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Sample records for astrophytum myriostigma lemaire

  1. Morfometría de semillas en la cactácea amenazada de extinción Astrophytum myriostigma Lemaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez-Salas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio morfométrico y microestructural en semillas de una población de la cactácea amenazadaAstrophytum myriostigmaLem., removida en su tota- lidad en el sitio por saqueo. Se incluyen resultados que separan tamaños de semillas y embriones (grandes y pequeños así como promedios para ambos. Se realizó una descripción de características en la semilla obtenidas mediante estereoscopía. Se incluye una descripción detallada de la forma y color, así como microestructural del funículo, capa funicular y otras estructuras que le acompañan.

  2. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R

    1988-01-01

    To assess the hypoglycemic effect of the nopal Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire (O. streptacantha Lem.), three groups of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied. Group one (16 patients) ingested 500 g of broiled nopal stems. Group 2 (10 patients) received only 400 ml of water as a control test. Three tests were performed on group 3 (6 patients): one with nopal, a second with water, and a third with ingestion of 500 g broiled squash. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120, and 180 min. After the intake of O. streptacantha Lem., serum glucose and serum insulin levels decreased significantly in groups 1 and 3, whereas no similar changes were noticed in group 2. The mean reduction of glucose reached 17.6 +/- 2.2% of basal values at 180 min in group 1 and 16.2 +/- 1.8% in group 3; the reduction of serum insulin at 180 min reached 50.2 +/- 8.0% in group 1 and 40.3 +/- 12.4% in group 3. This study shows that the stems of O. streptacantha Lem. cause a hypoglycemic effect in patients with NIDDM. The mechanism of this effect is unknown, but an increased insulin sensitivity is suggested.

  3. The potential of the extracts of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae, Acalypha fruticosa Forssk (Euphorbiaceae and Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. (Compositae against Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu Lemaire (Diptera: Psychodidae, the vector for Leishmania major Yakimoff and Schokhor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban N. Ireri, Jedida Kongoro, Peter Ngure, Charles Mutai, Bernard Langat, Willy Tonui, Albert Kimutai, Obadiah Mucheru

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Harmful effects of synthetic chemical insecticides including vectorresistance, environmental pollution and health hazards have necessitated the current significancein the search for plant-based insecticide products that are environmentally safe and effective toleishmaniases control. The insecticidal activity of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae, Acalyphafruticosa Forssk (Euphorbiaceae and Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. (Compositae extracts wereinvestigated against Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu Lemaire (Diptera: Psychodidae.Methods: The extracts were prepared from dried aerial parts soaked in methanol and ethyl acetatetwice until the filtrates became clear, filtered and dried out by rotary evaporation at 30–35oC. Thesolid extracts obtained were later prepared into 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml. Two millilitres of the solutionswere blotted on filter papers, which were dried overnight and placed into jars where adult sandflieswere aspirated. Males and females were assayed separately.Results & conclusion: The extracts had significant mortality (p<0.05 in both males and femalesbioassays but were not significantly different between sexes. The extracts of Acalypha fruticosaand Tagetes minuta had significantly higher mortality rates than those of Tarchonanthuscamphoratus and the different concentrations used showed significantly different mortality ratesand 10 mg/ml was the most effective concentration. Cent percent mortality was obtained at 96 hof exposure to 5 and 10 mg/ml concentrations except for Tarchonanthus camphoratus which had amortality of only 46.7% in 10 mg/ml bioassay. These extracts were found to be insecticidal to adultsandflies.

  4. Anatomical and morphological features of seedlings of some Cactoideae Eaton (Cactaceae Juss. species

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    Halyna Kalashnyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-month-old seedlings of 11 species of the subfamily Cactoideae (Melocactus bahiensis, Melocactus curvispinus, Echinopsis eyriesii, E. mirablis, E. peruviana, Oreocereus celsianus, Rebutia flavistyla, Rebutia minuscula, Astrophytum myriostigma, Mamillaria columbiana, and M. prolifera have been studied. These plants exhibit a uniseriate epidermis, covered by a thin cuticle. Except for E. peruviana and A. myriostigma, no hypodermis could be detected. The shoots of all studied specimens consist mainly of cortex parenchyma with large thin-walled cells. The pith parenchyma is composed of much smaller cells. Due to the fact that the cortex parenchyma comprises the largest portion of the cross-sectional area, it can be concluded that it is the main water-storing tissue. The extent of vascular tissue development varies. Collateral vascular bundles are present in the stele. The studied seedlings contain various ergastic substances, in particular inclusions of calcium oxalate (all studied species, starch (Mammillaria prolifera, E. mirabilis, and the genus Melocactus, inulin-like inclusions, and occasionally lipid drops (some Echinopsis species. Thus, it was found that all studied plants have a highly specialized anatomical and morphological structure. At the same time, the epidermis and hypodermis are poorly developed. Accordingly, the adaptation to arid conditions of the examined seedlings involves an increased growth of the water-storing tissue and the production of ergastic substances.

  5. [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Del Valle-Martínez, L M; Ariza-Andraca, C R; Islas-Andrade, S; Chávez-Negrete, A

    1989-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the doses of O. streptacantha Lem. and its acute hypoglycemic action in diabetics, eight patients with type II diabetes mellitus were studied. Four test were performed to each patient with the intake of: (a) 400 ml of water, (b) 100 g (c) 300 g and (d) 500 g of broiled stems of O. streptacantha Lem. Serum glucose was measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Maximal decrease of serum glucose was noticed at 180 minutes, with a mean of 2.3, 10, 30.1 and 46.7 mg/dl less than basal value with 0, 100, 300 and 500 g respectively (P = NS, less than 0.05, less than 0.001 and less than 0.001 respectively). A significant direct correlation (r = 0.690, P less than 0.001) was noticed between the doses and the hypoglycemic effect.

  6. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch Sorok and Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Ngumbi, Lucy W. Irungu, Paul N. Ndegwa & Nguya K. Maniania

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Biological control of sandflies using entomopathogenic fungi is a possible alternativeto the expensive synthetic chemical control. It is potentially sustainable, less hazardous, and relatively inexpensiveand merits further investigations. The objective of this study was to identify the most pathogenic fungal isolate(sto sandflies in the laboratory.Methods: Isolates of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were screenedfor their pathogenicity against Phlebotomus duboscqi. Adult flies were contaminated using the technique describedby Migiro et al (2010. Briefly, flies were exposed to 0.1 g of dry conidia evenly spread on a cotton velvet clothcovering the inner side of a cylindrical plastic tube (95 mm long × 48 mm diam. In all 25 sandflies weretransferred into the cylindrical tube and allowed to walk on the velvet for one minute, after which they weretransferred from the velvet into the cages in Perplex. Insects in the control treatments were exposed to fungusfree velvet cloth before being transferred into similar cages. The treatments were maintained at 25 ± 2°C,60–70% RH and 12L: 12D photoperiod. The experiment was replicated 5 times. The most pathogenic isolateswere selected for further studies.Results: A total of 19 isolates were screened against adult sandflies in the laboratory. Mortality in the controlswas approximately 16.8 ± 1.7 %. All the isolates were found to be pathogenic to P. duboscqi. Mortality rangedbetween 76.8 and 100% on all the fungal isolates tested. The lethal time taken to 50% (LT50 and 90% (LT90(mortality ranged from 3.0–7.8 days and from 5.3–16.2 days, respectively. The virulent isolates, causing mortalitiesof 97.5–100%, were selected for further studies.Interpretation & conclusion: The high susceptibility of sandflies to entomopathogenic fungi suggests that fungiare potential alternatives to chemical control methods. We conclude that application of entomopathogenic fungicould result in acute mortalities of sandflies and reduction of parasite transmission and subsequently, reductionof leishmaniasis risk. This method of biological control has great potential as a new strategy for leishmaniasiscontrol

  7. 75 FR 67765 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ..., Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico: Kanab ambersnail (Oxyloma haydeni kanabensis), Mexican long-nosed bat... texanus), Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis), and Hualapai Mexican vole (Microtus mexicanus..., salvage, and collect seeds of the following rare plants: Star cactus (Astrophytum asterius),...

