WorldWideScience

Sample records for astronautics

  1. Female Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Astronauts Dr. N. Jan Davis (left) and Dr. Mae C. Jemison (right) were mission specialists on board the STS-47 mission. Born on November 1, 1953 in Cocoa Beach, Florida, Dr. N. Jan Davis received a Master degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1983 followed by a Doctorate in Engineering from the University of Alabama in Huntsville in 1985. In 1979 she joined NASA Marshall Space Flight Center as an aerospace engineer. A veteran of three space flights, Dr. Davis has logged over 678 hours in space since becoming an astronaut in 1987. She flew as a mission specialist on STS-47 in 1992 and STS-60 in 1994, and was the payload commander on STS-85 in 1997. In July 1999, she transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center, where she became Director of Flight Projects. Dr. Mae C. Jemison, the first African-American woman in space, was born on October 17, 1956 in Decatur, Alabama but considers Chicago, Illinois her hometown. She received a Bachelor degree in Chemical Engineering (and completed the requirements for a Bachelor degree in African and Afro-American studies) at Stanford University in 1977, and a Doctorate degree in medicine from Cornell University in 1981. After receiving her doctorate, she worked as a General Practitioner while attending graduate engineering classes in Los Angeles. She was named an astronaut candidate in 1987, and flew her first flight as a science mission specialists on STS-47, Spacelab-J, in September 1992, logging 190 hours, 30 minutes, 23 seconds in space. In March 1993, Dr. Jemison resigned from NASA, thought she still resides in Houston, Texas. She went on to publish her memoirs, Find Where the Wind Goes: Moments from My Life, in 2001. The astronauts are shown preparing to deploy the lower body negative pressure (LBNP) apparatus in this 35mm frame taken in the science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavor. Fellow astronauts Robert L. Gibson (Commander), Curtis L. Brown (Junior Pilot), Mark C. Lee (Payload Commander), Jay Apt

  2. Astronaut Scott Carpenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    Astronaut Scott Carpenter, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, the MA-7 mission made the second marned orbital flight by the United States, and carried Astronaut Carpenter aboard Aurora 7 spacecraft to orbit the Earth three times.

  3. Multiphoton tomography of astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Pietruszka, Anna; Bückle, Rainer; Gerlach, Nicole; Heinrich, Ulrike

    2015-03-01

    Weightlessness may impair the astronaut's health conditions. Skin impairments belong to the most frequent health problems during space missions. Within the Skin B project, skin physiological changes during long duration space flights are currently investigated on three European astronauts that work for nearly half a year at the ISS. Measurements on the hydration, the transepidermal water loss, the surface structure, elasticity and the tissue density by ultrasound are conducted. Furthermore, high-resolution in vivo histology is performed by multiphoton tomography with 300 nm spatial and 200 ps temporal resolution. The mobile certified medical tomograph with a flexible 360° scan head attached to a mechano-optical arm is employed to measure two-photon autofluorescence and SHG in the volar forearm of the astronauts. Modification of the tissue architecture and of the fluorescent biomolecules NAD(P)H, keratin, melanin and elastin are detected as well as of SHG-active collagen. Thinning of the vital epidermis, a decrease of the autofluoresence intensity, an increase in the long fluorescence lifetime, and a reduced skin ageing index SAAID based on an increased collagen level in the upper dermis have been found. Current studies focus on recovery effects.

  4. Astronauts Clown Around in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts are clowning around in space in this STS-51A onboard photo. Astronaut Gardner, holds a 'For Sale' sign after the retrieval of two malfunctioning satellites; the Western Union Telegraph Communication Satellite (WESTAR VI); and the PALAPA-B2 Satellite. Astronaut Allen, who is standing on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. The 51A mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on November 8, 1984.

  5. Astronaut health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Extended weightlessness causes numerous deleterious changes in human physiology, including space motion sickness, cephalad fluid shifts, reduced immune response, and breakdown of muscle tissue with subsequent loss of bone mass and formation of renal stones. Furthermore, these physiological changes also influence the metabolism of drugs used by astronauts to minimize these deleterious effects. Unfortunately, the changes in human physiology in space are also reflected in drug metabolism, and current pre-flight analyses designed to set dosage are inadequate. Furthermore, current earth-based analytical laboratory methods that employ liquid or gas chromatography for separation and fluorescence or mass spectrometry for trace detection are labor intensive, slow, massive, and not cost-effective for operation in space. In an effort to overcome these instrument limitations we have been developing a sampling device to both separate these drugs and metabolites from urine, and generate surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra. The detailed molecular vibrational information afforded by Raman scattering allows chemical identification, while the surface-enhancement increases sensitivity by six or more orders of magnitude and allows detection of nanogram per milliliter concentrations. Generally no more than 1 milliliter of sample is required and complete analysis can be performed in 5 minutes using a portable, light-weight Raman spectrometer. Here we present the SER analysis of several drugs used by astronauts measured in synthetic urine and reconstituted urine.

  6. Astronauts For Hire The Emergence of a Commercial Astronaut Corps

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The spaceflight industry is being revolutionized. It is no longer the sole preserve of professional astronauts working on government-funded manned spaceflight programs. As private companies are being encouraged to build and operate launch vehicles, and even spacecraft that can be hired on a contract basis, a new breed of astronauts is coming into being. Astronauts for Hire describes how this commercial astronaut corps will be selected and trained. It provides a unique insight into the kinds of missions and tasks that the astronauts will be involved in, from suborbital science missions to commercial trips to low Earth orbit. The book also describes the new fleet of commercial spaceships being developed - reusable rocket-propelled vehicles that will offer quick, routine, and affordable access to the edge of space. The author also explores the possibility of private enterprise establishing interplanetary spaceports, lunar bases, and outposts on the surface of Mars.

  7. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  8. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin takes blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin (right), Skylab 2 science pilot and a doctor of medicine, takes a blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Sylab 2 commander, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. The blood sampling was part of the Skylab Hematology and Immunology Experiment M110 series.

  9. Astronautics summary and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Anatoly Ivanovich; Menshikov, Valery Alexandrovich

    2003-01-01

    The monograph by A.I.Kiselev, A.A. Medvedev and Y.A.Menshikov, Astronautics: Summary and Prospects, aroused enthusiasm both among experts and the public at large. This is due to the felicitous choice of presentation that combines a simple description of complex space matters with scientificsubstantiation of the sub­ jectmatter described. The wealth of color photos makes the book still more attractive, and it was nominated for an award at the 14th International Moscow Book Fair, being singled out as the "best publication of the book fair". The book's popularity led to a second edition, substantially revised and enlarged. Since the first edition did not sufficiently cover the issues of space impact on ecology and the prospective development of space systems, the authors revised the entire volume, including in it the chapter "Space activity and ecology" and the section "Multi-function space systems". Using the federal monitoring system, now in the phase of system engi­ neering, as an example, the authors consi...

  10. Philosophy on astronaut protection: Perspective of an astronaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.

    1997-04-30

    There are significant differences in the risks during the launch of a spacecraft, its journey, and its subsequent return to earth, as contrasted to the risks of latent cancers that may develop as a result of the associated radiation exposures. Once the spacecraft has landed, following a successful mission, the risks of accidental death are over. The risks of latent cancers, however, will remain with the astronauts for the rest of their lives. The same may be true for many of the effects of the space environment, including microgravity. Compounding the problem with respect to radiation are the large uncertainties accompanying the estimates of the associated latent cancer risks. In addition to radiation doses received as a result of being exposed in space, astronauts have received significant does of radiation in conjunction with medical examinations and experiments conducted to obtain data on the effects of the space environment on humans. The experiments were considered to be a part of the {open_quotes}job{close_quotes} of being an astronaut, and the resulting doses were included in the medical records. Following this approach, the accompanying doses were counted against the career limits being imposed on each astronaut. As a result, volunteering for such experiments could cause an earlier termination of the career of an astronaut than would otherwise have occurred and add to the total radiation exposure, thereby increasing one`s risk of subsequent illness. Through cooperative efforts, these does have been significantly reduced in recent years. In fact, one of the outcomes of these efforts has been the incorporation of the ALARA concept into the radiation protection program for the astronauts. The fact that a space mission has a range of risks, including some that are relatively large, is no justification for failing to reduce the accompanying radiation risk.

  11. Astronaut Aldrin is photographed by Astronaut Armstrong on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The deployment of the early Apollo scientific experiments package is photographed by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong during the Apollo 11 EVA. Here, Astronaut Aldrin is deploying the passive seismic experiments package. Already deployed is the Lunar ranging retro- reflector, which can be seen to the left and farther in the background. In the right background is the Lunar Module (LM). A flag of the United States is deployed near the LM. In the far left background is the deployed black and white lunar surface television camera. Armstrong took this picture with the 70mm lunar surface camera.

  12. Official portrait of astronaut Robert C. Springer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Official portrait of astronaut Robert C. Springer, United Stated Marine Corps (USMC) Colonel, member of Astronaut Class 9 (1980), and mission specialist. Springer wears launch and entry suit (LES) while holding helmet.

  13. Metabolic changes observed in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Cintron, N. M.; Krauhs, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Results of medical experiments with astronauts reveal rapid loss of volume (2 l) from the legs and a transient early increase in left ventricular volume index. These findings indicate that, during space flight, fluid is redistributed from the legs toward the head. In about 2 days, total body water decreases 2 to 3 percent. Increased levels of plasma renin activity and antidiuretic hormone while blood sodium and plasma volume are reduced suggest that space flight-associated factors are influencing the regulatory systems. In addition to fluid and electrolyte loss, Skylab astronauts lost an estimated 0.3 kg of protein. Endocrine factors, including increased cortisol and thyroxine and decreased insulin, are favorable for protein catabolism. The body appears to adapt to weightlessness at some physiologic cost. Readaptation to earth's gravity at landing becomes another physiologic challenge.

  14. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  15. Astronautics in an integrating world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, A.

    If Astronautics is to survive it is necessary to introduce a space transportation system that is designed not on political assessment but on engineering. It is also necessary to establish an international certification unit and separate security issues. With such a framework, it should be possible to look forward to space industrialisation as the fourth industrialisation via space power and tourism in Low Earth Orbit. This would follow the integration already at hand from space based communication.

  16. Methodology for astronaut reconditioning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David J; Cook, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports. Astronauts and Medical Operations personnel should be involved at all levels to ensure feasibility of research protocols. There is room for creative and hybrid methodology but careful systematic observation is likely to be more achievable and fruitful than complex trial based comparisons. Multi-space agency collaboration will be critical to pool data from small groups of astronauts with the accepted use of standardised outcome measures across all agencies. Systematic reviews will be an essential component. Most limitations relate to the inherent small sample size available for human spaceflight research. Early adoption of a co-operative model for spaceflight rehabilitation research is therefore advised.

  17. Designing Interfaces for Astronaut Autonomy in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenius, Steve

    2015-01-01

    As we move towards human deep space missions, astronauts will no longer be able to say, Houston, we have a problem. The restricted contact with mission control because of the incredible distance from Earth will require astronauts to make autonomous decisions. How will astronauts take on the roles of mission control? This is an area of active research that has far reaching implications for the future of distant spaceflight. Come to this talk to hear how we are using design and user research to come up with innovative solutions for astronauts to effectively explore the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

  18. Geoscience Training for NASA Astronaut Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Graff, T. G.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-01-01

    After being selected to the astronaut office, crewmembers go through an initial two year training flow, astronaut candidacy, where they learn the basic skills necessary for spaceflight. While the bulk of astronaut candidate training currently centers on the multiple subjects required for ISS operations (EVA skills, Russian language, ISS systems, etc.), training also includes geoscience training designed to train crewmembers in Earth observations, teach astronauts about other planetary systems, and provide field training designed to investigate field operations and boost team skills. This training goes back to Apollo training and has evolved to support ISS operations and future exploration missions.

  19. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  20. An expert system for astronaut scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    A novel application of expert system technology is developed for real-time advice to an astronaut during the performance of a crew intensive experiment. The provision of an on-board computer expert, containing much of the reasoning base of the real Principal Investigator, will permit the astronaut to act more as a scientist co-worker in future Spacelab and Space Station missions. The long duration of flight increments and the large number of experiments envisioned for Space Station Freedom make the increase in astronaut productivity particularly valuable. A first version of the system was evaluated on the ground during the recent Spacelab SLS-1 flight.

  1. Astronautical Hygiene - A New Discipline to Protect the Health of Astronauts Working in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, J. R.

    This paper outlines the rationale for a new scientific discipline namely astronautical hygiene. Astronautical hygiene is an applied science that utilises a knowledge of space toxicology, space medicine, astronautics, occupational hygiene etc. to identify the hazards, assess the exposure risks to health, and thereby determine the measures to mitigate exposure to protect the health of astronauts during living and working in space. This paper describes the nature of the hazards (i.e. physical, chemical, microbial and psychological) encountered during space flight. It discusses exposure risk assessment and the use of sampling techniques to assess astronaut health risks. This paper then discusses the measures used to mitigate exposure to the exposure hazards during space exploration. A case study of the application of the principles of astronautical hygiene to control lunar dust exposure is then described.

  2. Astronaut Judith Resnik participates in WETF training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Judith Resnik participates in extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). She is wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and is being assisted to don her gloves.

  3. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in simulation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, participates in simulation training in preparation for the scheduled lunar landing mission. He is in the Apollo Lunar Module Mission SImulator in the Kennedy Space Center's Flight Crew Training Building.

  4. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  5. Astronaut Neil Armstrong during thermovacuum training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, is photographed during thermovacuum training in Chamber B of the Space Environment Simulation Laboratory, Building 32, Manned Spacecraft Center. He is wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit. The training simulated lunar surface vacuum and thermal conditions during astronaut operations outside the Lunar Module on the moon's surface. The mirror was used to reflect solar light.

  6. Noise in space. [effect on Skylab astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, W. P.; Baratono, J.; Bandgren, H.; Erwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab program presented an excellent opportunity to investigate the effects of noise on man confined in limited space for long periods of time. This paper summarizes the results of a 4-year study to achieve a habitable noise environment for the Skylab astronauts. Noise control measures are described and noise measurements obtained during the Skylab missions are presented, as well as the astronauts' reactions to and evaluations of the noise environment.

  7. First Class of Female Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979. Shannon W. Lucid was born on January 14, 1943 in Shanghai, China but considers Bethany, Oklahoma to be her hometown. She spent many years at the University of Oklahoma, receiving a Bachelor in chemistry in 1963, a Master in biochemistry in 1970, and a Doctorate in biochemistry in 1973. Dr. Lucid flew on the STS-51G Discovery, STS-34 Atlantis, STS-43 Atlantis, and STS-58 Columbia shuttle missions, setting the record for female astronauts by logging 838 hours and 54 minutes in space. She also currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record for her 188 days on the Russian Space Station Mir. From February 2002 to September 2003, she served as chief scientist at NASA Headquarters before returning to JSC to help with the Return to Flight program after the STS-107 accident. Born November 8, 1947, in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Margaret Rhea Seddon received a Doctorate of Medicine in 1973 from the University of Tennessee. She flew on space missions STS-51 Discovery, STS-40 Columbia, and STS-58 Columbia for a total of over 722 hours in space. Dr. Seddon retired from NASA in November 1997, taking on a position as the Assistant Chief Medical Officer of the Vanderbilt Medical Group in Nashville, Tennessee. Kathryn Sullivan was born October 3, 1951 in Patterson, New Jersey but considers Woodland Hills, California to be her hometown. She received a Bachelor in Earth Sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1973 and a Doctorate in Geology from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1978. She flew on space missions STS-41G, STS-31, and STS-45 and logged a total of 532 hours in space. Dr. Sullivan left NASA in August 1992 to

  8. Safeguarding the Health of the NASA Astronaut Community: the Need for Expanded Medical Monitoring for Former NASA Astronauts Under the Astronaut Occupational Health Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Meredith; Lee, Lesley; Wear, Mary; Van Baalen, Mary; Rhodes, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential latent health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging communities are necessary for astronauts to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography), as opposed to conditions resulting directly from the astronaut occupation; and increased breadth of monitoring services will improve the understanding of occupational health risks and longitudinal health of the astronaut community, past, present, and future. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of expanding existing medical monitoring under the Astronaut Occupational Health program for former NASA astronauts.

  9. Psychological training of German science astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzey, Dietrich; Schiewe, Albrecht

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  10. The Digital Astronaut Project Bone Remodeling Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Thompson, William K.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2014-01-01

    Under the conditions of microgravity, astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month, particularly in the lower extremities such as the proximal femur: (1) The most commonly used countermeasure against bone loss has been prescribed exercise, (2) However, current exercise countermeasures do not completely eliminate bone loss in long duration, 4 to 6 months, spaceflight, (3,4) leaving the astronaut susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and a greater risk of fracture later in their lives. The introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device, coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized the 4 to 6 month bone loss. But further work is needed to implement optimal exercise prescriptions, and (5) In this light, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA physiologists to implement well-validated computational models that can help understand the mechanisms of bone demineralization in microgravity, and enhance exercise countermeasure development.

  11. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  12. The astronaut's cookbook tales, recipes, and more

    CERN Document Server

    Bourland, Charles T

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts, cosmonauts, and a very limited number of people have experienced eating space food due to the unique processing and packaging required for space travel. This book allows anyone with a normal kitchen to prepare space food. Since some of the processing such as freeze dehydration, and packaging cannot be accomplished in the normal kitchen, many of the recipes will not produce the food that would be launched in space, but will prepare food similar to what the astronauts would eat after they had added the water to the food in space. Many of the space foods are prepared to the point of r

  13. How Can "Weightless" Astronauts Be Weighed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jesus; Reyes, Francisco; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2012-01-01

    In introductory physics courses, within the context of studying Newton's laws, it is common to consider the problem of a body's "weight" when it is in free fall. The solution shows that the "weight" is zero and this leads to a discussion of the concept of weight. There are permanent free-fall situations such as astronauts in a spacecraft orbiting…

  14. Astronauts Mullane and Resnik at WETF training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Judith A. Resnik and Richard M. (Mike) Mullane, 41-D mission specialists, participate in an underwater session in the JSC weightless environment training facility (WETF). In this close-up view, Resnik adjusts Mullane's helmet prior to his immersion in the pool.

  15. Astronaut Scott Carpenter tests balance mechanism performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter's balance mechanism performance is tested by his walking on a narrow board in his bare feet. He is performing this test at the School of Aviation Medicine, Pensicola, Florida (04570); Carpenter walks a straight line by putting one foot directly in front of the other to test his balance (04571).

  16. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge was developed in 2011 to encourage proper exercise and nutrition at an early age by teaching young people to live and eat like space explorers. The strong correlation between an unhealthy childhood diet and adolescent fitness, and the onset of chronic diseases as an adult is the catalyst for Mission X. Mission X is dedicated to assisting people on a global scale to live healthier lifestyles and learn about human space exploration. The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut 2015 (MX15) International Challenge hosted almost 40,000 children on 800 teams, 28 countries affiliated with 12 space agencies. The MX15 website included 17 languages. MX15, the fifth annual international fitness challenges sponsored by the NASA Human Research Program worked with the European Space Agency and other space agencies from around the world. In comparison to MX14, MX15 expanded to include four additional new countries, increased the number of students by approximately 68% and the number of teams by 29%. Chile' and South Korea participated in the new fall Astro Charlie Walk Around the Earth Challenge. Pre-challenge training materials were made more readily available from the website. South Korea completed a prospective assessment of the usability of the MX content for improving health and fitness in 212 preschool children and their families. Mission X is fortunate to have the support of the NASA, ESA and JAXA astronaut corps. In MX15, they participated in the opening and closing events as well as while on-board the International Space Station. Italian Astronaut Samantha Cristoretti participated as the MX15 Astronaut Ambassador for health and fitness providing the opening video and other videos from ISS. United Kingdom Astronaut Tim Peake and US Astronaut Kate Rubins have agreed to be the MX Ambassadors for 2016 and 2017 respectively. The MX15 International Working Group Face-to-Face meeting and Closing Event were held at the Agenzia Spaziale

  17. Astronaut Twins Give Clues to Health Hazards of Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163391.html Astronaut Twins Give Clues to Health Hazards of Spaceflight NASA ... aboard the International Space Station, and his identical twin Mark, a retired astronaut. Mark remained on Earth ...

  18. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  19. Transactions of Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Transactions of Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics (TNUAA, in English) is a comprehensive academic publication which deals mainly with the research achievements in aeronautics, civil aviation, astronautics and their theoretical basis. It is published by Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, and has started its publication since Oct. 1982.

  20. STS-96 Astronauts Adjust Unity Hatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts Rick D. Husband and Tamara E. Jernigan adjust the hatch for the U.S. built Unity node. The task was part of an overall effort of seven crew members to prepare the existing portion of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched on May 27, 1999, aboard the Orbiter Discovery, the STS-96 mission was the second ISS assembly flight and the first shuttle mission to dock with the station.

  1. Train Like an Astronaut Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yamil L.; Lloyd, Charles; Reeves, Katherine M.; Abadie, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the incidence of childhood obesity, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), capitalizing on the theme of human spaceflight developed two educational outreach programs for children ages 8-12. To motivate young "fit explorers," the Train Like an Astronaut National (TLA) program and the Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut International Fitness Challenge (MX) were created. Based on the astronauts' physical training, these programs consist of activities developed by educators and experts in the areas of space life sciences and fitness. These Activities address components of physical fitness. The educational content hopes to promote students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. At the national level, in partnership with First Lady Michelle Obama's Let?s Move! Initiative, the TLA program consists of 10 physical and 2 educational activities. The program encourages families, schools, and communities to work collaboratively in order to reinforce in children and their families the importance of healthy lifestyle habits In contrast, the MX challenge is a cooperative outreach program involving numerous space agencies and other international partner institutions. During the six-week period, teams of students from around the world are challenged to improve their physical fitness and collectively accumulate points by completing 18 core activities. During the 2011 pilot year, a t otal of 137 teams and more than 4,000 students from 12 countries participated in the event. MX will be implemented within 24 countries during the 2012 challenge. It is projected that 7,000 children will "train like an astronaut".

  2. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions...... onboard the MIR station and on the ground (control). Mission duration before first urine collection in the four astronauts was 4, 26, 26, and 106 days, respectively. On the ground, data were collected 2 months before mission in two astronauts, 6 months after in the other astronauts. A total of twenty......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...

  3. Enhancing Astronaut Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Bloomberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments - enhancing their ability to learn to learn. We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  4. Former Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong Visits MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Among several other NASA dignitaries, former astronaut Neil A. Armstrong visited the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in attendance of the annual NASA Advisory Council Meeting. While here, Mr. Armstrong was gracious enough to allow the casting of his footprint. This casting will join those of other astronauts on display at the center. Armstrong was first assigned to astronaut status in 1962. He served as command pilot for the Gemini 8 mission, launched March 16, 1966, and performed the first successful docking of two vehicles in space. In 1969, Armstrong was commander of Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission, and gained the distinction of being the first man to land a craft on the Moon and the first man to step on its surface. Armstrong subsequently held the position of Deputy Associate Administrator for Aeronautics, NASA Headquarters Office of Advanced Research and Technology, from 1970 to 1971. He resigned from NASA in 1971. Pictured with Armstrong is MSFC employee Daniel McFall, who assisted with the casting procedure.

  5. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial

  6. Validation of astronaut psychological select-in criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, R. M.; Helmreich, R. L.; Mcfadden, T.; Santy, P. A.; Holland, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    An optional astronaut selection strategy would select-in individuals on the basis of personality attributes associated with superior performance. Method: A test battery, the Astronaut Personal Characteristics Inventory (ASTROPCI) was developed which assesses positive and negative components of achievement, motivation, and interpersonal orientations and skills. The battery was administered to one hundred three astronaut candidates and sixty-six current U.S. Shuttle astronauts. To determine performance, a series of conceptual areas related to space flight performance were defined. Astronauts rated their peers on each of these dimensions. Ratings were obtained on all eighty-four current astronauts (excluding those selected in 1990). In addition to peer ratings, supervisor assessments of the same dimensions were obtained for each astronaut. Results: Cluster and factor analysis techniques were employed to isolate subgroups of astronauts. Those astronauts with both high achievement needs and interpersonal skills were most often rated among the top five by their peers and least often rated among the lowest five. A number of scales discriminated between astronauts rated high and low on one or more performance dimensions. Conclusions: The results parallel findings from the personality assessment of individuals in other demanding professions, including aircraft pilots and research scientists, suggesting that personality factors are significant determinants to performance in the space environment.

  7. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  8. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth

  9. Astronaut Sellers Performs STS-112 EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard Side Integrated Truss Structure (S1) and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. In this photograph, Astronaut Piers J. Sellers uses both a handrail on the Destiny Laboratory and a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 to remain stationary while performing work at the end of the STS-112 mission's second space walk. A cloud-covered Earth provides the backdrop for the scene.

  10. Astronauts Conrad and Kerwin practice Human Vestibular Function experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, science pilot of the mission, goes over a checklist. The two men are in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC.

  11. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt retrieving lunar samples during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, with his adjustable sampling scoop, heads for a selected rock on the lunar surface to retrieve the sample for study. The action was photographed by Apollo 17 crew commander, Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan on the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA-2), at Station 5 (Camelot Crater) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site.

  12. Astronauts Scott Carpenter and Walter Schirra completes water egress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Project Mercury Astronauts M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 7, prepares to go through a water egress test. Astronaut Walter M. Schirra (back to camera), the backup MA-7 pilot is also present. Carpenter and Schirra are in the Mercury pressure suit, without the helmet. Behind them is an inflated life raft.

  13. Astronaut Scott Carpenter inserted into Aurora 7 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 7 space flight, is inserted into Aurora 7 spacecraft during the prelaunch countdown. Carpenter is assisted into the spacecraft by Astronaut John Glenn and Gunter Vendt, McDonnell Douglas pad capsule test conducter.

  14. Astronaut Scott Carpenter in pressure suit awaiting simulated mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Project Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter smiles, in his pressure suit, prior to participating in a simulated mission run at Cape Canaveral, Florida. Astronaut Carpenter had been selected as the prime pilot on the nation's second attempt to put a man into orbit around the earth.

  15. Astronaut Scott Carpenter examines protective material on pressure bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead in the white room facility at Hanger S, Cape Canaveral, Florida. This is the spacecraft which will carry astronaut Carpenter on the nation's second manned orbital flight.

  16. Astronaut Scott Carpenter practices in the ALFA trainer at Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Project Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter practices in the Air Lubricated Free Attitude (ALFA) trainer located at NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center at Langley AFB, Virginia. This trainer allows the astronaut to see the image of the earth's surface at his feet while manually controlling the spacecraft.

  17. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  18. Feeding the Astronauts During Long Duration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issues surrounding feeding astronauts during long duration missions. There is a brief history from the food and food packaging available during Project Mercury through the current food requirements. It shows the packaging and the requirements that have been used. The current food system includes thermostabilized and irradiated foods to reduce the potential of harmful microorganisms. There is an explanation of drinks available, rehydratable foods, and natural forms of food, (i.e., commercially available foods that are packaged in individual serving sizes). There is also discussion of the requirements for future missions, and the research gap for requirements for food that will last 5 years, with packaging and nutrients intact.

  19. Automatic Georeferencing of Astronaut Auroral Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, A. P.; Riechert, M.; Taylor, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on board the International Space Station have taken thousands of high quality photographs of the aurorae borealis and australis with a high temporal and spatial resolution. A barrier to these photographs being used in research is that the cameras do not have a fixed orientation and the images therefore do not have any pointing information associated with them. Using astrometry.net and other open source libraries we have developed a software toolkit to automatically reconstruct the pointing of the images from the visible starfield and hence project the auroral images in geographic and geomagnetic coordinates. Here we explain the technique and the resulting data products, which will soon be publically available through the project website.

  20. Locomotor problems of supersonic aviation and astronautics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, P

    1989-04-01

    Modern high-speed aviation and space flight are fraught with many problems and require a high standard of health and fitness. Those responsible for the health of pilots must appreciate the importance of early diagnosis even before symptoms appear. This is particularly true in terms of preventing spinal injuries where even a single Schmorl's node may make a pilot unfit for high-speed flying. Spinal fractures are frequent during emergency ejection and landing. Helicopter crews are particularly prone to spinal disc degeneration due to vibration. By effective lowering of vibration by changes in the seats, a reduction in such lesions is possible. The osteoporosis and muscle atrophy occurring among astronauts subjected to prolonged weightlessness can be prevented by regular physical exercises.

  1. Astronaut Noriega During Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In this image, STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Carlos I. Noriega waves at a crew member inside Endeavor's cabin during the mission's final session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000, the STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  2. Cancer Risk in Astronauts: A Constellation of Uncommon Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Caitlin M.; Elgart, S. Robin; Chappell, Lori; Charvat, Jaqueline M.; Van Baalen, Mary; Huff, Janice L.; Semones, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Excess cancers resulting from external radiation exposures have been noted since the early 1950s, when a rise in leukemia rates was first reported in young atomic bomb survivors [1]. Further studies in atomic bomb survivors, cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, and nuclear power plant workers have confirmed that radiation exposure increases the risk of not only leukemia, but also a wide array of solid cancers [2,3]. NASA has long been aware of this risk and limits astronauts' risk of exposure-induced death (REID) from cancer by specifying permissible mission durations (PMD) for astronauts on an individual basis. While cancer is present among astronauts, current data does not suggest any excess of known radiation-induced cancers relative to a comparable population of U.S. adults; however, very uncommon cancers have been diagnosed in astronauts including nasopharyngeal cancer, lymphoma of the brain, and acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma. In order to study cancer risk in astronauts, a number of obstacles must be overcome. Firstly, several factors make the astronaut cohort considerably different from the cohorts that have previously been studied for effects resulting from radiation exposure. The high rate of accidents and the much healthier lifestyle of astronauts compared to the U.S. population make finding a suitable comparison population a problematic task. Space radiation differs substantially from terrestrial radiation exposures studied in the past; therefore, analyses of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) in animal models must be conducted and correctly applied to the human experience. Secondly, a large enough population of exposed astronauts must exist in order to obtain the data necessary to see any potential statistically significant differences between the astronauts and the control population. Thirdly, confounders and effect modifiers, such as smoking, diet, and other space stressors, must be correctly identified and controlled for in those

  3. Digital Astronaut Photography: A Discovery Dataset for Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronaut photography acquired from the International Space Station (ISS) using commercial off-the-shelf cameras offers a freely-accessible source for high to very high resolution (4-20 m/pixel) visible-wavelength digital data of Earth. Since ISS Expedition 1 in 2000, over 373,000 images of the Earth-Moon system (including land surface, ocean, atmospheric, and lunar images) have been added to the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov ). Handheld astronaut photographs vary in look angle, time of acquisition, solar illumination, and spatial resolution. These attributes of digital astronaut photography result from a unique combination of ISS orbital dynamics, mission operations, camera systems, and the individual skills of the astronaut. The variable nature of astronaut photography makes the dataset uniquely useful for archaeological applications in comparison with more traditional nadir-viewing multispectral datasets acquired from unmanned orbital platforms. For example, surface features such as trenches, walls, ruins, urban patterns, and vegetation clearing and regrowth patterns may be accentuated by low sun angles and oblique viewing conditions (Fig. 1). High spatial resolution digital astronaut photographs can also be used with sophisticated land cover classification and spatial analysis approaches like Object Based Image Analysis, increasing the potential for use in archaeological characterization of landscapes and specific sites.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (pEBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (pEBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  5. Robonaut: a telepresence-based astronaut assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Jenks, Kenneth C.; Williams, Lorraine E. P.

    2002-02-01

    Robonaut, NASA's latest anthropomorphic robot, is designed to work in the hazards of the space environment as both an astronaut assistant and, in certain situations, an astronaut surrogate. This highly dexterous robot is now performing complex tasks under telepresence control in the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center that could previously only be carried out directly by humans. With 43 degrees of freedom (DOF), Robonaut is a state-of-the-art human size telemanipulator system. It has a three-DOF articulated waist and two seven-DOF arms, giving it an impressive work space for interacting with its environment. Its two five-fingered hands allow manipulation of a wide range of common tools. A pan/tilt head with multiple stereo camera systems provides data for both teleoperators and computer vision systems. Telepresence control is the main mode of operation for Robonaut. The teleoperator dons a variety of sensors to map hand, head, arm and body motions to control the robot. A distributed object-oriented network architecture links the various computers used to gather posture and joint angle data from the human operator, to control the robot, to generate video displays for the human operator and to recognize and generate human voice inputs and outputs. Distributed object-oriented software allows the same telepresence gear to be used on different robots and allows interchangable telepresence gear in the laboratory environment. New telepresence gear and new robots only need to implement a standard software interface. The Robonaut implementation is a two-tiered system using Java/Jini for distributed commands and a commercial-off-the-shelf data sharing protocol for high-speed data transmission. Experimental telepresence gear is being developed and evaluated. Force feedback devices and techniques are a focus, and their efforts on teleoperator performance of typical space operations tasks is being measured. Particularly, the augmentation of baseline

  6. A superconducting shield to protect astronauts

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Superconductors team in the Technology department is involved in the European Space Radiation Superconducting Shield (SR2S) project, which aims to demonstrate the feasibility of using superconducting magnetic shielding technology to protect astronauts from cosmic radiation in the space environment. The material that will be used in the superconductor coils on which the project is working is magnesium diboride (MgB2), the same type of conductor developed in the form of wire for CERN for the LHC High Luminosity Cold Powering project.   Image: K. Anthony/CERN. Back in April 2014, the CERN Superconductors team announced a world-record current in an electrical transmission line using cables made of the MgB2 superconductor. This result proved that the technology could be used in the form of wire and could be a viable solution for both electrical transmission for accelerator technology and long-distance power transportation. Now, the MgB2 superconductor has found another application: it wi...

  7. Official Portrait of Astronaut Neil Armstrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, poses for his official Apollo 11 portrait. Armstrong began his flight career as a naval aviator. He flew 78 combat missions during the Korean War. Armstrong joined the NASA predecessor, NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), as a research pilot at the Lewis Laboratory in Cleveland and later transferred to the NACA High Speed Flight Station at Edwards AFB, California. He was a project pilot on many pioneering high speed aircraft, including the 4,000 mph X-15. He has flown over 200 different models of aircraft, including jets, rockets, helicopters, and gliders. In 1962, Armstrong was transferred to astronaut status. He served as command pilot for the Gemini 8 mission, launched March 16, 1966, and performed the first successful docking of two vehicles in space. In 1969, Armstrong was commander of Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission, and gained the distinction of being the first man to land a craft on the Moon and the first man to step on its surface. Armstrong subsequently held the position of Deputy Associate Administrator for Aeronautics, NASA Headquarters Office of Advanced Research and Technology, from 1970 to 1971. He resigned from NASA in 1971.

  8. Efficient Wearable Antennas for Astronaut EVA Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA SBIR Subtopic O1.02 (Antenna Technology), Pharad proposes to create a new class of highly efficient body wearable antennas suitable for astronaut...

  9. Atrial Arrhythmias in Astronauts. Summary of a NASA Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael; Watkins, Sharmila; Polk, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the findings of a panel of heart experts brought together to study if atrial arrhythmias more prevalent in astronauts, and potential risk factors that may predispose astronauts to atrial arrhythmias. The objective of the panel was to solicit expert opinion on screening, diagnosis, and treatment options, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose relevant research initiatives. While Atrial Arrhythmias occur in approximately the same percents in astronauts as in the general population, they seem to occur at younger ages in astronauts. Several reasons for this predisposition were given: gender, hypertension, endurance training, and triggering events. Potential Space Flight-Related Risk factors that may play a role in precipitating lone atrial fibrillation were reviewed. There appears to be no evidence that any variable of the space flight environment increases the likelihood of developing atrial arrhythmias during space flight.

  10. Astronaut Judith Resnik in the Shuttle mission simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Judith A. Resnik, 41-D mission specialist, prepares to climb some steps leading to the flight deck portion of JSC's Shuttle mission simulator (SMS) in preparation for training for her 41-D mission.

  11. Astronaut Scott Carpenter and technician Joe Schmidt during suiting exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 flight, and Crew Equipment Specialist Joe Schmidt are before a suiting exercise. Schmidt is seen checking the gloves on the Carpenter's pressure suit.

  12. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong during water egress training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Gemini 5 backup crew command pilot, sits in the Gemini Static Article 5 spacecraft and prepares to be lowered from the deck of the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever for water egress training in the Gulf.

  13. CERN News - Esa astronaut brings neutralino back from space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Visual Media Office

    2012-01-01

    ESA astronaut and former physicist at CERN Christer Fuglesang returns a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN after flying it to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

  14. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in simulation of moon's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, deploys a lunar surface television camera during lunar surface simulation training in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  15. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  16. Christer Fuglesang, a former CERN physicist-turned-astronaut

    CERN Multimedia

    NASA

    2006-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Christer Fuglesang, STS-116 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction resumes on the International Space Station. Image: NASA.

  17. Astronaut Karl Henize with soft drink in middeck area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Karl Henize drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Pepsi while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw.

  18. Astronaut Robert Gibson prepares to use motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Gibson, STS 61-C mission commander, partially floats on the aft flight deck of the Shuttle Columbia while preparing to use a motion picture camera. The windows overlooking the cargo bay are visible in the background.

  19. Initial Incidence of White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Sherman, Paul; McGuire, Steve; Kochunov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous literature has described the increase in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden associated with hypobaric exposure in the U-2 and altitude chamber operating personnel. Although astronauts have similar hypobaric exposure pressures to the U2 pilot population, astronauts have far fewer exposures and each exposure would be associated with a much lower level of decompression stress due to rigorous countermeasures to prevent decompression sickness. Therefore, we postulated that the WMH burden in the astronaut population would be less than in U2 pilots. Methods: Twenty-one post-flight de-identified astronaut MRIs (5 mm slice thickness FLAIR sequences) were evaluated for WMH count and volume. The only additional data provided was an age range of the astronauts (43-57) and if they had ever performed an EVA (13 yes, 8 no). Results: WMH count in these 21 astronaut MRI was 21.0 +/- 24.8 (mean+/- SD) and volume was 0.382 +/- 0.602 ml, which was significantly higher than previously published results for the U2 pilots. No significant differences between EVA and no EVA groups existed. Age range of astronaut population is not directly comparable to the U2 population. Discussion: With significantly less frequent (sometimes none) and less stressful hypobaric exposures, yet a much higher incidence of increased WMH, this indicates the possibility of additional mechanisms beyond hypobaric exposure. This increase unlikely to be attributable just to the differences in age between astronauts and U2 pilots. Forward work includes continuing review of post-flight MRI and evaluation of pre to post flight MRI changes if available. Data mining for potential WMH risk factors includes collection of age, sex, spaceflight experience, EVA hours, other hypobaric exposures, hyperoxic exposures, radiation, high performance aircraft experience and past medical history. Finally, neurocognitive and vision/eye results will be evaluated for any evidence of impairment linked to

  20. Screening and Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.

  1. Astronaut Scott Carpenter completes top egress training in white room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Project Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 7 (the nation's second manned orbital flight), completing top egress training in the white room at Cape Canaveral, Florida. The line he is holding is known as the 'man line' which attaches the survival kit to the astronaut. The bag is the survival kit he carries for contingency landings. Clearly visible around his neck is the bag containing the life vest.

  2. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong suits up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong prepares to put on his helmet with the assistance of a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  3. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong looks over flight plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong is looking over flight plans while being assisted by a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  4. Three STS 26 astronauts training in the Crew Compartment trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Three astronauts named in January 1987 as part of a five-member crew for NASA's first flight since the Challenger accident are shown in a photo session of July 1986. Left to right are Astronauts John M. (Mike) Lounge, Richard O. Covey and David C. Hilmers. Lounge and Hilmers will serve as Mission specialists for the STS 26 flight and Covey will serve as pilot. The three are on the middeck of JSC's one-G Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  5. Moon bound choosing and preparing NASA's lunar astronauts

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Often lost in the shadow of the first group of astronauts for the Mercury missions, the second and third groups included the leading figures for NASA's activities for the following two decades. “Moon Bound” complements the author’s recently published work, “Selecting the Mercury Seven” (2011), extending the story of the men who helped to launch human spaceflight and broaden the American space program. Although the initial 1959 group became known as the legendary pioneering Mercury astronauts, the astronauts of Groups 2 and 3 gave us many household names. Sixteen astronauts from both groups traveled to the Moon in Project Apollo, with several actually walking on the Moon, one of them being Neil Armstrong. This book draws on interviews to tell the astronauts' personal stories and recreate the drama of that time. It describes the process by which they were selected as astronauts and explains how the criteria had changed since the first group. “Moon Bound” is divided into two parts, recounting the b...

