Sample records for astrophytum myriostigma lemaire

  1. Morfometría de semillas en la cactácea amenazada de extinción Astrophytum myriostigma Lemaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez-Salas


    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio morfométrico y microestructural en semillas de una población de la cactácea amenazadaAstrophytum myriostigmaLem., removida en su tota- lidad en el sitio por saqueo. Se incluyen resultados que separan tamaños de semillas y embriones (grandes y pequeños así como promedios para ambos. Se realizó una descripción de características en la semilla obtenidas mediante estereoscopía. Se incluye una descripción detallada de la forma y color, así como microestructural del funículo, capa funicular y otras estructuras que le acompañan.

  2. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM. (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R


    To assess the hypoglycemic effect of the nopal Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire (O. streptacantha Lem.), three groups of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied. Group one (16 patients) ingested 500 g of broiled nopal stems. Group 2 (10 patients) received only 400 ml of water as a control test. Three tests were performed on group 3 (6 patients): one with nopal, a second with water, and a third with ingestion of 500 g broiled squash. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120, and 180 min. After the intake of O. streptacantha Lem., serum glucose and serum insulin levels decreased significantly in groups 1 and 3, whereas no similar changes were noticed in group 2. The mean reduction of glucose reached 17.6 +/- 2.2% of basal values at 180 min in group 1 and 16.2 +/- 1.8% in group 3; the reduction of serum insulin at 180 min reached 50.2 +/- 8.0% in group 1 and 40.3 +/- 12.4% in group 3. This study shows that the stems of O. streptacantha Lem. cause a hypoglycemic effect in patients with NIDDM. The mechanism of this effect is unknown, but an increased insulin sensitivity is suggested. PMID:3276479

  3. Estudo de alcalóides de Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lemaire


    E. M. R. de A. Lucio; N. Sharapin; H. S. França


    O gênero Pilocarpus da Família das Rutáceas compreende 13 espécies neotropicais espalhadas na região situada entre os trópicos de câncer e capricórnio. No Brasil são encontradas 9 espécies, que recebem designação geral de jaborandi1, fonte industrial de pilocarpina, utilizada no tratamento de glaucoma. A pilocarpina é produzida no país, em escala industrial, a partir do P. microphyllus Stapf, nativa do Estado do Maranhão. Umas das espécies botanicamente próxima a P. microphyllus é a P. pennat...

  4. Estudo de alcalóides de Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lemaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. R. de A. Lucio


    Full Text Available O gênero Pilocarpus da Família das Rutáceas compreende 13 espécies neotropicais espalhadas na região situada entre os trópicos de câncer e capricórnio. No Brasil são encontradas 9 espécies, que recebem designação geral de jaborandi1, fonte industrial de pilocarpina, utilizada no tratamento de glaucoma. A pilocarpina é produzida no país, em escala industrial, a partir do P. microphyllus Stapf, nativa do Estado do Maranhão. Umas das espécies botanicamente próxima a P. microphyllus é a P. pennatifolius Lem. O método empregado de análise foi segundo a Farmacopéia Suissa IV Ed. (modificado, que avalia o teor de alcalóides totais, expressando o resultado em pilocarpina. A evidenciação dos alcalóides secundários se deu através de cromatografia de camada fina (CCF. A análise dos resultados obtidos indicam que dificilmente a espécie constituirá um substituto para matéria-prima de extração de pilocarpina, visto que o teor da mesma em P. microphyllus chega a ultrapassar 1,0 %. A presença de diversas manchas na CCF recomenda o isolamento e identificação dos alcalóides secundários para a complementação da informação bibliográfica.

  5. [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus]. (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Del Valle-Martínez, L M; Ariza-Andraca, C R; Islas-Andrade, S; Chávez-Negrete, A


    To assess the relationship between the doses of O. streptacantha Lem. and its acute hypoglycemic action in diabetics, eight patients with type II diabetes mellitus were studied. Four test were performed to each patient with the intake of: (a) 400 ml of water, (b) 100 g (c) 300 g and (d) 500 g of broiled stems of O. streptacantha Lem. Serum glucose was measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Maximal decrease of serum glucose was noticed at 180 minutes, with a mean of 2.3, 10, 30.1 and 46.7 mg/dl less than basal value with 0, 100, 300 and 500 g respectively (P = NS, less than 0.05, less than 0.001 and less than 0.001 respectively). A significant direct correlation (r = 0.690, P less than 0.001) was noticed between the doses and the hypoglycemic effect. PMID:2557805

  6. 75 FR 67765 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications (United States)


    ..., salvage, and collect seeds of the following rare plants: Star cactus (Astrophytum asterius), Johnston's..., Regional Director, Southwest Region, Fish and Wildlife Service. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P...

  7. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch Sorok and Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Ngumbi, Lucy W. Irungu, Paul N. Ndegwa & Nguya K. Maniania


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Biological control of sandflies using entomopathogenic fungi is a possible alternativeto the expensive synthetic chemical control. It is potentially sustainable, less hazardous, and relatively inexpensiveand merits further investigations. The objective of this study was to identify the most pathogenic fungal isolate(sto sandflies in the laboratory.Methods: Isolates of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were screenedfor their pathogenicity against Phlebotomus duboscqi. Adult flies were contaminated using the technique describedby Migiro et al (2010. Briefly, flies were exposed to 0.1 g of dry conidia evenly spread on a cotton velvet clothcovering the inner side of a cylindrical plastic tube (95 mm long × 48 mm diam. In all 25 sandflies weretransferred into the cylindrical tube and allowed to walk on the velvet for one minute, after which they weretransferred from the velvet into the cages in Perplex. Insects in the control treatments were exposed to fungusfree velvet cloth before being transferred into similar cages. The treatments were maintained at 25 ± 2°C,60–70% RH and 12L: 12D photoperiod. The experiment was replicated 5 times. The most pathogenic isolateswere selected for further studies.Results: A total of 19 isolates were screened against adult sandflies in the laboratory. Mortality in the controlswas approximately 16.8 ± 1.7 %. All the isolates were found to be pathogenic to P. duboscqi. Mortality rangedbetween 76.8 and 100% on all the fungal isolates tested. The lethal time taken to 50% (LT50 and 90% (LT90(mortality ranged from 3.0–7.8 days and from 5.3–16.2 days, respectively. The virulent isolates, causing mortalitiesof 97.5–100%, were selected for further studies.Interpretation & conclusion: The high susceptibility of sandflies to entomopathogenic fungi suggests that fungiare potential alternatives to chemical control methods. We conclude that application of entomopathogenic fungicould result in acute mortalities of sandflies and reduction of parasite transmission and subsequently, reductionof leishmaniasis risk. This method of biological control has great potential as a new strategy for leishmaniasiscontrol

