WorldWideScience

Sample records for astronautics

  1. Astronaut Virgil Grissom and Astronaut John Glenn

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil Grissom chats with Astronaut John Glenn prior to entering the Liberty Bell 7 capsule for the MR-4 Mission. The MR-4 mission was the second manned suborbital flight using the Mercury-Redstone booster, which was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  2. Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. 'Gus' Grissom, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MR-4 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, made the second marned suborbital flight. The capsule, Liberty Bell 7, sank into the sea after the splashdown.

  3. Astronauts under high supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEA radiobiology and radio-pathology laboratory, together with the CNES (the French space agency), have carried out Biodose, a study on the Mir space station astronauts, which objective was to study the processes and mechanisms of the chromosomal damages induced by cosmic radiations, through physical and biological dosimetric experiments. Results are summarized, which show the unusual nature of the chromosomal abnormalities due to heavy ions

  4. Astronaut Virgil Grissom with Astronaut Walter Schirra in ready room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom (right), the command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 three-orbit mission, is shown with Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr., in the ready room at Pad 16. The GT-3 was launched from Pad 19 the same day. Schirra was the command pilot of the backup crew.

  5. Astronauts For Hire The Emergence of a Commercial Astronaut Corps

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The spaceflight industry is being revolutionized. It is no longer the sole preserve of professional astronauts working on government-funded manned spaceflight programs. As private companies are being encouraged to build and operate launch vehicles, and even spacecraft that can be hired on a contract basis, a new breed of astronauts is coming into being. Astronauts for Hire describes how this commercial astronaut corps will be selected and trained. It provides a unique insight into the kinds of missions and tasks that the astronauts will be involved in, from suborbital science missions to commercial trips to low Earth orbit. The book also describes the new fleet of commercial spaceships being developed - reusable rocket-propelled vehicles that will offer quick, routine, and affordable access to the edge of space. The author also explores the possibility of private enterprise establishing interplanetary spaceports, lunar bases, and outposts on the surface of Mars.

  6. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  7. Dose limits for astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, W. K.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits.

  8. Astronauts Working in Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie captures astronaut Jan Davis and her fellow crew members working in the Spacelab, a versatile laboratory carried in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay for special research flights. Its various elements can be combined to accommodate the many types of scientific research that can best be performed in space. Spacelab consisted of an enclosed, pressurized laboratory module and open U-shaped pallets located at the rear of the laboratory module. The laboratory module contained utilities, computers, work benches, and instrument racks to conduct scientific experiments in astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and engineering. Equipment, such as telescopes, antennas, and sensors, is mounted on pallets for direct exposure to space. A 1-meter (3.3-ft.) diameter aluminum tunnel, resembling a z-shaped tube, connected the crew compartment (mid deck) to the module. The reusable Spacelab allowed scientists to bring experiment samples back to Earth for post-flight analysis. Spacelab was a cooperative venture of the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA. ESA was responsible for funding, developing, and building Spacelab, while NASA was responsible for the launch and operational use of Spacelab. Spacelab missions were cooperative efforts between scientists and engineers from around the world. Teams from NASA centers, universities, private industry, government agencies and international space organizations designed the experiments. The Marshall Space Flight Center was NASA's lead center for monitoring the development of Spacelab and managing the program.

  9. Astronautics summary and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Anatoly Ivanovich; Menshikov, Valery Alexandrovich

    2003-01-01

    The monograph by A.I.Kiselev, A.A. Medvedev and Y.A.Menshikov, Astronautics: Summary and Prospects, aroused enthusiasm both among experts and the public at large. This is due to the felicitous choice of presentation that combines a simple description of complex space matters with scientificsubstantiation of the sub­ jectmatter described. The wealth of color photos makes the book still more attractive, and it was nominated for an award at the 14th International Moscow Book Fair, being singled out as the "best publication of the book fair". The book's popularity led to a second edition, substantially revised and enlarged. Since the first edition did not sufficiently cover the issues of space impact on ecology and the prospective development of space systems, the authors revised the entire volume, including in it the chapter "Space activity and ecology" and the section "Multi-function space systems". Using the federal monitoring system, now in the phase of system engi­ neering, as an example, the authors consi...

  10. Philosophy on astronaut protection: Perspective of an astronaut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are significant differences in the risks during the launch of a spacecraft, its journey, and its subsequent return to earth, as contrasted to the risks of latent cancers that may develop as a result of the associated radiation exposures. Once the spacecraft has landed, following a successful mission, the risks of accidental death are over. The risks of latent cancers, however, will remain with the astronauts for the rest of their lives. The same may be true for many of the effects of the space environment, including microgravity. Compounding the problem with respect to radiation are the large uncertainties accompanying the estimates of the associated latent cancer risks. In addition to radiation doses received as a result of being exposed in space, astronauts have received significant does of radiation in conjunction with medical examinations and experiments conducted to obtain data on the effects of the space environment on humans. The experiments were considered to be a part of the 'job' of being an astronaut, and the resulting doses were included in the medical records. Following this approach, the accompanying doses were counted against the career limits being imposed on each astronaut. As a result, volunteering for such experiments could cause an earlier termination of the career of an astronaut than would otherwise have occurred and add to the total radiation exposure, thereby increasing one's risk of subsequent illness. Through cooperative efforts, these does have been significantly reduced in recent years. In fact, one of the outcomes of these efforts has been the incorporation of the ALARA concept into the radiation protection program for the astronauts. The fact that a space mission has a range of risks, including some that are relatively large, is no justification for failing to reduce the accompanying radiation risk

  11. Philosophy on astronaut protection: Perspective of an astronaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.

    1997-04-30

    There are significant differences in the risks during the launch of a spacecraft, its journey, and its subsequent return to earth, as contrasted to the risks of latent cancers that may develop as a result of the associated radiation exposures. Once the spacecraft has landed, following a successful mission, the risks of accidental death are over. The risks of latent cancers, however, will remain with the astronauts for the rest of their lives. The same may be true for many of the effects of the space environment, including microgravity. Compounding the problem with respect to radiation are the large uncertainties accompanying the estimates of the associated latent cancer risks. In addition to radiation doses received as a result of being exposed in space, astronauts have received significant does of radiation in conjunction with medical examinations and experiments conducted to obtain data on the effects of the space environment on humans. The experiments were considered to be a part of the {open_quotes}job{close_quotes} of being an astronaut, and the resulting doses were included in the medical records. Following this approach, the accompanying doses were counted against the career limits being imposed on each astronaut. As a result, volunteering for such experiments could cause an earlier termination of the career of an astronaut than would otherwise have occurred and add to the total radiation exposure, thereby increasing one`s risk of subsequent illness. Through cooperative efforts, these does have been significantly reduced in recent years. In fact, one of the outcomes of these efforts has been the incorporation of the ALARA concept into the radiation protection program for the astronauts. The fact that a space mission has a range of risks, including some that are relatively large, is no justification for failing to reduce the accompanying radiation risk.

  12. Liquid pump for astronaut cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo portable life support system water-recirculation pump used for astronaut cooling is described. The problems associated with an early centrifugal pump and how these problems were overcome by the use of a new diaphragm pump are discussed. Performance comparisons of the two pump designs are given. Developmental problems and flight results with the diaphragm pump are discussed.

  13. Astronaut Virgil Grissom preparing for centrifuge training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom, wearing the new Mercury pressure suit, is preparing for centrifuge training. He is talking with Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper and two others before the training session.

  14. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  15. Pharmacologic considerations for Shuttle astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Medication usage by crewmembers in the preflight and inflight mission periods is common in the Shuttle Program. The most common medical reports for which medication is used are: space motion sickness (SMS), sleeplessness, headache, and backache. A number of medications are available in the Shuttle Medical Kit to treat these problems. Currently, astronauts test all frequently used medications before mission assignment to identify potential side-effects, problems related to performance, personal likes/dislikes, and individual therapeutic effect. However, microgravity-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics, in combination with multiple operational factors, may significantly alter crewmember responses inflight. This article discusses those factors that may impact pharmacologic efficacy during Shuttle missions.

  16. Shoulder Injury Incidence Rates in NASA Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the astronaut shoulder injury rates began with an operational concern at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training. An astronaut suffered a shoulder injury during an NBL training run and commented that it was possibly due to a hardware issue. During the subsequent investigation, questions arose regarding the rate of shoulder injuries in recent years and over the entire history of the astronaut corps.

  17. Astronaut Virgil Grissom Entering Liberty Bell 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Assisted by Astronaut John Glenn, Astronaut Virgil Grissom enters the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, for the MR-4 mission on July 21, 1961. Boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, the MR-4 mission was the second manned suborbital flight.

  18. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  19. Colonoscopy Screening in the US Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterova, K.; Van Baalen, M.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J.; Schaefer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, colonoscopy screenings for astronauts have been conducted to ensure that astronauts are in good health for space missions. This data has been identified as being useful for determining appropriate occupational surveillance targets and requirements. Colonoscopies in the astronaut corps can be used for: (a) Assessing overall colon health, (b) A point of reference for future tests in current and former astronauts, (c) Following-up and tracking rates of colorectal cancer and polyps; and (d) Comparison to military and other terrestrial populations. In 2003, medical screening requirements for the active astronaut corps changed to require less frequent colonoscopies. Polyp removal during a colonoscopy is an intervention that prevents the polyp from potentially developing into cancer and decreases the individual's risk for colon cancer.

  20. Astronautical Hygiene - A New Discipline to Protect the Health of Astronauts Working in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, J. R.

    This paper outlines the rationale for a new scientific discipline namely astronautical hygiene. Astronautical hygiene is an applied science that utilises a knowledge of space toxicology, space medicine, astronautics, occupational hygiene etc. to identify the hazards, assess the exposure risks to health, and thereby determine the measures to mitigate exposure to protect the health of astronauts during living and working in space. This paper describes the nature of the hazards (i.e. physical, chemical, microbial and psychological) encountered during space flight. It discusses exposure risk assessment and the use of sampling techniques to assess astronaut health risks. This paper then discusses the measures used to mitigate exposure to the exposure hazards during space exploration. A case study of the application of the principles of astronautical hygiene to control lunar dust exposure is then described.

  1. Astronaut Virgil Grissom during water egress training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom, wearing the new Mercury Space Suit, stands outside of a mock-up of the Mercury capsule on the deck of a ship taking him to emergency water egress training activities.

  2. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  3. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  4. Noise in space. [effect on Skylab astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, W. P.; Baratono, J.; Bandgren, H.; Erwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab program presented an excellent opportunity to investigate the effects of noise on man confined in limited space for long periods of time. This paper summarizes the results of a 4-year study to achieve a habitable noise environment for the Skylab astronauts. Noise control measures are described and noise measurements obtained during the Skylab missions are presented, as well as the astronauts' reactions to and evaluations of the noise environment.

  5. NASA Astronaut Selection 2009: Behavioral Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A. W.; Sipes, W.; Beven, G.; Schmidt, L.; Slack, K.; Seaton, K.; Moomaw, R.; VanderArk, S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's multi-phase U.S. astronaut selection process seeks to identify the most qualified astronaut candidates from a large number of applicants. With the approaching retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA focused on selecting those individuals who were most suited to the unique demands of long-duration spaceflight. In total, NASA received 3,535 applications for the 2009 astronaut selection cycle. Of these, 123 were invited to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) for Round 1 initial screening and interviews, which consisted of an Astronaut Selection Board (ASB) preliminary interview, medical review, and psychological testing. Of these, 48 individuals were invited to return for Round 2. This round consisted of medical testing, further behavioral assessments, and a second ASB interview. Following this, nine astronaut candidates (ASCANs) were ultimately chosen to go forward to basic training. The contents, benefits, and lessons learned from implementing this phased process will be discussed. The lessons learned can benefit the future selection of space flyers, whether they are NASA or commercial. Learning Objective: 1) Familiarization with the 2009 NASA behavioral screening process for astronaut applicants.

  6. NASA Astronaut Occupational Surveillance Program and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, LSAH, Astronaut Exposures and Risk in the Terrestrial and Spaceflight Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keprta, Sean R.; Tarver, William; Van Baalen, Mary; McCoy, Torin

    2015-01-01

    United States Astronauts have a very unique occupational exposure profile. In order to understand these risks and properly address them, the National Aeronautics and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, originally created the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, LSAH. The first LSAH was designed to address a variety of needs regarding astronaut health and included a 3 to 1 terrestrial control population in order to compare United States "earth normal" disease and aging to that of a microgravity exposed astronaut. Over the years that program has been modified, now termed Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, still LSAH. Astronaut spaceflight exposures have also changed, with the move from short duration shuttle flights to long duration stays on international space station and considerable terrestrial training activities. This new LSAH incorporates more of an occupational health and medicine model to the study of occupationally exposed astronauts. The presentation outlines the baseline exposures and monitoring of the astronaut population to exposures, both terrestrial, and in space.

  7. Safeguarding the Health of the NASA Astronaut Community: the Need for Expanded Medical Monitoring for Former NASA Astronauts Under the Astronaut Occupational Health Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Meredith; Lee, Lesley; Wear, Mary; Van Baalen, Mary; Rhodes, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential latent health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging communities are necessary for astronauts to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography), as opposed to conditions resulting directly from the astronaut occupation; and increased breadth of monitoring services will improve the understanding of occupational health risks and longitudinal health of the astronaut community, past, present, and future. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of expanding existing medical monitoring under the Astronaut Occupational Health program for former NASA astronauts.

  8. Psychological training of German science astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzey, Dietrich; Schiewe, Albrecht

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  9. Colonoscopy Screening in the US Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterova, K.; Van Baalen, M.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J.; Schaefer, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Historically, colonoscopy screenings for astronauts have been conducted to ensure that astronauts are in good health for space missions. Recently this historical data has been identified as being useful for developing an occupational surveillance requirement. It can be used to assess overall colon health and to have a point of reference for future tests in current and former astronauts, as well as to follow-up and track rates of colorectal cancer and polyps. These rates can be compared to military and other terrestrial populations. In 2003, the active astronaut colonoscopy requirements changed to require less frequent colonoscopies. Since polyp removal during a colonoscopy is an intervention that prevents the polyp from potentially developing into cancer, the procedure decreases the individual's risk for colon cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possible effect of increased follow-up times between colonoscopies on the number and severity of polyps identified during the procedures among both current and former NASA astronauts. Initial results and forward work regarding astronaut colonoscopy screenings will be presented. METHODS: A retrospective study of all colonoscopy procedures performed on NASA astronauts between 1962 and 2015 (both during active career and retirement) was conducted by review of the JSC Clinic Electronic Medical Record and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) database for colonoscopy screening procedures and pathology reports. The timeframe of interest was from the time of selection into the Astronaut Corps through May 2015 or death. For each colonoscopy report, the following data were captured: date of procedure, age at time of procedure, reason for procedure, quality of bowel prep, completion of procedure and/or reason for termination of procedure, findings of procedure, subsequent treatment (if any), recommended follow-up interval, actual follow up interval, family history of polyps or colon cancer

  10. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  11. The astronaut's cookbook tales, recipes, and more

    CERN Document Server

    Bourland, Charles T

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts, cosmonauts, and a very limited number of people have experienced eating space food due to the unique processing and packaging required for space travel. This book allows anyone with a normal kitchen to prepare space food. Since some of the processing such as freeze dehydration, and packaging cannot be accomplished in the normal kitchen, many of the recipes will not produce the food that would be launched in space, but will prepare food similar to what the astronauts would eat after they had added the water to the food in space. Many of the space foods are prepared to the point of r

  12. Astronaut Gordon Cooper in centrifuge for tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, is strapped into the gondola while undergoing tests in the centrifuge at the Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, Pennsylvania. The centrifuge is used to investigate by simulation the pilot's capability to control the vehicle during the actual flight in its booster and reentry profile.

  13. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  14. Official portrait of Astronaut Vance D. Brand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Official portrait of Astronaut Vance D. Brand. Brand is in the dark blue shuttle flight suit with his helmet under his arm and an American flag behind him. Above and to the right of his head is a view of the shuttle flying.

  15. How Can "Weightless" Astronauts Be Weighed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jesus; Reyes, Francisco; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2012-01-01

    In introductory physics courses, within the context of studying Newton's laws, it is common to consider the problem of a body's "weight" when it is in free fall. The solution shows that the "weight" is zero and this leads to a discussion of the concept of weight. There are permanent free-fall situations such as astronauts in a spacecraft orbiting…

  16. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge was developed in 2011 to encourage proper exercise and nutrition at an early age by teaching young people to live and eat like space explorers. The strong correlation between an unhealthy childhood diet and adolescent fitness, and the onset of chronic diseases as an adult is the catalyst for Mission X. Mission X is dedicated to assisting people on a global scale to live healthier lifestyles and learn about human space exploration. The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut 2015 (MX15) International Challenge hosted almost 40,000 children on 800 teams, 28 countries affiliated with 12 space agencies. The MX15 website included 17 languages. MX15, the fifth annual international fitness challenges sponsored by the NASA Human Research Program worked with the European Space Agency and other space agencies from around the world. In comparison to MX14, MX15 expanded to include four additional new countries, increased the number of students by approximately 68% and the number of teams by 29%. Chile' and South Korea participated in the new fall Astro Charlie Walk Around the Earth Challenge. Pre-challenge training materials were made more readily available from the website. South Korea completed a prospective assessment of the usability of the MX content for improving health and fitness in 212 preschool children and their families. Mission X is fortunate to have the support of the NASA, ESA and JAXA astronaut corps. In MX15, they participated in the opening and closing events as well as while on-board the International Space Station. Italian Astronaut Samantha Cristoretti participated as the MX15 Astronaut Ambassador for health and fitness providing the opening video and other videos from ISS. United Kingdom Astronaut Tim Peake and US Astronaut Kate Rubins have agreed to be the MX Ambassadors for 2016 and 2017 respectively. The MX15 International Working Group Face-to-Face meeting and Closing Event were held at the Agenzia Spaziale

  17. A torque balance control moment gyroscope assembly for astronaut maneuvering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D. C.; Driskill, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    A control moment gyroscope assembly is described for use in an astronaut maneuvering research vehicle. This vehicle (backpack) will be used by astronauts inside the orbiting Skylab for evaluation of various maneuvering systems.

  18. Astronaut Demographic Database: Everything You Want to Know About Astronauts and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, Kathryn; Patterson, Holly

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of information regarding the astronaut population is available that could be especially useful to researchers. However, until now, it has been difficult to obtain that information in a systematic way. Therefore, this "astronaut database" began as a way for researchers within the Behavioral Health and Performance Group to keep track of the ever growing astronaut corps population. Before our effort, compilation of such data could be found, but not in a way that was easily acquired or accessible. One would have to use internet search engines, read through lengthy and potentially inaccurate informational sites, or read through astronaut biographies compiled by NASA. Astronauts are a unique class of individuals and, by examining such information, which we dubbed "Demographics," we hoped to find some commonalities that may be useful for other research areas and future research topics. By organizing the information pertaining to astronauts1 in a formal, unified catalog, we believe we have made the information more easily accessible, readily useable, and user friendly. Our end goal is to provide this database to others as a highly functional resource within the research community. Perhaps the database can eventually be an official, published document for researchers to gain full access.

  19. Philosophy on astronaut protection: A physician's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a responsibility to assure that proper ethical standards are applied in establishing and applying limits for the control of radiation doses to the astronauts. Such a responsibility obviously includes assuring that the astronauts are properly informed of the hazards associated with individuals missions and that they agree to accept the associated risks. The responsibility, however, does not end there. It includes a need to discuss how to initiate a discourse for developing the related ethical standards and how to determine who should be involved in their establishment. To assure that such proper communications on matters that encompass the realms of policy, science, politics, and ethics. There is also a need to mesh public perceptions with those of the scientific and technical community. This will be a monumental undertaking

  20. Train Like an Astronaut Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yamil L.; Lloyd, Charles; Reeves, Katherine M.; Abadie, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the incidence of childhood obesity, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), capitalizing on the theme of human spaceflight developed two educational outreach programs for children ages 8-12. To motivate young "fit explorers," the Train Like an Astronaut National (TLA) program and the Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut International Fitness Challenge (MX) were created. Based on the astronauts' physical training, these programs consist of activities developed by educators and experts in the areas of space life sciences and fitness. These Activities address components of physical fitness. The educational content hopes to promote students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. At the national level, in partnership with First Lady Michelle Obama's Let?s Move! Initiative, the TLA program consists of 10 physical and 2 educational activities. The program encourages families, schools, and communities to work collaboratively in order to reinforce in children and their families the importance of healthy lifestyle habits In contrast, the MX challenge is a cooperative outreach program involving numerous space agencies and other international partner institutions. During the six-week period, teams of students from around the world are challenged to improve their physical fitness and collectively accumulate points by completing 18 core activities. During the 2011 pilot year, a t otal of 137 teams and more than 4,000 students from 12 countries participated in the event. MX will be implemented within 24 countries during the 2012 challenge. It is projected that 7,000 children will "train like an astronaut".

  1. End effector with astronaut foot restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The combination of a foot restraint platform designed primarily for use by an astronaut being rigidly and permanently attached to an end effector which is suitable for attachment to the manipulator arm of a remote manipulating system is described. The foot restraint platform is attached by a brace to the end effector at a location away from the grappling interface of the end effector. The platform comprises a support plate provided with a pair of stirrups for receiving the toe portion of an astronaut's boots when standing on the platform and a pair of heel retainers in the form of raised members which are fixed to the surface of the platform and located to provide abutment surfaces for abutting engagement with the heels of the astronaut's boots when his toes are in the stirrups. The heel retainers preclude a backward sliding movement of the feet on the platform and instead require a lifting of the heels in order to extract the feet. The brace for attaching the foot restraint platform to the end effector may include a pivot or swivel joint to permit various orientations of the platform with respect to the end effector.

  2. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J; Peters, Brian T; Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments-enhancing their ability to "learn to learn." We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:26441561

  3. Enhancing Astronaut Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Bloomberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments - enhancing their ability to learn to learn. We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  4. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial

  5. Operational radiation protection for European astronauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to the astro- and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during a space flight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. High-energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ('alpha particles') and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, such as galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), energetic solar particle events (SPE) as well as protons and electrons trapped in the earth radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a space flight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astro- and cosmonauts health, including those targeting to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program to the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction of the current measures for radiation monitoring and protection of astro- and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as operational procedures that are applied, will be described. (author)

  6. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  7. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth

  8. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinguo; Luo, Yifan; Ju, Zhaojie

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA) have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM) is employed to recognize han...

  9. An interactive astronaut-robot system with gesture control

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinguo; Luo, Yifan; Ju, Zhaojie

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA) have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM) is employed to recognize han...

  10. Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin appears relaxed before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. appears to be relaxed during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  11. Skylab Astronauts' Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    After the end of the Apollo missions, NASA's next adventure into space was the marned spaceflight of Skylab. Using an S-IVB stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle, Skylab was a two-story orbiting laboratory, one floor being living quarters and the other a work room. The objectives of Skylab were to enrich our scientific knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, the stars, and cosmic space; to study the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, including man; to study the effects of the processing and manufacturing of materials utilizing the absence of gravity; and to conduct Earth resource observations. At the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), astronauts and engineers spent hundreds of hours in an MSFC Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) rehearsing procedures to be used during the Skylab mission, developing techniques, and detecting and correcting potential problems. The NBS was a 40-foot deep water tank that simulated the weightlessness environment of space. This photograph shows astronaut Ed Gibbon (a prime crew member of the Skylab-4 mission) during the neutral buoyancy Skylab extravehicular activity training at the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) mockup. One of Skylab's major components, the ATM was the most powerful astronomical observatory ever put into orbit to date.

  12. Astronauts Conrad and Kerwin practice Human Vestibular Function experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, science pilot of the mission, goes over a checklist. The two men are in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC.

  13. Astronaut Scott Carpenter examines protective material on pressure bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead in the white room facility at Hanger S, Cape Canaveral, Florida. This is the spacecraft which will carry astronaut Carpenter on the nation's second manned orbital flight.

  14. Lunar Roving Vehicle gets speed workout by Astronaut John Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) gets a speed workout by Astronaut John W. Young in the 'Grand Prix' run during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera held by Astronaut Charels M. Duke Jr.

  15. Astronauts Cooper and Conrad prepare cameras during visual acuity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles Conrad Jr., pilot, the prime crew of the Gemini 5 space flight, prepare their cameras while aboard a C-130 aircraft flying near Laredo. The two astronauts are taking part in a series of visual acuity experiments to aid them in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

  16. Changes in Neutrophil Functions in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Castro, Victoria; Pierson, Duane L.

    2002-01-01

    Neutrophil functions (phagocytosis, oxidative burst, degranulation) and expression of surface markers involved in these functions were studied in 25 astronauts before and after 4 space shuttle missions. Space flight duration ranged from 5 to 11 days. Blood specimens were obtained 10 days before launch (preflight or L-10), immediately after landing (landing or R+0), and again at 3 days after landing (postflight or R+3). Blood samples were also collected from 9 healthy low-stressed subjects at 3 time points simulating a 10-day shuttle mission. The number of neutrophils increased at landing by 85 percent when compared to the preflight numbers. Neutrophil functions were studied in whole blood using flow cytometric methods. Phagocytosis of E.coli-FITC and oxidative burst capacity of the neutrophils following the 9 to 11 day missions were lower at all three sampling points than the mean values for control subjects. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacity of the astronauts was decreased even 10-days before space flight. Mission duration appears to be a factor in phagocytic and oxidative functions. In contrast, following the short-duration (5-days) mission, these functions were unchanged from control values. No consistent changes in degranulation were observed following either short or medium length space missions. The expression of CD16, CD32, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, L-selectin and CD36 was measured and found to be variable. Specifically, CD16 and CD32 did not correlate with the changes in oxidative burst and phagocytosis. We can conclude from this study that the stresses associated with space flight can alter the important functions of neutrophils.

  17. Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct

  18. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...... h urinary albumin were lower in space than on the ground in all astronauts; the difference was significant (mean +/- SD, space and on the ground = 3.41 +/- 0.56 and 4.70 +/- 1.20 mg/24 h, p = 0.017). Dietary protein intake and 24-hour urinary urea were not significantly different between space and...

  19. Digital Astronaut Photography: A Discovery Dataset for Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronaut photography acquired from the International Space Station (ISS) using commercial off-the-shelf cameras offers a freely-accessible source for high to very high resolution (4-20 m/pixel) visible-wavelength digital data of Earth. Since ISS Expedition 1 in 2000, over 373,000 images of the Earth-Moon system (including land surface, ocean, atmospheric, and lunar images) have been added to the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov ). Handheld astronaut photographs vary in look angle, time of acquisition, solar illumination, and spatial resolution. These attributes of digital astronaut photography result from a unique combination of ISS orbital dynamics, mission operations, camera systems, and the individual skills of the astronaut. The variable nature of astronaut photography makes the dataset uniquely useful for archaeological applications in comparison with more traditional nadir-viewing multispectral datasets acquired from unmanned orbital platforms. For example, surface features such as trenches, walls, ruins, urban patterns, and vegetation clearing and regrowth patterns may be accentuated by low sun angles and oblique viewing conditions (Fig. 1). High spatial resolution digital astronaut photographs can also be used with sophisticated land cover classification and spatial analysis approaches like Object Based Image Analysis, increasing the potential for use in archaeological characterization of landscapes and specific sites.

  20. A superconducting shield to protect astronauts

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Superconductors team in the Technology department is involved in the European Space Radiation Superconducting Shield (SR2S) project, which aims to demonstrate the feasibility of using superconducting magnetic shielding technology to protect astronauts from cosmic radiation in the space environment. The material that will be used in the superconductor coils on which the project is working is magnesium diboride (MgB2), the same type of conductor developed in the form of wire for CERN for the LHC High Luminosity Cold Powering project.   Image: K. Anthony/CERN. Back in April 2014, the CERN Superconductors team announced a world-record current in an electrical transmission line using cables made of the MgB2 superconductor. This result proved that the technology could be used in the form of wire and could be a viable solution for both electrical transmission for accelerator technology and long-distance power transportation. Now, the MgB2 superconductor has found another application: it wi...

  1. Astronaut Karl Henize with soft drink in middeck area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Karl Henize drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Pepsi while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw.

  2. Astronauts Crippen and Payload specialist Garneau in front of SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Robert Crippen, left, crew commander, and Payload Specialist Marc Garneau stand in front of the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) in the mockup and integration laboratory during a press conference prior to their STS 41-G mission.

  3. Motivational profile of astronauts at the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that the motive triad of needs for achievement, power, and affiliation can predict variables such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, susceptibility to illness, cooperation, conformity, and many others. The present study documents the motivational profiles of astronauts at three stages of their expedition. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to Winter's well-established motive markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and oral histories) of 46 astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Significant pre-flight differences were found in relation to home agency and job status. NASA astronauts, compared with those from the Russian Space Agency, are motivated by higher need for power, as are commanders in comparison to flight engineers. The need for affiliation motive showed a significant change from pre-flight to in-flight stages. The implications of the relationship between the motivational profile of astronauts and the established behavioural correlates of such profiles are discussed.

  4. Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin takes photos during training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Flying in a KC-135 aircraft, Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. takes pictures during training for the upcoming first manned lunar landing with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong Jr. and Michael Collins.

  5. Astronaut Robert Gibson prepares to use motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Gibson, STS 61-C mission commander, partially floats on the aft flight deck of the Shuttle Columbia while preparing to use a motion picture camera. The windows overlooking the cargo bay are visible in the background.

  6. Astronaut Virgil Grissom and family at Patrick AFB airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom and his family are shown at the airport at Patrick Air Force Base facing a crowd of news media representatives. Grissom is speaking into microphones for the news media.

  7. CERN News - Esa astronaut brings neutralino back from space

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Visual Media Office

    2012-01-01

    ESA astronaut and former physicist at CERN Christer Fuglesang returns a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN after flying it to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

  8. Christer Fuglesang, a former CERN physicist-turned-astronaut

    CERN Multimedia

    NASA

    2006-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Christer Fuglesang, STS-116 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction resumes on the International Space Station. Image: NASA.

  9. STS-118 Astronaut Dave Williams Trains Using Virtual Reality Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Dafydd R. 'Dave' Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, uses Virtual Reality Hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock Up Facility at the Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties for the upcoming mission. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear special gloves and other gear while looking at a computer that displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware which with they will be working.

  10. Three STS 26 astronauts training in the Crew Compartment trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Three astronauts named in January 1987 as part of a five-member crew for NASA's first flight since the Challenger accident are shown in a photo session of July 1986. Left to right are Astronauts John M. (Mike) Lounge, Richard O. Covey and David C. Hilmers. Lounge and Hilmers will serve as Mission specialists for the STS 26 flight and Covey will serve as pilot. The three are on the middeck of JSC's one-G Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  11. Astronaut Charles Duke photographed collecting lunar samples at Station 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples at Station no. 1 during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity at the Descartes landing site. This picture, looking eastward, was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Duke is standing at the rim of Plum crater, which is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The parked Lunar Roving Vehicle can be seen in the left background.

  12. Initial Incidence of White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Sherman, Paul; McGuire, Steve; Kochunov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous literature has described the increase in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden associated with hypobaric exposure in the U-2 and altitude chamber operating personnel. Although astronauts have similar hypobaric exposure pressures to the U2 pilot population, astronauts have far fewer exposures and each exposure would be associated with a much lower level of decompression stress due to rigorous countermeasures to prevent decompression sickness. Therefore, we postulated that the WMH burden in the astronaut population would be less than in U2 pilots. Methods: Twenty-one post-flight de-identified astronaut MRIs (5 mm slice thickness FLAIR sequences) were evaluated for WMH count and volume. The only additional data provided was an age range of the astronauts (43-57) and if they had ever performed an EVA (13 yes, 8 no). Results: WMH count in these 21 astronaut MRI was 21.0 +/- 24.8 (mean+/- SD) and volume was 0.382 +/- 0.602 ml, which was significantly higher than previously published results for the U2 pilots. No significant differences between EVA and no EVA groups existed. Age range of astronaut population is not directly comparable to the U2 population. Discussion: With significantly less frequent (sometimes none) and less stressful hypobaric exposures, yet a much higher incidence of increased WMH, this indicates the possibility of additional mechanisms beyond hypobaric exposure. This increase unlikely to be attributable just to the differences in age between astronauts and U2 pilots. Forward work includes continuing review of post-flight MRI and evaluation of pre to post flight MRI changes if available. Data mining for potential WMH risk factors includes collection of age, sex, spaceflight experience, EVA hours, other hypobaric exposures, hyperoxic exposures, radiation, high performance aircraft experience and past medical history. Finally, neurocognitive and vision/eye results will be evaluated for any evidence of impairment linked to

  13. Unimpaired Neuro-Adaptive Plasticity in an Elderly Astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.; Black, F. Owen; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of a 77 year old astronaut's balance control performances on a standardized test battery revealed few differences between his neuro-adaptive responses to space flight and those of a group of younger astronauts tested following missions of similar duration. This finding suggests that the physiological changes associated with age do not necessarily impair adaptive plasticity in the human following removal and subsequent reintroduction of gravity.

  14. Astronaut Assembly of a 14-Meter-Diameter Microwave Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Astronaut Jerry Ross is shown assembling a portion of a 14-meter-diameter truss structure in NASAs Neutral Buoyancy Simulator at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The structure is part of a large microwave antenna designed for space-based monitoring of soil moisture levels and ocean temperatures. The underwater assembly tests demonstrated that two astronauts could construct the large antenna in approximately 4-6 hours in space.

  15. Moon bound choosing and preparing NASA's lunar astronauts

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Often lost in the shadow of the first group of astronauts for the Mercury missions, the second and third groups included the leading figures for NASA's activities for the following two decades. “Moon Bound” complements the author’s recently published work, “Selecting the Mercury Seven” (2011), extending the story of the men who helped to launch human spaceflight and broaden the American space program. Although the initial 1959 group became known as the legendary pioneering Mercury astronauts, the astronauts of Groups 2 and 3 gave us many household names. Sixteen astronauts from both groups traveled to the Moon in Project Apollo, with several actually walking on the Moon, one of them being Neil Armstrong. This book draws on interviews to tell the astronauts' personal stories and recreate the drama of that time. It describes the process by which they were selected as astronauts and explains how the criteria had changed since the first group. “Moon Bound” is divided into two parts, recounting the b...

  16. Latent Virus Reactivation in Astronauts and Shingles Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight is a uniquely stressful environment with astronauts experiencing a variety of stressors including: isolation and confinement, psychosocial, noise, sleep deprivation, anxiety, variable gravitational forces, and increased radiation. These stressors are manifested through the HPA and SAM axes resulting in increased stress hormones. Diminished T-lymphocyte functions lead to reactivation of latent herpesviruses in astronauts during spaceflight. Herpes simplex virus reactivated with symptoms during spaceflight whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate and are shed without symptoms. EBV and VZV are shed in saliva and CMV in the urine. The levels of EBV shed in astronauts increased 10-fold during the flight; CMV and VZV are not typically shed in low stressed individuals, but both were shed in astronauts during spaceflight. All herpes viruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Culturing revealed that VZV shed in saliva was infectious virus. The PCR technology was extended to test saliva of 54 shingles patients. All shingles patients shed VZV in their saliva, and the levels followed the course of the disease. Viremia was also found to be common during shingles. The technology may be used before zoster lesions appear allowing for prevention of disease. The technology may be used for rapid detection of VZV in doctors offices. These studies demonstrated the value of applying technologies designed for astronauts to people on Earth.

  17. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinguo; Luo, Yifan; Ju, Zhaojie

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA) have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM) is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL) have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system. PMID:27190503

  18. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-robot interaction (HRI plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system.

  19. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinguo; Luo, Yifan; Ju, Zhaojie

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA) have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM) is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL) have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system. PMID:27190503

  20. Psychiatric diagnoses in a group of astronaut applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Faulk, Dean M.; Holland, Al W.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1987, the psychiatric evaluation of astronaut candidates evolved from a 30-h intensive examination evaluating applicants for psychopathology, and studying their performance under stress, to a 2-h clinical interview whose structure and contents were determined by the individual examiner. Evaluations done during these years applied both psychiatric (or, 'select-out') criteria and psychological (or, 'select-in') criteria. In an attempt to more rigorously define the psychiatric, 'select-out' component, a standardized, semistructured clinical interview was developed to identify the presence or history of psychiatric disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Ed. ('DSM-III'). A total of 117 astronaut applicants underwent this clinical interview as part of a comprehensive medical evaluation during a recent astronaut selection. Of the 117 applicants, 9 (7.7 percent) met DSM-III criteria for a variety of Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, including V-code diagnoses.

  1. Astronaut Charles Conrad checks out Human Vestibular Function experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Conrad is in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC. The reference sphere with a magnetic rod is used by the astronaut to indicate body orientation non-visually. The litter chair in which he is seated can be rotated by a motor at its base or, when not being rotated, can tilt forward, backward or to either side.

  2. Astronaut John Young leaps from lunar surface to salute flag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, leaps from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  3. Astronaut Virgil Grissom at Gemini 3 crew breakfast before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom (second from left), command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 flight, is shown during a steak breakfast which he was served about two hours prior to the launch. Others seated at the table are (left to right), Donald K. Slayton, Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations; Walter Burke (back to camera), General Mangaer of McDonnell Aircraft Corportation Spacecraft and Missiles; Walter C. Williams, former Deputy Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center; and Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr.

  4. Astronauts give Hubble a new lease of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Astronauts successfully repaired and upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope last month by performing five space walks each lasting more than six hours. The mission will improve Hubble's "observational power" by up to a factor of 100. The upgrade will also enable the 19-year-old instrument to carry on obtaining images of the early universe until 2014.

  5. The selection of commercial astronauts for suborbital spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Brian J.

    With the launch of Dennis Tito aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket in 2001 and SpaceShipOne winning the Ansari X-Prize in 2004, the commercial space tourism industry is on the verge of lifting off. In 2007 Burt Rutan spoke about the future of space tourism, "We think that 100,000 people will fly by 2020" (Rutan, 2007). With such a high frequency of suborbital spaceflights, there is a need for qualified crews to operate the spacecraft. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study was to investigate the possible selection criteria for suborbital commercial astronauts within the space tourism industry. Data was collected in the form of telephone and email interviews with 4 of the 5 U.S.-based suborbital space tourism companies participating. Purdue University's extensive astronaut alumni network was used to augment data gathered with five astronauts who have flown in space. In addition, Brian Binnie, the pilot who flew SpaceShipOne on its award winning Ansari X-Prize flight, participated. Grounded Theory and Truth and Reality Testing were used as the theoretical framework for data analysis. The data gathered suggests that the commercial astronaut should have at least a Bachelor's degree in engineering, have a test pilot background with thousands of hours of pilot-in-command time in high performance jet aircraft, be confident yet humble in personality, and have a fundamental understanding of their spacecraft, including spacecraft trajectories, and emergency procedures.

  6. Astronaut Charles Conrad during visual acuity experiments over Laredo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., pilot for the prime crew on the Gemini 5 space flight, takes pictures of predetermined land areas during visual acuity experiments over Laredo, Texas. The experiments will aid in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

  7. Fitness variables and the lipid profile in United States astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. A.; Squires, W. G.; Jackson, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between several measures of fitness and the lipid profile in United States astronauts. Data were collected on 89 astronauts, previously selected (PSA) and newly selected (NSA), during their annual physical examinations. Several similarities were seen in the two groups. The PSA (mean age of 46.1) had a lower maximum oxygen capacity (41.7 ml kg/min vs. 47.5 ml kg/min); when adjusted for age, it was no different from the NSA (mean age 33.5). The PSA had similar body composition with 15.7% - lower than expected for age. The lipid profiles of the two groups were basically the same with the differences being a function of age. Compared to a normative population, the astronauts had similar cholesterols, lower triglycerides, and higher HDLs. The astronaut profiles were generally more favorable than the age-matched controls, which is felt to be a result of the self-supervised conditioning program and annual preventive medicine consultation and education.

  8. Astronaut Kevin Chilton works with advanced cell reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Kevin P. Chilton, pilot, works with an advanced cell reactor, which incorporated the first ever videomicroscope, on the Space Tissue Loss (STL-B) experiment on the Space Shuttle Endeavour's middeck. This experiment studied cell growth during the STS-59 mission.

  9. Astronauts Newman and Bursch participate in DSO 622

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts James H. Newman (left) and Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialists, participate in a Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) dealing with the gastro-intestinal function during extended duration flight (DSO 622). The two are on the Discovery's middeck. Bursch holds himself in position with his left hand grasping the emergency escape pole.

  10. Views of Astronaut Virgil Grissom after MR-4 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Views of Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom after the Mercury-Redstone 4 (MR-4) flight. Closeup view of Grissom talking on the phone with President Kennedy. Grissom is still wearing his pressure suit (2897); Grissom enjoys a meal aboard the recovery ship, U.S.S. Randolph, following his 15 minute, 37 seconds suborbital space mission (2898).

  11. Astronaut Virgil Grissom preparing for training in centrifuge at Johnsville

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil (Gus) Grissom seen preparing for training in centrifuge at Johnsville. A Navy corpsman attaches sensors to Grissom to monitor his body's reaction to the centrifuge (586); He is pictured leaving a U.S. Navy instillation and removing his helmet (587).