  6. Geometric illusions in astronauts during long-duration spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles; Skinner, Anna; Richard, Ghislaine; Lathan, Corinna

    2012-10-24

    In our previous studies, we have shown that the occurrence of geometric illusions was reduced in vestibular patients who presented signs of otolith disorders and when healthy observers were tilted relative to gravity. We hypothesized that the alteration in the gravitational (otolith) input was responsible for this change, presumably because of a connection between vestibular and visual-spatial cognitive functions. In this study, we repeated similar experiments in astronauts during long-duration spaceflight. In agreement with the data of otolithic patients, the inverted-T geometric illusion was less present in the astronauts in 0 g than in 1g. In addition, the vertical length of drawings made by astronauts in orbit was shorter than that on the ground. This result is also comparable with the otolithic patients who perceived the vertical length of line drawings to be smaller than healthy individuals. We conclude that the impairment in the processing of gravitational input in long-duration astronauts affects their mental representation of the vertical dimension similar to the otolithic patients. The astronauts, however, recover to baseline levels within 1 week after returning to Earth.

  7. Latent Virus Reactivation in Astronauts and Shingles Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight is a uniquely stressful environment with astronauts experiencing a variety of stressors including: isolation and confinement, psychosocial, noise, sleep deprivation, anxiety, variable gravitational forces, and increased radiation. These stressors are manifested through the HPA and SAM axes resulting in increased stress hormones. Diminished T-lymphocyte functions lead to reactivation of latent herpesviruses in astronauts during spaceflight. Herpes simplex virus reactivated with symptoms during spaceflight whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate and are shed without symptoms. EBV and VZV are shed in saliva and CMV in the urine. The levels of EBV shed in astronauts increased 10-fold during the flight; CMV and VZV are not typically shed in low stressed individuals, but both were shed in astronauts during spaceflight. All herpes viruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Culturing revealed that VZV shed in saliva was infectious virus. The PCR technology was extended to test saliva of 54 shingles patients. All shingles patients shed VZV in their saliva, and the levels followed the course of the disease. Viremia was also found to be common during shingles. The technology may be used before zoster lesions appear allowing for prevention of disease. The technology may be used for rapid detection of VZV in doctors offices. These studies demonstrated the value of applying technologies designed for astronauts to people on Earth.

  8. Psychiatric diagnoses in a group of astronaut applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Faulk, Dean M.; Holland, Al W.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1987, the psychiatric evaluation of astronaut candidates evolved from a 30-h intensive examination evaluating applicants for psychopathology, and studying their performance under stress, to a 2-h clinical interview whose structure and contents were determined by the individual examiner. Evaluations done during these years applied both psychiatric (or, 'select-out') criteria and psychological (or, 'select-in') criteria. In an attempt to more rigorously define the psychiatric, 'select-out' component, a standardized, semistructured clinical interview was developed to identify the presence or history of psychiatric disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Ed. ('DSM-III'). A total of 117 astronaut applicants underwent this clinical interview as part of a comprehensive medical evaluation during a recent astronaut selection. Of the 117 applicants, 9 (7.7 percent) met DSM-III criteria for a variety of Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, including V-code diagnoses.

  9. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-robot interaction (HRI plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system.

  10. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinguo; Luo, Yifan; Ju, Zhaojie

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA) have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM) is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL) have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system.

  11. Astronaut Charles Conrad checks out Human Vestibular Function experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Conrad is in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC. The reference sphere with a magnetic rod is used by the astronaut to indicate body orientation non-visually. The litter chair in which he is seated can be rotated by a motor at its base or, when not being rotated, can tilt forward, backward or to either side.

  12. Astronaut Susan Helms in the ISS Unity Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  13. Development of the NASA Digital Astronaut Project Muscle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Pennline, James A.; Thompson, W. K.; Humphreys, B. T.; Ryder, J. W.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Mulugeta, L.

    2015-01-01

    This abstract describes development work performed on the NASA Digital Astronaut Project Muscle Model. Muscle atrophy is a known physiological response to exposure to a low gravity environment. The DAP muscle model computationally predicts the change in muscle structure and function vs. time in a reduced gravity environment. The spaceflight muscle model can then be used in biomechanical models of exercise countermeasures and spaceflight tasks to: 1) develop site specific bone loading input to the DAP bone adaptation model over the course of a mission; 2) predict astronaut performance of spaceflight tasks; 3) inform effectiveness of new exercise countermeasures concepts.

  14. Astronaut Curtis Brown on flight deck mockup during training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, STS-66 pilot, mans the pilot's station during a rehearsal of procedures to be followed during the launch and entry phases of their scheduled November 1994 flight. This rehearsal, held in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures.

  15. Who is an astronaut? The inadequacy of current international law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, F.

    2010-06-01

    The concept of 'astronaut' as found in law in the 'space treaties' and elsewhere does not fit well with the modern proposals for commercial space tourism. Will the 'rescue and return' provisions apply to commercial flights? Many national laws will apply to space tourism but for the future the international legal regime should be reconsidered. Finally what may happen in a crisis in space?

  16. Astronauts give Hubble a new lease of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Astronauts successfully repaired and upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope last month by performing five space walks each lasting more than six hours. The mission will improve Hubble's "observational power" by up to a factor of 100. The upgrade will also enable the 19-year-old instrument to carry on obtaining images of the early universe until 2014.

  17. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt participates in simulation aboard KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, simulates preparing to deploy the Surface Electrical Properties Experiment during lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation training under one-sixth gravity conditions aboard a U.S. Air Force KC-135 aircraft.

  18. Astronauts McNair and Stewart prepare for reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Ronald E. McNair and Robert L. Stewart prepare for the re-entry phase of the shuttle Challenger near the end of the 41-B mission. The are stationed behind the crew commander and pilot. Stewart is already wearing his helmet. McNair is stowing some of his gear.

  19. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface siumlation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is opening a sample return container. At the right is the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) and the Lunar Module Mockup.

  20. Onboard photo: Astronaut Mae Jemison working in Spacelab-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) onboard photo of Astronaut Mae Jemison working in Spacelab-J module. Spacelab-J is a combined National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and NASA mission. The objectives included life sciences, microgravity and technology research.

  1. Private Astronaut Training Prepares Commercial Crews of Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A new company that includes a handful of former NASA personnel is already taking applications for the first comprehensive commercial astronaut training approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. Waypoint 2 Space, located at Johnson Space Center, hopes to draw space tourists and enthusiasts and future commercial crewmembers with first-hand NASA know-how, as well as agency training technology.

  2. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface simulation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is standing on Lunar Module mockup foot pad preparing to ascend steps.

  3. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  4. Astronaut Jack Lousma with part of Inflight Medical Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, reaches into a medical kit, part of the Inflight Medical Support System (IMSS), during training for the second manned Skylab Earth-orbital mission. This activity took place in the Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility at JSC.

  5. Astronaut Norman Thagard changes tray in RAHF for rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Norman Thagard changes a tray in the research animal holding facility (RAHF) for rodents at the Ames double rack facility aboard the Spacelab 3 science module in the cargo bay of the shuttle Challenger. Lending a hand is payload specialist Lodewijk van den Berg. Both men are wearing protective clothing and surgical masks for this procedure.

  6. Astronaut Alan Shepard receives MASA Distinguished Service award

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard recieves the NASA Distinguished Service Award from President John F. Kennedy in May 1961, days after his history making MR-3 flight (31387); Alan Shepard and his wife wave to the crowd after Shepard received the NASA Distinguished Service Award from President John F. Kennedy (31388).

  7. Protecting the Health of Astronauts: Enhancing Occupational Health Monitoring and Surveillance for Former NASA Astronauts to Understand Long-Term Outcomes of Spaceflight-Related Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Meredith; Lee, Lesley; Wear, Mary; Van Baalen, Mary; Rhodes, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. A better understanding of the individual, population, and mission impacts of astronaut occupational exposures is critical to providing clinical care, targeting occupational surveillance efforts, and planning for future space exploration. The ability to characterize the risk of latent health conditions is a significant component of this understanding. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential long-term health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging populations are necessary to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography); and expanded monitoring will increase NASA's ability to better characterize conditions resulting from astronaut occupational exposures. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of e an Astronaut Occupational Health program to include expanded medical monitoring of former NASA astronauts. Increasing the breadth of monitoring services will ultimately enrich the existing evidence base of occupational health risks

  8. Game-based evaluation of personalized support for astronauts in long duration missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, N.J.J.M.; Abbing, M.S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Oostendorp, H. van

    2008-01-01

    Long duration missions set high requirements for personalized astronaut support that takes into account the social, cognitive and affective state of the astronaut. Such support should be tested as thoroughly as possible before deployment into space. The in-orbit influences of the astronaut's state f

  9. Small robot will give astronauts a big hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, E D

    2000-02-01

    Now being built at NASA-Ames is a small robot that will work independently alongside astronauts in space. About the size of a softball, the 5-in.-diam. Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) will serve as an intelligent robot, providing another set of eyes and ears and an extra nose to the crew and ground support personnel. The device will move and operate on its own in the microgravity environment of space-based vehicles. Yuri Gawdiak, principal investigator for the projects, expects astronauts to fly a demonstration model of the device aboard a Space Shuttle in about two years. The first crew to use PSAs will test the examine safety issues. Those tests, if successful, will lead to a demonstration aboard the International Space Station. Gawdiak says the project has an annual budget of about $500,000.

  10. Astronaut David Brown talks to FIRST team members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown talks with FIRST team members, Baxter Bomb Squad, from Mountain Home High School, Mountain Home, Ariz., during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  11. Philosophy on astronaut protection: A physician`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, H.

    1997-04-30

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a responsibility to assure that proper ethical standards are applied in establishing and applying limits for the control of radiation doses to the astronauts. Such a responsibility obviously includes assuring that the astronauts are properly informed of the hazards associated with individuals missions and that they agree to accept the associated risks. The responsibility, however, does not end there. It includes a need to discuss how to initiate a discourse for developing the related ethical standards and how to determine who should be involved in their establishment. To assure that such proper communications on matters that encompass the realms of policy, science, politics, and ethics. There is also a need to mesh public perceptions with those of the scientific and technical community. This will be a monumental undertaking.

  12. Astronaut David Brown talks with team members from South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown looks over the robot named 'L'il Max' with members of the team The Bot Kickers! from Northwestern High School, Rock Hill, S.C. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition being held March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co- sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  13. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. The lunar rover, which transported Schmitt and Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander, to this extravehicular station from their Lunar Module, is seen in the background. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. The mosaic is made from two frames from Apollo 17 Hasselblad magaine 140.

  14. Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II. The first view shows Slayton (on right) beside a Douglas A-26 bomber in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the summer of 1945, probably on Okinawa. The second man is 1st. Lt. Ed Steinman (28359); This view shows Slayton as an eighteen-year-old U.S. Army Air Force cadet at Victoria Field, Vernon, Texas in the autumn of 1942.

  15. Astronaut John Glenn during training exercise in Mercury Procedures Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Close-up view of Mercury Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. as he runs through a training exercise in the Mercury Procedures Trainer in use at Space Task Group, Langley Field, Virginia. This Link-type spacecraft simulator permits the practice of both normal and emergency modes of systems operations. Glenn is in the Mercury pressure suit and is wearing his helmet, just as he would if the flight were real.

  16. Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; McCulloch, P.; Van Baalen, Mary; Minard, Charles; Watson, Richard; Blatt, T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: For every one hour spent performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, astronauts in the US space program spend approximately six to ten hours training in the EVA spacesuit at NASA-Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL). In 1997, NASA introduced the planar hard upper torso (HUT) EVA spacesuit which subsequently replaced the existing pivoted HUT. An extra joint in the pivoted shoulder allows increased mobility but also increased complexity. Over the next decade a number of astronauts developed shoulder problems requiring surgical intervention, many of whom performed EVA training in the NBL. This study investigated whether changing HUT designs led to shoulder injuries requiring surgical repair. Methods: US astronaut EVA training data and spacesuit design employed were analyzed from the NBL data. Shoulder surgery data was acquired from the medical record database, and causal mechanisms were obtained from personal interviews Analysis of the individual HUT designs was performed as it related to normal shoulder biomechanics. Results: To date, 23 US astronauts have required 25 shoulder surgeries. Approximately 48% (11/23) directly attributed their injury to training in the planar HUT, whereas none attributed their injury to training in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT design limits shoulder abduction to 90 degrees compared to approximately 120 degrees in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT also forces the shoulder into a forward flexed position requiring active retraction and extension to increase abduction beyond 90 degrees. Discussion: Multiple factors are associated with mechanisms leading to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Limitations to normal shoulder mechanics, suit fit, donning/doffing, body position, pre-existing injury, tool weight and configuration, age, in-suit activity, and HUT design have all been identified as potential sources of injury. Conclusion: Crewmembers with pre-existing or current shoulder injuries or certain

  17. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  18. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong During Lunar Rock Collection Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong uses a geologist's hammer in selecting rock specimens during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Armstrong, alongside astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, practiced gathering rock specimens using special lunar geological tools in preparation for the first Lunar landing. Mission was accomplished in July of the same year. Aboard the Marshall Space Fight center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Armstrong, commander; Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot; and a third astronaut Michael Collins, Command Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin, while Collins remained in lunar orbit. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The lunar surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours.

  19. Reporters Interview Family of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Newsmen talked with the wife and sons of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong after the successful launch of Apollo 11 on its trajectory to the moon. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  20. Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Cara L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; St. John, Lisa; Sams, Clarence F.; Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian E.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2016-01-01

    Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted. PMID:27699228

  1. The Graphical Representation of the Digital Astronaut Physiology Backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, Demarcus

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes my internship project with the NASA Digital Astronaut Project to analyze the Digital Astronaut (DA) physiology backbone model. The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) applies integrated physiology models to support space biomedical operations, and to assist NASA researchers in closing knowledge gaps related to human physiologic responses to space flight. The DA physiology backbone is a set of integrated physiological equations and functions that model the interacting systems of the human body. The current release of the model is HumMod (Human Model) version 1.5 and was developed over forty years at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC). The physiology equations and functions are scripted in an XML schema specifically designed for physiology modeling by Dr. Thomas G. Coleman at UMMC. Currently it is difficult to examine the physiology backbone without being knowledgeable of the XML schema. While investigating and documenting the tags and algorithms used in the XML schema, I proposed a standard methodology for a graphical representation. This standard methodology may be used to transcribe graphical representations from the DA physiology backbone. In turn, the graphical representations can allow examination of the physiological functions and equations without the need to be familiar with the computer programming languages or markup languages used by DA modeling software.

  2. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  3. Atrial Arrhythmias in Astronauts - Summary of a NASA Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael R.; Watkins, Sharmila D.; Polk, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Problem Definition: To evaluate NASA s current standards and practices related to atrial arrhythmias in astronauts, Space Medicine s Advanced Projects Section at the Johnson Space Center was tasked with organizing a summit to discuss the approach to atrial arrhythmias in the astronaut cohort. Since 1959, 11 cases of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, or supraventricular tachycardia have been recorded among active corps crewmembers. Most of the cases were paroxysmal, although a few were sustained. While most of the affected crewmembers were asymptomatic, those slated for long-duration space flight underwent radiofrequency ablation treatment to prevent further episodes of the arrhythmia. The summit was convened to solicit expert opinion on screening, diagnosis, and treatment options, to identify gaps in knowledge, and to propose relevant research initiatives. Summit Meeting Objectives: The Atrial Arrhythmia Summit brought together a panel of six cardiologists, including nationally and internationally renowned leaders in cardiac electrophysiology, exercise physiology, and space flight cardiovascular physiology. The primary objectives of the summit discussions were to evaluate cases of atrial arrhythmia in the astronaut population, to understand the factors that may predispose an individual to this condition, to understand NASA s current capabilities for screening, diagnosis, and treatment, to discuss the risks associated with treatment of crewmembers assigned to long-duration missions or extravehicular activities, and to discuss recommendations for prevention or management of future cases. Summary of Recommendations: The summit panel s recommendations were grouped into seven categories: Epidemiology, Screening, Standards and Selection, Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation Manifesting Preflight, Atrial Fibrillation during Flight, Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation, and Future Research

  4. Multiple latent viruses reactivate in astronauts during Space Shuttle missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S K; Laudenslager, M L; Stowe, R P; Crucian, B E; Sams, C F; Pierson, D L

    2014-10-01

    Latent virus reactivation and diurnal salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured prospectively in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration (12-16 days) Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected during each of these phases. Antiviral antibodies and viral load (DNA) were measured for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Three astronauts did not shed any virus in any of their samples collected before, during, or after flight. EBV was shed in the saliva in all of the remaining 14 astronauts during all 3 phases of flight. Seven of the 14 EBV-shedding subjects also shed VZV during and after the flight in their saliva samples, and 8 of 14 EBV-shedders also shed CMV in their urine samples before, during, and after flight. In 6 of 14 crewmembers, all 3 target viruses were shed during one or more flight phases. Both EBV and VZV DNA copies were elevated during the flight phase relative to preflight or post-flight levels. EBV DNA in peripheral blood was increased preflight relative to post-flight. Eighteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Approximately 2-5% of controls shed EBV while none shed VZV or CMV. Salivary cortisol measured preflight and during flight were elevated relative to post-flight. In contrast DHEA decreased during the flight phase relative to both preflight and post-flight. As a consequence, the molar ratio of the area under the diurnal curve of cortisol to DHEA with respect to ground (AUCg) increased significantly during flight. This ratio was unrelated to viral shedding. In summary, three herpes viruses can reactivate individually or in combination during spaceflight.

  5. Quantifying Astronaut Tasks: Robotic Technology and Future Space Suit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dava

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of this research effort was to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited EVA by developing models of the constitutive and compatibility relations of a space suit, based on experimental data gained from human test subjects as well as a 12 degree-of-freedom human-sized robot, and utilizing these fundamental relations to estimate a human factors performance metric for space suited EVA work. The three specific objectives are to: 1) Compile a detailed database of torques required to bend the joints of a space suit, using realistic, multi- joint human motions. 2) Develop a mathematical model of the constitutive relations between space suit joint torques and joint angular positions, based on experimental data and compare other investigators' physics-based models to experimental data. 3) Estimate the work envelope of a space suited astronaut, using the constitutive and compatibility relations of the space suit. The body of work that makes up this report includes experimentation, empirical and physics-based modeling, and model applications. A detailed space suit joint torque-angle database was compiled with a novel experimental approach that used space-suited human test subjects to generate realistic, multi-joint motions and an instrumented robot to measure the torques required to accomplish these motions in a space suit. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model is developed to predict joint torque from the joint angle history. Two physics-based models of pressurized fabric cylinder bending are compared to experimental data, yielding design insights. The mathematical model is applied to EVA operations in an inverse kinematic analysis coupled to the space suit model to calculate the volume in which space-suited astronauts can work with their hands, demonstrating that operational human factors metrics can be predicted from fundamental space suit information.

  6. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles W.; Olivotto, C.; Boese, A.; Spiero, F.; Galoforo, G.; Niihori, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut is an international educational challenge focusing on fitness and nutrition as we encourage students to "train like an astronaut." Teams of students (aged 8-12) learn principles of healthy eating and exercise, compete for points by finishing training modules, and get excited about their future as "fit explorers." The 18 core exercises (targeting strength, endurance, coordination, balance, spatial awareness, and more) involve the same types of skills that astronauts learn in their training and use in spaceflight. This first-of-its-kind cooperative outreach program has allowed 14 space agencies and various partner institutions to work together to address quality health/fitness education, challenge students to be more physically active, increase awareness of the importance of lifelong health and fitness, teach students how fitness plays a vital role in human performance for exploration, and inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in STEM fields. The project was initiated in 2009 in response to a request by the International Space Life Sciences Working Group. USA, Netherlands, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Colombia, Spain, and United Kingdom hosted teams for the pilot this past spring, and Japan held a modified version of the challenge. Several more agencies provided input into the preparations. Competing on 131 teams, more than 3700 students from 40 cities worldwide participated in the first round of Mission X. OUTCOMES AND BEST PRACTICES Members of the Mission X core team will highlight the outcomes of this international educational outreach pilot project, show video highlights of the challenge, provide the working group s initial assessment of the project and discuss the future potential of the effort. The team will also discuss ideas and best practices for international partnership in education outreach efforts from various agency perspectives and experiences

  7. Biofeedback monitoring-devices for astronauts in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, G.; Pancheri, P.; Monesi, F.; Grantaliano, G.; DePascalis, V.

    After a reconsideration of the state-of-the-art in biofeedback research the implementation of biofeedback systems is envisioned as a countermeasure of stress for the psychoprophylaxis of the astronaut. A one-session experiment performed on two groups of subjects to assess the interference from EMG-feedback on the performance in a simultaneous psychomotor trial with a view to expanding biofeedback application is described. The results show that the experimental group performed in the same way as the control without feedback, but with less CNS activation. Some general conclusions are drawn from the advances in technology.

  8. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  9. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronatu Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, An Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  10. Subclinical Shed of Infectious Varicella zoster Virus in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol borne varicella zoster virus (VZV) enters the nasopharynx and replicates in tonsillar T-cells, resulting in viremia and varicella (chickenpox). Virus then becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis (1). Decades later, as cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines (4), latent VZV can reactivate to produce zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is present in patients with varicella or zoster, but shed of infectious virus in the absence of disease has not been shown. We previously detected VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts during and shortly after spaceflight, suggesting stress induced subclinical virus reactivation (3). We show here that VZV DNA as well as infectious virus in present in astronaut saliva. VZV DNA was detected in saliva during and after a 13-day spaceflight in 2 of 3 astronauts (Fig. panel A). Ten days before liftoff, there was a rise in serum anti-VZV antibody in subjects 1 and 2, consistent with virus reactivation. In subject 3, VZV DNA was not detected in saliva, and there was no rise in anti-VZV antibody titer. Subject 3 may have been protected from virus reactivation by having zoster boost in cell-medicated immunity to VZV (2). No VZV DNA was detected in astronaut saliva months before spaceflight, or in saliva of 10 age/sex-matched healthy control subjects sampled on alternate days for 3 weeks (88 saliva samples). Saliva taken 2-6 days after landing from all 3 subjects was cultured on human fetal lung cells (Fig. panel B). Infectious VZV was recovered from saliva of subjects 1 and 2 on the second day after landing. Virus specificity was confirmed by antibody staining and DNA analysis which showed it to be VZV of European descent, common in the US (5). Further, both antibody staining and DNA PCR demonstrated that no HSV-1 was detected in any infected culture. This is the first report of infectious VZV shedding in the absence of clinical disease. Spaceflight presents a uniquely stressful

  11. A life devoted to astronautics. Dr. Olgierd Wołczek (1922-1982)—Biographical remarks and scientific activity in astronautics and space physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotowicz, M.

    Dr. Olgierd Wołczek died in August, 1982 in Warsaw. From 1971 he edited the scientific-popular Polish bimonthly Astronautyka and also, from 1973, the scientific journal of the Polish Astronautical Society (PAS) "Postȩpy Astronautyki" (Progresses in Astronautics). He was one of the founders of PAS (1954), then its General Secretary for 10 years, and later the deputy of the President of PAS for 15 years. He was very active also in the field of the scientific research in astronautics and space physics. The scope and width of his knowledge can be seen in his 22 books and 34 papers on astronautics and space physics, 10 books and 14 papers on nuclear physics and other subjects. He published also several hundred papers in popular journals, and took part several hundred times in radio and television programmes. His PhD-degree (1963) was based on his research in nuclear spectroscopy. But astronautics became the main interest and aim of his life. He was corresponding member of the IAA in Paris, and a member of several IAA and IAF committees, spoke at more than 20 IAF Congresses and was an honorary member of several foreign astronautical societies. Dealing with almost all astronautics and space physics on popular level, his scientific activity of qualitative character can be placed in four subjects: (1) nuclear energy in rocketry; (2) impact of astronautics on science, our civilization and mankind; various non-selected problems in astronautics; (3) evolution of matter in the Universe; planetology; (4) life in the Universe. During his several last years Dr. Wołczek was dealing mainly with subjects (3) and (4). Scientific papers of Dr. Wołczek according to the above classification are reviewed. A full list of Dr. Wołczek's scientific papers are included.

  12. Characterizing Fractures Across the Astronaut Corps: Preliminary Findings from Population-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Meredith M.; Charvat, Jacqueline; Sibonga, Jean; Sieker, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence of bone loss during spaceflight and operational countermeasures to mitigate this loss, the subsequent risk of fracture among astronauts is not known. The physiologic process of diminished bone density and bone recovery during or following spaceflight is multifactorial. Such factors as age, sex, fracture history, and others may combine to increase fracture risk among astronauts. As part of the 2016 Bone Research and Clinical Advisory Panel (RCAP), the authors analyzed data collected on 338 NASA astronauts to describe the demographics, bone-relevant characteristics, and fracture history of the astronaut population. The majority of the population are male (n=286, 84.6%), have flown at least one mission (n=306, 90.5%), and were between the ages of 30 and 49 at first mission (n=296, 96.7% of those with at least one mission). Of the 338 astronauts, 241 (71.3%) experienced a fracture over the course of their lifetime. One hundred and five (43.5%) of these 241 astronauts only experienced a fracture prior to being selected into the Astronaut Corps, whereas 53 (22.0%) only experienced a fracture after selection as an astronaut. An additional 80 astronauts (33.2%) had both pre- and post-selection fractures. The remaining 3 astronauts had a fracture of unknown date, which could not be categorized as pre- or post-selection. Among the 133 astronauts with at least one post-selection fracture, males comprised 90.2% (n=120) compared to 84.5% of the entire Corps, and females accounted for 9.8% (n=13) compared to 15.4% of the Corps. Ninety-seven of the 133 astronauts with post-selection fractures (72.9%) had one fracture event, 22 (16.5%) had two fractures, and 14 (10.5%) had three or more fractures. Some astronauts with multiple fractures suffered these in a single event, such as an automobile accident. The 133 astronauts with a post-selection fracture accounted for a total of 188 fracture events. One hundred and four (78.2%) of astronauts with post

  13. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  14. Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2003-01-01

    Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a copy number of 40+/-2 per ml saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary level of cortiso1 and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight value. Results suggested that stress associated with spaceflight decreases cellular immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

  15. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  16. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Approaches Practice Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph Neil Armstrong approaches the helicopter he flew to practice landing the Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

  17. Materials for Shielding Astronauts from the Hazards of Space Radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Miller, J.; Shinn, J. L.; Thibeault, S. A.; Singleterry, R. C.; Simonsen, L. C.; Kim, M. H.

    1997-01-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human spaceflight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle (SEP) events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since the missions are of long duration and the accumulated exposures can be high. Because cancer induction rates increase behind low to rather large thickness of aluminum shielding according to available biological data on mammalian exposures to GCR like ions, the shield requirements for a Mars mission are prohibitively expensive in terms of mission launch costs. Preliminary studies indicate that materials with high hydrogen content and low atomic number constituents are most efficient in protecting the astronauts. This occurs for two reasons: the hydrogen is efficient in breaking up the heavy GCR ions into smaller less damaging fragments and the light constituents produce few secondary radiations (especially few biologically damaging neutrons). An overview of the materials related issues and their impact on human space exploration will be given.

  18. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dunned in his space suit, mission commander Neil A. Armstrong does a final check of his communications system before before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Armstrong; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) Pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  19. Using computer graphics to enhance astronaut and systems safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computer graphics is being employed at the NASA Johnson Space Center as a tool to perform rapid, efficient and economical analyses for man-machine integration, flight operations development and systems engineering. The Operator Station Design System (OSDS), a computer-based facility featuring a highly flexible and versatile interactive software package, PLAID, is described. This unique evaluation tool, with its expanding data base of Space Shuttle elements, various payloads, experiments, crew equipment and man models, supports a multitude of technical evaluations, including spacecraft and workstation layout, definition of astronaut visual access, flight techniques development, cargo integration and crew training. As OSDS is being applied to the Space Shuttle, Orbiter payloads (including the European Space Agency's Spacelab) and future space vehicles and stations, astronaut and systems safety are being enhanced. Typical OSDS examples are presented. By performing physical and operational evaluations during early conceptual phases. supporting systems verification for flight readiness, and applying its capabilities to real-time mission support, the OSDS provides the wherewithal to satisfy a growing need of the current and future space programs for efficient, economical analyses.

  20. Selecting the Mercury Seven The Search for America's First Astronauts

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In January 1959, after an exhaustive search through military service records, a number of Americas elite test pilots received orders to attend a series of top-secret briefings in Washington, D.C. These briefings were designed to assist in selecting a group of astronauts for the newly formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its man-in-space program, Project Mercury. Following in-depth medical and psychological screening, 32 finalists were chosen. They would be subjected to the most rigorous, exploratory, and even degrading medical and psychological stress tests ever imposed on the nation's service personnel. NASA wanted the best of the best in its quest for the nation's first astronauts, and this is the story of that search for a group of near-supermen who were destined to become trailblazing pioneers of American space flight. For the very first time, after extensive research and numerous interviews, the names and amazing stories of those 32 finalists are finally revealed in this book. ...

  1. Might astronauts one day be treated like return samples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Jacques; Debus, André

    2008-09-01

    The next time humans set foot on the Moon or another planet, will we treat the crew like we would a sample return mission when they come back to Earth? This may seem a surprising or even provocative question, but it is one we need to address. The hurdles and hazards of sending humans to Mars for example, the technology constraints and physiological and psychological challenges are many; but let us not forget the need to protect populations and environments from the risk of contamination [United Nations, treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies (the “Outer Space Treaty”) referenced 610 UNTS 205 - resolution 2222(XXI) of December 1966]. The first hurdle is the size of crew modules. It is hard to envisage being able to decontaminate a crew module as thoroughly as we can interplanetary probes at launch. And once a crew arrives on Mars, it will not be easy either to break the chain of contact between their habitat and the Martian environment. How will astronauts avoid coming into direct contact with Mars dust when they remove their spacesuits in the airlock? How will they avoid bringing it into the crew module, and then back to Earth? At this stage, it would seem vital to do preliminary research on unmanned exobiology missions to identify zones that do not, a priori, pose a contamination hazard for astronauts. However, this precaution will not dispense with the need to perfect methods to chemically sterilize Mars dust inside airlocks, and quarantine procedures for the return to Earth. While the technology challenges of protecting astronauts and their habitat are considerable, the ethical issues are not to be underestimated either. They must be addressed alongside all the other issues bound up with human spaceflight, chief among them astronauts’ acceptance of the risk of a launch failure and other accidents, exposure to cosmic radiation and so on. For missions to

  2. Former Dryden pilot and NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Famed astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon during the historic Apollo 11 space mission in July 1969, served for seven years as a research pilot at the NACA-NASA High-Speed Flight Station, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards, California, before he entered the space program. Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, and today the Glenn Research Center) in 1955. Later that year, he transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards as an aeronautical research scientist and then as a pilot, a position he held until becoming an astronaut in 1962. He was one of nine NASA astronauts in the second class to be chosen. As a research pilot Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100A and F-100C aircraft, F-101, and the F-104A. He also flew the X-1B, X-5, F-105, F-106, B-47, KC-135, and Paresev. He left Dryden with a total of over 2450 flying hours. He was a member of the USAF-NASA Dyna-Soar Pilot Consultant Group before the Dyna-Soar project was cancelled, and studied X-20 Dyna-Soar approaches and abort maneuvers through use of the F-102A and F5D jet aircraft. Armstrong was actively engaged in both piloting and engineering aspects of the X-15 program from its inception. He completed the first flight in the aircraft equipped with a new flow-direction sensor (ball nose) and the initial flight in an X-15 equipped with a self-adaptive flight control system. He worked closely with designers and engineers in development of the adaptive system, and made seven flights in the rocket plane from December 1960 until July 1962. During those fights he reached a peak altitude of 207,500 feet in the X-15-3, and a speed of 3,989 mph (Mach 5.74) in the X-15-1. Armstrong has a total of 8 days and 14 hours in space, including 2 hours and 48 minutes walking on the Moon. In March 1966 he was commander of the Gemini 8

  3. Astronauts Ross and Helms at CAPCOM station during STS-61 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Jerry L. Ross and Susan J. Helms are pictured at the Spacecraft Communicators console during joint integrated simulations for the STS-61 mission. Astronauts assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were simultaneously rehearsing in a neutral buoyancy tank at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Alabama.

  4. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt seated in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed seated in the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) at Station 9 (Van Serg Crater) during the third Apollo 17 extrvehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, crew commander.

  5. A multi-purpose tactile vest for astronauts in the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veen, H.A.H.C. van

    2003-01-01

    During a 10 day taxiflight to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2004, Dutch astronaut André Kuipers is scheduled to test a multi-purpose vibrotactile vest. The main application of the vest is supporting the astronaut's orientation awareness. To this end, we employ an artificial gravity vector

  6. Changes in mitochondrial homeostasis and redox status in astronauts following long stays in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Indo, Hiroko P; Majima, Hideyuki J; Terada, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The effects of long-term exposure to extreme space conditions on astronauts were investigated by analyzing hair samples from ten astronauts who had spent six months on the International Space Station (ISS). Two samples were collected before, during and after their stays in the ISS; hereafter...

  7. Unilateral Loss of Spontaneous Venous Pulsations in an Astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Thomas H.; Gibson, C. Robert; Lee, Andrew G.; Patel, Nimesh; Hart, Steven; Pettit, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous venous pulsations seen on the optic nerve head (optic disc) are presumed to be caused by fluctuations in the pressure gradient between the intraocular and retrolaminar venous systems. The disappearance of previously documented spontaneous venous pulsations is a well-recognized clinical sign usually associated with a rise in intracranial pressure and a concomitant bilateral elevation of pressure in the subarachnoid space surrounding the optic nerves. In this correspondence we report the unilateral loss of spontaneous venous pulsations in an astronaut 5 months into a long duration space flight. We documented a normal lumbar puncture opening pressure 8 days post mission. The spontaneous venous pulsations were also documented to be absent 21 months following return to Earth.. We hypothesize that these changes may have resulted from a chronic unilateral rise in optic nerve sheath pressure caused by a microgravity-induced optic nerve sheath compartment syndrome.

  8. Seeing Earth Through the Eyes of an Astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office within the ARES Directorate has undertaken a new class of handheld camera photographic observations of the Earth as seen from the International Space Station (ISS). For years, astronauts have attempted to describe their experience in space and how they see the Earth roll by below their spacecraft. Thousands of crew photographs have documented natural features as diverse as the dramatic clay colors of the African coastline, the deep blues of the Earth's oceans, or the swirling Aurora Borealis of Australia in the upper atmosphere. Dramatic recent improvements in handheld digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera capabilities are now allowing a new field of crew photography: night time-lapse imagery.

  9. Musculoskeletal Modeling Component of the NASA Digital Astronaut Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, B. E.; Pennline, J. A.; Stalker, A. R.; Mulugeta, L.; Myers, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Digital Astronaut Project s (DAP) objective is to provide computational tools that support research of the physiological response to low gravity environments and analyses of how changes cause health and safety risks to the astronauts and to the success of the mission. The spaceflight risk associated with muscle atrophy is impaired performance due to reduced muscle mass, strength and endurance. Risks of early onset of osteoporosis and bone fracture are among the spaceflight risks associated with loss of bone mineral density. METHODS: Tools under development include a neuromuscular model, a biomechanical model and a bone remodeling model. The neuromuscular model will include models of neuromuscular drive, muscle atrophy, fiber morphology and metabolic processes as a function of time in space. Human movement will be modeled with the biomechanical model, using muscle and bone model parameters at various states. The bone remodeling model will allow analysis of bone turnover, loss and adaptation. A comprehensive trade study was completed to identify the current state of the art in musculoskeletal modeling. The DAP musculoskeletal models will be developed using a combination of existing commercial software and academic research codes identified in the study, which will be modified for use in human spaceflight research. These individual models are highly dependent upon each other and will be integrated together once they reach sufficient levels of maturity. ANALYSES: The analyses performed with these models will include comparison of different countermeasure exercises for optimizing effectiveness and comparison of task requirements and the state of strength and endurance of a crew member at a particular time in a mission. DISCUSSION: The DAP musculoskeletal model has the potential to complement research conducted on spaceflight induced changes to the musculoskeletal system. It can help with hypothesis formation, identification of causative mechanisms and

  10. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  11. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered a hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies. The purpose of this paper is to document the comprehensive EVA training data set that was compiled from multiple sources by the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) epidemiologists to investigate musculoskeletal injuries. The EVA training dataset does not contain any medical data, rather it only documents when EVA training was performed, by whom and other details about the session. The first activities practicing EVA maneuvers in water were performed at the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Spaceflight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. This facility opened in 1967 and was used for EVA training until the early Space Shuttle program days. Although several photographs show astronauts performing EVA training in the NBS, records detailing who performed the training and the frequency of training are unavailable. Paper training records were stored within the NBS after it was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1985 and closed in 1997, but significant resources would be needed to identify and secure these records, and at this time LSAH has not pursued acquisition of these early training records. Training in the NBS decreased when the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, opened the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) in 1980. Early training records from the WETF consist of 11 hand-written dive logbooks compiled by individual workers that were digitized at the request of LSAH. The WETF was integral in the training for Space Shuttle EVAs until its closure in 1998. The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near JSC

  12. NRAO Scientists on Team Receiving International Astronautics Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is presenting an award to a pioneering team of scientists and engineers who combined an orbiting radio-astronomy satellite with ground-based radio telescopes around the world to produce a "virtual telescope" nearly three times the size of the Earth. The team, which includes two scientists from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), will receive the award in a ceremony Sunday, October 16, in Fukuoka, Japan. VSOP Satellite and Ground Telescopes Artist's conception of HALCA satellite and ground observatories together making "virtual telescope" (blue) about three times the size of Earth. CREDIT: ISAS, JAXA (Click on image for larger version) The IAA chose the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), an international collaboration, to receive its 2005 Laurels for Team Achievement Award, which recognizes "extraordinary performance and achievement by a team of scientists, engineers and managers in the field of Astronautics to foster its peaceful and international use." VSOP team members named in the IAA award include NRAO astronomers Edward Fomalont, of Charlottesville, Virginia, and Jonathan Romney, of Socorro, New Mexico. "This is a well-deserved award for an international team whose hard work produced a scientific milestone that yielded impressive results and provides a foundation for more advances in the future," said Dr. Fred K.Y Lo, NRAO Director. The VSOP program used a Japanese satellite, HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy), that included an 8-meter (26-foot) radio telescope. HALCA was launched in 1997 and made astronomical observations in conjunction with ground-based radio telescopes from 14 countries. Five tracking stations, including one at NRAO's Green Bank, West Virginia, facility, received data from HALCA which later was combined with data from the ground-based telescopes to produce images more detailed than those that could have been made by ground-based systems alone

  13. Carotid Intima Media Thickness in the Astronaut Corps: Association to Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffredini, John; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith; Charvat, Jacqueline; Young, Millennia; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Tarver, William

    2017-01-01

    Background: Carotid Intima Media Thickness (CIMT) has been demonstrated to be predictive of future cardiovascular events. Within various populations, radiation exposure, stress, and physical confinement have all been linked to an increased CIMT. Recent research discovered CIMT was significantly increased in ten long duration astronauts from pre-flight to four days post flight. The relationship between spaceflight and CIMT is not understood and trends in CIMT within the larger astronaut population are unknown. Methods: In 2010, CIMT was offered as part of the astronaut annual exam at the JSC Flight Medicine Clinic using a standardized CIMT screening protocol and professional sonographers. Between 2010 and 2016, CIMT measurements were collected on 213 NASA astronauts and payload specialists. The values used in this retrospective chart review are the mean of the CIMT from the right and left. Spaceflight exposure was categorized based on the total number of days spent in space at the time of the ground-based ultrasound (0, 1-29, 30-100, 101-200, =200). Linear regression with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the association between spaceflight exposures and CIMT. Results: 530 studies were completed among 213 astronauts with a mean of 2.5 studies (range 1-6) per astronaut over the six year period. As in other populations, CIMT was significantly associated with age; however, gender was not. While there was no significant direct correlation between total spaceflight exposure and CIMT found, astronauts with 30-100 spaceflight days and astronauts with greater than 100 spaceflight days had significantly increased CIMT over astronauts who had never flown (p=0.002 and p=<0.0001 respectively) after adjustment for age. Conclusion: Further work is needed to fully understand CIMT and its association to spaceflight. Current occupational surveillance activities are under way to study CIMT values in conjunction with other cardiovascular risk factors among

  14. Astronaut Returns Space-Flown Flag to NRAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    A NASA Astronaut who carried a flag bearing the logo of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) on last month's Shuttle flight returned that flag to the observatory on Friday, April 12, at a ceremony in Socorro. Dr. John M. Grunsfeld, payload commander of the STS-109 flight, also addressed students at the New Mexico State Science Fair on Saturday, April 13, on the campus of New Mexico Tech in Socorro. Dr. John M. Grunsfeld: Click on image for larger view Dr. John M. Grunsfeld Grunsfeld, an astronomer who observed with NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in 1991, carried the 3-by-5-foot NRAO flag aboard Columbia during the March 1-12 mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope. The NRAO flag, made by Socorro resident Dora Spargo, had been sent to the observatory's facilities in Socorro; Tucson, AZ; Green Bank, WV; and Charlottesville, VA, where NRAO employees signed it prior to the flight. "With our signatures on that flag, we all felt like we were riding along with John aboard the Shuttle," said NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout. "We are proud that NRAO was represented on a mission that was so important to astronomy," Vanden Bout added. During the flight, Grunsfeld performed three of the five spacewalks in which crew members successfully upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope. The astronauts left the space observatory with a new power unit, a new camera and new solar arrays. The upgrades, said Grunsfeld, leave the orbiting telescope with "its discovery potential significantly increased." STS-109 was Grunsfeld's fourth space flight and his second visit to Hubble. A research astronomer who received his bachelor's degree in physics from MIT and a Ph.D from the University of Chicago in 1988, Grunsfeld was selected to the astronaut corps in 1992. His first space flight, in 1995, featured astronomical observations using the Astro observatory, a three-telescope facility aboard the Shuttle Endeavour. In 1997, Grunsfeld rode Atlantis on a 10-day mission to the

  15. Estimating the Rate of Occurrence of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.; Goodenow, D.; Gokoglu, S.; Kassemi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in urine chemistry, during and post flight, potentially increases the risk of renal stones in astronauts. Although much is known about the effects of space flight on urine chemistry, no inflight incidence of renal stones in US astronauts exists and the question "How much does this risk change with space flight?" remains difficult to accurately quantify. In this discussion, we tackle this question utilizing a combination of deterministic and probabilistic modeling that implements the physics behind free stone growth and agglomeration, speciation of urine chemistry and published observations of population renal stone incidences to estimate changes in the rate of renal stone presentation. The modeling process utilizes a Population Balance Equation based model developed in the companion IWS abstract by Kassemi et al. (2016) to evaluate the maximum growth and agglomeration potential from a specified set of urine chemistry values. Changes in renal stone occurrence rates are obtained from this model in a probabilistic simulation that interrogates the range of possible urine chemistries using Monte Carlo techniques. Subsequently, each randomly sampled urine chemistry undergoes speciation analysis using the well-established Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS) code to calculate critical values, such as ionic strength and relative supersaturation. The Kassemi model utilizes this information to predict the mean and maximum stone size. We close the assessment loop by using a transfer function that estimates the rate of stone formation from combining the relative supersaturation and both the mean and maximum free stone growth sizes. The transfer function is established by a simulation analysis which combines population stone formation rates and Poisson regression. Training this transfer function requires using the output of the aforementioned assessment steps with inputs from known non-stone-former and known stone-former urine chemistries. Established in a Monte Carlo

  16. Astronaut Koichi Wakata, representing Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and assigned

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    STS-72 TRAINING VIEW --- Astronaut Koichi Wakata, representing Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and assigned as mission specialist for the STS-72 mission, checks over a copy of the flight plan. Wakata is on the flight deck of the fixed base Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). In the background is astronaut Brent W. Jett, pilot. The two will join four NASA astronauts aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour for a scheduled nine-day mission, now set for the winter of this year.