  8. Letters & Arms Literary Language, Power and Nation in Renaissance Italy and France 1300-1600

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftgaard, Anders


    Sprog, litteratur, filologi, national identitet, Joachim Du Bellay, Jean Lemaire de Belges, Henri Estienne, Sperone Speroni, Pietro Bembo, Dante Alighieri, Frans den første (af Frankrig), Anthony D. Smith, Liah Greenfeld...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    UNIQLO AND LEMAIRE 2016春夏系列将于3月4日上市,本系列是UNIQLO优衣库携手巴黎时装品牌LEMAIRE合作系列的收官之作。UNIQLO AND LEMAIRE2015秋冬系列曾在全球引起轰动,数款热门单品刚上市便被抢购一空。

  10. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia cactus. (United States)

    Ibañez-Camacho, R; Roman-Ramos, R


    Nopal (Opuntia sp.) has been traditionally used by the Mexican population for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this work is to describe effects produced by directly liquified nopal and extracts from this plant in healthy and pancreatectomized rabbits. Preliminary results allow us to conclude that Opuntia streptacantha, Lemaire, has hypoglycemic properties when orally administered, in animals with experimentally induced diabetes as well as in healthy ones with physiologic hyperglycemia. PMID:539865

  11. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America (United States)


    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  12. The effect of firearm deaths on life expectancy and insurance premiums in the United States. (United States)

    Lemaire, Jean


    Despite recent gains, the U.S. remains behind most other affluent countries in life expectancy. Even within the U.S., the gap between the life expectancies of Caucasians and African-Americans remains significant. At the same time, firearm deaths in the U.S. far exceed peer nations, and disproportionately affect African-American males. In this Issue Brief, Dr. Lemaire explores whether deaths from firearms explain some of these international and racial disparities in life expectancy. He uses actuarial techniques to calculate the "cost" of firearm deaths in the U.S., both in terms of reduced life expectancy and increased life insurance premiums.

  13. A review of the geology of the Argentinian Fuegian Andes (United States)

    Olivero, Eduardo B.; Martinioni, Daniel R.


    Seven stratigraphic units reflect the tectonic evolution of the Argentinian Fuegian Andes: Basement (Paleozoic-Jurassic); Lemaire Formation (Upper Jurassic); Yahgan-Beauvoir formations (Lower Cretaceous); Cerro Matrero Formation (Upper Cretaceous); Rı´o Claro Formation (Paleocene); La Despedida Group (Eocene); and Cabo Peña Formation (uppermost Eocene-Lower Oligocene). Basement rocks (garnet, quartz-sericite, and chlorite schists; and amphibolites) are unconformably covered by the Lemaire Formation (rhyolites; basalts; slates; and acidic volcaniclastic breccias, tuffs, conglomerates, and turbidites), formed during extensional tectonism. The post-rift Yahgan Formation (deep-marine black mudstones, andesitic volcaniclastic turbidites and tuffs) interfingers northward with the Beauvoir Formation (slope and platform black mudstones), and covers the Lemaire Formation unconformably. The Yahgan Formation represents an andesitic, volcaniclastic apron, coeval with a Pacific volcanic-arc, filling a marginal basin floored with oceanic crust. The Late Cretaceous compressional orogeny resulted in tectonic inversion, closure of the marginal basin, peak metamorphism and folding, and initial uplifting of the Fuegian Andes. By the latest Cretaceous-earliest Paleogene, the Andes were exposed to subaerial erosion, and the lowest Danian Rı´o Claro Formation bears clear evidence of an Andean clastic provenance. The Rı´o Claro Formation represents the first molasse deposits of the foreland stage of evolution of the Fuegian Andes. Earliest Paleogene north-verging thrust propagation deformed the Rı´o Claro Formation and older units, producing northward depocenter migration. La Despedida Group rests unconformably on the Rı´o Claro Formation and is involved in the thrust and fold belt. Important Eocene compression resulted in thrusting of central Andean basement schists and the Lemaire Formation over Lower Cretaceous and continental Paleogene rocks, respectively. In the

  14. El depósito de sulfuros masivos polimetálicos de Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina): Mineralogía, geoquímica y metalogenia


    Biel Soria, Cecilia; Subías Pérez, Ignacio Ernesto; Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel


    El objetivo de esta tesis es avanzar en el conocimiento de la geología y modelos de alteración hidrotermal de los yacimientos de sulfuros masivos de los Andes Fueguinos. Para ello se ha seleccionado el depósito de Arroyo Rojo, el más representativo del cinturón Río Encajado-Río Hambre (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina). Este depósito encaja en la parte volcánica y volcanoclástica de la Formación Lemaire, de edad jurásica media, compuesta de base a techo por: riolitas, dacitas, ignimbritas, tobas y...

  15. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus (United States)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan


    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  16. The odd-even effect in multiplication: parity rule or familiarity with even numbers? (United States)

    Lochy, A; Seron, X; Delazer, M; Butterworth, B


    This study questions the evidence that a parity rule is used during the verification of multiplication. Previous studies reported that products are rejected faster when they violate the expected parity, which was attributed to the use of a rule (Krueger, 1986; Lemaire & Fayol, 1995). This experiment tested an alternative explanation of this effect: the familiarity hypothesis. Fifty subjects participated in a verification task with contrasting types of problems (even x even, odd x odd, mixed). Some aspects of our results constitute evidence against the use of the parity rule: False even answers were rejected slowly, even when the two operands were odd. We suggest that the odd-even effect in verification of multiplication could not be due to the use of the parity rule, but rather to a familiarity with even numbers (three quarters of products are indeed even). PMID:10881553

  17. Redetermination of Dy3Ni from single-crystal X-ray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Levytskyy


    Full Text Available The classification of the title compound, tridysprosium nickel, into the Fe3C (or Al3Ni structure type has been deduced from powder X-ray diffraction data with lattice parameters reported in a previous study [Lemaire & Paccard (1967. Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 40, 311–315]. The current re-investigation of Dy3Ni based on single-crystal X-ray data revealed atomic positional parameters and anisotropic displacement parameters with high precision. The asymmetric unit consists of two Dy and one Ni atoms. One Dy atom has site symmetry .m. (Wyckoff position 4c and is surrounded by twelve Dy and three Ni atoms. The other Dy atom (site symmetry 1, 8d has eleven Dy and three Ni atoms as neighbours, forming a distorted Frank–Kasper polyhedron. The coordination polyhedron of the Ni atom (.m., 4c is a tricapped trigonal prism formed by nine Dy atoms.

  18. Concentration Bounds for Stochastic Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Frikha, Noufel


    We obtain non asymptotic concentration bounds for two kinds of stochastic approximations. We first consider the deviations between the expectation of a given function of the Euler scheme of some diffusion process at a fixed deterministic time and its empirical mean obtained by the Monte-Carlo procedure. We then give some estimates concerning the deviation between the value at a given time-step of a stochastic approximation algorithm and its target. Under suitable assumptions both concentration bounds turn out to be Gaussian. The key tool consists in exploiting accurately the concentration properties of the increments of the schemes. For the first case, as opposed to the previous work of Lemaire and Menozzi (EJP, 2010), we do not have any systematic bias in our estimates. Also, no specific non-degeneracy conditions are assumed.