  12. Philosophy on astronaut protection: A physician`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, H.

    1997-04-30

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a responsibility to assure that proper ethical standards are applied in establishing and applying limits for the control of radiation doses to the astronauts. Such a responsibility obviously includes assuring that the astronauts are properly informed of the hazards associated with individuals missions and that they agree to accept the associated risks. The responsibility, however, does not end there. It includes a need to discuss how to initiate a discourse for developing the related ethical standards and how to determine who should be involved in their establishment. To assure that such proper communications on matters that encompass the realms of policy, science, politics, and ethics. There is also a need to mesh public perceptions with those of the scientific and technical community. This will be a monumental undertaking.

  13. Small robot will give astronauts a big hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, E D

    2000-02-01

    Now being built at NASA-Ames is a small robot that will work independently alongside astronauts in space. About the size of a softball, the 5-in.-diam. Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) will serve as an intelligent robot, providing another set of eyes and ears and an extra nose to the crew and ground support personnel. The device will move and operate on its own in the microgravity environment of space-based vehicles. Yuri Gawdiak, principal investigator for the projects, expects astronauts to fly a demonstration model of the device aboard a Space Shuttle in about two years. The first crew to use PSAs will test the examine safety issues. Those tests, if successful, will lead to a demonstration aboard the International Space Station. Gawdiak says the project has an annual budget of about $500,000. PMID:11542871

  14. Cerebrovascular Accident Incidence in the NASA Astronaut Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPelusa, Michael B.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Lesley R.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The development of atherosclerosis is strongly associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Certain unique occupational exposures that individuals in the NASA astronaut corps face, specifically high-performance aircraft training, SCUBA training, and spaceflight, are hypothesized to cause changes to the cardiovascular system. These changes, which include (but are not limited to) oxidative damage as a result of radiation exposure and circadian rhythm disturbance, increased arterial stiffness, and increased carotid-intima-media thickness (CIMT), may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent CVA. The purpose of this study was to review cases of CVA in the NASA astronaut corps and describe the comorbidities and occupational exposures associated with CVA.

  15. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin strapped into sleep restraint in crew quarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, is photographed strapped into the sleep restraint in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. Kerwin is wearing the special cap which contains biomedical instrumentation for the M133 Sleep Monitoring Experiment. The purpose of the M133 experiment is to evaluate quantity and quality of sleep during prolonged space flight by the analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculographic (EOG) activity.

  16. Astronaut John Glenn during training exercise in Mercury Procedures Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Close-up view of Mercury Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. as he runs through a training exercise in the Mercury Procedures Trainer in use at Space Task Group, Langley Field, Virginia. This Link-type spacecraft simulator permits the practice of both normal and emergency modes of systems operations. Glenn is in the Mercury pressure suit and is wearing his helmet, just as he would if the flight were real.

  17. Virginia Tech astronaut returns to campus for Jewish Film Festival

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Charles Camarda, who completed his Ph.D in aerospace engineering at Virginia Tech in 1990, was aboard NASA's most recent Space Shuttle Discovery mission in August when it docked with the International Space Station. Camarda returns to campus on Tuesday, Nov. 8, to serve as a panelist following the showing of "Columbia: The Tragic Loss," an examination of the 2004 Columbia Space Shuttle disaster and a poignant tribute to Colonel Ilan Ramon, the first Israeli astronaut ever to venture into oute...

  18. Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II. The first view shows Slayton (on right) beside a Douglas A-26 bomber in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the summer of 1945, probably on Okinawa. The second man is 1st. Lt. Ed Steinman (28359); This view shows Slayton as an eighteen-year-old U.S. Army Air Force cadet at Victoria Field, Vernon, Texas in the autumn of 1942.

  19. Minimizing Astronauts' Risk from Space Radiation during Future Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hayat, Mathew; Nounu, Hatem N.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the risk factors from space radiation for astronauts on future lunar missions. Two types of radiation are discussed, Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and Solar Particle events (SPE). Distributions of Dose from 1972 SPE at 4 DLOCs inside Spacecraft are shown. A chart with the organ dose quantities is also given. Designs of the exploration class spacecraft and the planned lunar rover are shown to exhibit radiation protections features of those vehicles.

  20. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Astronaut Post Flight Bone Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Myers, Jerry; Licata, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Space flight potentially reduces the loading that bone can resist before fracture. This reduction in bone integrity may result from a combination of factors, the most common reported as reduction in astronaut BMD. Although evaluating the condition of bones continues to be a critical aspect of understanding space flight fracture risk, defining the loading regime, whether on earth, in microgravity, or in reduced gravity on a planetary surface, remains a significant component of estimating the fracture risks to astronauts. This presentation summarizes the concepts, development, and application of NASA's Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) to understanding pre-, post, and in mission astronaut bone fracture risk. The overview includes an assessment of contributing factors utilized in the BFxRM and illustrates how new information, such as biomechanics of space suit design or better understanding of post flight activities may influence astronaut fracture risk. Opportunities for the bone mineral research community to contribute to future model development are also discussed. Methods: To investigate the conditions in which spaceflight induced changes to bone plays a critical role in post-flight fracture probability, we implement a modified version of the NASA Bone Fracture Risk Model (BFxRM). Modifications included incorporation of variations in physiological characteristics, post-flight recovery rate, and variations in lateral fall conditions within the probabilistic simulation parameter space. The modeled fracture probability estimates for different loading scenarios at preflight and at 0 and 365 days post-flight time periods are compared. Results: For simple lateral side falls, mean post-flight fracture probability is elevated over mean preflight fracture probability due to spaceflight induced BMD loss and is not fully recovered at 365 days post-flight. In the case of more energetic falls, such as from elevated heights or with the addition of lateral movement

  1. The Graphical Representation of the Digital Astronaut Physiology Backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, Demarcus

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes my internship project with the NASA Digital Astronaut Project to analyze the Digital Astronaut (DA) physiology backbone model. The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) applies integrated physiology models to support space biomedical operations, and to assist NASA researchers in closing knowledge gaps related to human physiologic responses to space flight. The DA physiology backbone is a set of integrated physiological equations and functions that model the interacting systems of the human body. The current release of the model is HumMod (Human Model) version 1.5 and was developed over forty years at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC). The physiology equations and functions are scripted in an XML schema specifically designed for physiology modeling by Dr. Thomas G. Coleman at UMMC. Currently it is difficult to examine the physiology backbone without being knowledgeable of the XML schema. While investigating and documenting the tags and algorithms used in the XML schema, I proposed a standard methodology for a graphical representation. This standard methodology may be used to transcribe graphical representations from the DA physiology backbone. In turn, the graphical representations can allow examination of the physiological functions and equations without the need to be familiar with the computer programming languages or markup languages used by DA modeling software.

  2. Facing page test for the astronaut science advisor presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael M.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the Astronaut Science Advisor (ASA) project is to improve the scientific return of experiments performed in space by providing astronaut experimenters with an 'intelligent assistant' that encapsulates much of the domain- and experiment-related knowledge commanded by the Principal Investigator (PI) on the ground. By using expert systems technology and the availability of flight-qualified personal computers, it is possible to encode the requisite knowledge and make it available to astronauts as they perform experiments in space. The system performs four major functions: diagnosis and troubleshooting of experiment apparatus, data collection, protocol management, and detection of interesting data. The experiment used for development of the system measures human adaptation to weightlessness in the context of the neurovestibular system. This so-called 'Rotating Dome' experiment was flown on the recent Spacelab Life Sciences One (SLS-1) Mission. This mission was used as an opportunity to test some of the system's functionality. Experiment data was downlinked from the orbiter, and the system then captured the data and analyzed it in real time. The system kept track of the time being used by the experiment, recognized occurrences of interesting data, summarized data statistically and generated potential new protocols that could be used to optimize the course of the experiment.

  3. A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

  4. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  5. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered a hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies. The purpose of this paper is to document the comprehensive EVA training data set that was compiled from multiple sources by the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) epidemiologists to investigate musculoskeletal injuries. The EVA training dataset does not contain any medical data, rather it only documents when EVA training was performed, by whom and other details about the session. The first activities practicing EVA maneuvers in water were performed at the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Spaceflight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. This facility opened in 1967 and was used for EVA training until the early Space Shuttle program days. Although several photographs show astronauts performing EVA training in the NBS, records detailing who performed the training and the frequency of training are unavailable. Paper training records were stored within the NBS after it was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1985 and closed in 1997, but significant resources would be needed to identify and secure these records, and at this time LSAH has not pursued acquisition of these early training records. Training in the NBS decreased when the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, opened the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) in 1980. Early training records from the WETF consist of 11 hand-written dive logbooks compiled by individual workers that were digitized at the request of LSAH. The WETF was integral in the training for Space Shuttle EVAs until its closure in 1998. The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near JSC

  6. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles W.; Olivotto, C.; Boese, A.; Spiero, F.; Galoforo, G.; Niihori, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut is an international educational challenge focusing on fitness and nutrition as we encourage students to "train like an astronaut." Teams of students (aged 8-12) learn principles of healthy eating and exercise, compete for points by finishing training modules, and get excited about their future as "fit explorers." The 18 core exercises (targeting strength, endurance, coordination, balance, spatial awareness, and more) involve the same types of skills that astronauts learn in their training and use in spaceflight. This first-of-its-kind cooperative outreach program has allowed 14 space agencies and various partner institutions to work together to address quality health/fitness education, challenge students to be more physically active, increase awareness of the importance of lifelong health and fitness, teach students how fitness plays a vital role in human performance for exploration, and inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in STEM fields. The project was initiated in 2009 in response to a request by the International Space Life Sciences Working Group. USA, Netherlands, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Colombia, Spain, and United Kingdom hosted teams for the pilot this past spring, and Japan held a modified version of the challenge. Several more agencies provided input into the preparations. Competing on 131 teams, more than 3700 students from 40 cities worldwide participated in the first round of Mission X. OUTCOMES AND BEST PRACTICES Members of the Mission X core team will highlight the outcomes of this international educational outreach pilot project, show video highlights of the challenge, provide the working group s initial assessment of the project and discuss the future potential of the effort. The team will also discuss ideas and best practices for international partnership in education outreach efforts from various agency perspectives and experiences

  7. Atrial Arrhythmias in Astronauts - Summary of a NASA Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael R.; Watkins, Sharmila D.; Polk, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Problem Definition: To evaluate NASA s current standards and practices related to atrial arrhythmias in astronauts, Space Medicine s Advanced Projects Section at the Johnson Space Center was tasked with organizing a summit to discuss the approach to atrial arrhythmias in the astronaut cohort. Since 1959, 11 cases of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, or supraventricular tachycardia have been recorded among active corps crewmembers. Most of the cases were paroxysmal, although a few were sustained. While most of the affected crewmembers were asymptomatic, those slated for long-duration space flight underwent radiofrequency ablation treatment to prevent further episodes of the arrhythmia. The summit was convened to solicit expert opinion on screening, diagnosis, and treatment options, to identify gaps in knowledge, and to propose relevant research initiatives. Summit Meeting Objectives: The Atrial Arrhythmia Summit brought together a panel of six cardiologists, including nationally and internationally renowned leaders in cardiac electrophysiology, exercise physiology, and space flight cardiovascular physiology. The primary objectives of the summit discussions were to evaluate cases of atrial arrhythmia in the astronaut population, to understand the factors that may predispose an individual to this condition, to understand NASA s current capabilities for screening, diagnosis, and treatment, to discuss the risks associated with treatment of crewmembers assigned to long-duration missions or extravehicular activities, and to discuss recommendations for prevention or management of future cases. Summary of Recommendations: The summit panel s recommendations were grouped into seven categories: Epidemiology, Screening, Standards and Selection, Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation Manifesting Preflight, Atrial Fibrillation during Flight, Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation, and Future Research

  8. APOLLO 16 ASTRONAUTS UNDERGO SIMULATED LUNAR TRAVERSE DURING TRAINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 flight crew, astronauts Charles M. Duke, Jr., and John W. Young, prepare to undergo a simulated lunar traverse in the training area. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Apollo 16, the eighth Apollo Lunar landing, is scheduled to land in the mountainous highland region near the crater Descartes to explore the area for a three day period collecting surface material. Making geological observations, and deploying the fourth geophysical station on the Moon. The flight crew of the mission are: John W. Young, commander; Charles M. Duke, Jr., lunar module pilot; and Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot.

  9. Astronaut Brand and Cosmonaut Ivanchenko in Docking Module trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Astronaut Vance D. Brand (foreground) and Cosmonaut Aleksandr S. Ivanchenko are seated in the Docking Module trainer in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) simulation training at JSC. Brand is the command module pilot of the American ASTP prime crew. Ivanchenko is the engineer on the Soviet ASTP fourth crew (back-up). During the exercise the American ASTP crew and the Soviet ASTP crew simulated docking the Apollo and Soyuz in Earth orbit and transferring to each other's spacecraft. This view is looking from inside the Command Module into the Docking Module. The hatchway leading into the Soyuz spacecraft orbital module mock-up is in the background.

  10. Viral Reactivation in Astronauts and Technology Transfer to Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Renner, Ashley N.; Rooney, Bridgett; Mehta, Satish K.

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of immunity in astronauts has been known for several decades. Advances were hampered due to lack of sophisticated equipment to measure immune status during space flight. We developed the use of latent herpes viruses as biomarkers for immune status in astronauts. There are eight known human-specific herpes viruses, and virtually everyone is infected by one or more of these viruses. Herpes viruses are important human infectious pathogens with oncogenic potential. They cause disease following primary infection and then become latent in human tissues. Latency is maintained by a robust immune system. Diminished immunity allows for the reactivation of these viruses. Reactivation can result in a plethora of diseases. We have shown that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivate during spaceflight and are shed in body fluids. These viruses have caused disease during spaceflight. Detection of viruses in saliva or urine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a rapid, non-invasive, very sensitive, and a highly specific method to detect, identify, and quantitate the viruses present in body fluids. These viruses reactivate and are shed independently of each other. Recently we have shown that reactivation and shedding increases with longer stays in space, contrary to earlier speculation. Astronaut studies demonstrated that the reactivated herpes viruses are cell-associated, live, infectious, and serve as excellent biomarkers for immune status. Virus reactivation coincides with diminished T-cell function. Vaccine and antivirals are potential countermeasures for VZV diseases. This NASA-derived technology for astronauts has been successfully transferred to neurologists, infectious disease specialists, dermatologists, and ophthalmologists for patient diagnostics. Viruses in body fluids of patients can be analyzed for virus identity and copy number with results available in 1-hour. Technology is

  11. Biofeedback monitoring-devices for astronauts in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, G.; Pancheri, P.; Monesi, F.; Grantaliano, G.; DePascalis, V.

    After a reconsideration of the state-of-the-art in biofeedback research the implementation of biofeedback systems is envisioned as a countermeasure of stress for the psychoprophylaxis of the astronaut. A one-session experiment performed on two groups of subjects to assess the interference from EMG-feedback on the performance in a simultaneous psychomotor trial with a view to expanding biofeedback application is described. The results show that the experimental group performed in the same way as the control without feedback, but with less CNS activation. Some general conclusions are drawn from the advances in technology.

  12. A Comparison of Astronaut Near-Earth Object Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Globus, Al; Cassell, Chris; Covey, Stephen; Luebke, Jim; Sonter, Mark; Versteeg, Bryan; Wolff, James

    2012-01-01

    NASA intends to send astronauts to a near Earth object (NEO) in or around 2025. This is expected to involve a six month mission with a few weeks stay-time at the NEO. Problems with this concept include lack of abort modes, vulnerability to solar flares, and lack of resupply opportunities. Studies by the authors (the Asteroid Mining Group) and a recent workshop at JPL organized by the Keck Institute opens the door to an alternative that addresses these problems and creates addit...

  13. Astronaut Mike Fincke Conducts Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  14. Skylab-2 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Kerwin With Sleep Monitoring Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This photograph is of Astronaut Kerwin wearing the Sleep Monitoring cap (Experiment M133) taken during the Skylab-2 mission. The Sleep Monitoring Experiment was a medical evaluation designed to objectively determine the amount and quality of crew members' inflight sleep. The experiment monitored and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculographic (EOG) activity during astronauts' sleep periods. One of the astronauts was selected for this experiment and wore a fitted cap during his sleep periods.

  15. Game-based evaluation of personalized support for astronauts in long duration missions

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, N.J.J.M.; Abbing, M.S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Oostendorp, H. van

    2008-01-01

    Long duration missions set high requirements for personalized astronaut support that takes into account the social, cognitive and affective state of the astronaut. Such support should be tested as thoroughly as possible before deployment into space. The in-orbit influences of the astronaut's state factors are hard to simulate on earth. Scenario-based evaluation might make the users feel as if they are in the eventual context of use, and are actually taking part in a scenario. In addition game...

  16. Selecting the Mercury Seven The Search for America's First Astronauts

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In January 1959, after an exhaustive search through military service records, a number of Americas elite test pilots received orders to attend a series of top-secret briefings in Washington, D.C. These briefings were designed to assist in selecting a group of astronauts for the newly formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its man-in-space program, Project Mercury. Following in-depth medical and psychological screening, 32 finalists were chosen. They would be subjected to the most rigorous, exploratory, and even degrading medical and psychological stress tests ever imposed on the nation's service personnel. NASA wanted the best of the best in its quest for the nation's first astronauts, and this is the story of that search for a group of near-supermen who were destined to become trailblazing pioneers of American space flight. For the very first time, after extensive research and numerous interviews, the names and amazing stories of those 32 finalists are finally revealed in this book. ...

  17. Identification of Psychological Stresses for Astronauts and Cosmonauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Melinda

    As humans continue to explore and expand in the solar system, psychological problems brought about by high stress of living in the space environment will continue to increase. Unfortunately, due to many reasons, including relative difficulties with gaining access to astronauts and cosmonauts and to gather psychological data from them regarding stressors, this area is not very well known and discussed. Five astronauts and cosmonauts from three space agencies: ESA, RSA, and JAXA were unoffi- cially surveyed regarding their experiences with ten general categories of psychological stressors as well as eight subcategories of interpersonal conflict stressors accepted in space related community of psychologists. The two subjects in space for longer periods of time reported more stressors and were likely to rate stressors as having a greater effect on the chance of mission failure. Shorter duration flyers reported nearly all general stressors were likely to increase in the event of a longer duration space flight. With the increased interest in long duration spaceflight, psychological stressors are more likely to affect mission success.

  18. Seeing Earth Through the Eyes of an Astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office within the ARES Directorate has undertaken a new class of handheld camera photographic observations of the Earth as seen from the International Space Station (ISS). For years, astronauts have attempted to describe their experience in space and how they see the Earth roll by below their spacecraft. Thousands of crew photographs have documented natural features as diverse as the dramatic clay colors of the African coastline, the deep blues of the Earth's oceans, or the swirling Aurora Borealis of Australia in the upper atmosphere. Dramatic recent improvements in handheld digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera capabilities are now allowing a new field of crew photography: night time-lapse imagery.

  19. The astronaut and the banana peel: An EVA retriever scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Daniel G.

    1989-01-01

    To prepare for the problem of accidents in Space Station activities, the Extravehicular Activity Retriever (EVAR) robot is being constructed, whose purpose is to retrieve astronauts and tools that float free of the Space Station. Advanced Decision Systems is at the beginning of a project to develop research software capable of guiding EVAR through the retrieval process. This involves addressing problems in machine vision, dexterous manipulation, real time construction of programs via speech input, and reactive execution of plans despite the mishaps and unexpected conditions that arise in uncontrolled domains. The problem analysis phase of this work is presented. An EVAR scenario is used to elucidate major domain and technical problems. An overview of the technical approach to prototyping an EVAR system is also presented.

  20. Development of a computational model for astronaut reorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Leia; Willcox, Karen; Newman, Dava

    2010-08-26

    The ability to model astronaut reorientations computationally provides a simple way to develop and study human motion control strategies. Since the cost of experimenting in microgravity is high, and underwater training can lead to motions inappropriate for microgravity, these techniques allow for motions to be developed and well-understood prior to any microgravity exposure. By including a model of the current space suit, we have the ability to study both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. We present several techniques for rotating about the axes of the body and show that motions performed by the legs create a greater net rotation than those performed by the arms. Adding a space suit to the motions was seen to increase the resistance torque and limit the available range of motion. While rotations about the body axes can be performed in the current space suit, the resulting motions generated a reduced rotation when compared to the unsuited configuration. PMID:20472241

  1. Astronaut C. Michael Foale is briefed on use of Sky Genie

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut C. Michael Foale, STS-63 mission specialist, is briefed on the use of Sky Genie device by Karin L. Porter. The device would aid in emergency egress operations aboard a troubled Space Shuttle. Porter, an employee of Rockwell International, helps train astronauts in egress procedures at JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  2. Astronaut Charles Duke examines surface of boulder at North Ray crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, examines the surface of a large boulder at North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Note the chest-mounted 70mm Hasselblad camera.

  3. 24-h blood pressure in Space: The dark side of being an astronaut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Karemaker; J. Berecki-Gisolf

    2009-01-01

    Inflight 24-h profiles of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in 2 ESA-astronauts by automatic upper arm cuff measurements. In one astronaut this was combined with Portapres (TM) continuous finger blood pressure recordings. It was the intention to contrast the latter to 24-h record

  4. Orthostatic hypotension in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension after even short space flights has affected a significant number of astronauts. Given the need for astronauts to function at a high level of efficiency during and after their return from space, the application of pharmacologic and other treatments is strongly indicated. This report addresses the clinical problem of orthostatic hypotension and its treatments to ascertain whether pharmacologic or physiologic treatment may be useful in the prevention of orthostatic hypotension associated with space flight. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension in patients now includes increasing intravascular volume with high sodium intake and mineralocorticoids, or increasing vascular resistance through the use of drugs to stimulate alpha or block beta vascular receptors. Earlier treatment used oral sympathomimetic ephedrine hydrochloride alone or with "head-up" bed rest. Then long-acting adrenocortical steroid desoxycorticosterone preparations with high-salt diets were used to expand volume. Fludrocortisone was shown to prevent the orthostatic drop in blood pressure. The combination of the sympathomimetic amine hydroxyamphetamine and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine has been used, as has indomethacin alone. Davies et al. used mineralocorticoids at low doses concomitantly with alpha-agonists to increase vasoconstrictor action. Schirger et al used tranylcypromine and methylphenidate with or without a Jobst elastic leotard garment or the alpha-adrenergic agonist midodrine (which stimulates both arterial and venous systems without direct central nervous system or cardiac effects). Vernikos et al established that the combination of fludrocortisone, dextroamphetamine, and atropine exhibited a beneficial effect on orthostatic hypotension induced by 7-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest (a model used to simulate the weightlessness of space flight). Thus, there are numerous drugs that, in combination with mechanical techniques, including lower body negative

  5. Cytogenetic biodosimetry using the blood lymphocytes of astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kerry A.; Rhone, Jordan; Chappell, Lori J.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2013-11-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes is the most sensitive and reliable method currently available for in vivo assessment of the biological effects of exposure to radiation and provides the most informative measurement of radiation induced health risks. Data indicates that space missions of a few months or more can induce measureable increases in the yield of chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts that can be used to estimate an organ dose equivalent, and biodosimetry estimates lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry. Space biodosimetry poses some unique challenges compared to terrestrial biological assessments of radiation exposures, but data provides a direct measurement of space radiation damage, which takes into account individual radiosensitivity in the presence of confounding factors such as microgravity and other stress conditions. Moreover if chromosome damage persists in the blood for many years, results can be used for retrospective dose reconstruction. In contrast to physical measurements, which are external to body and require multiple devices to detect all radiation types all of which have poor sensitivity to neutrons, biodosimetry is internal and includes the effects of shielding provided by the body itself plus chromosome damage shows excellent sensitivity to protons, heavy ions, and neutrons. In addition, chromosome damage is reflective of cancer risk and biodosimetry values can therefore be used to validate and develop risk assessment models that can be used to characterize health risk incurred by crewmembers. The current paper presents a review of astronaut biodosimetry data, along with recently derived data on the relative cancer risk estimated using the quantitative approach derived from the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health database.

  6. The Astronaut-Athlete: Optimizing Human Performance in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J; Scott, Jessica M; Hanson, Andrea M; English, Kirk L; Downs, Meghan E; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that long-duration spaceflight results in deconditioning of neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, leading to a decline in physical fitness. On reloading in gravitational environments, reduced fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and endurance) could impair human performance, mission success, and crew safety. The level of fitness necessary for the performance of routine and off-nominal terrestrial mission tasks remains an unanswered and pressing question for scientists and flight physicians. To mitigate fitness loss during spaceflight, resistance and aerobic exercise are the most effective countermeasure available to astronauts. Currently, 2.5 h·d, 6-7 d·wk is allotted in crew schedules for exercise to be performed on highly specialized hardware on the International Space Station (ISS). Exercise hardware provides up to 273 kg of loading capability for resistance exercise, treadmill speeds between 0.44 and 5.5 m·s, and cycle workloads from 0 and 350 W. Compared to ISS missions, future missions beyond low earth orbit will likely be accomplished with less vehicle volume and power allocated for exercise hardware. Concomitant factors, such as diet and age, will also affect the physiologic responses to exercise training (e.g., anabolic resistance) in the space environment. Research into the potential optimization of exercise countermeasures through use of dietary supplementation, and pharmaceuticals may assist in reducing physiological deconditioning during long-duration spaceflight and have the potential to enhance performance of occupationally related astronaut tasks (e.g., extravehicular activity, habitat construction, equipment repairs, planetary exploration, and emergency response). PMID:26595138

  7. Radiation exposure to astronaut crew during space walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The cosmic ray environment in low-earth orbit is mainly composed of high-energy charged particles originating from galactic sources, solar energetic events and radiation confined within the dipolar geomagnetic field. These radiations are characterized by a high linear energy transfer and potentially inflict greater biological damage than that resulting from typical terrestrial radiation hazards. Reliable assessment of health risks to astronaut crew, particularly cancer induction, is pivotal in the design of future expeditions into interplanetary space and related to the estimation of radiation doses at the level of critical radiosensitive organs and tissues. The European Space Agency's Matroshka experiment was aimed at simulating an astronaut's body during extravehicular activities. The Matroshka facility basically consists of an Alderson-type human phantom torso attached to a base platform and covered by a protective carbon-fibre container, acting as a space suit model. The phantom is divided into 33 nearly tissue equivalent, polyurethane-based slices of specific density for tissue and organs, aligned along a central rod. Natural bones are embedded. Channels and cut-outs enable accommodation of 7 active and more than 6000 passive radiation sensors of which the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities provided more than 1100 thermoluminescence detectors for spatially resolved dosimetry and estimation of the radiobiological effectiveness. Matroshka was launched to the International Space Station on January 29 2004 with Progress-11 and mounted at the outside hull of the Russian Segment on February 26 2004. After retrieval of Matroshka into the Station on August 18 2005 and disintegration, the passive detectors were downloaded to earth with Soyuz on October 11 2005 for readout and analysis. Dose distributions are presented for slices 3 (eye), 15 (lung) and 27 (intestine), varying between 75 and 180 mGy. (author)

  8. Preflight and In-Flight Exercise Conditions for Astronauts on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Mark E.; Nieschwitz, Bruce; Hoellen, David; Loehr, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The physiological demands of spaceflight require astronauts to have certain physical abilities. They must be able to perform routine and off-nominal physical work during flight and upon re-entry into a gravity environment to ensure mission success, such as an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) or emergency egress. To prepare the astronauts for their mission, a Wyle Astronaut Strength Conditioning and Rehabilitation specialist (ASCR) works individually with the astronauts to prescribe preflight strength and conditioning programs and in-flight exercise, utilizing Countermeasure Systems (CMS) exercise hardware. PURPOSE: To describe the preflight and in-flight exercise programs for ISS crewmembers. METHODS: Approximately 2 years before a scheduled launch, an ASCR is assigned to each astronaut and physical training (PT) is routinely scheduled. Preflight PT of astronauts consists of carrying out strength, aerobic and general conditioning, employing the principles of periodization. Exercise programs are prescribed to the astronauts to account for their individual fitness levels, planned mission-specific tasks, areas of concern, and travel schedules. Additionally, astronauts receive instruction on how to operate CMS exercise hardware and receive training for microgravity-specific conditions. For example, astronauts are scheduled training sessions for the International Space Station (ISS) treadmill (TVIS) and cycle ergometer (CEVIS), as well as the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). In-flight programs are designed to maintain or even improve the astronauts pre-flight levels of fitness, bone health, muscle strength, power and aerobic capacity. In-flight countermeasure sessions are scheduled in 2.5 h blocks, six days a week, which includes 1.5 h for resistive training and 1 h for aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Crewmembers reported the need for more scheduled time for preflight training. During flight, crewmembers have indicated that the in-flight exercise is sufficient

  9. Post Flight Reconditioning for US Astronauts Returning from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschwitz, Bruce; Guilliams, Mark E.; Hoellen, David; Loehr, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Prior to spaceflight, each astronaut undergoes medical requirement testing to establish a preflight baseline for physiologic functions. Astronauts returning from the International Space Station can experience deficits in all or some of the following areas: aerobic capacity, muscular strength, power, endurance, stamina, bone, balance, agility, coordination, orthostatic tolerances, proprioception, neurovestibular function and flexibility. These losses occur from living in microgravity and are consistent with deficits seen in terrestrial, de-conditioning individuals. Since 2001, the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning and Rehabilitation (ASCR) specialists have administered a reconditioning program, focusing on all deficits, which improves the physical condition of all returning astronauts. In most cases, astronauts have reached or surpassed their preflight physical condition. Purpose: This presentation will describe and explain the postflight reconditioning program for returning astronauts. Methods: The postflight reconditioning program is designed to stress the body systems that affect the following: aerobic capacity, muscular strength, power, endurance, stamina, bone, balance, agility, coordination, orthostatic tolerances, proprioception, neurovestibular function and flexibility. Postflight reconditioning begins on landing day, is scheduled for two hours per day, 7 days a week for 45 days and is tailored to the specific needs of the astronaut. Initially the program focuses on basic ambulation, cardiovascular endurance, strength, balance, flexibility and proprioception. The program advances through 45 days and specific attention is given to each astronaut s overall condition, testing results, medical status, and assigned duties after their mission. Conclusion: Astronauts will experience noticeable deficits in their physical condition after living in microgravity for an extended length of time. After completing postflight reconditioning, it is shown that astronauts have

  10. Temazepam, but not zolpidem, causes orthostatic hypotension in astronauts after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shang-Jin; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Meck, Janice V.

    2003-01-01

    Insomnia is a common symptom, not only in the adult population but also in many astronauts. Hypnotics, such as temazepam (a benzodiazepine) and zolpidem (an imidazopyridine), are often taken to relieve insomnia. Temazepam has been shown clinically to have hemodynamic side effects, particularly in the elderly; however, the mechanism is not clear. Zolpidem does not cause hemodynamic side effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of different hypnotics during spaceflight might contribute significantly to the high incidence of postflight orthostatic hypotension, and to compare the findings in astronauts with clinical research. Astronauts were separated into three groups: control (n = 40), temazepam (15 or 30 mg; n = 9), and zolpidem (5 or 10 mg; n = 8). In this study, temazepam and zolpidem were only taken the night before landing. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates of the astronauts were measured during stand tests before spaceflight and on landing day. On landing day, systolic pressure decreased significantly and heart rate increased significantly in the temazepam group, but not in the control group or in the zolpidem group. Temazepam may aggravate orthostatic hypotension after spaceflight when astronauts are hemodynamically compromised. Temazepam should not be the initial choice as a sleeping aid for astronauts. These results in astronauts may help to explain the hemodynamic side effects in the elderly who are also compromised. Zolpidem may be a better choice as a sleeping aid in these populations.

  11. NASA Astronauts on Soyuz: Experience and Lessons for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The U. S., Russia, and, China have each addressed the question of human-rating spacecraft. NASA's operational experience with human-rating primarily resides with Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. NASA s latest developmental experience includes Constellation, X38, X33, and the Orbital Space Plane. If domestic commercial crew vehicles are used to transport astronauts to and from space, Soyuz is another example of methods that could be used to human-rate a spacecraft and to work with commercial spacecraft providers. For Soyuz, NASA's normal assurance practices were adapted. Building on NASA's Soyuz experience, this report contends all past, present, and future vehicles rely on a range of methods and techniques for human-rating assurance, the components of which include: requirements, conceptual development, prototype evaluations, configuration management, formal development reviews (safety, design, operations), component/system ground-testing, integrated flight tests, independent assessments, and launch readiness reviews. When constraints (cost, schedule, international) limit the depth/breadth of one or more preferred assurance means, ways are found to bolster the remaining areas. This report provides information exemplifying the above safety assurance model for consideration with commercial or foreign-government-designed spacecraft. Topics addressed include: U.S./Soviet-Russian government/agency agreements and engineering/safety assessments performed with lessons learned in historic U.S./Russian joint space ventures

  12. STS-102 Astronaut Susan Helms Participates in Space Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    STS-102 mission astronaut Susan J. Helms translates along the longerons of the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first of two space walks. During this walk, the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 was prepared for repositioning from the Unity Module's Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for the Leonardo multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM), supplied by the Italian Space Agency. The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the International Space Station's (ISS') moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  13. Apollo 11 Astronauts In Prayer Within Quarantine Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. Shown here is the Apollo 11 crew inside the quarantine facility as prayer is offered by Lt. Commander John Pirrto, USS Hornet Chaplain accompanied by U.S. President Richard Nixon (front right). With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  14. Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper is assisted into his spacecraft for tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    NASA and McDonnell Aircraft Corp. spacecraft technicians assist Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper into his spacecraft prior to undergoing tests in the altitude chamber. These tests are used to determine the operating characteristcs of the overall environmental control system.

  15. NASA GLENN RESEARCH CENTER EMPLOYEE ENJOYS CAPTURING NASA'S NEXT GENERATION ASTRONAUT PORTRAITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    NASA GLENN RESEARCH CENTER EMPLOYEE ENJOYS CAPTURING NASA'S NEXT GENERATION ASTRONAUT PORTRAITS AT PICTURE YOURSELF IN SPACE BOOTH AT THE WRIGHT PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE OPEN HOUSE - AIR POWER 2003, MAY 10-11, 2003

  16. The F.I.T. Story: Astronautics at F.I.T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes the astronautic programs and research at the Florida Institute of Technology, Melborne, Florida. Undergraduate and graduate students participate in research, such as Lighter-Than-Air vehicles, optical observation, auroral-magnetospheric research, and geomagnetism. (DS)

  17. Astronauts Grissom and Young discuss test plan prior to communications test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom (left), the command pilot, and John W. Young, the co-pilot, are shown discussing test plan prior to entering the Gemini Spacecraft 3 for communications test at the Merritt Island Test area.

  18. Virtual reality system of manned maneuvering unit taking into consideration the disturbance from an astronaut's limbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jian; FAN Xiu-min; HONG Xin; XU An; HUANG Wei-dong

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a manned maneuvering unit (MMU) virtual reality system.Based on the dynamics/kinematics model of an astronaut equipped with an MMU,a disturbance model of the astronaut's arms under zero gravity conditions is developed.After measuring three initial-position information,the astronaut's arms tracking information is inputted by some tracker setting on an operator using real-time emendation and correction.Finally,the paper presents two different results between loading and unloading the disturbance model within the progress of simulation.From the different results,we find that the motion of an astronaut's arms has greater influence over space walking with the same control mode.The MMU virtual reality provides a new method for the simulation of real space walking,and also a perfect method for developing prototype MMU.

  19. Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin suits up for Countdown Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. relaxes after suiting up to participate in a space vehicle Countdown Demonstration Test with Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins. They will be launched on a lunar landing mission.

  20. Astronaut Virgil Grissom shown through window of open hatch on Gemini craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, the command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 three orbit mission, is shown through the window of the open hatch on Gemini spacecraft in the white room on the mornining of the launch.

  1. Astronaut Virgil Grissom and family at airport with NASA administrator Webb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom and his family are shown at the airport at Patrick Air Force Base with NASA administrator James E. Webb (right). Grissom is speaking into microphones for the news media.

  2. Astronaut Virgil Grissom in new Mercury Space Suit during egress training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom, wearing the new Mercury Space Suit, poses for picture during emergency egress training activities at the Florida space center. He is seen standing in front of a mock-up of the Mercury capsule.

  3. Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console during the STS-2 simulation (33962); Dele Moore, remote manipulator system (RMS) specialist, stands beside Ride as they go over procedures (33963).

  4. Current Psychological Support for US astronauts on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Walter; Fiedler, Edna

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the psychological support services that are offered to the United States astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS). The contents include: 1) Operational Psychology; 2) NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation (NEEMO); and 3) ISS.

  5. Subclinical Reactivation and Shed of Infectious Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    We have previously detected VZV in healthy astronauts both during spaceflight and shortly after landing. Herein, we show that VZV shed in seropositive astronauts is infectious. A total of 40 saliva samples were obtained from each of the 3 astronauts. From each astronaut, 14 samples were taken 109 to 133 days before liftoff, 1 sample was taken every day during 12 days in space, and one sample was taken for 14 consecutive days beginning the second day after landing. Quantitative PCR was used to detect VZV DNA in saliva. None of 42 preflight saliva samples contained VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. In 1 astronaut, 6 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 120 to 2,500 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 1250 copies of VZV DNA were present on day 2, 45 copies on day 3, and 110 copies on day 5. All samples taken 6 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. In the second astronaut, 5 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 18 to 650 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 560 copies of VZV DNA were present in saliva on day 2, 340 copies on day 4, 45 copies on day 5, and 23 copes on day 6. All samples taken 7 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. Saliva taken 2 to 6 days after landing from all 3 astronauts was cultured on human fetal lung cells. After one subcultivation, a cytopathic effect developed in cultures inoculated with saliva from the two astronauts whose saliva contained VZV DNA. Both PCR and immunostaining identified the isolates to be VZV and not HSV-1. Importantly, the astronaut in whom no VZV was detected had a history of zoster 9 years earlier. It is possible that a boost in cell-mediated immunity to VZV which is known to develop after zoster protected him from subclinical reactivation. The genotype of the two VZV isolates was determined by VZV ORF22-based PCR/sequencing along with FRET-based PCR assays that target specific nucleotide polymorphisms. Both VZV isolates

  6. Astronauts Share the Art and Science of Earth, in their Photographs from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts have taken over 1 million photographs of Earth. Many of them directly support science research by documenting ephemeral events or showing Earth changes over the 50 year history of astronaut photography. And yet, even more of them are simply beautiful images of our wonderful planet. Astronauts love to look at the Earth from this 370km high vantage point. And they're constantly taking pictures - typically over 500 pictures each day. 'Oh, look at that' - click! 'And that' - click! Then they share them with scientists, other astronauts, and the public - as a way to help other people experience this transformative view of home planet Earth. Astronaut Chris Hadfield had 1.2 million followers on his tweeter feed from orbit, through which he sent hundreds of photographs. The yellows and oranges of the Sahara; serene islands in the middle of the Pacific; looking out over the snow-covered Alps; the night lights of Paris; looking straight down into an erupting volcano. What drama, what story, what a remarkable way to learn about Earth from the perspective of science and art. Each of these 1.2 million pictures was taken by a human, an astronaut who felt this awe and respect for Earth, who melded this art and science and pressed the button at the decisive moment. This session features dozens of these photographs, each selected as an all-time favorite by the astronauts after they returned to Earth. We will present the photos, as well as the astronauts' commentary, and an over-arching analysis of insights gained from the orbital perspective. We also will demonstrate the Windows on Earth software that the astronauts use on-orbit to plan their photographic opportunities and identify specific targets and features of interest, while orbiting at 17,000 mph. Finally, we will provide links to web-based resources for the public to get access to this entire archive of Earth photographs, so that they can pick their own favorites, download them, and explore creative ways to

  7. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin prepares to deploy EASEP on surface of moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, moves toward a position to deploy two components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. The Passive Seismic Experiments Package (PSEP) is in his left hand; and in his right hand is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR3). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  8. Astronaut John Young drives Lunar Roving Vehicle to final parking place

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, drives the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to its final parking place near the end of the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this photograph looking southward. The flank of Stone Mountain can be seen on the horizon at left.

  9. Astronaut John Young replaces tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, replaces tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Smoky Mountain, with the large Ravine crater on its flank, is in the left background. This view is looking northeast.

  10. Astronaut John Young reaches for tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, reaches for tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. This view is looking south from the base of Stone Mountain.

  11. Enhanced Monocular Visual Odometry Integrated with Laser Distance Meter for Astronaut Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Wu; Kaichang Di; Xun Sun; Wenhui Wan; Zhaoqin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Visual odometry provides astronauts with accurate knowledge of their position and orientation. Wearable astronaut navigation systems should be simple and compact. Therefore, monocular vision methods are preferred over stereo vision systems, commonly used in mobile robots. However, the projective nature of monocular visual odometry causes a scale ambiguity problem. In this paper, we focus on the integration of a monocular camera with a laser distance meter to solve this problem. The most remar...

  12. Astronaut Leroy Chiao, assigned as mission specialist for the mission, prepares to ascend stairs to

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    STS-72 TRAINING VIEW --- Astronaut Leroy Chiao, assigned as mission specialist for the mission, prepares to ascend stairs to the flight deck of the fixed base Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Chiao will join an international mission specialist and four other NASA astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour for a scheduled nine-day mission, now set for the winter of this year.