  17. Virtual reality system of manned maneuvering unit taking into consideration the disturbance from an astronaut's limbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jian; FAN Xiu-min; HONG Xin; XU An; HUANG Wei-dong

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a manned maneuvering unit (MMU) virtual reality system.Based on the dynamics/kinematics model of an astronaut equipped with an MMU,a disturbance model of the astronaut's arms under zero gravity conditions is developed.After measuring three initial-position information,the astronaut's arms tracking information is inputted by some tracker setting on an operator using real-time emendation and correction.Finally,the paper presents two different results between loading and unloading the disturbance model within the progress of simulation.From the different results,we find that the motion of an astronaut's arms has greater influence over space walking with the same control mode.The MMU virtual reality provides a new method for the simulation of real space walking,and also a perfect method for developing prototype MMU.

  18. Paresev on lakebed with Mercury astronaut Gus Grissom and Dryden test pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Center Paresev 1-A with Mercury Astronaut Gus Grissom (left) and NASA test pilot Milton Thompson. Do you suppose they are wondering if all those clouds will mean a canceled flight?

  19. Astronaut Scott Carpenter on recovery ship U.S.S. Intrepid after MA-7 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 (MA-7) mission, arrives aboard the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. Intrepid, during recovery operations following his earth-orbital mission.

  20. Astronaut Scott Carpenter being recovered from Ocean after MA-7 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 (MA-7) mission, is seen being recovered from Atlantic Ocean after MA-7 flight. A diver helps Carpenter into a life raft while the capsule floats nearby.

  1. Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of Apollo 11 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing mission in his space suit, with his helmet on the table in front of him. Behind him is a large photograph of the lunar surface.

  2. Astronaut Neil Armstrong in Launch Complex 16 trailer during suiting up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot of the Gemini 8 space flight, sits in the Launch Complex 16 trailer during suiting up operations for the Gemini 8 mission. Suit technician Jim Garrepy assists.

  3. No evidence for an increase in circulatory disease mortality in astronauts following space radiation exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Little, Mark P.

    2016-08-01

    Previous analysis has shown that astronauts have a significantly lower standardized mortality ratio for circulatory disease mortality compared to the U.S. population, which is consistent with the rigorous selection process and healthy lifestyles of astronauts, and modest space radiation exposures from past space missions. However, a recent report by Delp et al. estimated the proportional mortality ratio for ages of 55-64 y of Apollo lunar mission astronauts to claim a high risk of cardiovascular disease due to space radiation compared to the U.S. population or to non-flight astronauts. In this Commentary we discuss important deficiencies in the methods and assumptions on radiation exposures used by Delp et al. that we judge cast serious doubt on their conclusions.

  4. Astronauts Share the Art and Science of Earth, in their Photographs from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts have taken over 1 million photographs of Earth. Many of them directly support science research by documenting ephemeral events or showing Earth changes over the 50 year history of astronaut photography. And yet, even more of them are simply beautiful images of our wonderful planet. Astronauts love to look at the Earth from this 370km high vantage point. And they're constantly taking pictures - typically over 500 pictures each day. 'Oh, look at that' - click! 'And that' - click! Then they share them with scientists, other astronauts, and the public - as a way to help other people experience this transformative view of home planet Earth. Astronaut Chris Hadfield had 1.2 million followers on his tweeter feed from orbit, through which he sent hundreds of photographs. The yellows and oranges of the Sahara; serene islands in the middle of the Pacific; looking out over the snow-covered Alps; the night lights of Paris; looking straight down into an erupting volcano. What drama, what story, what a remarkable way to learn about Earth from the perspective of science and art. Each of these 1.2 million pictures was taken by a human, an astronaut who felt this awe and respect for Earth, who melded this art and science and pressed the button at the decisive moment. This session features dozens of these photographs, each selected as an all-time favorite by the astronauts after they returned to Earth. We will present the photos, as well as the astronauts' commentary, and an over-arching analysis of insights gained from the orbital perspective. We also will demonstrate the Windows on Earth software that the astronauts use on-orbit to plan their photographic opportunities and identify specific targets and features of interest, while orbiting at 17,000 mph. Finally, we will provide links to web-based resources for the public to get access to this entire archive of Earth photographs, so that they can pick their own favorites, download them, and explore creative ways to

  5. Subclinical Reactivation and Shed of Infectious Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    We have previously detected VZV in healthy astronauts both during spaceflight and shortly after landing. Herein, we show that VZV shed in seropositive astronauts is infectious. A total of 40 saliva samples were obtained from each of the 3 astronauts. From each astronaut, 14 samples were taken 109 to 133 days before liftoff, 1 sample was taken every day during 12 days in space, and one sample was taken for 14 consecutive days beginning the second day after landing. Quantitative PCR was used to detect VZV DNA in saliva. None of 42 preflight saliva samples contained VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. In 1 astronaut, 6 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 120 to 2,500 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 1250 copies of VZV DNA were present on day 2, 45 copies on day 3, and 110 copies on day 5. All samples taken 6 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. In the second astronaut, 5 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 18 to 650 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 560 copies of VZV DNA were present in saliva on day 2, 340 copies on day 4, 45 copies on day 5, and 23 copes on day 6. All samples taken 7 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. Saliva taken 2 to 6 days after landing from all 3 astronauts was cultured on human fetal lung cells. After one subcultivation, a cytopathic effect developed in cultures inoculated with saliva from the two astronauts whose saliva contained VZV DNA. Both PCR and immunostaining identified the isolates to be VZV and not HSV-1. Importantly, the astronaut in whom no VZV was detected had a history of zoster 9 years earlier. It is possible that a boost in cell-mediated immunity to VZV which is known to develop after zoster protected him from subclinical reactivation. The genotype of the two VZV isolates was determined by VZV ORF22-based PCR/sequencing along with FRET-based PCR assays that target specific nucleotide polymorphisms. Both VZV isolates

  6. Simulated Partners and Collaborative Exercise (SPACE) to boost motivation for astronauts: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Winn, Brian; Kerr, Norbert L.; Pivarnik, James M; Ede, Alison; Hill, Christopher; Samendinger, Stephen; Jeffery, William

    2016-01-01

    Background Astronauts may have difficulty adhering to exercise regimens at vigorous intensity levels during long space missions. Vigorous exercise is important for aerobic and musculoskeletal health during space missions and afterwards. A key impediment to maintaining vigorous exercise is motivation. Finding ways to motivate astronauts to exercise at levels necessary to mitigate reductions in musculoskeletal health and aerobic capacity have not been explored. The focus of Simulated Partners a...

  7. Menstrual Cycle Control in Female Astronauts and the Associated Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Varsha; Wotring, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and serious condition affecting approximately 1-2 per 1000 people in the USA every year. There have been no documented case reports of VTE in female astronauts during spaceflight in the published literature. Some female astronauts use hormonal contraception to control their menstrual cycles and it is currently unknown how this affects their risk of VTE. Current terrestrial risk prediction models do not account for the spaceflight environment and the physiological changes associated with it. We therefore aim to estimate a specific risk score for female astronauts who are taking hormonal contraception for menstrual cycle control, to deduce whether they are at an elevated risk of VTE. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in order to identify and quantify known terrestrial risk factors for VTE. Studies involving analogues for the female astronaut population were also reviewed, for example, military personnel who use the oral contraceptive pill for menstrual suppression. Well known terrestrial risk factors, for example, obesity or smoking would not be applicable to our study population as these candidates would have been excluded during astronaut selection processes. Other risk factors for VTE include hormonal therapy, lower limb paralysis, physical inactivity, hyperhomocysteinemia, low methylfolate levels and minor injuries, all of which potentially apply to crew members LSAH data will be assessed to identify which of these risk factors are applicable to our astronaut population. Using known terrestrial risk data, an overall estimated risk of VTE for female astronauts using menstrual cycle control methods will therefore be calculated. We predict this will be higher than the general population but not significantly higher requiring thromboprophylaxis. This study attempts to delineate what is assumed to be true of our astronaut population, for example, they are known to be a healthy fit cohort of individuals, and

  8. From Homo Sapiens to Homo Cosmicus - Astronautics, Darwinism abd Historical Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkowsky, G.

    Since its inception in late-nineteenth century, astronautics has been viewed as a historical outcome of human evolution as well as a future driver thereof. The history of astronautics-related, evolutionary thought reveals a tension between the Darwinian notion of natural selection and that of homocosmic predestination - be it of dialectical materialistic or theological nature. One can detect the influence of this ideological diversity on the American and Soviet space programs.

  9. Artists concept of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation artist's concept depicting mankind's first walk on another celestianl body. Here, Astronaut Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, is making his first step onto the surface of the moon. In the background is the Earth, some 240,000 miles away. Armstrong. They are continuing their postflight debriefings. The three astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

  10. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in NASA Astronauts Across the Lifespan: Historical Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Davenport, Eddie; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Radford, Nina B.; De Fina, Laura F.; Stenger, Michael B.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Acute effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular system have been studied extensively, but the combined chronic effects of spaceflight and aging are not well understood. Preparation for and participation in space flight activities are potentially associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors (e.g., altered dietary and exercise habits, physical and emotional stress, circadian shifts, radiation). Further, astronauts who travel into space multiple times may be at an increased risk across their lifespan. However, comparing the risk of cardiovascular disease in astronauts to other large cohorts is difficult. For example, comparisons between astronauts and large national cohorts, such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Information Survey, are hampered by significant differences in health status between astronauts and the general population, and most of these national studies fail to provide longitudinal data on population health. To address those limitations, NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health previously sought to compare the astronauts to a cohort of civil servants employed at the Johnson Space Center. However, differences between the astronauts and civil servants at the beginning of the study, as well as differential follow up, limited the ability to interpret the results. To resolve some of these limitations, two unique cohorts of healthy workers, U.S. Air Force aviators and Cooper Center Longitudinal Study participants, have been identified as potential comparison populations for the astronaut corps. The Air Force cohort was chosen due to similarities in health at selection, screening, and some occupational exposures that Air Force aviators endure, many of which mirror that of the astronaut corps. The Cooper Clinic cohort, a generally healthy prevention cohort, was chosen for the vast array of clinical cardiovascular measures collected in a longitudinal manner complementary to those collected on

  11. Microminiature Monitor for Vital Electrolyte and Metabolite Levels of Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Koji; Gratzl, Miklos

    2004-01-01

    Ions, such as proton (pH) and potassium, play a crucial role in body fluids to maintain proper basic functioning of cells and tissues. Metabolites, such as glucose, control the energy available to the entire human body in normal as well as stress situations, and before, during, and after meals. These molecules diffuse easily between blood in the capillaries and the interstitial fluid residing between cells and tissues. We have developed and approach to monitoring of critical ions (called electrolytes) and glucose in the interstitial fluid under the human skin. Proton and potassium levels sensed using optode technology that translates the respective ionic concentrations into variable colors of corresponding ionophore/dye/polymeric liquid membranes. Glucose is monitored indirectly, by coupling through immobilized glucose oxidase with local pH that is then detected using a similar color scheme. The monitor consists of a tiny plastic bar, 100-200 microns wide and 1-2 mm long, placed just under the skin, with color changing spots for each analyte as well as blanks. The colors are read and translated into concentration values by a CCD camera. Direct optical coupling between the in vivo sensing bar and the ex vivo detector device requires no power, and thus eliminates the need for wires or optical fibers crossing the skin. The microminiature bar penetrates the skin easily and painlessly, so that astronauts could insert it themselves. The approach is fully compatible with telemetry in space, and thus, in vivo clinical data will be available real time in the Earth based command center once the device is fully developed. The information provided can be used for collecting hitherto unavailable vital data on clinical effects of space travel. Managing clinical emergencies in space with the sensor already in place should also become much more efficient than without a continuous monitor, as is currently the case. Civilian applications may include better glucose control of

  12. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut. International Fitness Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Mission X, Train like an Astronaut, pilot project was a 2-year effort directed by the International Life Science Working Group. The pilot was funded by the Human Research Program and was lead by the Human Research Program Education and Outreach (HRPEO) project and supported by a group of space agencies providing in-kind resources. The aim was to identify an international educational outreach concept that would promote a life science topic utilizing the education and outreach expertise of the various space agencies working on the utilization of the International Space Station. This in turn serves as an inspiration for the younger generation to aspire to go further in school, and provides insight into the capability of a participating country to ensure the effort provided value for their communities and children. The pilot project developed the necessary tools to promote communications between the partners and to use materials and expertise from all the countries? space agencies. The Mission X Website (trainlikeanastronaut.org) provided a single repository for the educational activities as well as a place for the Challenge Teams to provide their progress in the international fitness challenge. It also added to the International flavor as different countries were able to share and learn about what was happening with all those involved in the 6-week challenge period. A point system was utilized to promote constructive, cooperative competition in which 4164 students participated. The points were used to help FitKid, Astro Charlie, "Walk-To-The-Moon". The 18 physical and educational Mission X activities were made available on the Mission X website in seven languages. The Mission X pilot project was considered a success in 1) the design, development, and implementation of the multi-language website, 2) the expansion of healthy lifestyle awareness, and 3) the concept for drawing an international educational community together to highlight global topics in association

  13. Combined Effects of Spaceflight and Age in Astronauts as Assessed by Areal Bone Mineral Density [BMD] and Trabecular Bone Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Evans, H. J.; King, L.; Watts, N. B.; Hans, D.; Smith, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is a potential risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in astronauts. Although lumbar spine (LS) BMD declines rapidly, more than expected for age, there have been no fragility fractures in astronauts that can clearly be attributed to spaceflight. Recently, astronauts have been returning from 6-month spaceflights with absolute BMD still above young adult mean BMD. In spite of these BMD measurements, we project that the rapid loss in bone mass over long-duration spaceflight affects the bone microarchitecture of the LS which might predispose astronauts to premature vertebral fractures. Thus, we evaluated TBS, a novel texture index correlated with vertebral bone microarchitecture, as a means of monitoring changes to bone microarchitecture in astronauts as they age. We previously reported that TBS detects an effect of spaceflight (6-month duration), independent of BMD, in 51 astronauts (47+/-4 y) (Smith et al, J Clin Densitometry 2014). Hence, TBS was evaluated in serial DXA scans (Hologic Discovery W) conducted triennially in all active and retired astronauts and more frequently (before spaceflight, after spaceflight and until recovery) in the subset of astronauts flying 4-6- month missions. We used non-linear models to describe trends in observations (BMD or TBS) plotted as a function of astronaut age. We fitted 1175 observations of 311 astronauts, pre-flight and then postflight starting 3 years after landing or after astronaut's BMD for LS was restored to within 2% of preflight BMD. Observations were then grouped and defined as follows: 1) LD: after exposure to at least one long-duration spaceflight > 100 days and 2) SD: before LD and after exposure to at least one short-duration spaceflight lumbar spine to monitor the combined changes due to spaceflight and due to aging. This increased knowledge may enhance the ability to identify an intervention trigger for premature vertebral fractures in astronauts.

  14. Salivary Varicella Zoster Virus in Astronauts and in Patients of Herpes Zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight is a uniquely stressful environment with astronauts experiencing a variety of stressors including: isolation and confinement, psychosocial, noise, sleep deprivation, anxiety, variable gravitational forces, and increased radiation. These stressors are manifested through the HPA and SAM axes resulting in increased stress hormones. Diminished T-lymphocyte functions lead to reactivation of latent herpes viruses in astronauts during spaceflight. Herpes simplex virus reactivated with symptoms during spaceflight whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate and are shed without symptoms. EBV and VZV are shed in saliva and CMV in the urine. The levels of EBV shed in astronauts increased 10-fold during the flight; CMV and VZV are not typically shed in low stressed individuals, but both were shed in astronauts during spaceflight. All herpesviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Culturing revealed that VZV shed in saliva was infectious virus. The PCR technology was extended to test saliva of 54 shingles patients. All shingles patients shed VZV in their saliva, and the levels followed the course of the disease. Viremia was also found to be common during shingles. The technology may be used before zoster lesions appear allowing for prevention of disease. The technology may be used for rapid detection of VZV in doctors? offices. These studies demonstrated the value of applying technologies designed for astronauts to people on Earth.

  15. Historical Study of Radiation Exposures and the Incidence of Cataracts in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Iszard, G.; Feiveson, A.; Peterson, L. E.; Hardy, D.; Marak, L.; Tung, W.; Wear, M.; Chylack, L. T., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    For over 35 years, astronauts in low Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons. We reviewed the radiation exposures received by astronauts in space and on Earth, and presented results from the first epidemiological study of cataract incidence in the astronauts. Our data suggested an increased risk for cataracts from space radiation exposures*. Using parametric survival analysis and the maximum likelihood method, we estimated the dose-response and age distribution for cataract incidence in astronauts by space radiation. Considering the high-LET dose contributions on specific space missions as well as data from animal studies with neutrons and heavy ions, suggested a linear response with no dose-threshold for cataracts. However, there are unanswered questions related to the importance and the definition of "clinically significant" cataracts commonly used in radiation protection, especially in light of epidemiological data suggesting that the probability that "sub-clinical" cataracts will progress is highly dependent on the age at which cataracts appear. We briefly describe a new study that will address the measurement of cataract progression-rates in astronauts and a ground-based comparison group.

  16. Incidence of Epstein-Barr Virus in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Deborah A.; Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in re-activation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crew members. The shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts will increase during spaceflight. A total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva, assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was used to determine shedding patterns before, during, and after spaceflight. EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during (p less than 0.001) or after (p less than 0.01) flight. No significant difference between the in-flight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. The increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.

  17. Astronaut candidate Koichi Wakata (left) prepares to jump off a box during a parachute landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    1992 ASCAN TRAINING --- Astronaut candidate Koichi Wakata (left) prepares to jump off a box during a parachute landing demonstration at Vance Air Force Base. This portion of the training is designed to familiarize the trainees with the proper way to hit the ground following a parachute jump. Looking on is astronaut candidate Andrew W. S. Thomas. Wakata is one of seven international mission specialist candidates who joined 19 United States astronaut candidates, including Thomas, for the three-day parachute/survival training school at the Oklahoma Base.EDITORS NOTE: Since this photograph was taken, Wakata has been named as mission specialist for the STS-72 mission and Thomas has been named as mission specialist for the STS-77 flight.

  18. Astronaut candidate Koichi Wakata prepares to jump off a box during a parachute landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    1992 ASCAN TRAINING --- Astronaut candidate Koichi Wakata prepares to jump off a box during a parachute landing demonstration at Vance Air Force Base. This portion of the training is designed to familiarize the trainees with the proper way to hit the ground following a parachute jump. Looking on are astronaut candidates Michael L. Gernhardt (left) and Andrew W. S. Thomas (second left), along with a United States Air Force (USAF) instructor. Wakata, representing Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA), is one of seven international mission specialist candidates who joined 19 United States astronaut candidates, including Gernhardt and Thomas, for the three-day parachute/survival training school at the Oklahoma Base.EDITORS NOTE: Since this photograph was taken, Gernhardt, Wakata and Thomas have been named as mission specialists for the STS-69, STS-72 and STS-77 missions, respectively.

  19. Former astronauts Armstrong and Cernan talk at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Gene Cernan talk about their experiences. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

  20. Albedo protons and electrons at ISS - an important contribution to astronaut dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, R. B.; Slaba, T. C.; Badavi, F. F.; Mertens, C. J.; Blattnig, S.

    2015-12-01

    Albedo particles, which are created by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere and are moving upwards away from the surface of the earth, are often considered a negligible contribution to astronaut radiation exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). Models of astronaut exposure, however, consistently underestimate measurements onboard ISS when these albedo particles are neglected. Recent measurements by instruments on ISS (AMS, PAMELA, and SEDA-AP) hint that there are high energy protons and electrons which are not being modeled and that may contribute to radiation exposure on ISS. Estimates of the contribution of radiation exposure on ISS due to albedo particles, along with open questions, will be discussed.

  1. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery C. Chancellor; Scott, Graham B. I.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop duri...

  2. Astronaut Judith Resnik in the 'basket' portion of the slidewire system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Judith A. Resnik, 41-D mission specialist, is pictured in the 'basket' portion of the slidewire system at Pad A, as she participates in training for emergency evacuation from the fixed service structure. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-84PC-325.

  3. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt looks at 'orange' soil brought back by Apollo 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. 'Jack' Schmitt (facing camera), Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, was one of the first to look at the sample of 'orange' soil brought back from the Taurus-Littrow landing site by the Apollo 17 crewmen.

  4. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt next to deployed U.S. flag on lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, is photographed next to the U.S. flag during extravehicular activity (EVA) of NASA's final lunar landing mission in the Apollo series. The photo was taken at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The highest part of the flag appears to point toward our planet earth in the distant background.

  5. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronaut Robert L. Stewart

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) with astronaut Robert L. Stewart. Stewart is simulating a planned EVA using the mobile foot restraint device and a one-G version of the Canadian-built remote manipulator system.

  6. Astronaut Scott Carpenter recieves call from President on U.S.S. Intrepid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 (MA-7) mission, talks with President John F. Kennedy via radio-telephone from aboard the carrier U.S.S. Intrepid. Carpenter was recovered by a helicopter and taken to the U.S.S. Intrepid after a 4 hour and 56 minute mission in space.

  7. Astronaut Scott Carpenter in Hanger S crew quarters during suiting activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 flight, is seen in Hanger S crew quarters during a preflight suiting activity at Cape Canaveral, Florida. He is assisted in suiting by technician Al Rochford. In this view, Carpenter is fully suited and is having his gloves adjusted.

  8. Astronauts Thuot and Ivins work with the Dexterous End Effector (DEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This view, photographed on the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, captures crew activity with the Dexterous End Effector (DEE) on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). Astronauts Pierre J. Thuot and Marsha S. Ivins communicate with ground controllers during operations and observations with DEE.

  9. Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) / Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) Data Request Helpdesk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Millennia; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This session is intended to provide to HRP IWS attendees instant feedback on archived astronaut data, including such topics as content of archives, access, request processing, and data format. Members of the LSAH and LSDA teams will be available at a 'help desk' during the poster sessions to answer questions from researchers.

  10. Astronaut Anthony W. England with soft drink in middeck area near galley

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Anthony W. England, mission specialist, drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Coke while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw. Just below him, food containers on a tray are attached to the middeck lockers.

  11. Behavioral Issues Associated With Long Duration Space Expeditions: Review and Analysis of Astronaut Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struster, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Personal journals maintained by NASA astronauts during six-month expeditions onboard the International Space Station were analyzed to obtain information concerning a wide range of behavioral and human factors issues. Astronauts wrote most about their work, followed by outside communications (with mission control, family, and friends), adjustment to the conditions, interactions with crew mates, recreation/leisure, equipment (installation, maintenance), events (launches, docking, hurricanes, etc.), organization/management, sleep, and food. The study found evidence of a decline in morale during the third quarters of the missions and identified key factors that contribute to sustained adjustment and optimal performance during long-duration space expeditions. Astronauts reported that they benefited personally from writing in their journals because it helped maintain perspective on their work and relations with others. Responses to questions asked before, during, and after the expeditions show that living and working onboard the ISS is not as difficult as the astronauts anticipate before starting their six-month tours of duty. Recommendations include application of study results and continuation of the experiment to obtain additional data as crew size increases and operations evolve.

  12. An Unpowered Exoskeleton to Reduce Astronaut Hand Fatigue during Microgravity EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Alan John

    Astronaut hand fatigue during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and EVA training is a critical risk in human space exploration. Improved glove designs over the past forty years have reduced hand fatigue, but limitations of the technology prevent major improvements to reduce hand fatigue. Therefore, a mechanism to assist astronauts by reducing hand fatigue was explored. Many organizations have already developed exoskeletons to assist astronauts, but all mechanisms developed required electrically powered actuators and control systems to enhance grip strength. However, astronauts already possess the strength required to actuate the glove; what is needed is a method to reduce fatigue without introducing electromechanical complexity. A passive mechanical system was developed as a proof-of-concept to test the feasibility of an unpowered exoskeleton to maintain static grip around an object. The semi- rigid nature of an inflated pressure glove provided an ideal substrate to mount a mechanism and associated components to allow an astronaut to release his/her grip inside the glove while maintaining attitude, as the mechanism will keep the glove closed around an object. Three prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the architecture. The final two prototypes were tested on a real pressure suit glove at Final Frontier Design (FFD), and the third mechanism demonstrated attachment and basic operating principles. At University of California (UC) Davis, pressure glove analogs were fabricated from a baseball batting glove and polystyrene to simulate a real pressure glove without the risk of testing in a reduced pressure environment (i.e. a glove box). Testing of the third prototype showed a reduction in fatigue as measured by Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC) grip force over a 30 second period when the mechanism assisted gripping an object.

  13. Automation of PCXMC and ImPACT for NASA Astronaut Medical Imaging Dose and Risk Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Picco, Charles; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To automate astronaut organ and effective dose calculations from occupational X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations incorporating PCXMC and ImPACT tools and to estimate the associated lifetime cancer risk per the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) using MATLAB(R). Methods: NASA follows guidance from the NCRP on its operational radiation safety program for astronauts. NCRP Report 142 recommends that astronauts be informed of the cancer risks from reported exposures to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. MATLAB(R) code was written to retrieve exam parameters for medical imaging procedures from a NASA database, calculate associated dose and risk, and return results to the database, using the Microsoft .NET Framework. This code interfaces with the PCXMC executable and emulates the ImPACT Excel spreadsheet to calculate organ doses from X-rays and CTs, respectively, eliminating the need to utilize the PCXMC graphical user interface (except for a few special cases) and the ImPACT spreadsheet. Results: Using MATLAB(R) code to interface with PCXMC and replicate ImPACT dose calculation allowed for rapid evaluation of multiple medical imaging exams. The user inputs the exam parameter data into the database and runs the code. Based on the imaging modality and input parameters, the organ doses are calculated. Output files are created for record, and organ doses, effective dose, and cancer risks associated with each exam are written to the database. Annual and post-flight exposure reports, which are used by the flight surgeon to brief the astronaut, are generated from the database. Conclusions: Automating PCXMC and ImPACT for evaluation of NASA astronaut medical imaging radiation procedures allowed for a traceable and rapid method for tracking projected cancer risks associated with over 12,000 exposures. This code will be used to evaluate future medical radiation exposures, and can easily be modified to accommodate changes to the risk

  14. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

  15. Managing the Risk for Early Onset Osteoporosis in Long-Duration Astronauts Due to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    Early Onset Osteoporosis is probably the most recognized but poorly understood long-term health risk due to spaceflight. Osteoporosis management is primarily prophylactic and clinical interventions rely upon the ability to predict fractures which is currently determined by surrogate measures of bone strength. The RMAT for Early Onset Osteoporosis identified some open issues related to the fact that long-duration astronauts compose a unique group of subjects for which clinical approaches for osteoporosis management do not apply. Long-duration astronauts are healthy, young (25 to 55 years of age), predominantly male, and physical fit relative to the typical osteoporosis patient. Moreover, during prolonged space missions (typically 6-month missions) the skeleton not only adapts to weightlessness, but is influenced by numerous risk factors induced by operational constraints, e.g., inability to maintain preflight weight-bearing and aerobic activities, sub-optimal dietary intake (e.g., high sodium content for food stability, lack of fresh fruit and vegetables), suppression of vitamin D metabolism by uv shielding, and remote medicine care. Moreover, adaptation results in novel changes to astronauts bones that cannot be detected by current medically-useful measures. Consequently, a panel of clinicians (recognized leaders and policy-makers in osteoporosis) was convened to review the dataset of bone measures and bone loss risk factors in long-duration astronauts. Driven by the queries in the RMAT, the panel was charged to determine 1) if an intervention is required to prevent this risk, 2) what type and at what time would intervention be optimal, 3) what is the clinical trigger that would require a medical response from flight surgeons and 4) how should research data be used in the clinical care of astronauts. Hence, the RMAT determined that a bone health policy need to be formulated specific for this unique cohort subjected to a novel skeletal condition

  16. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D; Charvat, Jacqueline M; Limoli, Charles L; Globus, Ruth K; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-07-28

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth's protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth's magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4-5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation.

  17. Recommended Methods for Monitoring Skeletal Health in Astronauts to Distinguish Specific Effects of Prolonged Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasadi, Lukas J.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Scott A.; Yardley, Gregory L.; Evans, Harlan J.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA uses areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to monitor skeletal health in astronauts after typical 180-day spaceflights. The osteoporosis field and NASA, however, recognize the insufficiency of DXA aBMD as a sole surrogate for fracture risk. This is an even greater concern for NASA as it attempts to expand fracture risk assessment in astronauts, given the complicated nature of spaceflight-induced bone changes and the fact that multiple 1-year missions are planned. In the past decade, emerging analyses for additional surrogates have been tested in clinical trials; the potential use of these technologies to monitor the biomechanical integrity of the astronaut skeleton will be presented. OVERVIEW: An advisory panel of osteoporosis policy-makers provided NASA with an evidence-based assessment of astronaut biomedical and research data. The panel concluded that spaceflight and terrestrial bone loss have significant differences and certain factors may predispose astronauts to premature fractures. Based on these concerns, a proposed surveillance program is presented which a) uses Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans of the hip to monitor the recovery of spaceflight-induced deficits in trabecular BMD by 2 years after return, b) develops Finite Element Models [FEM] of QCT data to evaluate spaceflight effect on calculated hip bone strength and c) generates Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] from serial DXA scans of the lumbar spine to evaluate the effect of age, spaceflight and countermeasures on this novel index of bone microarchitecture. SIGNIFICANCE: DXA aBMD is a widely-applied, evidence-based predictor for fractures but not applicable as a fracture surrogate for premenopausal females and males parameters is a limitation for assessing changes in bone integrity with and without countermeasures. Collective use of aBMD, TBS, QCT, and FEM analysis for astronaut surveillance could accommodate NASA's aggressive schedule for risk

  18. NASA Virtual Glovebox: An Immersive Virtual Desktop Environment for Training Astronauts in Life Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twombly, I. Alexander; Smith, Jeffrey; Bruyns, Cynthia; Montgomery, Kevin; Boyle, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station will soon provide an unparalleled research facility for studying the near- and longer-term effects of microgravity on living systems. Using the Space Station Glovebox Facility - a compact, fully contained reach-in environment - astronauts will conduct technically challenging life sciences experiments. Virtual environment technologies are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to help realize the scientific potential of this unique resource by facilitating the experimental hardware and protocol designs and by assisting the astronauts in training. The Virtual GloveboX (VGX) integrates high-fidelity graphics, force-feedback devices and real- time computer simulation engines to achieve an immersive training environment. Here, we describe the prototype VGX system, the distributed processing architecture used in the simulation environment, and modifications to the visualization pipeline required to accommodate the display configuration.

  19. Use of Astronaut Photography in Magnetospheric Research: A Proof of Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, A. P.; Almond, N.; Murphy, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    Astronauts on the International Space Station often take spectacular image sequences of the Aurora Borealis and Australis, with high time and spatial resolution, during intervals of strong auroral activity. A barrier to the use of these images in research is that they do not often have accurate pointing information, and as such are difficult to put in context and use alongside data from other sources, both ground- and space-based. Here we use automated starfield recognition software to reconstruct the pointing of astronaut photographs of the aurora during an ISS pass over North America during early 2012, and assess the usefulness of the technique by comparing the resulting mapped images with data from the THEMIS and CARISMA arrays of ground-based magnetometers and all-sky imagers and magnetometers on the GOES-13 and GOES-15 spacecraft.

  20. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  1. Astronaut David Brown talks with team members from Lake Buena Vista, Fla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown chats with members of the Explorers team, from Lake Buena Vista, Fla., during the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition held March 9-11 in the KSC Visitor Complex Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students from all over the country are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing at the Southeast Regional event, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  2. Astronauts McMonagle and Brown on flight deck mockup during training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Donald R. McMonagle, STS-66 mission commander, left, and Curtis L. Brown, STS-66 pilot, man the commander's and pilot's stations, respectively, during a rehearsal of procedures to be followed during the launch and entry phases of their scheduled November 1994 flight. This rehearsal, held in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures.

  3. Do Astronauts Havbe a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions Than a Cohort of Working Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Young, M.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Tarver, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated [1], but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  4. Views of the extravehicular activity of Astronaut Stewart during STS 41-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Close up frontal view of Astronaut Robert L. Stewart, mission specialist, as he participates in a extravehicular activity (EVA), a few meters away from the cabin of the shuttle Challenger. The open payload bay is reflected in his helmet visor as he faces the camera. Stewart is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and one of the manned maneuvering units (MMU) developed for this mission.

  5. Astronaut Scott Carpenter in Hanger S crew quarters during suiting exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 flight, is seen in Hanger S crew quarters during a suiting exercise. He is assisted in suiting by technician Al Rochford. In this view, Carpenter is fully suited and is having his gloves adjusted (24622); Carpenter is seated in a mock-up of his pilot's seat while fully suited (24623); Carpenter, minus his helmet, smiles at camera as Rochford adjusts his suit (24624).

  6. Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

    2011-01-01

    To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute

  7. Telecast of Astronaut Neil Armstrong descending ladder to surface of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, descends the ladder of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module prior to making the first step by man on the moon. This view is a black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface camera during extravehicular activity. The black bar running through the center of the picture is an anamoly in the television ground data system at the Goldstone Tracking Station.

  8. Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos includes Jon Engle sitting on side door frame working on portion of wing. Joe Engle is behind him working on a wing strut (34329); Joe Engle works on tightening bolt (34330); Jon Engle works on portion of wing which connects to the cockpit. Joe Engle works on connecting strut to wing (34331).

  9. Apollo 11 Astronaut Collins Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins carries his coffee with him as he arrives at the flight crew training building of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  10. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Jeffery C; Scott, Graham B I; Sutton, Jeffrey P

    2014-09-11

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other "omics" areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  11. Mission X in Japan, an Education Outreach Program Featuring Astronautical Specialties and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niihori, Maki; Yamada, Shin; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Nakao, Reiko; Nakazawa, Takashi; Kamiyama, Yoshito; Takeoka, Hajime; Matsumoto, Akiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    In the science field, disseminating new information to the public is becoming increasingly important, since it can aid a deeper understanding of scientific significance and increase the number of future scientists. As part of our activities, we at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Space Biomedical Research Office, started work to focus on education outreach featuring space biomedical research. In 2010, we launched the Mission X education program in Japan, named after “Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut” (hereinafter called “Mission X”), mainly led by NASA and European Space Agency (ESA). Mission X is an international public outreach program designed to encourage proper nutrition and exercise and teaching young people to live and eat like astronauts. We adopted Mission X's standpoint, and modified the program based on the originals to suit Japanese culture and the students' grade. Using astronauts as examples, this mission can motivate and educate students to instill and adopt good nutrition and physical fitness as life-long practices.Here we introduce our pilot mission of the “Mission X in Japan” education program, which was held in early 2011. We are continuing the education/public outreach to promote the public understanding of science and contribute to science education through lectures on astronautical specialties and knowledge.

  12. Construction of boundary-surface-based Chinese female astronaut computational phantom and proton dose estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjuan; Jia, Xianghong; Xie, Tianwu; Xu, Feng; Liu, Qian

    2013-03-01

    With the rapid development of China's space industry, the importance of radiation protection is increasingly prominent. To provide relevant dose data, we first developed the Visible Chinese Human adult Female (VCH-F) phantom, and performed further modifications to generate the VCH-F Astronaut (VCH-FA) phantom, incorporating statistical body characteristics data from the first batch of Chinese female astronauts as well as reference organ mass data from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP; both within 1% relative error). Based on cryosection images, the original phantom was constructed via Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) boundary surfaces to strengthen the deformability for fitting the body parameters of Chinese female astronauts. The VCH-FA phantom was voxelized at a resolution of 2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)for radioactive particle transport simulations from isotropic protons with energies of 5000-10 000 MeV in Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. To investigate discrepancies caused by anatomical variations and other factors, the obtained doses were compared with corresponding values from other phantoms and sex-averaged doses. Dose differences were observed among phantom calculation results, especially for effective dose with low-energy protons. Local skin thickness shifts the breast dose curve toward high energy, but has little impact on inner organs. Under a shielding layer, organ dose reduction is greater for skin than for other organs. The calculated skin dose per day closely approximates measurement data obtained in low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  13. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Akeem

    2012-01-01

    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  14. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery C. Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO. Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs, but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  15. Apollo 11 Astronaut Armstrong Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong walks to the flight crew training building at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  16. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Terada

    Full Text Available Adaptation to the space environment can sometimes pose physiological problems to International Space Station (ISS astronauts after their return to earth. Therefore, it is important to develop healthcare technologies for astronauts. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using hair follicles, a readily obtained sample, to assess gene expression changes in response to spaceflight adaptation. In order to investigate the gene expression changes in human hair follicles during spaceflight, hair follicles of 10 astronauts were analyzed by microarray and real time qPCR analyses. We found that spaceflight alters human hair follicle gene expression. The degree of changes in gene expression was found to vary among individuals. In some astronauts, genes related to hair growth such as FGF18, ANGPTL7 and COMP were upregulated during flight, suggesting that spaceflight inhibits cell proliferation in hair follicles.