  8. The effect of methanol extracts of tsao-ko (Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire) on digestive enzyme and antioxidant activity in vitro, and plasma lipids and glucose and liver lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Longquan; Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu; Sugane, Nozomi; Hosono, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yoshijiro; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Takatori, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Our previous study showed that tsao-ko intake can lower plasma and liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations and has hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity in mice. This study involved separating two major fractions (A and B) from the methanol extracts (MeX) of tsao-ko using silica gel column chromatography, and then determining the effect of the fractions in vivo and in vitro to clarify the most effective components of tsao-ko. An intake of MeX and A fraction statistically significantly reduced body lipids and plasma thiobarbitutic acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations compared with the control and inhibited lipase and alpha-glucosidase activities. These reductions were not observed in mice fed the B fraction and these inhibitions of B fraction were mild compared with MeX and A fraction. The plasma and liver TG concentrations of each fraction group did not show significant differences compared with the control. The [M-H](+) and maximum UV absorption of the A fraction were 291 m/z and 279 nm, respectively. The peak of A fraction appeared at a similar time to the epicatechin standard in the LC/MS/MS analysis and the MS/MS spectrum of the A fraction was similar to that of the epicatechin standard. It was concluded that the most effective component of tsao-ko for body lipid reduction and hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity was contained in the polar fraction and the evidence suggested that this component could be epicatechin. However, the strongest TG lowering components of tsao-ko may be methanol insoluble.

  9. Afscheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2001-01-01

    Adrienne Lemaire heeft de redactie van Gorteria op eigen verzoek verlaten. Wij willen haar bedanken voor haar positieve inzet en creatieve ideeën voor artikelen in Gorteria. Adrienne, het ga je goed! De redactieleden

  10. Maailma kuulsaim krokodill sai 75 aastaseks / Anu Merila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merila, Anu

    2008-01-01

    Lacoste'i sportlikke rõivaid ja aksessuaare tootvast kaubamärgist, asutaja Rene Lacoste. Firma loominguliseks direktoriks on prantsuse moekunstnik Christophe Lemaire. Küsimustele vastab Philippe Lacoste

  11. Letters & Arms Literary Language, Power and Nation in Renaissance Italy and France 1300-1600

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftgaard, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Sprog, litteratur, filologi, national identitet, Joachim Du Bellay, Jean Lemaire de Belges, Henri Estienne, Sperone Speroni, Pietro Bembo, Dante Alighieri, Frans den første (af Frankrig), Anthony D. Smith, Liah Greenfeld...

  12. FASHIONNOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    UNIQLO AND LEMAIRE 2016春夏系列将于3月4日上市,本系列是UNIQLO优衣库携手巴黎时装品牌LEMAIRE合作系列的收官之作。UNIQLO AND LEMAIRE2015秋冬系列曾在全球引起轰动,数款热门单品刚上市便被抢购一空。

  13. Field testing various container types in New Brunswick: A fifth year report on test areas established in 1983 with black spruce and white spruce seedlings. Technique No. 90:09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Report on the findings of a containerized seedling response trial using six study areas (three white spruce and three black spruce) established in 1983/84 in which nine different stock types (styroblock, Can Am, Wearpot, paperpot, Spencer Lemaire and bareroot) were tested for best response. Response was quantified as percent survival, change in height growth, volume, total height and 1988 leader length.

  14. Collisional Dynamics, Lasing and Stimulated Raman Scattering in Optically Pumped Cesium and Potassium Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    J. Quant. Spect. Radiat. Trans., 16(127-135), 1976. [31] Ferray, M., J.P. Visticot, J. Lozingot, and B. Sayer. “Broadening of the caesium second...pressures”. Phys. Rev. A., 75(023401), 2007. [72] Rostas, F. and J. L. Lemaire. “Low pressure measurement of the broadening and shift of the caesium

  15. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    OpenAIRE

    Dumoulin M; Gaudout D; Lemaire B

    2016-01-01

    Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical stu...

  16. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Camacho, R; Roman-Ramos, R

    1979-01-01

    Nopal (Opuntia sp.) has been traditionally used by the Mexican population for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this work is to describe effects produced by directly liquified nopal and extracts from this plant in healthy and pancreatectomized rabbits. Preliminary results allow us to conclude that Opuntia streptacantha, Lemaire, has hypoglycemic properties when orally administered, in animals with experimentally induced diabetes as well as in healthy ones with physiologic hyperglycemia.

  17. A review of the geology of the Argentinian Fuegian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Eduardo B.; Martinioni, Daniel R.

    2001-06-01

    Seven stratigraphic units reflect the tectonic evolution of the Argentinian Fuegian Andes: Basement (Paleozoic-Jurassic); Lemaire Formation (Upper Jurassic); Yahgan-Beauvoir formations (Lower Cretaceous); Cerro Matrero Formation (Upper Cretaceous); Rı´o Claro Formation (Paleocene); La Despedida Group (Eocene); and Cabo Peña Formation (uppermost Eocene-Lower Oligocene). Basement rocks (garnet, quartz-sericite, and chlorite schists; and amphibolites) are unconformably covered by the Lemaire Formation (rhyolites; basalts; slates; and acidic volcaniclastic breccias, tuffs, conglomerates, and turbidites), formed during extensional tectonism. The post-rift Yahgan Formation (deep-marine black mudstones, andesitic volcaniclastic turbidites and tuffs) interfingers northward with the Beauvoir Formation (slope and platform black mudstones), and covers the Lemaire Formation unconformably. The Yahgan Formation represents an andesitic, volcaniclastic apron, coeval with a Pacific volcanic-arc, filling a marginal basin floored with oceanic crust. The Late Cretaceous compressional orogeny resulted in tectonic inversion, closure of the marginal basin, peak metamorphism and folding, and initial uplifting of the Fuegian Andes. By the latest Cretaceous-earliest Paleogene, the Andes were exposed to subaerial erosion, and the lowest Danian Rı´o Claro Formation bears clear evidence of an Andean clastic provenance. The Rı´o Claro Formation represents the first molasse deposits of the foreland stage of evolution of the Fuegian Andes. Earliest Paleogene north-verging thrust propagation deformed the Rı´o Claro Formation and older units, producing northward depocenter migration. La Despedida Group rests unconformably on the Rı´o Claro Formation and is involved in the thrust and fold belt. Important Eocene compression resulted in thrusting of central Andean basement schists and the Lemaire Formation over Lower Cretaceous and continental Paleogene rocks, respectively. In the

  18. Approximation récursive du régime stationnaire d'une Equation Differentielle Stochastique avec sauts

    OpenAIRE

    Panloup, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to build and to study some procedures in view to the simulation of the stationary regime of a Lévy driven SDE. Inspired by some works byLamberton&Pagès and Lemaire in the Brownian diffusions framework, our methods based on some « exact » or « approximate » Euler schemes with decreasing step provide an efficient way to simulate the invariant distribution of such process, and more generally, the global law of such process when stationary.This work can be applied i...

  19. The effect of firearm deaths on life expectancy and insurance premiums in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent gains, the U.S. remains behind most other affluent countries in life expectancy. Even within the U.S., the gap between the life expectancies of Caucasians and African-Americans remains significant. At the same time, firearm deaths in the U.S. far exceed peer nations, and disproportionately affect African-American males. In this Issue Brief, Dr. Lemaire explores whether deaths from firearms explain some of these international and racial disparities in life expectancy. He uses actuarial techniques to calculate the "cost" of firearm deaths in the U.S., both in terms of reduced life expectancy and increased life insurance premiums.