  13. Astronaut Brian Duffy, mission commander for the STS-72 mission, prepares to ascend stairs to the

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    STS-72 TRAINING VIEW --- Astronaut Brian Duffy, mission commander for the STS-72 mission, prepares to ascend stairs to the flight deck of the fixed base Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Duffy will be joined by four other NASA astronauts and an international mission specialist aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour for a scheduled nine-day mission, now set for the winter of this year.

  14. Menstrual Cycle Control in Female Astronauts and the Associated Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Varsha; Wotring, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and serious condition affecting approximately 1-2 per 1000 people in the USA every year. There have been no documented case reports of VTE in female astronauts during spaceflight in the published literature. Some female astronauts use hormonal contraception to control their menstrual cycles and it is currently unknown how this affects their risk of VTE. Current terrestrial risk prediction models do not account for the spaceflight environment and the physiological changes associated with it. We therefore aim to estimate a specific risk score for female astronauts who are taking hormonal contraception for menstrual cycle control, to deduce whether they are at an elevated risk of VTE. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in order to identify and quantify known terrestrial risk factors for VTE. Studies involving analogues for the female astronaut population were also reviewed, for example, military personnel who use the oral contraceptive pill for menstrual suppression. Well known terrestrial risk factors, for example, obesity or smoking would not be applicable to our study population as these candidates would have been excluded during astronaut selection processes. Other risk factors for VTE include hormonal therapy, lower limb paralysis, physical inactivity, hyperhomocysteinemia, low methylfolate levels and minor injuries, all of which potentially apply to crew members LSAH data will be assessed to identify which of these risk factors are applicable to our astronaut population. Using known terrestrial risk data, an overall estimated risk of VTE for female astronauts using menstrual cycle control methods will therefore be calculated. We predict this will be higher than the general population but not significantly higher requiring thromboprophylaxis. This study attempts to delineate what is assumed to be true of our astronaut population, for example, they are known to be a healthy fit cohort of individuals, and

  15. Neutrino Solar Flare detection for a saving alert system of satellites and astronauts

    OpenAIRE

    Fargion, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Largest Solar Neutrino Flare may be soon detectable by Deep Core neutrino detector immediately and comunicate to satellites or astronauts. Its detection is the fastest manifestation of a later (tens minutes,hours) dangerous cosmic shower. The precursor trigger maybe saving satellites and even long flight astronauts lives. We shall suggest how. Moreover their detection may probe the inner solar flare acceleration place as well as the neutrino flavor mixing in a new different parameter windows....

  16. NRAO Scientists on Team Receiving International Astronautics Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is presenting an award to a pioneering team of scientists and engineers who combined an orbiting radio-astronomy satellite with ground-based radio telescopes around the world to produce a "virtual telescope" nearly three times the size of the Earth. The team, which includes two scientists from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), will receive the award in a ceremony Sunday, October 16, in Fukuoka, Japan. VSOP Satellite and Ground Telescopes Artist's conception of HALCA satellite and ground observatories together making "virtual telescope" (blue) about three times the size of Earth. CREDIT: ISAS, JAXA (Click on image for larger version) The IAA chose the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), an international collaboration, to receive its 2005 Laurels for Team Achievement Award, which recognizes "extraordinary performance and achievement by a team of scientists, engineers and managers in the field of Astronautics to foster its peaceful and international use." VSOP team members named in the IAA award include NRAO astronomers Edward Fomalont, of Charlottesville, Virginia, and Jonathan Romney, of Socorro, New Mexico. "This is a well-deserved award for an international team whose hard work produced a scientific milestone that yielded impressive results and provides a foundation for more advances in the future," said Dr. Fred K.Y Lo, NRAO Director. The VSOP program used a Japanese satellite, HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy), that included an 8-meter (26-foot) radio telescope. HALCA was launched in 1997 and made astronomical observations in conjunction with ground-based radio telescopes from 14 countries. Five tracking stations, including one at NRAO's Green Bank, West Virginia, facility, received data from HALCA which later was combined with data from the ground-based telescopes to produce images more detailed than those that could have been made by ground-based systems alone

  17. Astronaut EVA exposure estimates from CAD model spacesuit geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing assembly and maintenance activities at the International Space Station (ISS) require much more extravehicular activity (EVA) than did the earlier U.S. Space Shuttle missions. It is thus desirable to determine and analyze, and possibly foresee, as accurately as possible what radiation exposures crew members involved in EVAs will experience in order to minimize risks and to establish exposure limits that must not to be exceeded. A detailed computer-aided design (CAD) model of the U.S. Space Shuttle EVA Spacesuit, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), is used to represent the directional shielding of an astronaut; it has detailed helmet and backpack structures, hard upper torso, and multilayer space suit fabric material. The NASA Computerized Anatomical Male and Female (CAM and CAF) models are used in conjunction with the space suit CAD model for dose evaluation within the human body. The particle environments are taken from the orbit-averaged NASA AP8 and AE8 models at solar cycle maxima and minima. The transport of energetic particles through space suit materials and body tissue is calculated by using the NASA LaRC HZETRN code for hadrons and a recently developed deterministic transport code, ELTRN, for electrons. The doses within the CAM and CAF models are determined from energy deposition at given target points along 968 directional rays convergent on the points and are evaluated for several points on the skin and within the body. Dosimetric quantities include contributions from primary protons, light ions, and electrons, as well as from secondary brehmsstrahlung and target fragments. Directional dose patterns are displayed as rays and on spherical surfaces by the use of a color relative intensity representation. (author)

  18. STS-102 Astronaut James Voss Participates in Space Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist James S. Voss works outside Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory (shown in lower frame) on the International Space Station (ISS), while anchored to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm on the Space Shuttle Discovery during the first of two space walks. During this space walk, the longest to date in space shuttle history, Voss in tandem with Susan Helms (out of frame), prepared the Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 for repositioning from the Unity Module's Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) supplied by the Italian Space Agency. The The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS' moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. Launched on May 8, 2001 for nearly 13 days in space, the STS-102 mission was the 8th spacecraft assembly flight to the ISS and NASA's 103rd overall mission. The mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  19. Calculation of Radiation Protection Quantities and Analysis of Astronaut Orientation Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Atwell, William; Anderson, Brooke M.; Luetke, Nathan J.; Wilson, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Health risk to astronauts due to exposure to ionizing radiation is a primary concern for exploration missions and may become the limiting factor for long duration missions. Methodologies for evaluating this risk in terms of radiation protection quantities such as dose, dose equivalent, gray equivalent, and effective dose are described. Environment models (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event), vehicle/habitat geometry models, human geometry models, and transport codes are discussed and sample calculations for possible lunar and Mars missions are used as demonstrations. The dependence of astronaut health risk, in terms of dosimetric quantities, on astronaut orientation within a habitat is also examined. Previous work using a space station type module exposed to a proton spectrum modeling the October 1989 solar particle event showed that reorienting the astronaut within the module could change the calculated dose equivalent by a factor of two or more. Here the dose equivalent to various body tissues and the whole body effective dose due to both galactic cosmic rays and a solar particle event are calculated for a male astronaut in two different orientations, vertical and horizontal, in a representative lunar habitat. These calculations also show that the dose equivalent at some body locations resulting from a solar particle event can vary by a factor of two or more, but that the dose equivalent due to galactic cosmic rays has a much smaller (<15%) dependence on astronaut orientation.

  20. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut. International Fitness Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Mission X, Train like an Astronaut, pilot project was a 2-year effort directed by the International Life Science Working Group. The pilot was funded by the Human Research Program and was lead by the Human Research Program Education and Outreach (HRPEO) project and supported by a group of space agencies providing in-kind resources. The aim was to identify an international educational outreach concept that would promote a life science topic utilizing the education and outreach expertise of the various space agencies working on the utilization of the International Space Station. This in turn serves as an inspiration for the younger generation to aspire to go further in school, and provides insight into the capability of a participating country to ensure the effort provided value for their communities and children. The pilot project developed the necessary tools to promote communications between the partners and to use materials and expertise from all the countries? space agencies. The Mission X Website (trainlikeanastronaut.org) provided a single repository for the educational activities as well as a place for the Challenge Teams to provide their progress in the international fitness challenge. It also added to the International flavor as different countries were able to share and learn about what was happening with all those involved in the 6-week challenge period. A point system was utilized to promote constructive, cooperative competition in which 4164 students participated. The points were used to help FitKid, Astro Charlie, "Walk-To-The-Moon". The 18 physical and educational Mission X activities were made available on the Mission X website in seven languages. The Mission X pilot project was considered a success in 1) the design, development, and implementation of the multi-language website, 2) the expansion of healthy lifestyle awareness, and 3) the concept for drawing an international educational community together to highlight global topics in association

  1. Combined Effects of Spaceflight and Age in Astronauts as Assessed by Areal Bone Mineral Density [BMD] and Trabecular Bone Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Evans, H. J.; King, L.; Watts, N. B.; Hans, D.; Smith, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is a potential risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in astronauts. Although lumbar spine (LS) BMD declines rapidly, more than expected for age, there have been no fragility fractures in astronauts that can clearly be attributed to spaceflight. Recently, astronauts have been returning from 6-month spaceflights with absolute BMD still above young adult mean BMD. In spite of these BMD measurements, we project that the rapid loss in bone mass over long-duration spaceflight affects the bone microarchitecture of the LS which might predispose astronauts to premature vertebral fractures. Thus, we evaluated TBS, a novel texture index correlated with vertebral bone microarchitecture, as a means of monitoring changes to bone microarchitecture in astronauts as they age. We previously reported that TBS detects an effect of spaceflight (6-month duration), independent of BMD, in 51 astronauts (47+/-4 y) (Smith et al, J Clin Densitometry 2014). Hence, TBS was evaluated in serial DXA scans (Hologic Discovery W) conducted triennially in all active and retired astronauts and more frequently (before spaceflight, after spaceflight and until recovery) in the subset of astronauts flying 4-6- month missions. We used non-linear models to describe trends in observations (BMD or TBS) plotted as a function of astronaut age. We fitted 1175 observations of 311 astronauts, pre-flight and then postflight starting 3 years after landing or after astronaut's BMD for LS was restored to within 2% of preflight BMD. Observations were then grouped and defined as follows: 1) LD: after exposure to at least one long-duration spaceflight > 100 days and 2) SD: before LD and after exposure to at least one short-duration spaceflight vertebral fractures in astronauts.

  2. Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

  3. Leisure time activities in space: A survey of astronauts and cosmonauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Alan D.; Kanas, Nick

    Questionnaires were returned from 54 astronauts and cosmonauts which addressed preferences for media and media-generated subjects that could be used to occupy leisure time in space. Ninety-three percent of the respondents had access to records or audio cassettes, and cosmonauts had greater access than astronauts to multiple media. Cosmonauts and long-duration space travelers reported that they missed various media more than their astronaut and short-duration counterparts. Media subjects that related to international events, national events and historical topics were rated as most preferable by all respondents and by several of the respondent groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for occupying free time during future long-duration manned space missions.

  4. Identifying the "Right Stuff": An Exploration-Focused Astronaut Job Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J. D.; Holland, A. W.; Vessey, W. B.

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and organizational (I/O) psychologists play a key role in NASA astronaut candidate selection through the identification of the competencies necessary to successfully engage in the astronaut job. A set of psychosocial competencies, developed by I/O psychologists during a prior job analysis conducted in 1996 and updated in 2003, were identified as necessary for individuals working and living in the space shuttle and on the International Space Station (ISS). This set of competencies applied to the space shuttle and applies to current ISS missions, but may not apply to longer-duration or long-distance exploration missions. With the 2015 launch of the first 12- month ISS mission and the shift in the 2020s to missions beyond low earth orbit, the type of missions that astronauts will conduct and the environment in which they do their work will change dramatically, leading to new challenges for these crews. To support future astronaut selection, training, and research, I/O psychologists in NASA's Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Operations and Research groups engaged in a joint effort to conduct an updated analysis of the astronaut job for current and future operations. This project will result in the identification of behavioral competencies critical to performing the astronaut job, along with relative weights for each of the identified competencies, through the application of job analysis techniques. While this job analysis is being conducted according to job analysis best practices, the project poses a number of novel challenges. These challenges include the need to identify competencies for multiple mission types simultaneously, to evaluate jobs that have no incumbents as they have never before been conducted, and working with a very limited population of subject matter experts. Given these challenges, under the guidance of job analysis experts, we used the following methods to conduct the job analysis and identify the key competencies for current and

  5. The ESA astronaut sleep restraint--its development and use onboard Spacelab and MIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockels, W; Stoewer, H

    1990-02-01

    The development of the ESA portable sleep restraint system is described. The system was developed to simulate certain earthbound sleep conditions in microgravity. The restraint is a bag made of two sheets of Nomex(R) cloth stretched over a tubular tension device and provides the astronaut with feedback pressure similar to bedding on Earth. The final prototype of the bag was tested on the German Spacelab-D1 mission and during a six-month mission aboard MIR. Positive feedback from astronauts suggests the need for further evaluation during space flight. PMID:11540491

  6. Astronaut John Young looks over a boulder at Station no. 13 during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, looks over a large boulder at Station No. 13 during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This was the site of the permanently shadowed soil sample which was taken from a hole extending under overhanging rock. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this photograph. Concerning Young's reaching under the big rock, Duke remarked: 'You do that in west Texas and you get a rattlesnake!'

  7. Astronaut Terence T. (Tom) Henricks, mission commander, shines a tiny flashlight onto some cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Among the Inflight Maintenance (IFM) chores that were handled by the crew members during their almost 17 days in space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia was one that involved going into the bay beneath the floor of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) Science Module. Astronaut Terence T. (Tom) Henricks, mission commander, shines a tiny flashlight onto some cables related to LMS-1 supported computer systems. As in the case of the other IFM chores, Henricks efforts were successful. He was joined by four other NASA astronauts and two international payload specialists for the Space Shuttle duration record-setting mission.

  8. Neutrino Solar Flare detection for a saving alert system of satellites and astronauts

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Largest Solar Neutrino Flare may be soon detectable by Deep Core neutrino detector immediately and comunicate to satellites or astronauts. Its detection is the fastest manifestation of a later (tens minutes,hours) dangerous cosmic shower. The precursor trigger maybe saving satellites and even long flight astronauts lives. We shall suggest how. Moreover their detection may probe the inner solar flare acceleration place as well as the neutrino flavor mixing in a new different parameter windows. We show the updated expected rate and signature of neutrinos and antineutrinos in largest solar flare for present tens Megaton Deep Core telescope at tens Gev range. Speculation for additional Icecube gigaton array signals are also considered.

  9. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  10. Astronauts in Outer Space Teaching Students Science: Comparing Chinese and American Implementations of Space-to-Earth Virtual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Song A.; Zhang, Meilan; Tillman, Daniel A.; Robertson, William; Siemssen, Annette; Paez, Carlos R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between science lessons taught by Chinese astronauts in a space shuttle and those taught by American astronauts in a space shuttle, both of whom conducted experiments and demonstrations of science activities in a microgravity space environment. The study examined the instructional structure…

  11. What it takes to Fly in Space...Training to be an Astronaut and Daily Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA requirements to become an astronaut, training astronauts must do to fly on the International Space Station (ISS), systems and other training, and day-to-day activities onboard ISS. Additionally, stowage, organization and methods of communication (email, video conferenceing, IP phone) are discussed.

  12. Astronaut Cooper's face and oxygen hose in picture made from TV camera photo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper's face is visible in the background while his oxygen hose stands out clearly in this picture made from the broadcast of a live TV camera onboard 'Faith 7' during the 17th orbit. The picture was received at Cape Canaveral, Florida, one of three points set up to receive the slow-scan TV picture.

  13. Astronaut Anthony W. England with soft drink in middeck area near galley

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Anthony W. England, mission specialist, drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Coke while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw. Just below him, food containers on a tray are attached to the middeck lockers.

  14. Astronaut Gordon Fullerton first pilot for Shuttle Approach and Landing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot of the first crew for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT), is photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  15. Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) / Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) Data Request Helpdesk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Millennia; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This session is intended to provide to HRP IWS attendees instant feedback on archived astronaut data, including such topics as content of archives, access, request processing, and data format. Members of the LSAH and LSDA teams will be available at a 'help desk' during the poster sessions to answer questions from researchers.

  16. Video-Astronaut Don Pettit Discusses the Value of Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Dr. Pettit speculates on the value of space research and the opportunities it offers for understanding nature's mysteries.

  17. Fish-eye lens view Astronauts Shepard and Mitchell in Lunar Module Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    A fish-eye lens view showing Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr. and Edgar D. Mitchell in the Apollo Lunar Module Mission Simulator at the Kennedy Space Center during preflight training for the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission. Shepard is the Apollo 14 commander; and Mitchell is the lunar module pilot.

  18. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Chancellor, Jeffery C.; Scott, Graham B. I.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop duri...

  19. Astronauts Borman and Lovell sit in life raft while awaiting pickup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts Frank Borman, command pilot, and James A. Lovell Jr., pilot, sit in life raft while awaiting pickup by a helicopter from the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. The three man Navy frogman team attached the flotation collar to increase the spacecraft's buoyancy prior to recovery.

  20. Group structure and group process for effective space station astronaut teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J. M.; Kagan, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Space Station crews will encounter new problems, many derived from the social interaction of groups working in space for extended durations. Solutions to these problems must focus on the structure of groups and the interaction of individuals. A model of intervention is proposed to address problems of interpersonal relationships and emotional stress, and improve the morale, cohesiveness, and productivity of astronaut teams.

  1. 1996 'STELLAR' and MCP summer programs commencement. Apollo Astronaut Buzz Aldren drops by after

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    1996 'STELLAR' and MCP summer programs commencement. Apollo Astronaut Buzz Aldren drops by after attending his book signing at US Space Camp eariler in the day is shown here with Gayle Wilson (governor's wife) and Ken Munechika (R) and Dr. Rose Grymes (center)

  2. Comprehensive visual field test & diagnosis system in support of astronaut health and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Clark, Jonathan B.; Reisman, Garrett E.; Tarbell, Mark A.

    Long duration spaceflight, permanent human presence on the Moon, and future human missions to Mars will require autonomous medical care to address both expected and unexpected risks. An integrated non-invasive visual field test & diagnosis system is presented for the identification, characterization, and automated classification of visual field defects caused by the spaceflight environment. This system will support the onboard medical provider and astronauts on space missions with an innovative, non-invasive, accurate, sensitive, and fast visual field test. It includes a database for examination data, and a software package for automated visual field analysis and diagnosis. The system will be used to detect and diagnose conditions affecting the visual field, while in space and on Earth, permitting the timely application of therapeutic countermeasures before astronaut health or performance are impaired. State-of-the-art perimetry devices are bulky, thereby precluding application in a spaceflight setting. In contrast, the visual field test & diagnosis system requires only a touchscreen-equipped computer or touchpad device, which may already be in use for other purposes (i.e., no additional payload), and custom software. The system has application in routine astronaut assessment (Clinical Status Exam), pre-, in-, and post-flight monitoring, and astronaut selection. It is deployable in operational space environments, such as aboard the International Space Station or during future missions to or permanent presence on the Moon and Mars.

  3. Astronaut Virgil Grissom during pre-flight checks prior to flight simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, command pilot for the Gemini-Titan 3 flight, reclines on a couch in the Pad 16 ready room during preflight checks prior to going to Pad 19 for flight simulations in the Gemini 3 spacecraft. Joe Schmitt, suit technician from the Manned Spacecraft Center's Crew Systems Division, stands by to assist Grissom.

  4. Results of the psychiatric, select-out evaluation of US astronaut applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, D. M.; Santy, P. A.; Holland, A. W.; Marsh, R.

    1992-01-01

    The psychiatric exclusion criteria for astronauts are based on NASA Medical Psychiatric Standards for space flight. Until recently, there were no standardized methods to evaluate disqualifying psychopathology in astronaut applicants. Method: One hundred and six astronaut applicants who had passed the intitial screening were evaluated for Axis 1 and Axis 2 DSM-3-R diagnoses using the NASA structured psychiatric interview. The interview consisted of three parts: (1) an unstructured portion for obtaining biographical and historical information, (2) the schedule for effective disorders-lifetime version (SASDL), specially modified to include all disqualifying Axis 1 mental disorders; and, (3) the personality assessment schedule (PAS) also modified to evaluate for Axis 2 disorders. Results: Nine of 106 candidates (8.5 percent) met diagnostic criteria for six Axis 1 disorders (including V code) or Axis 2 disorders. Two of these disorders were disqualifying for the applicants. 'Near' diagnoses (where applicants met at least 50 percent of the listed criteria) were assessed to demonstrate that clinicians using the interview were able to overcome applicants' reluctance to report symptomatomatology. Conclusion: The use of the NASA structured interview was effective in identifying past and present psychopathology in a group of highly motivated astronaut applicants. This was the first time a structured psychiatric interview had been used in such a setting for this purpose.

  5. Astronauts Newman and Walz evaluate tools for use on HST servicing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    With the Caribbean Sea and part of the Bahama Islands chain as a backdrop, two STS-51 crewmembers evaluate procedures and gear to be used on the upcoming Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-servicing mission. Sharing the lengthy extravehicular activity in and around Discovery's cargo bay were astronauts James H. Newman (left), and Carl E. Walz, mission specialists.

  6. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

  7. Automation of PCXMC and ImPACT for NASA Astronaut Medical Imaging Dose and Risk Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Picco, Charles; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To automate astronaut organ and effective dose calculations from occupational X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations incorporating PCXMC and ImPACT tools and to estimate the associated lifetime cancer risk per the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) using MATLAB(R). Methods: NASA follows guidance from the NCRP on its operational radiation safety program for astronauts. NCRP Report 142 recommends that astronauts be informed of the cancer risks from reported exposures to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. MATLAB(R) code was written to retrieve exam parameters for medical imaging procedures from a NASA database, calculate associated dose and risk, and return results to the database, using the Microsoft .NET Framework. This code interfaces with the PCXMC executable and emulates the ImPACT Excel spreadsheet to calculate organ doses from X-rays and CTs, respectively, eliminating the need to utilize the PCXMC graphical user interface (except for a few special cases) and the ImPACT spreadsheet. Results: Using MATLAB(R) code to interface with PCXMC and replicate ImPACT dose calculation allowed for rapid evaluation of multiple medical imaging exams. The user inputs the exam parameter data into the database and runs the code. Based on the imaging modality and input parameters, the organ doses are calculated. Output files are created for record, and organ doses, effective dose, and cancer risks associated with each exam are written to the database. Annual and post-flight exposure reports, which are used by the flight surgeon to brief the astronaut, are generated from the database. Conclusions: Automating PCXMC and ImPACT for evaluation of NASA astronaut medical imaging radiation procedures allowed for a traceable and rapid method for tracking projected cancer risks associated with over 12,000 exposures. This code will be used to evaluate future medical radiation exposures, and can easily be modified to accommodate changes to the risk

  8. Radiation dosimetry for crewmember exposure to cosmic radiation during astronaut training operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Atmospheric exposures' of astronauts to cosmic ions and secondary particles during air-flight training are being measured and analytically modeled for inclusion in the astronaut medical records database. For many of the ∼170 astronauts currently in the astronaut corps, their occupational radiation exposure history will be dominated by cosmic ion exposures during air-travel rather than short-duration spaceflight. Relatively low (usually <10 μSv hr -1 ) and uniform organ dose rates result from the penetrating mix of cosmic particles during atmospheric exposures at all altitudes, but at rates that vary greatly due to differences in flight profiles and the geomagnetic conditions at the time of flight. The precision and accuracy to which possible deleterious effects of the exposures can be assessed suffers from limitations that similarly impact assessment of human exposures in low-Earth orbit: uncertainties associated with the environmental measurements and their interpretation, uncertainties associated with the analytical tools that transport the cosmic radiation environment, and uncertain biological responses to low-dose-rate exposures to radiation fields of mixed radiation 'quality'. Lineal energy spectra will be measured using a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter designed for training and operational sorties frequently flown in T-38, Space Shuttle Trainer, and high altitude WB-57 aircraft. Linear energy spectra will be measured over multiple flights using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors, as well. Flight records are available for nearly 200,000 sorties flown in NASA aircraft by astronauts and flight officers in the Johnson Space Center Aircraft Operations Division over the past 25 years, yet this database only partially documents the complete exposure histories. Age-dependent risk analysis indicates significant impact, particularly to young women who anticipate lengthy on-orbit careers

  9. Managing the Risk for Early Onset Osteoporosis in Long-Duration Astronauts Due to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    Early Onset Osteoporosis is probably the most recognized but poorly understood long-term health risk due to spaceflight. Osteoporosis management is primarily prophylactic and clinical interventions rely upon the ability to predict fractures which is currently determined by surrogate measures of bone strength. The RMAT for Early Onset Osteoporosis identified some open issues related to the fact that long-duration astronauts compose a unique group of subjects for which clinical approaches for osteoporosis management do not apply. Long-duration astronauts are healthy, young (25 to 55 years of age), predominantly male, and physical fit relative to the typical osteoporosis patient. Moreover, during prolonged space missions (typically 6-month missions) the skeleton not only adapts to weightlessness, but is influenced by numerous risk factors induced by operational constraints, e.g., inability to maintain preflight weight-bearing and aerobic activities, sub-optimal dietary intake (e.g., high sodium content for food stability, lack of fresh fruit and vegetables), suppression of vitamin D metabolism by uv shielding, and remote medicine care. Moreover, adaptation results in novel changes to astronauts bones that cannot be detected by current medically-useful measures. Consequently, a panel of clinicians (recognized leaders and policy-makers in osteoporosis) was convened to review the dataset of bone measures and bone loss risk factors in long-duration astronauts. Driven by the queries in the RMAT, the panel was charged to determine 1) if an intervention is required to prevent this risk, 2) what type and at what time would intervention be optimal, 3) what is the clinical trigger that would require a medical response from flight surgeons and 4) how should research data be used in the clinical care of astronauts. Hence, the RMAT determined that a bone health policy need to be formulated specific for this unique cohort subjected to a novel skeletal condition

  10. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D; Charvat, Jacqueline M; Limoli, Charles L; Globus, Ruth K; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-01-01

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth's protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth's magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4-5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation. PMID:27467019

  11. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-01-01

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth’s protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth’s magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4–5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation. PMID:27467019

  12. Recommended Methods for Monitoring Skeletal Health in Astronauts to Distinguish Specific Effects of Prolonged Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasadi, Lukas J.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Scott A.; Yardley, Gregory L.; Evans, Harlan J.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA uses areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to monitor skeletal health in astronauts after typical 180-day spaceflights. The osteoporosis field and NASA, however, recognize the insufficiency of DXA aBMD as a sole surrogate for fracture risk. This is an even greater concern for NASA as it attempts to expand fracture risk assessment in astronauts, given the complicated nature of spaceflight-induced bone changes and the fact that multiple 1-year missions are planned. In the past decade, emerging analyses for additional surrogates have been tested in clinical trials; the potential use of these technologies to monitor the biomechanical integrity of the astronaut skeleton will be presented. OVERVIEW: An advisory panel of osteoporosis policy-makers provided NASA with an evidence-based assessment of astronaut biomedical and research data. The panel concluded that spaceflight and terrestrial bone loss have significant differences and certain factors may predispose astronauts to premature fractures. Based on these concerns, a proposed surveillance program is presented which a) uses Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans of the hip to monitor the recovery of spaceflight-induced deficits in trabecular BMD by 2 years after return, b) develops Finite Element Models [FEM] of QCT data to evaluate spaceflight effect on calculated hip bone strength and c) generates Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] from serial DXA scans of the lumbar spine to evaluate the effect of age, spaceflight and countermeasures on this novel index of bone microarchitecture. SIGNIFICANCE: DXA aBMD is a widely-applied, evidence-based predictor for fractures but not applicable as a fracture surrogate for premenopausal females and males <50 years. Its inability to detect structural parameters is a limitation for assessing changes in bone integrity with and without countermeasures. Collective use of aBMD, TBS, QCT, and FEM analysis for astronaut surveillance could

  13. Fitness to work of astronauts in conditions of action of the extreme emotional factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisniakova, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical model for the quantitative determination of influence of a level of emotional exertion on the success of human activity is presented. The learning curves of fixed words in the groups with a different level of the emotional exertion are analyzed. The obtained magnitudes of time constant T depending on a type of the emotional exertion are a quantitative measure of the emotional exertion. Time constants could also be of use for a prediction of the characteristic of fitness to work of an astronaut in conditions of extreme factors. The inverse of the sign of influencing on efficiency of activity of the man is detected. The paper offers a mathematical model of the relation between successful activity and motivations or the emotional exertion (Yerkes-Dodson law). Proposed models can serve by the theoretical basis of the quantitative characteristics of an estimation of activity of astronauts in conditions of the emotional factors at a phase of their selection.

  14. NASA Virtual Glovebox: An Immersive Virtual Desktop Environment for Training Astronauts in Life Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twombly, I. Alexander; Smith, Jeffrey; Bruyns, Cynthia; Montgomery, Kevin; Boyle, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station will soon provide an unparalleled research facility for studying the near- and longer-term effects of microgravity on living systems. Using the Space Station Glovebox Facility - a compact, fully contained reach-in environment - astronauts will conduct technically challenging life sciences experiments. Virtual environment technologies are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to help realize the scientific potential of this unique resource by facilitating the experimental hardware and protocol designs and by assisting the astronauts in training. The Virtual GloveboX (VGX) integrates high-fidelity graphics, force-feedback devices and real- time computer simulation engines to achieve an immersive training environment. Here, we describe the prototype VGX system, the distributed processing architecture used in the simulation environment, and modifications to the visualization pipeline required to accommodate the display configuration.

  15. Balance in Astronauts Performing Jumps, Walking and Quiet Stance Following Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Both balance and locomotor ataxia is severe in astronauts returning from spaceflight with serious implications for unassisted landings. As a part of an ongoing effort to demonstrate the functional significance of the postflight ataxia problem our laboratory has evaluated jumping, walking heel-to-toe and quite stance balance immediately following spaceflight. Methods: Six astronauts from 12-16 day flights and three from 6-month flights were asked to perform three self-initiated two-footed jumps from a 30-cm-high platform, walking for 10 steps (three trials) placing the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed, and lastly, recover from a simulated fall by standing from a prone position on the floor and with eyes open maintain a quiet stance for 3 min with arms relaxed along the side of the body and feet comfortably positioned on a force plate. Crewmembers were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short-duration), and days 1, 6, and 30 following all flight durations. Results/Conclusions: Many of astronauts tested fell on their first postflight jump but recovered by the third jump showing a rapid learning progression. Changes in take-off strategy were clearly evident in duration of time in the air between the platform and the ground (significant reduction in time to land), and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on take-off postflight. During the tandem heel-to-toe walking task there was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short-duration crew) and on first day following landing (long-duration) with only partial recovery the following day. Astronauts for both short and long duration flight times appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. During quite stance most of crewmembers tested exhibited increased stochastic activity (larger short-term COP diffusion coefficients postflight in all planes and increases in mean sway speed).

  16. An ethical duty: Let astronautical development unfold - to make the people more secure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Marco C.

    2014-11-01

    In examining alternative space-development models, one observes that Heinlein postulated the first Moon flight as the outcome of the focused action of an individual - building upon an ample commercial aerospace transportation infrastructure. The same technological basis and entrepreneurial drive would then sustain a fast human and economic expansion on three new planets. Instead, historically, humans reached the Moon thanks to a "Faustian bargain" between astronautical developers and governments. This approach brought the early Apollo triumphs, but it also created the presumption of this method as the sole one for enabling space development. Eventually, the application of this paradigm caused the decline of the astronautical endeavor. Thus, just as conventional methods became unable to sustain the astronautical endeavor, space development appeared as vital, e.g., to satisfy the people's basic needs (metabolic resources, energy, materials, and space), as shown elsewhere. Such an endeavor must grow from actions generating new wealth through commercial activities to become self-supporting. Acquisition and distribution of multiform space resources call, however, for a sound ethical environment, as predatory governments can easily forfeit those resources. The paper begins the search for means apt to maintain a societal environment suited for this purpose. Among numerous initiatives needed, dissemination of factual information and moral-right education support take a central position: In fact, the vital condition for true Astronautics - a vast increase in actual respect of moral rights - can also become its best consequence, as the prosperity from the space arena empowers the people, making them materially safer and more secure in their fundamental moral rights.

  17. Affordance-based task communication methods for astronaut-robot cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Seppo S

    2011-01-01

    The problem with current human-robot task communication is that robots cannot understand complex human speech utterances, while humans cannot efficiently use the fixed task request utterances required by robots. Nonetheless, future planetary exploration missions are expected to require astronauts on extra-vehicular activities to communicate task requests to robot assistants with speech- and gesture-type user interfaces that can be easily embedded in their space suits. The solution propos...

  18. Distance and Size Perception in Astronauts during Long-Duration Spaceflight

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Clément; Anna Skinner; Corinna Lathan

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight is known to elicit orientation illusions, errors in sensory localization, postural imbalance, changes in vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and space motion sickness. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether an alteration in cognitive visual-spatial processing, such as the perception of distance and size of objects, is also taking place during prolonged exposure to microgravity. Our results show that astronauts on boa...

  19. Physiological and psychological stress limits for astronautics Observations during the Skylab I-III missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The physiological and psychological factors of manned space flight had a particular significance in the Skylab missions during which astronauts were subjected to a life in a space environment for longer periods of time than on previous space missions. The Skylab missions demonstrated again the great adaptability of human physiology to the environment of man. The results of Skylab have indicated also approaches for enhancing the capability of man to tolerate the physiological and psychological stresses of space flight.

  20. Do Astronauts Havbe a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions Than a Cohort of Working Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Young, M.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Tarver, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated [1], but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  1. Decreased otolith-mediated vestibular response in 25 astronauts induced by long-duration spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Emma; Kornilova, Ludmila; Fransen, Erik; Glukhikh, Dmitrii; Moore, Steven T; Clément, Gilles; Van Ombergen, Angelique; MacDougall, Hamish; Naumov, Ivan; Wuyts, Floris L

    2016-06-01

    The information coming from the vestibular otolith organs is important for the brain when reflexively making appropriate visual and spinal corrections to maintain balance. Symptoms related to failed balance control and navigation are commonly observed in astronauts returning from space. To investigate the effect of microgravity exposure on the otoliths, we studied the otolith-mediated responses elicited by centrifugation in a group of 25 astronauts before and after 6 mo of spaceflight. Ocular counterrolling (OCR) is an otolith-driven reflex that is sensitive to head tilt with regard to gravity and tilts of the gravito-inertial acceleration vector during centrifugation. When comparing pre- and postflight OCR, we found a statistically significant decrease of the OCR response upon return. Nine days after return, the OCR was back at preflight level, indicating a full recovery. Our large study sample allows for more general physiological conclusions about the effect of prolonged microgravity on the otolith system. A deconditioned otolith system is thought to be the cause of several of the negative effects seen in returning astronauts, such as spatial disorientation and orthostatic intolerance. This knowledge should be taken into account for future long-term space missions. PMID:27009158

  2. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Akeem

    2012-01-01

    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  3. Mission X in Japan, an Education Outreach Program Featuring Astronautical Specialties and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niihori, Maki; Yamada, Shin; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Nakao, Reiko; Nakazawa, Takashi; Kamiyama, Yoshito; Takeoka, Hajime; Matsumoto, Akiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    In the science field, disseminating new information to the public is becoming increasingly important, since it can aid a deeper understanding of scientific significance and increase the number of future scientists. As part of our activities, we at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Space Biomedical Research Office, started work to focus on education outreach featuring space biomedical research. In 2010, we launched the Mission X education program in Japan, named after “Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut” (hereinafter called “Mission X”), mainly led by NASA and European Space Agency (ESA). Mission X is an international public outreach program designed to encourage proper nutrition and exercise and teaching young people to live and eat like astronauts. We adopted Mission X's standpoint, and modified the program based on the originals to suit Japanese culture and the students' grade. Using astronauts as examples, this mission can motivate and educate students to instill and adopt good nutrition and physical fitness as life-long practices.Here we introduce our pilot mission of the “Mission X in Japan” education program, which was held in early 2011. We are continuing the education/public outreach to promote the public understanding of science and contribute to science education through lectures on astronautical specialties and knowledge.

  4. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery C. Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO. Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs, but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  5. Study of astronaut restraints and mobility aids in a weightless shirtsleeve environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loats, H. L., Jr.; Mattingly, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study, established to produce needed information about manual performance limits in intravehicular weightlessness such as the motions induced by the astronaut's direct application of force against the body of the vehicle or an object to be moved, is presented. Using both conventional and water immersion techniques, it was possible to develop realistic time estimates for astronaut station-to-station translation in Skylab, to simulate and analyze specific Skylab tasks involving force application and motion dynamics, and to evaluate certain thresholds of force application in weightlessness. The study was divided into three tasks. The first related to locomotion and verification or modification of present Skylab translation timelines. In all cases, translation times were less than the Skylab timelines indicated. The second task studied mass handling and transfer. Specifically, this involved measurement of the astronaut's ability to relocate the Skylab food lockers to stowage levels of three different heights and his ability to transfer the M509 PSS bottles between the OWS and the recharge station. The third task helped define the physical limits of man's ability to perform Skylab translation tasks under weightless conditions.

  6. Use of lower body negative pressure to counter symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    This report briefly discusses some aspects of autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction as related to changes in orthostatic function in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts. This relationship is described in normal individuals to provide the basis for discussion of parameters that may be altered in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts. The relationships between disease states, age, periods of weightlessness during space flight, and autonomic dysfunction, and their contribution to changes in orthostatic tolerance are presented. The physiologic effects of lower body negative pressure are illustrated by presenting data obtained in bed rest subjects and in astronauts. Finally, the usefulness of lower body negative pressure to counter symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts is discussed.

  7. Feasibility study of astronaut standardized career dose limits in LEO and the outlook for BLEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Bhardwaj, A.; Ferrari, Franco; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Lal, A. K.; Li, Yinghui; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Nymmik, Rikho; Panasyuk, Michael; Petrov, Vladislav; Reitz, Guenther; Pinsky, Lawrence; Muszaphar Shukor, Sheikh; Singhvi, A. K.; Straube, Ulrich; Tomi, Leena; Townsend, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    Cosmic Study Group SG 3.19/1.10 was established in February 2013 under the aegis of the International Academy of Astronautics to consider and compare the dose limits adopted by various space agencies for astronauts in Low Earth Orbit. A preliminary definition of the limits that might later be adopted by crews exploring Beyond Low Earth Orbit was, in addition, to be made. The present paper presents preliminary results of the study reported at a Symposium held in Turin by the Academy in July 2013. First, an account is provided of exposure limits assigned by various partner space agencies to those of their astronauts that work aboard the International Space Station. Then, gaps in the scientific and technical information required to safely implement human missions beyond the shielding provided by the geomagnetic field (to the Moon, Mars and beyond) are identified. Among many recommendations for actions to mitigate the health risks potentially posed to personnel Beyond Low Earth Orbit is the development of a preliminary concept for a Human Space Awareness System to: provide for crewed missions the means of prompt onboard detection of the ambient arrival of hazardous particles; develop a strategy for the implementation of onboard responses to hazardous radiation levels; support modeling/model validation that would enable reliable predictions to be made of the arrival of hazardous radiation at a distant spacecraft; provide for the timely transmission of particle alerts to a distant crewed vehicle at an emergency frequency using suitably located support spacecraft. Implementation of the various recommendations of the study can be realized based on a two pronged strategy whereby Space Agencies/Space Companies/Private Entrepreneurial Organizations etc. address the mastering of required key technologies (e.g. fast transportation; customized spacecraft design) while the International Academy of Astronautics, in a role of handling global international co-operation, organizes

  8. Comprehensive analysis of the skin fungal microbiota of astronauts during a half-year stay at the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Cho, Otomi; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    2016-03-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a huge manned construct located approximately 400 km above the earth and is inhabited by astronauts performing space experiments. Because the station is within a closed microgravity environment, the astronauts are subject to consistent stress. This study analyzed the temporal changes in the skin fungal microbiota of 10 astronauts using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR assay before, during, and after their stay in the ISS. Lipophilic skin fungi, Malassezia predominated most samples regardless of the collection period, body site (cheek or chest), or subject. During their stay in the ISS, the level of Malassezia colonization changed by 7.6- ± 7.5-fold (mean ± standard deviation) and 9.5- ± 24.2-fold in cheek and chest samples, respectively. At the species level, M. restricta, M. globosa, and M. sympodialis were more abundant. In the chest samples, the ratio of M. restricta to all Malassezia species increased, whereas it did not change considerably in cheek samples. Fungal diversity was reduced, and the ratio of Malassezia to all fungal colonization increased during the astronauts' stay at the ISS. The ascomycetous yeast Cyberlindnera jadinii was detected in abundance in the in-flight sample of 5 of the 10 astronauts. The microorganism may have incidentally adhered to the skin during the preflight period and persisted on the skin thereafter. This observation suggests the ability of a specific or uncommon microorganism to proliferate in a closed environment. Our study is the first to reveal temporal changes in the skin fungal microbiota of ISS astronauts. These findings will provide information useful for maintaining the health of astronauts staying in the space environment for long periods and for preventing infection due to the human skin microbiota. PMID:26773135

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of skeletal muscles in astronauts after 9 days of space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaweed, M.; Narayana, P.; Slopis, J.; Butler, I.; Schneider, V.; Leblanc, A.; Fotedar, L.; Bacon, D.