  17. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Yamada, Shin; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J; Sudoh, Masamichi; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to the space environment can sometimes pose physiological problems to International Space Station (ISS) astronauts after their return to earth. Therefore, it is important to develop healthcare technologies for astronauts. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using hair follicles, a readily obtained sample, to assess gene expression changes in response to spaceflight adaptation. In order to investigate the gene expression changes in human hair follicles during spaceflight, hair follicles of 10 astronauts were analyzed by microarray and real time qPCR analyses. We found that spaceflight alters human hair follicle gene expression. The degree of changes in gene expression was found to vary among individuals. In some astronauts, genes related to hair growth such as FGF18, ANGPTL7 and COMP were upregulated during flight, suggesting that spaceflight inhibits cell proliferation in hair follicles.

  18. Feasibility study of astronaut standardized career dose limits in LEO and the outlook for BLEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Bhardwaj, A.; Ferrari, Franco; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Lal, A. K.; Li, Yinghui; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Nymmik, Rikho; Panasyuk, Michael; Petrov, Vladislav; Reitz, Guenther; Pinsky, Lawrence; Muszaphar Shukor, Sheikh; Singhvi, A. K.; Straube, Ulrich; Tomi, Leena; Townsend, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    Cosmic Study Group SG 3.19/1.10 was established in February 2013 under the aegis of the International Academy of Astronautics to consider and compare the dose limits adopted by various space agencies for astronauts in Low Earth Orbit. A preliminary definition of the limits that might later be adopted by crews exploring Beyond Low Earth Orbit was, in addition, to be made. The present paper presents preliminary results of the study reported at a Symposium held in Turin by the Academy in July 2013. First, an account is provided of exposure limits assigned by various partner space agencies to those of their astronauts that work aboard the International Space Station. Then, gaps in the scientific and technical information required to safely implement human missions beyond the shielding provided by the geomagnetic field (to the Moon, Mars and beyond) are identified. Among many recommendations for actions to mitigate the health risks potentially posed to personnel Beyond Low Earth Orbit is the development of a preliminary concept for a Human Space Awareness System to: provide for crewed missions the means of prompt onboard detection of the ambient arrival of hazardous particles; develop a strategy for the implementation of onboard responses to hazardous radiation levels; support modeling/model validation that would enable reliable predictions to be made of the arrival of hazardous radiation at a distant spacecraft; provide for the timely transmission of particle alerts to a distant crewed vehicle at an emergency frequency using suitably located support spacecraft. Implementation of the various recommendations of the study can be realized based on a two pronged strategy whereby Space Agencies/Space Companies/Private Entrepreneurial Organizations etc. address the mastering of required key technologies (e.g. fast transportation; customized spacecraft design) while the International Academy of Astronautics, in a role of handling global international co-operation, organizes

  19. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Blattnig, Steve B.; Lee, Kerry T.; Fry, Dan J.; Stoffle, Nicholas N.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.; Zapp, Edward N.

    2010-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. Both galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) environments pose a risk to astronauts for missions beyond LEO. The GCR environment, which is made up of protons and heavier ions covering a broad energy spectrum, is ever present but varies in intensity with the solar cycle, while SPEs are sporadic events, consisting primarily of protons moving outward through the solar system from the sun. The GCR environment is more penetrating and is more difficult to shield than SPE environments, but lacks the intensity to induce acute effects. Large SPEs are rare, but they could result in a lethal dose, if adequate shielding is not provided. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large SPE. Longer missions also require planning for large SPEs; adequate shielding must be provided and operational constraints must allow astronauts to move quickly to shielded locations. The dominant risk for longer missions, however, is GCR exposure, which accumulates over time and can lead to late effects such as cancer. SPE exposure, even low level SPE exposure received in heavily shielded locations, will increase this risk. In addition to GCR and SPE environments, the lunar neutron albedo resulting mainly from the interaction of GCRs with regolith will also contribute to astronaut risk. Full mission exposure assessments were performed for proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, radiation shielding models were developed for a proposed lunar habitat and rover. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for

  20. Comprehensive analysis of the skin fungal microbiota of astronauts during a half-year stay at the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Cho, Otomi; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    2016-03-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a huge manned construct located approximately 400 km above the earth and is inhabited by astronauts performing space experiments. Because the station is within a closed microgravity environment, the astronauts are subject to consistent stress. This study analyzed the temporal changes in the skin fungal microbiota of 10 astronauts using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR assay before, during, and after their stay in the ISS. Lipophilic skin fungi, Malassezia predominated most samples regardless of the collection period, body site (cheek or chest), or subject. During their stay in the ISS, the level of Malassezia colonization changed by 7.6- ± 7.5-fold (mean ± standard deviation) and 9.5- ± 24.2-fold in cheek and chest samples, respectively. At the species level, M. restricta, M. globosa, and M. sympodialis were more abundant. In the chest samples, the ratio of M. restricta to all Malassezia species increased, whereas it did not change considerably in cheek samples. Fungal diversity was reduced, and the ratio of Malassezia to all fungal colonization increased during the astronauts' stay at the ISS. The ascomycetous yeast Cyberlindnera jadinii was detected in abundance in the in-flight sample of 5 of the 10 astronauts. The microorganism may have incidentally adhered to the skin during the preflight period and persisted on the skin thereafter. This observation suggests the ability of a specific or uncommon microorganism to proliferate in a closed environment. Our study is the first to reveal temporal changes in the skin fungal microbiota of ISS astronauts. These findings will provide information useful for maintaining the health of astronauts staying in the space environment for long periods and for preventing infection due to the human skin microbiota.

  1. Alexandre Ananoff (1910-1992): 30 years to promote astronautics before Sputnik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriaux, Pierre-François; Varnoteaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    2012 marks the 20th anniversary of Alexandre Ananoff's death. Born in 1910 in Tbilisi, Georgia, the Russian-French space expert and enthusiast Alexandre Ananoff is known for being the organiser of the first International Astronautical Congress at La Sorbonne University, Paris, in September-October 1950, as well as being the author of the famous book L'Astronautique (1950) and for advising fellow author Hergé for his book adventures of Tintin on the Moon. The purpose of our paper is to present his complete works promoting space, from his first public presentations after discovering the works of Tsiolkovsky in the late 20s to his analysis of the first Sputnik launch in the popular French magazine Paris Match in 1957. A. Ananoff was a real ambassador for astronautics and a pioneer in space education for the general public—probably the first one in France. He built a unique collection of books and novels about space travel (donated before his death to the French Air and Space Museum of Paris-Le Bourget), wrote dozens of articles, gave numerous lectures and corresponded with most of the space pioneers around the world. However, he was criticised for being an autodidact and was very disappointed by the lack of consideration accorded him within his own country. During the 60s, he progressively stopped his space activities to turn his attention to becoming a specialist of 18th century French painters. He published his Memoirs of an Astronaut in 1978 and gave his last lecture at IAC in September 1979. He died in Paris on 25 December 1992, aged 82. His last wish was that his ashes could be sent on the Moon, an end accomplishment for all his efforts.

  2. Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

  3. A Multi-Purpose Astronaut Shower for Long-Duration Mirogravity Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, M. C.; Versteeg, M.; Zenger, R.

    An initial study for an Advanced Kind Of Shower (AKOS) has attempted to define the need and advantages, as well as develop a concept, for an astronaut's shower. Relying on past studies, on flight experiences, and on the ensuing critiques, and building on an interdisciplinary approach, the study defined a modular piece of equipment that - using parts inspired by commercially- available products - that for the first time could satisfy different functions for the hygiene, well-being, and health support of the crew members.

  4. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  5. Contributions of Astronauts Aerobic Exercise Intensity and Time on Change in VO2peak during Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan E.; Buxton, Roxanne; Moore, Alan; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable variability among astronauts with respect to changes in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak) during International Space Station (ISS) missions, ranging from a 5% increase to 30% decline. Individual differences may be due to in-flight aerobic exercise time and intensity. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of in-flight aerobic exercise time and intensity on change in VO2peak during ISS missions. METHODS: Astronauts (N=11) performed peak cycle tests approx 60 days before flight (L-60), on flight day (FD) approx 14, and every approx 30 days thereafter. Metabolic gas analysis and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the test using the portable pulmonary function system. HR and duration of each in-flight cycle ergometer and treadmill (TM) session were recorded and averaged in time segments corresponding to each peak test. Mixed effects linear regression with exercise mode (TM or cycle) as a categorical variable was used to assess the contributions of exercise intensity (%time >70% peak HR or %time >90% peak HR) and time (min/wk), adjusted for body weight, on %change in VO2peak during the mission, and incorporating the repeated-measures experimental design. RESULTS: 110 observations were included in the model (4-6 peak cycle tests per astronaut, 2 exercise devices). VO2peak was reduced from preflight throughout the mission (FD14: 13+/-13% and FD 105: 8+/-10%). Exercise intensity (%peak HR: FD14=66+/-14; FD105=75+/-8) and time (min/wk: FD14=82+/-46; FD105=158+/-40) increased during flight. The models showed main effects for exercise time and intensity with no interactions between time, intensity, and device (70% peak HR: time [z-score=2.39; P=0.017], intensity [z-score=3.51; P=0.000]; 90% peak HR: time [zscore= 3.31; P=0.001], intensity [z-score=2.24; P=0.025]). CONCLUSION: Exercise time and intensity independently contribute to %change in VO2peak during ISS missions, indicating that there are minimal values for exercise time and intensity

  6. HAMLET -Human Model MATROSHKA for Radiation Exposure Determination of Astronauts -Current status and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Burmeister, Soenke; Labrenz, Johannes; Hager, Luke; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    The exploration of space as seen in specific projects from the European Space Agency (ESA) acts as groundwork for human long duration space missions. One of the main constraints for long duration human missions is radiation. The radiation load on astronauts and cosmonauts in space (as for the ISS) is a factor of 100 higher than the natural radiation on Earth and will further increase should humans travel to Mars. In preparation for long duration space missions it is important to evaluate the impact of space radiation in order to secure the safety of the astronauts and minimize their radiation risks. To determine the radiation risk on humans one has to measure the radiation doses to radiosensitive organs within the human body. One way to approach this is the ESA facility MATROSHKA (MTR), under the scientific and project lead of DLR. It is dedicated to determining the radiation load on astronauts within and outside the International Space Station (ISS), and was launched in January 2004. MTR is currently preparing for its fourth experimental phase inside the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) in summer 2010. MTR, which mimics a human head and torso, is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors to determine the depth dose and organ dose distribution in the body. It is the largest international research initiative ever performed in the field of space dosimetry and combines the expertise of leading research institutions around the world, thereby generating a huge pool of data of potentially immense value for research. Aiming at optimal scientific exploitation, the FP7 project HAMLET aims to process and compile the data acquired individually by the participating laboratories of the MATROSHKA experiment. Based on experimental input from the MATROSHKA experiment phases as well as on radiation transport calculations, a three-dimensional model for the distribution of radiation dose in an astronaut's body will be built up. The scientific achievements

  7. Cancer Risk Estimates from Space Flight Estimated Using Yields of Chromosome Damage in Astronaut's Blood Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kerry A.; Rhone, J.; Chappell, L. J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    To date, cytogenetic damage has been assessed in blood lymphocytes from more than 30 astronauts before and after they participated in long-duration space missions of three months or more on board the International Space Station. Chromosome damage was assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome analysis techniques. For all individuals, the frequency of chromosome damage measured within a month of return from space was higher than their preflight yield, and biodosimetry estimates were within the range expected from physical dosimetry. Follow up analyses have been performed on most of the astronauts at intervals ranging from around 6 months to many years after flight, and the cytogenetic effects of repeat long-duration missions have so far been assessed in four individuals. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been validated as biomarkers of cancer risk and cytogenetic damage can therefore be used to characterize excess health risk incurred by individual crewmembers after their respective missions. Traditional risk assessment models are based on epidemiological data obtained on Earth in cohorts exposed predominantly to acute doses of gamma-rays, and the extrapolation to the space environment is highly problematic, involving very large uncertainties. Cytogenetic damage could play a key role in reducing uncertainty in risk estimation because it is incurred directly in the space environment, using specimens from the astronauts themselves. Relative cancer risks were estimated from the biodosimetry data using the quantitative approach derived from the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health database. Astronauts were categorized into low, medium, or high tertiles according to their yield of chromosome damage. Age adjusted tertile rankings were used to estimate cancer risk and results were compared with values obtained using traditional modeling approaches. Individual tertile rankings increased after space

  8. Radiation Engineering Analysis of Shielding Materials to Assess Their Ability to Protect Astronauts in Deep Space From Energetic Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis is performed on four typical materials (aluminum, liquid hydrogen, polyethylene, and water) to assess their impact on the length of time an astronaut can stay in deep space and not exceed a design basis radiation exposure of 150 mSv. A large number of heavy lift launches of pure shielding mass are needed to enable long duration, deep space missions to keep astronauts at or below the exposure value with shielding provided by the vehicle. Therefore, vehicle mass using the assumptions in the paper cannot be the sole shielding mechanism for long duration, deep space missions. As an example, to enable the Mars Design Reference Mission 5.0 with a 400 day transit to and from Mars, not including the 500 day stay on the surface, a minimum of 24 heavy lift launches of polyethylene at 89,375 lbm (40.54 tonnes) each are needed for the 1977 galactic cosmic ray environment. With the assumptions used in this paper, a single heavy lift launch of water or polyethylene can protect astronauts for a 130 day mission before exceeding the exposure value. Liquid hydrogen can only protect the astronauts for 160 days. Even a single launch of pure shielding material cannot protect an astronaut in deep space for more than 180 days using the assumptions adopted in the analysis. It is shown that liquid hydrogen is not the best shielding material for the same mass as polyethylene for missions that last longer than 225 days.

  9. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  10. Hybrid Force Control Based on ICMAC for an Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot (ART based on a cable‐driven mechanism is represented in this paper. ART, a typical passive force servo system, can help astronauts to bench press in a microgravity environment. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers to eliminate the surplus force caused by an astronaut’s active movements. Based on the dynamics modelling of the cable‐driven unit, a hybrid force controller based on improved credit assignment CMAC (ICMAC is presented. A planning method for the cable tension is proposed so that the dynamic load produced by the ART can realistically simulate the gravity and inertial force of the barbell in a gravity environment. Finally, MATLAB simulation results of the man‐machine cooperation system are provided in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. The simulation results show that the hybrid control method based on the structure invariance principle can inhibit the surplus force and that ICMAC can improve the dynamic performance of the passive force servo system. Furthermore, the hybrid force controller based on ICMAC can ensure the stability of the system.

  11. A Comparison of Tandem Walk Performance Between Bed Rest Subjects and Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Kofman, Igor; Philips, Tiffany; Batson, Crystal; Cerisano, Jody; Fisher, Elizabeth; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Feiveson, Alan; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience a microgravity environment during spaceflight, which results in a central reinterpretation of both vestibular and body axial-loading information by the sensorimotor system. Subjects in bed rest studies lie at 6deg head-down in strict bed rest to simulate the fluid shift and gravity-unloading of the microgravity environment. However, bed rest subjects still sense gravity in the vestibular organs. Therefore, bed rest isolates the axial-unloading component, thus allowing for the direct study of its effects. The Tandem Walk is a standard sensorimotor test of dynamic postural stability. In a previous abstract, we compared performance on a Tandem Walk test between bed rest control subjects, and short- and long-duration astronauts both before and after flight/bed rest using a composite index of performance, called the Tandem Walk Parameter (TWP), that takes into account speed, accuracy, and balance control. This new study extends the previous data set to include bed rest subjects who performed exercise countermeasures. The purpose of this study was to compare performance during the Tandem Walk test between bed rest subjects (with and without exercise), short-duration (Space Shuttle) crewmembers, and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers at various time points during their recovery from bed rest or spaceflight.

  12. Enhanced monocular visual odometry integrated with laser distance meter for astronaut navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Di, Kaichang; Sun, Xun; Wan, Wenhui; Liu, Zhaoqin

    2014-03-11

    Visual odometry provides astronauts with accurate knowledge of their position and orientation. Wearable astronaut navigation systems should be simple and compact. Therefore, monocular vision methods are preferred over stereo vision systems, commonly used in mobile robots. However, the projective nature of monocular visual odometry causes a scale ambiguity problem. In this paper, we focus on the integration of a monocular camera with a laser distance meter to solve this problem. The most remarkable advantage of the system is its ability to recover a global trajectory for monocular image sequences by incorporating direct distance measurements. First, we propose a robust and easy-to-use extrinsic calibration method between camera and laser distance meter. Second, we present a navigation scheme that fuses distance measurements with monocular sequences to correct the scale drift. In particular, we explain in detail how to match the projection of the invisible laser pointer on other frames. Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in a simulated lunar surface environment. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Getting ready for the manned mission to Mars: the astronauts' risk from space radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    2007-07-01

    Space programmes are shifting towards planetary exploration and, in particular, towards missions by human beings to the Moon and to Mars. Radiation is considered to be one of the major hazards for personnel in space and has emerged as the most critical issue to be resolved for long-term missions both orbital and interplanetary. The two cosmic sources of radiation that could impact a mission outside the Earth's magnetic field are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Exposure to the types of ionizing radiation encountered during space travel may cause a number of health-related problems, but the primary concern is related to the increased risk of cancer induction in astronauts. Predictions of cancer risk and acceptable radiation exposure in space are extrapolated from minimal data and are subject to many uncertainties. The paper describes present-day estimates of equivalent doses from GCR and solar cosmic radiation behind various shields and radiation risks for astronauts on a mission to Mars.

  14. Development of a Human Behavior and Performance Training Curriculum for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, Steve; Tomi, Leena; Vassin, Alexander; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Bessone, Lorendana; OConnor, Sharon; Mukai, Chiaki; Coffee, Emily; Sipes, Walter; Salnitskiy, Vyecheslav; Ren, Victor; Spychalski, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The paper will describe the DACUM process and summarize the core competencies that were agreed upon, internationally, as important for ISS astronauts. The paper will further discuss the ongoing work being completed by the subgroup, Human Behaviour and Performance Training Working Group, including defining the competencies and behavioural markers. Finally, an overview of remaining work will be provided, including determining which competencies require formal training and which require no formal training, developing training objectives, sequencing the training, and establishing how to assess training effectiveness. DISCUSSION: Designing a common set of goals for behavioural training has been the desire of the SHBP WG since its inception in 1998. This group, along with training specialists and astronauts, are making great strides toward defining these competencies. The road ahead will be exceedingly challenging as training objectives are defined and a training flow is proposed to the MCOP; with proposed ISS crews increasing to six people in the near future, such enhanced behavioural training may be all the more essential for mission success.

  15. The Virtual Glovebox (VGX): An Immersive Simulation System for Training Astronauts to Perform Glovebox Experiments in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station (ISS) has finally arrived, providing researchers on Earth a unique opportunity to study long-term effects of weightlessness and the space environment on structures, materials and living systems. Many of the physical, biological and material science experiments planned for ISS will require significant input and expertise from astronauts who must conduct the research, follow complicated assay procedures and collect data and samples in space. Containment is essential for Much of this work, both to protect astronauts from potentially harmful biological, chemical or material elements in the experiments as well as to protect the experiments from contamination by air-born particles In the Space Station environment. When astronauts must open the hardware containing such experiments, glovebox facilities provide the necessary barrier between astronaut and experiment. On Earth, astronauts are laced with the demanding task of preparing for the many glovebox experiments they will perform in space. Only a short time can be devoted to training for each experimental task and gl ovebox research only accounts for a small portion of overall training and mission objectives on any particular ISS mission. The quality of the research also must remain very high, requiring very detailed experience and knowledge of instrumentation, anatomy and specific scientific objectives for those who will conduct the research. This unique set of needs faced by NASA has stemmed the development of a new computer simulation tool, the Virtual Glovebox (VGB), which is designed to provide astronaut crews and support personnel with a means to quickly and accurately prepare and train for glovebox experiments in space.

  16. NASA astronaut dosimetry: Implementation of scalable human phantoms and benchmark comparisons of deterministic versus Monte Carlo radiation transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir Alexander

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique radiation environment in space. United States terrestrial radiation worker limits, derived from guidelines produced by scientific panels, do not apply to astronauts. Limits for astronauts have changed throughout the Space Age, eventually reaching the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration limit of 3% risk of exposure induced death, with an administrative stipulation that the risk be assured to the upper 95% confidence limit. Much effort has been spent on reducing the uncertainty associated with evaluating astronaut risk for radiogenic cancer mortality, while tools that affect the accuracy of the calculations have largely remained unchanged. In the present study, the impacts of using more realistic computational phantoms with size variability to represent astronauts with simplified deterministic radiation transport were evaluated. Next, the impacts of microgravity-induced body changes on space radiation dosimetry using the same transport method were investigated. Finally, dosimetry and risk calculations resulting from Monte Carlo radiation transport were compared with results obtained using simplified deterministic radiation transport. The results of the present study indicated that the use of phantoms that more accurately represent human anatomy can substantially improve space radiation dose estimates, most notably for exposures from solar particle events under light shielding conditions. Microgravity-induced changes were less important, but results showed that flexible phantoms could assist in optimizing astronaut body position for reducing exposures during solar particle events. Finally, little overall differences in risk calculations using simplified deterministic radiation transport and 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport were found; however, for the galactic cosmic ray ion spectra, compensating errors were observed for the constituent ions, thus exhibiting the need to perform evaluations on a particle

  17. A Noninvasive Miniaturized-Wireless Laser-Doppler Fiber-Optic Sensor for Understanding Distal Fingertip Injuries in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Pollonini, Luca; Rodriquez, Mikael; Opperman, Roedolph; Hochstein, Jason

    2009-01-01

    During extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks astronauts over use their fingertips under pressure inside the confined spaces of gloves/space suits. The repetitive hand motion is a probable cause for discomfort and injuries to the fingertips. We describe a new wireless fiber-optic probe that can be integrated inside the astronaut glove for noninvasive blood perfusion measurements in distal fingertips. In this preliminary study, we present blood perfusion measurements while performing hand-grip exercises simulating the use of space tools.

  18. Results of the First Astronaut-Rover (ASRO) Field Experiment: Lessons and Directions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Kosmo, J. J.; Trevino, R. C.; Thomas, H.; Eppler, D.; Bualat, M. G.; Baker, K.; Huber, E.; Sierhuis, M.; Grin, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    The first Astronaut-Rover Interaction field experiment (hereafter designated as the ASRO project) took place Feb. 22-27, 1999, in Silver Lake, Mojave Desert, CA. The ASRO project is the result of a joint project between NASA Ames Research Center and Johnson Space Center. In the perspective of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) of the Solar System, this interaction - the astronaut and the rover as a complementary and interactive team - in the field is critical to assess but had never been tested before the Silver Lake experiment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Keeping the right time in space:importance of circadian clock and sleep for physiology and performance of astronauts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hu Guo; Wei-Min Qu; Shan-Guang Chen; Xiao-Ping Chen; Ke Lv; Zhi-Li Huang; Yi-Lan Wu

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock and sleep are essential for human physiology and behavior; deregulation of circadian rhythms impairs health and performance. Circadian clocks and sleep evolved to adapt to Earth’s environment, which is characterized by a 24-hour light–dark cycle. Changes in gravity load, lighting and work schedules during spaceflight missions can impact circadian clocks and disrupt sleep, in turn jeopardizing the mood, cognition and performance of orbiting astronauts. In this review, we summarize our understanding of both the influence of the space environment on the circadian timing system and sleep and the impact of these changes on astronaut physiology and performance.

  20. Former Dryden pilot and NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong being inducted into the Aerospace Walk of Hono

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Famed astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon during the historic Apollo 11 space mission in July 1969, served for seven years as a research pilot at the NACA-NASA High-Speed Flight Station, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards, California, before he entered the space program. Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, and today the Glenn Research Center) in 1955. Later that year, he transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards as an aeronautical research scientist and then as a pilot, a position he held until becoming an astronaut in 1962. He was one of nine NASA astronauts in the second class to be chosen. As a research pilot Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100A and F-100C aircraft, F-101, and the F-104A. He also flew the X-1B, X-5, F-105, F-106, B-47, KC-135, and Paresev. He left Dryden with a total of over 2450 flying hours. He was a member of the USAF-NASA Dyna-Soar Pilot Consultant Group before the Dyna-Soar project was cancelled, and studied X-20 Dyna-Soar approaches and abort maneuvers through use of the F-102A and F5D jet aircraft. Armstrong was actively engaged in both piloting and engineering aspects of the X-15 program from its inception. He completed the first flight in the aircraft equipped with a new flow-direction sensor (ball nose) and the initial flight in an X-15 equipped with a self-adaptive flight control system. He worked closely with designers and engineers in development of the adaptive system, and made seven flights in the rocket plane from December 1960 until July 1962. During those fights he reached a peak altitude of 207,500 feet in the X-15-3, and a speed of 3,989 mph (Mach 5.74) in the X-15-1. Armstrong has a total of 8 days and 14 hours in space, including 2 hours and 48 minutes walking on the Moon. In March 1966 he was commander of the Gemini 8

  1. Altered astronaut lower limb and mass center kinematics in downward jumping following space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D. J.; Jackson, D. K.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to the microgravity conditions encountered during space flight exhibit postural and gait instabilities upon return to earth that could impair critical postflight performance. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of microgravity exposure on astronauts' performance of two-footed jump landings. Nine astronauts from several Space Shuttle missions were tested both preflight and postflight with a series of voluntary, two-footed downward hops from a 30-cm-high step. A video-based, three-dimensional motion-analysis system permitted calculation of body segment positions and joint angular displacements. Phase-plane plots of knee, hip, and ankle angular velocities compared with the corresponding joint angles were used to describe the lower limb kinematics during jump landings. The position of the whole-body center of mass (COM) was also estimated in the sagittal plane using an eight-segment body model. Four of nine subjects exhibited expanded phase-plane portraits postflight, with significant increases in peak joint flexion angles and flexion rates following space flight. In contrast, two subjects showed significant contractions of their phase-plane portraits postflight and three subjects showed insignificant overall changes after space flight. Analysis of the vertical COM motion generally supported the joint angle results. Subjects with expanded joint angle phase-plane portraits postflight exhibited larger downward deviations of the COM and longer times from impact to peak deflection, as well as lower upward recovery velocities. Subjects with postflight joint angle phase-plane contraction demonstrated opposite effects in the COM motion. The joint kinematics results indicated the existence of two contrasting response modes due to microgravity exposure. Most subjects exhibited "compliant" impact absorption postflight, consistent with decreased limb stiffness and damping, and a reduction in the bandwidth of the postural control system

  2. The Association Between Serum Magnesium Concentrations and Coronary Artery Calcification Scores in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betcher, Jenna; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist, and is inversely associated with coronary heart disease, cardiovascular mortality rates, and vascular calcification. Coronary artery calcification score is a tool used to evaluate the prognosis of coronary artery disease in individuals. Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower coronary artery calcification scores (CACS), and recent studies have found a significant inverse relationship between serum magnesium concentrations and CACS in Korean and Mexican-mestizo populations. The correlation between serum magnesium concentrations and CACS is not well researched, so our aim was to examine this relationship in astronauts. We found that a higher serum magnesium concentration is significantly related to a higher coronary artery calcification score (p=.0217), and that there is a significant difference in magnesium concentrations of subjects who have a CACS greater than 100 and a CACS less than 100.

  3. Artist's rendering of astronaut Neil Armstrong planting U.S. flag on Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Artist's Concept: Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong, after stepping onto the lunar surface, will plant the United States flag in its soil. The flag will be made of nylone, size 3- by 5 feet on a staff 8 feet long. During flight it will be stowed in two 4-foot sections strapped to the Lunar Module ladder. Armstrong's first assignment after stepping off the ladder is to pull a 'D' ring to start a television camera. The second assignment is to erect the U.S. flag. The flag will appear to be flying in a breeze. This is done with a spring-loaded wire in the nylon cloth. With everything is working normally, this will be observed on live television.

  4. Virtual Astronaut for Scientific Visualization—A Prototype for Santa Maria Crater on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Guinness

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To support scientific visualization of multiple-mission data from Mars, the Virtual Astronaut (VA creates an interactive virtual 3D environment built on the Unity3D Game Engine. A prototype study was conducted based on orbital and Opportunity Rover data covering Santa Maria Crater in Meridiani Planum on Mars. The VA at Santa Maria provides dynamic visual representations of the imaging, compositional, and mineralogical information. The VA lets one navigate through the scene and provides geomorphic and geologic contexts for the rover operations. User interactions include in-situ observations visualization, feature measurement, and an animation control of rover drives. This paper covers our approach and implementation of the VA system. A brief summary of the prototype system functions and user feedback is also covered. Based on external review and comments by the science community, the prototype at Santa Maria has proven the VA to be an effective tool for virtual geovisual analysis.

  5. Improving Working Conditions for Astronauts: An Electronic Personal Restraint System for Use in Microgravity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tait

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While in microgravity, astronauts are preoccupied with physical restraint, which takes attention away from the maintenance task or scientific experiment at hand. This may directly lead to safety concerns and increased time for extravehicular activity, as well as potentially inhibit or corrupt data collection. A primary concern is the time it takes to manipulate the current restraint system. The portable foot restraint currently in use by NASA employs a series of pins in order to engage the system or release in an emergency. This requires considerable time for the user to detach, and there is an increased risk of entanglement. If restraint operating time could be reduced by 50%, the astronaut’s assigned experiment time could be increased an average of 100 minutes per mission. Another problem identified by NASA included the inability of the current system to release the user upon failure. Research and design was conducted following the Six-Sigma DMEDI project architecture, and a new form of restraint to replace the existing system was proposed. The research team first studied the customer requirements and relevant standards set by NASA, and with this information they began drafting designs for a solution. This project utilized electromagnetism to restrain a user in microgravity. The proposed system was capable of being manipulated quickly, failing in a manner that released the user, and being electronically controlled. This active electronic control was a new concept in restraint systems, as it enabled an astronaut to effectively “walk” along a surface while remaining restrained to it. With the design prototype and a limited budget, a rudimentary test assembly was built by the team, and most of NASA’s specifications were met. With recommendations from NASA, the research team concluded by developing potential material and design solutions that can be explored in the future by Purdue University or other parties.

  6. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  7. Prognostics and health management (PHM) for astronauts: a collaboration project on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Alexandre; Fink, Wolfgang; Hess, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Long-duration missions bring numerous risks that must be understood and mitigated in order to keep astronauts healthy, rather than treat a diagnosed health disorder. Having a limited medical support from mission control center on space exploration missions, crew members need a personal health-tracking tool to predict and assess his/her health risks if no preventive measures are taken. This paper refines a concept employing technologies from Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) for systems, namely real-time health monitoring and condition-based health maintenance with predictive diagnostics capabilities. Mapping particular PHM-based solutions to some Human Health and Performance (HH&P) technology candidates, namely by NASA designation, the Autonomous Medical Decision technology and the Integrated Biomedical Informatics technology, this conceptual paper emphasize key points that make the concept different from that of both current conventional medicine and telemedicine including space medicine. The primary benefit of the technologies development for the HH&P domain is the ability to successfully achieve affordable human space missions to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and beyond. Space missions on the International Space Station (ISS) program directly contribute to the knowledge base and advancements in the HH&P domain, thanks to continued operations on the ISS, a unique human-tended test platform and the only test bed within the space environment. The concept is to be validated on the ISS, the only "test bed" on which to prepare for future manned exploration missions. The paper authors believe that early self-diagnostic coupled with autonomous identification of proper preventive responses on negative trends are critical in order to keep astronauts healthy.

  8. Economic value analysis of the return from the Korean astronaut program and the science culture diffusion activity in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Soyeon; Jang, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Hyo Suk; Yu, Jong-Phil; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Joohee; Hur, Hee-Young

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyze the economic effects from the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity (SCDA). Korea has had a huge practical effect on the development of science and technology and has increased international awareness of Korea by producing Korea's first astronaut. There has also been a large, ripple effect on space related industries. In addition, the KAP has exercised a far-reaching influence on Korean society and culture by boosting all science and engineering and inspiring national pride. After the KAP, astronauts' outreach activities, such as lectures for the general public; interviews on television, newspapers and magazines; participating in children's science camps; and distributing publications and DVDs about astronaut program for general public, were instituted for diffusing science culture. Thus, positive effects such as the promotion of Korea's level of technology, student interest in science and engineering fields, and the expansion of the industrial base were reinforced after the KAP. This study is aimed at evaluating the economic significance and the value of return through analyzing the effects of the KAP and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity.

  9. Fatigue in U.S. Astronauts Onboard the International Space Station: Environmental factors, Operational Impacts, and Implementation of Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Moomaw, R. C.; Johnston, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Crewmembers have experienced fatigue for reasons similar to military deployments. Astronauts experience psychological stressors such as: heavy workloads, extended duty periods, circadian misalignment, inadequate/ineffective sleep, distracting background noise, unexpected and variable mission schedules, unfavorable thermal control, unusual sleep environment with schedules that impinge on pre-sleep periods.

  10. Data Mining Activity for Bone Discipline: Calculating a Factor of Risk for Hip Fracture in Long-Duration Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, R.; Sibonga, J. D.; Bouxsein, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The factor-of-risk (Phi), defined as the ratio of applied load to bone strength, is a biomechanical approach to hip fracture risk assessment that may be used to identify subjects who are at increased risk for fracture. The purpose of this project was to calculate the factor of risk in long duration astronauts after return from a mission on the International Space Station (ISS), which is typically 6 months in duration. The load applied to the hip was calculated for a sideways fall from standing height based on the individual height and weight of the astronauts. The soft tissue thickness overlying the greater trochanter was measured from the DXA whole body scans and used to estimate attenuation of the impact force provided by soft tissues overlying the hip. Femoral strength was estimated from femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which were performed between 5-32 days of landing. All long-duration NASA astronauts from Expedition 1 to 18 were included in this study, where repeat flyers were treated as separate subjects. Male astronauts (n=20) had a significantly higher factor of risk for hip fracture Phi than females (n=5), with preflight values of 0.83+/-0.11 and 0.36+/-0.07, respectively, but there was no significant difference between preflight and postflight Phi (Figure 1). Femoral aBMD measurements were not found to be significantly different between men and women. Three men and no women exceeded the theoretical fracture threshold of Phi=1 immediately postflight, indicating that they would likely suffer a hip fracture if they were to experience a sideways fall with impact to the greater trochanter. These data suggest that male astronauts may be at greater risk for hip fracture than women following spaceflight, primarily due to relatively less soft tissue thickness and subsequently greater impact force.

  11. Observing the Earth from an Astronaut's View - Applied Remote Sensing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienow, Andreas; Hodam, Henryk; Menz, Gunter; Kerstin, Voß

    2015-04-01

    Since spring 2014, NASA conducts the High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) mission at the International Space Station (ISS). HDEV consists of four cameras mounted at ESA's Columbus laboratory. They continuously observe our earth in three different perspectives. Hence, they provide not only footage showing the Sun and the Moon rising and setting but also regular images of landscapes that are difficult to access, such as mountain ranges, deserts, and tropical rainforests. The German educational project "Columbus Eye", which is executed by the University of Bonn and is funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), aims at the implementation of the HDEV imagery and videos in a teaching portal: www.columbuseye.uni-bonn.de. Pupils should be motivated to work with the footage in order to learn about pattern and processes of the coupled human-environment system like volcano eruptions or deforestation. The material is developed on the experiences of the FIS (German abbreviation for "Remote Sensing in Schools") project and its learning portal (www.fis.uni-bonn.de/en). Recognizing that in-depth use of satellite imagery can only be achieved by the means of computer aided learning methods, a sizeable number of e-Learning contents in German and English have been created throughout the last 7 years since FIS' kickoff. The talk presents the educational valorization of ISS and satellite borne imagery data as well as their interactive implementation for teachers and pupils in both learning portals. It will be shown which possibilities the topic of earth observation from space holds ready for teaching the regular STEM curricula. A report of first experiences of a nationwide road show accompanying the mission of the ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst will be given. Among others it involved an event during which pupils from a secondary school in North Rhine-Westphalia have talked to the astronaut via ham radio. Accordingly, the presentation addresses the question of how synergies of human

  12. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  13. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt uses scoop to retrieve lunar samples during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, uses an adjustable sampling scoop to retrieve lunar samples during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-2), at Station 5 at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. A gnomon is atop the large rock in the foreground. The gnomon is a stadia rod mounted on a tripod, and serves as an indicator of the gravitational vector and provides accurate vertical reference and calibrated length for determining size and position of objects in near-field photographs. The color scale of blue, orange and green is used to accurately determine color for photography. The rod of it is 18 inches long. The scoop Dr. Schmitt is using is 11 3/4 inches long and is attached to a tool extension which adds a potential 30 inches of length to the scoop. The pan portion, obscured in this view, has a flat bottom, flanged on both sides with a partial cover on the top. It is used to retrieve sand, dust and lunar samples too small for the tongs. The pa

  14. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics pre-college outreach program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E.; Bacon, L.; Copper, K.; Hansen, L. J.; Sanchez, M.; Aiaa Precollege Outreach Committee

    Throughout the United States school child perceive science technology engineering and mathematics STEM as difficult boring and often irrelevant subjects The possible reasons for this problem are endlessly debated however the economic social and overall national importance of producing graduates who are technically literate and enthusiastic in their support of a rational scientific world should motivate many scientific and engineering societies around the world to develop outreach programs aimed at children ages 5-18 and corresponding support programs aimed at schools and teachers covering kindergarten through 12 th grade The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AIAA is among those organizations that have identified the need to educate students and teachers about STEM current events and their direct affects on the United States population a way that motivates both to get more involved The AIAA has established a pre-college outreach program that has several major elements that will be described in this paper These elements include a pre-college Educator Associate Membership program a program to award small development grants to class room teachers and Educator of the Year awards and recognition program mechanisms for sharing and encouraging innovative local support programs and two national workshop events The first workshop event Passport to the Future is held annually in conjunction with the Joint Propulsion Conference It is intended to provide summertime training in Aerospace science education to classroom

  15. Risks due to X-ray Flares during Astronaut Extravehicular Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David S; 10.1029/2006SW000300

    2009-01-01

    Solar hard X-ray flares can expose astronauts on lunar and deep space extravehicular activities (EVAs) to dangerous acute biological doses. We combine calculations of radiative transfer through shielding materials with subsequent transfer through tissue to show that hazardous doses, taken as >= 0.1 Gy, should occur with a probability of about 10% per 100 hours of accumulated EVA inside current spacesuits. The rapid onset and short duration of X-ray flares and the lack of viable precursor events require strategies for quick retreat, in contrast to solar proton events, which usually take hours to deliver significant fluence and can often be anticipated by flares or other light-speed precursors. Our results contrast with the view that only particle radiation poses dangers for human space exploration. Heavy-element shields provide the most efficient protection from X-ray flares, since X-rays produce no significant secondary radiation. We calculate doses due to X-ray flares behind aluminum shields and estimate the...

  16. Peculiarities of transformation of adaptation level of the astronaut in conditions of long-lasting flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padashulya, H.; Prisnyakova, L.; Prisnyakov, V.