  20. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  1. Redetermination of Dy3Ni from single-crystal X-ray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Levytskyy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The classification of the title compound, tridysprosium nickel, into the Fe3C (or Al3Ni structure type has been deduced from powder X-ray diffraction data with lattice parameters reported in a previous study [Lemaire & Paccard (1967. Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 40, 311–315]. The current re-investigation of Dy3Ni based on single-crystal X-ray data revealed atomic positional parameters and anisotropic displacement parameters with high precision. The asymmetric unit consists of two Dy and one Ni atoms. One Dy atom has site symmetry .m. (Wyckoff position 4c and is surrounded by twelve Dy and three Ni atoms. The other Dy atom (site symmetry 1, 8d has eleven Dy and three Ni atoms as neighbours, forming a distorted Frank–Kasper polyhedron. The coordination polyhedron of the Ni atom (.m., 4c is a tricapped trigonal prism formed by nine Dy atoms.

  2. Aspectos biológicos e morfológicos de Leucanella viridescens (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae Biological and morphological aspects of Leucanella viridescens (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to describe aspects of the biology and morphology of Leucanella viridescens (Walker, 1855, a polyphytophagous species that is a pest to several crops of economical interest and whose larvae may cause erucism. Biological parameters were obtained under controlled conditions: temperature of 25 ± 1ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 10%, and a 14 h photophase. Morphological and behavioral aspects were analyzed in each developmental phase. The larval stage had six instars, with an average growth rate of 1.396. A high degree of polyphytophagy was observed, including over 49 host plant species belonging to 25 families, especially Leguminosae, Solanaceae and Salicaceae. The considerable chromatic variability of the adults obtained from the same egg batch corroborates the need for a new taxonomic assessment of L. viridescens viridescens Walker, 1855 and L. viridescens viridior Lemaire, 1973.

  3. Thermodynamical Framework for Ductile Damage and Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    César de Sá, José M. A.; Andrade, Filipe X. C.; Andrade Pires, Francisco M.

    2010-05-01

    Many models employed for the prediction of plastic deformation rely exclusively on elastoplastic theories, disregarding significant effects of internal degradation [1]. Constitutive models based on the Continuum Damage Mechanics theory provide more realistic predictions since damage is taken into account as an internal variable. In the present contribution, Lemaire's model for ductile damage [2] is questioned under the assumption of the principle of maximum inelastic dissipation [3]. The model is enhanced with a nonlocal formulation where the damage variable is spatially averaged by means of an integral operator [4]. Thermodynamical admissibility of the nonlocal model is checked by applying the global version of the Clausius-Duhem inequality [5]. Results from numerical analysis show that the constitutive model is insensitive to spatial discretization.

  4. Extra-Articular Lateral Tenodesis for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficient Knee: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Germán, Diego; Menéndez, Pablo; de la Cuadra, Pablo; Rodríguez-Arozena, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of an extra-articular lateral tenodesis for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee. A 46-year-old male patient sustained an ACL graft rupture after a motorcycle accident. He complained of rotational instability and giving-way episodes. His previous graft was fixed by an intra-articular femoral staple that was not possible to remove at the time of the ACL revision. A modified Lemaire procedure was then performed. He gained rotational stability and was able to resume his sporting activities. We believe that isolated extra-articular reconstructions may still have a role in selected indications including moderate-demand patients complaining of rotational instability after ACL graft failure. PMID:24369517

  5. Extra-Articular Lateral Tenodesis for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficient Knee: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego García-Germán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an extra-articular lateral tenodesis for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL deficient knee. A 46-year-old male patient sustained an ACL graft rupture after a motorcycle accident. He complained of rotational instability and giving-way episodes. His previous graft was fixed by an intra-articular femoral staple that was not possible to remove at the time of the ACL revision. A modified Lemaire procedure was then performed. He gained rotational stability and was able to resume his sporting activities. We believe that isolated extra-articular reconstructions may still have a role in selected indications including moderate-demand patients complaining of rotational instability after ACL graft failure.

  6. Coronal temperature profiles obtained from kinetic models and from coronal brightness measurements obtained during solar eclipses

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrard, V; Lemaire, J F

    2012-01-01

    Coronal density, temperature and heat flux distributions for the equatorial and polar corona have been deduced by Lemaire [2012] from Saito's model of averaged coronal white light (WL) brightness and polarization observations. They are compared with those determined from a kinetic collisionless/exospheric model of the solar corona. This comparison indicates rather similar distributions at large radial distances (> 7 Rs) in the collisionless region. However, rather important differences are found close to the Sun in the acceleration region of the solar wind. The exospheric heat flux is directed away from the Sun, while that inferred from all WL coronal observations is in the opposite direction, i.e., conducting heat from the inner corona toward the chromosphere. This could indicate that the source of coronal heating rate extends up into the inner corona where it maximizes at r > 1.5 Rs well above the transition region.

  7. A review on solar wind modeling: kinetic and fluid aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Echim, Marius; Lie-Svendsen, Oystein

    2013-01-01

    We review the main advantages and limitations of the kinetic exospheric and fluid models of the solar wind (SW). We discuss the hydrostatic model imagined by Chapman, the first supersonic hydrodynamic models published by Parker and the first generation subsonic kinetic model proposed by Chamberlain. It is shown that a correct estimation of the electric field as in the second generation kinetic exospheric models developed by Lemaire and Scherer, provides a supersonic expansion of the corona, reconciling the hydrodynamic and the kinetic approach. The third generation kinetic exospheric models considers kappa velocity distribution function (VDF) instead of a Maxwellian at the exobase and in addition they treat a non-monotonic variation of the electric potential with the radial distance; the fourth generation exospheric models include Coulomb collisions based on the Fokker--Planck collision term. Multi-fluid models of the solar wind provide a coarse grained description and reproduce with success the spatio-tempor...

  8. Targets of an invasive species: oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on 14 North American opuntioid cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Heather A; Stiling, Peter D; Carpenter, James E

    2010-12-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent of prickly pear cactus (Cactaceae: Opuntia Miller). The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North America. Of particular concern are the ecological and economic impacts the moth could have in the southwestern United States and Mexico, where both native and cultivated Opuntia species are important resources. It is unknown which species would best support larval development if the moth were to spread further westward in North America. This study aimed to determine if ovipositing females demonstrate preferences for any of 14 common opuntioids native to or naturalized in Mexico and the southwestern United States; which of these opuntioids best support larval development; and if oviposition preference correlates with larval performance, as predicted by simple adaptive models. Results from a field experiment showed that female moths preferred O. engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann variety linguiformis (Griffiths) Parfitt and Pinkava and O. engelmannii variety engelmannii for oviposition. A generalized linear model showed number of cladodes and degree of spininess to be significant predictors of oviposition activity. Results from a no-choice larval survival experiment showed Consolea rubescens (Salm-Dyck ex de Candolle.) Lemaire and O. streptacantha Lemaire to be the best hosts. Epidermal toughness was a significant predictor of most larval fitness parameters. In general, oviposition preference was not correlated with larval performance. A lack of co-evolutionary history between C. cactorum and North American opuntioid species may help explain this disconnect.