    1992-01-01

    Skylab data indicated that prolonged exposure of human subjects to microgravity environment causes significant muscle atrophy accompanied by reduced muscle strength and fatigue resistance. The objective of this study was to determine decrements in muscle size, if any, in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of male and female astronauts after 9 days of space flight. Methods: Eight astronauts, one female and seven male, between the ages of 31 and 59 years 59-84 kg in body weight were examined by MRI 2-3 times preflight within 16 days before launch, and 2 days, (n=6) and seven days (n=3) after landing. The right leg muscles (gastroc-soleus) were imaged with a lower extremity coil in magnets operating at 1.0 or 1.5 Tsela. The imaging protocol consisted of spin echo with a Tr of 0.70 - 1.5 sec. Thirty to forty 3-5 mm thick slices were acquired in 256 x 128 or 256 x 256 matrices. Acquisition time lasted 20-40 minutes. Multiple slices were measured by computerized planimetry. Results: Compared to the preflight, the cross-sectoral areas (CSA) of the soleus, gastrocnemius, and the leg, at 2 days after landing were reduced (at least p less than 0.05) 8.9 percent, 13.2 percent, and 9.5 percent respectively. The soleus and the leg of three astronauts evaluated at 7 days postflight did not show full recovery compared to the preflight values. Conclusions: It is concluded that l9-days of space flight may cause significant decreases in CSA of the leg muscles. The factors responsible for this loss need further determination.

  10. STS-118 Astronaut Williams and Expedition 15 Engineer Anderson Perform EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 Astronaut Dave Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, participated in the fourth and final session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). During the 5 hour space walk, Williams and Expedition 15 engineer Clay Anderson (out of frame) installed the External Wireless Instrumentation System Antenna, attached a stand for the shuttle robotic arm extension boom, and retrieved the two Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) for return to Earth. MISSE collects information on how different materials weather in the environment of space.

  11. Custom Gradient Compression Stockings May Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance in Astronauts After Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after space flight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. NASA astronauts currently wear an inflatable anti-gravity suit (AGS) during re-entry, but this device is uncomfortable and loses effectiveness upon egress from the Shuttle. We recently determined that thigh-high, gradient compression stockings were comfortable and effective after space flight, though to a lesser degree than the AGS. We also recently showed that addition of splanchnic compression to this thigh-high compression stocking paradigm improved orthostatic tolerance to a level similar to the AGS, in a ground based model. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new, three-piece breast-high gradient compression garment as a countermeasure to post-space flight orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Eight U.S. astronauts have volunteered for this experiment and were individually fitted for a three-piece, breast-high compression garment to provide 55 mmHg compression at the ankle which decreased to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and provides 15 mmHg over the abdomen. Orthostatic testing occurred 30 days pre-flight (w/o garment) and 2 hours after flight (w/ garment) on landing day. Blood pressure (BP), Heart Rate (HR) and Stroke Volume (SV) were acquired for 2 minutes while the subject lay prone and then for 3.5 minutes after the subject stands up. To date, two astronauts have completed pre- and post-space flight testing. Data are mean SD. Results: BP [pre (prone to stand): 137+/-1.6 to 129+/-2.5; post: 130+/-2.4 to 122+/-1.6 mmHg] and SV [pre (prone to stand): 61+/-1.6 to 38+/-0.2; post: 58+/-6.4 to 37+/-6.0 ml] decreased with standing, but no differences were seen post-flight w/ compression garments compared to pre-flight w/o garments. HR [pre (prone to stand): 66+/-1.6 to 74+/-3.0, post: 67+/-5.6 to 78+/-6.8 bpm] increased with standing, but no differences were seen pre- to post-flight. Conclusion: After space

  12. Astronaut Charles Duke near Lunar Roving Vehicle at Station no. 4 during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, stands near the Lunar Roving Vehicle at Station no. 4, near Stone Mountain, during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. Light rays from South Ray crater can be seen at upper left. The gnomon, which is used as a photographic reference to establish local vertical Sun angle, scale, and lunar color, is deployed in the center foreground. Note angularity of rocks in the area.

  13. Skylab beverage container filled with orange juice held by Astronaut Conrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    An accordian-style beverage dispenser filled with orange juice is held by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, in this close-up view which is a reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. Conrad (head and face not in view) is seated at the wardroom table in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop. The dispenser contained beverage crystals, and Conrad has just added the prescribed amount of water to make the orange drink.

  14. HAMLET -Human Model MATROSHKA for Radiation Exposure Determination of Astronauts -Current status and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Burmeister, Soenke; Labrenz, Johannes; Hager, Luke; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    The exploration of space as seen in specific projects from the European Space Agency (ESA) acts as groundwork for human long duration space missions. One of the main constraints for long duration human missions is radiation. The radiation load on astronauts and cosmonauts in space (as for the ISS) is a factor of 100 higher than the natural radiation on Earth and will further increase should humans travel to Mars. In preparation for long duration space missions it is important to evaluate the impact of space radiation in order to secure the safety of the astronauts and minimize their radiation risks. To determine the radiation risk on humans one has to measure the radiation doses to radiosensitive organs within the human body. One way to approach this is the ESA facility MATROSHKA (MTR), under the scientific and project lead of DLR. It is dedicated to determining the radiation load on astronauts within and outside the International Space Station (ISS), and was launched in January 2004. MTR is currently preparing for its fourth experimental phase inside the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) in summer 2010. MTR, which mimics a human head and torso, is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors to determine the depth dose and organ dose distribution in the body. It is the largest international research initiative ever performed in the field of space dosimetry and combines the expertise of leading research institutions around the world, thereby generating a huge pool of data of potentially immense value for research. Aiming at optimal scientific exploitation, the FP7 project HAMLET aims to process and compile the data acquired individually by the participating laboratories of the MATROSHKA experiment. Based on experimental input from the MATROSHKA experiment phases as well as on radiation transport calculations, a three-dimensional model for the distribution of radiation dose in an astronaut's body will be built up. The scientific achievements

  15. That's MY Astronaut! Could Democratic Space Tourism Contribute to Earth Stewardship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E. F.

    2012-08-01

    Many studies have been done on the physical and biological effects of space on the human body. The psychological effects of living in space are also being analyzed including the stressors from living in an isolated environment. But are we paying enough attention to what seems to be a positive effect on the human psyche, that is, the effect on astronauts and cosmonauts of the magnificent view of Earth from space? Does the length of time spent looking out the window affect our consciousness? Who comes back changed? And why? Such a social experiment needs more participants. Could democratic access to the view via suborbital space tourism change our Earth for the better?

  16. STS-48 crew, exiting CTV, is greeted by astronaut Richards at EAFB, Calif

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), egress the crew transport vehicle (CTV) ('people mover') after completing their successful six day mission in Earth orbit. They are greeted on runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, by fellow astronaut Richard N. Richards. Commander John O. Creighton shakes Richards' hand and is followed by Mission Specialist (MS) James F. Buchli, MS Charles D. Gemar, Pilot Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr, and MS Mark N. Brown (all on CTV stairway). Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, can be seen in the background. The night landing occurred at 12:38:38 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)).

  17. Cancer Risk Estimates from Space Flight Estimated Using Yields of Chromosome Damage in Astronaut's Blood Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kerry A.; Rhone, J.; Chappell, L. J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    To date, cytogenetic damage has been assessed in blood lymphocytes from more than 30 astronauts before and after they participated in long-duration space missions of three months or more on board the International Space Station. Chromosome damage was assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome analysis techniques. For all individuals, the frequency of chromosome damage measured within a month of return from space was higher than their preflight yield, and biodosimetry estimates were within the range expected from physical dosimetry. Follow up analyses have been performed on most of the astronauts at intervals ranging from around 6 months to many years after flight, and the cytogenetic effects of repeat long-duration missions have so far been assessed in four individuals. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been validated as biomarkers of cancer risk and cytogenetic damage can therefore be used to characterize excess health risk incurred by individual crewmembers after their respective missions. Traditional risk assessment models are based on epidemiological data obtained on Earth in cohorts exposed predominantly to acute doses of gamma-rays, and the extrapolation to the space environment is highly problematic, involving very large uncertainties. Cytogenetic damage could play a key role in reducing uncertainty in risk estimation because it is incurred directly in the space environment, using specimens from the astronauts themselves. Relative cancer risks were estimated from the biodosimetry data using the quantitative approach derived from the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health database. Astronauts were categorized into low, medium, or high tertiles according to their yield of chromosome damage. Age adjusted tertile rankings were used to estimate cancer risk and results were compared with values obtained using traditional modeling approaches. Individual tertile rankings increased after space

  18. Training Select-in Interviewers for Astronaut Selection: A Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, S.; Galarza, L.; Holland, A.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Psychological factors critical to the success of short and long-duration missions have been identified in previous research; however, evaluation for such critical factors in astronaut applicants leaves much room for human interpretation. Thus, an evaluator training session was designed to standardize the interpretation of critical factors, as well as the structure of the select-in interview across evaluators. The purpose of this evaluative study was to determine the effectiveness of the evaluator training sessions and their potential impact on evaluator ratings.

  19. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  20. Estimation of the radiation effects on the astronauts for different phases of the solar cycle and shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobynde, M. I.; Drozdov, A.; Shprits, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High-energy particle fluxes make interplanetary space very a very hazardous environment. Particles originating from the Sun and outside of the solar system and induced secondary particle showers can lead to variety of damage to astronauts in short- and long- term perspective. Natural sources of radiation show a pronounced solar cycle dependence. Currently the only habituated mission is the ISS at altitude of 400 km above the Earth. ISS is protected by the Earth magnetosphere and spacecraft. In the current study we make estimats of spacecraft parameters and astronauts damage for long-term interplanetary flights We combined results of GEANT4 Monte-Carlo simulations and dependent models of galactic cosmic ray and solar energy particle events to calculate dose obtained with an astronaut during long-term interplanetary flight. We have shown how shield material and thickness effect on radiation field inside a spacecraft and radiation dose rate obtained with an astronaut. Bringing together numeric simulations results of galactic cosmic rays ,solar energy particle events models, and realistic models of spacecraft, we demonstrate dependence of the astronauts' radiation dose during space flight on mission launching date and flight duration.

  1. Hybrid Force Control Based on ICMAC for an Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot (ART based on a cable‐driven mechanism is represented in this paper. ART, a typical passive force servo system, can help astronauts to bench press in a microgravity environment. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers to eliminate the surplus force caused by an astronaut’s active movements. Based on the dynamics modelling of the cable‐driven unit, a hybrid force controller based on improved credit assignment CMAC (ICMAC is presented. A planning method for the cable tension is proposed so that the dynamic load produced by the ART can realistically simulate the gravity and inertial force of the barbell in a gravity environment. Finally, MATLAB simulation results of the man‐machine cooperation system are provided in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. The simulation results show that the hybrid control method based on the structure invariance principle can inhibit the surplus force and that ICMAC can improve the dynamic performance of the passive force servo system. Furthermore, the hybrid force controller based on ICMAC can ensure the stability of the system.

  2. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  3. Enhanced Monocular Visual Odometry Integrated with Laser Distance Meter for Astronaut Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual odometry provides astronauts with accurate knowledge of their position and orientation. Wearable astronaut navigation systems should be simple and compact. Therefore, monocular vision methods are preferred over stereo vision systems, commonly used in mobile robots. However, the projective nature of monocular visual odometry causes a scale ambiguity problem. In this paper, we focus on the integration of a monocular camera with a laser distance meter to solve this problem. The most remarkable advantage of the system is its ability to recover a global trajectory for monocular image sequences by incorporating direct distance measurements. First, we propose a robust and easy-to-use extrinsic calibration method between camera and laser distance meter. Second, we present a navigation scheme that fuses distance measurements with monocular sequences to correct the scale drift. In particular, we explain in detail how to match the projection of the invisible laser pointer on other frames. Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in a simulated lunar surface environment. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Enhanced monocular visual odometry integrated with laser distance meter for astronaut navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Di, Kaichang; Sun, Xun; Wan, Wenhui; Liu, Zhaoqin

    2014-01-01

    Visual odometry provides astronauts with accurate knowledge of their position and orientation. Wearable astronaut navigation systems should be simple and compact. Therefore, monocular vision methods are preferred over stereo vision systems, commonly used in mobile robots. However, the projective nature of monocular visual odometry causes a scale ambiguity problem. In this paper, we focus on the integration of a monocular camera with a laser distance meter to solve this problem. The most remarkable advantage of the system is its ability to recover a global trajectory for monocular image sequences by incorporating direct distance measurements. First, we propose a robust and easy-to-use extrinsic calibration method between camera and laser distance meter. Second, we present a navigation scheme that fuses distance measurements with monocular sequences to correct the scale drift. In particular, we explain in detail how to match the projection of the invisible laser pointer on other frames. Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in a simulated lunar surface environment. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24618780

  5. Development of a Human Behavior and Performance Training Curriculum for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, Steve; Tomi, Leena; Vassin, Alexander; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Bessone, Lorendana; OConnor, Sharon; Mukai, Chiaki; Coffee, Emily; Sipes, Walter; Salnitskiy, Vyecheslav; Ren, Victor; Spychalski, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The paper will describe the DACUM process and summarize the core competencies that were agreed upon, internationally, as important for ISS astronauts. The paper will further discuss the ongoing work being completed by the subgroup, Human Behaviour and Performance Training Working Group, including defining the competencies and behavioural markers. Finally, an overview of remaining work will be provided, including determining which competencies require formal training and which require no formal training, developing training objectives, sequencing the training, and establishing how to assess training effectiveness. DISCUSSION: Designing a common set of goals for behavioural training has been the desire of the SHBP WG since its inception in 1998. This group, along with training specialists and astronauts, are making great strides toward defining these competencies. The road ahead will be exceedingly challenging as training objectives are defined and a training flow is proposed to the MCOP; with proposed ISS crews increasing to six people in the near future, such enhanced behavioural training may be all the more essential for mission success.

  6. Changes in Near Visual Acuity of Over Time in the Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiym, Wafa; Wear, Mary L.; Locke, James; Mason, Sara; VanBaalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that visual impairment due to intracranial pressure (VIIP) would increase the rate of which presbyopia would occur in the astronaut population, with long durations flyers at an especially high risk. Presbyopia is characterized as the gradual loss of near visual acuity overtime due to a loss in ability to accommodate. It generally develops in the mid-40s and progresses until about age 65. This analysis considered annual vision exams conducted on active NASA astronauts with spaceflight experience currently between the ages of 40 to 60 years of age. Onset of presbyopia was characterized as a shift of at least 20 units on the standard Snellen test from one annual exam to the next. There were 236 short duration and 48 long duration flyers, the majority of whom did experience onset of presbyopia between age 40 and 60. This shift however, did not necessarily come after spaceflight. In comparing the short and long duration flyers the mean age of onset was 47 years old (SD+/-3.7). The mean of onset within the general population is 45 to 47 years old [1, 2]. The mean age of the onset of presbyopia as compared to the general population indicates that space flight does not induce early development of presbyopia.

  7. Access to Archived Astronaut Data for Human Research Program Researchers: Update on Progress and Process Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. R.; Montague, K. A.; Charvat, J. M.; Wear, M. L.; Thomas, D. M.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA directive to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for astronaut medical data has increased greatly. LSAH and LSDA personnel are working with Human Research Program on many fronts to improve data access and decrease lead time for release of data. Some examples include the following: Feasibility reviews for NASA Research Announcement (NRA) data mining proposals; Improved communication, support for researchers, and process improvements for retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols; Supplemental data sharing for flight investigators versus purely retrospective studies; Work with the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) to develop acceptable data sharing and crew consent processes and to organize inter-agency data coordinators to facilitate requests for international crewmember data. Current metrics on data requests crew consenting will be presented, along with limitations on contacting crew to obtain consent. Categories of medical monitoring data available for request will be presented as well as flow diagrams detailing data request processing and approval steps.

  8. Muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb based on sEMG and subjective assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xiaoqi; Zhou, Qianxiang; Li, Yun

    2012-07-01

    All movements are driven by muscle contraction, and it is easy to cause muscle fatigue. Evaluation of muscle fatigue is a hot topic in the area of astronaut life support training and rehabilitation. If muscle gets into fatigue condition, it may reduce work efficiency and has an impact on psychological performance. Therefore it is necessary to develop an accurate and usable method on muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb. In this study, we developed a method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and subjective assessment (Borg scale) to evaluate local muscle fatigue. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in the experiment. They performed isometric muscle contractions of the upper limb. sEMG of the biceps brachii were recorded during the entire process of isotonic muscle contraction and Borg scales of muscle fatigue were collected in certain times. sEMG were divided into several parts, and then mean energy of each parts were calculated by the one-twelfth band octave method. Equations were derived based on the relationship between the mean energy of sEMG and Borg scale. The results showed that cubic curve could describe the degree of local muscle fatigue, and could be used to evaluate and monitor local muscle fatigue during the entire process.

  9. Dysfunctional vestibular system causes a blood pressure drop in astronauts returning from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Emma; Migeotte, Pierre-François; Kornilova, Ludmila; Delière, Quentin; Fransen, Erik; Glukhikh, Dmitrii; Moore, Steven T.; Clément, Gilles; Diedrich, André; MacDougall, Hamish; Wuyts, Floris L.

    2015-01-01

    It is a challenge for the human body to maintain stable blood pressure while standing. The body’s failure to do so can lead to dizziness or even fainting. For decades it has been postulated that the vestibular organ can prevent a drop in pressure during a position change – supposedly mediated by reflexes to the cardiovascular system. We show – for the first time – a significant correlation between decreased functionality of the vestibular otolith system and a decrease in the mean arterial pressure when a person stands up. Until now, no experiments on Earth could selectively suppress both otolith systems; astronauts returning from space are a unique group of subjects in this regard. Their otolith systems are being temporarily disturbed and at the same time they often suffer from blood pressure instability. In our study, we observed the functioning of both the otolith and the cardiovascular system of the astronauts before and after spaceflight. Our finding indicates that an intact otolith system plays an important role in preventing blood pressure instability during orthostatic challenges. Our finding not only has important implications for human space exploration; they may also improve the treatment of unstable blood pressure here on Earth. PMID:26671177

  10. The Virtual Glovebox (VGX): An Immersive Simulation System for Training Astronauts to Perform Glovebox Experiments in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station (ISS) has finally arrived, providing researchers on Earth a unique opportunity to study long-term effects of weightlessness and the space environment on structures, materials and living systems. Many of the physical, biological and material science experiments planned for ISS will require significant input and expertise from astronauts who must conduct the research, follow complicated assay procedures and collect data and samples in space. Containment is essential for Much of this work, both to protect astronauts from potentially harmful biological, chemical or material elements in the experiments as well as to protect the experiments from contamination by air-born particles In the Space Station environment. When astronauts must open the hardware containing such experiments, glovebox facilities provide the necessary barrier between astronaut and experiment. On Earth, astronauts are laced with the demanding task of preparing for the many glovebox experiments they will perform in space. Only a short time can be devoted to training for each experimental task and gl ovebox research only accounts for a small portion of overall training and mission objectives on any particular ISS mission. The quality of the research also must remain very high, requiring very detailed experience and knowledge of instrumentation, anatomy and specific scientific objectives for those who will conduct the research. This unique set of needs faced by NASA has stemmed the development of a new computer simulation tool, the Virtual Glovebox (VGB), which is designed to provide astronaut crews and support personnel with a means to quickly and accurately prepare and train for glovebox experiments in space.

  11. NASA astronaut dosimetry: Implementation of scalable human phantoms and benchmark comparisons of deterministic versus Monte Carlo radiation transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir Alexander

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique radiation environment in space. United States terrestrial radiation worker limits, derived from guidelines produced by scientific panels, do not apply to astronauts. Limits for astronauts have changed throughout the Space Age, eventually reaching the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration limit of 3% risk of exposure induced death, with an administrative stipulation that the risk be assured to the upper 95% confidence limit. Much effort has been spent on reducing the uncertainty associated with evaluating astronaut risk for radiogenic cancer mortality, while tools that affect the accuracy of the calculations have largely remained unchanged. In the present study, the impacts of using more realistic computational phantoms with size variability to represent astronauts with simplified deterministic radiation transport were evaluated. Next, the impacts of microgravity-induced body changes on space radiation dosimetry using the same transport method were investigated. Finally, dosimetry and risk calculations resulting from Monte Carlo radiation transport were compared with results obtained using simplified deterministic radiation transport. The results of the present study indicated that the use of phantoms that more accurately represent human anatomy can substantially improve space radiation dose estimates, most notably for exposures from solar particle events under light shielding conditions. Microgravity-induced changes were less important, but results showed that flexible phantoms could assist in optimizing astronaut body position for reducing exposures during solar particle events. Finally, little overall differences in risk calculations using simplified deterministic radiation transport and 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport were found; however, for the galactic cosmic ray ion spectra, compensating errors were observed for the constituent ions, thus exhibiting the need to perform evaluations on a particle

  12. Results of the First Astronaut-Rover (ASRO) Field Experiment: Lessons and Directions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Kosmo, J. J.; Trevino, R. C.; Thomas, H.; Eppler, D.; Bualat, M. G.; Baker, K.; Huber, E.; Sierhuis, M.; Grin, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    The first Astronaut-Rover Interaction field experiment (hereafter designated as the ASRO project) took place Feb. 22-27, 1999, in Silver Lake, Mojave Desert, CA. The ASRO project is the result of a joint project between NASA Ames Research Center and Johnson Space Center. In the perspective of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) of the Solar System, this interaction - the astronaut and the rover as a complementary and interactive team - in the field is critical to assess but had never been tested before the Silver Lake experiment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Keeping the right time in space:importance of circadian clock and sleep for physiology and performance of astronauts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hu Guo; Wei-Min Qu; Shan-Guang Chen; Xiao-Ping Chen; Ke Lv; Zhi-Li Huang; Yi-Lan Wu

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock and sleep are essential for human physiology and behavior; deregulation of circadian rhythms impairs health and performance. Circadian clocks and sleep evolved to adapt to Earth’s environment, which is characterized by a 24-hour light–dark cycle. Changes in gravity load, lighting and work schedules during spaceflight missions can impact circadian clocks and disrupt sleep, in turn jeopardizing the mood, cognition and performance of orbiting astronauts. In this review, we summarize our understanding of both the influence of the space environment on the circadian timing system and sleep and the impact of these changes on astronaut physiology and performance.

  14. A Noninvasive Miniaturized-Wireless Laser-Doppler Fiber-Optic Sensor for Understanding Distal Fingertip Injuries in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Pollonini, Luca; Rodriquez, Mikael; Opperman, Roedolph; Hochstein, Jason

    2009-01-01

    During extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks astronauts over use their fingertips under pressure inside the confined spaces of gloves/space suits. The repetitive hand motion is a probable cause for discomfort and injuries to the fingertips. We describe a new wireless fiber-optic probe that can be integrated inside the astronaut glove for noninvasive blood perfusion measurements in distal fingertips. In this preliminary study, we present blood perfusion measurements while performing hand-grip exercises simulating the use of space tools.

  15. A non-invasive miniaturized-wireless laser-Doppler fiber optic sensor for understanding distal fingertip injuries in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Pollonini, Luca; Rodriguez, Mikael; Opperman, Roedolph; Hochstein, Jason

    2009-02-01

    During extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or space walks astronauts over use their fingertips under pressure inside the confined spaces of gloves/space-suite. The repetitive hand motion is a probable cause for discomfort and injuries to the finger-tips. We describe a new wireless fiber-optic probe that can be integrated inside the astronaut glove for non-invasive blood perfusion measurements in distal finger tips. In this preliminary study, we present blood perfusion measurements while performing hand-grip exercises simulating the use of space tools.

  16. Hypovolemia Induced Orthostatic Hypotension in Presyncopal Astronauts and Normal Subjects Relates to Hypo-Sympathetic Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, Janice V.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.; Ziegler, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Circulating blood volume is reduced during spaceflight, leaving astronauts hemodynamically compromised after landing. Because of this hypovolemia, crew members are able to withstand a postflight 10 minute upright tilt test only if they are able to mount a hyper-sympathetic response. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that about 30% of astronauts, primarily female, have postflight sympathetic responses to tilt that are equal to or less than their preflight responses and thus, they become presyncopal. Part of the mission of the cardiovascular lab at the Johnson Space Center is to identify susceptible crewmembers before flight so that individualized countermeasures can be prescribed. The goal of this study was to develop a ground based model of hypovolemia that could be used for this purpose We tested the hypothesis that hypovolemia alone, in the absence of spaceflight, would reproduce the landing day rate of presyncope during upright tilt in normal volunteers. Further, we hypothesized that, during hypovolemia, subjects who had sympathetic responses that were equal to or less than their normovolemic responses would become presyncopal during upright tilt tests. We studied 20 subjects, 13 male and 7 female, on two separate occasions: during normovolemia and hypovolemia. We induced hypovolemia with intravenous furosemide 40 hours prior to the experiment day, followed by a 10MEq Na diet. On the normovolemia and hypovolemia test days, plasma volume, tilt tolerance and supine and standing arterial pressure, heart rate and plasma norepinephrine levels were measured. A two factor, repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the differences between group (presyncopal vs. non-presyncopal) and day (normovolemia vs. hypovolemia) effects. There were no differences in baseline arterial pressure between normovolemia and hypovolemia or between presyncopal and non-presyncopal groups, but heart rates were higher with hypovolemia in both groups (presyncopal

  17. Testing and calibration of radiation dosimeters designed for astronauts during an EVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An active real-time dosimeter will be required for astronauts during extra vehicular activities (EVA). It must be capable of measuring and recording the dose rate and quality factor from galactic cosmic rays during ambient conditions. It must also record the dose and issue a warning to the astronaut during the initiation of a high intensity solar particle event (SPE). This dosimeter can be integrated into the new space suit configuration that is currently under design by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) or installed in a transportation rover or tool box. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is the administrative agency for this EVA initiative. The mission of NSBRI is to support NASA in understanding health concerns for astronauts during long term missions in space. It is a nonprofit agency dedicated to promoting research and dissemination of results through publications and scientific meetings. General specifications outlined by NASA are that the detectors should be tissue equivalent, omni-directional and capable of measuring ambient dose rates of 300 μGy/d for particles with LET ranging from 0.2 to 300 keV/μm. At the onset of a solar particle event the system must be capable of signaling an alarm at 0.05 mGy/min and at 10 mGy/min. Simultaneous measurements of the dose to the skin (surface) and blood forming organs (1 cm depth) must have a time resolution of 1 minute and a latency period less than 5 minutes. A Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) gives details of the absorbed dose and dose rate. It can also provide direct information on the quality or type of the radiation field. The interior cavity of the detector is filled with tissue equivalent gas such that the density thickness, cm2/g, of the gas is equivalent to the density thickness of tissue with dimensions approaching the nucleus of a mammalian cell (1-5 μm). The motivation for this was that the proportional counter serves as a microdosimeter that can

  18. Monitoring and Modeling Astronaut Occupational Radiation Exposures in Space: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyland, Mark; Golightly, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In 1982 astronauts were declared to be radiation workers by OSHA, and as such were subject to the rules and regulations applied to that group. NASA was already aware that space radiation was a hazard to crewmembers and had been studying and monitoring astronaut doses since 1962 at the Johnson Space Center. It was quickly realized NASA would not be able to accomplish all of its goals if the astronauts were subject to the ground based radiation worker limits, and thus received a waiver from OSHA to establish independent limits. As part of the stipulation attached to setting new limits, OSHA included a requirement to perform preflight dose projections for each crew and inform them of the associated risks. Additional requirements included measuring doses from various sources during the flight, making every effort to prevent a crewmember from exceeding the new limits, and keeping all exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (a.k.a. ALARA - a common health physics principle). The assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its initial manned operations will coincide with the 4-5 year period of high space weather activity at the next maximum in the solar cycle. For the first time in NASA's manned program, US astronauts will be in orbit continuously throughout a solar maximum period. During this period, crews are at risk of significantly increased radiation exposures due to solar particle events and trapped electron belt enhancements following geomagnetic storms. The problem of protecting crews is compounded by the difficulty of providing continuous real-time monitoring over a period of a decade in an era of tightly constrained budgets. In order to prepare for ISS radiological support needs, the NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group and the NOAA Space Environment Center have undertaken a multiyear effort to improve and automate ground-based space weather monitoring systems and real-time radiation analysis tools. These improvements include a coupled, automated

  19. Distance and Size Perception in Astronauts during Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Clément

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight is known to elicit orientation illusions, errors in sensory localization, postural imbalance, changes in vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and space motion sickness. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether an alteration in cognitive visual-spatial processing, such as the perception of distance and size of objects, is also taking place during prolonged exposure to microgravity. Our results show that astronauts on board the International Space Station exhibit biases in the perception of their environment. Objects’ heights and depths were perceived as taller and shallower, respectively, and distances were generally underestimated in orbit compared to Earth. These changes may occur because the perspective cues for depth are less salient in microgravity or the eye-height scaling of size is different when an observer is not standing on the ground. This finding has operational implications for human space exploration missions.

  20. The Association Between Serum Magnesium Concentrations and Coronary Artery Calcification Scores in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betcher, Jenna; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist, and is inversely associated with coronary heart disease, cardiovascular mortality rates, and vascular calcification. Coronary artery calcification score is a tool used to evaluate the prognosis of coronary artery disease in individuals. Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower coronary artery calcification scores (CACS), and recent studies have found a significant inverse relationship between serum magnesium concentrations and CACS in Korean and Mexican-mestizo populations. The correlation between serum magnesium concentrations and CACS is not well researched, so our aim was to examine this relationship in astronauts. We found that a higher serum magnesium concentration is significantly related to a higher coronary artery calcification score (p=.0217), and that there is a significant difference in magnesium concentrations of subjects who have a CACS greater than 100 and a CACS less than 100.

  1. Modeling Acute Health Effects of Astronauts from Exposure to Large Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    In space exploration outside the Earth s geomagnetic field, radiation exposure from solar particle events (SPE) presents a health concern for astronauts, that could impair their performance and result in possible failure of the mission. Acute risks are of special concern during extra-vehicular activities because of the rapid onset of SPE. However, most SPEs will not lead to acute risks but can lead to mission disruption if accurate projection methods are not available. Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS) is a group of clinical syndromes developing acutely (within several seconds to 3 days) after high dose whole-body or significant partial-body ionizing radiation exposures. The manifestation of these syndromes reflects the disturbance of physiological processes of various cellular groups damaged by radiation. Hematopoietic cells, skin, epithelium, intestine, and vascular endothelium are among the most sensitive tissues of human body to ionizing radiation. Most ARS symptoms are directly related to these tissues and other systems (nervous, endocrine, and cardiovascular, etc.) with coupled regulations. Here we report the progress in bio-mathematical models to describe the dose and time-dependent early human responses to ionizing radiation. The responses include lymphocyte depression, granulocyte modulation, fatigue and weakness syndrome, and upper gastrointestinal distress. The modest dose and dose-rates of SPEs are predicted to lead to large sparing of ARS, however detailed experimental data on a range of proton dose-rates for organ doses from 0.5 to 2 Gy is needed to validate the models. We also report on the ARRBOD code that integrates the BRYNTRN and SUMDOSE codes, which are used to estimate the SPE organ doses for astronauts under various space travel scenarios, with our models of ARS. The more recent effort is to provide easy web access to space radiation risk assessment using the ARRBOD code.

  2. Monitoring Astronaut Health at the Nanoscale Cellular Level Through the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Singh, Bhim S.; Rovati, Luigi; Docchio, Franco; Sebag, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    A user friendly goggles-like head-mounted device equipped with a suite of instruments for several non-invasive and quantitative medical evaluation of the eye, skin, and brain is desired for monitoring the health of astronauts during space travel and exploration of neighboring and distant planets. Real-time non-invasive evaluation of the different structures within the above organs can provide indices of the health of not just these organs, but the entire body. The techniques such as dynamic light scattering (for the early detection of uveitis, cholesterol levels, cataract, changes in the vitreous and possibly Alzheimer's disease), corneal autofluorescence (to assess extracellular matrix biology e.g., in diabetes), optical activity measurements (of anterior ocular fluid to evaluate blood-glucose levels), laser Doppler velocimetry (to assess retinal, optic nerve, and choroidal blood flow), reflectometry/oximetry (for assessing ocular and central nervous system oxygen metabolism), optical coherence tomography (to determine retinal tissue microstructure) and possibly scanning laser technology (for intraocular tissue imaging and scanning) will he integrated into this compact device. Skin sensors will also be mounted on the portion of the device in contact with the periocular region. This will enable monitoring of body temperature, EEG, and electrolyte status. This device will monitor astronaut health during long-duration space travel by detecting aberrations from pre-established "nonns", enabling prompt diagnosis and possibly the initiation of early preventative/curative therapy. The non-invasive nature of the device technologies permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling real-time complete crew health monitoring. This device may ultimately be useful in tele-medicine to bring modern healthcare to under-served areas on Earth as well as in so-called "advanced" care settings (e.g. diabetes in the USA).

  3. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  4. Improving Working Conditions for Astronauts: An Electronic Personal Restraint System for Use in Microgravity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tait

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While in microgravity, astronauts are preoccupied with physical restraint, which takes attention away from the maintenance task or scientific experiment at hand. This may directly lead to safety concerns and increased time for extravehicular activity, as well as potentially inhibit or corrupt data collection. A primary concern is the time it takes to manipulate the current restraint system. The portable foot restraint currently in use by NASA employs a series of pins in order to engage the system or release in an emergency. This requires considerable time for the user to detach, and there is an increased risk of entanglement. If restraint operating time could be reduced by 50%, the astronaut’s assigned experiment time could be increased an average of 100 minutes per mission. Another problem identified by NASA included the inability of the current system to release the user upon failure. Research and design was conducted following the Six-Sigma DMEDI project architecture, and a new form of restraint to replace the existing system was proposed. The research team first studied the customer requirements and relevant standards set by NASA, and with this information they began drafting designs for a solution. This project utilized electromagnetism to restrain a user in microgravity. The proposed system was capable of being manipulated quickly, failing in a manner that released the user, and being electronically controlled. This active electronic control was a new concept in restraint systems, as it enabled an astronaut to effectively “walk” along a surface while remaining restrained to it. With the design prototype and a limited budget, a rudimentary test assembly was built by the team, and most of NASA’s specifications were met. With recommendations from NASA, the research team concluded by developing potential material and design solutions that can be explored in the future by Purdue University or other parties.

  5. Fatigue in U.S. Astronauts Onboard the International Space Station: Environmental factors, Operational Impacts, and Implementation of Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Moomaw, R. C.; Johnston, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Crewmembers have experienced fatigue for reasons similar to military deployments. Astronauts experience psychological stressors such as: heavy workloads, extended duty periods, circadian misalignment, inadequate/ineffective sleep, distracting background noise, unexpected and variable mission schedules, unfavorable thermal control, unusual sleep environment with schedules that impinge on pre-sleep periods.

  6. Economic value analysis of the return from the Korean astronaut program and the science culture diffusion activity in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Soyeon; Jang, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Hyo Suk; Yu, Jong-Phil; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Joohee; Hur, Hee-Young

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyze the economic effects from the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity (SCDA). Korea has had a huge practical effect on the development of science and technology and has increased international awareness of Korea by producing Korea's first astronaut. There has also been a large, ripple effect on space related industries. In addition, the KAP has exercised a far-reaching influence on Korean society and culture by boosting all science and engineering and inspiring national pride. After the KAP, astronauts' outreach activities, such as lectures for the general public; interviews on television, newspapers and magazines; participating in children's science camps; and distributing publications and DVDs about astronaut program for general public, were instituted for diffusing science culture. Thus, positive effects such as the promotion of Korea's level of technology, student interest in science and engineering fields, and the expansion of the industrial base were reinforced after the KAP. This study is aimed at evaluating the economic significance and the value of return through analyzing the effects of the KAP and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity.

  7. The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

  8. Data Mining Activity for Bone Discipline: Calculating a Factor of Risk for Hip Fracture in Long-Duration Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, R.; Sibonga, J. D.; Bouxsein, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The factor-of-risk (Phi), defined as the ratio of applied load to bone strength, is a biomechanical approach to hip fracture risk assessment that may be used to identify subjects who are at increased risk for fracture. The purpose of this project was to calculate the factor of risk in long duration astronauts after return from a mission on the International Space Station (ISS), which is typically 6 months in duration. The load applied to the hip was calculated for a sideways fall from standing height based on the individual height and weight of the astronauts. The soft tissue thickness overlying the greater trochanter was measured from the DXA whole body scans and used to estimate attenuation of the impact force provided by soft tissues overlying the hip. Femoral strength was estimated from femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which were performed between 5-32 days of landing. All long-duration NASA astronauts from Expedition 1 to 18 were included in this study, where repeat flyers were treated as separate subjects. Male astronauts (n=20) had a significantly higher factor of risk for hip fracture Phi than females (n=5), with preflight values of 0.83+/-0.11 and 0.36+/-0.07, respectively, but there was no significant difference between preflight and postflight Phi (Figure 1). Femoral aBMD measurements were not found to be significantly different between men and women. Three men and no women exceeded the theoretical fracture threshold of Phi=1 immediately postflight, indicating that they would likely suffer a hip fracture if they were to experience a sideways fall with impact to the greater trochanter. These data suggest that male astronauts may be at greater risk for hip fracture than women following spaceflight, primarily due to relatively less soft tissue thickness and subsequently greater impact force.

  9. Observing the Earth from an Astronaut's View - Applied Remote Sensing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienow, Andreas; Hodam, Henryk; Menz, Gunter; Kerstin, Voß

    2015-04-01

    Since spring 2014, NASA conducts the High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) mission at the International Space Station (ISS). HDEV consists of four cameras mounted at ESA's Columbus laboratory. They continuously observe our earth in three different perspectives. Hence, they provide not only footage showing the Sun and the Moon rising and setting but also regular images of landscapes that are difficult to access, such as mountain ranges, deserts, and tropical rainforests. The German educational project "Columbus Eye", which is executed by the University of Bonn and is funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), aims at the implementation of the HDEV imagery and videos in a teaching portal: www.columbuseye.uni-bonn.de. Pupils should be motivated to work with the footage in order to learn about pattern and processes of the coupled human-environment system like volcano eruptions or deforestation. The material is developed on the experiences of the FIS (German abbreviation for "Remote Sensing in Schools") project and its learning portal (www.fis.uni-bonn.de/en). Recognizing that in-depth use of satellite imagery can only be achieved by the means of computer aided learning methods, a sizeable number of e-Learning contents in German and English have been created throughout the last 7 years since FIS' kickoff. The talk presents the educational valorization of ISS and satellite borne imagery data as well as their interactive implementation for teachers and pupils in both learning portals. It will be shown which possibilities the topic of earth observation from space holds ready for teaching the regular STEM curricula. A report of first experiences of a nationwide road show accompanying the mission of the ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst will be given. Among others it involved an event during which pupils from a secondary school in North Rhine-Westphalia have talked to the astronaut via ham radio. Accordingly, the presentation addresses the question of how synergies of human

  10. Development of a recombinant DNA assay system for the detection of genetic change in astronauts' cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a new recombinant DNA system for the detection and measurement of genetic change in humans caused by exposure to low level ionizing radiation. A unique feature of the method is the use of cloned repetitive DNA probes to assay human DNA for structural changes during or after irradiation. Repetitive sequences exist in different families. Collectively they constitute over 25% of the DNA in a human cell. Repeat families have between 10 and 500,000 members. We have constructed repetitive DNA sequence libraries using recombinant DNA techniques. From these libraries we have isolated and characterized individual repeats comprising 75 to 90% of the mass of human repetitive DNA. Repeats used in our assay system exist in tandem arrays in the genome. Perturbation of these sequences in a cell, followed by detection with a repeat probe, produces a new, multimeric ''ladder'' pattern on an autoradiogram. The repeat probe used in our initial study is complementary to 1% of human DNA. Therefore, the sensitivity of this method is several orders of magnitude better than existing assays. Preliminary evidence from human skin cells exposed to acute, low-dose x-ray treatments indicates that DNA is affected at a dose as low as 5R. The radiation doses used in this system are well within the range of doses received by astronauts during spaceflight missions. Due to its small material requirements, this technique could easily be adapted for use in space. 16 refs., 1 fig

  11. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics pre-college outreach program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E.; Bacon, L.; Copper, K.; Hansen, L. J.; Sanchez, M.; Aiaa Precollege Outreach Committee

    Throughout the United States school child perceive science technology engineering and mathematics STEM as difficult boring and often irrelevant subjects The possible reasons for this problem are endlessly debated however the economic social and overall national importance of producing graduates who are technically literate and enthusiastic in their support of a rational scientific world should motivate many scientific and engineering societies around the world to develop outreach programs aimed at children ages 5-18 and corresponding support programs aimed at schools and teachers covering kindergarten through 12 th grade The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AIAA is among those organizations that have identified the need to educate students and teachers about STEM current events and their direct affects on the United States population a way that motivates both to get more involved The AIAA has established a pre-college outreach program that has several major elements that will be described in this paper These elements include a pre-college Educator Associate Membership program a program to award small development grants to class room teachers and Educator of the Year awards and recognition program mechanisms for sharing and encouraging innovative local support programs and two national workshop events The first workshop event Passport to the Future is held annually in conjunction with the Joint Propulsion Conference It is intended to provide summertime training in Aerospace science education to classroom

  12. The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure Syndrome in Long Duration NASA Astronauts: An Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C. A.; Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M. J.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and distended optic nerve sheaths). In some cases, elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure has been documented postflight reflecting increased intracranial pressure (ICP). While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular affects are thought to be related to the effect of cephalad fluid shift on the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, both leading to cephalic congestion and increased ICP. Although not all crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that all astronauts exposed to microgravity have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and has been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them.