  19. Extra-Articular Lateral Tenodesis for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficient Knee: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego García-Germán


    Full Text Available We present the case of an extra-articular lateral tenodesis for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL deficient knee. A 46-year-old male patient sustained an ACL graft rupture after a motorcycle accident. He complained of rotational instability and giving-way episodes. His previous graft was fixed by an intra-articular femoral staple that was not possible to remove at the time of the ACL revision. A modified Lemaire procedure was then performed. He gained rotational stability and was able to resume his sporting activities. We believe that isolated extra-articular reconstructions may still have a role in selected indications including moderate-demand patients complaining of rotational instability after ACL graft failure.

  20. Connecting World Heritage Nominations and Monitoring with the Support of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (United States)

    Vileikis, O.; Dumont, B.; Serruys, E.; Van Balen, K.; Tigny, V.; De Maeyer, P.


    Serial transnational World Heritage nominations are challenging the way cultural heritage has been managed and evaluated in the past. Serial transnational World Heritage nominations are unique in that they consist of multiple sites listed as one property, distributed in different countries, involving a large diversity of stakeholders in the process. As a result, there is a need for precise baseline information for monitoring, reporting and decision making. This type of nomination requires different methodologies and tools to improve the monitoring cycle from the beginning of the nomination towards the periodic reporting. The case study of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS) illustrates the use of a Geographical Content Management System (Geo-CMS) supporting the serial transnational World Heritage nomination and the monitoring of the Silk Roads in the five Central Asian countries. The Silk Roads CHRIS is an initiative supported by UNESCO World Heritage Centre (WHC) and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO), and developed by a consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC) at the KULeuven. The Silk Roads CHRIS has been successfully assisting in the preparation of the nomination dossiers of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and will be used as a tool for monitoring tool in the Central Asian countries.

  1. A community-based study of factors associated with continuing transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Boyd

    Full Text Available Seven rounds of mass drug administration (MDA have been administered in Leogane, Haiti, an area hyperendemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF. Sentinel site surveys showed that the prevalence of microfilaremia was reduced to <1% from levels as high as 15.5%, suggesting that transmission had been reduced. A separate 30-cluster survey of 2- to 4-year-old children was conducted to determine if MDA interrupted transmission. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence were 14.3% and 19.7%, respectively. Follow-up surveys were done in 6 villages, including those selected for the cluster survey, to assess risk factors related to continued LF transmission and to pinpoint hotspots of transmission. One hundred houses were mapped in each village using GPS-enabled PDAs, and then 30 houses and 10 alternates were chosen for testing. All individuals in selected houses were asked to participate in a short survey about participation in MDA, history of residence in Leogane and general knowledge of LF. Survey teams returned to the houses at night to collect blood for antigen testing, microfilaremia and Bm14 antibody testing and collected mosquitoes from these communities in parallel. Antigen prevalence was highly variable among the 6 villages, with the highest being 38.2% (Dampus and the lowest being 2.9% (Corail Lemaire; overall antigen prevalence was 18.5%. Initial cluster surveys of 2- to 4-year-old children were not related to community antigen prevalence. Nearest neighbor analysis found evidence of clustering of infection suggesting that LF infection was focal in distribution. Antigen prevalence among individuals who were systematically noncompliant with the MDAs, i.e. they had never participated, was significantly higher than among compliant individuals (p<0.05. A logistic regression model found that of the factors examined for association with infection, only noncompliance was significantly associated with infection. Thus, continuing transmission of LF seems

  2. Two cases of atmospheric escape in the Solar System: Titan and Earth (United States)

    Dandouras, I.


    Escape into space of the constituents of a planetary upper atmosphere can occur either in the form of neutral gas (thermal escape or non-thermal escape), or in the form of plasma. The long-term stability of an atmosphere results from the balance between source and escape rates. Two cases will be examined: Titan and Earth. Titan is the second largest planetary satellite in the Solar System and is the only one that has an atmosphere as substantial as that of the Earth. Titan's nitrogen rich atmosphere is embedded within Saturn's magnetosphere, and is directly bombarded by energetic ions due to Titan's lack of a significant intrinsic magnetic field. In addition to thermal escape, energy input from Saturn's magnetosphere and from Solar UV radiation can drive several non-thermal escape mechanisms in Titan's upper atmosphere: sputtering, dissociation and dissociative ionization of molecular nitrogen producing pick-up ions, photochemical production of fast neutrals etc. Earth also constantly loses matter, mostly in the form of H+ and O+ ions, through various outflow processes from the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. Most of the ions are low-energy (plasma reservoir is the plasmasphere, which is a toroidal region encircling the Earth and containing cold and dense plasma. Plasma plumes, forming in the outer plasmasphere and released outwards, constitute a well-established mode for plasmaspheric material release to the magnetosphere. They are associated to geomagnetically active periods and the related electric field change. In 1992 Lemaire and Shunk proposed the existence of an additional mode for plasmaspheric material release and escape: a plasmaspheric wind, steadily transporting cold plasmaspheric plasma outwards across the geomagnetic field lines. This has been proposed on a theoretical basis. Direct detection of this wind has, however, eluded observation in the past. Analysis of ion measurements, acquired in the outer plasmasphere by the CIS experiment onboard the

  3. Information Management Systems for Cultural Heritage and Conservation of World Heritage Sites. The Silk Roads Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Vileikis


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of Information Management Systems (IMS in cultural heritage. IMS offer a set of tools for understanding, inventorying and documenting national, regional and World Heritage properties.  Information Management Systems can assist State Parties, stakeholders and heritage site managers involved in cultural heritage management and conservation by easily mining, sharing and exchanging information from multiple sources based on international standards. Moreover, they aim to record, manage, visualize, analyze and disseminate heritage information. In close collaboration with five Central Asian countries, namely, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; a Belgian consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC, K.U.Leuven is developing the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS. This Web-based Information Management System supports the preparation of the Central Asia Silk Roads serial and transnational nominations on the UNESCO World Heritage list. The project has been set up thanks to the financial support of the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO and in collaboration with UNESCO World Heritage Centre in conjunction with the People’s Republic of China and the Japanese Funds-in-Trust UNESCO project. It provides a holistic approach for the recording, documenta tion, protection and monitoring tasks as part of the management of these potential World Heritage Properties. The Silk Roads CHRIS is easily accessible to the general user, presented in a bilingual English and Russian frame and interoperable, i.e. open for other applications to connect to. In this way, all information for the nomination dossiers is easily verified regarding consistency and quality and ready for managing, periodic reporting and monitoring processes in the respect to the property listed. Fina lly, this study provides a general framework to establish