    Prognostication of the development of adverse factors of psychological processes in the personality of the astronaut who time and again feels transformation of internal structure of his personality is one of cardinal problems of the long-lasting flight Adaptation to changing conditions of long-lasting flight is of particular importance because it has an effect on the efficiency of discharged functions and mutual relations in the team The fact of standard psychological changes emerging in the personality being in the state of structural transformations is the precondition for the possibility of prognostication Age-specific gender and temperamental differences in the personality enable to standardize these changes Examination of the process of transformation of adaptation level of the personality in the varied environment depending on the type of temperament and constituents age and gender is chief object of the report In the report it is shown that in the process of transformation of adaptation parameters - attitude to guillemotleft work guillemotright guillemotleft family guillemotright guillemotleft environment guillemotright and guillemotleft ego guillemotright - the changes can go in two directions - in the direction of increase and decline of indexes The trend of increase enables to accumulate them and form potentiality to reduce or increase the level of personality adaptation There is a hypothesis that the dynamics of the process of transformation of adaptation parameter is shown up in the orientation of increase of

  17. Testing of neuroendocrine function in astronauts as related to fluid shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauseng-Fellegger, G; Konig, E M; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H; Jezova, D; Vigas, M

    1992-07-01

    We addressed the question of optimal conditions for neuroendocrine and cardiovascular testing in astronauts. We tested stress reactions during LBNP of < or = -50 mmHg. There was a mild transient elevation of plasma GH concentration and a nonsignificant rise of plasma ACTH, while PRL, insulin and glucose remained unchanged. Aldosterone was decreased 5 and 10 min after beginning of LBNP, thereafter rose significantly, and displayed further significant concentration increase 5 min post-LBNP. The endocrine and cardiovascular responses to submaximal exercise were tested at 8.00 am and 8.00 pm. Exercise-induced changes of heart rate and blood pressure remained unchanged with daytime whereas plasma concentrations of epinephrine, GH and PRL in response to work load were significantly higher in the evening than in the morning. As expected, basal resting values of plasma cortisol were significantly lower in the evening than in the morning but were similar one hour after cessation of exercise. Our findings demonstrate the importance of frequent sampling in case of transient physiological phenomena, and contribute to existing knowledge on circadian influences upon neuroendocrine stress responses.

  18. Geometric dimension model of virtual astronaut body for ergonomic analysis of man-machine space system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianxiang, Zhou

    2012-07-01

    It is very important to clarify the geometric characteristic of human body segment and constitute analysis model for ergonomic design and the application of ergonomic virtual human. The typical anthropometric data of 1122 Chinese men aged 20-35 years were collected using three-dimensional laser scanner for human body. According to the correlation between different parameters, curve fitting were made between seven trunk parameters and ten body parameters with the SPSS 16.0 software. It can be concluded that hip circumference and shoulder breadth are the most important parameters in the models and the two parameters have high correlation with the others parameters of human body. By comparison with the conventional regressive curves, the present regression equation with the seven trunk parameters is more accurate to forecast the geometric dimensions of head, neck, height and the four limbs with high precision. Therefore, it is greatly valuable for ergonomic design and analysis of man-machine system.This result will be very useful to astronaut body model analysis and application.

  19. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy to Countermeasure Cancer in Astronauts during Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, S.; Kindred, R. P.; Roach, A-N.; Edossa, A.; Kim, B. C.; Gonda, S. R.; Emami, K.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation can cause chromosomal mutations, which may lead to cancer in astronauts engaged in space exploration. Therefore, our goals are to develop countermeasures to prevent space-induced cancer using hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) and gene therapy. This presentation focuses on HSCT for cancer. Our previous experiments on a simulated, space-induced immuno-deficiency model (mouse hind limb unloading ) indicated that transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could enhance the host's immunity by effectively eliminating bacterial infection (Ohi S, et. al. J Grav Physiol 10, P63-64, 2003; Ohi S, et. al. Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) . American Institute of Physics, New York, pp. 938-950, 2004). Hence, we hypothesized that the HSCs might be effective in combating cancer as well. Studies of cocultured mouse HSCs with beta-galactosidase marked rat gliosarcoma spheroids (9L/lacZ), a cancer model, indicated antagonistic interactions , resulting in destruction of the spheroids by HSCs. Trypan Blue dye-exclusion assays were consistent with the conclusion. These results show potential usehlness of HSCT for cancer. Currently, the NASA Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB), a space analog tissue/cell culture system, is being used to study invasion of the gliosarcoma (GS) spheroids into mouse brain with or without co-cultured HSCs. This may simulate the metastasis of gliosarcoma to brain. There is a tendency for the HSCs to inhibit invasion of GS spheroids into brain, as evidenced by the X-gal staining.

  20. An expert system to advise astronauts during experiments: The protocol manager module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymann-Haber, Guido; Colombano, Silvano P.; Groleau, Nicolas; Rosenthal, Don; Szolovits, Peter; Young, Laurence R.

    1990-01-01

    Perhaps the scarcest resource for manned flight experiments - on Spacelab or on the Space Station Freedom - will continue to be crew time. To maximize the efficiency of the crew and to make use of their abilities to work as scientist collaborators as well as equipment operators, normally requires more training in a wide variety of disciplines than is practical. The successful application of on-board expert systems, as envisioned by the Principal Investigator in a Box program, should alleviate the training bottleneck and provide the astronaut with the guidance and coaching needed to permit him or her to operate an experiment according to the desires and knowledge of the PI, despite changes in conditions. The Protocol Manager module of the system is discussed. The Protocol Manager receives experiment data that has been summarized and categorized by the other modules. The Protocol Manager acts on the data in real-time, by employing expert system techniques. Its recommendations are based on heuristics provided by the Principal Investigator in charge of the experiment. This prototype was developed on a Macintosh II by employing CLIPS, a forward-chaining rule-based system, and HyperCard as an object-oriented user interface builder.

  1. Bone Health Monitoring in Astronauts: Recommended Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography [QCT] for Clinical and Operational Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Truskowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concerns that astronauts in long duration flights might have a greater risk of bone fracture as they age than the general population. A panel of experts was convened to review the information and recommend mechanisms to monitor the health of bones in astronauts. The use of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans for risk surveillance to detect the clinical trigger and to inform countermeasure evaluation is reviewed. An added benefit of QCT is that it facilitates an individualized estimation of bone strength by Finite Element Modeling (FEM), that can inform approaches for bone rehabilitation. The use of FEM is reviewed as a process that arrives at a composite number to estimate bone strength, because it integrates multiple factors.

  2. The Virtual GloveboX (VGX: a Semi-immersive Virtual Environment for Training Astronauts in Life Sciences Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alexander Twombly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Space Station will soon provide an unparalleled research facility for studying the near- and longer-term effects of microgravity on living systems. Using the Space Station Glovebox Facility - a compact, fully contained reach-in environment - astronauts will conduct technically challenging life sciences experiments. Virtual environment technologies are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to help realize the scientific potential of this unique resource by facilitating the experimental hardware and protocol designs and by assisting the astronauts in training. The "Virtual GloveboX" (VGX integrates high-fidelity graphics, force-feedback devices and real-time computer simulation engines to achieve an immersive training environment. Here, we describe the prototype VGX system, the distributed processing architecture used in the simulation environment, and modifications to the visualization pipeline required to accommodate the display configuration.

  3. IAC-11.E1-7.-A1.8.5 The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2012-12-01

    Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut is an international educational challenge focusing on fitness and nutrition as we encourage students to "train like an astronaut." Teams of students (aged 8-12) learn principles of healthy eating and exercise, compete for points by finishing training modules, and get excited about their future as "fit explorers." The 18 core exercises (targeting strength, endurance, coordination, balance, spatial awareness, and more) involve the same types of skills that astronauts learn in their training and use in spaceflight. This first-of-its-kind cooperative outreach program has allowed 11 space agencies and various partner institutions to work together to address quality health/fitness education, challenge students to be more physically active, increase awareness of the importance of lifelong health and fitness, teach students how fitness plays a vital role in human performance for exploration, and to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. The project was initiated in 2009 in response to a request by the International Space Life Sciences Working Group. USA, Netherlands, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Colombia, Spain, Belgium, Czech Republic and United Kingdom hosted teams for the pilot in the spring of 2010, and Japan held a modified version of the challenge. Several more agencies provided input into the preparations. Competing in 137 teams, more than 4000 students from over 40 cities worldwide participated in the first round of Mission X.

  4. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  5. Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties 2010 (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables cited more formally as Cucinotta et al. (2011). The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. They include, more recently: (1) The "BEIR VII Phase 2" report from the NRC's Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) (NRC, 2006); (2) Studies of Radiation and Cancer from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2006), (3) The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007); and (4) The Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA s) report EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population (EPA, 2011). The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for

  6. Astronaut Thermal Exposure: Re-Entry After Low Earth Orbit Rescue Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, David B.; Hamilton, Douglas; Ilcus, Stana; Stepaniak, Phil; Son, Chang; Bue, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The STS-125 mission, launched May 11, 2009, is the final servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. The repair mission's EVA tasks are described, including: installing a new wide field camera; installing the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph; repairing the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; installing a new outer blanket layer; adding a Soft Capture and Rendezvous System for eventual controlled deorbit in about 2014; replacing the 'A' side Science Instrument Command and Data Handling module; repairing the Advanced Camera for surveys; and, replacing the rate sensor unit gyroscopes, fine guidance sensors and 3 batteries. Additionally, the Shuttle crew cabin thermal environment is described. A CFD model of per person CO2 demonstrates a discrepancy between crew breathing volume and general mid-deck levels of CO2. A follow-on CFD analysis of the mid-deck temperature distribution is provided. Procedural and engineering mitigation plans are presented to counteract thermal exposure upon reentry to the Earth atmosphere. Some of the procedures include: full cold soak the night prior to deorbit; modifying deck stowage to reduce interference with air flow; and early securing of avionics post-landing to reduce cabin thermal load prior to hatch opening. Engineering mitigation activities include modifying the location of the aft starboard ICUs, eliminating the X3 stack and eliminating ICU exhaust air directed onto astronauts; improved engineering data of ICU performance; and, verifying the adequacy of mid-deck temperature control using CFD models in addition to lumped parameter models. Post-mitigation CFD models of mid-deck temperature profiles and distribution are provided.

  7. Revolutionary Design for Astronaut Exploration — Beyond the Bio-Suit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dava J.; Canina, Marita; Trotti, Guillermo L.

    2007-01-01

    The Bio-Suit System is designed to revolutionize human space exploration by providing enhanced astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) locomotion and performance based on the concepts of a `second skin' capability. The novel Bio-Suit concept provides an overall exploration system realized through symbiotic relationships between a suite of advanced technologies, creative design, human modeling and analysis, and new mission operations techniques. By working at the intersection of engineering, design, life sciences and operations, new emergent capabilities and interrelationships result for applications to space missions, medical rehabilitation, and extreme sports activities. In many respects, the Bio-Suit System mimics Nature (biomimetics). For example, the second skin is capable of augmenting our biological skin by providing mechanical counter-pressure. We have designed and tested prototypes that prove mechanical counter-pressure feasibility. The `epidermis' of our second skin suit is patterned from 3D laser scans that incorporate human skin strain field maps for maximum mobility and natural movements, while requiring minimum energy expenditure for exploration tasks. We provide a technology roadmap for future design, pressure production and technology investments for the Bio-Suit System. Woven into the second skin are active materials to enhance human performance as well as to provide necessary performance metrics (i.e., energy expenditure). Wearable technologies will be embedded throughout the Bio-Suit System to place the explorer in an information-rich environment enabling real-time mission planning, prediction, and visualization. The Bio-Suit System concept augments human capabilities by coupling human and robotic abilities into a hybrid of the two, to the point where the explorer is hardly aware of the boundary between innate human performance and robotic activities.

  8. Space radiation risks for astronauts on multiple International Space Station missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA's radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members' radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate.

  9. The assessment and analysis of astronaut mental fatigue in long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhou, Qianxiang; Zu, Xiaoqi

    2012-07-01

    In the field of aerospace, mental work has become the main form of most operations, and the other operations are mixed works which are mental work dominated. Confined spaces, silent space environment, specified mode of communication, limited contract with the ground and discomfort of weightlessness also can lead to the aggravation and acceleration of mental fatigue. In aerospace activities, due to the instantaneous distraction of operator, slow response or lack of coordination could lead to serious accident, the study of mental fatigue is particularly important. In order to study the impact of continuous mental task and rest, we conducted an experiment which combined subjective evaluation with physiology index evaluation. Five subjects were selected in the experiment, and they were asked to perform continuous operation task in a simulator to imitate astronaut schedule. In the course of the experiment, subjective fatigue score (used Samn-Perelli and SWAT) and EEG power spectra were measured at the following hours: 8:00(starting time), 11:30, 15:00, 19:00, 23:00(before sleep), 6:00(after sleep), and 8:00(end time). The experiment showed that a short rest is not enough to make the subjects restored to the original state. The reduction of high frequency components and increase of low frequency in EEG also became more obvious with the increased mental fatigue. Gravity frequency of EEG had a shift to low frequency and is strongly correlated with mental fatigue level. These phenomena were similar with the results of subjective test. The SWAT also could tell us the main causes of metal fatigue during this process.

  10. Different Perspectives on Asthenia in Astronauts and Cosmonauts: International Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Luis; Shea, Camille; Otto, Christian; Leventon, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element is one of the six elements within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and is responsible for managing four risks: a) The Risk of Performance Decrements due to inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication and Psychological Adaptation within a Team (Team), b) the Risk of Performance Errors due to Sleep Loss, Circadian De-synchronization, Fatigue and Work Overload (Sleep), c) Risk of Behavioral Conditions (BMed), and d) the Risk of Psychiatric Disorders (BMed). The aim of this report is to address some of the recommendations made by the recent NASA HRP Standing Review Panel for the Behavioral Medicine Risk of Psychiatric Disorders. Such recommendations included: a) the inclusion of important national and international literature in English and non-English language materials; including journals, books, magazines, conference reports and b) an extensive literature review of certain types of psychological states to predict, detect, and assess adverse mental states that may negatively affect the psychological well being of the astronauts, specifically asthenia. This report was a collaborative international work effort focused on the evaluation and determination of the importance of continuing research on asthenia as a possible psychological problem that might affect the optimal psychological functioning among crewmembers during long-duration space flight missions. Russian medical personnel (flight surgeons and psychologist) have observed symptoms of asthenia (weakness, increased fatigue, irritability, and attention and memory disorders) in cosmonauts after four months in space (Myasnikov& Zamaleddinov1996; Grigorieve, 1996 ) and believe that asthenia is one of the greater risks that will affect crews? optimal psychological functioning.

  11. TBS (Trabecular Bone Score) Expands Understanding of Spaceflight Effects on the Lumbar Spine of Long-Duration Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott A.; Watts, Nelson; Hans, Didier; LeBlanc, Adrian; Spector, Elisabeth; King, Lisa; Sibonga, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss due to long-duration spaceflight has been characterized by both DXA and QCT serial scans. It is unclear if these spaceflight-induced changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and structure result in increased fracture incidence. NASA astronauts currently fly 5 to 6-month missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and at least one 12-month mission is planned. While NASA has measured areal BMD (by DXA) and volumetric BMD (by QCT) and has estimated hip strength (by finite element models of QCT data, no method has yet been used to examine bone micro-architecture from lumbar spine (LS). DXA scans are routinely performed pre- and postflight on all ISS astronauts to follow BMD changes associated with spaceflight. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) is a relatively new method that measures grey-scale-level texture information extracted from LS DXA images and correlates with 3D parameters of bone micro-architecture. We evaluated the ability of LS TBS to discriminate changes in astronauts who have flown on ISS missions and to determine if TBS can provide additional information compared to DXA. Methods: Lumbar Spine (L1-4) DXA scans from 51 astronauts (mean age, 47 +/- 4 yrs) were divided into 3 groups based on the exercise regimens performed onboard the ISS. "Pre-ARED" (exercise using a load-limited resistive exercise device, <300 lb), "ARED" (exercise with a high-load resistive exercise device, up to 600 lb) and "Bisphos+ARED" group (ARED exercise and a 70-mg alendronate tablet once a week before and during flight, starting 17 days before launch). DXA scans were performed and analyzed on a Hologic Discovery W using the same technician for the pre- and post-flight scans. LSC for the LS in our laboratory is 0.025 g/sq. cm. TBS was performed at the Mercy Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio on a similar Hologic computer. Data were analyzed using a paired, 2-tailed Student's t-test for the difference between pre- and postflight means. Percent change and % change per month are noted

  12. The Digital Astronaut Project Computational Bone Remodeling Model (Beta Version) Bone Summit Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2013-01-01

    Under the conditions of microgravity, astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month, particularly in the lower extremities such as the proximal femur [1-3]. The most commonly used countermeasure against bone loss in microgravity has been prescribed exercise [4]. However, data has shown that existing exercise countermeasures are not as effective as desired for preventing bone loss in long duration, 4 to 6 months, spaceflight [1,3,5,6]. This spaceflight related bone loss may cause early onset of osteoporosis to place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. Consequently, NASA seeks to have improved understanding of the mechanisms of bone demineralization in microgravity in order to appropriately quantify this risk, and to establish appropriate countermeasures [7]. In this light, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with the NASA Bone Discipline Lead to implement well-validated computational models to help predict and assess bone loss during spaceflight, and enhance exercise countermeasure development. More specifically, computational modeling is proposed as a way to augment bone research and exercise countermeasure development to target weight-bearing skeletal sites that are most susceptible to bone loss in microgravity, and thus at higher risk for fracture. Given that hip fractures can be debilitating, the initial model development focused on the femoral neck. Future efforts will focus on including other key load bearing bone sites such as the greater trochanter, lower lumbar, proximal femur and calcaneus. The DAP has currently established an initial model (Beta Version) of bone loss due to skeletal unloading in femoral neck region. The model calculates changes in mineralized volume fraction of bone in this segment and relates it to changes in bone mineral density (vBMD) measured by Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT). The model is governed by equations describing changes in bone volume fraction (BVF), and rates of

  13. Automatic Georeferencing of Astronaut Auroral Photography: Providing a New Dataset for Space Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechert, Maik; Walsh, Andrew P.; Taylor, Matt

    2014-05-01

    Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have taken tens of thousands of photographs showing the aurora in high temporal and spatial resolution. The use of these images in research though is limited as they often miss accurate pointing and scale information. In this work we develop techniques and software libraries to automatically georeference such images, and provide a time and location-searchable database and website of those images. Aurora photographs very often include a visible starfield due to the necessarily long camera exposure times. We extend on the proof-of-concept of Walsh et al. (2012) who used starfield recognition software, Astrometry.net, to reconstruct the pointing and scale information. Previously a manual pre-processing step, the starfield can now in most cases be separated from earth and spacecraft structures successfully using image recognition. Once the pointing and scale of an image are known, latitudes and longitudes can be calculated for each pixel corner for an assumed auroral emission height. As part of this work, an open-source Python library is developed which automates the georeferencing process and aids in visualization tasks. The library facilitates the resampling of the resulting data from an irregular to a regular coordinate grid in a given pixel per degree density, it supports the export of data in CDF and NetCDF formats, and it generates polygons for drawing graphs and stereographic maps. In addition, the THEMIS all-sky imager web archive has been included as a first transparently accessible imaging source which in this case is useful when drawing maps of ISS passes over North America. The database and website are in development and will use the Python library as their base. Through this work, georeferenced auroral ISS photography is made available as a continously extended and easily accessible dataset. This provides potential not only for new studies on the aurora australis, as there are few all-sky imagers in

  14. NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-07-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously.

  15. Results of the ESA study on psychological selection of astronaut applicants for Columbus missions I: Aptitude testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Christoph; Goeters, Klaus-Martin

    European participation in the Space Station Freedom brought about new challenges for the psychological selection of astronaut candidates, particularly in respect to specific demands of long duration space flights. For this reason existing selection criteria and methods were reassessed. On these grounds a study was undertaken applying a unique composition of aptitude tests to a group of 97 ESA scientists and engineers who are highly comparable to the expected astronaut applicants with respect to age and education. The tests assessed operational aptitudes such as logical reasoning, memory function, perception, spatial orientation, attention, psychomotor function, and multiple task capacity. The study goals were: 1) Verification of psychometric qualities and applicability of tests in a normative group; 2) Search for culture-fair tests by which multi-national groups can be examined; 3) Identification of test methods which consider general and special operational demands of long duration space flights. Based on the empirical findings a test battery was arranged for use in the selection of ESA astronaut applicants. Results showed that 16 out of the 18 employed tests have good psychometric qualities and differentiate reliably in the special group of testees. The meta structure of the test battery as described by a factorial analysis is presented. Applicability of tests was generally high. Tests were culture-fair, however, a relation between English language skills and test results was identified. Since most item material was language-free, this was explained with the importance of English language skills for the understanding of test instructions. Solutions to this effect are suggested.

  16. TBS (Trabecular Bone Score) Expands Understanding of Spaceflight Effects on the Lumbar Spine of Long Duration Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Smith, Scott A.; Hans, Didier; LeBlanc, Adrian; Spector, Elisabeth; Evans, Harlan; King, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bone loss due to long-duration spaceflight has been characterized by both DXA and QCT serial scans. It is unclear if these spaceflight-induced changes in bone mineral density and structure result in increased fracture incidence. NASA astronauts currently fly on 5-6-month missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and at least one 12-month mission is planned. While NASA has measured areal BMD (by DXA) and volumetric BMD (by QCT), and has estimated hip strength (by finite element models of QCT data, no method has yet been used to examine bone microarchitecture from lumbar spine (LS). DXA scans are routinely performed pre- and post-flight on all ISS astronauts to follow BMD changes associated with space flight. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) is a relatively new method that measures grey-scale-level texture information extracted from lumbar spine DXA images and correlates with 3D parameters of bone micro-architecture. We evaluated the ability of LS TBS to discriminate changes in astronauts who have flown on ISS missions and to determine if TBS can provide additional information compared to DXA. Methods: LS (L1-4) DXA scans from 51 astronauts (mean age, 47 +/- 4) were divided into 3 groups based on the exercise regimes performed while onboard the ISS. Pre-ARED (exercise using a load-limited resistive exercise device, <300lb), ARED (exercise with a high-load resistive exercise device, up to 600lb) and a Bisphos group (ARED exercise and a 70-mg alendronate tablet once a week before and during flight, starting 17 days before launch). DXA scans were performed and analyzed on a Hologic Discovery W using the same technician for the pre- and postflight scans. LSC for the LS in our laboratory is 0.025 g/cm2. TBS was performed at the Mercy Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio on a similar Hologic computer. TBS precision was calculated from 16 comparable test subjects (0.0XX g/cm2). Data were preliminary analyzed using a paired, 2-tailed t-test for the difference between

  17. SEMG analysis of astronaut upper arm during isotonic muscle actions with normal standing posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianxiang, Zhou; Chao, Ma; Xiaohui, Zheng

    sEMG analysis of astronaut upper arm during isotonic muscle actions with normal standing posture*1 Introduction Now the research on the isotonic muscle actions by using Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is becoming a pop topic in fields of astronaut life support training and rehabilitations. And researchers paid more attention on the sEMG signal processes for reducing the influence of noise which is produced during monitoring process and the fatigue estimation of isotonic muscle actions with different force levels by using the parameters which are obtained from sEMG signals such as Condition Velocity(CV), Median Frequency(MDF), Mean Frequency(MNF) and so on. As the lucubrated research is done, more and more research on muscle fatigue issue of isotonic muscle actions are carried out with sEMG analysis and subjective estimate system of Borg scales at the same time. In this paper, the relationship between the variable for fatigue based on sEMG and the Borg scale during the course of isotonic muscle actions of the upper arm with different contraction levels are going to be investigated. Methods 13 young male subjects(23.4±2.45years, 64.7±5.43Kg, 171.7±5.41cm) with normal standing postures were introduced to do isotonic actions of the upper arm with different force levels(10% MVC, 30%MVC and 50%MVC). And the MVC which means maximal voluntary contraction was obtained firstly in the experiment. Also the sEMG would be recorded during the experiments; the Borg scales would be recorded for each contraction level. By using one-third band octave method, the fatigue variable (p) based on sEMG were set up and it was expressed as p = i g(fi ) · F (fi ). And g(fi ) is defined as the frequent factor which was 0.42+0.5 cos(π fi /f0 )+0.08 cos(2π fi /f0 ), 0 f0 . According to the equations, the p could be computed and the relationship between variable p and the Borg scale would be investigated. Results In the research, three kinds of fitted curves between variable p and Borg

  18. Monitoring Bone Health after Spaceflight: Data Mining to Support an Epidemiological Analysis of Age-related Bone Loss in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. S,; Amin, S.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2009-01-01

    Through the epidemiological analysis of bone data, HRP is seeking evidence as to whether the prolonged exposure to microgravity of low earth orbit predisposes crewmembers to an earlier onset of osteoporosis. While this collaborative Epidemiological Project may be currently limited by the number of ISS persons providing relevant spaceflight medical data, a positive note is that it compares medical data of astronauts to data of an age-matched (not elderly) population that is followed longitudinally with similar technologies. The inclusion of data from non-ISS and non-NASA crewmembers is also being pursued. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide critical information for NASA to understand the impact of low physical or minimal weight-bearing activity on the aging process as well as to direct its development of countermeasures and rehabilitation programs to influence skeletal recovery. However, in order to optimize these results NASA needs to better define the requirements for long term monitoring and encourage both active and retired astronauts to contribute to a legacy of data that will define human health risks in space.

  19. Astronauts Yvonne Cagle and Ellen Ochoa participate in a women's forum at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Astronaut Yvonne Cagle (left); Jennifer Harris (center); the Mars 2001 Operations System Development Manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; and Astronaut Ellen Ochoa (right) participate in a panel about 'Past, Present and Future of Space,' held at a women's forum in the Apollo/Saturn V Center. The forum included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges and remarks by Donna Shalala, secretary of Department of Health and Human Services. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing site. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  20. Marta Bohn-Meyer greets Astronaut Yvonne Cagle at a women's forum at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At a women's forum held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, Marta Bohn-Meyer, the first woman to pilot an SR-71, greets astronaut Yvonne Cagle. They participated in the panel discussion about 'Past, Present and Future of Space,' along with Kathryn Sullivan, Ph.D., the first American woman to walk in space; Donna Shirley, Ph.D., the first woman leading the Mars Exploration Program; Jennifer Harris, the Mars 2001 Operations System Development Manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; and astronaut Ellen Ochoa, the first Hispanic female in space and member of the President's commission on the Celebration of Women in American History. The forum included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges and remarks by Donna Shalala, secretary of Department of Health and Human Services. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing site. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  1. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  2. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues in Astronauts after Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, G.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Beaton, K. H.; Wood, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with visual, proprioceptive, and somatosensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions following transitions between gravity levels. This joint ESA-NASA pre- and post-flight experiment is designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances in astronauts following short-duration space flights. The first specific aim is to examine the effects of stimulus frequency on adaptive changes in eye movements and motion perception during independent tilt and translation motion profiles. Roll motion is provided by a variable radius centrifuge. Pitch motion is provided by NASA's Tilt-Translation Sled in which the resultant gravitoinertial vector remains aligned with the body longitudinal axis during tilt motion (referred to as the Z-axis gravitoinertial or ZAG paradigm). We hypothesize that the adaptation of otolith-mediated responses to these stimuli will have specific frequency characteristics, being greatest in the mid-frequency range where there is a crossover of tilt and translation. The second specific aim is to employ a closed-loop nulling task in which subjects are tasked to use a joystick to null-out tilt motion disturbances on these two devices. The stimuli consist of random steps or sum-of-sinusoids stimuli, including the ZAG profiles on the Tilt-Translation Sled. We hypothesize that the ability to control tilt orientation will be compromised following space flight, with increased control errors corresponding to changes in self-motion perception. The third specific aim is to evaluate how sensory substitution aids can be used to improve manual control performance. During the closed-loop nulling task on both devices, small tactors placed around the torso vibrate according to the actual body tilt angle relative to gravity. We hypothesize

  3. Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dava J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral

  4. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  5. 19th Biannual Symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB) and the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR)

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Wagner, Claus; Breitsamter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents contributions to the 19th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB) and the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. Special emphasis is given to collaborative research projects conducted by German scientists and engineers from universities, research-establishments and industries. By addressing a number of cutting-edge applications, together with the relevant physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field. Though the book’s primary emphasis is on the aerospace context, it also addresses further important applications, e.g. in ground transportation and energy. .

  6. Synergistic action of gravity and temperature on the motor system within the lifespan: a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigal, Alexander Yu

    2013-03-01

    Here we describe GATO (gravity, age, thermoregulation, and oxygenation) hypothesis (or a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis) which we suggest to explain synergistic effect of these factors on the motor system. Taken separately, microgravity (in spaceflight, G~0), the early age, heat and hypoxia exert identical effect on the motor system. We posit that synergy of these factors originate from their synchronicity during intrauterine immersion (analog microgravity) of the fetus in warm hypoxic condition. We further postulate three successive motor adaptive strategies, driven lifelong by gravity as the key factor. The first by age, fetal/microgravity (FM)-strategy, induced by the intrauterine immersion of the fetus, is based on domination of fast type muscle fibers. After birth, thought to be analog for landing from orbit, newborn is subjected to combined influence of cooler ambient temperature, normoxia, and 1G Earth gravity, which cooperatively form a slower GE-strategy. Eventually, healthy ageing results in further domination of slow type muscle fibers that forms the slowest (SL)-strategy. Our hypothesis implies that specific sensory conditions may substitute for each other owing to their synergistic action on the motor system. According to GATO hypothesis heating and hypoxia may be considered as "pro-microgravity" factors, while cold and hyperoxia - as "pro-gravity" ones. As such, cold may act as a partial "surrogate" for gravity, estimated as ~0.2G. That may have potential to elaborate countermeasures for muscle atrophy in astronauts either on-board in long-term spaceflight or for post-flight rehabilitation. Based on GATO hypothesis, predictions on muscle remodeling caused by illumination, sound/noise, and gravidity are discussed.

  7. Astronaut Photography of the Earth: A Long-Term Dataset for Earth Systems Research, Applications, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Earth observations dataset obtained by humans in orbit using handheld film and digital cameras is freely accessible to the global community through the online searchable database at https://eol.jsc.nasa.gov, and offers a useful compliment to traditional ground-commanded sensor data. The dataset includes imagery from the NASA Mercury (1961) through present-day International Space Station (ISS) programs, and currently totals over 2.6 million individual frames. Geographic coverage of the dataset includes land and oceans areas between approximately 52 degrees North and South latitudes, but is spatially and temporally discontinuous. The photographic dataset includes some significant impediments for immediate research, applied, and educational use: commercial RGB films and camera systems with overlapping bandpasses; use of different focal length lenses, unconstrained look angles, and variable spacecraft altitudes; and no native geolocation information. Such factors led to this dataset being underutilized by the community but recent advances in automated and semi-automated image geolocation, image feature classification, and web-based services are adding new value to the astronaut-acquired imagery. A coupled ground software and on-orbit hardware system for the ISS is in development for planned deployment in mid-2017; this system will capture camera pose information for each astronaut photograph to allow automated, full georegistration of the data. The ground system component of the system is currently in use to fully georeference imagery collected in response to International Disaster Charter activations, and the auto-registration procedures are being applied to the extensive historical database of imagery to add value for research and educational purposes. In parallel, machine learning techniques are being applied to automate feature identification and classification throughout the dataset, in order to build descriptive metadata that will improve search

  8. Biodosimetry as a New Paradigm for Determination of Radiation Risks and Risk-Mitigation in Astronauts Exposed to Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert; Cruz, Angela; Bors, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Predicting risk of cancer in astronauts exposed to space radiation is challenging partly because uncertainties of absorption of dose and the processing of dose-related damage at the cellular level degrade the confidence of predicting the expression of cancer. Cellular biodosimeters that simultaneously report: 1) the quantity of absorbed dose after exposure to ionizing radiation, 2) the quality of radiation delivering that dose, and 3) the macromolecular profiles related to malignant transformation in cells absorbing that dose would therefore be useful. An approach to such a multiparametric biodosimeter will be reported, This is the demonstration of two dose-responsive field-effects of enhanced protein-expression. In one case, expression of keratin 18 (K18) in cultures of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) irradiated with cesium-137 gamma-rays is enhanced following exposure of log phase cells to relatively low doses of 30 to 90 cGy. K18 has been reported by a marker for tumor staging and for apoptosis. In the second case, expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) is increased in irradiated stationary phase cultures of HMEC, indicating enhanced formation of gap junctions. Gap junctions have been reported to be involved in bystander effects following irradiation. It is a biodosimeter for assessing radiogenic damage. It is suggested further that such biomolecular dosimetry may introduce a new paradigm for assessing cancer risk and risk-mitigation in individuals, a requirement for managing radiation health in astronauts during extended missions in space. This new paradigm is built upon the statistical power provided by the use of functional genomics and proteomics represented in combined gene- and protein-expression assays.

  9. Metabolomic and Genomic Markers of Atherosclerosis as Related to Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Vascular Function in Twin Astronauts (CARDIO OX TWINS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Rana, B. K.; Stenger, M. B.; Sears, D. D.; Smith, S. M.; Macias, B. R.; Hargens, A. R.; Sharma, K.; De Vivo, I.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space travel will primarily consist of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. These missions will expose astronauts to a variety of physiological stressors (radiation, psychological, reduced physical activity, altered nutritional status, and hyperoxia) that may increase their risk of oxidative and inflammatory damage.

  10. Improving Bone-Health Monitoring in Astronauts: Recommended Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography [QCT] for Clinical and Operational Decisions by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Truszkowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    DXA measurement of areal bone mineral density [aBMD,g/cm2] is required by NASA for assessing skeletal integrity in astronauts. Due to the abundance of population-based data that correlate hip and spine BMDs to fragility fractures, BMD is widely applied as a predictor of fractures in the general aging population. In contrast, QCT is primarily a research technology that measures three-dimensional , volumetric BMD (vBMD,mg/cm3) of bone and is therefore capable of differentiating between cortical and trabecular components. Additionally, when combined with Finite Element Modeling [FEM], a computational tool, QCT data can be used to estimate the whole bone strength of the hip [FE strength] for a specific load vector. A recent report demonstrated that aBMD failed to correlate with incurred changes in FE strength (for fall and stance loading) by astronauts over typical 180-day ISS (International Space Station) missions. While there are no current guidelines for using QCT data in clinical practice, QCT increases the understanding of how bone structure and mineral content are affected by spaceflight and recovery on Earth. In order to understand/promote/consider the use of QCT, NASA convened a panel of clinicians specializing in osteoporosis. After reviewing the available, albeit limited, medical and research information from long-duration astronauts (e.g., data from DXA, QCT, FEM, biochemistry analyses, medical records and in-flight exercise performance) the panelists were charged with recommending how current and future research data and analyses could inform clinical and operational decisions. The Panel recommended that clinical bone tests on astronauts should include QCT (hip and lumbar spine) for occupational risk surveillance and for the estimation of whole hip bone strength as derived by FEM. FE strength will provide an improved index that NASA could use to select astronauts of optimal bone health for extended duration missions, for repeat missions or for specific

  11. Metabolomic and Genomic Markers of Atherosclerosis as Related to Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Vascular Function in Twin Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Rana, Brinda K.; Stenger, Michael B.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Smith, Scott M.; Macias, Brandon R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Sharma, Kumar; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2016-01-01

    Background: Future human space travel will consist primarily of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration-class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. Astronauts participating in long-duration missions may be at an increased risk of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage due to radiation, psychological stress, altered physical activity, nutritional insufficiency, and hyperoxia during extravehicular activity. By studying one identical twin during his 1-year ISS mission and one ground-based twin, this work extends a current NASA-funded investigation to determine whether these spaceflight factors contribute to an accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. This study of twins affords a unique opportunity to examine the spaceflight-related atherosclerosis risk independent of the confounding factors associated with different genotypes. Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress are elevated during and after long-duration spaceflight and determine if a relation exists between levels of these biomarkers and structural and functional indices of atherosclerotic risk measured in the carotid and brachial arteries. These physiological and biochemical data will be extended by using an exploratory approach to investigate the relationship between intermediate phenotypes and risk factors for atherosclerosis and the metabolomic signature from plasma and urine samples. Since metabolites are often the indirect products of gene expression, we will simultaneously assess gene expression and DNA methylation in leukocytes. Hypothesis: We predict that the space-flown twin will experience elevated biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage, altered arterial structure and function, accelerated telomere shortening, dysregulation of genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, and a metabolic profile shift that is associated with elevated

  12. 1st Lunar International Laboratory (LIL) Symposium Research in Geosciences and Astronomy : Organized by the International Academy of Astronautics at the XVIth International Astronautical Congress Athens, 16 September, 1965 and Dedicated to the Twentieth Anniversary of UNESCO

    CERN Document Server

    1966-01-01

    The Lunar International Laboratory (LIL) project of the International Academy of Astronautics was begun upon the proposal of the editor at the First Special Meeting of the Academy at Stockholm on 16 August 1960. The late THEODORE VON KARMAN, first President of the Academy, appointed the following members of the LIL Committee: Prof. N. BoNEFF (Bulgaria), Prof. M. FLoRKIN (Belgium), Mr. A. G. HALEY (U. S. A. ), Prof. Sir BERNARD LovELL (U. K. ) (Vice­ Chairman), Prof. L. MALAVARD (France), Dr. F. J. MALINA (U. S. A. ) (Chairman), Prof. H. 0BERTH (German Federal Republic), Dr. W. H. PicKERING (U. S. A. ), Prof. E. SANGER (German Federal Republic), Prof. L. I. SEDOV (U. S. S. R. ), Prof. L. SPITZER, JR. (U. S. A. ), Dr. H. STRUGHOLD (U. S. A. ), Prof. H. C. UREY (U. S. A. ) and himself. Since 1960 the following additional members were appointed to the Committee: Mr. A. C. CLARKE (U. K. ), Prof. A. DoLLFUS (France), Prof. Z. KoPAL (U. K. ), Dr. S. F. SINGER (U. S. A. ), Prof. N. M. SISSAKIAN (U. S. S. R. ) and Pr...

  13. THE MEASUREMENT OF RADIATION EXPOSURE OF ASTRONAUTS BY RADIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES October 6,1969 Through January 4, 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzinski, R. L.; Rancitelli, L. A.; Haller, W. A.

    1970-01-15

    The urine and feces specimens from the Apollo 11 mission were analyzed for their radionuclide content. Estimates of cosmic radiation dose received by the astronauts were difficult to determine due to decay of the short-lived radionuclides during quarantine. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 22}Na, {sup 40}K, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs were determined. No {sup 147}Pm was observed in any of the samples. The concentrations of 16 major, minor, and trace elements were determined in fecal samples from Apollos 8 and 10. Large discrepancies between the excretion rates and normal dietary intakes were noted for cobalt, iron, tin , and potassium. An interpretation of the hazards these deviations may produce requires the determination of the elemental concentrations of the foodstuffs used during these missions. The fecal samples from the Apollo 11 mission were analyzed for glass fiber content. One anomalous sample was observed having a glass fiber content twofold greater than any previously measured specimen. A piece of the outer thermal coating of the Apollo 12 spacecraft was analyzed for cosmic-ray-induced radioactivity. Beryllium-7 was observed .

  14. A Monte Carlo-based radiation safety assessment for astronauts in an environment with confined magnetic field shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Changran; Tang, Xiaobin; Gong, Chunhui; Guan, Fada; Johns, Jesse; Shu, Diyun; Chen, Da

    2015-12-01

    The active shielding technique has great potential for radiation protection in space exploration because it has the advantage of a significant mass saving compared with the passive shielding technique. This paper demonstrates a Monte Carlo-based approach to evaluating the shielding effectiveness of the active shielding technique using confined magnetic fields (CMFs). The International Commission on Radiological Protection reference anthropomorphic phantom, as well as the toroidal CMF, was modeled using the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4. The penetrating primary particle fluence, organ-specific dose equivalent, and male effective dose were calculated for particles in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and solar particle events (SPEs). Results show that the SPE protons can be easily shielded against, even almost completely deflected, by the toroidal magnetic field. GCR particles can also be more effectively shielded against by increasing the magnetic field strength. Our results also show that the introduction of a structural Al wall in the CMF did not provide additional shielding for GCR; in fact it can weaken the total shielding effect of the CMF. This study demonstrated the feasibility of accurately determining the radiation field inside the environment and evaluating the organ dose equivalents for astronauts under active shielding using the CMF.

  15. Evaluation of the user experience of "astronaut training device": an immersive, vr-based, motion-training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kang; Wang, Danli; Yang, Xinpan; Hu, Haichen; Liu, Yuqing; Zhu, Xiuqing

    2016-10-01

    To date, as the different application fields, most VR-based training systems have been different. Therefore, we should take the characteristics of application field into consideration and adopt different evaluation methods when evaluate the user experience of these training systems. In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the user experience of virtual astronauts training system. Also, we design an experiment based on the proposed method. The proposed method takes learning performance as one of the evaluation dimensions, also combines with other evaluation dimensions such as: presence, immersion, pleasure, satisfaction and fatigue to evaluation user experience of the System. We collect subjective and objective data, the subjective data are mainly from questionnaire designed based on the evaluation dimensions and user interview conducted before and after the experiment. While the objective data are consisted of Electrocardiogram (ECG), reaction time, numbers of reaction error and the video data recorded during the experiment. For the analysis of data, we calculate the integrated score of each evaluation dimension by using factor analysis. In order to improve the credibility of the assessment, we use the ECG signal and reaction test data before and after experiment to validate the changes of fatigue during the experiment, and the typical behavioral features extracted from the experiment video to explain the result of subjective questionnaire. Experimental results show that the System has a better user experience and learning performance, but slight visual fatigue exists after experiment.