  13. Story Time From Space — Astronomy and Astronauts Together in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Story Time From Space is an exciting new program in which astronauts aboard the International Space Station combine two key educational activities: (1) reading aloud science-based stories for children and (2) conducting specially built science demonstrations designed to reinforce science lessons from the stories. Both activity types are videotaped, with the videos to be posted freely on the web for access by classrooms (and individuals) around the world. Longer term plans include the creation of downloadable activities to take the lessons further. While the stories tend to focus on elementary ages, the demos are more sophisticated and can be used for middle school, high school, and even college. The first set of five books has been aboard the ISS since January 2014, with readings videotaped so far for all books in English and selected books in German and Japanese; the science demos are scheduled for launch this summer, followed by a second set of books in the fall. The first set of books, written by the presenter, focus heavily on astronomy and space science. In this presentation, I will introduce the program, how it can be used in classrooms around the world, and plans for its future development. The in-progress web site is www.storytimefromspace.com.

  14. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy to Countermeasure Cancer in Astronauts during Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, S.; Kindred, R. P.; Roach, A-N.; Edossa, A.; Kim, B. C.; Gonda, S. R.; Emami, K.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation can cause chromosomal mutations, which may lead to cancer in astronauts engaged in space exploration. Therefore, our goals are to develop countermeasures to prevent space-induced cancer using hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) and gene therapy. This presentation focuses on HSCT for cancer. Our previous experiments on a simulated, space-induced immuno-deficiency model (mouse hind limb unloading ) indicated that transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could enhance the host's immunity by effectively eliminating bacterial infection (Ohi S, et. al. J Grav Physiol 10, P63-64, 2003; Ohi S, et. al. Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) . American Institute of Physics, New York, pp. 938-950, 2004). Hence, we hypothesized that the HSCs might be effective in combating cancer as well. Studies of cocultured mouse HSCs with beta-galactosidase marked rat gliosarcoma spheroids (9L/lacZ), a cancer model, indicated antagonistic interactions , resulting in destruction of the spheroids by HSCs. Trypan Blue dye-exclusion assays were consistent with the conclusion. These results show potential usehlness of HSCT for cancer. Currently, the NASA Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB), a space analog tissue/cell culture system, is being used to study invasion of the gliosarcoma (GS) spheroids into mouse brain with or without co-cultured HSCs. This may simulate the metastasis of gliosarcoma to brain. There is a tendency for the HSCs to inhibit invasion of GS spheroids into brain, as evidenced by the X-gal staining.

  15. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  16. Peculiarities of transformation of adaptation level of the astronaut in conditions of long-lasting flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padashulya, H.; Prisnyakova, L.; Prisnyakov, V.

    Prognostication of the development of adverse factors of psychological processes in the personality of the astronaut who time and again feels transformation of internal structure of his personality is one of cardinal problems of the long-lasting flight Adaptation to changing conditions of long-lasting flight is of particular importance because it has an effect on the efficiency of discharged functions and mutual relations in the team The fact of standard psychological changes emerging in the personality being in the state of structural transformations is the precondition for the possibility of prognostication Age-specific gender and temperamental differences in the personality enable to standardize these changes Examination of the process of transformation of adaptation level of the personality in the varied environment depending on the type of temperament and constituents age and gender is chief object of the report In the report it is shown that in the process of transformation of adaptation parameters - attitude to guillemotleft work guillemotright guillemotleft family guillemotright guillemotleft environment guillemotright and guillemotleft ego guillemotright - the changes can go in two directions - in the direction of increase and decline of indexes The trend of increase enables to accumulate them and form potentiality to reduce or increase the level of personality adaptation There is a hypothesis that the dynamics of the process of transformation of adaptation parameter is shown up in the orientation of increase of

  17. Risks due to X-ray Flares during Astronaut Extravehicular Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David S; 10.1029/2006SW000300

    2009-01-01

    Solar hard X-ray flares can expose astronauts on lunar and deep space extravehicular activities (EVAs) to dangerous acute biological doses. We combine calculations of radiative transfer through shielding materials with subsequent transfer through tissue to show that hazardous doses, taken as >= 0.1 Gy, should occur with a probability of about 10% per 100 hours of accumulated EVA inside current spacesuits. The rapid onset and short duration of X-ray flares and the lack of viable precursor events require strategies for quick retreat, in contrast to solar proton events, which usually take hours to deliver significant fluence and can often be anticipated by flares or other light-speed precursors. Our results contrast with the view that only particle radiation poses dangers for human space exploration. Heavy-element shields provide the most efficient protection from X-ray flares, since X-rays produce no significant secondary radiation. We calculate doses due to X-ray flares behind aluminum shields and estimate the...

  18. Development of a thermoelectric one-man cooler for use by NASA astronauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of a one-man thermoelectric (TE) cooling unit designed for use by NASA astronauts while they are wearing a protective suit during the launch and reentry phases of space shuttle missions. The unit was designed to provide a low-cooling level of 340 Btu/hour in a 75 degree F environment and a high-cooling level of 480 Btu/hour in a 95 degree F environment. The unit has an envelope 8 inches wide by 11 inches high by 4.5 inches deep. The TE unit was designed to optimize space and power consumption while providing adequate cooling. The operation of the TE cooling unit requires ∼1.2 amps of 28 VDC power in the low power mode and ∼3.0 amps of 28 VDC power in the high power mode. Two of these units have flown on several shuttle missions this year and are scheduled for continued use on future missions. The response to the TE unit's performance has been very positive from the shuttle crew. Additional units are being fabricated to keep the shuttle crew members cooled while final development is under way. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. The Virtual GloveboX (VGX: a Semi-immersive Virtual Environment for Training Astronauts in Life Sciences Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alexander Twombly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Space Station will soon provide an unparalleled research facility for studying the near- and longer-term effects of microgravity on living systems. Using the Space Station Glovebox Facility - a compact, fully contained reach-in environment - astronauts will conduct technically challenging life sciences experiments. Virtual environment technologies are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to help realize the scientific potential of this unique resource by facilitating the experimental hardware and protocol designs and by assisting the astronauts in training. The "Virtual GloveboX" (VGX integrates high-fidelity graphics, force-feedback devices and real-time computer simulation engines to achieve an immersive training environment. Here, we describe the prototype VGX system, the distributed processing architecture used in the simulation environment, and modifications to the visualization pipeline required to accommodate the display configuration.

  20. Bone Health Monitoring in Astronauts: Recommended Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography [QCT] for Clinical and Operational Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Truskowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concerns that astronauts in long duration flights might have a greater risk of bone fracture as they age than the general population. A panel of experts was convened to review the information and recommend mechanisms to monitor the health of bones in astronauts. The use of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans for risk surveillance to detect the clinical trigger and to inform countermeasure evaluation is reviewed. An added benefit of QCT is that it facilitates an individualized estimation of bone strength by Finite Element Modeling (FEM), that can inform approaches for bone rehabilitation. The use of FEM is reviewed as a process that arrives at a composite number to estimate bone strength, because it integrates multiple factors.

  1. Human space biology at SCK-CEN: from in vitro cell experiments to the follow-up of astronauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged exposure to space radiation and extended microgravity has revealed profound physiological and clinical changes in astronauts. The health problems thought to be related to the effects of microgravity include a decrease in the heart and the respiratory rates, a loss of body weight, changes in bone calcium, a redistribution of body fluids with a greater amount in the upper body, a decrease in muscle tissue, a weakening of the veins and arteries in the legs, as well as an underproduction of red blood cells leading to anaemia. At the cellular and molecular levels, microgravity is known to induce both a loss of T-cell activation and changes in gene expression patterns, as well as a three-dimensional growth of normal cells and tumour cells, an alteration of the mitochondrial organization, a modification of the production of extracellular matrix proteins and apoptosis in some types of cells. The Earth's magnetic field protects us from harmful radiation. On Earth, we are still exposed to small amounts of radiation when we go for medical x-rays, when we travel on transcontinental flights or just from radon in the air. However, astronauts are exposed to 50 to 100 times as much radiation - and that is just in a low Earth orbit. In deep space, astronauts can be exposed to even higher doses. It is well known that large amounts of radiation can cause severe health effects by altering DNA in our cells. The health effects from space radiation are therefore a critical safety concern for long-term space travel. Possible health risks include cancer, cataracts, acute radiation sickness, hereditary effects, and damage to the central nervous system. The aims of this research are 1) to ensure the immunological monitoring of a cohort of astronauts (having spent around 6 months aboard the International Space Station ISS) and 2) to investigate the effects of an in vitro exposure of endothelial cells and other types of cells to radiation and/or microgravity conditions

  2. Psychological Issues Relevant to Astronaut Selection for Long-Duration Space Flight: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Daniel L.

    2003-01-01

    This technical paper reviews the current literature on psychological issues relevant to astronaut selection for long-duration space flights. Interpersonal problems have been and remain a recurring problem for both short and long-duration space flights. Even after completion of the space mission, intense psychological aftereffects are reported. The specific behavioral problems experienced during United States and Soviet Union space flights are reviewed, specifically addressing contentious epis...

  3. Personalized medicine in human space flight: using Omics based analyses to develop individualized countermeasures that enhance astronaut safety and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Michael A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Space flight is one of the most extreme conditions encountered by humans. Advances in Omics methodologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have revealed that unique differences exist between individuals. These differences can be amplified in extreme conditions, such as space flight. A better understanding of individual differences may allow us to develop personalized countermeasure packages that optimize the safety and performance of each astronaut. In this review, we...

  4. Keeping the right time in space: importance of circadian clock and sleep for physiology and performance of astronauts

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jin-Hu; Qu, Wei-Min; Chen, Shan-Guang; CHEN, XIAO-PING; Lv, Ke; Huang, Zhi-Li; Wu, Yi-Lan

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock and sleep are essential for human physiology and behavior; deregulation of circadian rhythms impairs health and performance. Circadian clocks and sleep evolved to adapt to Earth’s environment, which is characterized by a 24-hour light–dark cycle. Changes in gravity load, lighting and work schedules during spaceflight missions can impact circadian clocks and disrupt sleep, in turn jeopardizing the mood, cognition and performance of orbiting astronauts. In this review, we su...

  5. IAC-11.E1-7.-A1.8.5 The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2012-12-01

    Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut is an international educational challenge focusing on fitness and nutrition as we encourage students to "train like an astronaut." Teams of students (aged 8-12) learn principles of healthy eating and exercise, compete for points by finishing training modules, and get excited about their future as "fit explorers." The 18 core exercises (targeting strength, endurance, coordination, balance, spatial awareness, and more) involve the same types of skills that astronauts learn in their training and use in spaceflight. This first-of-its-kind cooperative outreach program has allowed 11 space agencies and various partner institutions to work together to address quality health/fitness education, challenge students to be more physically active, increase awareness of the importance of lifelong health and fitness, teach students how fitness plays a vital role in human performance for exploration, and to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. The project was initiated in 2009 in response to a request by the International Space Life Sciences Working Group. USA, Netherlands, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Colombia, Spain, Belgium, Czech Republic and United Kingdom hosted teams for the pilot in the spring of 2010, and Japan held a modified version of the challenge. Several more agencies provided input into the preparations. Competing in 137 teams, more than 4000 students from over 40 cities worldwide participated in the first round of Mission X.

  6. Overview of Pre-Flight Physical Training, In-Flight Exercise Countermeasures and the Post-Flight Reconditioning Program for International Space Station Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) astronauts receive supervised physical training pre-flight, utilize exercise countermeasures in-flight, and participate in a structured reconditioning program post-flight. Despite recent advances in exercise hardware and prescribed exercise countermeasures, ISS crewmembers are still found to have variable levels of deconditioning post-flight. This presentation provides an overview of the astronaut medical certification requirements, pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and the post-flight reconditioning program. Astronauts must meet medical certification requirements on selection, annually, and prior to ISS missions. In addition, extensive physical fitness testing and standardized medical assessments are performed on long duration crewmembers pre-flight. Limited physical fitness assessments and medical examinations are performed in-flight to develop exercise countermeasure prescriptions, ensure that the crewmembers are physically capable of performing mission tasks, and monitor astronaut health. Upon mission completion, long duration astronauts must re-adapt to the 1 G environment, and be certified as fit to return to space flight training and active duty. A structured, supervised postflight reconditioning program has been developed to prevent injuries, facilitate re-adaptation to the 1 G environment, and subsequently return astronauts to training and space flight. The NASA reconditioning program is implemented by the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) team and supervised by NASA flight surgeons. This program has evolved over the past 10 years of the International Space Station (ISS) program and has been successful in ensuring that long duration astronauts safely re-adapt to the 1 g environment and return to active duty. Lessons learned from this approach to managing deconditioning can be applied to terrestrial medicine and future exploration space flight missions.

  7. Proteomic Assessment of Fluid Shifts and Association with Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure in Twin Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Brinda K.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Macias, Brandon R.; Siamwala, Jamila; Piening, Brian Donald; Hook, Vivian; Ebert, Doug; Patel, Hemal; Smith, Scott; Snyder, Mike; Hargens, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronauts participating in long duration space missions are at an increased risk of physiological disruptions. The development of visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is one of the leading health concerns for crew members on long-duration space missions; microgravity-induced fluid shifts and chronic elevated cabin CO2 may be contributing factors. By studying physiological and molecular changes in one identical twin during his 1-year ISS mission and his ground-based co-twin, this work extends a current NASA-funded investigation to assess space flight induced "Fluid Shifts" in association with the development of VIIP. This twin study uniquely integrates physiological and -omic signatures to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying space flight-induced VIIP. We are: (i) conducting longitudinal proteomic assessments of plasma to identify fluid regulation-related molecular pathways altered by long-term space flight; and (ii) integrating physiological and proteomic data with genomic data to understand the genomic mechanism by which these proteomic signatures are regulated. PURPOSE: We are exploring proteomic signatures and genomic mechanisms underlying space flight-induced VIIP symptoms with the future goal of developing early biomarkers to detect and monitor the progression of VIIP. This study is first to employ a male monozygous twin pair to systematically determine the impact of fluid distribution in microgravity, integrating a comprehensive set of structural and functional measures with proteomic, metabolomic and genomic data. This project has a broader impact on Earth-based clinical areas, such as traumatic brain injury-induced elevations of intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, and glaucoma. HYPOTHESIS: We predict that the space-flown twin will experience a space flight-induced alteration in proteins and peptides related to fluid balance, fluid control and brain injury as compared to his pre-flight protein

  8. Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of NASA, the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model reviewed a number of changes that NASA proposes to make to its model for estimating the risk of radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The NASA model in current use was last updated in 2005, and the proposed model would incorporate recent research directed at improving the quantification and understanding of the health risks posed by the space radiation environment. NASA's proposed model is defined by the 2011 NASA report Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties 2010 (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The committee's evaluation is based primarily on this source, which is referred to hereafter as the 2011 NASA report, with mention of specific sections or tables cited more formally as Cucinotta et al. (2011). The overall process for estimating cancer risks due to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure has been fully described in reports by a number of organizations. They include, more recently: (1) The "BEIR VII Phase 2" report from the NRC's Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) (NRC, 2006); (2) Studies of Radiation and Cancer from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2006), (3) The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007); and (4) The Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA s) report EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population (EPA, 2011). The approaches described in the reports from all of these expert groups are quite similar. NASA's proposed space radiation cancer risk assessment model calculates, as its main output, age- and gender-specific risk of exposure-induced death (REID) for use in the estimation of mission and astronaut-specific cancer risk. The model also calculates the associated uncertainties in REID. The general approach for

  9. Determining Exercise Strength Requirements for Astronaut Critical Mission Tasks: Reaching Under G-Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The critical mission tasks assessments effort seeks to determine the physical performance requirements that astronauts must meet in order to safely and successfully accomplish lunar exploration missions. These assessments will determine astronaut preflight strength, fitness, and flexibility requirements, and the extent to which exercise and other countermeasures must prevent the physical deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The purpose is to determine the flexibility and strength that crewmembers must possess in order to reach Crew Exploration Vehicle controls during maneuvers that result in sustained acceleration levels ranging from 3.7G to 7.8G. An industry standard multibody dynamics application was used to create human models representing a 5th percentile female, a 50th percentile male, and a 95th percentile male. The additional mass of a space suit sleeve was added to the reaching arm to account for the influence of the suit mass on the reaching effort. The human model was merged with computer models of a pilot seat and control panel for the Crew Exploration Vehicle. Three dimensional paths were created that guided the human models hand from a starting position alongside its thigh to three control targets: a joystick, a keyboard, and an overhead switch panel. The reaching motion to each target was repeated under four vehicle acceleration conditions: nominal ascent (3.7G), two ascent aborts (5.5G and 7.8G) and lunar reentry (4.6G). Elbow and shoulder joint angular excursions were analyzed to assess range of motion requirements. Mean and peak elbow and shoulder joint torques were determined and converted to equivalent resistive exercise loads to assess strength requirements. Angular excursions for the 50th and 95th percentile male models remained within joint range of motion limits. For the 5th percentile female, both the elbow and the shoulder exceeded range of motion limits during the overhead reach. Elbow joint torques ranged from 10 N

  10. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  11. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics pre-college outreach program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Bacon, L.; Copper, K. K.; Hansen, L. J.; Sanchez, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Many United States, school children perceive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) as difficult, boring and often irrelevant subjects. The possible reasons for this problem are endlessly debated. However, the economic, social, and overall national importance of producing graduates who are technically literate and enthusiastic in their support of a rational scientific world is essential to our nation. This apparent STEM crisis should motivate the many scientific and engineering societies to develop STEM outreach programs aimed at students, parents, teachers and schools (grades K-12). The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is among those organizations that have identified the need to educate students and teachers about STEM current events and their direct effects on the United States population in a way that motivates both. The AIAA has established a pre-college outreach program that has several major elements that will be described in this paper. Elements focused on the teachers include a pre-college Educator Associate Membership program, classroom grants to support hands-on learning activities, Educator of the Year awards and recognition program and two national workshop events. The first workshop event, Passport to the Future, is held annually in conjunction with the Joint Propulsion Conference. It is intended to provide summertime training in Aerospace science education to classroom teachers, in conjunction with a national professional conference. The second workshop, Education Alley, is held in the fall in conjunction with the “Space” series of conferences. This program is aimed at direct outreach to local students in the conference host city, providing fun, interesting, and educational events that promote STEM. The AIAA also encourages and supports pre-college outreach activities sponsored by the local AIAA sections through leadership training, activity and material support.

  12. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; McClellan, Gene E; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-04-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions is of prime importance. Here we apply a biologically based mathematical model that describes the dose- and time-dependent early human responses that constitute the prodromal syndromes to consider acute risks from SPEs. We examine the possible early effects on crews from exposure to some historically large solar events on lunar and/or Mars missions. The doses and dose rates of specific organs were calculated using the Baryon radiation transport (BRYNTRN) code and a computerized anatomical man model, while the hazard of the early radiation effects and performance reduction were calculated using the Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) code. Based on model assumptions we show that exposure to these historical events would cause moderate early health effects to crew members inside a typical spacecraft or during extra-vehicular activities, if effective shielding and medical countermeasure tactics were not provided. We also calculate possible even worse cases (double intensity, multiple occurrences in a short period of time, etc.) to estimate the severity, onset and duration of various types of early illness. Uncertainties in the calculation due to limited data on relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate modifying factors for protons and secondary radiation, and the identification of sensitive sites in critical organs are discussed. PMID:19276707

  13. Effects of Digitization and JPEG Compression on Land Cover Classification Using Astronaut-Acquired Orbital Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Webb, Edward L.; Evangelista, Arlene

    2000-01-01

    Studies that utilize astronaut-acquired orbital photographs for visual or digital classification require high-quality data to ensure accuracy. The majority of images available must be digitized from film and electronically transferred to scientific users. This study examined the effect of scanning spatial resolution (1200, 2400 pixels per inch [21.2 and 10.6 microns/pixel]), scanning density range option (Auto, Full) and compression ratio (non-lossy [TIFF], and lossy JPEG 10:1, 46:1, 83:1) on digital classification results of an orbital photograph from the NASA - Johnson Space Center archive. Qualitative results suggested that 1200 ppi was acceptable for visual interpretive uses for major land cover types. Moreover, Auto scanning density range was superior to Full density range. Quantitative assessment of the processing steps indicated that, while 2400 ppi scanning spatial resolution resulted in more classified polygons as well as a substantially greater proportion of polygons < 0.2 ha, overall agreement between 1200 ppi and 2400 ppi was quite high. JPEG compression up to approximately 46:1 also did not appear to have a major impact on quantitative classification characteristics. We conclude that both 1200 and 2400 ppi scanning resolutions are acceptable options for this level of land cover classification, as well as a compression ratio at or below approximately 46:1. Auto range density should always be used during scanning because it acquires more of the information from the film. The particular combination of scanning spatial resolution and compression level will require a case-by-case decision and will depend upon memory capabilities, analytical objectives and the spatial properties of the objects in the image.

  14. STS-113 Astronaut Herrington Moves CETA Cart in Second Scheduled Space Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, the delivery of the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph, astronaut and mission specialist John B. Herrington, is shown anchored on the mobile foot restraint on the ISS's Canadarm2, as he moves the CETA cart during the mission's second scheduled space walk. The final major task of the space walk was the relocation of the CETA cart from the Port One (P1) to the Starboard One (S1) Truss, which will allow the Mobile Transporter to move along the P1 to assist in upcoming assembly missions. The space walk lasted 6 hours, 10 minutes.

  15. System Engineering of Aerospace and Advanced Technology Programs at AN Astronautics Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike O.

    The purpose of this Record of Study is to document an internship with the Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado that was performed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Engineering degree at Texas A&M University, and to demonstrate that the internship objectives have been met. The internship included assignments with two Martin Marietta companies, on three different programs and in four areas of engineering. The Record of Study takes a first-hand look at system engineering, SDI and advanced program management, and the way Martin Marietta conducts business. The five internship objectives were related to assignments in system modeling, system integration, engineering analysis and technical management. In support of the first objective, the effects of thermally and mechanically induced mirror surface distortions upon the wavefront intensity field of a high energy laser beam passing through the optical train of a space-based laser system were modeled. To satisfy the second objective, the restrictive as opposed to the broad interpretation of the 1972 ABM Treaty, and the capability of the Strategic Defense Initiative Zenith Star Program to comply with the Treaty were evaluated. For the third objective, the capability of Martin Marietta to develop an automated analysis system to integrate and analyze Superconducting Super Collider detector designs was investigated. For the fourth objective, the thermal models that were developed in support of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile flight tests were described. And in response to the fifth objective, the technical management role of the Product Integrity Engineer assigned to the Zenith Star spacecraft's Beam Control and Transfer Subsystem was discussed. This Record of Study explores the relationships between the engineering, business, security and social concerns associated with the practice of engineering and the management of programs by a major defense contractor.

  16. Different Perspectives on Asthenia in Astronauts and Cosmonauts: International Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Luis; Shea, Camille; Otto, Christian; Leventon, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element is one of the six elements within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and is responsible for managing four risks: a) The Risk of Performance Decrements due to inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication and Psychological Adaptation within a Team (Team), b) the Risk of Performance Errors due to Sleep Loss, Circadian De-synchronization, Fatigue and Work Overload (Sleep), c) Risk of Behavioral Conditions (BMed), and d) the Risk of Psychiatric Disorders (BMed). The aim of this report is to address some of the recommendations made by the recent NASA HRP Standing Review Panel for the Behavioral Medicine Risk of Psychiatric Disorders. Such recommendations included: a) the inclusion of important national and international literature in English and non-English language materials; including journals, books, magazines, conference reports and b) an extensive literature review of certain types of psychological states to predict, detect, and assess adverse mental states that may negatively affect the psychological well being of the astronauts, specifically asthenia. This report was a collaborative international work effort focused on the evaluation and determination of the importance of continuing research on asthenia as a possible psychological problem that might affect the optimal psychological functioning among crewmembers during long-duration space flight missions. Russian medical personnel (flight surgeons and psychologist) have observed symptoms of asthenia (weakness, increased fatigue, irritability, and attention and memory disorders) in cosmonauts after four months in space (Myasnikov& Zamaleddinov1996; Grigorieve, 1996 ) and believe that asthenia is one of the greater risks that will affect crews? optimal psychological functioning.

  17. TBS (Trabecular Bone Score) Expands Understanding of Spaceflight Effects on the Lumbar Spine of Long-Duration Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott A.; Watts, Nelson; Hans, Didier; LeBlanc, Adrian; Spector, Elisabeth; King, Lisa; Sibonga, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss due to long-duration spaceflight has been characterized by both DXA and QCT serial scans. It is unclear if these spaceflight-induced changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and structure result in increased fracture incidence. NASA astronauts currently fly 5 to 6-month missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and at least one 12-month mission is planned. While NASA has measured areal BMD (by DXA) and volumetric BMD (by QCT) and has estimated hip strength (by finite element models of QCT data, no method has yet been used to examine bone micro-architecture from lumbar spine (LS). DXA scans are routinely performed pre- and postflight on all ISS astronauts to follow BMD changes associated with spaceflight. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) is a relatively new method that measures grey-scale-level texture information extracted from LS DXA images and correlates with 3D parameters of bone micro-architecture. We evaluated the ability of LS TBS to discriminate changes in astronauts who have flown on ISS missions and to determine if TBS can provide additional information compared to DXA. Methods: Lumbar Spine (L1-4) DXA scans from 51 astronauts (mean age, 47 +/- 4 yrs) were divided into 3 groups based on the exercise regimens performed onboard the ISS. "Pre-ARED" (exercise using a load-limited resistive exercise device, exercise with a high-load resistive exercise device, up to 600 lb) and "Bisphos+ARED" group (ARED exercise and a 70-mg alendronate tablet once a week before and during flight, starting 17 days before launch). DXA scans were performed and analyzed on a Hologic Discovery W using the same technician for the pre- and post-flight scans. LSC for the LS in our laboratory is 0.025 g/sq. cm. TBS was performed at the Mercy Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio on a similar Hologic computer. Data were analyzed using a paired, 2-tailed Student's t-test for the difference between pre- and postflight means. Percent change and % change per month are noted. Interpretation

  18. Results of the ESA study on psychological selection of astronaut applicants for Columbus missions I: Aptitude testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Christoph; Goeters, Klaus-Martin

    European participation in the Space Station Freedom brought about new challenges for the psychological selection of astronaut candidates, particularly in respect to specific demands of long duration space flights. For this reason existing selection criteria and methods were reassessed. On these grounds a study was undertaken applying a unique composition of aptitude tests to a group of 97 ESA scientists and engineers who are highly comparable to the expected astronaut applicants with respect to age and education. The tests assessed operational aptitudes such as logical reasoning, memory function, perception, spatial orientation, attention, psychomotor function, and multiple task capacity. The study goals were: 1) Verification of psychometric qualities and applicability of tests in a normative group; 2) Search for culture-fair tests by which multi-national groups can be examined; 3) Identification of test methods which consider general and special operational demands of long duration space flights. Based on the empirical findings a test battery was arranged for use in the selection of ESA astronaut applicants. Results showed that 16 out of the 18 employed tests have good psychometric qualities and differentiate reliably in the special group of testees. The meta structure of the test battery as described by a factorial analysis is presented. Applicability of tests was generally high. Tests were culture-fair, however, a relation between English language skills and test results was identified. Since most item material was language-free, this was explained with the importance of English language skills for the understanding of test instructions. Solutions to this effect are suggested.

  19. SEMG analysis of astronaut upper arm during isotonic muscle actions with normal standing posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianxiang, Zhou; Chao, Ma; Xiaohui, Zheng

    sEMG analysis of astronaut upper arm during isotonic muscle actions with normal standing posture*1 Introduction Now the research on the isotonic muscle actions by using Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is becoming a pop topic in fields of astronaut life support training and rehabilitations. And researchers paid more attention on the sEMG signal processes for reducing the influence of noise which is produced during monitoring process and the fatigue estimation of isotonic muscle actions with different force levels by using the parameters which are obtained from sEMG signals such as Condition Velocity(CV), Median Frequency(MDF), Mean Frequency(MNF) and so on. As the lucubrated research is done, more and more research on muscle fatigue issue of isotonic muscle actions are carried out with sEMG analysis and subjective estimate system of Borg scales at the same time. In this paper, the relationship between the variable for fatigue based on sEMG and the Borg scale during the course of isotonic muscle actions of the upper arm with different contraction levels are going to be investigated. Methods 13 young male subjects(23.4±2.45years, 64.7±5.43Kg, 171.7±5.41cm) with normal standing postures were introduced to do isotonic actions of the upper arm with different force levels(10% MVC, 30%MVC and 50%MVC). And the MVC which means maximal voluntary contraction was obtained firstly in the experiment. Also the sEMG would be recorded during the experiments; the Borg scales would be recorded for each contraction level. By using one-third band octave method, the fatigue variable (p) based on sEMG were set up and it was expressed as p = i g(fi ) · F (fi ). And g(fi ) is defined as the frequent factor which was 0.42+0.5 cos(π fi /f0 )+0.08 cos(2π fi /f0 ), 0 f0 . According to the equations, the p could be computed and the relationship between variable p and the Borg scale would be investigated. Results In the research, three kinds of fitted curves between variable p and Borg

  20. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues in Astronauts after Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, G.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Beaton, K. H.; Wood, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with visual, proprioceptive, and somatosensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions following transitions between gravity levels. This joint ESA-NASA pre- and post-flight experiment is designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances in astronauts following short-duration space flights. The first specific aim is to examine the effects of stimulus frequency on adaptive changes in eye movements and motion perception during independent tilt and translation motion profiles. Roll motion is provided by a variable radius centrifuge. Pitch motion is provided by NASA's Tilt-Translation Sled in which the resultant gravitoinertial vector remains aligned with the body longitudinal axis during tilt motion (referred to as the Z-axis gravitoinertial or ZAG paradigm). We hypothesize that the adaptation of otolith-mediated responses to these stimuli will have specific frequency characteristics, being greatest in the mid-frequency range where there is a crossover of tilt and translation. The second specific aim is to employ a closed-loop nulling task in which subjects are tasked to use a joystick to null-out tilt motion disturbances on these two devices. The stimuli consist of random steps or sum-of-sinusoids stimuli, including the ZAG profiles on the Tilt-Translation Sled. We hypothesize that the ability to control tilt orientation will be compromised following space flight, with increased control errors corresponding to changes in self-motion perception. The third specific aim is to evaluate how sensory substitution aids can be used to improve manual control performance. During the closed-loop nulling task on both devices, small tactors placed around the torso vibrate according to the actual body tilt angle relative to gravity. We hypothesize

  1. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  2. Monitoring Bone Health after Spaceflight: Data Mining to Support an Epidemiological Analysis of Age-related Bone Loss in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. S,; Amin, S.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2009-01-01

    Through the epidemiological analysis of bone data, HRP is seeking evidence as to whether the prolonged exposure to microgravity of low earth orbit predisposes crewmembers to an earlier onset of osteoporosis. While this collaborative Epidemiological Project may be currently limited by the number of ISS persons providing relevant spaceflight medical data, a positive note is that it compares medical data of astronauts to data of an age-matched (not elderly) population that is followed longitudinally with similar technologies. The inclusion of data from non-ISS and non-NASA crewmembers is also being pursued. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide critical information for NASA to understand the impact of low physical or minimal weight-bearing activity on the aging process as well as to direct its development of countermeasures and rehabilitation programs to influence skeletal recovery. However, in order to optimize these results NASA needs to better define the requirements for long term monitoring and encourage both active and retired astronauts to contribute to a legacy of data that will define human health risks in space.

  3. The outcomes of the Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics as an opportunity to develop successful outreach actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró Spinelli, Patrícia; de Oliveira Costa, Cristiane; Requeijo, Flávia; do Amaral Ferreira, Marcelo Augusto; Torres Perillo, Augusto; Batista Garcia Canalle, João; Reis Neto, Eugênio; Nascimento, Josina

    2015-08-01

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of students and teachers from all over the country take part in the Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics (OBA). This has the aim of both spreading astronomy and astronautics-related concepts and training teachers about these topics. After being marked some of the exams are sent by participant schools to the Organizing Committee to select candidates for the international competition. The OBA exam archive thereby offers an unique opportunity to evaluate the teaching of astronomy in Brazil in relation to school level and content, as well as over time. Understanding the misconceptions unraveled by the exams is of utmost importance to planning successful outreach activities. In this talk I will present how the analysis of the 2013 OBA event helped the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences to develop an astronomy education kit aimed at teachers and how this cooperation between an academic institution and schools is helping educators in their pedagogical practice to teach astronomy in the classroom.

  4. A Review of Training Methods and Instructional Techniques: Implications for Behavioral Skills Training in U.S. Astronauts (DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J.; Galarza, Laura; Holland, Albert W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-duration space missions (LDM) place unique physical, environmental and psychological demands on crewmembers that directly affect their ability to live and work in space. A growing body of research on crews working for extended periods in isolated, confined environments reveals the existence of psychological and performance problems in varying degrees of magnitude. The research has also demonstrated that although the environment plays a cathartic role, many of these problems are due to interpersonal frictions (Wood, Lugg, Hysong, & Harm, 1999), and affect each individual differently. Consequently, crewmembers often turn to maladaptive behaviors as coping mechanisms, resulting in decreased productivity and psychological discomfort. From this body of research, critical skills have been identified that can help a crewmember better navigate the psychological challenges of long duration space flight. Although most people lack several of these skills, most of them can be learned; thus, a training program can be designed to teach crewmembers effective leadership, teamwork, and self-care strategies that will help minimize the emergence of maladaptive behaviors. Thus, it is the purpose of this report is twofold: 1) To review the training literature to help determine the optimal instructional methods to use in delivering psychological skill training to the U.S. Astronaut Expedition Corps, and 2) To detail the structure and content of the proposed Astronaut Expedition Corps Psychological Training Program.

  5. Comparison of Organ Dosimetry for Astronaut Phantoms: Earth-Based vs. Microgravity-Based Anthropometry and Body Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, Mary; Bahadon, Amir; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use NASA radiation transport codes to compare astronaut organ dose equivalents resulting from solar particle events (SPE), geomagnetically trapped protons, and free-space galactic cosmic rays (GCR) using phantom models representing Earth-based and microgravity-based anthropometry and positioning. Methods: The Univer sity of Florida hybrid adult phantoms were scaled to represent male and female astronauts with 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile heights and weights as measured on Earth. Another set of scaled phantoms, incorporating microgravity-induced changes, such as spinal lengthening, leg volume loss, and the assumption of the neutral body position, was also created. A ray-tracer was created and used to generate body self-shielding distributions for dose points within a voxelized phantom under isotropic irradiation conditions, which closely approximates the free-space radiation environment. Simplified external shielding consisting of an aluminum spherical shell was used to consider the influence of a spacesuit or shielding of a hull. These distributions were combined with depth dose distributions generated from the NASA radiation transport codes BRYNTRN (SPE and trapped protons) and HZETRN (GCR) to yield dose equivalent. Many points were sampled per organ. Results: The organ dos e equivalent rates were on the order of 1.5-2.5 mSv per day for GCR (1977 solar minimum) and 0.4-0.8 mSv per day for trapped proton irradiation with shielding of 2 g cm-2 aluminum equivalent. The organ dose equivalents for SPE irradiation varied considerably, with the skin and eye lens having the highest organ dose equivalents and deep-seated organs, such as the bladder, liver, and stomach having the lowest. Conclus ions: The greatest differences between the Earth-based and microgravity-based phantoms are observed for smaller ray thicknesses, since the most drastic changes involved limb repositioning and not overall phantom size. Improved self-shielding models

  6. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  7. 19th Biannual Symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB) and the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR)

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Wagner, Claus; Breitsamter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents contributions to the 19th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB) and the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. Special emphasis is given to collaborative research projects conducted by German scientists and engineers from universities, research-establishments and industries. By addressing a number of cutting-edge applications, together with the relevant physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field. Though the book’s primary emphasis is on the aerospace context, it also addresses further important applications, e.g. in ground transportation and energy. .

  8. Celestial and terrestrial tele-ophthalmology: a health monitoring helmet for astronaut/cosmonaut and general public use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi; Sebag, Jerry

    2001-06-01

    A goggles-like head-mounted device equipped with several non-invasive techniques for quantitative medical evaluation of the eye, skin, and brain is envisioned for monitoring the health of astronauts and cosmonauts during long-term space travel and exploration. Real-time non-invasive evaluation of the different structures within these organs will provide indices of the health of these organs, as well as the entire body. The techniques such as dynamic light scattering (for the early detection of cataracts to evaluate effects of cosmic radiation), corneal autofluorescence (to assess extracellular matrix biology (e.g., diabetes), optical polarization (of aqueous fluid to evaluate serum chemistry), laser Doppler velocimetry (of retinal, optic nerve, and choroidal blood flow to assess ocular as well as central nervous system blood flow), reflectometry/oximetry (for oxygen metabolism), optical coherence tomography (for retinal microstructure), and possibility scanning laser technology for intraocular imaging and scanning will be integrated into this compact device.

  9. Biodosimetry as a New Paradigm for Determination of Radiation Risks and Risk-Mitigation in Astronauts Exposed to Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert; Cruz, Angela; Bors, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Predicting risk of cancer in astronauts exposed to space radiation is challenging partly because uncertainties of absorption of dose and the processing of dose-related damage at the cellular level degrade the confidence of predicting the expression of cancer. Cellular biodosimeters that simultaneously report: 1) the quantity of absorbed dose after exposure to ionizing radiation, 2) the quality of radiation delivering that dose, and 3) the macromolecular profiles related to malignant transformation in cells absorbing that dose would therefore be useful. An approach to such a multiparametric biodosimeter will be reported, This is the demonstration of two dose-responsive field-effects of enhanced protein-expression. In one case, expression of keratin 18 (K18) in cultures of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) irradiated with cesium-137 gamma-rays is enhanced following exposure of log phase cells to relatively low doses of 30 to 90 cGy. K18 has been reported by a marker for tumor staging and for apoptosis. In the second case, expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) is increased in irradiated stationary phase cultures of HMEC, indicating enhanced formation of gap junctions. Gap junctions have been reported to be involved in bystander effects following irradiation. It is a biodosimeter for assessing radiogenic damage. It is suggested further that such biomolecular dosimetry may introduce a new paradigm for assessing cancer risk and risk-mitigation in individuals, a requirement for managing radiation health in astronauts during extended missions in space. This new paradigm is built upon the statistical power provided by the use of functional genomics and proteomics represented in combined gene- and protein-expression assays.

  10. Synergistic action of gravity and temperature on the motor system within the lifespan: a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigal, Alexander Yu

    2013-03-01

    Here we describe GATO (gravity, age, thermoregulation, and oxygenation) hypothesis (or a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis) which we suggest to explain synergistic effect of these factors on the motor system. Taken separately, microgravity (in spaceflight, G~0), the early age, heat and hypoxia exert identical effect on the motor system. We posit that synergy of these factors originate from their synchronicity during intrauterine immersion (analog microgravity) of the fetus in warm hypoxic condition. We further postulate three successive motor adaptive strategies, driven lifelong by gravity as the key factor. The first by age, fetal/microgravity (FM)-strategy, induced by the intrauterine immersion of the fetus, is based on domination of fast type muscle fibers. After birth, thought to be analog for landing from orbit, newborn is subjected to combined influence of cooler ambient temperature, normoxia, and 1G Earth gravity, which cooperatively form a slower GE-strategy. Eventually, healthy ageing results in further domination of slow type muscle fibers that forms the slowest (SL)-strategy. Our hypothesis implies that specific sensory conditions may substitute for each other owing to their synergistic action on the motor system. According to GATO hypothesis heating and hypoxia may be considered as "pro-microgravity" factors, while cold and hyperoxia - as "pro-gravity" ones. As such, cold may act as a partial "surrogate" for gravity, estimated as ~0.2G. That may have potential to elaborate countermeasures for muscle atrophy in astronauts either on-board in long-term spaceflight or for post-flight rehabilitation. Based on GATO hypothesis, predictions on muscle remodeling caused by illumination, sound/noise, and gravidity are discussed. PMID:23287049

  11. Metabolomic and Genomic Markers of Atherosclerosis as Related to Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Vascular Function in Twin Astronauts (CARDIO OX TWINS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Rana, B. K.; Stenger, M. B.; Sears, D. D.; Smith, S. M.; Macias, B. R.; Hargens, A. R.; Sharma, K.; De Vivo, I.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space travel will primarily consist of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. These missions will expose astronauts to a variety of physiological stressors (radiation, psychological, reduced physical activity, altered nutritional status, and hyperoxia) that may increase their risk of oxidative and inflammatory damage.