  9. Detection of a plasmaspheric wind in the Earth's magnetosphere by the Cluster spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dandouras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plumes, forming at the plasmapause and released outwards, constitute a well-established mode for plasmaspheric material release to the Earth's magnetosphere. They are associated to active periods and the related electric field change. In 1992, Lemaire and Shunk proposed the existence of an additional mode for plasmaspheric material release to the Earth's magnetosphere: a plasmaspheric wind, steadily transporting cold plasmaspheric plasma outwards across the geomagnetic field lines, even during prolonged periods of quiet geomagnetic conditions. This has been proposed on a theoretical basis. Direct detection of this wind has, however, eluded observation in the past. Analysis of ion measurements, acquired in the outer plasmasphere by the CIS experiment onboard the four Cluster spacecraft, provide now an experimental confirmation of the plasmaspheric wind. This wind has been systematically detected in the outer plasmasphere during quiet and moderately active conditions, and calculations show that it could provide a substantial contribution to the magnetospheric plasma populations outside the Earth's plasmasphere. Similar winds should also exist on other planets, or astrophysical objects, quickly rotating and having an atmosphere and a magnetic field.

  10. Connecting World Heritage Nominations and Monitoring with the Support of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vileikis, O.; Dumont, B.; Serruys, E.; Van Balen, K.; Tigny, V.; De Maeyer, P.

    2013-07-01

    Serial transnational World Heritage nominations are challenging the way cultural heritage has been managed and evaluated in the past. Serial transnational World Heritage nominations are unique in that they consist of multiple sites listed as one property, distributed in different countries, involving a large diversity of stakeholders in the process. As a result, there is a need for precise baseline information for monitoring, reporting and decision making. This type of nomination requires different methodologies and tools to improve the monitoring cycle from the beginning of the nomination towards the periodic reporting. The case study of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS) illustrates the use of a Geographical Content Management System (Geo-CMS) supporting the serial transnational World Heritage nomination and the monitoring of the Silk Roads in the five Central Asian countries. The Silk Roads CHRIS is an initiative supported by UNESCO World Heritage Centre (WHC) and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO), and developed by a consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC) at the KULeuven. The Silk Roads CHRIS has been successfully assisting in the preparation of the nomination dossiers of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and will be used as a tool for monitoring tool in the Central Asian countries.

  11. Information Management Systems for Cultural Heritage and Conservation of World Heritage Sites. The Silk Roads Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Vileikis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of Information Management Systems (IMS in cultural heritage. IMS offer a set of tools for understanding, inventorying and documenting national, regional and World Heritage properties.  Information Management Systems can assist State Parties, stakeholders and heritage site managers involved in cultural heritage management and conservation by easily mining, sharing and exchanging information from multiple sources based on international standards. Moreover, they aim to record, manage, visualize, analyze and disseminate heritage information. In close collaboration with five Central Asian countries, namely, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; a Belgian consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC, K.U.Leuven is developing the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS. This Web-based Information Management System supports the preparation of the Central Asia Silk Roads serial and transnational nominations on the UNESCO World Heritage list. The project has been set up thanks to the financial support of the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO and in collaboration with UNESCO World Heritage Centre in conjunction with the People’s Republic of China and the Japanese Funds-in-Trust UNESCO project. It provides a holistic approach for the recording, documenta tion, protection and monitoring tasks as part of the management of these potential World Heritage Properties. The Silk Roads CHRIS is easily accessible to the general user, presented in a bilingual English and Russian frame and interoperable, i.e. open for other applications to connect to. In this way, all information for the nomination dossiers is easily verified regarding consistency and quality and ready for managing, periodic reporting and monitoring processes in the respect to the property listed. Fina lly, this study provides a general framework to establish

  12. Two cases of atmospheric escape in the Solar System: Titan and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandouras, I.

    2012-01-01

    Escape into space of the constituents of a planetary upper atmosphere can occur either in the form of neutral gas (thermal escape or non-thermal escape), or in the form of plasma. The long-term stability of an atmosphere results from the balance between source and escape rates. Two cases will be examined: Titan and Earth. Titan is the second largest planetary satellite in the Solar System and is the only one that has an atmosphere as substantial as that of the Earth. Titan's nitrogen rich atmosphere is embedded within Saturn's magnetosphere, and is directly bombarded by energetic ions due to Titan's lack of a significant intrinsic magnetic field. In addition to thermal escape, energy input from Saturn's magnetosphere and from Solar UV radiation can drive several non-thermal escape mechanisms in Titan's upper atmosphere: sputtering, dissociation and dissociative ionization of molecular nitrogen producing pick-up ions, photochemical production of fast neutrals etc. Earth also constantly loses matter, mostly in the form of H+ and O+ ions, through various outflow processes from the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. Most of the ions are low-energy (plasma reservoir is the plasmasphere, which is a toroidal region encircling the Earth and containing cold and dense plasma. Plasma plumes, forming in the outer plasmasphere and released outwards, constitute a well-established mode for plasmaspheric material release to the magnetosphere. They are associated to geomagnetically active periods and the related electric field change. In 1992 Lemaire and Shunk proposed the existence of an additional mode for plasmaspheric material release and escape: a plasmaspheric wind, steadily transporting cold plasmaspheric plasma outwards across the geomagnetic field lines. This has been proposed on a theoretical basis. Direct detection of this wind has, however, eluded observation in the past. Analysis of ion measurements, acquired in the outer plasmasphere by the CIS experiment onboard the

  13. Experimental acquisition, development, and transmission of Leishmania tropica by Phlebotomus duboscqi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Hanafi A; El-Din, El-Shaimaa M Nour; El-Hossary, Shabaan S I; Kaldas, Rania M; Villinski, Jeffrey T; Furman, Barry D; Fryauff, David J

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania tropica (Wright), by the blood-feeding sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire). Groups of laboratory-reared female sand flies that fed "naturally" on L. tropica-infected hamsters, or artificially, via membrane feeding device, on a suspension of L. tropica amastigotes, were dissected at progressive time points post-feeding. Acquisition, retention and development of L. tropica through procyclic, nectomonad, and leptomonad stages to the infective metacyclic promastigote stage, and anterior progression of the parasites from abdominal midgut bloodmeal to the thoracic midgut were demonstrated in both groups. Membrane feeding on the concentrated amastigote suspension led to metacyclic promastigote infections in 60% of sand flies, whereas only 3% of P. duboscqi that fed naturally on an infected hamster developed metacyclics. Sand flies from both groups re-fed on naïve hamsters, but despite infections in 25-50% of membrane-fed and 2-3.5% of naturally fed flies, no skin lesions developed in the hamsters. After four months of observation these animals were euthanized and necropsied. Screening of the organs and tissue by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that targeted the small subunit RNA gene, amplified generic Leishmania DNA from liver, spleen, bone marrow, and blood, but only from hamsters bitten by membrane-infected P. duboscqi. These results are notable in demonstrating the ability of P. duboscqi, originating from Kenya, to acquire, retain, develop, and transmit a Turkish strain of L. tropica originally isolated from a human case of cutaneous leishmaniasis. This marks the first demonstration of complete development and transmission of L. tropica by a member of the Phlebotomus subgenus of sand flies.