  16. Development of the Digital Astronaut Project for the analysis of the mechanisms of physiologic adaptation to microgravity: Validation of the cardiovascular system module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Richard; Coleman, Thomas; Meck, Janice

    The physiologic adaptation of humans to the microgravity environment is complex and requires an integrative perspective to fully understand the mechanisms involved. A large computer model of human systems physiology provides the framework for the development of the Digital Astronaut to be used by NASA in the analysis of adaptive mechanisms. While project expansion is ongoing to include all relevant systems, we describe the validation results of the cardiovascular phase of model development. The cardiovascular aspects of the model were validated by benchmark comparisons to published literature findings of changes in left ventricular mass, right atrial pressure and plasma volumes. Computer simulations using the model predicted microgravity induced changes in the target endpoints within statistical validity of experimental findings. Therefore, the current cardiovascular portion of the Digital Astronaut Project computer model appears to accurately predict observed microgravity induced physiologic adaptations. The ongoing process of model development to include all spaceflight relevant systems will require similar validations.

  17. The Sileye-3/Alteino experiment for the study of Light Flashes, radiation environment and astronaut brain activity on board the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; Pascale, M.P. de [Rome Univ. (Italy)] [and others

    2002-12-01

    In this work we describe the instrument Sileye-3/Alteino, placed on board the International Space Station in April 2002. The instrument is constituted by an Electroencephalograph and a cosmic ray silicon detector. The scientific aims include the investigation of the Light Flash phenomenon, the measurement of the radiation environment and the nuclear abundance insider the International Space Station (ISS) and the study of astronaut brain activity in space when subject to cosmic rays. (author)

  18. Defining the Relationship Between Biomarkers of Oxidation and Inflammatory Stress and the Risk for Atherosclerosis in Astronauts During and After Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space travel will consist primarily of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration-class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. These missions will expose astronauts to increased risk of oxidative and inflammatory damage from a variety of sources, including radiation, psychological stress, reduced physical activity, diminished nutritional status, and hyperoxic exposure during extravehicular activity. Evidence exists that increased oxidative damage and inflammation can accelerate the development of atherosclerosis.

  19. ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

  20. Metabolomic and Genomic Markers of Atherosclerosis as Related to Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Vascular Function in Twin Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Rana, Brinda K.; Stenger, Michael B.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Macias, Brandon R.; Hargans, Alan R.; Sharma, Kumar; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Future human space travel will consist primarily of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration-class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. Astronauts participating in long-duration missions may be at an increased risk of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage due to radiation, psychological stress, altered physical activity, nutritional insufficiency, and hyperoxia during extravehicular activity. By studying one identical twin during his 1-year ISS mission and his ground-based twin, this work extends a current NASA-funded investigation to determine whether these spaceflight factors contribute to an accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. This study of twins affords a unique opportunity to examine spaceflight-related atherosclerosis risk that is independent of the confounding factors associated with different genotypes. PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress are elevated during and after long-duration spaceflight and determine if a relation exists between levels of these biomarkers and structural and functional indices of atherosclerotic risk measured in the carotid and brachial arteries. These physiological and biochemical data will be extended by using an exploratory approach to investigate the relationship between intermediate phenotypes and risk factors for atherosclerosis and the metabolomic signature from plasma and urine samples. Since metabolites are often the indirect products of gene expression, we simultaneously assessed gene expression and DNA methylation in leukocytes. HYPOTHESIS: We predict that, compared to the ground-based twin, the space-flown twin will experience elevated biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage, altered arterial structure and function, accelerated telomere shortening, dysregulation of genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, and a metabolic profile shift

  1. Human Behavior and Performance Support for ISS Operations and Astronaut Selections: NASA Operational Psychology for Six-Crew Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.

  2. Gamification for astronaut training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, F.; Neerincx, M.A.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Breebaart, L.; Dujardin, P.; Wolff, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the use and the evaluation of applying gaming aspects as a means to promote self-study and increase motivation to train for executing operations on human space flight missions that have a duration that exceeds the typical duration of low earth orbit missions. The gaming aspects

  3. Pharmacological Issues for Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia E.

    2010-01-01

    Medication-induced side effects, called untoward effects by pharmacologists, can be a problem with any medication. Few therapies are perfectly specific for the desired physiological activity; rather they act on multiple biological targets and result in multiple physiological effects. There are several strategies that are employed to prevent, alleviate or counteract medication-induced side effects. The administered dose may be optimized to the lowest possible amount that provides the desired therapeutic effect, with the expectation that untoward effects will be minimized by a lower dose. Empirical trials of different therapies for a particular medical problem may be used in the hopes of finding a drug with minimal side effects for a particular patient, or at least of finding a set of side effects that the patient considers tolerable. If these two strategies have been exhausted, it may be possible to administer another medication to block or ameliorate side effects. A recent search of published scientific literature has revealed that there are medications used in spaceflight that seem to be associated with a significant number of reports of untoward effects. To prevent future medical problems and to improve the well-being and productivity of crew members, it would be best to eliminate (or at least reduce) untoward effects. Reports from the literature will be examined, with the aim of identifying a strategy for reducing untoward effects.

  4. Water Treatment Unit Breadboard: Ground test facility for the recycling of urine and shower water for one astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Lamaze, Brigitte; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Rabaey, Korneel; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Vanoppen, Marjolein; Demey, Dries; Farinas, Bernabé Alonso; Coessens, Wout; De Paepe, Jolien; Dotremont, Chris; Beckers, Herman; Verliefde, Arne

    2016-07-01

    One of the major challenges for long-term manned Space missions is the requirement of a regenerative life support system. Average water consumption in Western Countries is >100 L d-1. Even when minimizing the amount of water available per astronauts to 13 L d-1, a mission of 6 crew members requires almost 30 ton of fresh water supplies per year. Note that the International Space Station (ISS) weighs approximately 400 ton. Therefore the development of an efficient water recovery system is essential to future Space exploration. The ISS currently uses a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) unit following the addition of chromic and sulphuric acid for the microbial stabilization of urine (Carter, Tobias et al. 2012), yielding a water recovery percentage of only 70% due to scaling control. Additionally, Vapor Compression Distillation of 1.5 L urine cap 1 d-1 has a significantly higher power demand with 6.5 W cap-1 compared to a combination of electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO) with 1.9 and 0.6 W cap-1 respectively (Udert and Wächter 2012). A Water Treatment Unit Breadboard (WTUB) has been developed which combines a physicochemical and biological treatment. The aim was to recover 90% of the water in urine, condensate and shower water produced by one crew member and this life support testbed facility was inspired by the MELiSSA loop concept, ESA's Life Support System. Our experimental results showed that: 1) using a crystallisation reactor prior to the nitrification reduced scaling risks by Ca2+- and Mg2+ removal 2) the stabilization of urine diluted with condensate resulted in the biological conversion of 99% of Total Kjeldahl nitrogen into nitrate in the biological nitrification reactor 3) salinity and nitrate produced could be removed by 60-80% by electrodialysis, 4) shower water contaminated with skin microbiota and Neutrogena soap ® could be mixed with electrodialysis diluate and filtered directly over a ceramic nanofiltration at 93% water recovery and 5

  5. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Shiba

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS. We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS to maintain an astronaut's musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system's orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut's musculoskeletal atrophy.HTS was attached to the non-dominant arm of an astronaut staying on the ISS, and his dominant arm without HTS was established as the control (CTR. 10 sets of 10 reciprocal elbow curls were one training session, and 12 total sessions of training (3 times per week for 4 weeks were performed. Pre and post flight ground based evaluations were performed by Biodex (muscle performance, MRI (muscle volume, and DXA (BMD, lean [muscle] mass, fat mass. Pre and post training inflight evaluations were performed by a hand held dynamometer (muscle force and a measuring tape (upper arm circumference.The experiment was completed on schedule, and HTS functioned well without problems. Isokinetic elbow extension torque (Nm changed -19.4% in HTS, and -21.7% in CTR. Isokinetic elbow flexion torque changed -23.7% in HTS, and there was no change in CTR. Total Work (Joule of elbow extension changed -8.3% in HTS, and +0.3% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -23.3% in HTS and -32.6% in CTR. Average Power (Watts of elbow extension changed +22.1% in HTS and -8.0% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -6.5% in HTS and -4.8% in CTR. Triceps muscle volume according to MRI changed +11.7% and that of biceps was +2.1% using HTS, however -0.1% and -0.4% respectively for CTR. BMD changed +4.6% in the HTS arm and -1.2% for CTR. Lean (muscle mass of the arm changed only +10.6% in HTS. Fat mass changed -12.6% in HTS and -6.4% in CTR.These results showed the orbital

  6. Digital Astronaut Project Biomechanical Models: Biomechanical Modeling of Squat, Single-Leg Squat and Heel Raise Exercises on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and to enhance countermeasure development. The DAP Musculoskeletal Modeling effort is developing computational models to inform exercise countermeasure development and to predict physical performance capabilities after a length of time in space. For example, integrated exercise device-biomechanical models can determine localized loading, which will be used as input to muscle and bone adaptation models to estimate the effectiveness of the exercise countermeasure. In addition, simulations of mission tasks can be used to estimate the astronaut's ability to perform the task after exposure to microgravity and after using various exercise countermeasures. The software package OpenSim (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA) (Ref. 1) is being used to create the DAP biomechanical models and its built-in muscle model is the starting point for the DAP muscle model. During Exploration missions, such as those to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Therefore, the crew must have access to exercise countermeasures that can maintain their musculoskeletal and aerobic health. Exploration vehicles may have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities, even more so than the International Space Station (ISS). The exercise devices flown on Exploration missions must be designed to provide sufficient load during the performance of various resistance and aerobic/anaerobic exercises while meeting potential additional requirements of limited mass, volume and power. Given that it is not practical to manufacture and test (ground, analog and/or flight) all candidate devices, nor is it always possible to obtain data such as localized muscle and bone loading empirically, computational modeling can estimate the localized loading during various exercise modalities performed on

  7. Analysis of complex-type chromosome exchanges in astronauts' lymphocytes after space flight as a biomarker of high-LET exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu; Willingham, Veronica; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2002-01-01

    High-LET radiation is more efficient in producing complex-type chromosome exchanges than sparsely ionizing radiation, and this can potentially be used as a biomarker of radiation quality. To investigate if complex chromosome exchanges are induced by the high-LET component of space radiation exposure, damage was assessed in astronauts' blood lymphocytes before and after long duration missions of 3-4 months. The frequency of simple translocations increased significantly for most of the crewmembers studied. However, there were few complex exchanges detected and only one crewmember had a significant increase after flight. It has been suggested that the yield of complex chromosome damage could be underestimated when analyzing metaphase cells collected at one time point after irradiation, and analysis of chemically-induced PCC may be more accurate since problems with complicated cell-cycle delays are avoided. However, in this case the yields of chromosome damage were similar for metaphase and PCC analysis of astronauts' lymphocytes. It appears that the use of complex-type exchanges as biomarker of radiation quality in vivo after low-dose chronic exposure in mixed radiation fields is hampered by statistical uncertainties.

  8. 我国空间站航天员在轨训练初探%Astronaut Onboard Training for China's Space Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任开明; 赵静; 田立平; 黄伟芬; 吴斌

    2011-01-01

    通过分析国外航天员在轨训练的经验和研究成果,结合我国载人空间站任务发展规划,明确我国航天员在执行中长期空间站任务过程中开展在轨训练的必要性及训练的基本原则和训练课程体系的创建流程,并对训练科目进行了初步设计,提出了计算机辅助训练、模拟训练、交叉训练等训练方法及其基本要求。%Through the analysis of the experience and investigation of foreign astronauts onboard training, combined with lhe development programming of China manned space station mission, the necessity of onboard training tbr China's astronauts when executing medium and long duration space station mission is pointed out, and the basic principles and course system of onboard training are established. Onboard training methods, such as Computer-Assisted Instruction Training, onboard simulation training, cross training, and the basic requirements for them, are put forward.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Acetaminophen in Hind Limbs Unloaded Mice: A Model System Simulating the Effects of Low Gravity on Astronauts in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Amanda; Risin, Semyon A.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in Space. Low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration in astronauts. Acquiring of such knowledge has inherent difficulties due to limited opportunities for experimenting in Space. One of the approaches is to use model systems that simulate some of the Space conditions on Earth. In this study we used hind limbs unloaded mice (HLU) to investigate the possible changes in PK of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic with high probability of use by astronauts. The HLU is recognized as an appropriate model for simulating the effects of low gravity on hemodynamic parameters. Mice were tail suspended (n = 24) for 24-96 hours prior to introduction of acetaminophen (150 - 300 mg/kg). The drug (in aqueous solution containing 10% ethyl alcohol by volume) was given orally by a gavage procedure and after the administration of acetaminophen mice were additionally suspended for 30 min, 1 and 2 hours. Control mice (n = 24) received the same dose of acetaminophen and were kept freely all the time. Blood specimens were obtained either from retroorbital venous sinuses or from heart. Acetaminophen concentration was measured in plasma by the fluorescent polarization immunoassay and the AxSYM analyzer (Abbott Laboratories). In control mice peak acetaminophen concentration was achieved at 30 min. By 1 hour the concentration decreased to less than 50% of the peak level and at 2 hours the drug was almost undetectable in the serum. HLU for 24 hours significantly altered the acetaminophen pharmacokinetic: at 30 min the acetaminophen concentrations were significantly (both statistically and medically significant) lower than in control mice. The concentrations also reduced less

  10. Defining the Relationship between Biomarkers of Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress and the Risk for Atherosclerosis in Astronauts during and after Long-duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space travel will consist primarily of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration-class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. These missions will expose astronauts to increased risk of oxidative and inflammatory damage from a variety of sources, including radiation, psychological stress, reduced physical activity, diminished nutritional status, and hyperoxic exposure during extravehicular activity. Evidence exists that increased oxidative damage and inflammation can accelerate the development of atherosclerosis. PURPOSE The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress are elevated during and after long-duration spaceflight and investigate if a relation exists between levels of these biomarkers and structural and functional indices of atherosclerotic risk measured in the carotid and brachial arteries. This is the first study to propose assessing atherosclerotic risk using biochemical, structural, and functional measures before, during, and immediately after spaceflight, and structural and functional measures for up to 5 years after landing. METHODS We will study 12 astronauts before, during, and up to 5 years after long-duration ISS missions. A panel of biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress will be measured twice before flight, early (flight days 15 and 60) and late (2 weeks before landing) during the mission, and early in the postflight recovery phase (approx 3 days after landing). Arterial structure and vascular compliance will be measured at the same times and also at 1, 3, and 5 years after landing (surveillance). Arterial function will be measured using the same preflight, postflight, and surveillance schedule as arterial structure and vascular compliance measures, but will not be measured inflight. Biomarkers, some of which we have previously shown to be elevated with spaceflight, will be measured in venous blood samples and 24-h

  11. Effect of aliskiren on post-discharge outcomes among diabetic and non-diabetic patients hospitalized for heart failure: insights from the ASTRONAUT trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Aldo P.; Greene, Stephen J.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Böhm, Michael; Zannad, Faiez; Solomon, Scott D.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Baschiera, Fabio; Hua, Tsushung A.; Gimpelewicz, Claudio R.; Lesogor, Anastasia; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Ramos, Silvina; Luna, Alejandra; Miriuka, Santiago; Diez, Mirta; Perna, Eduardo; Luquez, Hugo; Pinna, Jorge Garcia; Castagnino, Jorge; Alvarenga, Pablo; Ibañez, Julio; Blumberg, Eduardo Salmon; Dizeo, Claudio; Guerrero, Rodolfo Ahuad; Schygiel, Pablo; Milesi, Rodolfo; Sosa, Carlos; Hominal, Miguel; Marquez, Lilia Lobo; Poy, Carlos; Hasbani, Eduardo; Vico, Marisa; Fernandez, Alberto; Vita, Nestor; Vanhaecke, Johan; De Keulenaer, Gilles; Striekwold, Harry; Vervoort, Geert; Vrolix, Mathias; Henry, Philippe; Dendale, Paul; Smolders, Walter; Marechal, Patrick; Vandekerckhove, Hans; Oliveira, Mucio; Neuenschwande, Fernando; Reis, Gilmar; Saraiva, Jose; Bodanese, Luiz; Canesin, Manoel; Greco, Oswaldo; Bassan, Roberto; Marino, Roberto Luis; Giannetti, Nadia; Moe, Gordon; Sussex, Bruce; Sheppard, Richard; Huynh, Thao; Stewart, Robert; Haddad, Haissam; Echeverria, Luis; Quintero, Adalberto; Torres, Adriana; Jaramillo, Mónica; Lopez, Mónica; Mendoza, Fernan; Florez, Noel; Cotes, Carlos; Garcia, Magali; Belohlavek, Jan; Hradec, Jaromir; Peterka, Martin; Gregor, Pavel; Monhart, Zdenek; Jansky, Petr; Kettner, Jiri; Reichert, Petr; Spinar, Jindrich; Brabec, Tomas; Hutyra, Martin; Solar, Miroslav; Pietilä, Mikko; Nyman, Kai; Pajari, Risto; Cohen, Ariel; Galinier, Michel; Gosse, Philippe; Livarek, Bernard; Neuder, Yannick; Jourdain, Patrick; Picard, François; Isnard, Richard; Hoppe, Uta; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Rosocha, Stefan; Prondzinsky, Roland; Felix, Stephan; Duengen, Hans-Dirk; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Fischer, Sven; Behrens, Steffen; Stawowy, Philipp; Kruells-Muench, Juergen; Knebel, Fabian; Nienaber, Christoph; Werner, Dierk; Aron, Wilma; Remppis, Bjoern; Hambrecht, Rainer; Kisters, Klaus; Werner, Nikos; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rossol, Siegbert; Geiss, Ernst; Graf, Kristof; Hamann, Frank; von Scheidt, Wolfgang; Schwinger, Robert; Tebbe, Ulrich; Costard-Jaeckle, Angelika; Lueders, Stephan; Heitzer, Thomas; Leutermann-Oei, Marie-Louise; Braun-Dullaeus, Ruediger; Roehnisch, Jens-Uwe; Muth, Gerhard; Goette, Andreas; Rotter, Achim; Ebelt, Henning; Olbrich, Hans-Georg; Mitrovic, Veselin; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schellong, Sebastian; Zamolyi, Karoly; Vertes, Andras; Matoltsy, Andras; Palinkas, Attila; Herczeg, Bela; Apro, Dezso; Lupkovics, Geza; Tomcsanyi, Janos; Toth, Kalman; Mathur, Atul; Banker, Darshan; Bharani, Anil; Arneja, Jaspal; Khan, Aziz; Gadkari, Milind; Hiremath, Jagdish; Patki, Nitin; Kumbla, Makund; Santosh, M.J.; Ravikishore, A.G.; Abhaichand, Rajpal; Maniyal, Vijayakukmar; Nanjappa, Manjunath; Reddy, P. Naveen; Chockalingam, Kulasekaran; Premchand, Rajendra; Mahajan, Vijay; Lewis, Basil; Wexler, Dov; Shochat, Michael; Keren, Andre; Omary, Muhamad; Katz, Amos; Marmor, Alon; Lembo, Giuseppe; Di Somma, Salvatore; Boccanelli, Alessandro; Barbiero, Mario; Pajes, Giuseppe; De Servi, Stefano; Greco, Dott Cosimo; De Santis, Fernando; Floresta, Agata; Visconti, Luigi Oltrona; Piovaccari, Giancarlo; Cavallini, Claudio; Di Biase, Matteo; Masini, Dott Franco; Vassanelli, Corrado; Viecca, Maurizio; Cangemi, Dott Francesco; Pirelli, Salvatore; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo; Branzi, Angelo; Percoco, Dott Giovanni; Severi, Silvia; Santini, Alberto; De Lorenzi, Ettore; Metra, Marco; Zacà, Valerio; Mortara, Andrea; Tranquilino, Francisco P.; Babilonia, Noe A.; Ferrolino, Arthur M.; Manlutac, Benjamin; Dluzniewski, Miroslaw; Dzielinska, Zofia; Nowalany-Kozie, Ewa; Mazurek, Walentyna; Wierzchowiecki, Jerzy; Wysokinski, Andrzej; Szachniewicz, Joanna; Romanowski, Witold; Krauze-Wielicka, Magdalena; Jankowski, Piotr; Berkowski, Piotr; Szelemej, Roman; Kleinrok, Andrzej; Kornacewicz-Jac, Zdzislawa; Vintila, Marius; Vladoianu, Mircea; Militaru, Constantin; Dan, Gheorghe; Dorobantu, Maria; Dragulescu, Stefan; Kostenko, Victor; Vishnevsky, Alexandr; Goloschekin, Boris; Tyrenko, Vadim; Gordienko, Alexander; Kislyak, Oxana; Martsevich, Sergey; Kuchmin, Alexey; Karpov, Yurii; Fomin, Igor; Shvarts, Yury; Orlikova, Olga; Ershova, Olga; Berkovich, Olga; Sitnikova, Maria; Pakhomova, Inna; Boldueva, Svetlana; Tyurina, Tatiana; Simanenkov, Vladimir; Boyarkin, Mikhail; Novikova, Nina; Tereschenko, Sergey; Zadionchenko, Vladimir; Shogenov, Zaur; Gordeev, Ivan; Moiseev, Valentin; Wong, Raymond; Ong, Hean Yee; Le Tan, Ju; Goncalvesova, Eva; Kovar, Frantisek; Skalina, Ivan; Kasperova, Viera; Hojerova, Silvia; Szentivanyi, Miroslav; Stancak, Branislav; Babcak, Marian; Kycina, Peter; Poliacik, Pavol; Toth, Peter; Sirotiakova, Jana; de Sa, Esteban Lopez; Bueno, Manuel Gomez; Selles, Manuel Martinez; Cabrera, Jose Angel; Freire, Ramon Bover; Gonzalez Juanatey, Jose Ramon; Comin, Josep; Soriano, FranciscoRidocci; Lopez, Alejandro; Vicho, Raul; Lama, Manuel Geraldia; Schaufelberger, Maria; Brunotte, Richard; Ullman, Bengt; Hagerman, Inger; Cizinsky, Stella; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Yu, Wen-Chung; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Lai, Wen-Ter; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Ural, Dilek; Badak, Ozer; Akin, Mustafa; Yigit, Zerrin; Yokusoglu, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Abaci, Adnan; Ebinc, Haksun; Perlman, Richard; Parish, David; Bergin, James; Burnham, Kenneth; Brown, Christopher; Lundbye, Justin; Williams, Celeste; Eisen, Howard; Juneman, Elizabeth; Joseph, Susan; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Peura, Jennifer; Gupta, Vishal; Habet, Kalim; French, William; Mody, Freny; Graham, Susan; Hazelrigg, Monica; Chung, Eugene; Dunlap, Stephanie; Nikolaidis, Lazaros; Najjar, Samer; Katz, Richard; Murali, Srinivas; Izzo, Joseph L.; Callister, Tracy; Phillips, Roland; Lippolis, Nicholas; Winterton, John; Meymandi, Sheba; Heilman, Karl; Oren, Ron; Zolty, Ronald; Brottman, Michael; Gunawardena, D.R.; Adams, Kirkwood; Barnard, Denise; Klapholz, Marc; Fulmer, James

    2013-01-01

    Aims The objective of the Aliskiren Trial on Acute Heart Failure Outcomes (ASTRONAUT) was to determine whether aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, would improve post-discharge outcomes in patients with hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) with reduced ejection fraction. Pre-specified subgroup analyses suggested potential heterogeneity in post-discharge outcomes with aliskiren in patients with and without baseline diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods and results ASTRONAUT included 953 patients without DM (aliskiren 489; placebo 464) and 662 patients with DM (aliskiren 319; placebo 343) (as reported by study investigators). Study endpoints included the first occurrence of cardiovascular death or HHF within 6 and 12 months, all-cause death within 6 and 12 months, and change from baseline in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at 1, 6, and 12 months. Data regarding risk of hyperkalaemia, renal impairment, and hypotension, and changes in additional serum biomarkers were collected. The effect of aliskiren on cardiovascular death or HHF within 6 months (primary endpoint) did not significantly differ by baseline DM status (P = 0.08 for interaction), but reached statistical significance at 12 months (non-DM: HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64–0.99; DM: HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.91–1.47; P = 0.03 for interaction). Risk of 12-month all-cause death with aliskiren significantly differed by the presence of baseline DM (non-DM: HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50–0.94; DM: HR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.15–2.33; P < 0.01 for interaction). Among non-diabetics, aliskiren significantly reduced NT-proBNP through 6 months and plasma troponin I and aldosterone through 12 months, as compared to placebo. Among diabetic patients, aliskiren reduced plasma troponin I and aldosterone relative to placebo through 1 month only. There was a trend towards differing risk of post-baseline potassium ≥6 mmol/L with aliskiren by underlying DM status (non-DM: HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.71–1.93; DM: HR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.30

  12. Use of DSC and DMA to Study Rubber Crystallization as a Possible Cause for a Tear in a Neoprene Glove Used in a Space Shuttle Pressurized Astronaut Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Doug

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) is a pressurized suit normally worn by astronauts during launch and landing phases of Space Shuttle operations. In 2008, a large tear (0.5 -1 in. long, between the pinky and ring finger) in the ACES left-hand glove made of neoprene latex rubber was found during training for Shuttle flight STS-124. An investigation to help determine the cause(s) of the glove tear was headed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Efforts at JSC to reproduce the actual glove tear pattern by cutting/tearing or rupturing were unsuccessful. Chemical and material property data from JSC such as GC-MS, FTIR, DSC and TGA mostly showed little differences between samples from the torn and control gloves. One possible cause for the glove tear could be a wedding ring/band worn by a male astronaut. Even with a smooth edge, such a ring could scratch the material and initiate the tear observed in the left-hand glove. A decision was later made by JSC to not allow the wearing of such a ring during training or actual flight. Another possible cause for the ACES glove tear is crystallinity induced by strain in the neoprene rubber over a long period of time and use. Neoprene is one several elastomeric materials known to be susceptible to crystallization, and such a process is accelerated with exposure of the material to cold temperatures plus strain. When the temperature is lowered below room temperature, researchers have shown that neoprene crystallization may be maintained at temperatures as high as 45-50 F, with a maximum crystallization rate near 20-25 F (1). A convenient conditioning temperature for inducing neoprene crystallization is a typical freezer that is held near 0 F. For work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), samples were cut from several areas/locations (pinky/ring finger crotch, index finger and palm) on each of two pairs of unstrained ACES gloves for DSC and DMA thermal analysis testing. The samples were conditioned

  13. Comparison of ground-based and space flight energy expenditure and water turnover in middle-aged healthy male US astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Schoeller, D. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Socki, R. A.; Gibson, E. K.

    1997-01-01

    Energy requirements during space flight are poorly defined because they depend on metabolic-balance studies, food disappearance, and dietary records. Water turnover has been estimated by balance methods only. The purpose of this study was to determine energy requirements and water turnover for short-term space flights (8-14 d). Subjects were 13 male astronauts aged 36-51 y with normal body mass indexes (BMIs). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was determined during both a ground-based period and space flight and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) calculations of energy requirements and dietary intake. TEE was not different for the ground-based and the space-flight periods (12.40 +/- 2.83 and 11.70 +/- 1.89 MJ/d, respectively), and the WHO calculation using the moderate activity correction was a good predictor of TEE during space flight. During the ground-based period, energy intake and TEE did not differ, but during space flight energy intake was significantly lower than TEE; body weight was also less at landing than before flight. Water turnover was lower during space flight than during the ground-based period (2.7 +/- 0.6 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.5 L/d), probably because of lower fluid intakes and perspiration loss during flight. This study confirmed that the WHO calculation can be used for male crew members' energy requirements during short space flights.

  14. Space activity impact on science and technology. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth international astronautical congress, Baku, USSR, October 7--13, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napolitano, L.G.; Contensou, P.; Hilton, W.F. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Topics covered include: Soviet automatic vehicles for lunar exploration and their influence on the progress of automatics and control theory; the problems of space technology and their influence on science and technics; industrial use of aerospace technology; development of liquid-propellant rocket engine engineering and its influence on science and technology in the USSR; space medicine and public health; impact of space activity on technology in a country the size of France; astronautics as a stimulus for celestial mechanics; space activity impact on the science and technology of rotating bodies; skylab systems flight performance, an interim report; the design and utilization of a spacelab for sortie missions; the spacelab program; man and the environment, remote sensing from space; EOLE application program for meteorological experiments, complementary experiences; machine processing methods for earth observational data; recent advances in geologic applications of remote sensing from space; infrared scanning for meteorological purposes; spatial antartic glaciology; reflection spectra usage in recognition of plant covers; experimental investigation of aeronautical and maritime communications and surveillance using satellites; the ESRO MAROTS program; the problem of habitability in spaceships; atmosphere revitalization for manned spacecraft; prospects of international cooperation in medical sciences; developing a technology base in planetary entry aerothermodynamics; scientific results of the automatic ionospheric laboratory Yantar 4 flight; nonlinear unsteady motions in solid propellant rockets with application to large motors; investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of the lunar sample brought by Luna 20 and along the route of motion of Lunokhod 2; orbiting astronomical observatory Copernicus; the delta launch vehicle model 2914 series; space tug mission and program planning; space and education; and safety in youth rocket experiments. (GHT)

  15. Three Conservation Applications of Astronaut Photographs of Earth: Tidal Flat Loss (Japan), Elephant Impacts on Vegetation (Botswana), and Seagrass and Mangrove Monitoring (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Robinson, Julie A.; Minorukashiwagi; Maggiesuzuki; Duanenellis, M.; Bussing, Charles E.; Leelong, W. J.; McKenzie, Andlen J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA photographs taken from low Earth orbit can provide information relevant to conservation biology. This data source is now more accessible due to improvements in digitizing technology, Internet file transfer, and availability of image processing software. We present three examples of conservation-related projects that benefited from using orbital photographs. (1) A time series of photographs from the Space Shuttle showing wetland conversion in Japan was used as a tool for communicating about the impacts of tidal flat loss. Real-time communication with astronauts about a newsworthy event resulted in acquiring current imagery. These images and the availability of other high resolution digital images from NASA provided timely public information on the observed changes. (2) A Space Shuttle photograph of Chobe National Park in Botswana was digitally classified and analyzed to identify the locations of elephant-impacted woodland. Field validation later confirmed that areas identified on the image showed evidence of elephant impacts. (3) A summary map from intensive field surveys of seagrasses in Shoalwater Bay, Australia was used as reference data for a supervised classification of a digitized photograph taken from orbit. The classification was able to distinguish seagrasses, sediments and mangroves with accuracy approximating that in studies using other satellite remote sensing data. Orbital photographs are in the public domain and the database of nearly 400,000 photographs from the late 1960s to the present is available at a single searchable location on the Internet. These photographs can be used by conservation biologists for general information about the landscape and in quantitative applications.

  16. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (Pinsects were under the two physiological statuses (Prespiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359 kcal could be generated per 100 gram of SP (dry weight).

  17. Convair Astronautics, San Diego (California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira & Luckmam, Arquitectos

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available Este brillante y espectacular complejo industrial se ha creado especialmente para la investigación y fabricación de cohetes intercontinentales y vehículos del espacio de las Fuerzas Aéreas de los EE. UU., en las proximidades de San Diego y cerca del campo de pruebas de Sycamore Canyon.

  18. Discussion on the Material Chemistry Course Construction for the University of Aeronautics and Astronautics%航空航天院校材料化学课程建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬广斌

    2011-01-01

    本文从材料化学在航空航天领域所处的地位讲起,作者结合在材料化学课程讲授中的体会,在教材建设、教学内容、教学方法、教学手段、考核方式和实验教学等方面进行了有益的探索和实践。%According to the position of material chemistry in the field of aeronautics and astronautics,and based on the author's experience in Material Chemistry Course teaching,some valuable exploration and practice on textbook construction,course contents,teachin

  19. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  20. 航天员常见症状的用药与体位性低血压的关系%The relationship between different medications and orthostatic hypotension in astronauts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施尚今

    2011-01-01

    目的 对航天员在航天飞行中与航天飞行后常见症状的用药与体位性低血压的关系进行综述. 资料来源与选择 该领域公开发表的相关研究论文、综述、报告汇编(包括美国国家航空航天局网站上的公开文献)和著作. 资料引 用引用公开发表的报刊文献32篇,报告汇编5篇,和著作12部. 资料综合 航天员在航天飞行中与航天飞行后最常出现的症状分别为头晕、呕吐(航天运动病)、头痛、背部疼痛、失眠和晕厥,对于这些症状的西药治疗有时会对心血管系统产生不良影响.止吐药异丙嗪伴有抑制去甲肾上腺素、肾素、醛固酮分泌的作用;安眠药替马西泮具有松弛骨骼肌张力的作用;升压药氟氢可的松具有抑制去甲肾上腺素分泌的作用.这些药物都会引起血管收缩下降,水钠储留减少,回心血量降低从而造成体位性低血压. 结论 航天员常见症状的西药疗法常会引起体位性低血压.中国可以运用中药针灸和少量的西药复合疗法来防治航天员的常见症状,从而减少西药对人体的不良作用.%Objective Human beings have flown in space for 50 years.Russia (Soviet),United States,and China are the three countries that have the technology to transport their astronauts into space.The space environment is different from Earth,which can lead to changes or alterations to the human body's physiological functions or cause diseases.The United States has invested energy to study physiological changes or treat diseases in astronauts during and after spaceflight.Common symptoms associated with astronauts during and after spaceflight include dizziness and vomiting (space motion sickness) ; head and back pain; difficulty sleeping (insomnia) ; and orthostatic intolerance and fainting (orthostatic hypotension). Many medications have been used to prevent or treat these symptoms.However,side effects affecting the cardiovascular system have also been

  1. Research on the Course Reform of Electrical Power Supply System of Aeronautics and Astronautics%“航空航天供电系统”的课程改革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨善水; 王莉; 张卓然

    2012-01-01

    航空航天供电系统是航空类电气工程与自动化本科专业的特色专业课程。航空供电系统包括发电、电能变换和配电等多个重要环节,该课程最突出特点是系统性强。在实际的教学中,应从系统基本功能需求分析和可靠性要求等方面突出系统性的概念,而不局限于部件的性能分析;应联系实际科研情况,阐明未来的发展方向。%Electrical Power Supply System of Aeronautics and Astronautics is a special course for the students majo- ring in electrical engineering and automation specialty. The electrical power supply system is composed by some parts such as power generation, converting, and distribution, etc. In the course, the systematization of system should be emphasized from some aspects such as the fundamental function requirements, reliability requirements, rather than be restricted in the analysis of some parts of the system. The research work of the teacher and the develop- ment of the electrical power supply system should be integrated into the education

  2. Preliminary Concept Study on Integrated Lunar Exploration of Astronaut and Humanoid Robot%航天员与类人机器人月面联合探测概念初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海阳; 张波; 黄海兵

    2014-01-01

    The development of technologies involved in human-robot joint exploration including the humanoid robot , tele-operation , man-machine shared control , and ground verification were intro-duced .Then the concept of integrated lunar exploration of astronaut and humanoid robot was studied and the system structure , mode analysis and mission programming of the lunar exploration were pro-posed .In the end , the key technologies such as humanoid robot technology , human-machine syner-gy technology , tele-operation and control technology and ground simulation verification technology were summarized .%介绍了人机联合探测中涉及的类人机器人、遥操作、人机共享控制、地面验证等技术发展现状;对月面类人机器人与航天员联合探测的概念进行了初步研究,规划出了月面人机联合探测系统结构、探测模式和探测任务等;并对类人机器人技术、人机协同操作技术、遥操作控制技术和地面仿真验证技术等关键技术进行了总结。

  3. Weary Astronauts Return From Hubble Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Broward; Liston; 姜其宝

    2002-01-01

    在完成了对“哈勃”太空望远镜大修后,“带病”工作的美国“哥伦比亚”号航天飞机3月12日安全返回肯尼迪航天中心。在“哥伦比亚”号为期11天的飞行期间,宇航员为“哈勃”更换了电池板、电力控制装置等,并给望远镜装上功能更强的照相机。他们还创造了航天飞机一次飞行中,宇航员太空行走总时间最长的新记录。本文有两句写得颇有诗意: As Columbia’s wheels touched down on the three - mile landing strip(飞机的起落跑道) at Florida’s Kennedy Space Center, Hubble was flying more than 350miles above the Pacific Ocean, its systems performing well, NASA said。 译文:当“哥伦比亚”号航天飞机的轮子接触在佛罗里达州的肯尼迪航天中心3英里长的起落跑道时,哈勃望远镜正在太平洋上空350英里处飞行,它的系统工作正常。美国国家航空和宇宙航行局如是说。 注:上句所以如此具有文采,是因为使用了“对照”(contrast)的修辞手法。特别是其中两个数字的运用,真可咀嚼! 另一处是: Hubble has really opened our eyes to what the universe is made of , its struc-ture, and has helped us learn how little we know about the universe。 佳句!又使用了“对照”(contrast)的修辞手法!且更具哲理,发?

  4. Space Flight, Astronautics and Light Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongJian

    2005-01-01

    Amazing achievements and accomplishments of space science and technologies in the past half-century, have profoundly affected all disciplines of natural science and engineering. By the end of 20 th Century, man or man-made spacecrafts landed, or approached and surveyed all planets of solar system and their moons except Pluto. Biologists believe that life may emerge and evolve wherever liquid water exists. No liquid water is ever found yet on all planets and their moons in Solar System except for our Earth. Our mother planet turned out to be the only life-supporting oasis within 4 light years of the Milky Way. It is suggested in this article that time has come for science and engineering communities to study and prepare interstellar flight of manned or unmanned spacecrafts beyond Solar System. Four issues are to be addressed as prerequisite for such flight, namely, detailed survey of nearby space beyond Solar System, design of nuclear fusion rocket engine, long-sustainable on-board life-supporting system and breakthrough of the light barrier.

  5. Congress hears from astronauts about human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    NASA's 15 September announcement of a new Space Launch System (SLS) design, which includes a heavy lift rocket in combination with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) already under development, generally was favorably received at a 22 September congressional hearing on NASA and human spaceflight held by the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. However, witnesses, including Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong, said they remain concerned about America's manned access to space, the nation's leadership in manned space exploration, and what they said is the lack of a clear direction for NASA. Armstrong said the proposal for the new heavy lift vehicle “appears to meet the intent” of a congressional mandate in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, but he also said that the past year has been “frustrating” to NASA observers trying to understand the agency's plans and progress in the area of human space exploration. “The NASA leadership enthusiastically assured the American people that the agency was embarking on an exciting new age of discovery in the cosmos. But the realities of the termination of the shuttle program, the cancellation of existing rocket launcher and spacecraft programs, the layoffs of thousands of aerospace workers, and the outlook for American space activity throughout the next decade were difficult to reconcile with the agency assertions,” Armstrong said.

  6. Astronautics:the physics of space flight

    OpenAIRE

    McClintock, P. V. E.

    2012-01-01

    Space flight provides beautiful examples of the Newtonian dynamics that teachers of physics have always wanted to demonstrate for their students – the consequences of Newton’s Laws and gravitation writ large, and with the effect of dissipation also coming in at the launch of the spacecraft and (especially) duringmits re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere. For physicists, the basic principles of space flight are self-evident, but how best to apply them is far less obvious.

  7. STS-47 Astronaut Crew Training Clip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, is seen during various parts of their training, including SAREX training in the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT), firefighting training. A familiarization flight in the KC-135, a food tasting, photo training in the Crew Compartment Trainer, and bailout training in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) are also shown.

  8. Former astronaut Armstrong witnesses STS-83 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo l1 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.

  9. Alum Astronaut Phones From International Space Station

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the second time inside of a year, faculty, staff and some family members at the Naval Postgraduate School were honored to participate in a video-teleconference with a member of the International Space Station (ISS) crew.