  12. Improving Bone-Health Monitoring in Astronauts: Recommended Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography [QCT] for Clinical and Operational Decisions by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Truszkowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    DXA measurement of areal bone mineral density [aBMD,g/cm2] is required by NASA for assessing skeletal integrity in astronauts. Due to the abundance of population-based data that correlate hip and spine BMDs to fragility fractures, BMD is widely applied as a predictor of fractures in the general aging population. In contrast, QCT is primarily a research technology that measures three-dimensional , volumetric BMD (vBMD,mg/cm3) of bone and is therefore capable of differentiating between cortical and trabecular components. Additionally, when combined with Finite Element Modeling [FEM], a computational tool, QCT data can be used to estimate the whole bone strength of the hip [FE strength] for a specific load vector. A recent report demonstrated that aBMD failed to correlate with incurred changes in FE strength (for fall and stance loading) by astronauts over typical 180-day ISS (International Space Station) missions. While there are no current guidelines for using QCT data in clinical practice, QCT increases the understanding of how bone structure and mineral content are affected by spaceflight and recovery on Earth. In order to understand/promote/consider the use of QCT, NASA convened a panel of clinicians specializing in osteoporosis. After reviewing the available, albeit limited, medical and research information from long-duration astronauts (e.g., data from DXA, QCT, FEM, biochemistry analyses, medical records and in-flight exercise performance) the panelists were charged with recommending how current and future research data and analyses could inform clinical and operational decisions. The Panel recommended that clinical bone tests on astronauts should include QCT (hip and lumbar spine) for occupational risk surveillance and for the estimation of whole hip bone strength as derived by FEM. FE strength will provide an improved index that NASA could use to select astronauts of optimal bone health for extended duration missions, for repeat missions or for specific

  13. Metabolomic and Genomic Markers of Atherosclerosis as Related to Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Vascular Function in Twin Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Rana, Brinda K.; Stenger, Michael B.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Smith, Scott M.; Macias, Brandon R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Sharma, Kumar; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2016-01-01

    Background: Future human space travel will consist primarily of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration-class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. Astronauts participating in long-duration missions may be at an increased risk of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage due to radiation, psychological stress, altered physical activity, nutritional insufficiency, and hyperoxia during extravehicular activity. By studying one identical twin during his 1-year ISS mission and one ground-based twin, this work extends a current NASA-funded investigation to determine whether these spaceflight factors contribute to an accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. This study of twins affords a unique opportunity to examine the spaceflight-related atherosclerosis risk independent of the confounding factors associated with different genotypes. Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress are elevated during and after long-duration spaceflight and determine if a relation exists between levels of these biomarkers and structural and functional indices of atherosclerotic risk measured in the carotid and brachial arteries. These physiological and biochemical data will be extended by using an exploratory approach to investigate the relationship between intermediate phenotypes and risk factors for atherosclerosis and the metabolomic signature from plasma and urine samples. Since metabolites are often the indirect products of gene expression, we will simultaneously assess gene expression and DNA methylation in leukocytes. Hypothesis: We predict that the space-flown twin will experience elevated biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage, altered arterial structure and function, accelerated telomere shortening, dysregulation of genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, and a metabolic profile shift that is associated with elevated

  14. 1st Lunar International Laboratory (LIL) Symposium Research in Geosciences and Astronomy : Organized by the International Academy of Astronautics at the XVIth International Astronautical Congress Athens, 16 September, 1965 and Dedicated to the Twentieth Anniversary of UNESCO

    CERN Document Server

    1966-01-01

    The Lunar International Laboratory (LIL) project of the International Academy of Astronautics was begun upon the proposal of the editor at the First Special Meeting of the Academy at Stockholm on 16 August 1960. The late THEODORE VON KARMAN, first President of the Academy, appointed the following members of the LIL Committee: Prof. N. BoNEFF (Bulgaria), Prof. M. FLoRKIN (Belgium), Mr. A. G. HALEY (U. S. A. ), Prof. Sir BERNARD LovELL (U. K. ) (Vice­ Chairman), Prof. L. MALAVARD (France), Dr. F. J. MALINA (U. S. A. ) (Chairman), Prof. H. 0BERTH (German Federal Republic), Dr. W. H. PicKERING (U. S. A. ), Prof. E. SANGER (German Federal Republic), Prof. L. I. SEDOV (U. S. S. R. ), Prof. L. SPITZER, JR. (U. S. A. ), Dr. H. STRUGHOLD (U. S. A. ), Prof. H. C. UREY (U. S. A. ) and himself. Since 1960 the following additional members were appointed to the Committee: Mr. A. C. CLARKE (U. K. ), Prof. A. DoLLFUS (France), Prof. Z. KoPAL (U. K. ), Dr. S. F. SINGER (U. S. A. ), Prof. N. M. SISSAKIAN (U. S. S. R. ) and Pr...

  15. Radiation shielding of astronauts in interplanetary flights: the CREAM surveyor to Mars and the magnetic lens system for a spaceship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillantini, P; Taccetti, F; Papini, P; Rossi, L; Casolino, M

    2001-01-01

    The radiation absorbed by astronauts during interplanetary flights is mainly due to cosmic rays of solar origin (SCR). In the most powerful solar flares the dose absorbed in few hours can exceed that cumulated in one year of exposition to the galactic component of cosmic rays (GCR). At energies above the minimum one needed to cross the walls of the spaceship there are extrapolations and guesses, but no data, on the angular distribution of SCR's, an information that is necessary for establishing whatever defence strategy. It was therefore proposed of sending to Mars a measurement device, that should continuously collect data during the travel, and possibly also in the orbit around Mars and on the Mars surface. The device should identify the particle and privilege the completeness in the measurement of its parameters. In fact the high energy electrons travel at speed of the light and could be used in the and future dangerous proton component. Also the much less abundant but individually more dangerous ions should be identified. The device should indeed include a magnetic spectrometer and a high granularity range telescope, and a good time of flight measurement. ASI is supporting an assessment study of a possible mission of such a device on board of the 2005 probe to Mars. A parallel technical study is also in progress to define the workable techniques and the possible configurations of a system of magnetic lenses for protecting the crew of a spaceship. PMID:11776989

  16. The nutritional status of astronauts is altered after long-term space flight aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Block, Gladys; Rice, Barbara L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.

    2005-01-01

    Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Dietary intake and limited biochemical measures were assessed during flight. Crew members consumed a mean of 80% of their recommended energy intake, and on landing day their body weight was less (P = 0.051) than before flight. Hematocrit, serum iron, ferritin saturation, and transferrin were decreased and serum ferritin was increased after flight (P serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was decreased after flight (P < 0.01). Bone resorption was increased after flight, as indicated by several markers. Bone formation, assessed by several markers, did not consistently rise 1 d after landing. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage are among critical nutritional concerns for long-duration space travelers.

  17. Defining the Relationship Between Biomarkers of Oxidation and Inflammatory Stress and the Risk for Atherosclerosis in Astronauts During and After Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space travel will consist primarily of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration-class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. These missions will expose astronauts to increased risk of oxidative and inflammatory damage from a variety of sources, including radiation, psychological stress, reduced physical activity, diminished nutritional status, and hyperoxic exposure during extravehicular activity. Evidence exists that increased oxidative damage and inflammation can accelerate the development of atherosclerosis.

  18. The Sileye-3/Alteino experiment for the study of Light Flashes, radiation environment and astronaut brain activity on board the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we describe the instrument Sileye-3/Alteino, placed on board the International Space Station in April 2002. The instrument is constituted by an Electroencephalograph and a cosmic ray silicon detector. The scientific aims include the investigation of the Light Flash phenomenon, the measurement of the radiation environment and the nuclear abundance insider the International Space Station (ISS) and the study of astronaut brain activity in space when subject to cosmic rays. (author)

  19. PREFACE: International Scientific and Research Conference on Topical Issues in Aeronautics and Astronautics (dedicated to the 55th anniversary from the foundation of SibSAU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The International Scientific and Research Conference ''Topical Issues in Aeronautics and Astronautics'' is one of the most significant scientific conferences arranged by the Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University (SibSAU) which is located in the Krasnoyarsk Region of Russian Federation. In April 2015 this Conference was dedicated to the 55th anniversary from the foundation of the University. Traditionally, the Conference is seen as emblematic of the University's specialty and is annually organized in April, when the first human travelled into space. This Conference is arranged for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students, scientists and lecturers, as well as developers, designers and constructors representing leading companies and enterprises of the aerospace sector to give opportunities to present their projects, research work and results. The Conference is a great chance to connect scientists and highly-qualified and skilled specialists with a new community of future scientists and practitioners in the aerospace sector. The Conference proceedings include papers presented by creative young specialists closely connected with aviation and space vehicles - design, production, problem-solving in space machine building and aerospace education, macro- and microeconomic development of the field, new approaches to solving philosophical and social problems, - experienced scientists and specialists, and all those who want to dedicate themselves to aeronautics and astronautics. The selected papers are presented in these proceedings to share University research results, innovations and cutting-edge technologies with the international community to develop aeronautics and astronautics on a global scale.

  20. ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

  1. Biological Visualization, Imaging and Simulation(Bio-VIS) at NASA Ames Research Center: Developing New Software and Technology for Astronaut Training and Biology Research in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    The Bio- Visualization, Imaging and Simulation (BioVIS) Technology Center at NASA's Ames Research Center is dedicated to developing and applying advanced visualization, computation and simulation technologies to support NASA Space Life Sciences research and the objectives of the Fundamental Biology Program. Research ranges from high resolution 3D cell imaging and structure analysis, virtual environment simulation of fine sensory-motor tasks, computational neuroscience and biophysics to biomedical/clinical applications. Computer simulation research focuses on the development of advanced computational tools for astronaut training and education. Virtual Reality (VR) and Virtual Environment (VE) simulation systems have become important training tools in many fields from flight simulation to, more recently, surgical simulation. The type and quality of training provided by these computer-based tools ranges widely, but the value of real-time VE computer simulation as a method of preparing individuals for real-world tasks is well established. Astronauts routinely use VE systems for various training tasks, including Space Shuttle landings, robot arm manipulations and extravehicular activities (space walks). Currently, there are no VE systems to train astronauts for basic and applied research experiments which are an important part of many missions. The Virtual Glovebox (VGX) is a prototype VE system for real-time physically-based simulation of the Life Sciences Glovebox where astronauts will perform many complex tasks supporting research experiments aboard the International Space Station. The VGX consists of a physical display system utilizing duel LCD projectors and circular polarization to produce a desktop-sized 3D virtual workspace. Physically-based modeling tools (Arachi Inc.) provide real-time collision detection, rigid body dynamics, physical properties and force-based controls for objects. The human-computer interface consists of two magnetic tracking devices

  2. The Functional Task Test (FTT): An Interdisciplinary Testing Protocol to Investigate the Factors Underlying Changes in Astronaut Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Lawrence, E. L.; Arzeno, N. M.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts. S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Spiering, B. A.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to space flight causes adaptations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing protocol (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Functional tests include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers perform this integrated test protocol before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data are collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Preliminary results from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers indicate decrement in performance of the functional tasks after both short and long-duration space flight. On-going data collection continues to improve the statistical power required to map changes in functional task performance to alterations in physiological systems. The information obtained from this study will be used to design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

  3. Rapid prototyping, astronaut training, and experiment control and supervision: distributed virtual worlds for COLUMBUS, the European Space Laboratory module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Juergen

    2002-02-01

    In 2004, the European COLUMBUS Module is to be attached to the International Space Station. On the way to the successful planning, deployment and operation of the module, computer generated and animated models are being used to optimize performance. Under contract of the German Space Agency DLR, it has become IRF's task to provide a Projective Virtual Reality System to provide a virtual world built after the planned layout of the COLUMBUS module let astronauts and experimentators practice operational procedures and the handling of experiments. The key features of the system currently being realized comprise the possibility for distributed multi-user access to the virtual lab and the visualization of real-world experiment data. Through the capabilities to share the virtual world, cooperative operations can be practiced easily, but also trainers and trainees can work together more effectively sharing the virtual environment. The capability to visualize real-world data will be used to introduce measured data of experiments into the virtual world online in order to realistically interact with the science-reference model hardware: The user's actions in the virtual world are translated into corresponding changes of the inputs of the science reference model hardware; the measured data is than in turn fed back into the virtual world. During the operation of COLUMBUS, the capabilities for distributed access and the capabilities to visualize measured data through the use of metaphors and augmentations of the virtual world may be used to provide virtual access to the COLUMBUS module, e.g. via Internet. Currently, finishing touches are being put to the system. In November 2001 the virtual world shall be operational, so that besides the design and the key ideas, first experimental results can be presented.

  4. Human Behavior and Performance Support for ISS Operations and Astronaut Selections: NASA Operational Psychology for Six-Crew Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.

  5. The NASA-Sponsored Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA). Relationship of Exposure to Radiation in Space and the Risk of Cataract Incidence and Progression. Report 1: Recruitment and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, Leo T.; Peterson, Leif E.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wear, Mary; Manuel, F. Keith

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a five-year, multi-centered, investigation of lens opacification in populations of U.S. astronauts, military pilots, and ground-based (nonaviator) comparison participants. For astronauts, the explanatory variable of most interest is radiation exposure during space flight, however to properly evaluate its effect, the secondary effects of age, nutrition, general health, solar ocular exposure, and other confounding variables encountered in non-space flight must also be considered. NASCA contains an initial baseline, cross-sectional objective assessment of the severity of cortical (C), nuclear (N), and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacification, and annual follow-on assessments of severity and progression of these opacities in the population of astronauts and in participants sampled from populations of military pilots and ground-based exposure controls. From these data, NASCA will estimate the degree to which space radiation affects lens opacification for astronauts and how the overall risks of each cataract type for astronauts compared with those of the other exposure control groups after adjusting for differences in age and other explanatory variables.

  6. Biological Dosimetry in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Biodosimetry data provides a direct measurement of space radiation damage, which takes into account individual radiosensitivity in the presence of confounding factors such as microgravity and other stress conditions. In contrast to physical measurements, which are external to body and require multiple devices to detect all radiation types all of which have poor sensitivity to neutrons, biodosimetry is internal and includes the effects of shielding provided by the body itself plus chromosome damage shows excellent sensitivity to protons, heavy ions, and neutrons. Moreover, chromosome damage maybe reflective of cancer risk and biodosimetry values can therefore be used to validate and develop risk assessment models that can be used to characterize excess health risk incurred by crewmembers. Cytogenetic biodosimetry methods have been used extensively for assessing terrestrial radiation exposures, and remain the most sensitive in vivo indicator of dose available to date. The main cellular radiation target is the DNA, and radiation-induced damage in the DNA molecule can be visualized as aberrations in the chromosomes (breaks in the chromosomes or exchanges of DNA material between different chromosomes). Normal chromosomes contain a single condensed and constricted area called a centromere that helps the chromosome number to remain stable when a cell divides.

  7. Water Treatment Unit Breadboard: Ground test facility for the recycling of urine and shower water for one astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Lamaze, Brigitte; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Rabaey, Korneel; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Vanoppen, Marjolein; Demey, Dries; Farinas, Bernabé Alonso; Coessens, Wout; De Paepe, Jolien; Dotremont, Chris; Beckers, Herman; Verliefde, Arne

    2016-07-01

    One of the major challenges for long-term manned Space missions is the requirement of a regenerative life support system. Average water consumption in Western Countries is >100 L d-1. Even when minimizing the amount of water available per astronauts to 13 L d-1, a mission of 6 crew members requires almost 30 ton of fresh water supplies per year. Note that the International Space Station (ISS) weighs approximately 400 ton. Therefore the development of an efficient water recovery system is essential to future Space exploration. The ISS currently uses a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) unit following the addition of chromic and sulphuric acid for the microbial stabilization of urine (Carter, Tobias et al. 2012), yielding a water recovery percentage of only 70% due to scaling control. Additionally, Vapor Compression Distillation of 1.5 L urine cap 1 d-1 has a significantly higher power demand with 6.5 W cap-1 compared to a combination of electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO) with 1.9 and 0.6 W cap-1 respectively (Udert and Wächter 2012). A Water Treatment Unit Breadboard (WTUB) has been developed which combines a physicochemical and biological treatment. The aim was to recover 90% of the water in urine, condensate and shower water produced by one crew member and this life support testbed facility was inspired by the MELiSSA loop concept, ESA's Life Support System. Our experimental results showed that: 1) using a crystallisation reactor prior to the nitrification reduced scaling risks by Ca2+- and Mg2+ removal 2) the stabilization of urine diluted with condensate resulted in the biological conversion of 99% of Total Kjeldahl nitrogen into nitrate in the biological nitrification reactor 3) salinity and nitrate produced could be removed by 60-80% by electrodialysis, 4) shower water contaminated with skin microbiota and Neutrogena soap ® could be mixed with electrodialysis diluate and filtered directly over a ceramic nanofiltration at 93% water recovery and 5

  8. Active Disturbance Rejection Force Control for Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot%宇航员康复训练机器人自抗扰力控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立勋; 邹宇鹏; 隋立明; 王克义

    2012-01-01

    An astronaut rehabilitative training robot based on the parallel wire driven mechanism is presented to help astronauts do bench press in the microgravity environment. To solve the problems that the internal and external disturbances are large, an active disturbance rejection force controller of the astronaut rehabilitative training robot is presented based on dynamics analysis on a single wire driven unit. To verify the performance of the controller, simulation experiments are conducted by comparing with the PID controller. The results show that this controller has good dynamic and static performances, strong anti-interference ability and strong robustness to the internal parameters variations.%为帮助宇航员在失重环境中进行卧推训练,提出了一种基于并联柔索驱动机构的宇航员康复训练机器人.针对系统内部和外部扰动都比较大的问题,在对单个柔索驱动单元进行动力学分析的基础上,提出了基于自抗扰控制技术的宇航员康复训练机器人力控制器.为了验证自抗扰控制器的性能,通过与PID控制对比,进行了仿真实验.实验结果表明:该控制器具有良好的动、静态性能,抗干扰能力强,对内部参数变化具有很强的鲁棒性.

  9. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Shiba

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS. We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS to maintain an astronaut's musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system's orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut's musculoskeletal atrophy.HTS was attached to the non-dominant arm of an astronaut staying on the ISS, and his dominant arm without HTS was established as the control (CTR. 10 sets of 10 reciprocal elbow curls were one training session, and 12 total sessions of training (3 times per week for 4 weeks were performed. Pre and post flight ground based evaluations were performed by Biodex (muscle performance, MRI (muscle volume, and DXA (BMD, lean [muscle] mass, fat mass. Pre and post training inflight evaluations were performed by a hand held dynamometer (muscle force and a measuring tape (upper arm circumference.The experiment was completed on schedule, and HTS functioned well without problems. Isokinetic elbow extension torque (Nm changed -19.4% in HTS, and -21.7% in CTR. Isokinetic elbow flexion torque changed -23.7% in HTS, and there was no change in CTR. Total Work (Joule of elbow extension changed -8.3% in HTS, and +0.3% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -23.3% in HTS and -32.6% in CTR. Average Power (Watts of elbow extension changed +22.1% in HTS and -8.0% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -6.5% in HTS and -4.8% in CTR. Triceps muscle volume according to MRI changed +11.7% and that of biceps was +2.1% using HTS, however -0.1% and -0.4% respectively for CTR. BMD changed +4.6% in the HTS arm and -1.2% for CTR. Lean (muscle mass of the arm changed only +10.6% in HTS. Fat mass changed -12.6% in HTS and -6.4% in CTR.These results showed the orbital

  10. Digital Astronaut Project Biomechanical Models: Biomechanical Modeling of Squat, Single-Leg Squat and Heel Raise Exercises on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and to enhance countermeasure development. The DAP Musculoskeletal Modeling effort is developing computational models to inform exercise countermeasure development and to predict physical performance capabilities after a length of time in space. For example, integrated exercise device-biomechanical models can determine localized loading, which will be used as input to muscle and bone adaptation models to estimate the effectiveness of the exercise countermeasure. In addition, simulations of mission tasks can be used to estimate the astronaut's ability to perform the task after exposure to microgravity and after using various exercise countermeasures. The software package OpenSim (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA) (Ref. 1) is being used to create the DAP biomechanical models and its built-in muscle model is the starting point for the DAP muscle model. During Exploration missions, such as those to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Therefore, the crew must have access to exercise countermeasures that can maintain their musculoskeletal and aerobic health. Exploration vehicles may have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities, even more so than the International Space Station (ISS). The exercise devices flown on Exploration missions must be designed to provide sufficient load during the performance of various resistance and aerobic/anaerobic exercises while meeting potential additional requirements of limited mass, volume and power. Given that it is not practical to manufacture and test (ground, analog and/or flight) all candidate devices, nor is it always possible to obtain data such as localized muscle and bone loading empirically, computational modeling can estimate the localized loading during various exercise modalities performed on

  11. 我国空间站航天员在轨训练初探%Astronaut Onboard Training for China's Space Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任开明; 赵静; 田立平; 黄伟芬; 吴斌

    2011-01-01

    通过分析国外航天员在轨训练的经验和研究成果,结合我国载人空间站任务发展规划,明确我国航天员在执行中长期空间站任务过程中开展在轨训练的必要性及训练的基本原则和训练课程体系的创建流程,并对训练科目进行了初步设计,提出了计算机辅助训练、模拟训练、交叉训练等训练方法及其基本要求。%Through the analysis of the experience and investigation of foreign astronauts onboard training, combined with lhe development programming of China manned space station mission, the necessity of onboard training tbr China's astronauts when executing medium and long duration space station mission is pointed out, and the basic principles and course system of onboard training are established. Onboard training methods, such as Computer-Assisted Instruction Training, onboard simulation training, cross training, and the basic requirements for them, are put forward.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Acetaminophen in Hind Limbs Unloaded Mice: A Model System Simulating the Effects of Low Gravity on Astronauts in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Amanda; Risin, Semyon A.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of medications administered to astronauts could be altered by the conditions in Space. Low gravity and free floating (and associated hemodynamic changes) could affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drugs. Knowledge of these alterations is essential for adjusting the dosage and the regimen of drug administration in astronauts. Acquiring of such knowledge has inherent difficulties due to limited opportunities for experimenting in Space. One of the approaches is to use model systems that simulate some of the Space conditions on Earth. In this study we used hind limbs unloaded mice (HLU) to investigate the possible changes in PK of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic with high probability of use by astronauts. The HLU is recognized as an appropriate model for simulating the effects of low gravity on hemodynamic parameters. Mice were tail suspended (n = 24) for 24-96 hours prior to introduction of acetaminophen (150 - 300 mg/kg). The drug (in aqueous solution containing 10% ethyl alcohol by volume) was given orally by a gavage procedure and after the administration of acetaminophen mice were additionally suspended for 30 min, 1 and 2 hours. Control mice (n = 24) received the same dose of acetaminophen and were kept freely all the time. Blood specimens were obtained either from retroorbital venous sinuses or from heart. Acetaminophen concentration was measured in plasma by the fluorescent polarization immunoassay and the AxSYM analyzer (Abbott Laboratories). In control mice peak acetaminophen concentration was achieved at 30 min. By 1 hour the concentration decreased to less than 50% of the peak level and at 2 hours the drug was almost undetectable in the serum. HLU for 24 hours significantly altered the acetaminophen pharmacokinetic: at 30 min the acetaminophen concentrations were significantly (both statistically and medically significant) lower than in control mice. The concentrations also reduced less

  13. The use of a syncytium model of the crystalline lens of the human eye to study the light flashes seen by astronauts

    CERN Document Server

    Nurzia, G; Spataro, B; Zirilli, F

    2005-01-01

    A syncytium model to study some electrical properties of the eye is proposed in the attempt to explain the phenomenon of anomalous Light Flashes (LF) perceived by astronauts in orbit. The crystalline lens is modelled as an ellipsoidal syncytium having a variable relative dielectric constant. The mathematical model proposed is given by a boundary value problem for a system of two coupled elliptic partial differential equations in two unknowns. We use a numerical method to compute an approximate solution of this mathematical model and we show some numerical results that provide a possible (qualitative) explanation of the observed LF phenomenon. In particular, we calculate the energy lost in the syncytium by a cosmic charged particle that goes through the syncytium and compare the results with those obtained using the Geant 3.21 simulation program. We study the interaction antimatter-syncytium. We use the Creme96 computer program to evaluate the cosmic ray fluxes encountered by the International Space Station.

  14. Defining the Relationship between Biomarkers of Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress and the Risk for Atherosclerosis in Astronauts during and after Long-duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space travel will consist primarily of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration-class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. These missions will expose astronauts to increased risk of oxidative and inflammatory damage from a variety of sources, including radiation, psychological stress, reduced physical activity, diminished nutritional status, and hyperoxic exposure during extravehicular activity. Evidence exists that increased oxidative damage and inflammation can accelerate the development of atherosclerosis. PURPOSE The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress are elevated during and after long-duration spaceflight and investigate if a relation exists between levels of these biomarkers and structural and functional indices of atherosclerotic risk measured in the carotid and brachial arteries. This is the first study to propose assessing atherosclerotic risk using biochemical, structural, and functional measures before, during, and immediately after spaceflight, and structural and functional measures for up to 5 years after landing. METHODS We will study 12 astronauts before, during, and up to 5 years after long-duration ISS missions. A panel of biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress will be measured twice before flight, early (flight days 15 and 60) and late (2 weeks before landing) during the mission, and early in the postflight recovery phase (approx 3 days after landing). Arterial structure and vascular compliance will be measured at the same times and also at 1, 3, and 5 years after landing (surveillance). Arterial function will be measured using the same preflight, postflight, and surveillance schedule as arterial structure and vascular compliance measures, but will not be measured inflight. Biomarkers, some of which we have previously shown to be elevated with spaceflight, will be measured in venous blood samples and 24-h

  15. Effect of aliskiren on post-discharge outcomes among diabetic and non-diabetic patients hospitalized for heart failure: insights from the ASTRONAUT trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Aldo P.; Greene, Stephen J.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Böhm, Michael; Zannad, Faiez; Solomon, Scott D.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Baschiera, Fabio; Hua, Tsushung A.; Gimpelewicz, Claudio R.; Lesogor, Anastasia; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Ramos, Silvina; Luna, Alejandra; Miriuka, Santiago; Diez, Mirta; Perna, Eduardo; Luquez, Hugo; Pinna, Jorge Garcia; Castagnino, Jorge; Alvarenga, Pablo; Ibañez, Julio; Blumberg, Eduardo Salmon; Dizeo, Claudio; Guerrero, Rodolfo Ahuad; Schygiel, Pablo; Milesi, Rodolfo; Sosa, Carlos; Hominal, Miguel; Marquez, Lilia Lobo; Poy, Carlos; Hasbani, Eduardo; Vico, Marisa; Fernandez, Alberto; Vita, Nestor; Vanhaecke, Johan; De Keulenaer, Gilles; Striekwold, Harry; Vervoort, Geert; Vrolix, Mathias; Henry, Philippe; Dendale, Paul; Smolders, Walter; Marechal, Patrick; Vandekerckhove, Hans; Oliveira, Mucio; Neuenschwande, Fernando; Reis, Gilmar; Saraiva, Jose; Bodanese, Luiz; Canesin, Manoel; Greco, Oswaldo; Bassan, Roberto; Marino, Roberto Luis; Giannetti, Nadia; Moe, Gordon; Sussex, Bruce; Sheppard, Richard; Huynh, Thao; Stewart, Robert; Haddad, Haissam; Echeverria, Luis; Quintero, Adalberto; Torres, Adriana; Jaramillo, Mónica; Lopez, Mónica; Mendoza, Fernan; Florez, Noel; Cotes, Carlos; Garcia, Magali; Belohlavek, Jan; Hradec, Jaromir; Peterka, Martin; Gregor, Pavel; Monhart, Zdenek; Jansky, Petr; Kettner, Jiri; Reichert, Petr; Spinar, Jindrich; Brabec, Tomas; Hutyra, Martin; Solar, Miroslav; Pietilä, Mikko; Nyman, Kai; Pajari, Risto; Cohen, Ariel; Galinier, Michel; Gosse, Philippe; Livarek, Bernard; Neuder, Yannick; Jourdain, Patrick; Picard, François; Isnard, Richard; Hoppe, Uta; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Rosocha, Stefan; Prondzinsky, Roland; Felix, Stephan; Duengen, Hans-Dirk; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Fischer, Sven; Behrens, Steffen; Stawowy, Philipp; Kruells-Muench, Juergen; Knebel, Fabian; Nienaber, Christoph; Werner, Dierk; Aron, Wilma; Remppis, Bjoern; Hambrecht, Rainer; Kisters, Klaus; Werner, Nikos; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rossol, Siegbert; Geiss, Ernst; Graf, Kristof; Hamann, Frank; von Scheidt, Wolfgang; Schwinger, Robert; Tebbe, Ulrich; Costard-Jaeckle, Angelika; Lueders, Stephan; Heitzer, Thomas; Leutermann-Oei, Marie-Louise; Braun-Dullaeus, Ruediger; Roehnisch, Jens-Uwe; Muth, Gerhard; Goette, Andreas; Rotter, Achim; Ebelt, Henning; Olbrich, Hans-Georg; Mitrovic, Veselin; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schellong, Sebastian; Zamolyi, Karoly; Vertes, Andras; Matoltsy, Andras; Palinkas, Attila; Herczeg, Bela; Apro, Dezso; Lupkovics, Geza; Tomcsanyi, Janos; Toth, Kalman; Mathur, Atul; Banker, Darshan; Bharani, Anil; Arneja, Jaspal; Khan, Aziz; Gadkari, Milind; Hiremath, Jagdish; Patki, Nitin; Kumbla, Makund; Santosh, M.J.; Ravikishore, A.G.; Abhaichand, Rajpal; Maniyal, Vijayakukmar; Nanjappa, Manjunath; Reddy, P. Naveen; Chockalingam, Kulasekaran; Premchand, Rajendra; Mahajan, Vijay; Lewis, Basil; Wexler, Dov; Shochat, Michael; Keren, Andre; Omary, Muhamad; Katz, Amos; Marmor, Alon; Lembo, Giuseppe; Di Somma, Salvatore; Boccanelli, Alessandro; Barbiero, Mario; Pajes, Giuseppe; De Servi, Stefano; Greco, Dott Cosimo; De Santis, Fernando; Floresta, Agata; Visconti, Luigi Oltrona; Piovaccari, Giancarlo; Cavallini, Claudio; Di Biase, Matteo; Masini, Dott Franco; Vassanelli, Corrado; Viecca, Maurizio; Cangemi, Dott Francesco; Pirelli, Salvatore; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo; Branzi, Angelo; Percoco, Dott Giovanni; Severi, Silvia; Santini, Alberto; De Lorenzi, Ettore; Metra, Marco; Zacà, Valerio; Mortara, Andrea; Tranquilino, Francisco P.; Babilonia, Noe A.; Ferrolino, Arthur M.; Manlutac, Benjamin; Dluzniewski, Miroslaw; Dzielinska, Zofia; Nowalany-Kozie, Ewa; Mazurek, Walentyna; Wierzchowiecki, Jerzy; Wysokinski, Andrzej; Szachniewicz, Joanna; Romanowski, Witold; Krauze-Wielicka, Magdalena; Jankowski, Piotr; Berkowski, Piotr; Szelemej, Roman; Kleinrok, Andrzej; Kornacewicz-Jac, Zdzislawa; Vintila, Marius; Vladoianu, Mircea; Militaru, Constantin; Dan, Gheorghe; Dorobantu, Maria; Dragulescu, Stefan; Kostenko, Victor; Vishnevsky, Alexandr; Goloschekin, Boris; Tyrenko, Vadim; Gordienko, Alexander; Kislyak, Oxana; Martsevich, Sergey; Kuchmin, Alexey; Karpov, Yurii; Fomin, Igor; Shvarts, Yury; Orlikova, Olga; Ershova, Olga; Berkovich, Olga; Sitnikova, Maria; Pakhomova, Inna; Boldueva, Svetlana; Tyurina, Tatiana; Simanenkov, Vladimir; Boyarkin, Mikhail; Novikova, Nina; Tereschenko, Sergey; Zadionchenko, Vladimir; Shogenov, Zaur; Gordeev, Ivan; Moiseev, Valentin; Wong, Raymond; Ong, Hean Yee; Le Tan, Ju; Goncalvesova, Eva; Kovar, Frantisek; Skalina, Ivan; Kasperova, Viera; Hojerova, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Aims The objective of the Aliskiren Trial on Acute Heart Failure Outcomes (ASTRONAUT) was to determine whether aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, would improve post-discharge outcomes in patients with hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) with reduced ejection fraction. Pre-specified subgroup analyses suggested potential heterogeneity in post-discharge outcomes with aliskiren in patients with and without baseline diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods and results ASTRONAUT included 953 patients without DM (aliskiren 489; placebo 464) and 662 patients with DM (aliskiren 319; placebo 343) (as reported by study investigators). Study endpoints included the first occurrence of cardiovascular death or HHF within 6 and 12 months, all-cause death within 6 and 12 months, and change from baseline in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at 1, 6, and 12 months. Data regarding risk of hyperkalaemia, renal impairment, and hypotension, and changes in additional serum biomarkers were collected. The effect of aliskiren on cardiovascular death or HHF within 6 months (primary endpoint) did not significantly differ by baseline DM status (P = 0.08 for interaction), but reached statistical significance at 12 months (non-DM: HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64–0.99; DM: HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.91–1.47; P = 0.03 for interaction). Risk of 12-month all-cause death with aliskiren significantly differed by the presence of baseline DM (non-DM: HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50–0.94; DM: HR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.15–2.33; P < 0.01 for interaction). Among non-diabetics, aliskiren significantly reduced NT-proBNP through 6 months and plasma troponin I and aldosterone through 12 months, as compared to placebo. Among diabetic patients, aliskiren reduced plasma troponin I and aldosterone relative to placebo through 1 month only. There was a trend towards differing risk of post-baseline potassium ≥6 mmol/L with aliskiren by underlying DM status (non-DM: HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.71–1.93; DM: HR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.30

  16. Use of DSC and DMA to Study Rubber Crystallization as a Possible Cause for a Tear in a Neoprene Glove Used in a Space Shuttle Pressurized Astronaut Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Doug

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) is a pressurized suit normally worn by astronauts during launch and landing phases of Space Shuttle operations. In 2008, a large tear (0.5 -1 in. long, between the pinky and ring finger) in the ACES left-hand glove made of neoprene latex rubber was found during training for Shuttle flight STS-124. An investigation to help determine the cause(s) of the glove tear was headed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Efforts at JSC to reproduce the actual glove tear pattern by cutting/tearing or rupturing were unsuccessful. Chemical and material property data from JSC such as GC-MS, FTIR, DSC and TGA mostly showed little differences between samples from the torn and control gloves. One possible cause for the glove tear could be a wedding ring/band worn by a male astronaut. Even with a smooth edge, such a ring could scratch the material and initiate the tear observed in the left-hand glove. A decision was later made by JSC to not allow the wearing of such a ring during training or actual flight. Another possible cause for the ACES glove tear is crystallinity induced by strain in the neoprene rubber over a long period of time and use. Neoprene is one several elastomeric materials known to be susceptible to crystallization, and such a process is accelerated with exposure of the material to cold temperatures plus strain. When the temperature is lowered below room temperature, researchers have shown that neoprene crystallization may be maintained at temperatures as high as 45-50 F, with a maximum crystallization rate near 20-25 F (1). A convenient conditioning temperature for inducing neoprene crystallization is a typical freezer that is held near 0 F. For work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), samples were cut from several areas/locations (pinky/ring finger crotch, index finger and palm) on each of two pairs of unstrained ACES gloves for DSC and DMA thermal analysis testing. The samples were conditioned

  17. Astronaut Preflight Cardiovascular Variables Associated with Vascular Compliance are Highly Correlated with Post-Flight Eye Outcome Measures in the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome Following Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christian; Ploutz-Snyder, R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of the first VIIP case occurred in 2005, and adequate eye outcome measures were available for 31 (67.4%) of the 46 long duration US crewmembers who had flown on the ISS since its first crewed mission in 2000. Therefore, this analysis is limited to a subgroup (22 males and 9 females). A "cardiovascular profile" for each astronaut was compiled by examining twelve individual parameters; eleven of these were preflight variables: systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, percentage body fat, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, use of anti-lipid medication, fasting serum glucose, and maximal oxygen uptake in ml/kg. Each of these variables was averaged across three preflight annual physical exams. Astronaut age prior to the long duration mission, and inflight salt intake was also included in the analysis. The group of cardiovascular variables for each crew member was compared with seven VIIP eye outcome variables collected during the immediate post-flight period: anterior-posterior axial length of the globe measured by ultrasound and optical biometry; optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve diameter, and optic nerve to sheath ratio- each measured by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraocular pressure (IOP), change in manifest refraction, mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and RNFL of the inferior and superior retinal quadrants. Since most of the VIIP eye outcome measures were added sequentially beginning in 2005, as knowledge of the syndrome improved, data were unavailable for 22.0% of the outcome measurements. To address the missing data, we employed multivariate multiple imputation techniques with predictive mean matching methods to accumulate 200 separate imputed datasets for analysis. We were able to impute data for the 22.0% of missing VIIP eye outcomes. We then applied Rubin's rules for collapsing the statistical results across our 200 multiply imputed data sets to assess the canonical

  18. Three Conservation Applications of Astronaut Photographs of Earth: Tidal Flat Loss (Japan), Elephant Impacts on Vegetation (Botswana), and Seagrass and Mangrove Monitoring (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Robinson, Julie A.; Minorukashiwagi; Maggiesuzuki; Duanenellis, M.; Bussing, Charles E.; Leelong, W. J.; McKenzie, Andlen J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA photographs taken from low Earth orbit can provide information relevant to conservation biology. This data source is now more accessible due to improvements in digitizing technology, Internet file transfer, and availability of image processing software. We present three examples of conservation-related projects that benefited from using orbital photographs. (1) A time series of photographs from the Space Shuttle showing wetland conversion in Japan was used as a tool for communicating about the impacts of tidal flat loss. Real-time communication with astronauts about a newsworthy event resulted in acquiring current imagery. These images and the availability of other high resolution digital images from NASA provided timely public information on the observed changes. (2) A Space Shuttle photograph of Chobe National Park in Botswana was digitally classified and analyzed to identify the locations of elephant-impacted woodland. Field validation later confirmed that areas identified on the image showed evidence of elephant impacts. (3) A summary map from intensive field surveys of seagrasses in Shoalwater Bay, Australia was used as reference data for a supervised classification of a digitized photograph taken from orbit. The classification was able to distinguish seagrasses, sediments and mangroves with accuracy approximating that in studies using other satellite remote sensing data. Orbital photographs are in the public domain and the database of nearly 400,000 photographs from the late 1960s to the present is available at a single searchable location on the Internet. These photographs can be used by conservation biologists for general information about the landscape and in quantitative applications.

  19. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (PCO2 exhaled by the silkworms under the two physiological regimes differed from each other (PO2 inhaled when the insects were under the two physiological statuses (P<0.01). Moreover, silkworms' respiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359 kcal could be generated per 100 gram of SP (dry weight). PMID:21554801

  20. Evolutionary Algorithms in Astronautic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maiwald, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms (EA) are a computation tool that utilizes biological principles found in the evolution theory. One major difference to other optimization methods is the fact that a large group of solutions is evaluated, not a single one. Combination of various solutions from such a group, called population, allows improvement of the solutions. Overall several terms in usage in the field of evolutionary algorithms have their origin in genetics or biology, especially the ...

  1. 宇航员训练机器人卧推模式建模与控制%Modeling and control of an astronaut-training robot in a bench press mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立勋; 邹宇鹏

    2011-01-01

    针对微重力环境下宇航员的训练问题,设计了一种基于柔索驱动的宇航员训练机器人,帮助宇航员在失重状态下完成卧推训练.在对卧推训练运动特性进行分析的基础上,完成了机器人的构型设计.在该机器人构型的基础上,给出了机器人的可控工作空间并建立了柔索牵引力规划数学模型.针对控制系统的力控制任务,将基于位置的力外环控制策略应用于并联柔索机器人控制系统的设计.最后对人机系统模型进行了仿真分析,仿真结果表明,该控制策略能够有效地跟踪卧推运动并完成动态负载力的控制.%In order to solve the training problems of astronauts within a microgravity environment, an astronaut-training robot based on a parallel wire driven robot was designed to help astronauts complete bench press training. The robot configuration was designed based on a motion characteristics analysis of bench press. Furthermore, the controllable workspace and the mathematical model of tension distribution were studied. To complete the task of force control, an explicit force control strategy based on position inner loop control was proposed. Finally, the man-machine system was simulated and analyzed. The simulation results verify that the control strategy can effectively track bench press and control the dynamic load.