  4. Local Schrodinger flow into Kahler manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DlNG; Weiyue(


    [1]Ding, W. Y. , Wang, Y. D. , Schrodinger flows of maps into symplectic manifolds, Science in China, Ser. A, 1998, 41(7): 746.[2]Landau, L. D., Lifshitz, E. M., On the theory of the dispersion of magnetic permeability in ferromagnetic bodies, Phys. Z.Sowj., 1935, 8: 153; reproduced in Collected Papers of L. D. Landau, New York: Pergaman Press, 1965, 101-114.[3]Faddeev, L., Takhtajan, L. A. , Hamiltonian Methods in the Theory of Solitons, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.[4]Nakamura, K., Sasada, T., Soliton and wave trains in ferromagnets, Phys. Lett. A, 1974, 48: 321.[5]Zhou, Y. , Guo, B. , Tan, S. , Existence and uniqueness of smooth solution for system of ferromagnetic chain, Science in China, Ser. A, 1991, 34(3): 257.[6]Pang, P. , Wang, H. , Wang, Y. D. , Schrodinger flow of maps into Kahler manifolds, Asian J. of Math. , in press.[7]Wang, H. , Wang, Y. D. , Global inhomogeneous Schrodinger flow, Int. J. Math., 2000, 11: 1079.[8]Pang, P., Wang, H., Wang, Y. D., Local existence for inhomogeneous Schrodinger flow of maps into Kahler manifolds,Acta Math. Sinica, English Series, 2000, 16: 487.[9]Temg, C. L., Uhlenbeck, K., Schrodinger flows on Grassmannians, in Integrable Systems, Geometry and Topology,Somervi11e, MA: International Press, in press.[10]Chang, N., Shatah, J., Uhlenbeck, K., Schrodinger maps, Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 2000, 53: 157.[11]Wang, Y. D., Ferromagnetic chain equation from a closed Riemannian manifold into S2, Int. J. Math., 1995, 6: 93.[12]Wang, Y. D., Heisenberg chain systems from compact manifolds into S2, J. Math. Phys., 1998, 39(1): 363.[13]Sulem, P., Sulem, C., Bardos, C., On the continuous limit for a system of classical spins, Commun. Math. Phys., 1986,107: 431.[14]Aubin, T., Nonlinear Analysis on Manifolds, Monge-Ampère Equations, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag,1982.[15]Eells, J. , Lemaire, L. , Another report on harmonic maps, Bull. London

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Ch.L. van der Vliet


    Full Text Available - Rita Bolland, Alfred Bühler, The patola of Gujarat. Double ikat in India. Krebs AG Basel, 1979. Vol. 1, 360 p. tekst, ill. Vol. 2, afb. in kleur en zwart/wit, krt. tab. noten, verkl. woorden. litl., Eberhard Fischer (eds. - Raymond Buve, Hugo G. Nutini, Ritual kinship. The structure and historical development of the Compadrazgo system in rural Tlaxcala, Vol. I. Princeton University Press, N.J., 1980, XVI plus 494 pp., maps, tables, glossary and index., Betty Bell (eds. - Benno Galjart, G.A. Banck, Jagen met een kat... Schaarse middelen en sociale relaties in de Braziliaanse staat Espirito Santo, CEDLA Incidentele publicaties no. 8, CEDLA, Amsterdam 1977. - R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, J. van Goor, Jan Kompanie as schoolmaster: Dutch education in Ceylon, 1690-1795, Historische Studies, Instituut voor Geschiedenis der Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, XXIV, Wolters-Noordhoff Groningen, 1978, 205 pp., 3 maps. - Ria Kloppenborg, R.A.L.H. Gunawardana, Robe and plough. Monasticism and economic interest in early medieval Sri Lanka. Association for Asian Studies, Monographs and Papers No. XXXV, University of Arixona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 1979; 377 pages, including bibliography and index. - Els Postel-Coster, Jan van Bremen, Romantropologie - Essays over antropologie en literatuur, Antropologisch-Sociologisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1979., Sjaak van der Geest, Jojada Verrips (eds. - Arie de Ruijter, T. Lemaire, Over de waarde van kulturen. Een inleiding in de kultuurfilosofie. Ambo, Baarn 1976, herdruk 1980. 509 blz. - P. van de Velde, W. Arens, The man-eating myth. Oxford University Press, New York, 1979. XIV + 206 pp., 12 illustrations. - E.Ch.L. van der Vliet, Klaus E. Müller, Geschichte der antiken ethnographie und ethnologischen theoriebildung von den anfängen bis auf die byzantinischen historiographen, Teil II (Studien zur Kulturkunde 52, Wiesbaden: Franza Steiner Verlag, 1980. 563 pp. 11 figs. - J.J. de Wolf, P.T.W. Baxter, Age

  6. Depth Seismic-Migration Modeling Offshore `Tierra Del Fuego', Argentina (54° 25' S) (United States)

    Comínguez, A. H.; Flores, J.; Tassone, A.


    Within the framework of the TESAC Project (Tectonic Evolution of the South America-Scotia plate boundary during the Cenozoic), about 900 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles were acquired off the Atlantic coast of the Tierra del Fuego Island. The profiles cut across the South America-Scotia plate boundary, a transform margin which traverses in an E-W direction the Island. Data processing and interpretation of a seismic reflection profile is presented in this contribution. A robust post-stack technique involved depth-migration of the seismic section, using an interval-velocity model of the upper Crust adjusted by iterative processing. An interpreted seismic- velocity section (which trends roughly NW-SE), shows a complex superposition of different tectonic structures, with presence of extensional, compressional and transtensional features in the area located to the north of Isla de los Estados. The profile, which crosses the offshore part of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt, images the deep structural framework of part of this tectonic province. The identification of acoustic fabrics and seismic discontinuities allowed us to recognize four main units. Overlaying the acoustic basement (Seismic unit 1), there is another unit (Seismic unit 2) which exhibits some reflector packages of high amplitude; this unit must be related to the volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences of Tobífera/Lemaire Fms. The Seismic Unit 3 displays internal reflector configurations of moderate amplitude and continuity and low-to-moderate frequency; the Yaghán/Beauvoir Fms must be the onshore equivalent of this unit. An uppermost seismic layer (Unit 4) may be correlated with the Tertiary sediments of the Magallanes foreland basin which were involved in the fold and thrust belt. A major structure identified in the studied seismic profile is a SE structural high (which involves the units 1, 2 and 3) and a NW down-faulted area. The latter display folds of kilometric size (3-4 km

  7. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumoulin M


    Full Text Available Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C, luminosity (L, brightness (B, and transparency (T involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement.Results: Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001. Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001 whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: –18.0%; P<0.0001. Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4% and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look

  8. Data Processing and In -flight Calibration/validation of Envisat and Jason Radiometers (United States)

    Obligis, E.; Eymard, L.; Zanife, O. Z.