  14. Review on hydroxylamine, a precursor to amino-acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Jean Louis

    2015-08-01

    Does life on earth come from interstellar space (IS)?It has been recently demonstrated that part of the terrestrial water is of IS origin [Cleeves et al. Science 2014]. This raises the question whether materials like amino-acids or their pre-biotic molecular precursors could have been formed and brought to earth in the same way than water. Another question is whether these molecules were formed in the gas phase or through reactions on the surface/volume of ice-covered grains. This may then have occurred in the vicinity of proto-stellar cores or deep into a pristine dense molecular clouds at very low temperatures.As far as bio-related molecules are concerned, chemistry with nitrogen-bearing molecules (like NH3 and NO) is involved. I review recent experimental work showing that hydroxylamine (NH2OH) could be formed either by surface or by volume reactions in conditions close to those prevailing in dense media. They use either electron-UV irradiation of water-ammonia ices [Zheng & Kaiser JCPA 2010] or successive hydrogenation of solid nitric oxide[Congiu, Fedoseev & al. ApJL.2012] or the simple oxidation of ammonia [He, Vidali, Lemaire & Garrod, ApJ, 2015] or the reaction of ammonia with hydroxyl radicals in a rare gas matrix [Zins & Krim, 2014, 69th ISMS]. A step further, the synthesis of the simplest amino-acids, glycine (NH2CH2COOH) and L- or D-alanine (NH2CH3CHCOOH) has already been obtained via reactions in the gas phase involving NH2OH+ [Blagojevic & al. MNRAS 2003].In addition to several earlier models demonstrating that the formation of all these molecules is possible in the gas phase, a new recent three-phase gas-grain chemical kinetics model of hot cores [Garrod ApJ 2013] shows that the results of ammonia oxidation we obtain are plausible by surface/volume reactions.Although none of the aforementioned molecules (except glycine in a sample of cometary origin) has been yet detected in the IS, they all are considered by many observers and modelers as likely

  15. Protecting Unesco World Heritage PROPERTIES'S Integrity: the Role of Recording and Documentation in Risk Management for PETRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Quintero, M.; Cesaro, G.; Ishakat, F.; Vandesande, A.; Vileikis, O.; Vadafari, A.; Paolini, A.; Van Balen, K.; Fakhoury, L.

    2012-07-01

    Risk management - as it has been defined - involves the decision-making process following a risk assessment (Ball, Watt, 2003). It is the process that involves managing to minimize losses and impacts on the significant of historic structures and to reach the balance between gaining and losing opportunities. This contribution explains the "heritage information" platform developed using low-cost recording, documentation and information management tools to serve as container for assessments resulting from the application of a risk methodology at a pilot area of the Petra Archaeological Park, in particular those that permit digitally and cost effective to prepare an adequate baseline record to identify disturbances and threats. Furthermore, this paper will reflect on the issue of mapping the World Heritage property's boundaries by illustrating a methodology developed during the project and further research to overcome the lack of boundaries and buffer zone for the protection of the Petra World Heritage site, as identified in this project. This paper is based on on-going field project from a multidisciplinary team of experts from the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (University of Leuven), UNESCO Amman, Petra Development Tourism and Region Authority (PDTRA), and Jordan's Department of Antiquities (DoA), as well as, experts from Jordan. The recording and documentation approach included in this contribution is part of an on-going effort to develop a methodology for mitigating (active and preventive) risks on the Petra Archaeological Park (Jordan). The risk assessment has been performed using non-intrusive techniques, which involve simple global navigation satellite system (GNSS), photography, and structured visual inspection, as well as, a heritage information framework based on Geographic Information Systems. The approach takes into consideration the comparison of vulnerability to sites with the value assessment to prioritize monuments at risk based

  16. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Ch.L. van der Vliet

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available - Rita Bolland, Alfred Bühler, The patola of Gujarat. Double ikat in India. Krebs AG Basel, 1979. Vol. 1, 360 p. tekst, ill. Vol. 2, afb. in kleur en zwart/wit, krt. tab. noten, verkl. woorden. litl., Eberhard Fischer (eds. - Raymond Buve, Hugo G. Nutini, Ritual kinship. The structure and historical development of the Compadrazgo system in rural Tlaxcala, Vol. I. Princeton University Press, N.J., 1980, XVI plus 494 pp., maps, tables, glossary and index., Betty Bell (eds. - Benno Galjart, G.A. Banck, Jagen met een kat... Schaarse middelen en sociale relaties in de Braziliaanse staat Espirito Santo, CEDLA Incidentele publicaties no. 8, CEDLA, Amsterdam 1977. - R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, J. van Goor, Jan Kompanie as schoolmaster: Dutch education in Ceylon, 1690-1795, Historische Studies, Instituut voor Geschiedenis der Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, XXIV, Wolters-Noordhoff Groningen, 1978, 205 pp., 3 maps. - Ria Kloppenborg, R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, Robe and plough. Monasticism and economic interest in early medieval Sri Lanka. Association for Asian Studies, Monographs and Papers No. XXXV, University of Arixona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 1979; 377 pages, including bibliography and index. - Els Postel-Coster, Jan van Bremen, Romantropologie - Essays over antropologie en literatuur, Antropologisch-Sociologisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1979., Sjaak van der Geest, Jojada Verrips (eds. - Arie de Ruijter, T. Lemaire, Over de waarde van kulturen. Een inleiding in de kultuurfilosofie. Ambo, Baarn 1976, herdruk 1980. 509 blz. - P. van de Velde, W. Arens, The man-eating myth. Oxford University Press, New York, 1979. XIV + 206 pp., 12 illustrations. - E.Ch.L. van der Vliet, Klaus E. Müller, Geschichte der antiken ethnographie und ethnologischen theoriebildung von den anfängen bis auf die byzantinischen historiographen, Teil II (Studien zur Kulturkunde 52, Wiesbaden: Franza Steiner Verlag, 1980. 563 pp. 11 figs. - J.J. de Wolf, P.T.W. Baxter, Age

  17. Ecology of larval mosquitoes, with special reference to Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culcidae) in market-garden wells in urban Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, V; Awono-Ambene, H P; Thioulouse, J

    1998-11-01

    The urban area of Dakar, Senegal, contains > 5,000 market-garden wells that provide permanent sites for mosquito larvae, in particular Anopheles arabiensis Patton, the major vector of malaria. A study of the bioecology of mosquito larvae was conducted over 1 yr with a monthly visit to 48 of these wells. Overall, 9,589 larvae were collected of which 80.1% were Culicinae and 11.9% Anophelinae. Larvae from stages III and IV (n = 853) were identified to 10 species. An. arabiensis represented 86% of the anophelines collected and An. ziemanni Grunberg 14%. The most common Culicinae species included Aedeomyia africana Neveu-Lemaire, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Mimomyia splendens Theobald. Maximum anopheline abundance was observed at the end of the dry season in June, whereas maximum Culicinae abundance was observed at the end of the rainy season in September. Most wells (67%) did not harbor any An. arabiensis larvae and in the remaining 33% the larval abundance was low, averaging 0.54 larvae in stages III-IV per tray sample. To identify factors that determine the abundance of larvae in these wells, a co-inertia (multivariate) analysis was carried out to account for physicochemical variables (depth, turbidity, temperature, pH, conductivity, Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3--, and NO3- concentrations) and biological variables (abundance of mosquito species, predators [e.g., fish, Dytiscidae, Notonectidae, odonates], molluscs [Bulinus and Biomphalaria], and surface plants [water lettuce, Lemna, and filamentous algae]). The co-inertia analysis indicated that the abundance of An. arabiensis was associated with Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. decens for the physiochemical data but was not associated with other mosquito species for floro-faunistic data. The conditions associated with abundant An. arabiensis were warm temperature (28-30 degrees C), clear and not too deep water (odonates), the presence of water lettuce, and an absence of Lemna. These results indicate that many contributing

  18. Data Processing and In -flight Calibration/validation of Envisat and Jason Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obligis, E.; Eymard, L.; Zanife, O. Z.