  2. Astronaut-centered Philosophy for Designing Manned Space System%以航天员为本的思想设计载人航天系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国兴; 谭莉

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut-centered design philosophy is a new concept suggested by the authors for manned space system design. It stems from human-centered design philosophy. Human-centered design means that human role is regarded as important basis and foundation for system design. At the begining, the engineers used to adopt technology-centered philosophy for designing complex system, but much practice proved that the technology-centered design philosophy won,t work, resulting in lower system safety and performance. So it has been currently replaced by human-centered philosophy. As examples, the principles of human-centered automation of the International Civil Aviation Organization and NASA JSC,s Human-rating Requirements were introduced. At last, the astronaut-centered design philosophy and its requirements were put forward by the authors. These requirements consist of: general requirements, man-machine interaction requirements, man-environment interaction requirements and interpersonal relationship requirements.%本文提出一种载人航天系统的新型设计思想,即以航天员为本的设计思想.文章首先论述了什么是以人为本的设计思想,指出以人为本的设计思想就是在系统设计中将人的作用作为设计的根本、中心和依据.以往的系统设计都是用以技术为本的设计思想,但实践证明以技术为本的设计思想存在严重问题,导致一系列重大事故,因而为以人为本的设计思想所取代.文章介绍了国际民航组织发表的以人为本的自动化的10条设计原则, 另外又介绍了美国航空航天局约翰逊航天中心的人适合性要求.但前者不适合载人航天系统,而后者又没有明确以人为本的设计原则,因此文章根据航天医学工程研究所医工结合的长期实践和人-机-环境系统工程的理论,提出一套以航天员为本的设计要求.该设计要求共分4大类, 即对载人航天系统设计的总要求、人- 机关系、人-环

  3. Astronaut virtual assembly training simulation based on virtual hand interaction%基于虚拟手交互的航天员虚拟装配训练仿真方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡弘; 晁建刚; 林万洪; 熊颖; 杨进

    2015-01-01

    针对我国载人航天任务中的航天员虚拟训练需求,提出了一种基于虚拟手交互的航天员虚拟装配训练仿真方法。该方法利用Leap Motion设备采集的手部信息,构建出符合人手结构特征的虚拟手进行训练交互,提出了交互按钮设计方法和抓取规则,以某在轨装配设备的装配训练需求为依据建立虚拟装配训练系统,并设计了主、客观评价实验及其评价标准。实验结果表明,该交互按钮设计方法与抓取规则适用于航天员虚拟训练的交互要求,与传统的手册学习训练方法相比,该基于虚拟手交互的航天员虚拟装配训练方法具有更高的训练沉浸感和主观认可度,训练效率高,效果好。%Aiming at the requirements of astronaut virtual training for manned space missions of China, this paper proposed a method of astronaut virtual assembling training based on virtual hands. According to the structures of hands, it constructed virtual hands with the information from Leap Motion and proposed the method of interactive button design and the rule of grasping. This paper established a virtual assembly training system for a certain equipment assembled in orbit, and designed subjective and objective evaluation experiments and their evaluation standards. Our experiment results show that the proposed method of interactive button design and rule of grasping fit the interactive demand of astronaut virtual training, and the method of astronaut virtual assembling training based on virtual hands is more immersed, acceptable and efficient than traditional manual method.

  4. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadori, Amir A; Bolch, Wesley E [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Van Baalen, Mary; Semones, Edward J [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Shavers, Mark R [Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Dodge, Charles, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX 77002 (United States)

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  5. 航天员常见症状的用药与体位性低血压的关系%The relationship between different medications and orthostatic hypotension in astronauts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施尚今

    2011-01-01

    目的 对航天员在航天飞行中与航天飞行后常见症状的用药与体位性低血压的关系进行综述. 资料来源与选择 该领域公开发表的相关研究论文、综述、报告汇编(包括美国国家航空航天局网站上的公开文献)和著作. 资料引 用引用公开发表的报刊文献32篇,报告汇编5篇,和著作12部. 资料综合 航天员在航天飞行中与航天飞行后最常出现的症状分别为头晕、呕吐(航天运动病)、头痛、背部疼痛、失眠和晕厥,对于这些症状的西药治疗有时会对心血管系统产生不良影响.止吐药异丙嗪伴有抑制去甲肾上腺素、肾素、醛固酮分泌的作用;安眠药替马西泮具有松弛骨骼肌张力的作用;升压药氟氢可的松具有抑制去甲肾上腺素分泌的作用.这些药物都会引起血管收缩下降,水钠储留减少,回心血量降低从而造成体位性低血压. 结论 航天员常见症状的西药疗法常会引起体位性低血压.中国可以运用中药针灸和少量的西药复合疗法来防治航天员的常见症状,从而减少西药对人体的不良作用.%Objective Human beings have flown in space for 50 years.Russia (Soviet),United States,and China are the three countries that have the technology to transport their astronauts into space.The space environment is different from Earth,which can lead to changes or alterations to the human body's physiological functions or cause diseases.The United States has invested energy to study physiological changes or treat diseases in astronauts during and after spaceflight.Common symptoms associated with astronauts during and after spaceflight include dizziness and vomiting (space motion sickness) ; head and back pain; difficulty sleeping (insomnia) ; and orthostatic intolerance and fainting (orthostatic hypotension). Many medications have been used to prevent or treat these symptoms.However,side effects affecting the cardiovascular system have also been

  6. Preliminary Concept Study on Integrated Lunar Exploration of Astronaut and Humanoid Robot%航天员与类人机器人月面联合探测概念初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海阳; 张波; 黄海兵

    2014-01-01

    The development of technologies involved in human-robot joint exploration including the humanoid robot , tele-operation , man-machine shared control , and ground verification were intro-duced .Then the concept of integrated lunar exploration of astronaut and humanoid robot was studied and the system structure , mode analysis and mission programming of the lunar exploration were pro-posed .In the end , the key technologies such as humanoid robot technology , human-machine syner-gy technology , tele-operation and control technology and ground simulation verification technology were summarized .%介绍了人机联合探测中涉及的类人机器人、遥操作、人机共享控制、地面验证等技术发展现状;对月面类人机器人与航天员联合探测的概念进行了初步研究,规划出了月面人机联合探测系统结构、探测模式和探测任务等;并对类人机器人技术、人机协同操作技术、遥操作控制技术和地面仿真验证技术等关键技术进行了总结。

  7. Space Flight, Astronautics and Light Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongJian

    2005-01-01

    Amazing achievements and accomplishments of space science and technologies in the past half-century, have profoundly affected all disciplines of natural science and engineering. By the end of 20 th Century, man or man-made spacecrafts landed, or approached and surveyed all planets of solar system and their moons except Pluto. Biologists believe that life may emerge and evolve wherever liquid water exists. No liquid water is ever found yet on all planets and their moons in Solar System except for our Earth. Our mother planet turned out to be the only life-supporting oasis within 4 light years of the Milky Way. It is suggested in this article that time has come for science and engineering communities to study and prepare interstellar flight of manned or unmanned spacecrafts beyond Solar System. Four issues are to be addressed as prerequisite for such flight, namely, detailed survey of nearby space beyond Solar System, design of nuclear fusion rocket engine, long-sustainable on-board life-supporting system and breakthrough of the light barrier.

  8. Astronautics:the physics of space flight

    OpenAIRE

    McClintock, P. V. E.

    2012-01-01

    Space flight provides beautiful examples of the Newtonian dynamics that teachers of physics have always wanted to demonstrate for their students – the consequences of Newton’s Laws and gravitation writ large, and with the effect of dissipation also coming in at the launch of the spacecraft and (especially) duringmits re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere. For physicists, the basic principles of space flight are self-evident, but how best to apply them is far less obvious.

  9. Advanced Structural Nanomaterials for Astronaut Radiation Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zyvex in cooperation with Prairie View A&M (CARR) and Boeing will develop a space radiation shielding multi-functional material that will provide high energy...

  10. Radiation protection for astronauts on prolonged space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From time immemorial humankind has been fascinated, even obsessed, by the stars and planets. In those early days of yesteryears any planetary phenomena had astrological and religious significance. At present day, the planets have become objects of exploration and possible habitation. Our next endeavor seems to focus on our neighboring planet: Mars. From an object of mythology, then curiosity, Mars had come closer to us with each passing decade and is quite possibly within reach. The technology is available, and the engineering designs are achievable; but it needs the determination and the will to harness our energies to get there. (author)

  11. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1970. Chronology on science, technology, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An immediate reference to aerospace-related events of 1970 is provided to help historians in preserving historical accuracy and precision. Chronologies of major NASA launches, and manned space flights for 1970 are included.

  12. Cosmic radiation. Risks involved for astronauts and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Less than 50 years ago the first spacecraft, the Russian Sputnik, was successfully launched into outer space and fascinated onlookers from the planet earth as the first man-made object travelling in space. Later on, it was not only man-made spacecrafts, but manned spacecrafts travelling into outer space, and today, mankind reaches for the stars in the proper sense of the wording: American and Russian scientists and space agencies join forces in planning a new manned expedition that is to reach far more deeper into space. The international space station ''Alpha'', planned to be completed by the year 2002, is to serve as the starting platform for the long space journey to the planet Mars. Regardless of the minor troubles and failures on board the space station ''Mir'', space research and technology is rapidly making headway to planets farther out in space, although the transportation of man and material to planets thus far out in space poses problems and hazards even greater than those known by now, which required tremendous efforts in logistics and other respects to be successfully managed. The article addresses the radiological hazards to man and material that are expected to be involved in the planned new activities. (orig./CB)

  13. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem processes in the space environment. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Efficient Wearable Antennas for Astronaut EVA Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA SBIR Subtopic O1.02 (Antenna Technology), Pharad proposes to create a new class of highly efficient body wearable antennas suitable for...

  15. Imaging Modalities Relevant to Intracranial Pressure Assessment in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Kramer, Larry A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Fogarty, Jennifer; Polk, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Learning Objectives of this slide presentation are: 1: To review the morphological changes in orbit structures caused by elevated Intracranial Pressure (ICP), and their imaging representation. 2: To learn about the similarities and differences between MRI and sonographic imaging of the eye and orbit. 3: To learn about the role of MRI and sonography in the noninvasive assessment of intracranial pressure in aerospace medicine, and the added benefits from their combined interpretation.

  16. Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in a Mission-Assigned Astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter A.; Polk, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the clinical and administrative conundrums faced by the flight surgeon upon discovering asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation seven months prior to scheduled long duration spaceflight. The presenter will discuss the decision-making process as well as the clinical and operational outcomes.

  17. Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Rick; McCulloch, Pat; Van Baalen, Mary; Watson, Richard; Bowen, Steve; Blatt, Terri

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors associated with the mechanism of injury that leads to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Despite the injury prevention measures taken from the 2003 Shoulder Tiger Team recommendations, shoulder injuries and subsequent shoulder surgeries remain relatively unchanged.

  18. Central adaptation to repeated galvanic vestibular stimulation: implications for pre-flight astronaut training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilda, Valentina; Morris, Tiffany R; Yungher, Don A; MacDougall, Hamish G; Moore, Steven T

    2014-01-01

    Healthy subjects (N = 10) were exposed to 10-min cumulative pseudorandom bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on a weekly basis for 12 weeks (120 min total exposure). During each trial subjects performed computerized dynamic posturography and eye movements were measured using digital video-oculography. Follow up tests were conducted 6 weeks and 6 months after the 12-week adaptation period. Postural performance was significantly impaired during GVS at first exposure, but recovered to baseline over a period of 7-8 weeks (70-80 min GVS exposure). This postural recovery was maintained 6 months after adaptation. In contrast, the roll vestibulo-ocular reflex response to GVS was not attenuated by repeated exposure. This suggests that GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level (brainstem-mediated) vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Faced with unreliable vestibular input, the cerebellum reweighted sensory input to emphasize veridical extra-vestibular information, such as somatosensation, vision and visceral stretch receptors, to regain postural function. After a period of recovery subjects exhibited dual adaption and the ability to rapidly switch between the perturbed (GVS) and natural vestibular state for up to 6 months. PMID:25409443

  19. Central Adaptation to Repeated Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation: Implications for Pre-Flight Astronaut Training

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Dilda; Tiffany R. Morris; Yungher, Don A.; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Moore, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy subjects (N = 10) were exposed to 10-min cumulative pseudorandom bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on a weekly basis for 12 weeks (120 min total exposure). During each trial subjects performed computerized dynamic posturography and eye movements were measured using digital video-oculography. Follow up tests were conducted 6 weeks and 6 months after the 12-week adaptation period. Postural performance was significantly impaired during GVS at first exposure, but rec...

  20. Central adaptation to repeated galvanic vestibular stimulation: implications for pre-flight astronaut training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Dilda

    Full Text Available Healthy subjects (N = 10 were exposed to 10-min cumulative pseudorandom bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS on a weekly basis for 12 weeks (120 min total exposure. During each trial subjects performed computerized dynamic posturography and eye movements were measured using digital video-oculography. Follow up tests were conducted 6 weeks and 6 months after the 12-week adaptation period. Postural performance was significantly impaired during GVS at first exposure, but recovered to baseline over a period of 7-8 weeks (70-80 min GVS exposure. This postural recovery was maintained 6 months after adaptation. In contrast, the roll vestibulo-ocular reflex response to GVS was not attenuated by repeated exposure. This suggests that GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level (brainstem-mediated vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Faced with unreliable vestibular input, the cerebellum reweighted sensory input to emphasize veridical extra-vestibular information, such as somatosensation, vision and visceral stretch receptors, to regain postural function. After a period of recovery subjects exhibited dual adaption and the ability to rapidly switch between the perturbed (GVS and natural vestibular state for up to 6 months.

  1. Astronaut and aquanaut performance and adjustment behavioral issues in analogous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.; Foushee, H. Clayton

    1988-01-01

    The utility of analog environments as sources of data for future, long duration space missions is discussed. The undersea habitat is evaluated on a point-by-point basis for similarities and differences with Space Station and a possible lunar base. The comparability of Antarctic wintering-over stations is also considered. Critical issues for research are described, as well as the requirement that participants be involved in the conduct of meaningful work.

  2. Increased Cancer Mortality Risk for NASA's ISS Astronauts: The Contribution of Diagnostic Radiological Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C.W.; Picco, C. E.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Shavers, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the radiation exposures and risks associated with long-term spaceflight on the International Space Station. NASA's risk model of cancer mortality is also presented.

  3. Human-rating Automated and Robotic Systems - (How HAL Can Work Safely with Astronauts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroff, Lynn; Dischinger, Charlie; Fitts, David

    2009-01-01

    Long duration human space missions, as planned in the Vision for Space Exploration, will not be possible without applying unprecedented levels of automation to support the human endeavors. The automated and robotic systems must carry the load of routine housekeeping for the new generation of explorers, as well as assist their exploration science and engineering work with new precision. Fortunately, the state of automated and robotic systems is sophisticated and sturdy enough to do this work - but the systems themselves have never been human-rated as all other NASA physical systems used in human space flight have. Our intent in this paper is to provide perspective on requirements and architecture for the interfaces and interactions between human beings and the astonishing array of automated systems; and the approach we believe necessary to create human-rated systems and implement them in the space program. We will explain our proposed standard structure for automation and robotic systems, and the process by which we will develop and implement that standard as an addition to NASA s Human Rating requirements. Our work here is based on real experience with both human system and robotic system designs; for surface operations as well as for in-flight monitoring and control; and on the necessities we have discovered for human-systems integration in NASA's Constellation program. We hope this will be an invitation to dialog and to consideration of a new issue facing new generations of explorers and their outfitters.

  4. Field responsive shear thickening fluids for personal protective equipment and MMOD shielding for spacecraft and astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening fluids (STFs) are novel, field responsive materials and have been shown to provide enhanced ballistic and puncture resistance when integrated into nanocomposites. In this talk, I will review the basic principles of shear thickening in colloidal dispersions by introducing new, recent results describing the unique material functions of the shear thickened state and how these material functions relate to those observed in simulation and experiments, as well as models for these material functions and their dependence on particle concentration. Next, performance data for STF-Armor(TM) nanocomposites (STF intercalated with aramid and other textiles) in puncture, ballistic and hypervelocity impact experiments, as well as energy absorbing impact experiments, will be shown and related back to the material properties of the STF fluids. Finally, advances in product development to achieve suitable puncture resistance for novel applications such as puncture resistant surgical gloves (STF Technologies LLC) will be presented along with challenges for the future product development. Support from NSF STTR # IIP-1346269 and NASA NNX11AQ28A is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Fallen Astronaut: Violence Bodies and 'Moon Art'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    into consideration that the piece is not on public display itself and known to us exclusively through its mediated forms, to wit, a photo kept in NASA's archives and reproduced in various ways on web sites and in other mass media, and a replica of the sculpture found at the Space Museum in Houston, we...

  6. Comprehensive Astronaut Immune Assessment Following a Short-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Yetman, Deborah; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2006-01-01

    Immune system dysregulation has been demonstrated to occur during spaceflight and has the potential to cause serious health risks to crewmembers participating in exploration class missions. As a part of an ongoing NASA flight experiment assessing viral immunity (DSO-500), a generalized immune assessment was performed on 3 crewmembers who participated in the recent STS-114 Space Shuttle mission. The following assays were performed: (1) comprehensive immunophenotype analysis; (2) T cell function/intracellular cytokine profiles; (4) secreted Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles via cytometric bead array. Immunophenotype analysis included a leukocyte differential, lymphocyte subsets, T cell subsets, cytotoxic/effector CD8+ T cells, memory/naive T cell subsets and constitutively activated T cells. Study timepoints were L-180, L-65, L-10, R+0, R+3 and R+14. Detailed data are presented in the poster text. As expected from a limited number of human subjects, data tended to vary with respect to most parameters. Specific post-flight alterations were as follows (subject number in parentheses): Granulocytosis (2/3), reduced NK cells (3/3), elevated CD4/CD8 ratio (3/3), general CD8+ phenotype shift to a less differentiated phenotype (3/3), elevated levels of memory CD4+ T cells (3/3), loss of L-selectin on T cell subsets (3/3), increased levels of activated T cells (2/3), reduced IL-2 producing T cell subsets (3/3), levels of IFNg producing T cells were unchanged. CD8+ T cell expression of the CD69 activation markers following whole blood stimulation with SEA+SEB were dramatically reduced postflight (3/3), whereas other T cell function assessments were largely unchanged. Cytometric bead array assessment of secreted T cell cytokines was performed, following whole blood stimulation with either CD3/CD28 antibodies or PMA+ionomycin for 48 hours. Specific cytokines assessed were IFNg, TNFa, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10. Following CD3/CD28 stimulation, all three crewmembers had a mission-associated reduction in the levels of secreted IFNg. One crewmember had a post-flight inversion in the IFNg/IL-10 ratio postflight, which trended back to baseline by R+14. Detailed cytokine data are presented in the poster text. This testing regimen was designed to correlate immunophenotype changes (thought to correspond to specific in-vivo immune responses or pathogenesis), against altered leukocyte function and cytokine profiles. In-flight studies are required to determine if post-flight alterations are reflective of the in-flight condition, or are a response to landing and readaptation.

  7. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (lead level with lower cognitive test scores in children, later onset of puberty in girls, and increased blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality rates in adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  8. History of the development of rocket technology and astronautics in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of rocket technology in Poland is outlined. The history cites 13th century use of war rockets in combating Tartars as well as 20th century studies of the future and reality of space flights.

  9. Intelligent system for pilot and astronaut Psychophysiological status monitoring and recuperating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Andrzej; -Bogumila Pecyna, S. Maria

    The proposal for development of synthetic indicators of the individuals psychophysiological status as well as measurements methodology which are responsible for decision making process, is discussed. The interdisciplinary of principles methods and tools (instruments) which was created out of a specific inter-section of multiply domains of science and technology belonging to the common domain of scientific information systems with specific utility objectives and measures of quality assessment of solutions is presented. As it is well-known, the development directions of the space technology in contemporary terms are increasingly associated with the system approach to solving the problems that are defined in a holistic way, with the emphasis on the aspects to their usefulness. This results in the necessity to create solutions, which are in fact decisions of a negotiating nature, taken in the systems of incomplete information with blurs as well as social and psychological contexts on the grounds of the importance of the human factor (human-centric approach). For the sake of one thing - explicitness in operating with contents, we find support in ontology, and the human factor in the system complexes is treated by us in accordance with the principles of the “human being ecology”. Hence, a key role is played here by so-called “three-factor utility function” proposed by the author [Janicki, 1991], both as an objective function and as a measure of the quality assessment of solutions, where the first factor is interpreted as the will of striving for the objective, the second one - as the fear of the consequences, and the third one - as the internal consistency of the decision-maker (intelligent agent coherence). It reflects in fact a trans-disciplinary union of the problem-solving approaches proposed earlier [Minsky, Antonovsky and Kulikowski, 1987-1993]. The solutions to these problems themselves come down to the calculations of a heuristic nature, which are often called intelligent computations, and their methodology is called “computational intelligence”. The absence of gravity which causes significant physiological stress with broad biomedical changes generated key problems for researchers and practitioners of aviations and space flight. Following previous experiences we had on the matter, some current results achieved on the bases of FlexComp Infinity/Biograph Infiniti, V6.1™ of Thought Technology ltd. [Janicki, Pecyna, 2014] are underlined. A particular emphasis has been placed on the ability of the distributed parallel computations connected with the sophisticated application of the NASA Autogenic Feedback Training AFTE [PS Cowings, 2011] method combined biofeedback and Autogenic Therapy exercises [WIML-NASA, 2011]. The present paper reports on the results of a serious preliminary experiments addressed especially to space disorientation and/or awareness of reality problem. Keywords: pilot’s decision making process; intelligent a agent; coherency; psychophysiological pilot status; remote monitoring; remote training; synthetic indicators; scientific information system; three-factor utility function; space disorientation;Near-Infrared Hemoencephalography; References: A.Janicki “three-factor utility function” in LabTSI™ Modeling and Simulation Platform, KUL Univ. publication 2011 - in polish, page 95-103 M.B. Pecyna and M. Pokorski "Near-Infrared Hemoencephalography for Monitoring Blood Oxygenation in Prefrontal Cortical Areas in diagnosis and Therapy of Developmental Dyslexia" in "Neurobiology of Respiration" Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013 page 175 - 180. NASA-WIML Workshop on 2011, Psychophysiological Aspects of Flight Safety In Aerospace Operations, WIML 2011

  10. Cortical reorganization in an astronaut's brain after long-duration spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Athena; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Jeurissen, Ben; Pechenkova, Ekaterina; Di Perri, Carol; Litvinova, Liudmila; Amico, Enrico; Rumshiskaya, Alena; Rukavishnikov, Ilya; Sijbers, Jan; Sinitsyn, Valentin; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B; Sunaert, Stefan; Parizel, Paul M; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Laureys, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L

    2016-06-01

    To date, hampered physiological function after exposure to microgravity has been primarily attributed to deprived peripheral neuro-sensory systems. For the first time, this study elucidates alterations in human brain function after long-duration spaceflight. More specifically, we found significant differences in resting-state functional connectivity between motor cortex and cerebellum, as well as changes within the default mode network. In addition, the cosmonaut showed changes in the supplementary motor areas during a motor imagery task. These results highlight the underlying neural basis for the observed physiological deconditioning due to spaceflight and are relevant for future interplanetary missions and vestibular patients. PMID:25963710

  11. Imaging Modalities Relevant to Intracranial Pressure Assessment in Astronauts: A Case-Based Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Kramer, Larry A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Fogarty, Jennifer; Polk, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation has been inferred or documented in a number of space crewmembers. Recent advances in noninvasive imaging technology offer new possibilities for ICP assessment. Most International Space Station (ISS) partner agencies have adopted a battery of occupational health monitoring tests including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pre- and postflight, and high-resolution sonography of the orbital structures in all mission phases including during flight. We hypothesize that joint consideration of data from the two techniques has the potential to improve quality and continuity of crewmember monitoring and care. Methods: Specially designed MRI and sonographic protocols were used to image eyes and optic nerves (ON) including the meningeal sheaths. Specific crewmembers multi-modality imaging data were analyzed to identify points of mutual validation as well as unique features of complementary nature. Results and Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution sonography are both tomographic methods, however images obtained by the two modalities are based on different physical phenomena and use different acquisition principles. Consideration of the images acquired by these two modalities allows cross-validating findings related to the volume and fluid content of the ON subarachnoid space, shape of the globe, and other anatomical features of the orbit. Each of the imaging modalities also has unique advantages, making them complementary techniques.

  12. Impacts of Terrestrial and Astronautical Sociology on the Evolution of Spaceflight by Spacefaring Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froning, H. David

    2009-03-01

    It is suggested that flaws in terrestrial sociology (the negative social dynamics of individual and corporate human natures on Earth) is, to some degree, delaying achievement of the science and technology needed to revolutionize spaceflight and meet this planet's future energy and transportation. Here, scientific timidity, self interest and resistance to change is delaying the replacement of current propellant-consuming and carbon-emitting power and propulsion by nearly propellant-less, emission-free power and propulsion for terrestrial energy and transportation and cost-effective space exploration to the further reaches of the cosmos. Propellant-less and emission-less power and propulsion systems would generate energy and force by the actions of fields-not the combustion of matter. So, when favorable developments in terrestrial sociology and technology enable field power and propulsion, long, ambitious space expeditions can begin if ``astrosociology''-stable, harmonious social dynamics between many cooperating people in space-can also be achieved.

  13. Functional Task Test: 1. Sensorimotor changes Associated with Postflight Alterations in Astronaut Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N. H.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Platts, S. H.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Spiering, B. A.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wickwire, P. J.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. This presentation will focus on the sensorimotor contributions to postflight functional performance.

  14. Postural muscle atrophy prevention and recovery and bone remodelling through high frequency proprioception for astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Dario; Rossitto, Franco; Battocchio, Luciano

    2009-09-01

    The difficulty in applying active exercises during space flights increases the importance of passive countermeasures, but coupling load and instability remains indispensable for generating high frequency (HF) proprioceptive flows and preventing muscle atrophy and osteoporosis. The present study, in microgravity conditions during a parabolic flight, verified whether an electronic system, composed of a rocking board, a postural reader and a bungee-cord loading apparatus creates HF postural instability comparable to that reachable on the Earth. Tracking the subject, in single stance, to real-time visual signals is necessary to obtain HF instability situations. The bungee-cord loading apparatus allowed the subject to manage the 81.5% body weight load (100% could easily be exceeded). A preliminary training programme schedule on the Earth and in space is suggested. Comparison with a pathological muscle atrophy is presented. The possibility of generating HF proprioceptive flows could complement current countermeasures for the prevention and recovery of muscle atrophy and osteoporosis in terrestrial and space environments. These exercises combine massive activation of spindles and joint receptors, applying simultaneously HF variations of pressure to different areas of the sole of the foot. This class of exercises could improve the effectiveness of current countermeasures, reducing working time and fatigue.

  15. The Cliff Reconnaissance Vehicle: a tool to improve astronaut exploration efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    The close examination of cliff strata on Mars may reveal important information about conditions that existed in the past on that planet. To have access to such difficult-to-reach locations, the Association Planète Mars (France) has, since 2001, been experimenting with designs of manually operated, instrumented vehicles capable of being lowered down the faces of cliffs. The latest tests in the series in which the Cliff Reconnaissance Vehicle (CRV) or Cliffbot was used were conducted as part of the Austrian Space Forum's MARS2013 field analog project in Morocco in February 2013. Experimentation centered on vehicle configuration for maximum all-terrain capabilities; operational procedures, which included use while the operator was wearing an analog space suit; and imaging, mapping, and geological/biological feature detection capabilities. The exercise demonstrated that Cliffbot is capable of examining hard-to-reach rock strata in cliff faces but that it needs further mechanical modification to improve its ability to overcome some particular terrain obstacles and situational awareness by the operator. PMID:24823801

  16. Perspectives on Asthenia in Astronauts and Cosmonauts: Review of the International Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Luis; Keeton, Kathryn; Shea, Camille; Otto, Christian; Patterson, Holly; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) is one of the 6 elements in the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and is responsible for managing 4 of the identified and named risks to human health and performance from human space exploration: a) Risk of Behavioral Conditions (BMed), b) Risk of Psychiatric Disorders (BMed), c) Risk of Performance Decrements due to inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication and Psychological Adaptation within a Team (Team), and d) Risk of Performance Errors due to Sleep Loss, Circadian De-synchronization, Fatigue and Work Overload (Sleep). Each risk is reviewed by a NASA HRP Standing Review Panel (SRP), and recently the Behavioral Medicine Risk of Psychiatric Disorders was reviewed. The aim of this report is to address one of the recommendations made by that panel, specifically the recommendation that the "literature on asthenia should be evaluated (possibly as a psychological or psychosomatic / psycho-physiological analogue of chronic fatigue syndrome)" (SRP p. 4), in addition to General Recommendation 4, which states that "all reviews must include non-English language materials as well as materials appearing in conferences reports, books, and other non-refereed journal outlets" (SRP p. 2).

  17. The effects of autogenic-feedback training on motion sickness severity and heart rate variability in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, William B.; Cowings, Patricia S.

    1994-01-01

    Space motion sickness (SMS) affects 50 percent of all people during early days of spaceflight. This study describes the results of two Shuttle flight experiments in which autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological conditioning method, was tested as a treatment for this disorder. Of the six who were designated as flight subjects (two women and four men), three were given treatment and three served as controls (i.e., no AFT). Treatment subjects were given 6 hours of preflight AFT. Preflight results showed that AFT produced a significant increase in tolerance to rotating chair motion sickness tests. Further, this increased tolerance was associated with changes in specific physiological responses and reports of reduced malaise. Flight results showed that two of the three control subjects experienced repeated vomiting on the first mission day, while one subject experienced only moderate malaise. Of the three treatment subjects, one experienced mild discomfort, one moderate discomfort, and one severe motion sickness. Only the three control subjects took medication for symptom suppression. Measures of cardiac function reflective of vagal control were shown to be affected especially strongly on the first day of space flight. AFT given for control of heart rate, respiration, and other autonomic activity influenced both the vagal control measures and SMS. These data suggest that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness; however, this cannot be demonstrated conclusively with the small number of subjects described.

  18. Comparison of method for ensuring the quality of nuclear engineering in the FRG with the methods of aeronautics and astronautics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this study a survey is given on quality assurance procedures applied in aerospace programmes. They are compared with the practices currently applied on nuclear systems in the Federal Republic of Germany in order to derive the measures, which might be successfully adopted for increasing safety, reliability or availability (i.e. quality) of nuclear stations. Practices identified in such way are justified and described in more detail. (orig.)

  19. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronauts Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the research completed during 2011 for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project. The research is motivated by the desire to safely send humans in deep space missions and to keep radiation exposures within permitted limits. To this end current material shielding, developed for low earth orbit missions, is not a viable option due to payload and cost penalties. The active radiation shielding is the path forward for such missions. To achieve active space radiation shielding innovative large lightweight gossamer space structures are used. The goal is to deflect enough positive ions without attracting negatively charged plasma and to investigate if a charged Gossamer structure can perform charge deflections without significant structural instabilities occurring. In this study different innovative configurations are explored to design an optimum active shielding. In addition, to establish technological feasibility experiments are performed with up to 10kV of membrane charging, and an electron flux source with up to 5keV of energy and 5mA of current. While these charge flux energy levels are much less than those encountered in space, the fundamental coupled interaction of charged Gossamer structures with the ambient charge flux can be experimentally investigated. Of interest are, will the EIMS remain inflated during the charge deflections, and are there visible charge flux interactions. Aluminum coated Mylar membrane prototype structures are created to test their inflation capability using electrostatic charging. To simulate the charge flux, a 5keV electron emitter is utilized. The remaining charge flux at the end of the test chamber is measured with a Faraday cup mounted on a movable boom. A range of experiments with this electron emitter and detector were performed within a 30x60cm vacuum chamber with vacuum environment capability of 10-7 Torr. Experiments are performed with the charge flux aimed at the electrostatically inflated membrane structure (EIMS) in both charged and uncharged configurations. The amount of charge shielding behind and around the EIMS was studied for different combinations of membrane structure voltages and electron energies. Both passive and active shielding were observed, with active shielding capable of deflecting nearly all incoming electrons. The pattern of charge distribution around the structure was studied as well as the stability of the structures in the charge flow. The charge deflection experiments illustrate that the EIMS remain inflated during charge deflection, but will experience small amplitude oscillations. Investigations were performed to determine a potential cause of the vibrations. It is postulated these vibrations are due to the charge flux causing local membrane charge distribution changes. As the membrane structure inflation pressure is changed, the shape responds, and causes the observed sustained vibration. Having identified this phenomenon is important when considering electrostatically inflated membrane structures (EIMS) in a space environment. Additionally, this project included a study of membrane material impacts, specifically the impact of membrane thickness. Extremely thin materials presented new challenges with vacuum preparation techniques and rapid charging. The thinner and lighter membrane materials were successfully inflated using electrostatic forces in a vacuum chamber. However, care must be taken when varying the potentials of such lighter structures as the currents can cause local heating and melting of the very thin membranes. Lastly, a preliminary analysis is performed to study rough order of magnitude power requirements for using EIMS for radiation shielding. The EIMS power requirement becomes increasingly more challenging as the spacecraft voltage is increased. As a result, the emphasis is on the deflection of charges away from the spacecraft rather than totally stopping them. This significantly alleviates the initial power requirements. With modest technological development(s) active shielding is emerging to be a viable option.

  20. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1973: Chronology of science, technology and policy. [including artificial satellites, space probes, and manned space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A brief chronological account is presented of key events of the year in aerospace sciences. Dates, actions, hardware, persons, scientific discoveries are recorded along with plans, decisions, achievements and preliminary evaluations of results. Samples of public reaction and social impact are included. Sources are identified and an index is provided to aid in tracing related events through the year. The index also serves as a glossary of acronyms and abbreviations.

  1. Male Astronauts Have Greater Bone Loss and Risk of Hip Fracture Following Long Duration Spaceflights than Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Rachel; Sibonga, Jean; Bouxsein, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews bone loss in males and compares it to female bone loss during long duration spaceflight. The study indicates that males suffer greater bone loss than females and have a greater risk of hip fracture. Two possible reason for the greater male bone loss are that the pre-menopausal females have the estrogen protection and the greater strength of men max out the exercise equipment that provide a limited resistance to 135 kg.

  2. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronaut's Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will seek to test and validate an electrostatic gossamer structure to provide radiation shielding. It will provide guidelines for energy requirements,...

  3. Moving to Mars: There and Back Again. Stress and the Psychology and Culture of Crew and Astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Sheryl L.

    2010-10-01

    The journey to explore our red neighbor will entail the application of all our terrestrial lessons learned and of some we have yet to discover. A Mars mission represents the extreme in terms of both distance and uncharted environment. The selection, monitoring and support of Mars bound crews will challenge existing technology and knowledge. The human, at the center, represents the greatest strength and the greatest weakness for a Mars mission. Human response to confined and isolated environments has been shown to be characterized by serious stressors and a Mars mission will represent the most extreme of such environments. The impact of such stressors on coping, performance, motivation, behavior, cognitive functioning and psychological well-being must be taken into account. The extraordinary duration of the mission poses special challenges in planning for mission support since very different needs may be driven by particular phases of the mission. Selection, monitoring and! support will similarly be significantly affected by anticipating potential differential characteristics and needs across the travel phases to and from Mars and the period on the planet's surface.

  4. Prediction of space sickness in astronauts from preflight fluid, electrolyte, and cardiovascular variables and Weightless Environmental Training Facility (WETF) training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K.; Mosely, E.; Charles, J.

    1992-01-01

    Nine preflight variables related to fluid, electrolyte, and cardiovascular status from 64 first-time Shuttle crewmembers were differentially weighted by discrimination analysis to predict the incidence and severity of each crewmember's space sickness as rated by NASA flight surgeons. The nine variables are serum uric acid, red cell count, environmental temperature at the launch site, serum phosphate, urine osmolality, serum thyroxine, sitting systolic blood pressure, calculated blood volume, and serum chloride. Using two methods of cross-validation on the original samples (jackknife and a stratefied random subsample), these variables enable the prediction of space sickness incidence (NONE or SICK) with 80 percent sickness and space severity (NONE, MILD, MODERATE, of SEVERE) with 59 percent success by one method of cross-validation and 67 percent by another method. Addition of a tenth variable, hours spent in the Weightlessness Environment Training Facility (WETF) did not improve the prediction of space sickness incidences but did improve the prediction of space sickness severity to 66 percent success by the first method of cross-validation of original samples and to 71 percent by the second method. Results to date suggest the presence of predisposing physiologic factors to space sickness that implicate fluid shift etiology. The data also suggest that prior exposure to fluid shift during WETF training may produce some circulatory pre-adaption to fluid shifts in weightlessness that results in a reduction of space sickness severity.

  5. Suited versus unsuited analog astronaut performance using the Aouda.X space suit simulator: the DELTA experiment of MARS2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, Alexander; Ostkamp, Lutz; Paternesi, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Space suit simulators are used for extravehicular activities (EVAs) during Mars analog missions. Flight planning and EVA productivity require accurate time estimates of activities to be performed with such simulators, such as experiment execution or traverse walking. We present a benchmarking methodology for the Aouda.X space suit simulator of the Austrian Space Forum. By measuring and comparing the times needed to perform a set of 10 test activities with and without Aouda.X, an average time delay was derived in the form of a multiplicative factor. This statistical value (a second-over-second time ratio) is 1.30 and shows that operations in Aouda.X take on average a third longer than the same operations without the suit. We also show that activities predominantly requiring fine motor skills are associated with larger time delays (between 1.17 and 1.59) than those requiring short-distance locomotion or short-term muscle strain (between 1.10 and 1.16). The results of the DELTA experiment performed during the MARS2013 field mission increase analog mission planning reliability and thus EVA efficiency and productivity when using Aouda.X. PMID:25811713

  6. Physics-based Simulation of Human Posture Using 3D Whole Body Scanning Technology for Astronaut Space Suit Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years high precision three-dimensional (3D) full body laser scanners have been developed to be used as a powerful anthropometry tool for quantification of the morphology of the human body. The full body scanner can quickly extract body characteristics in non-contact fashion. It is required for the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) to have capabilities for kinematics simulation of a digital human at various postures whereas the laser scanner only allows capturing a single static posture at each time. During this summer fellowship period a theoretical study has been conducted to estimate an arbitrary posture with a series of example postures through finite element (FE) approximation and found that four-point isoparametric FE approximation would result in reasonable maximum position errors less than 5%. Subsequent pilot scan experiments demonstrated that a bead marker with a nominal size of 6 mm could be used as a marker for digitizing 3-D coordinates of anatomical landmarks for further kinematic analysis. Two sessions of human subject testing were conducted for reconstruction of an arbitrary postures from a set of example postures for each joint motion for the forearm/hand complex and the whole upper extremity.

  7. Networked simulation for team training of Space Station astronauts, ground controllers, and scientists - A training and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Bovenzi, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe plans for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) which has been designed to meet the envisioned training needs for Space Station Freedom. To meet these needs, the SSTF will integrate networked simulators with real-world systems in five training modes: Stand-Alone, Combined, Joint-Combined, Integrated, and Joint-Integrated. This paper describes the five training modes within the context of three training scenaries. In addition, this paper describes an authoring system which will support the rapid integration of new real-world system changes in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  8. Littérature et Chimie : Jules Verne, et la chimie au service de la respiration des astronautes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bollinger, Jean-Claude

    1992-01-01

    L'auteur détaille et discute les méthodes chimiques proposées par Jules Verne pour épurer l'air dans la cabine du projectile, lors du double "voyage extraordinaire" : "De la Terre à la Lune" / "Autour de la Lune". Il les compare avec les techniques réellement utilisées lors des premiers voyages spatiaux (tels que Apollo ou Vostok).

  9. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  10. A Data Mining Project to Identify Cardiovascular Related Factors That May Contribute to Changes in Visual Acuity Within the US Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Christian M.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the cardiovascular-related adaptations that occur in the microgravity environment are due, in part, to a well-characterized cephalad-fluid shift that is evidenced by facial edema and decreased lower limb circumference. It is believed that most of these alterations occur as a compensatory response necessary to maintain a "normal" blood pressure and cardiac output while in space. However, data from both flight and analog research suggest that in some instances these microgravity-induced alterations may contribute to cardiovascular-related pathologies. Most concerning is the potential relation between the vision disturbances experienced by some long duration crewmembers and changes in cerebral blood flow and intra-ocular pressure. The purpose of this project was to identify cardiovascular measures that may potentially distinguish individuals at risk for visual disturbances after long duration space flight. Toward this goal, we constructed a dataset from Medical Operation tilt/stand test evaluations pre- (days L-15-L-5) and immediate post-flight (day R+0) on 20 (3 females, 17 males). We restricted our evaluation to only crewmembers who participated in both shuttle and space station missions. Data analysis was performed using both descriptive and analytical methods (Stata 11.2, College Station, TX) and are presented as means +/- 95% CI. Crewmembers averaged 5207 (3447 - 8934) flight hours across both long (MIR-23 through Expedition16) and short (STS-27 through STS-101) duration missions between 1988 and 2008. The mean age of the crew at the time of their most recent shuttle flight was 41 (34-44) compared to 47 (40-54) years during their time on station. In order to focus our analysis (we did not have codes to separate out subjects by symptomotology) , we performed a visual inspection of each cardiovascular measures captured during testing and plotted them against stand time, pre- to post-flight, and between mission duration. It was found that pulse pressure most clearly differentiated the two mission types. Statistical analysis confirmed that pulse pressure was significantly higher before [45.6; (42.1 to 49.1)] and after [50.7; (46.9 to 54.6)] time on station compared with their most recent shuttle flight [31.6 (27.8 to 35.4), and 32.2 (28.3 to 36.0) respectively] even after correcting differences in age and cumulative number of mission hours. Without knowing the identity of which long duration crewmembers demonstrated visual changes, we were limited to examining whether certain crew regulate components of pulse pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, differently due to microgravity exposure. To that end, we stratified crew into tertiles based on either their pre-flight measure of systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Those crew in the highest tertile for both systolic (lower tertile (n=8; 103-111), middle tertile (n=7; 113-121), and upper tertile (n=5; 125-136) and diastolic blood pressure (lower tertile (n=8; 58-64), middle tertile (n=7; 67-73), and upper tertile (n=5; 75-81) demonstrated less variability in pulse pressure between R+0 and L-10 (Figure 2). Interestingly, those crewmembers with the highest resting systolic blood pressure demonstrated either no change or in some instances an increase in total peripheral resistance, where those in the lower tertiles had lower values of total peripheral resistance compared to pre-flight levels. In this study, it was found that crewmembers in the highest tertile for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure demonstrated less variability in pulse pressure and that the decrease in variability was due in part to lower levels of compliance as indicated by similar or higher levels of total peripheral resistance after compared with before flight levels. Whether there is a relation between blood pressure regulation and total peripheral resistance in crew presenting with negative changes in visual acuity remains unknown.