    Retrieval algorithms for wet tropospheric correction, integrated vapor and liquid water contents are formulated using a database of geophysical parameters from global analyses from a meteorological model and corresponding simulated brightness temperatures and backscattering cross -sections. Meteorological data are 12 hours predictions of the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. Relationships between satellite measurements and geophysical parameters are formulated using a statistical method. Quality of retrieval algorithms depends therefore on the representativity of the database, the accuracy of the radiative transfer model used for the simulations and finally on the quality of the inversion model. The database has been built using the latest version of the ECMWF forecast model, which has been operationally run since November, 2000. The 60 levels in the model allows a complete description of the troposphere/s tratosphere profiles and the horizontal resolution is now half of a degree. The radiative transfer model is the emissivity model developed at the Université Catholique de Louvain [Lemaire, 1998], coupled to an atmospheric model [Liebe et al, 1993] for gazeous absorption. For the inversion, we will compare performances of a classical loglinear regression with those of a neural networks inversion. In case of Envisat, the backscattering coefficient in Ku band is used in the different algorithms to take into account the surface roughness like it is done with the 18 GHz channel for TOPEX algorithms and a third term in wind speed for ERS2 algorithms. The in-flight calibration/validation of both radiometers will consist first in the evaluation of the calibration by comparison of measurements with simulations, using the same radiative transfer model and several other ECMWF global meteorological fields at coincident locations with satellite measurements. Although such a method only provides the relative discrepancy with respect to the

  9. Semi-empirical model of solar plages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Cheng


    [1] Zirin, H., Astrophysics of the Sun, Chapter 7, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.[2] Shine, R. A., Linsky, J. L., Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages II. Chromospheric plage models, Solar Phys., 1974, 39: 49.[3] Kelch, W. L., Linsky, J. L., Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages III. Models based on CaII and MgII observations, Solar Phys., 1978, 58: 37.[4] Lemaire, P., Goutlebroze, J. C., Vial, J. C. et al., Physical properties of the solar chromosphere deduced from optically thick lines, A & A, 1981, 103: 160.[5] Fontenla, J. M., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Energy balance in the solar transition region II. Effects of pressure and energy input on hydrostatic models, ApJ, 1991, 377: 712.[6] Fontenla, J. M., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Energy balance in the solar transition region III. Helium emission in hydrostatic, constant-abundance models with diffusion, ApJ, 1993, 406: 319.[7] Pierce, A. K., Slaughter, C., Solar limb darkening I: λλ(30337297), Solar Phys., 1977, 51: 25.[8] Pierce, A. K., Slaughter, C., Weinberger, D., Solar limb darkening in the interval 740424018*!, II, Solar Phys., 1977, 52: 179.[9] Nechel, H., Labs, D., The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500*!, Solar Phys., 1984, 90: 205.[10] Vernazza, J. E., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Structure of the solar chromosphere I. Basic computations and summary of the results, ApJ, 1973, 184: 605.[11] Mihalas, D., Stellar Atmospheres, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1978.[12] Fang, C., Hnoux, J. -C., Self-consistent model of flare heated solar chromosphere, A & A, 1983, 118: 139.[13] Ding, M. D., Fang, C., A semi-empirical model of sunspot penumbra, A & A, 1989, 225: 204.[14] Vernazza, J. E., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Structure of the solar chromosphere III. Models of the EUV brightness components of the quiet Sun, ApJ Suppl., 1981, 45: 635.[15] Canfield, R. C., Athey, R

  10. High hydrostatic pressure influences the in vitro response to xenobiotics in Dicentrarchus labrax liver. (United States)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Mignolet, Eric; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Rees, Jean François


    Hydrostatic pressure (HP) increases by about 1 atmosphere (0.1MPa) for each ten-meter depth increase in the water column. This thermodynamical parameter could well influence the response to and effects of xenobiotics in the deep-sea biota, but this possibility remains largely overlooked. To grasp the extent of HP adaptation in deep-sea fish, comparative studies with living cells of surface species exposed to chemicals at high HP are required. We initially conducted experiments with precision-cut liver slices of a deep-sea fish (Coryphaenoides rupestris), co-exposed for 15h to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3-methylcholanthrene at HP levels representative of the surface (0.1MPa) and deep-sea (5-15MPa; i.e., 500-1500m depth) environments. The transcript levels of a suite of stress-responsive genes, such as the AhR battery CYP1A, were subsequently measured (Lemaire et al., 2012; Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 10310-10316). Strikingly, the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA content was pressure-dependently reduced in C. rupestris. Here, the same co-exposure scenario was applied for 6 or 15h to liver slices of a surface fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, a coastal species presumably not adapted to high HP. Precision-cut liver slices of D. labrax were also used in 1h co-exposure studies with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as to investigate the pressure-dependence of the oxidative stress response (i.e., reactive oxygen production, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status). Liver cells remained viable in all experiments (adenosine triphosphate content). High HP precluded the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA expression in D. labrax, as well as that of glutathione peroxidase, and significantly reduced that of heat shock protein 70. High HP (1h) also tended per se to increase the level of oxidative stress in liver cells of the surface fish. Trends to an increased resistance to tBHP were also noted. Whether the latter observation truly

  11. Review on hydroxylamine, a precursor to amino-acids (United States)

    Lemaire, Jean Louis


    Does life on earth come from interstellar space (IS)?It has been recently demonstrated that part of the terrestrial water is of IS origin [Cleeves et al. Science 2014]. This raises the question whether materials like amino-acids or their pre-biotic molecular precursors could have been formed and brought to earth in the same way than water. Another question is whether these molecules were formed in the gas phase or through reactions on the surface/volume of ice-covered grains. This may then have occurred in the vicinity of proto-stellar cores or deep into a pristine dense molecular clouds at very low temperatures.As far as bio-related molecules are concerned, chemistry with nitrogen-bearing molecules (like NH3 and NO) is involved. I review recent experimental work showing that hydroxylamine (NH2OH) could be formed either by surface or by volume reactions in conditions close to those prevailing in dense media. They use either electron-UV irradiation of water-ammonia ices [Zheng & Kaiser JCPA 2010] or successive hydrogenation of solid nitric oxide[Congiu, Fedoseev & al. ApJL.2012] or the simple oxidation of ammonia [He, Vidali, Lemaire & Garrod, ApJ, 2015] or the reaction of ammonia with hydroxyl radicals in a rare gas matrix [Zins & Krim, 2014, 69th ISMS]. A step further, the synthesis of the simplest amino-acids, glycine (NH2CH2COOH) and L- or D-alanine (NH2CH3CHCOOH) has already been obtained via reactions in the gas phase involving NH2OH+ [Blagojevic & al. MNRAS 2003].In addition to several earlier models demonstrating that the formation of all these molecules is possible in the gas phase, a new recent three-phase gas-grain chemical kinetics model of hot cores [Garrod ApJ 2013] shows that the results of ammonia oxidation we obtain are plausible by surface/volume reactions.Although none of the aforementioned molecules (except glycine in a sample of cometary origin) has been yet detected in the IS, they all are considered by many observers and modelers as likely

  12. Protecting Unesco World Heritage PROPERTIES'S Integrity: the Role of Recording and Documentation in Risk Management for PETRA (United States)

    Santana Quintero, M.; Cesaro, G.; Ishakat, F.; Vandesande, A.; Vileikis, O.; Vadafari, A.; Paolini, A.; Van Balen, K.; Fakhoury, L.