    Retrieval algorithms for wet tropospheric correction, integrated vapor and liquid water contents are formulated using a database of geophysical parameters from global analyses from a meteorological model and corresponding simulated brightness temperatures and backscattering cross -sections. Meteorological data are 12 hours predictions of the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. Relationships between satellite measurements and geophysical parameters are formulated using a statistical method. Quality of retrieval algorithms depends therefore on the representativity of the database, the accuracy of the radiative transfer model used for the simulations and finally on the quality of the inversion model. The database has been built using the latest version of the ECMWF forecast model, which has been operationally run since November, 2000. The 60 levels in the model allows a complete description of the troposphere/s tratosphere profiles and the horizontal resolution is now half of a degree. The radiative transfer model is the emissivity model developed at the Université Catholique de Louvain [Lemaire, 1998], coupled to an atmospheric model [Liebe et al, 1993] for gazeous absorption. For the inversion, we will compare performances of a classical loglinear regression with those of a neural networks inversion. In case of Envisat, the backscattering coefficient in Ku band is used in the different algorithms to take into account the surface roughness like it is done with the 18 GHz channel for TOPEX algorithms and a third term in wind speed for ERS2 algorithms. The in-flight calibration/validation of both radiometers will consist first in the evaluation of the calibration by comparison of measurements with simulations, using the same radiative transfer model and several other ECMWF global meteorological fields at coincident locations with satellite measurements. Although such a method only provides the relative discrepancy with respect to the

  19. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumoulin M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C, luminosity (L, brightness (B, and transparency (T involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement.Results: Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001. Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001 whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: –18.0%; P<0.0001. Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4% and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look

  20. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Arroyo Rojo Zn-Pb-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit is the main deposit of the Fin del Mundo District in the Fuegian Andes, Argentina. This deposit is hosted by a Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence forming the Lemaire Formation. The latter consists, from the base up, of the following: rhyolitic and dacitic porphyritic rocks, ignimbrite, tuff, and flow. It is underlain by a pre-Jurassic basement and overlain by the hyaloclastic andesites of the Yahgán Formation. The Arroyo Rojo consists of stacked lenticular lenses that are associated with disseminated mineralization in both the footwall and the hanging wall. The internal structure of the ore lenses is marked by the occurrence of massive, semi-massive and banded facies, along with stringer and brecciated zones and minor ore disseminations. The mineral assemblage comprises mainly pyrite and sphalerite, with minor amounts of galena and chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite and bournonite. The ores and the volcanic host rocks have metamorphosed to greenschist facies and were overprinted by a penetrative tectonic foliation, which led to the development of mylonitic, and cataclastic textures, recrystallization and remobilization. Primary depositional characteristics and regional and hydrothermal alteration patterns were preserved despite deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, primary banding was preserved between facies boundaries. In addition, some remnants of magmatic origin are recognizable in preserved phenocrysts and volcaniclastic phenoclasts. Most of the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the host sequence show a rhyolitic to rhyo-dacitic composition. Regional seafloor alteration, characterized by the presence of clinozoisite, Fe-chlorite and titanite, along with quartz and albite, is partially obliterated by hydrothermal alteration. The hydrothermal alteration is stratabound with the following assemblages, which developed from the base to top: (1) Quartz

  1. Local Schrodinger flow into Kahler manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DlNG; Weiyue(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Ding, W. Y. , Wang, Y. D. , Schrodinger flows of maps into symplectic manifolds, Science in China, Ser. A, 1998, 41(7): 746.[2]Landau, L. D., Lifshitz, E. M., On the theory of the dispersion of magnetic permeability in ferromagnetic bodies, Phys. Z.Sowj., 1935, 8: 153; reproduced in Collected Papers of L. D. Landau, New York: Pergaman Press, 1965, 101-114.[3]Faddeev, L., Takhtajan, L. A. , Hamiltonian Methods in the Theory of Solitons, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.[4]Nakamura, K., Sasada, T., Soliton and wave trains in ferromagnets, Phys. Lett. A, 1974, 48: 321.[5]Zhou, Y. , Guo, B. , Tan, S. , Existence and uniqueness of smooth solution for system of ferromagnetic chain, Science in China, Ser. A, 1991, 34(3): 257.[6]Pang, P. , Wang, H. , Wang, Y. D. , Schrodinger flow of maps into Kahler manifolds, Asian J. of Math. , in press.[7]Wang, H. , Wang, Y. D. , Global inhomogeneous Schrodinger flow, Int. J. Math., 2000, 11: 1079.[8]Pang, P., Wang, H., Wang, Y. D., Local existence for inhomogeneous Schrodinger flow of maps into Kahler manifolds,Acta Math. Sinica, English Series, 2000, 16: 487.[9]Temg, C. L., Uhlenbeck, K., Schrodinger flows on Grassmannians, in Integrable Systems, Geometry and Topology,Somervi11e, MA: International Press, in press.[10]Chang, N., Shatah, J., Uhlenbeck, K., Schrodinger maps, Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 2000, 53: 157.[11]Wang, Y. D., Ferromagnetic chain equation from a closed Riemannian manifold into S2, Int. J. Math., 1995, 6: 93.[12]Wang, Y. D., Heisenberg chain systems from compact manifolds into S2, J. Math. Phys., 1998, 39(1): 363.[13]Sulem, P., Sulem, C., Bardos, C., On the continuous limit for a system of classical spins, Commun. Math. Phys., 1986,107: 431.[14]Aubin, T., Nonlinear Analysis on Manifolds, Monge-Ampère Equations, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag,1982.[15]Eells, J. , Lemaire, L. , Another report on harmonic maps, Bull. London

  2. 13CO mapping study for massive molecular cloud cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Yuefang

    2001-01-01

    [1] Zirin, H., Astrophysics of the Sun, Chapter 7, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.[2] Shine, R. A., Linsky, J. L., Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages II. Chromospheric plage models, Solar Phys., 1974, 39: 49.[3] Kelch, W. L., Linsky, J. L., Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages III. Models based on CaII and MgII observations, Solar Phys., 1978, 58: 37.[4] Lemaire, P., Goutlebroze, J. C., Vial, J. C. et al., Physical properties of the solar chromosphere deduced from optically thick lines, A & A, 1981, 103: 160.[5] Fontenla, J. M., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Energy balance in the solar transition region II. Effects of pressure and energy input on hydrostatic models, ApJ, 1991, 377: 712.[6] Fontenla, J. M., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Energy balance in the solar transition region III. Helium emission in hydrostatic, constant-abundance models with diffusion, ApJ, 1993, 406: 319.[7] Pierce, A. K., Slaughter, C., Solar limb darkening I: λλ(30337297), Solar Phys., 1977, 51: 25.[8] Pierce, A. K., Slaughter, C., Weinberger, D., Solar limb darkening in the interval 740424018*!, II, Solar Phys., 1977, 52: 179.[9] Nechel, H., Labs, D., The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500*!, Solar Phys., 1984, 90: 205.[10] Vernazza, J. E., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Structure of the solar chromosphere I. Basic computations and summary of the results, ApJ, 1973, 184: 605.[11] Mihalas, D., Stellar Atmospheres, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1978.[12] Fang, C., Hnoux, J. -C., Self-consistent model of flare heated solar chromosphere, A & A, 1983, 118: 139.[13] Ding, M. D., Fang, C., A semi-empirical model of sunspot penumbra, A & A, 1989, 225: 204.[14] Vernazza, J. E., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Structure of the solar chromosphere III. Models of the EUV brightness components of the quiet Sun, ApJ Suppl., 1981, 45: 635.[15] Canfield, R. C., Athey, R