  11. Person autonomy and voluntariness as important factors in motivation, decision making, and astronaut safety: First results from the Mars500 LODGEAD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarsen, Bernadette van

    2013-06-01

    The present study aims to explore the influence of person autonomy and voluntariness on the level and orientation of motivation and decision making of crew members who live and work in extreme isolated conditions such as during long-term space flights. Motivation has been related to positive behavioural (e.g., goal-orientation), cognitive (e.g., attention), and psychological (e.g., well-being) outcomes and is likely to be relevant for safe and favourable extraterrestrial life- and working-conditions. The study has been carried out within the scope of the Mars500 study which includes a Mars mission simulation of 105 (pilot study) and 520 (main study) days and involves a multi-national crew of 6 men who lived and worked in hermetically sealed modules in the IBMP facilities in Moscow. Data have been collected by the use of questionnaires that evaluate the Mars experiment in terms of, e.g. information received (e.g., "My experiences here are in line with what I was told during the selection and instruction procedure"), perceived social pressure (e.g., "I don't feel free to make my own decisions"), and personal challenge (e.g., "I think that joining the first Mars mission would be a major challenge for me"). It is hypothesised that stronger (1) perceived information consistency, (2) personal expectation consistency, (3) perceived voluntariness, and (4) experienced freedom of choice will be indicative of higher motivation levels. The results will be interpreted in the light of communication, decision making processes, and mission safety. Also, moral expectations and ethical considerations regarding future participation in long duration Human missions such as Mars will be discussed. We will make use of descriptive, longitudinal pattern analyses and correlations.

  12. Aeronautics. An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education: What Pilot, Astronaut, or Aeronautical Engineer didn't Start out with a Toy Glider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Pat (Editor); Huetter, Ted (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Welcome to the exciting world of aeronautics. The term aeronautics originated in France, and was derived from the Greek words for "air" and "to sail." It is the study of flight and the operation of aircraft. This educator guide explains basic aeronautical concepts, provides a background in the history of aviation, and sets them within the context of the flight environment (atmosphere, airports, and navigation). The activities in this guide are designed to be uncomplicated and fun. They have been developed by NASA Aerospace Education Services Program specialists, who have successfully used them in countless workshops and student programs around the United States. The activities encourage students to explore the nature of flight, and experience some real-life applications of mathematics, science, and technology. The subject of flight has a wonderful power to inspire learning.

  13. One Small Step for Creo Modelers, One Giant Leap for "Grey Beards": Using MBD Methodologies to Launch Astronauts and Hardware to Near-Earth Objects such as Asteroids, the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will focus on the modernization of design and engineering practices through the use of Model Based Definition methodology. By gathering important engineering data into one 3D digital data set, applying model annotations, and setting up model view states directly in the 3D CAD model, model-specific information can be published to Windchill and CreoView for use during the Design Review Process. This presentation will describe the methods that have been incorporated into the modeling.

  14. A High Performance Approach to Minimizing Interactions between Inbound and Outbound Signals in Helmet Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a high performance approach to enhancing communications between astronauts. In the new generation of NASA audio systems for astronauts, inbound signals...

  15. Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    1 Chinese Journal of Aeronautics (CJA) is a comprehensive academic journal dealing with the fields of aeronautics and astronautics. The Journal is sponsored by the Chinese Society of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It is a bimonthly journal in English,

  16. Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    1 Chinese Journal of Aeronautics (CJA) is a comprehensive academic journal dealing with the fields of aeronautics and astronautics. The Journal is sponsored by the Chinese Society of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It is a bimonthly

  17. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  18. Novel Fabrication of Nano Device for Single DNA/Protein Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The health of the astronauts during space flight is critical to the success of NASA?s space program. Astronauts are exposed to tremendous environmental challenges,...

  19. Eating in Space: Food for Thought. EG-2011-08-00005-SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Shearer, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the thousands of questions that need to be answered before astronauts travel to distant planets and asteroids are questions related to the astronauts themselves. How much food will they need and what foods can they take? We are fortunate on Earth to have an amazing variety of foods to eat. When astronauts do go to Mars and other…

  20. Buzz Aldrin and the U.S. flag on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot of the first lunar landing mission, poses for a photograph beside the deployed United States flag during an Apollo 11 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. The Lunar Module (LM) is on the left, and the footprints of the astronauts are clearly visible in the soil of the Moon. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with a 70mm Hasselblad lunar surface camera. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the LM, the 'Eagle', to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the Moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) 'Columbia' in lunar-orbit.

  1. Space Flight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension: An Ophthalmic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Charles Robert; Mader, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although physiologic and pathologic changes associated with microgravity exposure have been studied extensively, the effect of this environment on the eye is largely unknown. Over the last several years, NASA s Space Medicine Division has documented astronauts presenting with varying degrees of disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, and hyperopic shifts after long-duration space flight. Methods: Before and after long-duration space flight, six astronauts underwent complete eye examinations to include cycloplegic and/or manifest refraction and fundus photography. Five of these astronauts had Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) performed following their missions. Results: Following exposure to space flight of approximately 6-months duration, six astronauts had neuro-ophthalmic findings. These consisted of disc edema in four astronauts, globe flattening in four astronauts, choroidal folds in four astronauts, cotton wool spots in three astronauts, nerve fiber layer thickening by OCT in five astronauts, and decreased near vision in five astronauts. Four of the astronauts with near vision complaints had a hyperopic shift equal to or greater than + 0.50D between pre- and post-mission spherical equivalent refraction in one or both eyes (range +0.50D to +1.50D). These same four had globe flattening by MRI. Conclusions: The findings we describe may have resulted from a rise in intracranial pressure caused by microgravity fluid shifts, and could represent parts of a spectrum of ocular and cerebral responses to extended microgravity.

  2. Representation of the Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance Using Motion Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience changes in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. To understand how changes in physiological function influence functional performance, a testing procedure has been developed that evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. Astronauts complete seven functional and physiological tests. The objective of this project is to use motion tracking and digitizing software to visually display the postflight decrement in the functional performance of the astronauts. The motion analysis software will be used to digitize astronaut data videos into stick figure videos to represent the astronauts as they perform the Functional Tasks Tests. This project will benefit NASA by allowing NASA scientists to present data of their neurological studies without revealing the identities of the astronauts.

  3. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  4. Expresiones de origen náutico en el nacimiento de las distintas formas de volar: aerostación, aviación y astronáutica Expressions of marine origin in the birth of the different ways to fly: aeronautics, aviation and astronautics

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena M. A. de-Matteis

    2012-01-01

    En la comunicación cotidiana se puede observar que el nivel léxico-semántico liga a la aerostación, la aviación y la astronáutica en una relación de continuidad de base analógica. Esta conexión se funda, en primer lugar, por procesos de trasvase terminológico de las respectivas técnicas y, luego, en la adopción social de las unidades léxicas de origen técnico, por el empleo de metáforas para explicar la nueva realidad. De esta manera, el análisis léxico muestra que aerostación, aviación y exp...

  5. Career Excess Mortality Risk from Diagnostic Radiological Exams Required for Crewmembers Participating in Long Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C. W.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Picco, C. E.; Johnston, S. L.; Shavers, M. R.; VanBaalen, M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA requires astronauts to undergo diagnostic x-ray examinations as a condition for their employment. The purpose of these procedures is to assess the astronaut s overall health and to diagnose conditions that could jeopardize the success of long duration space missions. These include exams for acceptance into the astronaut corps, routine periodic exams, as well as evaluations taken pre and post missions. Issues: According to NASA policy these medical examinations are considered occupational radiological exposures, and thus, are included when computing the astronaut s overall radiation dose and associated excess cancer mortality risk. As such, astronauts and administrators are concerned about the amount of radiation received from these procedures due to the possibility that these additional doses may cause astronauts to exceed NASA s administrative limits, thus disqualifying them from future flights. Methods: Radiation doses and cancer mortality risks following required medical radiation exposures are presented herein for representative male and female astronaut careers. Calculation of the excess cancer mortality risk was performed by adapting NASA s operational risk assessment model. Averages for astronaut height, weight, number of space missions and age at selection into the astronaut corps were used as inputs to the NASA risk model. Conclusion: The results show that the level of excess cancer mortality imposed by all required medical procedures over an entire astronaut s career is approximately the same as that resulting from a single short duration space flight (i.e. space shuttle mission). In short the summation of all medical procedures involving ionizing radiation should have no impact on the number of missions an astronaut can fly over their career. Learning Objectives: 1. The types of diagnostic medical exams which astronauts are subjected to will be presented. 2. The level of radiation dose and excess mortality risk to the average male and female

  6. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  7. The Value of Biomedical Simulation Environments to Future Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta,Lealem; Myers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Mars and NEO missions will expose astronaut to extended durations of reduced reduced gravity, isolation and higher radiation. These new operation conditions pose health risks that are not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. Advanced computational simulation environments can beneficially augment research to predict, assess and mitigate potential hazards to astronaut health. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP), within the NASA Human Research Program, strives to achieve this goal.

  8. Disney characters greet prime ASTP crewmen to Florida's Disney World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Two Walt Disney comic cartoon characters, Donald Duck and Pluto, were on hand to greet a group of Apollo-Soyuz Test Project crewmen on their arrival at Disney World near Orlando. From left, are interpreter K. S. Samofal, interpreter Nicholas Timacheff, Cosmonaut Vladimir A. Shatalov, Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov (squeezing Pluto's nose) and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford. The astronauts and cosmonauts were in Florida for a three-day inspection tour of the Kennedy Space Center where they looked over ASTP launch facilities and flight hardware.

  9. High Performance Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes a technology program for the development of an innovative photocatalytic oxidation reactor for the removal and mineralization of...

  10. The ecology of micro-organisms in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L.

    1971-01-01

    Microorganisms under closed environmental ecological conditions with reference to astronauts infectious diseases, discussing bacteria growth in Biosatellite 2 and earth based closed chamber experiments

  11. CMOS-Based Neutron Spectroscopic Dosimeter (CNSD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monitoring space radiation and the dose received by astronauts is important, especially for future long-duration missions. Neutrons contribute a significant...

  12. Handheld FRET-Aptamer Sensor for Bone Markers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Astronauts lose significant bone mass during lengthy spaceflights. Although, no effective treatments or prophylactics have yet been defined, it is important to...

  13. Low-power, Confocal Imaging of Protein Localization in Living Cells (7215-010) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovative technology addresses the need to understand and develop countermeasures for the skeletal and cardiovascular changes to astronauts during...

  14. Radiation Protection and Architecture Utilizing High Temperature Superconducting Magnets Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Human space exploration exposes astronauts to particularly hazardous environments unique from Earth-based hazards. A substantial risk for exploration beyond the...

  15. Buzz Aldrin on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the Moon near the leg of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' during the Apollo 11 exravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the Moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) 'Columbia' in lunar orbit.

  16. A Coupled System for Assessing the Threat of Solar Energetic Particle Events Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar Particle Events (SPEs) represent a major hazard for extravehicular maneuvers by astronauts in Earth orbit, and for eventual manned interplanetary space...

  17. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  18. Software Agents for Group Awareness and Inter-agent Conflict Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating robots for a variety of tasks in space, including astronaut transport, habitat construction, site survey, and robotic reconnaissance. These...

  19. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Subsystem Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission...

  20. Single Electron Transistor Platform for Microgravity Proteomics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proteomic studies in microgravity are crucial to understanding the health effects of spaceflight on astronauts. Unfortunately, existing tools for measuring protein,...

  1. Nanocomposite for Radiation Shielding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) program requires the need for materials that can protect astronauts and spacecrafts from ionizing radiations such as...

  2. Advanced Wastewater Photo-oxidation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes an advanced photocatalytic oxidation reactor for enhancing the reliability and performance of Water Recovery Post Processing systems...

  3. ISO Published First International Space Standard Developed By China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Institute of Astronautical Systems Engineering, a subsidiary of China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, and China Astronautics Standard Institute jointly developed a standard for launch-vehicle-to-spacecraft flight environments telemetry data processing, which was published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in January 2009 issued with series number ISO 15862:2009.

  4. Interpersonal perception and communication of the ISS crew with mission control center: ground simulation results and prospects for research on board

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gushin, V.; Vinokhodova, A.; Shved, D. M.; Šolcová, Iva; Bahbouh, R.; Lacev, A.

    International Astronautical Federation, 2014. [65th International Astronautical Congress. 29.09.2014-03.10.2014, Toronto] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autonomy * sociomapping Subject RIV: AN - Psychology https://iafastro.directory/iac/archive/browse/IAC-14/A1/1/25085/

  5. Software features for the orbital dynamics of the Mimosa satellite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehnal, Ladislav; Peřestý, Radek; Pospíšilová, Libuše; Dostál, Pavel

    Paris : International astronautical federation, 2000, s. 1-7. [International astronautical congress /51./. Rio de Janeiro (BR), 02.10.2000-06.10.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GV205/96/K119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. 太空站如何造福地球人%How the Space Station Will Benefit Earthlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Duffy; 郭惠娟

    2003-01-01

    @@ Science, medicine, and education will get a boost, says a former astronaut. A board the International Space Station, astronauts, cosmonauts, and scientists from around the globe are collaborating1 on science that once was thought only to be fiction2. With new scientific tools at their fingertips, space station crews are working in many areas, including materials science, medicine, and Earth observation.

  7. Relationship between selected orientation rest frame, circular vection and space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Parker, D. E.; Reschke, M. F.; Skinner, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Space motion sickness (SMS) and spatial orientation and motion perception disturbances occur in 70-80% of astronauts. People select "rest frames" to create the subjective sense of spatial orientation. In microgravity, the astronaut's rest frame may be based on visual scene polarity cues and on the internal head and body z axis (vertical body axis). The data reported here address the following question: Can an astronaut's orientation rest frame be related and described by other variables including circular vection response latencies and space motion sickness? The astronaut's microgravity spatial orientation rest frames were determined from inflight and postflight verbal reports. Circular vection responses were elicited by rotating a virtual room continuously at 35 degrees/s in pitch, roll and yaw with respect to the astronaut. Latency to the onset of vection was recorded from the time the crew member opened their eyes to the onset of vection. The astronauts who used visual cues exhibited significantly shorter vection latencies than those who used internal z axis cues. A negative binomial regression model was used to represent the observed total SMS symptom scores for each subject for each flight day. Orientation reference type had a significant effect, resulting in an estimated three-fold increase in the expected motion sickness score on flight day 1 for astronauts who used visual cues. The results demonstrate meaningful classification of astronauts' rest frames and their relationships to sensitivity to circular vection and SMS. Thus, it may be possible to use vection latencies to predict SMS severity and duration.

  8. Simulated Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese astronaut trainer is selected for an endurance trial to prepare humans for a real landing on the Red Planet on June 3, 27-year-old Chinese astronaut trainer Wang Yue walked into a mock spaceship at a Moscow research institute with

  9. Speech at the Inaugural Meeting of CDSET-CSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQingwei

    2004-01-01

    The inaugural meeting of the Committee of Deep Space Exploration Technology, Chinese Society of Astronautics (CDSET-CSA) was held in Beijing on June 15, 2004. Mr. Zhang Qingwei, President of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) and President of Chinese Society of Astronautics (CSA) attended the meeting and made an important speech. The following is the full text of the speech.

  10. The 2nd Global Space Development Summit Held In Washington DC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Ji

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Global Space Development Summit,organized by the Center for Strategic and International Studies in partnership with the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Space Foundation and the Chinese Society of Astronautics (CSA), took place in Washington, D.C. On November 12-13.

  11. The recruitment and organizational integration of space personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeters, K.-M.

    This paper describes the philosophy of selection of astronaut scientists. It deals mainly with psychological selection criteria oriented at the job demands. Generalizable results of the European selection campaign for Spacelab are reported. Additionally, some aspects of the organizational integration of astronauts are listed.

  12. A Brief History of the Development of Scientific Instruments for Ionospheric and Magnetospheric Research, Magion Satellites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hruška, František; Tříska, Pavel; Vojta, Jaroslav

    San Diego : American Astronautical Society, USA, 2014 - (Dougherty, K.), s. 395-412 ISBN 978-0-87703-608-1. ISSN 0730-3564. - (AAS History Series). [International Astronautical Congress /61./. Prague (CZ), 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : history of technology * Magion satellites * Intercosmos * space research Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts

  13. John Glenn: Presented with NASA Distinguished Service Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    John Glenn tours with his family, meets JFK and is presented with the NASA distinguished Service Medal. From: The John Glenn Story: Summary of astronaut John Glenn's flying career, from naval aviation training to space flight. The Mercury project is featured as John Glenn flies the Friendship 7 spacecraft. President John F. Kennedy presents the NASA Distinguished service Medal to Astronaut John Glenn.

  14. CERN celebrated the first year in space for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) with a visit from the crew of the shuttle mission, STS-134, who successfully delivered AMS to the International Space Station (ISS) last year.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    During the celebrations at CERN, the astronauts unveiled a commemorative plaque on the lawn outside the POCC to mark the occasion and later gave a public lecture at CERN. Picture 28 : STS-134 astronauts (left to right) Andrew Feustel, Gregory Chamitoff, Gregory Johnson, Michael Fincke and Mark Kelly in the AMS Payload Operations Centre at CERN.

  15. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: cardiovascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Barr, Yael; Fu, Qi; Gulati, Martha; Hughson, Richard; Levine, Benjamin D; Mehran, Roxana; Stachenfeld, Nina; Wenger, Nanette K

    2014-11-01

    Sex and gender differences in the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight were examined with the goal of optimizing the health and safety of male and female astronauts at the forefront of space exploration. Female astronauts are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance after space flight; the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome predominates slightly in males. Since spaceflight simulates vascular aging, sex-specific effects on vascular endothelium and thrombotic risk warrant examination as predisposing factors to atherosclerosis, important as the current cohort of astronauts ages. Currently, 20% of astronauts are women, and the recently selected astronaut recruits are 50% women. Thus there should be expectation that future research will reflect the composition of the overall population to determine potential benefits or risks. This should apply both to clinical studies and to basic science research. PMID:25401939

  16. Antibodies to myofibril antigens in cosmonauts after spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashpulatov, R. Y.; Danilova, T. A.; Lesnyak, A. T.; Legenkov, V. I.; Znamenskiy, V. S.; Dedyuyeva, Y. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Serum samples obtained from 15 astronauts before and after spaceflights were studied with the use of the indirect immunofluorescent method. In seven astronauts antibodies to different elements of the human heart muscle appeared after flights. Strong and very strong luminescence of the elements of heart muscle tissue was detected in the astronauts after the third space flight. In a study of the sera on sections of bovine heart muscle tissue the reactions of the sera taken before and after flight were found to show no essential differences.

  17. Experiment M-131 - Human vestibular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. F., II; Graybiel, A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the M-131 experiment is to measure responses in astronauts throughout orbital flight that reflect vestibular function and compare them with measurements made before and after flight. Three subtasks require measurement of (1) susceptibility to motion sickness, (2) thresholds of response to stimulation of the semicircular canals, and (3) space perception, viz, visual and nonvisual localization, using external spacecraft and internal morphological frames of reference. Four astronauts will be available for all measurements in Skylab 2 and 3 and two additional astronauts for only the 'static' measurements during the flights.

  18. NASA's First Atrial Fibrillation Case - Deke Slayton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about heart dysrhythmia have been present since the earliest days of the US manned space program. While information about an astronaut's health is general kept private, one of the original seven American astronaut's health status was played out in a very public forum. Donald "Deke" Slayton was removed from the second manned space flight when it was discovered he had idiopathic atrial fibrillation. Referencing the original medical documents, details of how this was discovered and managed from the medical perspective will be reviewed. This is NASA's first heart dysrhythmia case in an astronaut and it proves quite interesting when placed in historic perspective.

  19. Flow Cytometric and PCR Based Characterization of Immune Dysregulation In Shingles Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen; Kunz, Hawley; Chew, Darilyn; Renner, Ashlie; Pierson, Duane L.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system, characterized as altered peripheral immunophenotype, reductions in T cell function, and altered cytokine profiles occurs in astronauts and is known to result in subclinical reactivation of latent herpesviruses. To correlate immune dysregulation in astronauts with terrestrial disease and/or clinical risk, a study was initiated translating the same panel of assays which define immune dysregulation in astronauts to Terrestrial Shingles patients. To date, 48 potential Shingles patients have enrolled in this study. Only confirmed diagnoses are included in data presentation.

  20. KSC-04PD-0134

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. A wreath and other floral arrangements rest beneath the Astronaut Memorial Mirror at the KSC Visitor Complex following a memorial service held for the crew of Columbia on the anniversary of the tragic accident that took their lives Feb. 1, 2003. The black granite mirror honors astronauts, whose names are carved in the surface, who have given their lives for space exploration. The service included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy, Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow Jr., Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott, and Dr. Stephen Feldman, president of the Astronaut Memorial Foundation, who placed the wreath at the mirror.

  1. KSC-04PD-0132

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. A wreath and other floral arrangements rest beneath the Astronaut Memorial Mirror at the KSC Visitor Complex following a memorial service held for the crew of Columbia on the anniversary of the tragic accident that took their lives Feb. 1, 2003. The service included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy, Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow Jr., Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott, and Dr. Stephen Feldman, president of the Astronaut Memorial Foundation, who placed the wreath at the mirror. The black granite mirror honors astronauts, whose names are carved in the surface, who have given their lives for space exploration.

  2. STS-34 crewmembers eat meal on OV-104's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers, on their first space flight, appear to enjoy mealtime in a zero-gravity environment. They are Pilot Michael J. McCulley and Mission Specialist (MS) Ellen S. Baker. The two, who were in the 1984 class of NASA astronauts, balance their meal trays and attempt to eat in an area of Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, middeck that pays tribute to their astronaut roots. The 'maggot' decal or insignia has direct reference to the group. During the flight, the two made former Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, now JSC Deputy Director, an honorary member of the 1984 class. Weitz's flight suit portrait hangs on the galley facing.

  3. ArcGIS Digitization of Apollo Surface Traverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Gladdis, L. R.; Garry, W. B.; Lam, F.; Mest, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo surface activities were documented in extraordinary detail, with every action performed by the astronauts while on the surface recorded either in photo, audio, film, or by written testimony [1]. The samples and in situ measurements the astronauts collected while on the lunar surface have shaped our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, and the earliest history and evolution of the inner Solar System. As part of an ongoing LASERfunded effort, we are digitizing and georeferencing data from astronaut traverses and spatially associating them to available, co-registered remote sensing data. Here we introduce the products produced so far for Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions.

  4. Biomedical Results of ISS Expeditions 1-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer; Sams, Clarence F.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on biomedical data from International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 1-12 is shown. The topics include: 1) ISS Expeditions 1-12; 2) Biomedical Data; 3) Physiological Assessments; 4) Bone Mineral Density; 5) Bone Mineral Density Recovery; 6) Orthostatic Tolerance; 7) Postural Stability Set of Sensory Organ Test 6; 8) Performance Assessment; 9) Aerobic Capacity of the Astronaut Corps; 10) Pre-flight Aerobic Fitness of ISS Astronauts; 11) In-flight and Post-flight Aerobic Capacity of the Astronaut Corps; and 12) ISS Functional Fitness Expeditions 1-12.

  5. Continuity and Change in Family's Role in Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phyllis

    As long-duration missions become commonplace, it will be important to consider the effect of the astronaut's career on his/her family, and the role of family in supporting that career. In the short history of the space program, archival information about three long-duration programs- Skylab, Shuttle-Mir, and the International Space Station—-provides valuable information about the astronauts' adjustment to increasingly longer times in space. These sources potentially include the astronaut's views about the role of family in that adjustment. The purpose of this paper is to present a qualitative analysis of the astronauts' views about the role family played in his/her career, as well as the effect of the astronaut career on his/her family. Specifically, what roles did family play, e.g., being there at important events, accepting the importance of the astronaut career? How did astronauts view the effects of separation, risks, and publicity on their family? How much did astronauts emphasize dealing with separation through communication with family? How consistent have astronauts' views remained over the three types of missions which have spanned from 1973 to today? The data base for this qualitative study is the Johnson Space Center oral histories for astronauts who participated in Skylab or Shuttle-Mir, and the Johnson Space Center archives of ISS mission journals and logs, and pre-flight interviews with ISS astronauts. Male astronauts are the main focus of the change-over-time information as only one woman participated in Shuttle- Mir and no women were in the Skylab program. However, qualitative data will be presented about female astronauts on ISS and on Shuttle-Mir for some comparative information by sex for those programs. Skylab preliminary findings: Having a wife and parents who were supportive made all of the difference in the astronaut career. It would not have been possible to maintain some semblance of family life without the wife's managing it. Private

  6. RadFlexPro Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposed multilayered, flexible, graded Z radiation shielding, RadFlexPro, provides radiation protection for astronauts in EVA for NASA's future space missions....

  7. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

  8. Self-Regulating Freezable Heat Exchanger and Radiator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At present, both the astronaut's metabolic heat and that produced by the Portable Life Support System are rejected to space by a sublimator that consumes up to 8...

  9. CogGauge Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cog-Gauge is a portable hand-held game that can be used by astronauts and crew members during space exploration missions to assess their cognitive workload...

  10. New class of biological radioprotectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space radiation is the major risk to the astronauts outside the Earth magnetosphere that cannot be eliminated by the existing radioprotectors. The ultimate goal of...

  11. Apollo Surface Panoramas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Apollo Surface Panoramas is a digital library of photographic panoramas that the Apollo astronauts took while exploring the Moon's surface. These images provide a...

  12. Microphone Array Signal Processing and Active Noise Control for the In-Helmet Speech Communication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Widely varying working conditions of a space shuttle and the special design of an astronaut's spacesuit form an extreme acoustic environment that imposes unique...

  13. Shape Memory Bio-Suit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacesuit systems for planetary EVAs must maximize human productivity and provide the astronaut with the capability to perform useful work tasks. Mide plans to work...

  14. Individualized Fatigue Meter for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To ensure mission success, astronauts must maintain a high level of performance even when work-rest schedules result in chronic sleep restriction and circadian...

  15. Wideband Single Crystal Transducer for Bone Characterization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop a very wideband ultrasound diagnostic tool for quantification of trabecular bone properties for astronauts in long term space...

  16. Lightweight, Wearable Metal Rubber-Textile Sensor for In-Situ Lunar Autonomous Health Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase II SBIR program would develop comfortable garments with multiple integrated sensor functions for the monitoring of astronauts during long duration...

  17. A Novel Portable Apparatus for Noninvasively Measuring Bone Density Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The bone loss associated with extended space missions in astronaut represents a serious health threat, both over the flight period and upon returning to...

  18. Optical Real-Time Space Radiation Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time dosimetry is needed to provide immediate feedback, so astronauts can minimize their exposure to ionizing radiation during periods of high solar activity....

  19. Space The New Medical Frontier / NASA Spinoffs Milestones in Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the occasion. Photo courtesy of NIH Long-Term Space Research Until the advent of the ISS, research missions ... of improving human health." NASA Spinoffs Milestones in Space Research Inspired by the space suits Apollo astronauts wore ...

  20. Artist's concept of Apollo 8 start thrust engine and head for home

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    North American Rockwell artist's concept illustrating a phase of the scheduled Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission. Here, after 20 hours of lunar orbit, Apollo 8 astronauts start the 20,500 lb. thrust engine and head for home.

  1. 77 FR 51786 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Astronautical Engineering, Biosciences, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Cognitive, Neural..., Material Science and Engineering, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Naval Architecture and Ocean... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships Program; National Defense Science...

  2. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Continuous Electrochemical Gas Separator (CEGS) Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Life support systems on human spacecraft are designed to provide a safe, habitable environment for the astronauts, and one of the most significant challenges...

  3. Suborbital industry at the edge of space

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, spaceflight has been the providence of a select corps of astronauts whose missions, in common with all remarkable exploits, were experienced vicariously by the rest of the world via television reports and Internet feeds. These spacefarers risked their lives in the name of science, exploration and adventure, thanks to government-funded manned spaceflight programs. All that is about to change The nascent commercial suborbital spaceflight industry will soon open the space frontier to commercial astronauts, payload specialists and, of course, spaceflight participants. Suborbital explains the tantalizing science opportunities offered when suborbital trips become routine and describes the difference in training and qualification necessary to become either a spaceflight participant or a fully fledged commercial suborbital astronaut. Suborbital also explains how the commercial suborbital spaceflight industry is planning and preparing for the challenges of marketing the hiring of astronauts. It examine...

  4. Handheld CAT Video Game Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is to design, develop and fabricate a handheld video game console for astronauts during long space flight. This portable hardware runs...

  5. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  6. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space has the potential to be cost...

  7. A Compact, Light-weight, Reliable and Highly Efficient Heat Pump for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Extra-vehicular activities (EVA) on the Moon and Mars will require suits with sophisticated thermal control systems allowing astronauts to work for extended periods...

  8. ROBONAUT 2: MISSION, TECHNOLOGIES, PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Tzvetkova Galia V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on key aspects of scientific and techno- logical solutions implemented in the joint project of NASA and General Motors, Robonaut 2, a humanoid robot designed to work in space as a real assistant to astronauts.

  9. Gecko inspired adhesives for enhanced dexterity of robotic manipulation systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Valuable time is spent by astronauts performing simple, mundane, or ergonomically taxing tasks. Therefore, one center of focus for NASA is to have robots...

  10. Parallel Detection of Multiple Biomarkers During Spaceflight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maintaining the health of astronauts during extended spaceflight is critical to the success of the mission. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) proposes an...

  11. Kosmiline eksimus : Vene kapsel kukkus alla vales kohas / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Vene kosmoseaparaat laskus Kasahstanis kavandatud kohast 420 kilomeetri kaugusele, kuid korealasest teadlane Yi So-yeon, ameeriklasest astronaut Peggy A. Whitson ja venelasest pardainsener Juri Malantshenko pääsesid eluga

  12. Intelligent Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The autonomous systems (AS) project, led by NASA Ames, is developing software for system operation automation. AS technology will help astronauts make more...

  13. Superior Speech Acquisition and Robust Automatic Speech Recognition for Integrated Spacesuit Audio Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Astronauts suffer from poor dexterity of their hands due to the clumsy spacesuit gloves during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations and NASA has had a widely...

  14. 14 CFR 1214.1101 - Announcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1101 Announcement. (a) Astronaut candidate opportunities Will be... continuing pool of applicants. The military services will convene their internal selection boards and...

  15. Conformal Space Suit Antenna Development for Enhanced EVA Communications and Wearable Computer Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA prepares for the Constellation Space Missions and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) on the moon by 2018, astronauts will be required to spend more time exposed...

  16. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Laser Pointer Dangerous Enough to Cause Eye Injury? Dec 20, 2013 Study Finds Tablets Help People with Low Vision Nov 27, 2013 NASA Finds that Space Flight Impacts Astronauts' Eyes and Vision Jul 10, 2013 Follow ...

  17. virgin galactic explores cern SIR RICHARD BRANSON AND VIRGIN GALACTIC PARTICIPANTS ON THEIR FAVOURITE THINGS ABOUT VISITING CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Virgin Galactic visited CERN with a group of future astronauts and Sir Richard Branson. During their visit the group was shown around various experiments, including the Globe, SM18, AMS and the CERN Control Centre.

  18. Virgin Galactic explores CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Virgin Galactic visited CERN with a group of future astronauts and Sir Richard Branson. During their visit the group was shown around various experiments, including the Globe, SM18, AMS and the CERN Control Centre.

  19. Pilot Field Test: Recovery from a Simulated Fall and Quiet Stance Stability After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from the International Space Station (ISS) are met by a team of recovery personnel typically providing physical assistance and medical support immediately upon landing. That is because long-duration spaceflight impacts astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond the low Earth orbit, however, may require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration class missions. Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond.

  20. Pilot Field Test: Performance of a Sit-to-Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; May-Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. U.; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from the International Space Station (ISS) are met by a team of recovery personnel who typically provide physical assistance and medical support immediately after landing. This assistance and support are provided because long-duration spaceflight greatly affects astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond low Earth orbit, however, will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration-class missions. A joint US/Russian Pilot Field Test (PFT) study conducted with participation of crewmembers of ISS Expeditions 35-42 comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. Sit-to-Stand (S2S) was the first task in the PFT battery.

  1. Oh, What a Pane! An Inquiry Based on Activity with a Mathematical Approach to Investigation Windows on Earth...and in Space. Teacher Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marshalyn; Mailhot, Michele; Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2010-01-01

    This is a teacher's guide to assist teachers in developing modules on windows for use in both earth and space and astronaut photographs. Activities incorporating mathematical exercises are suggested for grades five through ten.

  2. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space exploration has the potential to be...

  3. In-Flight Non-Invasive Sensing of Blood Analytes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a serious unmet need for miniature biologic sensors capable of on orbit sample analysis and in situ, real time analysis of astronaut health. We propose an...

  4. The Soviet side of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, James

    2015-12-01

    When the Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin visited the Cosmonauts exhibition at the Science Museum in London, he was characteristically blunt, describing it as the story of a “competitor that lost”.

  5. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  6. CogGauge (A Cognitive Assessment Tool) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cognitive Gauge (CogGauge) tool aims to develop a portable gaming application that assesses cognitive state of astronaut crew members with the goal of...

  7. In Situ Training of Robonaut for In-Space Assembly, Maintenance and Servicing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed FieldTrainer control system is to enable astronauts to teach Robonaut on-orbit how to perform new complex tasks using EVA tools. Employing...

  8. An Advanced Rapid Cycling CO2 and H2O Control System for PLSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's planned future missions set stringent demands on the design of the Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS) used to cool the astronaut and provide them with air....

  9. Lunar Health Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  10. Lunar Lava Tubes as Potential Human Settlements and Refuge Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, K. A.; Mardon, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Lava tubes have been detected on the surface of Earth's moon via satellite images. Upon further exploration of these caves through robotic technology and other means, a refuge place for astronauts may be installed.

  11. Examination of plants in lunar (germ free) soil in Plant Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Charles Walkenshaw, Manned Spacecraft Center botanist, examines sorghum and tobacco plants in lunar (germ free) soil in the Plant Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The soil was brought back from the Moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts.

  12. Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls on forward flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    On forward flight deck, Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls from commanders and pilots seats. Overall view taken from the aft flight deck looking forward shows both astronauts reviewing procedures and checking CRT screen data.

  13. Innovative EVA Glove Exoskeleton Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dexterous performance degradation resulting from donning an extra-vehicular activity (EVA) glove limits the capability of astronauts to perform certain tasks in...

  14. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  15. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve human biological samples, mostly blood and urine, from astronauts collected during flight under ambient conditions,...

  16. ESPRIT: Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crew exercise is important for maintaining the health and fitness of astronauts, and to prevent adverse health problems, such as bone density losses. We developed...

  17. Assessing Human Task Performance When Performing Electronic Procedures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Limited astronaut time can result in high crew workload and fatigue during International Space Station (ISS) operations. Additionally crew skills can decline over...

  18. Plaadid / Tiit Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Tiit

    2004-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Van Halen "The Best Of Both Worlds", Lars Danielsson "Libera Me", The Verve "This Is Music", Massive Attack "Danny The Dog", Duran Duran "Astronaut", Macy Gray "The Very Best Of"

  19. Conformal Space Suit Antenna Development for Enhanced EVA Communications and Wearable Computer Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA prepares for future space missions and the return to the moon by 2020, astronauts will be required to spend more time exposed to the hazards of performing...

  20. An Electrochemical, Point-of-Care Detector for Reagent-free, In-situ Diagnostics of Pathogens Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For long-term exploratory space travel, there will be a critical need for in-situ diagnosis and assessment of biological specimens from symptomatic astronauts,...

  1. Context-Augmented Robotic Interaction Layer (CARIL) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Today, as humans reach beyond the earth to near and deep space, there is obvious and urgent need to augment the capabilities of human astronauts and (ground-)...

  2. Medical Screening for Individuals Supporting Spacecraft Launch and Landing Activities in Remote Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers. W. Edward

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the medical screening process and spacecraft launch and landing mission activities for astronauts. The topics include: 1) Launch and Landing Mission Overview; 2) Available Resources; and 3) Medical Screening Process.

  3. Coupled Human-Space Suit Mobility Studies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space suit is arguably the most intimate piece of space flight hardware yet we know surprisingly little about the interactions between the astronaut and this...

  4. Real Time Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to predict the occurrence and magnitude of solar particle events (coronal mass ejections and solar flares) has been elusive so exposure of astronauts...

  5. Nanotube Electrodes for Dust Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dust mitigation is critical to the survivability of vehicle and infrastructure components and systems and to the safety of astronauts during EVAs and planetary...

  6. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the Astronaut health and performance issues for a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission. Risks and other considerations are grouped into four categories and they are characterized for criticality.

  7. An annotated bibliography of the Apollo program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launius, Roger D.; Hunley, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The topics presented include the following: general works, the space race, decisions, Apollo technology, operations, popular culture and promotion, science, astronauts, the management of the Apollo Program, and juvenile literature.

  8. ADIS-type Charged Particle Spectrometer for Manned Space Radiation Dosimetry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As manned missions to the moon and eventually Mars gain momentum, astronaut crews will be sent back to the deepest parts of space humans have ever traveled, and...

  9. Cosmic rays score direct hits with Apollo crew

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 14 astronauts conduted experiments during the spaceflight to help scientists to understand why previous crews have seen flashes of light during missions, believed to be caused by cosmic rays (1 page).

  10. Sensorimotor recovery following spaceflight may be due to frequent square-wave saccadic intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Leigh, R. John; Krnavek, Jody M.; Kornilova, Ludmila; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Paloski, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Square-wave jerks (SWJs) are small, involuntary saccades that disrupt steady fixation. We report the case of an astronaut (approximately 140 d on orbit) who showed frequent SWJs, especially postflight, but who showed no impairment of vision or decrement of postflight performance. These data support the view that SWJs do not impair vision because they are paired movements, consisting of a small saccade away from the fixation position followed, within 200 ms, by a corrective saccade that brings the eye back on target. Since many returning astronauts show a decrement of dynamic visual function during postflight locomotion, it seems possible that frequent SWJs improved this astronaut's visual function by providing postsaccadic enhancement of visual fixation, which aided postflight performance. Certainly, frequent SWJs did not impair performance in this astronaut, who had no other neurological disorder.

  11. Portable Sensor for Rapid In Situ Measurement of Trace Toxic Metals in Water Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water is one of the most crucial provisions that astronauts need to live and work in space, whether orbiting Earth, working at a lunar base or traveling to Mars....

  12. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  13. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) is a specialized spacesuit designed to keep astronauts healthy during long-duration space exploration missions and...

  14. On-Command Exoskeleton for Countermeasure Microgravity Effects on Muscles and Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Mavroidis, C.; Unluhisarcikh, O.; Pietrusinski, M.; Rajulu, S.; Berka, R.; Cowley, M.

    2012-06-01

    On-command exoskeleton with impeding and augmenting elements would support the operation of astronauts traveling to Mars. Thus, countermeasure deleterious effects on the muscles and bones during travel and assist their physical activity on Mars.

  15. Novel Ultrasound Assessment of Dynamic Muscle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maintenance of the musculoskeletal system is of crucial importance for mobility of astronauts during long-duration missions and upon return to 1-G. However,...

  16. Handheld FRET-Aptamer Sensor for Bone Markers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Astronauts lose approximately 1-1.5% of their bone mass per month during space travel due to a lack of physical stress in the microgravity environment. Although, no...

  17. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium is to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon....

  18. Spaceflight Dietary Intake ? there?s (soon) an App for that! Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All aspects of nutrition are critical for crew health and optimal performance. Maintaining body, muscle, and bone mass are key challenges for astronauts, as are...

  19. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsett, Mark; Hamilton, Douglas; Lemery, Jay; Polk, James

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a possible scenario of an astronaut having Atrial Fibrillation during a Mars Mission. In the case review the presentation asks several questions about the alternatives for treatment, medications and the ramifications of the decisions.

  20. Simulated Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On June 3,27-year-old Chinese astronaut trainer Wang Yue walked into a mock spaceship at a Moscow research institute with five other foreign space enthusiasts in an unprecedented simulation of a manned mission to Mars.