    Risk management - as it has been defined - involves the decision-making process following a risk assessment (Ball, Watt, 2003). It is the process that involves managing to minimize losses and impacts on the significant of historic structures and to reach the balance between gaining and losing opportunities. This contribution explains the "heritage information" platform developed using low-cost recording, documentation and information management tools to serve as container for assessments resulting from the application of a risk methodology at a pilot area of the Petra Archaeological Park, in particular those that permit digitally and cost effective to prepare an adequate baseline record to identify disturbances and threats. Furthermore, this paper will reflect on the issue of mapping the World Heritage property's boundaries by illustrating a methodology developed during the project and further research to overcome the lack of boundaries and buffer zone for the protection of the Petra World Heritage site, as identified in this project. This paper is based on on-going field project from a multidisciplinary team of experts from the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (University of Leuven), UNESCO Amman, Petra Development Tourism and Region Authority (PDTRA), and Jordan's Department of Antiquities (DoA), as well as, experts from Jordan. The recording and documentation approach included in this contribution is part of an on-going effort to develop a methodology for mitigating (active and preventive) risks on the Petra Archaeological Park (Jordan). The risk assessment has been performed using non-intrusive techniques, which involve simple global navigation satellite system (GNSS), photography, and structured visual inspection, as well as, a heritage information framework based on Geographic Information Systems. The approach takes into consideration the comparison of vulnerability to sites with the value assessment to prioritize monuments at risk based

  13. Loss of diacylglycerol kinase epsilon in mice causes endothelial distress and impairs glomerular Cox-2 and PGE2 production. (United States)

    Zhu, Jili; Chaki, Moumita; Lu, Dongmei; Ren, Chongyu; Wang, Shan-Shan; Rauhauser, Alysha; Li, Binghua; Zimmerman, Susan; Jun, Bokkyoo; Du, Yong; Vadnagara, Komal; Wang, Hanquin; Elhadi, Sarah; Quigg, Richard J; Topham, Matthew K; Mohan, Chandra; Ozaltin, Fatih; Zhou, Xin J; Marciano, Denise K; Bazan, Nicolas G; Attanasio, Massimo


    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a disorder characterized by microvascular occlusion that can lead to thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and glomerular damage. Complement activation is the central event in most cases of TMA. Primary forms of TMA are caused by mutations in genes encoding components of the complement or regulators of the complement cascade. Recently, we and others have described a genetic form of TMA caused by mutations in the gene diacylglycerol kinase-ε (DGKE) that encodes the lipid kinase DGKε (Lemaire M, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Schaefer F, Choi MR, Tang WH, Le Quintrec M, Fakhouri F, Taque S, Nobili F, Martinez F, Ji WZ, Overton JD, Mane SM, Nurnberg G, Altmuller J, Thiele H, Morin D, Deschenes G, Baudouin V, Llanas B, Collard L, Majid MA, Simkova E, Nurnberg P, Rioux-Leclerc N, Moeckel GW, Gubler MC, Hwa J, Loirat C, Lifton RP. Nat Genet 45: 531-536, 2013; Ozaltin F, Li BH, Rauhauser A, An SW, Soylemezoglu O, Gonul II, Taskiran EZ, Ibsirlioglu T, Korkmaz E, Bilginer Y, Duzova A, Ozen S, Topaloglu R, Besbas N, Ashraf S, Du Y, Liang CY, Chen P, Lu DM, Vadnagara K, Arbuckle S, Lewis D, Wakeland B, Quigg RJ, Ransom RF, Wakeland EK, Topham MK, Bazan NG, Mohan C, Hildebrandt F, Bakkaloglu A, Huang CL, Attanasio M. J Am Soc Nephrol 24: 377-384, 2013). DGKε is unrelated to the complement pathway, which suggests that unidentified pathogenic mechanisms independent of complement dysregulation may result in TMA. Studying Dgke knockout mice may help to understand the pathogenesis of this disease, but no glomerular phenotype has been described in these animals so far. Here we report that Dgke null mice present subclinical microscopic anomalies of the glomerular endothelium and basal membrane that worsen with age and develop glomerular capillary occlusion when exposed to nephrotoxic serum. We found that induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and of the proangiogenic prostaglandin E2 are impaired in Dgke null kidneys and are associated with reduced expression of the

  14. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (United States)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.


    The Arroyo Rojo Zn-Pb-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit is the main deposit of the Fin del Mundo District in the Fuegian Andes, Argentina. This deposit is hosted by a Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence forming the Lemaire Formation. The latter consists, from the base up, of the following: rhyolitic and dacitic porphyritic rocks, ignimbrite, tuff, and flow. It is underlain by a pre-Jurassic basement and overlain by the hyaloclastic andesites of the Yahgán Formation. The Arroyo Rojo consists of stacked lenticular lenses that are associated with disseminated mineralization in both the footwall and the hanging wall. The internal structure of the ore lenses is marked by the occurrence of massive, semi-massive and banded facies, along with stringer and brecciated zones and minor ore disseminations. The mineral assemblage comprises mainly pyrite and sphalerite, with minor amounts of galena and chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite and bournonite. The ores and the volcanic host rocks have metamorphosed to greenschist facies and were overprinted by a penetrative tectonic foliation, which led to the development of mylonitic, and cataclastic textures, recrystallization and remobilization. Primary depositional characteristics and regional and hydrothermal alteration patterns were preserved despite deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, primary banding was preserved between facies boundaries. In addition, some remnants of magmatic origin are recognizable in preserved phenocrysts and volcaniclastic phenoclasts. Most of the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the host sequence show a rhyolitic to rhyo-dacitic composition. Regional seafloor alteration, characterized by the presence of clinozoisite, Fe-chlorite and titanite, along with quartz and albite, is partially obliterated by hydrothermal alteration. The hydrothermal alteration is stratabound with the following assemblages, which developed from the base to top: (1) Quartz

  15. 13CO mapping study for massive molecular cloud cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Yuefang