  3. Semi-empirical model of solar plages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Cheng

    2001-01-01

    [1] Zirin, H., Astrophysics of the Sun, Chapter 7, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.[2] Shine, R. A., Linsky, J. L., Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages II. Chromospheric plage models, Solar Phys., 1974, 39: 49.[3] Kelch, W. L., Linsky, J. L., Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages III. Models based on CaII and MgII observations, Solar Phys., 1978, 58: 37.[4] Lemaire, P., Goutlebroze, J. C., Vial, J. C. et al., Physical properties of the solar chromosphere deduced from optically thick lines, A & A, 1981, 103: 160.[5] Fontenla, J. M., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Energy balance in the solar transition region II. Effects of pressure and energy input on hydrostatic models, ApJ, 1991, 377: 712.[6] Fontenla, J. M., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Energy balance in the solar transition region III. Helium emission in hydrostatic, constant-abundance models with diffusion, ApJ, 1993, 406: 319.[7] Pierce, A. K., Slaughter, C., Solar limb darkening I: λλ(30337297), Solar Phys., 1977, 51: 25.[8] Pierce, A. K., Slaughter, C., Weinberger, D., Solar limb darkening in the interval 740424018*!, II, Solar Phys., 1977, 52: 179.[9] Nechel, H., Labs, D., The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500*!, Solar Phys., 1984, 90: 205.[10] Vernazza, J. E., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Structure of the solar chromosphere I. Basic computations and summary of the results, ApJ, 1973, 184: 605.[11] Mihalas, D., Stellar Atmospheres, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1978.[12] Fang, C., Hnoux, J. -C., Self-consistent model of flare heated solar chromosphere, A & A, 1983, 118: 139.[13] Ding, M. D., Fang, C., A semi-empirical model of sunspot penumbra, A & A, 1989, 225: 204.[14] Vernazza, J. E., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Structure of the solar chromosphere III. Models of the EUV brightness components of the quiet Sun, ApJ Suppl., 1981, 45: 635.[15] Canfield, R. C., Athey, R

  4. Implementación del modelo de remodelación ósea de Komarova para el estudio de la sensibilidad del proceso de remodelamiento óseo ante cambios en factores locales Model Bone of Komarova Implementation for the sensitivity study of the process of remodelling bony before changes in local factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemar Fonseca-Velásquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se lleva a cabo la implementación del modelo de remodelación ósea de nivel celular planteado por Komarova, usando como herramienta un diagrama de bloques funcionales. El objetivo de esta implementación es hacer un análisis de sensibilidad con respecto a la variación de los parámetros del modelo y determinar la influencia de los factores paracrinos y autocrinos en la formación de osteoclastos y osteoblastos. El modelo se implementó en el paquete comercial Simulink de Matlab R2007b. Se encontró que cada parámetro tiene un rango de funcionamiento bien determinado y que, fuera de él, la estabilidad se pierde y se establecen ganancias o pérdidas de masa ósea que se pueden atribuir a anormalidades sistémicas de los huesos. Este trabajo constituye un avance sobre el tema de remodelación ósea gracias a que, a diferencia de trabajos previos, se incluyen las variaciones de los parámetros propios del proceso de remodelación que llevan a posibles alteraciones de los procesos del metabolismo óseo, lo cual constituye un punto de partida para el estudio de enfermedades y alteraciones de la densidad del hueso, y permite iniciar el modelado de nuevas enfermedades relacionadas con los huesos, como es, por ejemplo, la metástasis ósea. Este estudio, entonces, es un avance con respecto a los trabajos presentados por Komarova y Lemaire y puede explicar fenómenos de metástasis y alteraciones metabólicas como los descritos en Manolagas.In this article the cellular level model of bone remodeling implementation raised by Komarova is carried out, using like tool a functional block diagram. The objective of this implementation is to make an analysis of sensitivity with respect to the variation of the model parameters and to determine the influence of the paracrine and autocrine factors in the osteoclasts and osteoblasts formation. The model was implemented in the commercial package Simulink with Matlab R2007b. We found that each

  5. Structure and Curie temperature of Y2Fe17-xCrx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Shiqiang; (

    2003-01-01

    [1]Sun Hong, Coey, J. M. D., Otani, Y. et al., Magnetic properties of a new series of rare-earth iron nitrides: R2Fe17Ny (y~2.6), J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., 1990, 2: 6465-6470.[2]Jacobs, T. H., Buschow, K. H. J., Zhou, G. F. et al., Magnetic interactions in R2Fe17-xAlx compounds (R=Ho, Y), J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 1992,116: 220-230.[3]Gvord, D., Lemaire, R., Magnetic transition and anomalous thermal expansion in R2Fe17 compounds, IEEE Trans. Magn., 1974, 10: 109-113.[4]Gubbens, P. C. M., van der Kraan, A. M., Jacobs, T. N. et al., 57Fe and 169Tm Mossbauer effect and magnetic properties of Tm2Fe15M2 (M=Al, Ga, Si), J. Less-Common Met., 1990,159: 173.[5]Middleton, D. P., Buschow, K. H. J., Magnetic properties of Ce2Fe17-xSix compounds, J. Alloys of Compounds, 1994, 206: L1-L2.[6]Jaswal, S. S., Yelon, W. B., Hadjipanayis, G. C. et al., Electronic and magnetic structures of the rare-earth compounds: R2Fe17Nx, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1991,67(5): 644-647.[7]Sabiryanov, R. F., Jaswal, S. S., Ab initio calculations of the Curie temperature of complex permanent-magnet materials, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1997, 79: 155-158.[8]Chen, N. X., Shen, J., Su, X. P., Theoretical study on the phase stability, site preference, and lattice parameters for Gd(Fe,T)12, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., 2001, 13: 2727-2736.[9]Chen, N. X., Hao, S. Q., Wu, Y. et al., Phase stability and site preference of Sm(Fe,T)12, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 2001, 233: 169-180.[10]Carlsson, A. E., Gelatt, C. D., Ehrenreich, H., An ab initio pair potential applied to metals, Philos. Mag. A, 1980, 41: 241-250.[11]Chen, N. X., Chen, Z. D., Wei, Y. C., Multidimensional inverse lattice problem and a uniformly sampled arithmetic Fourier transform, Phys. Rev. E, 1997, 55: R5-R8.[12]Chen, N. X., Ren, G. B., Carlsson-Gelatt-Ehrenreich technique and the Mobius inversion theorem, Phys. Rev. B, 1992, 45: 8177-8180.[13]Chen, N. X., Ge, X. J., Zhang, W. Q., Atomistic analysis of the field

  6. In-flight calibration/validation of the ENVISAT/MWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, N.; Obligis, E.; Eymard, L.

    2003-04-01

    Retrieval algorithms for wet tropospheric correction, integrated vapor and liquid water contents, atmospheric attenuations of backscattering coefficients in Ku and S band, have been developed using a database of geophysical parameters from global analyses from a meteorological model and corresponding simulated brightness temperatures and backscattering cross-sections by a radiative transfer model. Meteorological data correspond to 12 hours predictions from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. Relationships between satellite measurements and geophysical parameters are determined using a statistical method. The quality of the retrieval algorithms depends therefore on the representativity of the database, the accuracy of the radiative transfer model used for the simulations and finally on the quality of the inversion model. The database has been built using the latest version of the ECMWF forecast model, which has been operationally run since November 2000. The 60 levels in the model allow a complete description of the troposphere/stratosphere profiles and the horizontal resolution is now half of a degree. The radiative transfer model is the emissivity model developed at the Université Catholique de Louvain [Lemaire, 1998], coupled to an atmospheric model [Liebe et al, 1993] for gaseous absorption. For the inversion, we have replaced the classical log-linear regression with a neural networks inversion. For Envisat, the backscattering coefficient in Ku band is used in the different algorithms to take into account the surface roughness as it is done with the 18 GHz channel for the TOPEX algorithms or an additional term in wind speed for ERS2 algorithms. The in-flight calibration/validation of the Envisat radiometer has been performed with the tuning of 3 internal parameters (the transmission coefficient of the reflector, the sky horn feed transmission coefficient and the main antenna transmission coefficient). First an adjustment of the

  7. Autonomy and heteronomy. Integration and sustainability of essential flows in the built environment; Autonomie en heteronomie. Integratie en verduurzaming van essentiele stromen in de gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Timmeren, A.