  10. The Investigation and Countermeasures of Present Situation of University Network Public Opinion:Case Study of Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics%高校网络舆情现状调研及对策研究——以南京航空航天大学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文; 李珊; 余重远; 李瑞

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet, universities has been closely related to public opinion of network, especially the campus network has its unique public opinion of network. The study selects Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics as case study, uses questionnaire survey to analyze public opinion. The goal is to understand the impact of web public opinion on the status of college students and the basic attitude of public opinion for the network .Based on the survey that focused on issues reflected in the questionnaire, the study gives recommendations of network problems and crises to the university.%在高速发展的今天,高校和网络舆情已经有着密不可分的关系,尤其是校园网络有着自己独特的网络舆情.文章选取南京航空航天大学为研究个案,采用问卷调查的方法,分析网络舆论对大学生的影响状况和大学生对于网络舆论的基本态度,针对调查结果集中反映的问题提出相应的建议,给高校应对网络舆论带来的问题和危机提供参考.

  11. Real-Time HDR-Rendering for Simulated TV-Graphics of Rendezvous and Docking in Astronaut Training%交会对接航天员训练电视图像实时高动态范围渲染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵再骞; 晁建刚; 王金坤; 张炎; 陈学文

    2015-01-01

    应用基于人眼视觉系统的高动态范围实时渲染技术处理交会对接仿真场景,可以为航天员手控交会对接训练提供高逼真度的电视图像。文中结合交会对接电视图像的特点,分析了交会对接航天员训练电视图像高动态范围实时渲染的关键技术;根据两航天器相对距离,将交会对接过程分为远、中和近3个距离段,采用S-curve算法、自适应对数算法和 Reinhard算法分别对每个距离段进行调和映射处理;改进了自适应对数算法和 Reinhard算法,并基于 GPU处理技术实现仿真电视图像的实时显示。实验结果表明,采用基于距离变化调整调和映射算法的方法处理交会对接仿真电视图像可以高逼真地模拟实录视频场景,为航天员手控交会对接训练提供了视景支持。%Real-time human visual system (HVS)-based high dynamic range (HDR) rendering technology pro-vides high fidelity, and therefore can be used in the simulated TV-graphics for the astronaut rendezvous and docking (RVD) training. In this paper, first, according to the characteristics of the real video recorded from outer space in RVD mission, we analyzed key HDR rendering techniques used in the simulated RVD scene for real-time astronaut’s training. Then, based on the distance between two spacecraft, we employed three tone map-ping operators (TMO), the S-curve algorithm, the adaptive logarithmic algorithm and the Reinhard algorithm to reproduce the tone of the RVD scene at the far distance, the middle distance and the near distance respectively. To ensure the real-time computation, we improved the adaptive logarithmic algorithm and the Reinhard algorithm, and accelerated them by GPUs. By comparing the simulated RVD scene with the real video recorded from outer space in RVD mission, our distance-based method has a high fidelity, and supports the astronaut RVD training.

  12. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem processes in the space environment. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M S; Garland, J L; Mills, A L

    2004-02-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem processes in the space environment.

  14. Journal of the Chinese Society of Astronautics (selected articles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    The operation principle and regulation process of a bipropellant variable thrust rocket engine with a variable area injector that uses a solenoid valve control are discussed. The mathematical models of each link are given. The transfer function method is used to analyze the dynamic and steady performances of engine control systems. The use of concrete numerical calculations further shows the factors influencing the dynamic performance and steady errors for the engine control system.

  15. Astronaut adaptation to 1 G following long duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John; Greenisen, Michael; Cowell, Lynda L.; Squires, William G.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews the results of studies of changes undergone by several physiological systems (including the cardiovascular system, the fluid and electrolyte characteristics, the red blood cells, the bone and the muscle tissues, and the exercise capacity) due to the exposures to microgravity and to the adaptation to 1 G after a long-duration space flight. Special attention is given to the effects of various training protocols and countermeasures used to attenuate the physiological problems encountered upon return from space.

  16. The Literature of Aeronautics, Astronautics, and Air Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Angeles: Floyd Clymer Publications, 1925, reissued, 1974), also called The Blue Book of American Airmen; the Writers’ Pro- gram of the Work Projects...record of the American space effort in Eyewitness to Space: Paintings and Drawings Related to the Apollo Mission to the Moon (New York: Abrams , 1971

  17. AFAL (Air Force Astronautics Laboratory) Technical Objective Document FY89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    supports, thermal barriers , and thermodynamic vent systems are being pursued. Integrated flight type component tests will be conducted in the out years to...Development (ATD) effort under Project 6339 to demonstrate advanced technologies in pulse motors, thermal barriers and composite cases. Also included in

  18. Journal of Chinese Society of Astronautics (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-10

    cosV .+ sin ’I) (2-3) where\\-K (2-4) K. h 4R (2-5) Ŗ PR’sin ’IV (2-6) The numerical results obtained from equations (2-2) and (2-3) are tabulated in...limiting state, let us assume that the distortion speed is .W-A( COSV - O) (2-11) where 02 is the position of the plastic region which is to be deter...2K+(1-K)cos’V,-2cosV,cos,+ " Cos’, VI i- Cos V - Cs VI(2-16) where + XQ ( cosV , -co o )’+(sV.)-I+_CosV, cos q )sin ’q, cos V, - Co V,- (CosIV, +,1) (2

  19. Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in a Mission-Assigned Astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter A.; Polk, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the clinical and administrative conundrums faced by the flight surgeon upon discovering asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation seven months prior to scheduled long duration spaceflight. The presenter will discuss the decision-making process as well as the clinical and operational outcomes.

  20. Journal of Chinese Society of Astronautics (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-06

    combustion speed characteristics for positive and negative r3 113 r p e r’ponentS The Cor, aula which is derived when the covered surface area fractior, p’ is...8217, )b!,;-, ,bgr the coordinate system GX,Y,Z 2 ’:1tt, ’ ot-te tic orIgh angle around axis GZ, obtaining coordinate system GX’IYZ" . The angles 9,64

  1. Advanced Structural Nanomaterials for Astronaut Radiation Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zyvex in cooperation with Prairie View A&M (CARR) and Boeing will develop a space radiation shielding multi-functional material that will provide high energy...

  2. Space Handbook: Astronautics and Its Applications, Staff Report of the Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-26

    plans and specifications. Stereotyped statements and reports are apparently a matter of policy. This was admirably summarized by an American IGY...ieon made the subject of a Russian popular-science sbort film-of the Walt Disney type. but much inferior-and is No. 15 In a series generally entitled

  3. 从多功能空间设计看现代高校图书馆建设--以南京航空航天大学将军路校区图书馆为例%Discussion on the Construction of Modern University Library from the Design of Multi-functional Space---Case Study of Jiangjun Road Campus Library of Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏翠娟

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Taking Jiangjun Road Campus Library of Nanjing University of Aeronautics&Astronautics as an example, this paper expounds the overall construction of this library, and introduces in detail its multi-functional space including the collection and study space, digital resource space, academic research space, leisure and social space, activity space and self-service space in order to provide the reference and enlightenment for the construction of university library.%以南京航空航天大学将军路校区图书馆为例,阐述了该馆的整体建设情况,对其多功能空间(藏书及学习空间、电子资源空间、学术研讨空间、休闲社交空间、活动空间、自助服务空间)进行了详细介绍,以期为现代大学图书馆建设提供参考和启示。

  4. History of the development of rocket technology and astronautics in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of rocket technology in Poland is outlined. The history cites 13th century use of war rockets in combating Tartars as well as 20th century studies of the future and reality of space flights.

  5. Fallen Astronaut: Violence Bodies and 'Moon Art'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    race this reminder of the shared respect for the profession of space traveller and fellow soldier harks back to traditions from other wars where soldiers from the warring sides found a common ground and respect, before proceeding again to attempt to slaughter one another. Thus rather than a gesture...... of space exploration prior to 1971". This surprising message on a website called The Proceedings of the Athanasius Kircher Society captured my imagination in connection with the call for papers for the Tampere conference with its theme: American bodies, American violence. The art piece in question seems...... into consideration that the piece is not on public display itself and known to us exclusively through its mediated forms, to wit, a photo kept in NASA's archives and reproduced in various ways on web sites and in other mass media, and a replica of the sculpture found at the Space Museum in Houston, we are forced...

  6. Human-rating Automated and Robotic Systems - (How HAL Can Work Safely with Astronauts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroff, Lynn; Dischinger, Charlie; Fitts, David

    2009-01-01

    Long duration human space missions, as planned in the Vision for Space Exploration, will not be possible without applying unprecedented levels of automation to support the human endeavors. The automated and robotic systems must carry the load of routine housekeeping for the new generation of explorers, as well as assist their exploration science and engineering work with new precision. Fortunately, the state of automated and robotic systems is sophisticated and sturdy enough to do this work - but the systems themselves have never been human-rated as all other NASA physical systems used in human space flight have. Our intent in this paper is to provide perspective on requirements and architecture for the interfaces and interactions between human beings and the astonishing array of automated systems; and the approach we believe necessary to create human-rated systems and implement them in the space program. We will explain our proposed standard structure for automation and robotic systems, and the process by which we will develop and implement that standard as an addition to NASA s Human Rating requirements. Our work here is based on real experience with both human system and robotic system designs; for surface operations as well as for in-flight monitoring and control; and on the necessities we have discovered for human-systems integration in NASA's Constellation program. We hope this will be an invitation to dialog and to consideration of a new issue facing new generations of explorers and their outfitters.

  7. Postural muscle atrophy prevention and recovery and bone remodelling through high frequency proprioception for astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Dario; Rossitto, Franco; Battocchio, Luciano

    2009-09-01

    The difficulty in applying active exercises during space flights increases the importance of passive countermeasures, but coupling load and instability remains indispensable for generating high frequency (HF) proprioceptive flows and preventing muscle atrophy and osteoporosis. The present study, in microgravity conditions during a parabolic flight, verified whether an electronic system, composed of a rocking board, a postural reader and a bungee-cord loading apparatus creates HF postural instability comparable to that reachable on the Earth. Tracking the subject, in single stance, to real-time visual signals is necessary to obtain HF instability situations. The bungee-cord loading apparatus allowed the subject to manage the 81.5% body weight load (100% could easily be exceeded). A preliminary training programme schedule on the Earth and in space is suggested. Comparison with a pathological muscle atrophy is presented. The possibility of generating HF proprioceptive flows could complement current countermeasures for the prevention and recovery of muscle atrophy and osteoporosis in terrestrial and space environments. These exercises combine massive activation of spindles and joint receptors, applying simultaneously HF variations of pressure to different areas of the sole of the foot. This class of exercises could improve the effectiveness of current countermeasures, reducing working time and fatigue.

  8. Functional Task Test: 1. Sensorimotor changes Associated with Postflight Alterations in Astronaut Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N. H.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Platts, S. H.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Spiering, B. A.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wickwire, P. J.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. This presentation will focus on the sensorimotor contributions to postflight functional performance.

  9. About influencing specificity of space flights on the information, perceived by astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisniakova, L.; Prisniakov, V.

    Research of influence of gravitational fields on character of decision-making by the cosmonaut in reply to the information acting to him is the purpose of the report. The magnitude of perceived consciously of flow of the information for all sensory systems (visual, acoustical, somatosensory, chemical, kinaesthetical, balance of a head and time) is analysed. The coefficient of transformation of the incoming information from an environment to the person and the information realized by him has been received equal κ =105. As the susceptibility of the cosmonaut to the incoming of information to him depends on his temperament, the hypothesis about modification of his temperament and accordingly about modification of character of activity of the cosmonaut during duration of flight is voiced. B.Tsukanov's hypothesis is used, that as a measure of mobility of nervous system (temperament) of the person it is possible to use of the magnitude of subjectively experienced time τz. The formula for definition τz is offered using the period of an of alpha waves. The known data of authors, on the one hand, about communication of a time constant of information processing in memory of person T with frequency of alpha waves f and on the other hand, on its relationship with overloads j were used. This dependence of the period of fluctuations of alpha waves Tα from overloads (or microgravitation) enable to find magnitude of change of individually experienced time τ z at action of distinct from normal gravitational fields. The increase of this value of magnitude in case of presence of overloads can lead to to uncontrollable change of behaviour of cosmonauts in connection by erroneous perception of time and space. Acknowledgement to this is display by pilots - verifiers of "loss of orientation''.This result essentially supplements an explanation of this effect which was considered by authors in Houston on the basis of the analysis of the basic psychophysical law. Dependence of change of character of activity of the cosmonaut from conditions of space flight influences on the conscious perception of the incoming information to him from environment, and as result, on efficiency of decisions accepted by him. Results can form a theoretical basis of forecasting of behaviour of cosmonauts during long space flight.

  10. "Astronauts in the Sperm World" : The Renegotiation of Masculine Identities in Discourses on Male Contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the predominance of modern contraceptive drugs for women has disciplined men and women to delegate responsibilities for contraception largely to women. Consequently, contraceptive use came to be excluded from hegemonic masculinity. The weak alignment of contraceptive technologies an

  11. The Astronaut Glove Challenge: Big Innovation from a (Very) Small Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Many measurements were taken by test engineers from Hamilton Sundstrand, the prime contractor for the current EVA suit. Because the raw measurements needed to be converted to torques and combined into a final score, it was impossible to keep track of who was ahead in this phase. The final comfort and dexterity test was performed in a depressurized glove box to simulate real on-orbit conditions. Each competitor was required to exercise the glove through a defined set of finger, thumb, and wrist motions without any sign of abrasion or bruising of the competitor's hand. I learned a lot about arm fatigue! This was a pass-fail event, and both of the remaining competitors came through intact. After taking what seemed like an eternity to tally the final scores, the judges announced that I had won the competition. My glove was the only one to have achieved lower finger-bending torques than the Phase VI glove. Looking back, I see three sources of the success of this project that I believe also operate in other programs where small teams have broken new ground in aerospace technologies. These are awareness, failure, and trust. By remaining aware of the big picture, continuously asking myself, "Am I converging on a solution?" and "Am I converging fast enough?" I was able to see that my original design was not going to succeed, leading to the decision to start over. I was also aware that, had I lingered over this choice or taken time to analyze it, I would not have been ready on the first day of competition. Failure forced me to look outside conventional thinking and opened the door to innovation. Choosing to make incremental failures enabled me to rapidly climb the learning curve. Trusting my "gut" feelings-which are really an internalized accumulation of experiences-and my newly acquired skills allowed me to devise new technologies rapidly and complete both gloves just in time. Awareness, failure, and trust are intertwined: failure provides experiences that inform awareness and provide decision-making opportunities that build trust among team members and managers while opening minds to new pathways for development. All three are necessary for teams-large or small-to achieve big innovation.

  12. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  13. Central adaptation to repeated galvanic vestibular stimulation: implications for pre-flight astronaut training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Dilda

    Full Text Available Healthy subjects (N = 10 were exposed to 10-min cumulative pseudorandom bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS on a weekly basis for 12 weeks (120 min total exposure. During each trial subjects performed computerized dynamic posturography and eye movements were measured using digital video-oculography. Follow up tests were conducted 6 weeks and 6 months after the 12-week adaptation period. Postural performance was significantly impaired during GVS at first exposure, but recovered to baseline over a period of 7-8 weeks (70-80 min GVS exposure. This postural recovery was maintained 6 months after adaptation. In contrast, the roll vestibulo-ocular reflex response to GVS was not attenuated by repeated exposure. This suggests that GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level (brainstem-mediated vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Faced with unreliable vestibular input, the cerebellum reweighted sensory input to emphasize veridical extra-vestibular information, such as somatosensation, vision and visceral stretch receptors, to regain postural function. After a period of recovery subjects exhibited dual adaption and the ability to rapidly switch between the perturbed (GVS and natural vestibular state for up to 6 months.

  14. Astronauts and IoT: Toward True Human-Autonomy Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the area of Internet of Things (IoT) or Cyber-Physical Systems will have a significant impact on many areas of human activity and commercial/technological development. One application of importance to NASA is the need to make crews on deep space missions more independent from earth in both their routine activities and handling of unexpected events. IoT will allow increasingly intelligent systems to be aware of what humans are doing, what tools/resources they are using, and what help they might need in terms of procedure execution in tasks such as assembly, maintenance, repair, and perhaps even in more complex activities like medical interventions. This talk focuses on the convergence of research and technologies that will be needed to effect such intelligent systems based on IoT.

  15. World’s First Woman Astronaut V.V. Tereshkova and Her Party Visit China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the CPAFFC, a delegation of the Russian Centre of International Scientific and Cultural Cooperation (RCISCC) led by its president V.V. Tereshkova paid a visit to Beijing and Shanghai from May 19 to 24,2004, and attended the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the CPAFFC.

  16. Intelligent system for pilot and astronaut Psychophysiological status monitoring and recuperating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Andrzej; -Bogumila Pecyna, S. Maria

    The proposal for development of synthetic indicators of the individuals psychophysiological status as well as measurements methodology which are responsible for decision making process, is discussed. The interdisciplinary of principles methods and tools (instruments) which was created out of a specific inter-section of multiply domains of science and technology belonging to the common domain of scientific information systems with specific utility objectives and measures of quality assessment of solutions is presented. As it is well-known, the development directions of the space technology in contemporary terms are increasingly associated with the system approach to solving the problems that are defined in a holistic way, with the emphasis on the aspects to their usefulness. This results in the necessity to create solutions, which are in fact decisions of a negotiating nature, taken in the systems of incomplete information with blurs as well as social and psychological contexts on the grounds of the importance of the human factor (human-centric approach). For the sake of one thing - explicitness in operating with contents, we find support in ontology, and the human factor in the system complexes is treated by us in accordance with the principles of the “human being ecology”. Hence, a key role is played here by so-called “three-factor utility function” proposed by the author [Janicki, 1991], both as an objective function and as a measure of the quality assessment of solutions, where the first factor is interpreted as the will of striving for the objective, the second one - as the fear of the consequences, and the third one - as the internal consistency of the decision-maker (intelligent agent coherence). It reflects in fact a trans-disciplinary union of the problem-solving approaches proposed earlier [Minsky, Antonovsky and Kulikowski, 1987-1993]. The solutions to these problems themselves come down to the calculations of a heuristic nature, which are often called intelligent computations, and their methodology is called “computational intelligence”. The absence of gravity which causes significant physiological stress with broad biomedical changes generated key problems for researchers and practitioners of aviations and space flight. Following previous experiences we had on the matter, some current results achieved on the bases of FlexComp Infinity/Biograph Infiniti, V6.1™ of Thought Technology ltd. [Janicki, Pecyna, 2014] are underlined. A particular emphasis has been placed on the ability of the distributed parallel computations connected with the sophisticated application of the NASA Autogenic Feedback Training AFTE [PS Cowings, 2011] method combined biofeedback and Autogenic Therapy exercises [WIML-NASA, 2011]. The present paper reports on the results of a serious preliminary experiments addressed especially to space disorientation and/or awareness of reality problem. Keywords: pilot’s decision making process; intelligent a agent; coherency; psychophysiological pilot status; remote monitoring; remote training; synthetic indicators; scientific information system; three-factor utility function; space disorientation;Near-Infrared Hemoencephalography; References: A.Janicki “three-factor utility function” in LabTSI™ Modeling and Simulation Platform, KUL Univ. publication 2011 - in polish, page 95-103 M.B. Pecyna and M. Pokorski "Near-Infrared Hemoencephalography for Monitoring Blood Oxygenation in Prefrontal Cortical Areas in diagnosis and Therapy of Developmental Dyslexia" in "Neurobiology of Respiration" Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013 page 175 - 180. NASA-WIML Workshop on 2011, Psychophysiological Aspects of Flight Safety In Aerospace Operations, WIML 2011

  17. Probabilistic Risk Model for Organ Doses and Acute Health Effects of Astronauts on Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to large solar particle events (SPEs) is a major concern during EVAs on the lunar surface and in Earth-to-Lunar transit. 15% of crew times may be on EVA with minimal radiation shielding. Therefore, an accurate assessment of SPE occurrence probability is required for the mission planning by NASA. We apply probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for radiation protection of crews and optimization of lunar mission planning.

  18. Space Radiation Shielding Studies for Astronaut and Electronic Component Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jordan Robert

    2010-01-01

    The dosimetry component of the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) will design, develop and characterize the response of a suite of radiation detectors and supporting instrumentation and electronics with three primary goals that will: (1) Use established space radiation detection systems to characterize the primary and secondary radiation fields existing in the experimental test-bed zones during exposures at particle accelerator facilities. (2) Characterize the responses of newly developed space radiation detection systems in the experimental test-bed zones during exposures at particle accelerator facilities, and (3) Provide CRESSE collaborators with detailed dosimetry information in experimental test-bed zones.

  19. STS-47 Astronaut Crew at Pad B for TCDT, Emergency Egress Training, and Photo Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri are seen during emergency egress training. Then Commander Gibson introduces the members of the crew and they each give a brief statement about the mission and answer questions from the press.

  20. Detection of Asymptomatic Renal Calcifications in Astronauts Using a Novel Ultrasound Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) specifically looking for asymptomatic renal calcifications that may be renal stones is typically not done in the terrestrial setting. Standard abdominal US without a renal focus may discover incidental, mineralized renal material (MRM); however punctate solid areas of MRM is less than 3 mm are usually considered subclinical. Detecting these early calcifications before they become symptomatic renal stones is critical to prevent adverse medical and mission outcomes during spaceflight.

  1. Interviews with Apollo Lunar Surface Astronauts in Support of EVA Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean

    2010-01-01

    A 3-person team interviewed 8 of the 11 surviving Apollo crewmembers in a series of focused interviews to discuss their experiences on the lunar surface. Eppler presented the results of these interviews, along with recommendations for the design of future lunar surface systems.

  2. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.

    2013-01-01

    The Hybrid Inflatable DSH combined with electric propulsion and high power solar-electric power systems offer a near TRL-now solution to the space radiation crew dose problem that is an inevitable aspect of long term manned interplanetary flight. Spreading program development and launch costs over several years can lead to a spending plan that fits with NASA's current and future budgetary limitations, enabling early manned interplanetary operations with space radiation dose control, in the near future while biomedical research, nuclear electric propulsion and active shielding research and development proceed in parallel. Furthermore, future work should encompass laboratory validation of HZETRN calculations, as previous laboratory investigations have not considered large shielding thicknesses and the calculations presented at these thicknesses are currently performed via extrapolation.

  3. Comprehensive Astronaut Immune Assessment Following a Short-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Yetman, Deborah; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2006-01-01

    Immune system dysregulation has been demonstrated to occur during spaceflight and has the potential to cause serious health risks to crewmembers participating in exploration class missions. As a part of an ongoing NASA flight experiment assessing viral immunity (DSO-500), a generalized immune assessment was performed on 3 crewmembers who participated in the recent STS-114 Space Shuttle mission. The following assays were performed: (1) comprehensive immunophenotype analysis; (2) T cell function/intracellular cytokine profiles; (4) secreted Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles via cytometric bead array. Immunophenotype analysis included a leukocyte differential, lymphocyte subsets, T cell subsets, cytotoxic/effector CD8+ T cells, memory/naive T cell subsets and constitutively activated T cells. Study timepoints were L-180, L-65, L-10, R+0, R+3 and R+14. Detailed data are presented in the poster text. As expected from a limited number of human subjects, data tended to vary with respect to most parameters. Specific post-flight alterations were as follows (subject number in parentheses): Granulocytosis (2/3), reduced NK cells (3/3), elevated CD4/CD8 ratio (3/3), general CD8+ phenotype shift to a less differentiated phenotype (3/3), elevated levels of memory CD4+ T cells (3/3), loss of L-selectin on T cell subsets (3/3), increased levels of activated T cells (2/3), reduced IL-2 producing T cell subsets (3/3), levels of IFNg producing T cells were unchanged. CD8+ T cell expression of the CD69 activation markers following whole blood stimulation with SEA+SEB were dramatically reduced postflight (3/3), whereas other T cell function assessments were largely unchanged. Cytometric bead array assessment of secreted T cell cytokines was performed, following whole blood stimulation with either CD3/CD28 antibodies or PMA+ionomycin for 48 hours. Specific cytokines assessed were IFNg, TNFa, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10. Following CD3/CD28 stimulation, all three crewmembers had a mission-associated reduction in the levels of secreted IFNg. One crewmember had a post-flight inversion in the IFNg/IL-10 ratio postflight, which trended back to baseline by R+14. Detailed cytokine data are presented in the poster text. This testing regimen was designed to correlate immunophenotype changes (thought to correspond to specific in-vivo immune responses or pathogenesis), against altered leukocyte function and cytokine profiles. In-flight studies are required to determine if post-flight alterations are reflective of the in-flight condition, or are a response to landing and readaptation.

  4. Perspectives on Asthenia in Astronauts and Cosmonauts: Review of the International Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Luis; Keeton, Kathryn; Shea, Camille; Otto, Christian; Patterson, Holly; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) is one of the 6 elements in the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and is responsible for managing 4 of the identified and named risks to human health and performance from human space exploration: a) Risk of Behavioral Conditions (BMed), b) Risk of Psychiatric Disorders (BMed), c) Risk of Performance Decrements due to inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication and Psychological Adaptation within a Team (Team), and d) Risk of Performance Errors due to Sleep Loss, Circadian De-synchronization, Fatigue and Work Overload (Sleep). Each risk is reviewed by a NASA HRP Standing Review Panel (SRP), and recently the Behavioral Medicine Risk of Psychiatric Disorders was reviewed. The aim of this report is to address one of the recommendations made by that panel, specifically the recommendation that the "literature on asthenia should be evaluated (possibly as a psychological or psychosomatic / psycho-physiological analogue of chronic fatigue syndrome)" (SRP p. 4), in addition to General Recommendation 4, which states that "all reviews must include non-English language materials as well as materials appearing in conferences reports, books, and other non-refereed journal outlets" (SRP p. 2).

  5. Contemporary achievements in astronautics: Salyut-7, the Vega Project and Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasov, V. N.; Balebanov, V. M.; Goldovskiy, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The latest achievements in Soviet aeronautics are described; the new stage in the space program to study Venus using Soviet automated space probes, and the next space mission by cosmonauts to the Salyut-7 station. Information is also presented on the flight of the Spacelab orbiting laboratory created by Western European specialists.

  6. Networked simulation for team training of Space Station astronauts, ground controllers, and scientists - A training and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Bovenzi, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe plans for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) which has been designed to meet the envisioned training needs for Space Station Freedom. To meet these needs, the SSTF will integrate networked simulators with real-world systems in five training modes: Stand-Alone, Combined, Joint-Combined, Integrated, and Joint-Integrated. This paper describes the five training modes within the context of three training scenaries. In addition, this paper describes an authoring system which will support the rapid integration of new real-world system changes in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  7. Astronaut operations requirements document for the White Light Coronagraph experiment s-052 for the Apollo Telescope Mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    Information necessary for successful performance of the observer's function in the White Light Coronagraph portion of the Apollo Telescope Mount experiments is presented. The pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight operations required to perform the S-052 experiment are described. A discussion of the scientific objectives of the experiment and a description of the hardware are provided.

  8. Moving to Mars: There and Back Again. Stress and the Psychology and Culture of Crew and Astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Sheryl L.

    2010-10-01

    The journey to explore our red neighbor will entail the application of all our terrestrial lessons learned and of some we have yet to discover. A Mars mission represents the extreme in terms of both distance and uncharted environment. The selection, monitoring and support of Mars bound crews will challenge existing technology and knowledge. The human, at the center, represents the greatest strength and the greatest weakness for a Mars mission. Human response to confined and isolated environments has been shown to be characterized by serious stressors and a Mars mission will represent the most extreme of such environments. The impact of such stressors on coping, performance, motivation, behavior, cognitive functioning and psychological well-being must be taken into account. The extraordinary duration of the mission poses special challenges in planning for mission support since very different needs may be driven by particular phases of the mission. Selection, monitoring and! support will similarly be significantly affected by anticipating potential differential characteristics and needs across the travel phases to and from Mars and the period on the planet's surface.

  9. Physics-based Simulation of Human Posture Using 3D Whole Body Scanning Technology for Astronaut Space Suit Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years high precision three-dimensional (3D) full body laser scanners have been developed to be used as a powerful anthropometry tool for quantification of the morphology of the human body. The full body scanner can quickly extract body characteristics in non-contact fashion. It is required for the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) to have capabilities for kinematics simulation of a digital human at various postures whereas the laser scanner only allows capturing a single static posture at each time. During this summer fellowship period a theoretical study has been conducted to estimate an arbitrary posture with a series of example postures through finite element (FE) approximation and found that four-point isoparametric FE approximation would result in reasonable maximum position errors less than 5%. Subsequent pilot scan experiments demonstrated that a bead marker with a nominal size of 6 mm could be used as a marker for digitizing 3-D coordinates of anatomical landmarks for further kinematic analysis. Two sessions of human subject testing were conducted for reconstruction of an arbitrary postures from a set of example postures for each joint motion for the forearm/hand complex and the whole upper extremity.

  10. Cosmic radiation. Risks involved for astronauts and electronic equipment; Strahlen aus dem Weltall. Risiken fuer Astronauten und Elektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, J. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Strahlenzentrum

    1998-04-01

    Less than 50 years ago the first spacecraft, the Russian Sputnik, was successfully launched into outer space and fascinated onlookers from the planet earth as the first man-made object travelling in space. Later on, it was not only man-made spacecrafts, but manned spacecrafts travelling into outer space, and today, mankind reaches for the stars in the proper sense of the wording: American and Russian scientists and space agencies join forces in planning a new manned expedition that is to reach far more deeper into space. The international space station ``Alpha``, planned to be completed by the year 2002, is to serve as the starting platform for the long space journey to the planet Mars. Regardless of the minor troubles and failures on board the space station ``Mir``, space research and technology is rapidly making headway to planets farther out in space, although the transportation of man and material to planets thus far out in space poses problems and hazards even greater than those known by now, which required tremendous efforts in logistics and other respects to be successfully managed. The article addresses the radiological hazards to man and material that are expected to be involved in the planned new activities. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Gerade einmal gut vierzig Jahre sind vergangen, seit der erste Sputnik die Welt fasziniert, und nun greift die Menschheit im woertlichen Sinne nach den Sternen. Nicht mehr nur der Mond ist das Ziel, unser naechster Planet - Mars - wird schon angepeilt. Amerika und Russland planen in sehr konkreter Weise eine bemannte Expedition. Die fuer das Jahr 2002 fest vorgesehene `Internationale Raumstation Alpha` stellt dazu nur einen Zwischenschritt dar. Auch alle kleinen Pannen auf der `MIR`, welche die Medien so gern aufbauschen, aendern nichts daran: Die Technik der Weltraumfahrt hat so enorme Fortschritte gemacht, dass die Gefahren des Transports in den Hintergrund getreten sind, obwohl sie immer noch bestehen und nur durch eine akribische Logistik beherrscht werden koennen. (orig.)

  11. The effects of autogenic-feedback training on motion sickness severity and heart rate variability in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, William B.; Cowings, Patricia S.

    1994-01-01

    Space motion sickness (SMS) affects 50 percent of all people during early days of spaceflight. This study describes the results of two Shuttle flight experiments in which autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological conditioning method, was tested as a treatment for this disorder. Of the six who were designated as flight subjects (two women and four men), three were given treatment and three served as controls (i.e., no AFT). Treatment subjects were given 6 hours of preflight AFT. Preflight results showed that AFT produced a significant increase in tolerance to rotating chair motion sickness tests. Further, this increased tolerance was associated with changes in specific physiological responses and reports of reduced malaise. Flight results showed that two of the three control subjects experienced repeated vomiting on the first mission day, while one subject experienced only moderate malaise. Of the three treatment subjects, one experienced mild discomfort, one moderate discomfort, and one severe motion sickness. Only the three control subjects took medication for symptom suppression. Measures of cardiac function reflective of vagal control were shown to be affected especially strongly on the first day of space flight. AFT given for control of heart rate, respiration, and other autonomic activity influenced both the vagal control measures and SMS. These data suggest that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness; however, this cannot be demonstrated conclusively with the small number of subjects described.

  12. A Shielding Model for an Inflatable Vehicle, TransHab, and the Associated Astronaut Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Badhwar, Gautam

    2000-01-01

    TransHab, a habitable inflatable structure, has been proposed as a possible module for the International Space Station that provides significant increase in the available volume compared with the US Hab module and fo r a human Mars mission . A study was undertaken to understand and provide design inputs for crew radiation exposures. The results show that the current design provides sufficient shielding to assure that the crew exposures are below the crew exposure limits currently adopted for the ISS. In addition, the shielding provides adequate protection from the largest solar particle events (SPEs) observed during the last 40 years.

  13. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronauts Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the research completed during 2011 for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project. The research is motivated by the desire to safely send humans in deep space missions and to keep radiation exposures within permitted limits. To this end current material shielding, developed for low earth orbit missions, is not a viable option due to payload and cost penalties. The active radiation shielding is the path forward for such missions. To achieve active space radiation shielding innovative large lightweight gossamer space structures are used. The goal is to deflect enough positive ions without attracting negatively charged plasma and to investigate if a charged Gossamer structure can perform charge deflections without significant structural instabilities occurring. In this study different innovative configurations are explored to design an optimum active shielding. In addition, to establish technological feasibility experiments are performed with up to 10kV of membrane charging, and an electron flux source with up to 5keV of energy and 5mA of current. While these charge flux energy levels are much less than those encountered in space, the fundamental coupled interaction of charged Gossamer structures with the ambient charge flux can be experimentally investigated. Of interest are, will the EIMS remain inflated during the charge deflections, and are there visible charge flux interactions. Aluminum coated Mylar membrane prototype structures are created to test their inflation capability using electrostatic charging. To simulate the charge flux, a 5keV electron emitter is utilized. The remaining charge flux at the end of the test chamber is measured with a Faraday cup mounted on a movable boom. A range of experiments with this electron emitter and detector were performed within a 30x60cm vacuum chamber with vacuum environment capability of 10-7 Torr. Experiments are performed with the charge flux aimed at the electrostatically inflated membrane structure (EIMS) in both charged and uncharged configurations. The amount of charge shielding behind and around the EIMS was studied for different combinations of membrane structure voltages and electron energies. Both passive and active shielding were observed, with active shielding capable of deflecting nearly all incoming electrons. The pattern of charge distribution around the structure was studied as well as the stability of the structures in the charge flow. The charge deflection experiments illustrate that the EIMS remain inflated during charge deflection, but will experience small amplitude oscillations. Investigations were performed to determine a potential cause of the vibrations. It is postulated these vibrations are due to the charge flux causing local membrane charge distribution changes. As the membrane structure inflation pressure is changed, the shape responds, and causes the observed sustained vibration. Having identified this phenomenon is important when considering electrostatically inflated membrane structures (EIMS) in a space environment. Additionally, this project included a study of membrane material impacts, specifically the impact of membrane thickness. Extremely thin materials presented new challenges with vacuum preparation techniques and rapid charging. The thinner and lighter membrane materials were successfully inflated using electrostatic forces in a vacuum chamber. However, care must be taken when varying the potentials of such lighter structures as the currents can cause local heating and melting of the very thin membranes. Lastly, a preliminary analysis is performed to study rough order of magnitude power requirements for using EIMS for radiation shielding. The EIMS power requirement becomes increasingly more challenging as the spacecraft voltage is increased. As a result, the emphasis is on the deflection of charges away from the spacecraft rather than totally stopping them. This significantly alleviates the initial power requirements. With modest technological development(s) active shielding is emerging to be a viable option.

  14. Long-term exposure to space’s microgravity alters the time structure of heart rate variability of astronauts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Otsuka

    2016-12-01

    Interpretation: Most HRV changes observed in space relate to a frequency window centered around one cycle in about 90 min. Since the BRAC component is amplified in space for only specific HRV endpoints, it is likely to represent a physiologic response rather than an artifact from the International Space Station (ISS orbit. If so, it may offer a way to help adaptation to microgravity during long-duration spaceflight.

  15. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronaut's Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will seek to test and validate an electrostatic gossamer structure to provide radiation shielding. It will provide guidelines for energy requirements,...

  16. A Data Mining Project to Identify Cardiovascular Related Factors That May Contribute to Changes in Visual Acuity Within the US Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Christian M.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the cardiovascular-related adaptations that occur in the microgravity environment are due, in part, to a well-characterized cephalad-fluid shift that is evidenced by facial edema and decreased lower limb circumference. It is believed that most of these alterations occur as a compensatory response necessary to maintain a "normal" blood pressure and cardiac output while in space. However, data from both flight and analog research suggest that in some instances these microgravity-induced alterations may contribute to cardiovascular-related pathologies. Most concerning is the potential relation between the vision disturbances experienced by some long duration crewmembers and changes in cerebral blood flow and intra-ocular pressure. The purpose of this project was to identify cardiovascular measures that may potentially distinguish individuals at risk for visual disturbances after long duration space flight. Toward this goal, we constructed a dataset from Medical Operation tilt/stand test evaluations pre- (days L-15-L-5) and immediate post-flight (day R+0) on 20 (3 females, 17 males). We restricted our evaluation to only crewmembers who participated in both shuttle and space station missions. Data analysis was performed using both descriptive and analytical methods (Stata 11.2, College Station, TX) and are presented as means +/- 95% CI. Crewmembers averaged 5207 (3447 - 8934) flight hours across both long (MIR-23 through Expedition16) and short (STS-27 through STS-101) duration missions between 1988 and 2008. The mean age of the crew at the time of their most recent shuttle flight was 41 (34-44) compared to 47 (40-54) years during their time on station. In order to focus our analysis (we did not have codes to separate out subjects by symptomotology) , we performed a visual inspection of each cardiovascular measures captured during testing and plotted them against stand time, pre- to post-flight, and between mission duration. It was found that pulse pressure most clearly differentiated the two mission types. Statistical analysis confirmed that pulse pressure was significantly higher before [45.6; (42.1 to 49.1)] and after [50.7; (46.9 to 54.6)] time on station compared with their most recent shuttle flight [31.6 (27.8 to 35.4), and 32.2 (28.3 to 36.0) respectively] even after correcting differences in age and cumulative number of mission hours. Without knowing the identity of which long duration crewmembers demonstrated visual changes, we were limited to examining whether certain crew regulate components of pulse pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, differently due to microgravity exposure. To that end, we stratified crew into tertiles based on either their pre-flight measure of systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Those crew in the highest tertile for both systolic (lower tertile (n=8; 103-111), middle tertile (n=7; 113-121), and upper tertile (n=5; 125-136) and diastolic blood pressure (lower tertile (n=8; 58-64), middle tertile (n=7; 67-73), and upper tertile (n=5; 75-81) demonstrated less variability in pulse pressure between R+0 and L-10 (Figure 2). Interestingly, those crewmembers with the highest resting systolic blood pressure demonstrated either no change or in some instances an increase in total peripheral resistance, where those in the lower tertiles had lower values of total peripheral resistance compared to pre-flight levels. In this study, it was found that crewmembers in the highest tertile for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure demonstrated less variability in pulse pressure and that the decrease in variability was due in part to lower levels of compliance as indicated by similar or higher levels of total peripheral resistance after compared with before flight levels. Whether there is a relation between blood pressure regulation and total peripheral resistance in crew presenting with negative changes in visual acuity remains unknown.

  17. Person autonomy and voluntariness as important factors in motivation, decision making, and astronaut safety: First results from the Mars500 LODGEAD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarsen, Bernadette van

    2013-06-01

    The present study aims to explore the influence of person autonomy and voluntariness on the level and orientation of motivation and decision making of crew members who live and work in extreme isolated conditions such as during long-term space flights. Motivation has been related to positive behavioural (e.g., goal-orientation), cognitive (e.g., attention), and psychological (e.g., well-being) outcomes and is likely to be relevant for safe and favourable extraterrestrial life- and working-conditions. The study has been carried out within the scope of the Mars500 study which includes a Mars mission simulation of 105 (pilot study) and 520 (main study) days and involves a multi-national crew of 6 men who lived and worked in hermetically sealed modules in the IBMP facilities in Moscow. Data have been collected by the use of questionnaires that evaluate the Mars experiment in terms of, e.g. information received (e.g., "My experiences here are in line with what I was told during the selection and instruction procedure"), perceived social pressure (e.g., "I don't feel free to make my own decisions"), and personal challenge (e.g., "I think that joining the first Mars mission would be a major challenge for me"). It is hypothesised that stronger (1) perceived information consistency, (2) personal expectation consistency, (3) perceived voluntariness, and (4) experienced freedom of choice will be indicative of higher motivation levels. The results will be interpreted in the light of communication, decision making processes, and mission safety. Also, moral expectations and ethical considerations regarding future participation in long duration Human missions such as Mars will be discussed. We will make use of descriptive, longitudinal pattern analyses and correlations.