    [1] Zirin, H., Astrophysics of the Sun, Chapter 7, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.[2] Shine, R. A., Linsky, J. L., Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages II. Chromospheric plage models, Solar Phys., 1974, 39: 49.[3] Kelch, W. L., Linsky, J. L., Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages III. Models based on CaII and MgII observations, Solar Phys., 1978, 58: 37.[4] Lemaire, P., Goutlebroze, J. C., Vial, J. C. et al., Physical properties of the solar chromosphere deduced from optically thick lines, A & A, 1981, 103: 160.[5] Fontenla, J. M., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Energy balance in the solar transition region II. Effects of pressure and energy input on hydrostatic models, ApJ, 1991, 377: 712.[6] Fontenla, J. M., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Energy balance in the solar transition region III. Helium emission in hydrostatic, constant-abundance models with diffusion, ApJ, 1993, 406: 319.[7] Pierce, A. K., Slaughter, C., Solar limb darkening I: λλ(30337297), Solar Phys., 1977, 51: 25.[8] Pierce, A. K., Slaughter, C., Weinberger, D., Solar limb darkening in the interval 740424018*!, II, Solar Phys., 1977, 52: 179.[9] Nechel, H., Labs, D., The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500*!, Solar Phys., 1984, 90: 205.[10] Vernazza, J. E., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Structure of the solar chromosphere I. Basic computations and summary of the results, ApJ, 1973, 184: 605.[11] Mihalas, D., Stellar Atmospheres, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1978.[12] Fang, C., Hnoux, J. -C., Self-consistent model of flare heated solar chromosphere, A & A, 1983, 118: 139.[13] Ding, M. D., Fang, C., A semi-empirical model of sunspot penumbra, A & A, 1989, 225: 204.[14] Vernazza, J. E., Avrett, E. H., Loeser, R., Structure of the solar chromosphere III. Models of the EUV brightness components of the quiet Sun, ApJ Suppl., 1981, 45: 635.[15] Canfield, R. C., Athey, R

  16. 中央执行负荷对成人估算策略运用的影响%The Effect of Central Executive Load on Adult's Strategy Using in Computational Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司继伟; 杨佳; 贾国敬; 周超


    Many models on strategy choosing in arithmetic cognition have been proposed, however, the role of central executive load in strategy utilization is still far from clear. A previous research with the Choice Reaction Time task (CRT) found that working memory load didn't affect children's strategy utilization (Imbo & Vandierendonck, 2007). In another study, Logie, Gilhooly and Wynn (1994) reported that different sub-tasks affected mental arithmetic. More recent studies also revealed that the inhibition and shifting capacities mediated age-related differences in strategy selection (Lemaire & Lecacheur, 2011; Hodzik & Lemaire, 2011). Dual-task paradigm is commonly utilized in exploring working memory load in arithmetic performance, and the choice/no-choice is a standard method to obtain unbiased data about strategy utilization. In this study, we employed the dual-task paradigm and choice/no-choice method to investigate the influence of central executive load upon individual strategy utilization during arithmetic processing. 128 college students were tested by the dual-task paradigm and choice/no-choice method. They were askedto finish a two-digit addition computational estimate and a secondary task at the same time. The experimental design was as following: 5 (consistent -high load, consistent -low load, inconsistent -high load, inconsistent -low load, no load) x 4 (free-choice condition, best-strategy choice condition, no-choice/rounding-up condition, no-choice/rounding-down condition). The main task was to finish 30 two-digit addition questions, and the secondary task was Han and Kim's (2004) design with some modifications. Results showed that: 1) Central executive load did not affect adult's strategy distribution. But comparing with free-choice condition, adults used less rounding-down strategy under the best -strategy choice condition (F(4,123) = 0.58, p> 0.05); 2) Central executive load affected how participants selected (F(4,123) = 11.10, p < 0.05) and executed (F

  17. Structure and Curie temperature of Y2Fe17-xCrx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Shiqiang; (


    [1]Sun Hong, Coey, J. M. D., Otani, Y. et al., Magnetic properties of a new series of rare-earth iron nitrides: R2Fe17Ny (y~2.6), J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., 1990, 2: 6465-6470.[2]Jacobs, T. H., Buschow, K. H. J., Zhou, G. F. et al., Magnetic interactions in R2Fe17-xAlx compounds (R=Ho, Y), J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 1992,116: 220-230.[3]Gvord, D., Lemaire, R., Magnetic transition and anomalous thermal expansion in R2Fe17 compounds, IEEE Trans. Magn., 1974, 10: 109-113.[4]Gubbens, P. C. M., van der Kraan, A. M., Jacobs, T. N. et al., 57Fe and 169Tm Mossbauer effect and magnetic properties of Tm2Fe15M2 (M=Al, Ga, Si), J. Less-Common Met., 1990,159: 173.[5]Middleton, D. P., Buschow, K. H. J., Magnetic properties of Ce2Fe17-xSix compounds, J. Alloys of Compounds, 1994, 206: L1-L2.[6]Jaswal, S. S., Yelon, W. B., Hadjipanayis, G. C. et al., Electronic and magnetic structures of the rare-earth compounds: R2Fe17Nx, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1991,67(5): 644-647.[7]Sabiryanov, R. F., Jaswal, S. S., Ab initio calculations of the Curie temperature of complex permanent-magnet materials, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1997, 79: 155-158.[8]Chen, N. X., Shen, J., Su, X. P., Theoretical study on the phase stability, site preference, and lattice parameters for Gd(Fe,T)12, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., 2001, 13: 2727-2736.[9]Chen, N. X., Hao, S. Q., Wu, Y. et al., Phase stability and site preference of Sm(Fe,T)12, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 2001, 233: 169-180.[10]Carlsson, A. E., Gelatt, C. D., Ehrenreich, H., An ab initio pair potential applied to metals, Philos. Mag. A, 1980, 41: 241-250.[11]Chen, N. X., Chen, Z. D., Wei, Y. C., Multidimensional inverse lattice problem and a uniformly sampled arithmetic Fourier transform, Phys. Rev. E, 1997, 55: R5-R8.[12]Chen, N. X., Ren, G. B., Carlsson-Gelatt-Ehrenreich technique and the Mobius inversion theorem, Phys. Rev. B, 1992, 45: 8177-8180.[13]Chen, N. X., Ge, X. J., Zhang, W. Q., Atomistic analysis of the field

  18. Implementación del modelo de remodelación ósea de Komarova para el estudio de la sensibilidad del proceso de remodelamiento óseo ante cambios en factores locales Model Bone of Komarova Implementation for the sensitivity study of the process of remodelling bony before changes in local factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemar Fonseca-Velásquez