    2006-06-23

    specifieke kenmerken van de traditionele paradigmas, lijkt bij een grote groep van de relevante actoren nog te ontbreken. Dit onderzoek benadrukt het belang voor volhoudbaarheid van een wederkerige relatie tussen centrale en decentrale systemen, en de integratie (interconnectie) van oplossingen voor de energie, afval en afvalwatervoorziening. Gesteld kan worden dat differentiatie en flexibiliteit op het gebied van ruimtelijke ordening voorwaardelijk zijn om te kunnen inspelen op de onzekerheden op de lange termijn. Voorkomen moet worden dat het proces van verstedelijking en de uitleg van infrastructurele netwerken, gebaseerd op het op afstand transporteren en oplossen van de essenti stromen, zich los van elkaar ontwikkelen. Een nauwkeurige, integrale (Eu)regionale planning gebaseerd op een combinatie van conventionele (centrale) systemen en toegevoegde decentrale systemen vermindert de risicos van mogelijke impasse als gevolg van onvolhoudbaarheid van de bestaande netwerken en systemen, met alle bijkomende gezondheidsrisicos. De cultuurfilosoof Ton Lemaire stelde hieromtrent waar het op aan komt, is de juiste verhouding te vinden tussen het globale en het lokale. Het lokale zou door de globalisering niet teniet moeten worden gedaan maar opnieuw een plaats moeten krijgen. Een uitwerking van volhoudbaarheid, voorzieningszekerheid en onafhankelijkheid lijkt zowel in geval van verdere ontwikkeling op grond van het toekomstpad van schaalvergroting (economies of scale) als van decentralisatie (scale economy) noodzakelijk, zo niet essentieel. Het komt neer op het beter combineren van voordelen van autonomie en heteronomie.

  8. High hydrostatic pressure influences the in vitro response to xenobiotics in Dicentrarchus labrax liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Mignolet, Eric; Debier, Cathy [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Calderon, Pedro Buc [Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73, B-1200 Woluwé-Saint-Lambert (Belgium); Thomé, Jean Pierre [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale et Ecotoxicologie, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 août 15, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Rees, Jean François, E-mail: jf.rees@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The methodology of precision-cut liver slices was applied to the European seabass. • Liver slices remained viable and functional in short-term co-exposure studies. • CYP1A induction was blocked in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • HSP70 induction was lower in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • Oxidative stress responses to tBHP were less pronounced at high pressure. - Abstract: Hydrostatic pressure (HP) increases by about 1 atmosphere (0.1 MPa) for each ten-meter depth increase in the water column. This thermodynamical parameter could well influence the response to and effects of xenobiotics in the deep-sea biota, but this possibility remains largely overlooked. To grasp the extent of HP adaptation in deep-sea fish, comparative studies with living cells of surface species exposed to chemicals at high HP are required. We initially conducted experiments with precision-cut liver slices of a deep-sea fish (Coryphaenoides rupestris), co-exposed for 15 h to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3-methylcholanthrene at HP levels representative of the surface (0.1 MPa) and deep-sea (5–15 MPa; i.e., 500–1500 m depth) environments. The transcript levels of a suite of stress-responsive genes, such as the AhR battery CYP1A, were subsequently measured (Lemaire et al., 2012; Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 10310–10316). Strikingly, the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA content was pressure-dependently reduced in C. rupestris. Here, the same co-exposure scenario was applied for 6 or 15 h to liver slices of a surface fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, a coastal species presumably not adapted to high HP. Precision-cut liver slices of D. labrax were also used in 1 h co-exposure studies with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as to investigate the pressure-dependence of the oxidative stress response (i.e., reactive oxygen production, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status). Liver cells remained

  9. A comparison study between observations and simulation results of Barghouthi model for O+ and H+ outflows in the polar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2011-11-01

    + ions at altitudes below ~7 RE, while it is important for altitudes above 7 RE. For O+ wave particle interaction is very significant at all altitudes. (3 For certain λ⊥ and at points, altitudes, where the ion gyroradius is equal to or less than λ⊥, the effect of wave-particle interactions is independent of the velocity and it depends only on the altitude part of the velocity diffusion coefficient; however, the effect of wave-particle interactions reduce above that point, called saturation point, and the heating process turns to be self-limiting heating. (4 The most interesting result is the appearance of O+ conics and toroids at low altitudes and continue to appear at high altitudes; however, they appear at very high altitudes for H+ ions. We compare quantitatively and qualitatively between the simulation results and the corresponding observations. As a result of many comparisons, we find that the best agreement occurs when λ⊥ equals to 8 km. The quantitative comparisons show that many characteristics of the observations are very close to the simulation results, and the qualitative comparisons between the simulation results for ion outflows and the observations produce very similar behaviors. To our knowledge, most of the comparisons between observations (ion velocity distribution, density, drift velocity, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, anisotropy, etc. and simulations obtained from different models produce few agreements and fail to explain many observations (see Yau et al., 2007; Lemaire et al., 2007; Tam et al., 2007; Su et al., 1998; Engwall et al., 2009. This paper presents many close agreements between observations and simulations obtained by Barghouthi model, for O+ and H+ ions at different altitudes i.e. from 1.7 RE to 13.7 RE.

  10. Seeing Is Believing. Or Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-08-01

    Occasionally I get time to read something other than a scientific journal, book, or manuscript. On one such foray I discovered Kenneth Brower's "Photography in the Age of Falsification", which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly in May 1998. Brower described how an editor, who might never have experienced the wildness of nature, could conceive a photograph and assign a photographer to create it. Whether the scene depicted was actually possible often seemed relatively unimportant. The main thing was whether the image would interest viewers. Brower argued that today's vast array of software for manipulating digital versions of photographic images enables what he calls "photofakery" on an unprecedented scale. He described how editors at National Geographic decided to pull an ad that depicted a polar bear in Antarctica (where there are no bears); the ad had been created by digitally superimposing a photograph of a bear in a Cincinnati zoo and a photograph of the Lemaire Channel in Antarctica. According to Brower, "Too few photographers, I think, appreciate how directly the new technology aims at the heart of the credibility that distinguishes this art form from others." Credibility is also one of the hallmarks of science. Science progresses as a result of consensus on what results can be expected from carefully designed and carefully executed experiments and observations. As teachers of chemistry, we have a duty not to fall into the same kinds of traps that have made some photographers uneasy about their profession. And we need to help our students learn to avoid these traps. But it is not that easy, because we also need to capture students' attention and try to make our subject interesting by telling stories or showing phenomena or models that appeal to the imagination. As in the case of photography, defining where imagination begins to usurp reality is difficult. It is therefore a very important issue to wrestle with. Part of Brower's argument against manipulation of

  11. Orbiting observatory SOHO finds source of high-speed "wind" blowing from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    ranging from 30,000 km/h at the surface to over 3 million km/h, the solar wind "grows" much faster than grass". "Looking at the spot where the solar wind actually appears is extremely important", says co-author Dr. Philippe Lemaire of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France. The Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer on SOHO detected the solar wind by observing the ultraviolet spectrum over a large area of the solar north polar region. The SUMER instrument was built under the leadership of Dr. Klaus Wilhelm at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie in Lindau, Germany, with key contributions from the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the University of California at Berkeley, with financial support from German, French, US and Swiss national agencies. "Identification of the detailed structure of the source region of the fast solar wind is an important step in solving the solar wind acceleration problem. We can now focus our attention on the plasma conditions and the dynamic processes seen in the corners of the magnetic field structures", says Dr. Wilhelm, also co-author of the Science paper. A spectrum results from the separation of light into its component colours, which correspond to different wavelengths. Blue light has a shorter wavelength and is more energetic than red. A spectrum is similar to what is seen when a prism separates white light into a rainbow of distinct colours. By analysing light this way, astronomers learn a great deal about the object emitting the light, such as its temperature, chemical composition, and motion. The ultraviolet light observed by SUMER is actually invisible to the human eye and cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. The hot gas in the solar wind source region emits light at certain ultraviolet wavelengths. When the hot gas flows towards Earth, as it does in the solar wind, the wavelengths of the