eliciting the impact of relocation and mobility on teaching quality of mathematics and science teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Niğdelioğlu, Rabia Merve

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Program of Curriculum and Instruction Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 68-81. Niğdelioğlu, Rabia Merve Master's

  7. Creating a Sexual Self in Heteronormative Space: Integrations and Imperatives Amongst Spiritual Seekers at the Findhorn Community

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Dinnie; Kath Browne

    2011-01-01

    Intersections between religion and sexuality are coming onto social science agendas. However, this has predominantly been in terms of its treatment by mainstream religions, particularly Christianity and Islam, and thus in contexts traditionally hostile to lesbian, gay and bi sexualities (LGB). This article extends this by exploring identities and contestations of sexuality within activities that have variously been described as 'New Age' or 'spiritual'. Considering the experiences and interac...

  8. GeneSeeker: extraction and integration of human disease-related information from web-based genetic databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van M.A.; Cuelenaere, K.; Kemmeren, P.P.C.W.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Brunner, H.G.; Vriend, G.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of genes underlying human genetic disorders requires the combination of data related to cytogenetic localization, phenotypes and expression patterns, to generate a list of candidate genes. In the field of human genetics, it is normal to perform this combination analysis by hand. W

  9. From Help-Seekers to Influential Users: A Systematic Review of Participation Styles in Online Health Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kathina; Cunningham, John Alastair; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding how people participate in and contribute to online health communities (OHCs) is useful knowledge in multiple domains. It is helpful for community managers in developing strategies for building community, for organizations in disseminating information about health interventions, and for researchers in understanding the social dynamics of peer support. Objective We sought to determine if any patterns were apparent in the nature of user participation across online health communities. Methods The current study involved a systematic review of all studies that have investigated the nature of participation in an online health community and have provided a quantifiable method for categorizing a person based on their participation style. A systematic search yielded 20 papers. Results Participatory styles were classified as either multidimensional (based on multiple metrics) or unidimensional (based on one metric). With respect to the multidimensional category, a total of 41 different participation styles were identified ranging from Influential Users who were leaders on the board to Topic-Focused Responders who focused on a specific topic and tended to respond to rather than initiate posts. However, there was little overlap in participation styles identified both across OHCs for different health conditions and within OHCs for specific health conditions. Five of the 41 styles emerged in more than one study (Hubs, Authorities, Facilitators, Prime Givers, and Discussants), but the remainder were reported in only one study. The focus of the unidimensional studies was on level of engagement and particularly on high-engaged users. Eight different metrics were used to evaluate level of engagement with the greatest focus on frequency of posts. Conclusions With the exception of high-engaged users based on high post frequency, the current review found little evidence for consistent participatory styles across different health communities. However, this area of research is in its infancy, with most of the studies included in the review being published in the last 2 years. Nevertheless, the review delivers a nomenclature for OHC participation styles and metrics and discusses important methodological issues that will provide a basis for future comparative research in the area. Further studies are required to systematically investigate a range of participatory styles, to investigate their association with different types of online health communities and to determine the contribution of different participatory styles within and across online health communities. PMID:26627369

  10. The Shell Seeker: What Is the Quantity of Shell in the Lido di Venezia Sand? A Calibration DRIFTS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolo, Alessandra De Lorenzi

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment, students are given a fanciful application of the standard addition method to evaluate the approximate quantity of the shell component in a sample of sand collected on the Lido di Venezia seashore. Several diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra are recorded from a sand sample before and after addition of…

  11. Strangers in the Night or Love Forever: Characteristics and Preferences of Short vs. Long-Term Relationship Seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Tadinac

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in mate preferences as well as the tendency to pursue long- vs. short-term relationships have often been explored and confirmed. On the other hand, within-sex analyses of who is more likely to engage in a short-termrelationship have been somewhat neglected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare proportions of individuals interested in short-term relationships (if single or extra-pair relationships (if pair-bonded in groups of different ages, incomes and education levels. While the proportion of single women interested in short-term relationships differed among those groups, men of all ages, incomes and education levels were equally interested in short-term relationships. The proportion of pairbonded individuals interested in extra-pair relationship also differed among age groups (both men and women and income levels (men only, but not across education levels. Furthermore, we tried to determine the structure of sex differences in mate preferences within the temporal context of a relationship. The discriminant analyses showed that mate preferences which mostly differentiated men and women seeking a short-term relationship were good looks and good financial prospects. In a long-term relationship context, three more preferences differentiating men from women have emerged: emotional stability and maturity, favorable social status and dependable character.

  12. The Impact of Help Seeking on Individual Task Performance: The Moderating Effect of Help Seekers' Logics of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Dvora; Bamberger, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from achievement-goal theory and the social psychological literature on help seeking, we propose that it is the variance in the logic underpinning employees' help seeking that explains divergent findings regarding the relationship between help seeking and task performance. Using a sample of 110 newly hired customer contact employees, a…

  13. Strangers in the Night or Love Forever: Characteristics and Preferences of Short vs. Long-Term Relationship Seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Meri Tadinac; Ivana Hromatko

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in mate preferences as well as the tendency to pursue long- vs. short-term relationships have often been explored and confirmed. On the other hand, within-sex analyses of who is more likely to engage in a short-term relationship have been somewhat neglected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare proportions of individuals interested in short-term relationships (if single) or extra-pair relationships (if pair-bonded) in groups of different ages, incomes and educati...