  18. Aeronautics. An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education: What Pilot, Astronaut, or Aeronautical Engineer didn't Start out with a Toy Glider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Pat (Editor); Huetter, Ted (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Welcome to the exciting world of aeronautics. The term aeronautics originated in France, and was derived from the Greek words for "air" and "to sail." It is the study of flight and the operation of aircraft. This educator guide explains basic aeronautical concepts, provides a background in the history of aviation, and sets them within the context of the flight environment (atmosphere, airports, and navigation). The activities in this guide are designed to be uncomplicated and fun. They have been developed by NASA Aerospace Education Services Program specialists, who have successfully used them in countless workshops and student programs around the United States. The activities encourage students to explore the nature of flight, and experience some real-life applications of mathematics, science, and technology. The subject of flight has a wonderful power to inspire learning.

  19. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications of the Committee on Science and Astronautics. U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-18

    bill stress the importance of safety. When most Americans think of hydrogen as a fuel, they recall pictures of the Hindenburg exploding and burning...new cars are airbags for occupant crash protection, catalytic-type exhaust emission converters, and stratified charge type piston engines. The first of...Although Ulyate does not recall Chandler saying so. he received the impression from Chandler that neither Ford nor any other company would buy the AMF

  20. Erratum to "Combustion oscillation study in a kerosene fueled rocket-based combined-cycle engine combustor" [Acta Astronaut. 129 (2016) 260-270

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Wei; He, Guo-Qiang; Qin, Fei; Xue, Rui; Wei, Xiang-Geng; Shi, Lei

    2017-03-01

    The publisher regrets that in the above article we found that Table 1 is present online, in the html version in ScienceDirect, but has been omitted in error from the final version of the PDF online and in the print version. The table can be found below:

  1. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Advanced Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Astronautics. U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-First Congress, First Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-12-11

    the space agency’s highest honor; the Air Force Commendation Medal; Air Force Astro- naut Wboa and the New York State Medal for Valor . He Is a member...Douglas Corporation, 5301 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, Call- fornia 92646. Dr. Francis S. Johnson, Director, Earth and Planetary Sciences

  2. Yoga Therapy as a Complement to Astronaut Health and Emotional Fitness Stress Reduction and Countermeasure Effectiveness Before, During, and in Post-Flight Rehabilitation: a Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    health benefits (Sarkar and Deepak, 2009, 2011). However, there is no scientific evidence to support or dismiss the notion that Yoga postures...The benefits of regular Yoga practice continue to be documented. These activities will not cause pain or injury as long as they are learned and...physiological benefits that such complementary Yoga approaches provide, the significance of further investigation into the potential psychosomatic benefits

  3. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  4. PEOPLE/POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Astronautics Expert Honored Liu Jiyuan, a Chinese astronautics expert,was granted the Von Karman Award at the 62 nd International Astronautical Congress(IAC) held in Cape Town, South Africa, on October 3, 2011, by the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA).

  5. Study on real-time chiri-cal consmlfation during spaceflight carrying astronaut%载人航天试验任务中开展远程医疗保障探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凤丽; 陈宇行

    2005-01-01

    远程医疗(telemedicine)是指医学专家利用通信、传感、多媒体、远程控制等技术实现异地疾病诊断、治疗、健康护理、远程教学与指导等多种医学活动的医疗模式.随着现代微电子学、通信技术、计算机与网络技术,以及医学数字影像设备如CT、MRI、CR、DR和DSA的迅速发展,远程医疗技术日趋完善.特别是,近年来医学影像存档与通信系统(Picture Archiving and Communication System,PACS)的逐步实施,实现了医学影像全数字化采集、存储、处理与传输,为今后普及远程医疗奠定了基础[1].

  6. Second Unusual Guidebook to Terrestrial Field Work Studies: Astronauts with Roving Vehicle, Robotic Rovers on Planetary Surfaces (Seventh Concise Atlas in the Solar System Series of Textbooks at Eötvös University, Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, I.; Hargitai, H.; Horváth, A.; Kereszturi, A.; Sik, A.; Bérczi, Sz.

    2005-03-01

    Our new concise atlas of Solar System Environmental Studies shows a) Apollo's field works in lunar rock deserts, b) Lunokhod rovers' field works, c) Pathfinder's Sojourner's works around Sagan Station, and d) MER rovers' field works.

  7. Induction of Apoptosis of Raji Cell by Chimeric Anti-CD20 Fab′ Fragment CTAM Based Dynamic Analysis of Large Astronautical Structure%嵌合抗CD20 Fab′诱导Raji细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范冬梅; 赖增祖; 熊冬生; 许元富; 彭晖; 杨纯正

    2001-01-01

    为了研究嵌合抗CD20基因工程抗体Fab′的抗肿瘤活性及其抗肿瘤机制,利用3H掺入法测定嵌合抗CD20 Fab′对Raji细胞生长的影响,结果显示嵌合抗CD20 Fab′对Raji细胞的生长具有抑制作用,利用流式细胞仪测定嵌合抗CD20 Fab′诱导Raji细胞凋亡作用,结果显示嵌合抗CD20 Fab′可诱导Raji细胞凋亡作用.这些实验结果证明嵌合抗CD20 Fab′通过诱导Raji细胞凋亡的机制抑制Raji细胞生长.

  8. One Small Step for Creo Modelers, One Giant Leap for "Grey Beards": Using MBD Methodologies to Launch Astronauts and Hardware to Near-Earth Objects such as Asteroids, the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will focus on the modernization of design and engineering practices through the use of Model Based Definition methodology. By gathering important engineering data into one 3D digital data set, applying model annotations, and setting up model view states directly in the 3D CAD model, model-specific information can be published to Windchill and CreoView for use during the Design Review Process. This presentation will describe the methods that have been incorporated into the modeling.

  9. Novel Fabrication of Nano Device for Single DNA/Protein Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The health of the astronauts during space flight is critical to the success of NASA?s space program. Astronauts are exposed to tremendous environmental challenges,...

  10. A High Performance Approach to Minimizing Interactions between Inbound and Outbound Signals in Helmet Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a high performance approach to enhancing communications between astronauts. In the new generation of NASA audio systems for astronauts, inbound signals...

  11. Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    1 Chinese Journal of Aeronautics (CJA) is a comprehensive academic journal dealing with the fields of aeronautics and astronautics. The Journal is sponsored by the Chinese Society of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It is a bimonthly

  12. Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    1 Chinese Journal of Aeronautics (CJA) is a comprehensive academic journal dealing with the fields of aeronautics and astronautics. The Journal is sponsored by the Chinese Society of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It is a bimonthly journal in English,

  13. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  14. Eating in Space: Food for Thought. EG-2011-08-00005-SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Shearer, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the thousands of questions that need to be answered before astronauts travel to distant planets and asteroids are questions related to the astronauts themselves. How much food will they need and what foods can they take? We are fortunate on Earth to have an amazing variety of foods to eat. When astronauts do go to Mars and other…

  15. Space Flight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension: An Ophthalmic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Charles Robert; Mader, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although physiologic and pathologic changes associated with microgravity exposure have been studied extensively, the effect of this environment on the eye is largely unknown. Over the last several years, NASA s Space Medicine Division has documented astronauts presenting with varying degrees of disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, and hyperopic shifts after long-duration space flight. Methods: Before and after long-duration space flight, six astronauts underwent complete eye examinations to include cycloplegic and/or manifest refraction and fundus photography. Five of these astronauts had Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) performed following their missions. Results: Following exposure to space flight of approximately 6-months duration, six astronauts had neuro-ophthalmic findings. These consisted of disc edema in four astronauts, globe flattening in four astronauts, choroidal folds in four astronauts, cotton wool spots in three astronauts, nerve fiber layer thickening by OCT in five astronauts, and decreased near vision in five astronauts. Four of the astronauts with near vision complaints had a hyperopic shift equal to or greater than + 0.50D between pre- and post-mission spherical equivalent refraction in one or both eyes (range +0.50D to +1.50D). These same four had globe flattening by MRI. Conclusions: The findings we describe may have resulted from a rise in intracranial pressure caused by microgravity fluid shifts, and could represent parts of a spectrum of ocular and cerebral responses to extended microgravity.

  16. Career Excess Mortality Risk from Diagnostic Radiological Exams Required for Crewmembers Participating in Long Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C. W.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Picco, C. E.; Johnston, S. L.; Shavers, M. R.; VanBaalen, M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA requires astronauts to undergo diagnostic x-ray examinations as a condition for their employment. The purpose of these procedures is to assess the astronaut s overall health and to diagnose conditions that could jeopardize the success of long duration space missions. These include exams for acceptance into the astronaut corps, routine periodic exams, as well as evaluations taken pre and post missions. Issues: According to NASA policy these medical examinations are considered occupational radiological exposures, and thus, are included when computing the astronaut s overall radiation dose and associated excess cancer mortality risk. As such, astronauts and administrators are concerned about the amount of radiation received from these procedures due to the possibility that these additional doses may cause astronauts to exceed NASA s administrative limits, thus disqualifying them from future flights. Methods: Radiation doses and cancer mortality risks following required medical radiation exposures are presented herein for representative male and female astronaut careers. Calculation of the excess cancer mortality risk was performed by adapting NASA s operational risk assessment model. Averages for astronaut height, weight, number of space missions and age at selection into the astronaut corps were used as inputs to the NASA risk model. Conclusion: The results show that the level of excess cancer mortality imposed by all required medical procedures over an entire astronaut s career is approximately the same as that resulting from a single short duration space flight (i.e. space shuttle mission). In short the summation of all medical procedures involving ionizing radiation should have no impact on the number of missions an astronaut can fly over their career. Learning Objectives: 1. The types of diagnostic medical exams which astronauts are subjected to will be presented. 2. The level of radiation dose and excess mortality risk to the average male and female

  17. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  18. NASA Day at the Capitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut Rex Walheim (center) speaks to members of the Mississippi House of Representatives in chambers during NASA Day at the Capitol in Jackson on Feb. 19. Walheim was joined at the podium by members of the Mississippi House of Representatives Gulf Coast delegation, as well as Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (astronaut's immediate right) and NASA's Shared Services Center Director Rick Arbuthnot and Partners for Stennis Executive Director Tish Williams (astronaut's immediate left).

  19. The Value of Biomedical Simulation Environments to Future Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta,Lealem; Myers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Mars and NEO missions will expose astronaut to extended durations of reduced reduced gravity, isolation and higher radiation. These new operation conditions pose health risks that are not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. Advanced computational simulation environments can beneficially augment research to predict, assess and mitigate potential hazards to astronaut health. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP), within the NASA Human Research Program, strives to achieve this goal.

  20. Disney characters greet prime ASTP crewmen to Florida's Disney World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Two Walt Disney comic cartoon characters, Donald Duck and Pluto, were on hand to greet a group of Apollo-Soyuz Test Project crewmen on their arrival at Disney World near Orlando. From left, are interpreter K. S. Samofal, interpreter Nicholas Timacheff, Cosmonaut Vladimir A. Shatalov, Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov (squeezing Pluto's nose) and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford. The astronauts and cosmonauts were in Florida for a three-day inspection tour of the Kennedy Space Center where they looked over ASTP launch facilities and flight hardware.

  1. High Performance Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes a technology program for the development of an innovative photocatalytic oxidation reactor for the removal and mineralization of...

  2. Software Agents for Group Awareness and Inter-agent Conflict Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating robots for a variety of tasks in space, including astronaut transport, habitat construction, site survey, and robotic reconnaissance. These...

  3. Handheld FRET-Aptamer Sensor for Bone Markers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Astronauts lose significant bone mass during lengthy spaceflights. Although, no effective treatments or prophylactics have yet been defined, it is important to...

  4. Radiation Protection and Architecture Utilizing High Temperature Superconducting Magnets Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Human space exploration exposes astronauts to particularly hazardous environments unique from Earth-based hazards. A substantial risk for exploration beyond the...

  5. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Subsystem Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission conditions....

  6. Low-power, Confocal Imaging of Protein Localization in Living Cells (7215-010) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovative technology addresses the need to understand and develop countermeasures for the skeletal and cardiovascular changes to astronauts during...

  7. Single Electron Transistor Platform for Microgravity Proteomics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proteomic studies in microgravity are crucial to understanding the health effects of spaceflight on astronauts. Unfortunately, existing tools for measuring protein,...

  8. The ecology of micro-organisms in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L.

    1971-01-01

    Microorganisms under closed environmental ecological conditions with reference to astronauts infectious diseases, discussing bacteria growth in Biosatellite 2 and earth based closed chamber experiments

  9. Advanced Wastewater Photo-oxidation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes an advanced photocatalytic oxidation reactor for enhancing the reliability and performance of Water Recovery Post Processing systems...

  10. [Development of medical monitoring and support in the practice of manned space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-zhi

    2003-01-01

    The astronaut medical monitoring and support is an important part of space operational medicine. With the rapid development of the cause of China's manned space flight, the astronaut medical monitoring and support work has also made considerable progress since 1990s. Space operational medicine is responsible for the medical monitoring and support during astronaut selection and training as well as during the space flight. It's a severe challenge for mid-long term space flight to assure astronauts in sound body and mind and have good working capability. On the basis of the medical monitoring and support in short-term space flight, we should carry out the research of space operational medicine.

  11. CMOS-Based Neutron Spectroscopic Dosimeter (CNSD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monitoring space radiation and the dose received by astronauts is important, especially for future long-duration missions. Neutrons contribute a significant...

  12. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  13. Nanocomposite for Radiation Shielding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) program requires the need for materials that can protect astronauts and spacecrafts from ionizing radiations such as...

  14. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] CREW INSPECT SPACE SUITS DURING KSC TOUR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cosmonaut Training Chief Vladimir Shatalov [left, looking down] examines an Apollo spacesuit during a visit to KSC. With Shatalov are Astronaut Donald Slayton [center] and Cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov. The Apollo Soyuz Test Project astronauts and cosmonauts spent three days in the KSC area during which time they inspected equipment and facilities, toured the Center and visited Disney World.

  15. Liquid Cooled Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Astronauts working on the surface of the moon had to wear liquid-cooled garments under their space suits as protection from lunar temperatures which sometimes reach 250 degrees Fahrenheit. In community service projects conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center, the technology developed for astronaut needs has been adapted to portable cooling systems which will permit two youngsters to lead more normal lives.

  16. The Effects of Using Solar Radiation Pressure to Alleviate Fuel Requirements for Orbit Changing and Maintenance of the DSCS II F-13 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    of Aeronautics and Astronautics Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and...Space Operations Center ( SPOC ) and other space partners of all conjunctions associated with disposal operations. 5. Post Mission Disposal. Satellites... Education Series, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1987. 3. Betts J. T. “Optimal Interplanetary Orbit Transfers by Direct

  17. Blood and Oxidative Stress (BOS): Soyuz mission "Eneide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Adorni, Laura; Montorfano, Gigliola; Negroni, Manuela; Zava, Stefania; Berra, Bruno

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assay astronaut antioxidant status, to analyse red blood cell membrane composition of astronauts prior and after flight and to study the correlation with oxidative stress that erythrocytes have undergone due to space radiations. Results obtained from this single case study, indicate that during a short time flight, erythrocytes decrease their antioxidant defences, to counteract oxidative stress.

  18. UBC researcher's back-pain studies focus on space travel.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, M

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of British Columbia have been studying back pain that develops in astronauts in space. Their findings not only may help astronauts cope with future space travel, but also lead to new treatments for Earth-bound patients who experience back pain.

  19. Speech at the Inaugural Meeting of CDSET-CSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQingwei

    2004-01-01

    The inaugural meeting of the Committee of Deep Space Exploration Technology, Chinese Society of Astronautics (CDSET-CSA) was held in Beijing on June 15, 2004. Mr. Zhang Qingwei, President of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) and President of Chinese Society of Astronautics (CSA) attended the meeting and made an important speech. The following is the full text of the speech.

  20. 14 CFR 1214.1101 - Announcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Announcement. 1214.1101 Section 1214.1101 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1101 Announcement. (a) Astronaut candidate opportunities Will be announced nationwide and...

  1. 太空站如何造福地球人%How the Space Station Will Benefit Earthlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Duffy; 郭惠娟

    2003-01-01

    @@ Science, medicine, and education will get a boost, says a former astronaut. A board the International Space Station, astronauts, cosmonauts, and scientists from around the globe are collaborating1 on science that once was thought only to be fiction2. With new scientific tools at their fingertips, space station crews are working in many areas, including materials science, medicine, and Earth observation.

  2. Low Back Pain in Microgravity and Bed Rest Studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Belavy, D.L.; Hides, J.A; Richardson, C.A.; Snijders, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) for astronauts in space (68%) is higher than the 1-mo prevalence for the general population on Earth (39%). It is unclear whether differences occur between healthy subjects and astronauts with a history of LBP. Knowledge of this issue is imp

  3. Electrical Distribution System (EDS) and Caution and Warning System (CWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclung, T.

    1975-01-01

    An astronaut caution and warning system is described which monitors various life support system parameters and detects out-of-range parameter conditions. The warning system generates a warning tone and displays the malfunction condition to the astronaut along with the proper corrective procedures required.

  4. Counteracting Hypertension with weightlessness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsk, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Many of us have been told to lose weight to lower our blood pressure, but going weightless? Studies of astronauts show that gravity does contribute to cardiovascular stress......Many of us have been told to lose weight to lower our blood pressure, but going weightless? Studies of astronauts show that gravity does contribute to cardiovascular stress...

  5. 缤纷时事(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2007-01-01

    Astronaut finishes Boston Marathon floating on air 美国女宇航员在空间站完成太空马拉松 On April 16, the 41-year-old NASA astronaut Sunita Williams completed her version of the Boston Marathon on a treadmill(跑步机) at the international space station.

  6. Foundations of Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 3: Space Medicine and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M. (Editor); Gazenko, O. G. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The results of medical and biological research in space are presented. Specific topics discussed include: methods of providing life support systems for astronauts, characteristics of integrated life support systems, protection against adverse factors of space flight, selection and training of astronauts, and future space biomedical research.

  7. A View from out of this world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>What would it be like to have a view from out of this world? To the Astronauts on the Space Shuttle Endeavor this is just like another day at the office. Astronauts tell us that nothing can really prepare you for your first experience of space"we will ensure that you

  8. Official portrait of STS-47 Mission Specialist Mae C. Jemison in LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Official portrait of STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Spacelab Japan (SL-J) Mission Specialist Mae C. Jemison wearing launch entry suit (LES) and holding helmet. Jemison is an M.D., a 1987 astronaut candidate, and member of Astronaut Class 12.

  9. Mission Overview STS-107: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences.

  10. Low Back Pain in Microgravity and Bed Rest Studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Belavy, D.L.; Hides, J.A; Richardson, C.A.; Snijders, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBACKGROUND:The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) for astronauts in space (68%) is higher than the 1-mo prevalence for the general population on Earth (39%). It is unclear whether differences occur between healthy subjects and astronauts with a history of LBP. Knowledge of this issue is impor

  11. Cuestiones jurídicas relacionadas con el estatuto jurídico del astronauta en el marco de las Naciones Unidas y de la Estación espacial internacional.

    OpenAIRE

    María Orozco Sáenz

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of United Nations legal instruments, as far as astronauts are concerned as well as other legal instruments concerning the International Space Station. Legal comparison with other juridical figures such as crew members or space tourists taking into the account the later do not have the necessary requirement for being considered from a legal point of view astronauts.

  12. Cuestiones jurídicas relacionadas con el estatuto jurídico del astronauta en el marco de las Naciones Unidas y de la Estación espacial internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Orozco Sáenz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of United Nations legal instruments, as far as astronauts are concerned as well as other legal instruments concerning the International Space Station. Legal comparison with other juridical figures such as crew members or space tourists taking into the account the later do not have the necessary requirement for being considered from a legal point of view astronauts.

  13. CERN celebrated the first year in space for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) with a visit from the crew of the shuttle mission, STS-134, who successfully delivered AMS to the International Space Station (ISS) last year.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    During the celebrations at CERN, the astronauts unveiled a commemorative plaque on the lawn outside the POCC to mark the occasion and later gave a public lecture at CERN. Picture 28 : STS-134 astronauts (left to right) Andrew Feustel, Gregory Chamitoff, Gregory Johnson, Michael Fincke and Mark Kelly in the AMS Payload Operations Centre at CERN.

  14. Simulated Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese astronaut trainer is selected for an endurance trial to prepare humans for a real landing on the Red Planet on June 3, 27-year-old Chinese astronaut trainer Wang Yue walked into a mock spaceship at a Moscow research institute with

  15. Control of red blood cell mass during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Alfrey, C. P.; Driscoll, T. B.; Smith, S. M.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1996-01-01

    Data are reviewed from twenty-two astronauts from seven space missions in a study of red blood cell mass. The data show that decreased red cell mass in all astronauts exposed to space for more than nine days, although the actual dynamics of mass changes varies with flight duration. Possible mechanisms for these changes, including alterations in erythropoietin levels, are discussed.

  16. Group 13 1990 ASCAN Ochoa talks to NASA staff pilot during T-38A training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Astronaut candidate (ASCAN) Ellen Ochoa reviews T-38A flight procedures with a NASA staff pilot while standing on an Ellington Field runway. Later, Ochoa, along with classmates from the Group 13 1990 Astronaut class, took a T-38A familiarization flight. Ellington Field is located near JSC.

  17. Space memoirs: Value hierarchies before and after missions—A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to provide a quantitative content analysis of how the completion of space missions affects the value hierarchies of people in the space program. The autobiographies of two high-level NASA administrators, three female astronauts, and seven male astronauts were scored for indicators of four values: Achievement, Enjoyment, Benevolence, and Transcendence. Achievement was very high in the hierarchies of all three groups before they had mission experience, and remained high afterwards except among the female astronauts. Administrators showed essentially no pre-post mission value change; among astronauts of both sexes, Transcendence (a combination of Spirituality and Universality) rose dramatically in the hierarchy after spaceflight. The findings, if upheld after the inclusion of more subjects, have important implications for the post-NASA lives of astronauts and for their families, friends, and colleagues.

  18. Nobel Road and Self-Governance of Common-Pool Resources——Professor Ostrom's Speech and Q&A Discussions at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics%诺贝尔之路和共用资源的自治之道——埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆在北京航空航天大学的演讲与问答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆; 杨立华; 徐超; 郑薇; 鲁春晓

    2011-01-01

    与解决集体行动困境问题的私有化和政府模型不同,埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆开创性地提出了解决集体行动困境的第三条道路--自主治理,并进一步发展了多中心治理理论.在简要回顾有关集体行动问题研究背景的基础上,翻译整理了2011年5月9日埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆在"北航大讲堂"的主要演讲与问答内容.这些内容不仅涵盖了对其诺贝尔之路的探讨,对其学术研究思路和方法的分析,而且通过对公共交通、中国改革、官僚制的交易成本、内蒙古草原管理、多中心治理和集权传统的矛盾、制度多样化、提高私人生活水平和环境保护之间的矛盾、异质性在自治系统中的价值等具体问题的互动讨论,探讨了她自治和多中心治理学说的理论和应用问题.

  19. Biomedical Results of ISS Expeditions 1-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer; Sams, Clarence F.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on biomedical data from International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 1-12 is shown. The topics include: 1) ISS Expeditions 1-12; 2) Biomedical Data; 3) Physiological Assessments; 4) Bone Mineral Density; 5) Bone Mineral Density Recovery; 6) Orthostatic Tolerance; 7) Postural Stability Set of Sensory Organ Test 6; 8) Performance Assessment; 9) Aerobic Capacity of the Astronaut Corps; 10) Pre-flight Aerobic Fitness of ISS Astronauts; 11) In-flight and Post-flight Aerobic Capacity of the Astronaut Corps; and 12) ISS Functional Fitness Expeditions 1-12.

  20. Students build glovebox at Space Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Students in the Young Astronaut Program at the Coca-Cola Space Science Center in Columbus, GA, constructed gloveboxes using the new NASA Student Glovebox Education Guide. The young astronauts used cardboard copier paper boxes as the heart of the glovebox. The paper boxes transformed into gloveboxes when the students pasted poster-pictures of an actual NASA microgravity science glovebox inside and outside of the paper boxes. The young astronauts then added holes for gloves and removable transparent top covers, which completed the construction of the gloveboxes. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  1. Experiment M-131 - Human vestibular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. F., II; Graybiel, A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the M-131 experiment is to measure responses in astronauts throughout orbital flight that reflect vestibular function and compare them with measurements made before and after flight. Three subtasks require measurement of (1) susceptibility to motion sickness, (2) thresholds of response to stimulation of the semicircular canals, and (3) space perception, viz, visual and nonvisual localization, using external spacecraft and internal morphological frames of reference. Four astronauts will be available for all measurements in Skylab 2 and 3 and two additional astronauts for only the 'static' measurements during the flights.

  2. Apollo 15 Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The fifth marned lunar landing mission, Apollo 15 (SA-510), carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission commander David R. Scott, Lunar Module pilot James B. Irwin, and Command Module pilot Alfred M. Worden Jr., lifted off on July 26, 1971. Astronauts Scott and Irwin were the first to use a wheeled surface vehicle, the Lunar Roving Vehicle, or the Rover, which was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, and built by the Boeing Company. Astronauts spent 13 days, nearly 67 hours, on the Moon's surface to inspect a wide variety of its geological features.

  3. NASA's First Atrial Fibrillation Case - Deke Slayton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about heart dysrhythmia have been present since the earliest days of the US manned space program. While information about an astronaut's health is general kept private, one of the original seven American astronaut's health status was played out in a very public forum. Donald "Deke" Slayton was removed from the second manned space flight when it was discovered he had idiopathic atrial fibrillation. Referencing the original medical documents, details of how this was discovered and managed from the medical perspective will be reviewed. This is NASA's first heart dysrhythmia case in an astronaut and it proves quite interesting when placed in historic perspective.

  4. NASCA Report 2: Longitudinal Study of Relationship of Exposure to Space Radiation and Risk of Lens Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, Leon T., Jr.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Tung, William H.; Wear, Mary L.; Marak, Lisa J.; Hardy, Dale S.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) was a five-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear (N), cortical (C), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. It began in 2003 and was completed in December, 2009. Participants included 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space, and comparison subjects consisted of three groups, a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and c) 99 non-aircrew, ground-based subjects.

  5. Thyroid Function Changes Related to Use of Iodinated Water in United States Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Dunn, John T.; Stanbury, John B.; Wear, Mary L.; Hamm, Peggy B.; Sauer, Richard L.; Billica, Roger D.; Pool, Sam L.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used iodination as a method of microbial disinfection of potable water systems in United States spacecraft and long-duration habitability modules. A review of the effects on the thyroid following consumption o iodinated water by NASA astronauts was conducted. Pharmacological doses of iodine consumed by astronauts transiently decreased thyroid function, as reflected in serum TSH values. Although the adverse effects of excess iodine consumption in susceptible individuals are well documented, exposure to high doses of iodine during space flight did not result in a statistically significant increase in long-term thyroid disease in the astronaut population.

  6. Continuity and Change in Family's Role in Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phyllis

    As long-duration missions become commonplace, it will be important to consider the effect of the astronaut's career on his/her family, and the role of family in supporting that career. In the short history of the space program, archival information about three long-duration programs- Skylab, Shuttle-Mir, and the International Space Station—-provides valuable information about the astronauts' adjustment to increasingly longer times in space. These sources potentially include the astronaut's views about the role of family in that adjustment. The purpose of this paper is to present a qualitative analysis of the astronauts' views about the role family played in his/her career, as well as the effect of the astronaut career on his/her family. Specifically, what roles did family play, e.g., being there at important events, accepting the importance of the astronaut career? How did astronauts view the effects of separation, risks, and publicity on their family? How much did astronauts emphasize dealing with separation through communication with family? How consistent have astronauts' views remained over the three types of missions which have spanned from 1973 to today? The data base for this qualitative study is the Johnson Space Center oral histories for astronauts who participated in Skylab or Shuttle-Mir, and the Johnson Space Center archives of ISS mission journals and logs, and pre-flight interviews with ISS astronauts. Male astronauts are the main focus of the change-over-time information as only one woman participated in Shuttle- Mir and no women were in the Skylab program. However, qualitative data will be presented about female astronauts on ISS and on Shuttle-Mir for some comparative information by sex for those programs. Skylab preliminary findings: Having a wife and parents who were supportive made all of the difference in the astronaut career. It would not have been possible to maintain some semblance of family life without the wife's managing it. Private

  7. Real Time Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to predict the occurrence and magnitude of solar particle events (coronal mass ejections and solar flares) has been elusive so exposure of astronauts and...

  8. Innovative EVA Glove Exoskeleton Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dexterous performance degradation resulting from donning an extra-vehicular activity (EVA) glove limits the capability of astronauts to perform certain tasks in...

  9. An Electrochemical, Point-of-Care Detector for Reagent-free, In-situ Diagnostics of Pathogens Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For long-term exploratory space travel, there will be a critical need for in-situ diagnosis and assessment of biological specimens from symptomatic astronauts,...

  10. Parallel Detection of Multiple Biomarkers During Spaceflight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maintaining the health of astronauts during extended spaceflight is critical to the success of the mission. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) proposes an...

  11. An overview of Korean astronaut’s space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Kang, S. W.; Choi, G. H.; Sim, E. S.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents an overview of the scientific space experiments in the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) that were conducted on the International Space Station (ISS), beginning with launch of the Soyuz TMA-12 spacecraft with the first Korean astronaut and two Russian astronauts on April 8, 2008 and returning to Earth on April 19, 2008. During the 10 days aboard the ISS, the Korean astronaut successfully completed thirteen scientific experiments in biology, life science, material science, earth science, and system engineering, five educational space experiments, and three kinds of international collaboration experiments. These experiments were the first Korean manned space experiments and these missions were the first steps toward the manned space exploration by Korea. In this paper, we briefly discuss the descriptions, conduct, and results of the space experiments and discuss future plans. In addition, the lessons learned with respect to the performing of these manned space experiments on the ISS are presented.

  12. The Rhetoric of "The Right Stuff."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charles S.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the themes used in "The Right Stuff," Tom Wolfe's story of the seven astronauts in the Mercury program. Reviews Wolfe's rhetorical and literary techniques used to enlarge reality and create a heroic mode. (DMM)

  13. In Situ Training of Robonaut for In-Space Assembly, Maintenance and Servicing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed FieldTrainer control system is to enable astronauts to teach Robonaut on-orbit how to perform new complex tasks using EVA tools. Employing a...

  14. ADIS-type Charged Particle Spectrometer for Manned Space Radiation Dosimetry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As manned missions to the moon and eventually Mars gain momentum, astronaut crews will be sent back to the deepest parts of space humans have ever traveled, and will...

  15. Cosmic rays score direct hits with Apollo crew

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 14 astronauts conduted experiments during the spaceflight to help scientists to understand why previous crews have seen flashes of light during missions, believed to be caused by cosmic rays (1 page).

  16. Portable Sensor for Rapid In Situ Measurement of Trace Toxic Metals in Water Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water is one of the most crucial provisions that astronauts need to live and work in space, whether orbiting Earth, working at a lunar base or traveling to Mars. For...

  17. A Coupled System for Assessing the Threat of Solar Energetic Particle Events Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar Particle Events (SPEs) represent a major hazard for extravehicular maneuvers by astronauts in Earth orbit, and for eventual manned interplanetary space travel....

  18. Intelligent Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The autonomous systems (AS) project, led by NASA Ames, is developing software for system operation automation. AS technology will help astronauts make more decisions...

  19. Novel Ultrasound Assessment of Dynamic Muscle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maintenance of the musculoskeletal system is of crucial importance for mobility of astronauts during long-duration missions and upon return to 1-G. However,...

  20. Pilot Field Test: Performance of a Sit-to-Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; May-Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. U.; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from the International Space Station (ISS) are met by a team of recovery personnel who typically provide physical assistance and medical support immediately after landing. This assistance and support are provided because long-duration spaceflight greatly affects astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond low Earth orbit, however, will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration-class missions. A joint US/Russian Pilot Field Test (PFT) study conducted with participation of crewmembers of ISS Expeditions 35-42 comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. Sit-to-Stand (S2S) was the first task in the PFT battery.

  1. A Compact, Light-weight, Reliable and Highly Efficient Heat Pump for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Extra-vehicular activities (EVA) on the Moon and Mars will require suits with sophisticated thermal control systems allowing astronauts to work for extended periods...

  2. Pilot Field Test: Recovery from a Simulated Fall and Quiet Stance Stability After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from the International Space Station (ISS) are met by a team of recovery personnel typically providing physical assistance and medical support immediately upon landing. That is because long-duration spaceflight impacts astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond the low Earth orbit, however, may require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration class missions. Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond.

  3. Conformal Space Suit Antenna Development for Enhanced EVA Communications and Wearable Computer Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA prepares for future space missions and the return to the moon by 2020, astronauts will be required to spend more time exposed to the hazards of performing...

  4. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Continuous Electrochemical Gas Separator (CEGS) Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Life support systems on human spacecraft are designed to provide a safe, habitable environment for the astronauts, and one of the most significant challenges is...

  5. KC-135 Operations Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The KC-135 Low-G Flight Research aircraft (a predecessor of the Boeing 707) is used to fly parabolas to create 20-25 seconds of weightlessness so that the astronauts...

  6. Apollo Surface Panoramas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Apollo Surface Panoramas is a digital library of photographic panoramas that the Apollo astronauts took while exploring the Moon's surface. These images provide a...

  7. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium is to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon....

  8. Planetary Protection Considerations for Human And Robotic Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogul, R.; Stabekis, P. D.; Race, M. S.; Conley, C. A.

    2012-06-01

    Incorporating planetary protection into human missions, as supported by NASA Policy Directive NPD 8020.7G, is essential to preventing the forward contamination of Mars, ensuring astronaut health, and preventing backward contamination of Earth.

  9. Advances in Time-Domain Electromagnetic Simulation Capabilities Through the Use of Overset Grids and Massively Parallel Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    COMPUTING Douglas C. Blake Captain, USAF Approved: THOMAA . BUYER, Research Advisor Major, USAF Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering...N um erical Investigation ........................................................ 5-8 5.3.1 M ethodology

  10. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Superbug in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... words, the astronauts' tests are designed to yield insights about how and why MRSA resists antibiotics on ... Diseases (NIAID)/Flickr About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  11. Nanotube Electrodes for Dust Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dust mitigation is critical to the survivability of vehicle and infrastructure components and systems and to the safety of astronauts during EVAs and planetary...

  12. Oh, What a Pane! An Inquiry Based on Activity with a Mathematical Approach to Investigation Windows on Earth...and in Space. Teacher Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marshalyn; Mailhot, Michele; Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2010-01-01

    This is a teacher's guide to assist teachers in developing modules on windows for use in both earth and space and astronaut photographs. Activities incorporating mathematical exercises are suggested for grades five through ten.

  13. New class of biological radioprotectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space radiation is the major risk to the astronauts outside the Earth magnetosphere that cannot be eliminated by the existing radioprotectors. The ultimate goal of...

  14. An Advanced Rapid Cycling CO2 and H2O Control System for PLSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's planned future missions set stringent demands on the design of the Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS) used to cool the astronaut and provide them with air....

  15. On-Command Exoskeleton for Countermeasure Microgravity Effects on Muscles and Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Mavroidis, C.; Unluhisarcikh, O.; Pietrusinski, M.; Rajulu, S.; Berka, R.; Cowley, M.

    2012-06-01

    On-command exoskeleton with impeding and augmenting elements would support the operation of astronauts traveling to Mars. Thus, countermeasure deleterious effects on the muscles and bones during travel and assist their physical activity on Mars.

  16. Spaceflight Dietary Intake ? there?s (soon) an App for that! Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All aspects of nutrition are critical for crew health and optimal performance. Maintaining body, muscle, and bone mass are key challenges for astronauts, as are...

  17. SpaceX rocket fuel plan under scrutiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-12-01

    NASA's International Space Station advisory committee has raised concerns about SpaceX's plans to fuel rockets that are used to ferry astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) while the crew is onboard.

  18. Functional Task Test: Data Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita

    2014-01-01

    After space flight there are changes in multiple physiological systems including: Cardiovascular function; Sensorimotor function; and Muscle function. How do changes in these physiological system impact astronaut functional performance?

  19. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  20. Using an Informative Missing Data Model to Predict the Ability to Assess Recovery of Balance Control after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Wood, Scott J.; Jain, Varsha

    2008-01-01

    Astronauts show degraded balance control immediately after spaceflight. To assess this change, astronauts' ability to maintain a fixed stance under several challenging stimuli on a movable platform is quantified by "equilibrium" scores (EQs) on a scale of 0 to 100, where 100 represents perfect control (sway angle of 0) and 0 represents data loss where no sway angle is observed because the subject has to be restrained from falling. By comparing post- to pre-flight EQs for actual astronauts vs. controls, we built a classifier for deciding when an astronaut has recovered. Future diagnostic performance depends both on the sampling distribution of the classifier as well as the distribution of its input data. Taking this into consideration, we constructed a predictive ROC by simulation after modeling P(EQ = 0) in terms of a latent EQ-like beta-distributed random variable with random effects.

  1. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space exploration has the potential to be...

  2. Lightweight, Wearable Metal Rubber-Textile Sensor for In-Situ Lunar Autonomous Health Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase II SBIR program would develop comfortable garments with multiple integrated sensor functions for the monitoring of astronauts during long duration...

  3. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) is a specialized spacesuit designed to keep astronauts healthy during long-duration space exploration missions and...

  4. Coupled Human-Space Suit Mobility Studies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space suit is arguably the most intimate piece of space flight hardware yet we know surprisingly little about the interactions between the astronaut and this...

  5. Conformal Space Suit Antenna Development for Enhanced EVA Communications and Wearable Computer Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA prepares for the Constellation Space Missions and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) on the moon by 2018, astronauts will be required to spend more time exposed...

  6. Carpenter in White Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Inside Hangar S at the White Room Facility at Cape Canaveral, Florida, Mercury astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead (heat shield) of his Mercury capsule nicknamed 'Aurora 7.'

  7. Plaadid / Tiit Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Tiit

    2004-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Van Halen "The Best Of Both Worlds", Lars Danielsson "Libera Me", The Verve "This Is Music", Massive Attack "Danny The Dog", Duran Duran "Astronaut", Macy Gray "The Very Best Of"

  8. Gecko inspired adhesives for enhanced dexterity of robotic manipulation systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Valuable time is spent by astronauts performing simple, mundane, or ergonomically taxing tasks. Therefore, one center of focus for NASA is to have robots...

  9. Shape Memory Bio-Suit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacesuit systems for planetary EVAs must maximize human productivity and provide the astronaut with the capability to perform useful work tasks. Mide plans to work...

  10. CogGauge Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cog-Gauge is a portable hand-held game that can be used by astronauts and crew members during space exploration missions to assess their cognitive workload...

  11. Handheld CAT Video Game Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is to design, develop and fabricate a handheld video game console for astronauts during long space flight. This portable hardware runs...

  12. Kosmiline eksimus : Vene kapsel kukkus alla vales kohas / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Vene kosmoseaparaat laskus Kasahstanis kavandatud kohast 420 kilomeetri kaugusele, kuid korealasest teadlane Yi So-yeon, ameeriklasest astronaut Peggy A. Whitson ja venelasest pardainsener Juri Malantshenko pääsesid eluga

  13. virgin galactic explores cern SIR RICHARD BRANSON AND VIRGIN GALACTIC PARTICIPANTS ON THEIR FAVOURITE THINGS ABOUT VISITING CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Virgin Galactic visited CERN with a group of future astronauts and Sir Richard Branson. During their visit the group was shown around various experiments, including the Globe, SM18, AMS and the CERN Control Centre.

  14. Virgin Galactic explores CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Virgin Galactic visited CERN with a group of future astronauts and Sir Richard Branson. During their visit the group was shown around various experiments, including the Globe, SM18, AMS and the CERN Control Centre.

  15. Lunar Health Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  16. CogGauge (A Cognitive Assessment Tool) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cognitive Gauge (CogGauge) tool aims to develop a portable gaming application that assesses cognitive state of astronaut crew members with the goal of...

  17. RadFlexPro Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposed multilayered, flexible, graded Z radiation shielding, RadFlexPro, provides radiation protection for astronauts in EVA for NASA's future space missions....

  18. KSC-03PD-2853

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Astronaut Barry E. Wilmore (left) and Center Director Jim Kennedy pose for a photo after Wilmore presented Kennedy with a special award for Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day.

  19. Superior Speech Acquisition and Robust Automatic Speech Recognition for Integrated Spacesuit Audio Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Astronauts suffer from poor dexterity of their hands due to the clumsy spacesuit gloves during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations and NASA has had a widely...

  20. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...