    Full Text Available En este artículo se lleva a cabo la implementación del modelo de remodelación ósea de nivel celular planteado por Komarova, usando como herramienta un diagrama de bloques funcionales. El objetivo de esta implementación es hacer un análisis de sensibilidad con respecto a la variación de los parámetros del modelo y determinar la influencia de los factores paracrinos y autocrinos en la formación de osteoclastos y osteoblastos. El modelo se implementó en el paquete comercial Simulink de Matlab R2007b. Se encontró que cada parámetro tiene un rango de funcionamiento bien determinado y que, fuera de él, la estabilidad se pierde y se establecen ganancias o pérdidas de masa ósea que se pueden atribuir a anormalidades sistémicas de los huesos. Este trabajo constituye un avance sobre el tema de remodelación ósea gracias a que, a diferencia de trabajos previos, se incluyen las variaciones de los parámetros propios del proceso de remodelación que llevan a posibles alteraciones de los procesos del metabolismo óseo, lo cual constituye un punto de partida para el estudio de enfermedades y alteraciones de la densidad del hueso, y permite iniciar el modelado de nuevas enfermedades relacionadas con los huesos, como es, por ejemplo, la metástasis ósea. Este estudio, entonces, es un avance con respecto a los trabajos presentados por Komarova y Lemaire y puede explicar fenómenos de metástasis y alteraciones metabólicas como los descritos en Manolagas.In this article the cellular level model of bone remodeling implementation raised by Komarova is carried out, using like tool a functional block diagram. The objective of this implementation is to make an analysis of sensitivity with respect to the variation of the model parameters and to determine the influence of the paracrine and autocrine factors in the osteoclasts and osteoblasts formation. The model was implemented in the commercial package Simulink with Matlab R2007b. We found that each

  19. A comparison study between observations and simulation results of Barghouthi model for O+ and H+ outflows in the polar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson


    + ions at altitudes below ~7 RE, while it is important for altitudes above 7 RE. For O+ wave particle interaction is very significant at all altitudes. (3 For certain λ⊥ and at points, altitudes, where the ion gyroradius is equal to or less than λ⊥, the effect of wave-particle interactions is independent of the velocity and it depends only on the altitude part of the velocity diffusion coefficient; however, the effect of wave-particle interactions reduce above that point, called saturation point, and the heating process turns to be self-limiting heating. (4 The most interesting result is the appearance of O+ conics and toroids at low altitudes and continue to appear at high altitudes; however, they appear at very high altitudes for H+ ions. We compare quantitatively and qualitatively between the simulation results and the corresponding observations. As a result of many comparisons, we find that the best agreement occurs when λ⊥ equals to 8 km. The quantitative comparisons show that many characteristics of the observations are very close to the simulation results, and the qualitative comparisons between the simulation results for ion outflows and the observations produce very similar behaviors. To our knowledge, most of the comparisons between observations (ion velocity distribution, density, drift velocity, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, anisotropy, etc. and simulations obtained from different models produce few agreements and fail to explain many observations (see Yau et al., 2007; Lemaire et al., 2007; Tam et al., 2007; Su et al., 1998; Engwall et al., 2009. This paper presents many close agreements between observations and simulations obtained by Barghouthi model, for O+ and H+ ions at different altitudes i.e. from 1.7 RE to 13.7 RE.

  20. Dismantling of nuclear facilities and related problems - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    facilitating the definitive shutdown of the Jules Horowitz reactor (J. Estrade); 17 - Integration of dismantling at the design stage of the French EPR reactor (Y. Beneteau, J.P. Richard); 18 - Use of the Gampix gamma camera at dismantling sites (H. Lemaire); 19 - Stakes for the wastes intended to be disposed off in waste centres in operation (F. Dutzer); 20 - Cleansing of non-nuclear contaminated sites (V. Faure); 21 - Rehabilitation of dismantling sites - management plan for the old effluents channel of the Brennilis effluents processing plant (G. Pellenz, C. Ollivier-Dehaye); 22 - Problem of confinement keeping during deconstruction (A. Ginet, L. Fabrier); 23 - Project of wells cleansing at the irradiated materials workshop (AMI) of Chinon NPP (F. Duveau); 24 - Nuclear decontamination using a laser (F. Moggia); 25 - TIVA, adaptable and ventilated intervention dress (A. Dochy, P. Benjamin); 26 - Dismantling project - optimisation thanks to virtual reality-based software solutions (L. Ardellier, A. Pin)

  1. Seeing Is Believing. Or Is It? (United States)

    Moore, John W.


    Occasionally I get time to read something other than a scientific journal, book, or manuscript. On one such foray I discovered Kenneth Brower's "Photography in the Age of Falsification", which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly in May 1998. Brower described how an editor, who might never have experienced the wildness of nature, could conceive a photograph and assign a photographer to create it. Whether the scene depicted was actually possible often seemed relatively unimportant. The main thing was whether the image would interest viewers. Brower argued that today's vast array of software for manipulating digital versions of photographic images enables what he calls "photofakery" on an unprecedented scale. He described how editors at National Geographic decided to pull an ad that depicted a polar bear in Antarctica (where there are no bears); the ad had been created by digitally superimposing a photograph of a bear in a Cincinnati zoo and a photograph of the Lemaire Channel in Antarctica. According to Brower, "Too few photographers, I think, appreciate how directly the new technology aims at the heart of the credibility that distinguishes this art form from others." Credibility is also one of the hallmarks of science. Science progresses as a result of consensus on what results can be expected from carefully designed and carefully executed experiments and observations. As teachers of chemistry, we have a duty not to fall into the same kinds of traps that have made some photographers uneasy about their profession. And we need to help our students learn to avoid these traps. But it is not that easy, because we also need to capture students' attention and try to make our subject interesting by telling stories or showing phenomena or models that appeal to the imagination. As in the case of photography, defining where imagination begins to usurp reality is difficult. It is therefore a very important issue to wrestle with. Part of Brower's argument against manipulation of

  2. Orbiting observatory SOHO finds source of high-speed "wind" blowing from the Sun (United States)


    ranging from 30,000 km/h at the surface to over 3 million km/h, the solar wind "grows" much faster than grass". "Looking at the spot where the solar wind actually appears is extremely important", says co-author Dr. Philippe Lemaire of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France. The Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer on SOHO detected the solar wind by observing the ultraviolet spectrum over a large area of the solar north polar region. The SUMER instrument was built under the leadership of Dr. Klaus Wilhelm at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie in Lindau, Germany, with key contributions from the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the University of California at Berkeley, with financial support from German, French, US and Swiss national agencies. "Identification of the detailed structure of the source region of the fast solar wind is an important step in solving the solar wind acceleration problem. We can now focus our attention on the plasma conditions and the dynamic processes seen in the corners of the magnetic field structures", says Dr. Wilhelm, also co-author of the Science paper. A spectrum results from the separation of light into its component colours, which correspond to different wavelengths. Blue light has a shorter wavelength and is more energetic than red. A spectrum is similar to what is seen when a prism separates white light into a rainbow of distinct colours. By analysing light this way, astronomers learn a great deal about the object emitting the light, such as its temperature, chemical composition, and motion. The ultraviolet light observed by SUMER is actually invisible to the human eye and cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. The hot gas in the solar wind source region emits light at certain ultraviolet wavelengths. When the hot gas flows towards Earth, as it does in the solar wind, the wavelengths of the