  14. Low heart rate variability is associated with extended pain-related sick leave among employed care-seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Ektor-Andersen, John; Bondesson, Elisabeth; Orbæk, Palle; Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between autonomic regulation and length of pain-related sick leave in subjects receiving a cognitive behavioural therapy-based return to work intervention.......To examine the association between autonomic regulation and length of pain-related sick leave in subjects receiving a cognitive behavioural therapy-based return to work intervention....

  15. Sociodemographic and health-(care-)related characteristics of online health information seekers: a cross-sectional German study

    OpenAIRE

    Nölke, Laura; Mensing, Monika; Krämer, Alexander; Hornberg, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the increasing dissemination and use of health-related information on the Internet has the potential to empower citizens and patients, several studies have detected disparities in the use of online health information. This is due to several factors. So far, only a few studies have examined the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on health information seeking on the Internet. This study was designed to identify sociodemographic and health-(care-)related differences betwee...

  16. Refugee Education in Countries of First Asylum: Breaking Open the Black Box of Pre-Resettlement Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The number of refugees who have fled across international borders due to conflict and persecution is at the highest level in recorded history. The vast majority of these refugees find exile in low-income countries neighboring their countries of origin. The refugee children who are resettled to North America, Europe, and Australia arrive with…

  17. [Psychiatrists criticising psychiatry: the asylum director Gustav Kolb (1870-1938) and his struggle for social reforms and professional aims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    Against a background of public criticism of institutional psychiatry, which had been growing since around 1900, the director of the institute in Erlangen, Gustav Kolb, devised and set up what was known as "open care", with the intention of reforming clinical psychiatric care. This led to the creation of a new type of outpatient care clinic, which became a defining characteristic of public mental health care during the time of the Weimar Republic. A closer examination of it as a concept and in practice shows, however, that Kolb was primarily pursuing aims related to the politics of the profession, for with "open care", he considerably extended the area of competence of institutional psychiatry. He also sought to improve the professional situation of institutional psychiatrists, which was constantly being complained about by members of the profession at the time, by creating the position of "care doctor" and with it a new career perspective for doctors at institutions. Kolb's model of "open care" can thus be interpreted as being the professionalisation strategy of a member of the psychiatric profession during the Weimar Republic. PMID:17144375

  18. A Lie More Disastrous than the Truth: Asylum and the identification of trafficked women in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Stepnitz

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact that nationality can have on a person’s experience of being identified as a victim of trafficking in the UK. Responses to individuals and disparities in rates of recognition depending on nationality are cause for great concern. The rhetoric and the response to women who have experienced trafficking varies considerably depending upon the citizenship, residency and documentation status of the individual, particularly highlighting the differential treatment of tr...

  19. The Rise of Mental Health Nursing : A History of Psychiatric Care in Dutch Asylums, 1890-1920

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Geertje

    2003-01-01

    The Rise of Mental Health Nursing onderzoekt de tegenstrijdigheden in de op het ziekenhuis georiënteerde inrichtingszorg, die rond 1900 opkwam. Bovendien illustreert het boek de sociale complexiteit van de psychiatrische zorg. Op basis van archiefmateriaal uit vier Nederlandse psychiatrische inricht

  20. The end of the Cuban contradiction in U.S. refugee policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackerud, L; Springer, A; Larrison, C; Issac, A

    1999-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the Clinton Administration's decision to end the almost automatic acceptance of Cubans as political refugees to the US. The decision came after the Balsero Crisis in July 1994 after many people stormed embassies and diplomatic residences in Havana, Cuba, demanding asylum and complaining about impoverished living conditions. Riots erupted. The May 2, 1995, policy ended the indefinite detention of over 28,000 Cubans in safe haven camps, repealed the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966, restricted travel to Cuba, halted monetary remittances to Cuba, equalized the number of annual visas from Cuba, and legalized the return of Cubans adrift at sea. The goals were to solve the immediate migration crisis created by Cubans detained at Guantanamo Bay, to implement controls of future waves of Cuban asylum seekers, and to oppose Castro with economic and political initiatives. The economic embargo during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s devastated the Cuban economy and led to its alliance with the USSR. Each of the four waves of migration was distinctive in composition and reasons for migrating. By the mid-1990s, Cuba was no longer a threat, Soviet interests in Cuba had declined, and the policy was hoped to bring about the collapse of Castro and promotion of democracy. The 1994 resolution ended the contradictory and preferential treatment of Cubans. It also ended the selectivity of the US in admitting those from countries the US was directly opposed to. The permanence of the embargo due to legislation in 1996 is a push factor for mass migrations. PMID:12294979